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Sample records for intense laser-plasma interactions

  1. Ultra-high intensity laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, A. Bruce; Hinkel, D. E.; Lasinski, Barbara F.; Still, C. H.

    1997-11-01

    In current studies of plasma interactions relevant to the fast ignitor concept,footnote M. Tabak, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1626 (1994). an ultra-high intensity beam propagates through underdense, relativistically transparent, and then near solid density plasmas to create a channel. The ultra-high intensity beam propagates through this channel toward the compressed core where it creates hot electrons as it is absorbed. Three-dimensional fluid simulation(R. L. Berger et al), Phys. Fluids B, 2243 (1993). (with relativistic enhancements) studies of self-focusing in the underdense plasma will be reported and compared to PIC simulations in the same parameter regime. Beam structure near focus detracts from channel formation. Modeling in support of upcoming 100TW will be presented.

  2. Microengineering Laser Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, S.; Ji, L. L.; Audesirk, H.; George, K. M.; Snyder, J.; Krygier, A.; Poole, P.; Willis, C.; Daskalova, R.; Chowdhury, E.; Lewis, N. S.; Schumacher, D. W.; Pukhov, A.; Freeman, R. R.; Akli, K. U.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on microscales using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high-contrast short-pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both the total and cutoff energies of the produced electron beam. The self-generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration.

  3. Microengineering Laser Plasma Interactions at Relativistic Intensities.

    PubMed

    Jiang, S; Ji, L L; Audesirk, H; George, K M; Snyder, J; Krygier, A; Poole, P; Willis, C; Daskalova, R; Chowdhury, E; Lewis, N S; Schumacher, D W; Pukhov, A; Freeman, R R; Akli, K U

    2016-02-26

    We report on the first successful proof-of-principle experiment to manipulate laser-matter interactions on microscales using highly ordered Si microwire arrays. The interaction of a high-contrast short-pulse laser with a flat target via periodic Si microwires yields a substantial enhancement in both the total and cutoff energies of the produced electron beam. The self-generated electric and magnetic fields behave as an electromagnetic lens that confines and guides electrons between the microwires as they acquire relativistic energies via direct laser acceleration. PMID:26967419

  4. Ptychographic measurements of ultrahigh-intensity laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, A.; Monchocé, S.; Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Kahaly, S.; Quéré, F.

    2016-04-01

    The extreme intensities now delivered by femtosecond lasers make it possible to drive and control relativistic motion of charged particles with light, opening a path to compact particle accelerators and coherent X-ray sources. Accurately characterizing the dynamics of ultrahigh-intensity laser-plasma interactions as well as the resulting light and particle emissions is an essential step towards such achievements. This remains a considerable challenge, as the relevant scales typically range from picoseconds to attoseconds in time, and from micrometres to nanometres in space. In these experiments, owing to the extreme prevalent physical conditions, measurements can be performed only at macroscopic distances from the targets, yielding only partial information at these microscopic scales. This letter presents a major advance by applying the concepts of ptychography to such measurements, and thus retrieving microscopic information hardly accessible until now. This paves the way to a general approach for the metrology of extreme laser-plasma interactions on very small spatial and temporal scales.

  5. Emittance of positron beams produced in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A.; Link, A.; Anderson, S.; Gronberg, J.; Izumi, N.; Tommasini, R.; Wilks, S.; Sheppard, J. C.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Baldis, H. A.; Marley, E.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Fedosejev, R.; Kerr, S.

    2013-01-15

    The first measurement of the emittance of intense laser-produced positron beams has been made. The emittance values were derived through measurements of positron beam divergence and source size for different peak positron energies under various laser conditions. For one of these laser conditions, we used a one dimensional pepper-pot technique to refine the emittance value. The laser-produced positrons have a geometric emittance between 100 and 500 mm{center_dot}mrad, comparable to the positron sources used at existing accelerators. With 10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} positrons per bunch, this low emittance beam, which is quasi-monoenergetic in the energy range of 5-20 MeV, may be useful as an alternative positron source for future accelerators.

  6. Parallel PIC Simulations of Short-Pulse High Intensity Laser Plasma Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasinski, B. F.; Still, C. H.; Langdon, A. B.

    2001-10-01

    We extend our previous simulations of high intensity short pulse laser plasma interactions footnote B. F. Lasinski, A. B. Langdon, S. P. Hatchett, M. H. Key, and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2041 (1999); S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 11, 1954 (1997). to 3D and to much larger systems in 2D using our new, modern, 3D, electromagnetic, fully relativistic, massively parallel PIC code. We study the generation of hot electrons and energetic ions and the associated complex phenomena. Laser light filamentation and the formation of high static magnetic fields are described.

  7. Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Mangles, S P D; Murphy, C D; Najmudin, Z; Thomas, A G R; Collier, J L; Dangor, A E; Divall, E J; Foster, P S; Gallacher, J G; Hooker, C J; Jaroszynski, D A; Langley, A J; Mori, W B; Norreys, P A; Tsung, F S; Viskup, R; Walton, B R; Krushelnick, K

    2004-09-30

    High-power lasers that fit into a university-scale laboratory can now reach focused intensities of more than 10(19) W cm(-2) at high repetition rates. Such lasers are capable of producing beams of energetic electrons, protons and gamma-rays. Relativistic electrons are generated through the breaking of large-amplitude relativistic plasma waves created in the wake of the laser pulse as it propagates through a plasma, or through a direct interaction between the laser field and the electrons in the plasma. However, the electron beams produced from previous laser-plasma experiments have a large energy spread, limiting their use for potential applications. Here we report high-resolution energy measurements of the electron beams produced from intense laser-plasma interactions, showing that--under particular plasma conditions--it is possible to generate beams of relativistic electrons with low divergence and a small energy spread (less than three per cent). The monoenergetic features were observed in the electron energy spectrum for plasma densities just above a threshold required for breaking of the plasma wave. These features were observed consistently in the electron spectrum, although the energy of the beam was observed to vary from shot to shot. If the issue of energy reproducibility can be addressed, it should be possible to generate ultrashort monoenergetic electron bunches of tunable energy, holding great promise for the future development of 'table-top' particle accelerators. PMID:15457251

  8. Electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Ding; Xie, Bai-Song; Ali Bake, Muhammad; Sang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Wu, Hai-Cheng

    2013-06-15

    Some typical electrons trajectories around a bubble regime in intense laser plasma interaction are investigated theoretically. By considering a modification of the fields and ellipsoid bubble shape due to the presence of residual electrons in the bubble regime, we study in detail the electrons nonlinear dynamics with or without laser pulse. To examine the electron dynamical behaviors, a set of typical electrons, which locate initially at the front of the bubble, on the transverse edge and at the bottom of the bubble respectively, are chosen for study. It is found that the range of trapped electrons in the case with laser pulse is a little narrower than that without laser pulse. The partial phase portraits for electrons around the bubble are presented numerically and their characteristic behaviors are discussed theoretically. Implication of our results on the high quality electron beam generation is also discussed briefly.

  9. Parallel PIC Simulations of Ultra-High Intensity Laser Plasma Interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasinski, B. F.; Still, C. H.; Langdon, A. B.; Wilks, S. C.; Hatchett, S. P.; Hinkel, D. E.

    1999-11-01

    We extend our previous simulations of high intensity short pulse laser plasma interactionsfootnote B. F. Lasinski, A. B. Langdon, S. P. Hatchett, M. H. Key, and M. Tabak, Phys. Plasmas 6, 2041 (1999); S. C. Wilks and W. L. Kruer, IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 11, 1954 (1997). to 3D and to much larger systems in 2D using our new, modern, 3D, electromagnetic, fully relativistic, massively parallel PIC code. Our simulation parameters are guided by the recent Petawatt experiments at Livermore. We study the generation of hot electrons and energetic ions and the associated complex phenomena. Laser light filamentation and the formation of high static magnetic fields are described.

  10. Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Skoric, Milos M.

    2009-11-10

    Ever since the much acclaimed paper of Akhiezer and Polovin plasma theorists have been attempting to comprehend complex dynamics related to the propagation of high and ultra-high intensity electromagnetic (EM) radiation through a plasma. This topic was successfully revisited a number of years later by Kaw and Dawson whose analysis threw more light on the propagation of coupled longitudinal-transverse waves of arbitrary intensity. The high phase velocity case was soon solved exactly by Max and Perkins, (early review). The problem of relativistic laser-plasma interactions is of particular interest concerning the fast ignition concept, relevant to contemporary laser inertial confinement fusion research. Moreover, the understanding of relativistic laser pulse evolution in a plasma is basic to many new applications, including optical-field-ionized x-ray lasers, plasma-based electron accelerator schemes, as well as, interpretation of some astrophysical phenomena, and references, therein). From a text given in two tutorial lectures, in a limited space, we mainly focus on an important paradigm of stimulated Raman scattering.

  11. Quantitative Kα line spectroscopy for energy transport in ultra-intense laser plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Nishimura, H.; Fujioka, S.; Arikawa, Y.; Nakai, M.; Chen, H.; Park, J.; Williams, G. J.; Ozaki, T.; Shiraga, H.; Kojima, S.; Johzaki, T.; Sunahara, A.; Miyanaga, N.; Kawanaka, J.; Nakata, Y.; Jitsuno, T.; Azechi, H.

    2016-03-01

    Absolute Ka line spectroscopy is proposed for studying laser-plasma interactions taking place in the cone-guided fast ignition targets. X-ray spectra ranging from 20 to 100 keV were quantitatively measured with a Laue spectrometer. The absolute sensitivities of the Laue spectrometer system were calibrated using pre-characterized laser-produced x-ray sources and radioisotopes. The integrated reflectivity for the crystal is in good agreement with predictions by an open code for x-ray diffraction. The energy transfer efficiency from incident laser beams to hot electrons, as the energy transfer agency, is derived as a consequence of this work. The absolute yield of Au and Ta Ka lines were measured in the fast ignition experimental campaign performed at Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. Applying the hot electron spectrum information from the electron spectrometer, an energy transfer efficiency of the incident LFEX [1], a kJ-class PW laser, to hot electrons was derived for a planar and cone-guided geometry.

  12. Effects of laser-plasma interactions on terahertz radiation from solid targets irradiated by ultrashort intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Li Chun; Zhou Mulin; Ding Wenjun; Du Fei; Liu Feng; Li Yutong; Wang Weimin; Ma Jinglong; Chen Liming; Lu Xin; Dong Quanli; Wang Zhaohua; Wei Zhiyi; Sheng Zhengming; Zhang Jie; Lou Zheng; Shi Shengcai

    2011-09-15

    Interactions of 100-fs laser pulses with solid targets at intensities of 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} and resultant terahertz (THz) radiation are studied under different laser contrast ratio conditions. THz emission is measured in the specular reflection direction, which appears to decrease as the laser contrast ratio varies from 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -6}. Correspondingly, the frequency spectra of the reflected light are observed changing from second harmonic dominant, three-halves harmonic dominant, to vanishing of both harmonics. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation also suggests that this observation is correlated with the plasma density scale length change. The results demonstrate that the THz emission is closely related to the laser-plasma interaction processes. The emission is strong when resonance absorption is a key feature of the interaction, and becomes much weaker when parametric instabilities dominate.

  13. Fast-electron refluxing effects on anisotropic hard-x-ray emission from intense laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    McKeever, K; Makita, M; Nersisyan, G; Dzelzainis, T; White, S; Kettle, B; Dromey, B; Zepf, M; Sarri, G; Doria, D; Ahmed, H; Lewis, C L S; Riley, D; Robinson, A P L

    2015-03-01

    Fast-electron generation and dynamics, including electron refluxing, is at the core of understanding high-intensity laser-plasma interactions. This field is itself of strong relevance to fast ignition fusion and the development of new short-pulse, intense, x-ray, γ-ray, and particle sources. In this paper, we describe experiments that explicitly link fast-electron refluxing and anisotropy in hard-x-ray emission. We find the anisotropy in x-ray emission to be strongly correlated to the suppression of refluxing. In contrast to some previous work, the peak of emission is directly along the rear normal to the target rather than along either the incident laser direction or the specular reflection direction. PMID:25871224

  14. Swarm of ultra-high intensity attosecond pulses from laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Bychenkov, V. Y. U.; Krushelnick, K.; Maksimchuk, A.; Popov, K. I.; Rozmus, W.

    2010-08-01

    We report on the realistic scheme of intense X-rays and γ-radiation generation in a laser interaction with thin foils. It is based on the relativistic mirror concept, i.e., a flying thin plasma slab interacts with a counterpropagating laser pulse, reflecting part of it in the form of an intense ultra-short electromagnetic pulse having an up-shifted frequency. A series of relativistic mirrors is generated in the interaction of the intense laser with a thin foil target as the pulse tears off and accelerates thin electron layers. A counterpropagating pulse is reflected by these flying layers in the form of a swarm of ultra-short pulses resulting in a significant energy gain of the reflected radiation due to the momentum transfer from flying layers.

  15. Proton Radiography of Field Distributions in Ultra-Intense-Laser Plasma Interactions with Pulse of MeV Proton Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Hirotaka; Kodama, Ryosuke; Tampo, Motonobu; Borghesi, Marco; Romagnani, Lorenzo; Fuchs, Julien; Amin, Munib; Pipahl, Ariane; Willi, Oswald; Michibata, Takuya; Mima, Kunioki; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2008-11-01

    Proton radiography has been used to observe transient electric and magnetic fields in laser plasma interactions. We report an experimental investigation of a transient electric field generated around a laser-irradiated-plasma-fiber attached on a tip of a cone-geometry target. The electric field guided and collimated energetic electrons generated by the laser-plasma interactions in the fiber. The front of these fields propagated along the fiber with the energetic electrons at almost the light velocity. Simulation with the Geant4 Monte Carlo code shows the electric field above a few TV/m were excited around the fiber.

  16. Ensemble of ultra-high intensity attosecond pulses from laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. S.; Maksimchuk, A.; Krushelnick, K.; Popov, K. I.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Rozmus, W.

    2010-01-01

    The efficient generation of intense X-rays and γ-radiation is studied. The scheme is based on the relativistic mirror concept, i.e., a flying thin plasma slab interacts with a counterpropagating laser pulse, reflecting part of it in the form of an intense ultra-short electromagnetic pulse having an up-shifted frequency. In the proposed scheme a series of relativistic mirrors is generated in the interaction of the intense laser with a thin foil target as the pulse tears off and accelerates thin electron layers. A counterpropagating pulse is reflected by these flying layers in the form of an ensemble of ultra-short pulses resulting in a significant energy gain of the reflected radiation due to the momentum transfer from flying layers.

  17. Laser Plasma Material Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Peter; Carpene, Ettore

    2004-12-01

    Surface treatment by means of pulsed laser beams in reactive atmospheres is an attractive technique to enhance the surface features, such as corrosion and wear resistance or the hardness. Many carbides and nitrides play an important role for technological applications, requiring the mentioned property improvements. Here we present a new promising fast, flexible and clean technique for a direct laser synthesis of carbide and nitride surface films by short pulsed laser irradiation in reactive atmospheres (e.g. methane, nitrogen). The corresponding material is treated by short intense laser pulses involving plasma formation just above the irradiated surface. Gas-Plasma-Surface reactions lead to a fast incorporation of the gas species into the material and subsequently the desired coating formation if the treatment parameters are chosen properly. A number of laser types have been used for that (Excimer Laser, Nd:YAG, Ti:sapphire, Free Electron Laser) and a number of different nitride and carbide films have been successfully produced. The mechanisms and some examples will be presented for Fe treated in nitrogen and Si irradiated in methane.

  18. Observation of relativistic cross-phase modulation in high-intensity laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Rever, M; Zhang, P; Theobald, W; Umstadter, D

    2006-10-01

    A nonlinear optical phenomenon, relativistic cross-phase modulation, is reported. A relativistically intense light beam (I = 1.3 x 10(18) W cm(-2), lambda = 1.05 microm) is experimentally observed to cause phase modulation of a lower intensity, copropagating light beam in a plasma. The latter beam is generated when the former undergoes the stimulated Raman forward scattering instability. The bandwidth of the Raman satellite is found to be broadened from 3.8-100 nm when the pump laser power is increased from 0.45-2.4 TW. A signature of relativistic cross-phase modulation, namely, asymmetric spectral broadening of the Raman signal, is observed at a pump power of 2.4 TW. The experimental cross-phase modulated spectra compared well with theoretical calculations. Applications to generation of high-power single-cycle pulses are also discussed. PMID:17155181

  19. Effect of reentrant cone geometry on energy transport in intense laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, K. L.; Sherlock, M.; Heathcote, R.; Green, J. S.; Norreys, P. A.; Gregory, C. D.; Hakel, P.; Akli, K. U.; Hey, D. S.; Stephens, R. B.; Beg, F. N.; Chen, S. N.; Wei, M. S.; Yabuuchi, T.; Freeman, R. R.; Highbarger, K.; Van Woerkom, L.; Weber, R. L.; Habara, H.; Key, M. H.

    2009-10-15

    The energy transport in cone-guided low-Z targets has been studied for laser intensities on target of 2.5x10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}. Extreme ultraviolet (XUV) imaging and transverse optical shadowgraphy of the rear surfaces of slab and cone-slab targets show that the cone geometry strongly influences the observed transport patterns. The XUV intensity showed an average spot size of 65{+-}10 {mu}m for slab targets. The cone slabs showed a reduced spot size of 44{+-}10 {mu}m. The shadowgraphy for the aforementioned shots demonstrate the same behavior. The transverse size of the expansion pattern was 357{+-}32 {mu}m for the slabs and reduced to 210{+-}30 {mu}m. A transport model was constructed which showed that the change in transport pattern is due to suppression of refluxing electrons in the material surrounding the cone.

  20. Development of time resolved x-ray spectroscopy in high intensity laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Notley, M. M.; Weber, R. L.; Fell, B.; Jeffries, J.; Freeman, R. R.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Dickson, R.; Hey, D.; Khattak, F.; Saiz, E. Garcia; Gregori, G.

    2006-10-15

    This article discusses the design of a novel time resolved von Hamos Bragg spectrometer to provide spectra in the region around the titanium K-{alpha} and He-{alpha} lines. The instrument consists of a highly oriented pyrolitic graphite mosaic crystal coupled to a picosecond x-ray streak camera. Measurements of the time dependent behavior from Ti foils illuminated with intense laser pulses can be used to improve the understanding of recombination dynamics, electron transport, and phase transitions in strongly coupled dense plasma. This is important for the modeling of the compression phase in inertial confinement fusion research and the study of astrophysical environments.

  1. Electron transport in the tip of cone targets in high intensity laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie; D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Cho, Byoung-Ick; Osterholz, Jens; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Ditmire, Todd

    2008-04-01

    Cones targets of specific parameters were irradiated with the Thor laser (0.5J, 40fs, 800nm, 7micron focal spot, 3.10^19W/cm^2) at UT Austin. These targets have been diagnosed with a focus on hot electron transport especially in the tip. The results show a 5micron diameter beam exiting the outside tip after about 60 micron propagation in the bulk material of the tip itself. Key elements of the interaction will be presented along with supporting simulations.

  2. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Gourab Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2014-01-15

    A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few μm is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The μm-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  3. TOPICAL REVIEW: Relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umstadter, Donald

    2003-04-01

    By focusing petawatt peak power laser light to intensities up to 1021 W cm-2, highly relativistic plasmas can now be studied. The force exerted by light pulses with this extreme intensity has been used to accelerate beams of electrons and protons to energies of a million volts in distances of only microns. This acceleration gradient is a thousand times greater than in radio-frequency-based accelerators. Such novel compact laser-based radiation sources have been demonstrated to have parameters that are useful for research in medicine, physics and engineering. They might also someday be used to ignite controlled thermonuclear fusion. Ultrashort pulse duration particles and x-rays that are produced can resolve chemical, biological or physical reactions on ultrafast (femtosecond) timescales and on atomic spatial scales. These energetic beams have produced an array of nuclear reactions, resulting in neutrons, positrons and radioactive isotopes. As laser intensities increase further and laser-accelerated protons become relativistic, exotic plasmas, such as dense electron-positron plasmas, which are of astrophysical interest, can be created in the laboratory. This paper reviews many of the recent advances in relativistic laser-plasma interactions.

  4. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, A. J.; Fiuza, F.; Debayle, A.; Johzaki, T.; Mori, W. B.; Patel, P. K.; Sentoku, Y.; Silva, L. O.

    2014-05-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition (FI) approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser-plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to FI. Increases in computational and modelling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modelling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modelling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the comparison of simulation results with experimental observables. In particular, we address the question of surrogacy of today's experiments for the full-scale FI problem.

  5. Ion beam control in laser plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, S.; Izumiyama, T.; Sato, D.; Nagashima, T.; Takano, M.; Barada, D.; Gu, Y. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Kong, Q.; Wang, P. X.; Wang, W. M.

    2016-03-01

    By a two-stage successive acceleration in laser ion acceleration, our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by a few hundreds of MeV; the maximum proton energy reaches about 250MeV. The ions are accelerated by the inductive continuous post-acceleration in a laser plasma interaction together with the target normal sheath acceleration and the breakout afterburner mechanism. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when an intense short- pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in the plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field strength, the moving longitudinal inductive electric field is induced by the Faraday law, and accelerates the forward-moving ions continously. The multi-stage acceleration provides a unique controllability in the ion energy and its quality.

  6. Appearance of Density Cavitations in the Laser Wake in Simulations of High Intensity Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.-L.

    2009-01-22

    Nonlinear interactions of high intensity, ultrashort laser pulses with underdense plasmas produce many interesting features that may appear in computer simulations. One of these features commonly observed in Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations is the spontaneous appearance of long-lived density cavitations in the plasma wake region behind the laser pulse. To study these cavitations, several small 2D PIC simulations are run in which plasma density, density ramps, total simulation time, laser pulsewidth, laser intensity, and laser polarization parameters have been varied. Based on the simulation results, some possible aspects of an experiment designed to directly detect these structures are discussed.

  7. Ultra intense laser/plasma interaction at normal incidence: Relativistic mirrors effects, high harmonics generation and absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz, Javier; Debayle, Arnaud; Mima, K.

    2012-11-01

    An analytical study of the relativistic interaction of a linearly-polarized laser-field of ω frequency with highly overdense plasma is presented. Very intense high harmonics are generated produced by relativistic mirrors effects due to the relativistic electron plasma oscillation. Also, in agreement with 1D Particle-In-Cell Simulations (PICS), the model self-consistently explains the transition between the sheath inverse bremsstrahlung (SIB) absorption regime and the J×B heating (responsible for the 2ω electron bunches), as well as the mean electron energy.

  8. Effect of electron heating on self-induced transparency in relativistic-intensity laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Siminos, E; Grech, M; Skupin, S; Schlegel, T; Tikhonchuk, V T

    2012-11-01

    The effective increase of the critical density associated with the interaction of relativistically intense laser pulses with overcritical plasmas, known as self-induced transparency, is revisited for the case of circular polarization. A comparison of particle-in-cell simulations to the predictions of a relativistic cold-fluid model for the transparency threshold demonstrates that kinetic effects, such as electron heating, can lead to a substantial increase of the effective critical density compared to cold-fluid theory. These results are interpreted by a study of separatrices in the single-electron phase space corresponding to dynamics in the stationary fields predicted by the cold-fluid model. It is shown that perturbations due to electron heating exceeding a certain finite threshold can force electrons to escape into the vacuum, leading to laser pulse propagation. The modification of the transparency threshold is linked to the temporal pulse profile, through its effect on electron heating. PMID:23214893

  9. A study of fast electron energy transport in relativistically intense laser-plasma interactions with large density scalelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, R. H. H.; Norreys, P. A.; Perez, F.; Baton, S. D.; Davies, J. R.; Lancaster, K. L.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Bell, A. R.; Tzoufras, M.; Rose, S. J.

    2012-05-15

    A systematic experimental and computational investigation of the effects of three well characterized density scalelengths on fast electron energy transport in ultra-intense laser-solid interactions has been performed. Experimental evidence is presented which shows that, when the density scalelength is sufficiently large, the fast electron beam entering the solid-density plasma is best described by two distinct populations: those accelerated within the coronal plasma (the fast electron pre-beam) and those accelerated near or at the critical density surface (the fast electron main-beam). The former has considerably lower divergence and higher temperature than that of the main-beam with a half-angle of {approx}20 Degree-Sign . It contains up to 30% of the total fast electron energy absorbed into the target. The number, kinetic energy, and total energy of the fast electrons in the pre-beam are increased by an increase in density scalelength. With larger density scalelengths, the fast electrons heat a smaller cross sectional area of the target, causing the thinnest targets to reach significantly higher rear surface temperatures. Modelling indicates that the enhanced fast electron pre-beam associated with the large density scalelength interaction generates a magnetic field within the target of sufficient magnitude to partially collimate the subsequent, more divergent, fast electron main-beam.

  10. Laser Plasma Interactions at Intensities from 10{sup 12}W/cm{sup 2} to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, W L

    2002-11-05

    A tutorial introduction is given to some important physics and current challenges in laser plasma interactions. The topics are chosen to illustrate a few of John Dawson's many pioneering contributions to the physics and modeling of plasmas. In each case, a current frontier is also briefly discussed, including the .53{micro}m option for laser fusion, kinetic inflation of instability levels, and new regimes accessed with ultra-high power lasers.

  11. Production of dense vapor targets for laser-plasma interaction studies with intense, ultra-short pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; Eder, D.C.; Guethlein, G.; Stewart, R.E.; Young, P.E.

    1993-03-19

    The technique of laser-induced ablation of thin films from glass slide substrates has been investigated as a candidate vapor target production method for studies of both tunneling-driven x-ray/xuv recombination lasers and relativistic propagation using intense, ultra-short laser pulses. It is shown by simultaneous two-wavelength interferometry that particle densities of order 10{sup 19}/cm{sup 3} are readily achieved and that some intrinsic ionization accompanies the plume formation. Absorption measurements with both 100 picosecond and 125 femtosecond pulses are consistent with observed edge velocities near 10{sup 6} cm/sec. The level of ionization driven by the intense 125 femtosecond laser pulse has been coarsely estimated. Averaged estimates from spectral blue shifting of spectra transmitted through the plume are consistently lower than those obtained from evaluation of saturation intensity thresholds based on the sequential nonresonant optical field ionization (OFI) process.

  12. Describing electron motion in ultra-high intensity laser plasma interactions: the inclusion of a stochastic radiation reaction force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgers, Christopher

    2014-10-01

    At intensities soon to be reached by next-generation laser facilities (exceeding 5 × 1022W/cm-2) electrons are accelerated so violently in the laser fields that they radiate energy (as gamma-ray photons) comparable to that they gain from the laser pulse. In this case the radiation reaction force becomes important in determining their motion. However, at these intensities the electric field in the electron's rest frame approaches the Schwinger field; the critical field of quantum electrodynamics where quantum effects on the radiation reaction force become crucial. In particular, the force transitions from a deterministic classical force to a stochastic force. I will compare electron motion when the radiation reaction is treated classically and stochastically, showing that the two treatments give the same result in the classical limit (correspondence) and that, surprisingly, a modified deterministic force (called the ``semi-classical'' model) can also be used when quantum effects are strong. I will also demonstrate that the semi-classical treatment fails to predict the rate of pair production by the emitted gamma-ray photons. To describe pair production one needs to adopt a new model for electron motion where the motion is described in terms of the evolution of a probability function in phase space as opposed to motion along a classical (deterministic) worldline.

  13. Improving sensitivity of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy using laser plasmas interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, Alexey A.; Golik, Sergey S.; Nagorny, Ivan G.; Bulanov, Alexey V.

    2006-11-01

    Laser plasmas interaction and spectral characteristics of plasma were investigated at a laser breakdown in a normal atmosphere with the purpose of improving laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy sensitivity. Colliding plasmas interaction was investigated depending on mechanism of absorption wave of laser radiation and distance between foci. Laser supported detonation wave, breakdown wave and fast wave of ionization are absorption wave observed in experiment. It was shown that seed electrons for cascade breakdown in front of fast wave of ionization is occurred due to oxygen molecules photoionization. Molecular emission and collapse of intensity of plasma continuum during the initial moments of laser plasma expansion were registered. The line/continuum ratio was essentially increased in case of laser plasmas interaction. Thus laser plasmas interaction improves sensitivity of LIBS.

  14. Laser-plasma interactions relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, K.B.

    1998-11-02

    Research into laser-driven inertial confinement fusion is now entering a critical juncture with the construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Many of the remaining unanswered questions concerning NIF involve interactions between lasers and plasmas. With the eventual goal of fusion power in mind, laser-plasma interactions relevant to laser fusion schemes is an important topic in need of further research. This work experimentally addresses some potential shortcuts and pitfalls on the road to laser-driven fusion power. Current plans on NIF have 192 laser beams directed into a small cylindrical cavity which will contain the fusion fuel; to accomplish this the beams must cross in the entrance holes, and this intersection will be in the presence of outward-flowing plasma. To investigate the physics involved, interactions of crossing laser beams in flowing plasmas are investigated with experiments on the Nova laser facility at LLNL. It was found that in a flowing plasma, energy is transferred between two crossing laser beams, and this may have deleterious consequences for energy balance and ignition in NIF. Possible solutions to this problem are presented. A recently-proposed alternative to standard laser-driven fusion, the ''fast ignitor'' concept, is also experimentally addressed in this dissertation. Many of the laser-plasma interactions necessary for the success of the fast ignitor have not previously been explored at the relevant laser intensities. Specifically, the transfer of high-intensity laser energy to electrons at solid-target interfaces is addressed. 20-30% conversion efficiencies into forward-propagated electrons were measured, along with an average electron energy that varied with the type of target material. The directionality of the electrons was also measured, revealing an apparent beaming of the highest energy electrons. This work was extended to various intensities and pulse lengths and a

  15. Progress in Long Scale Length Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S H; Arnold, P; Bardsley, G; Berger, R L; Bonanno, G; Borger, T; Bower, D E; Bowers, M; Bryant, R; Buckman, S; Burkhart, S C; Campbell, K; Chrisp, M P; Cohen, B I; Constantin, G; Cooper, F; Cox, J; Dewald, E; Divol, L; Dixit, S; Duncan, J; Eder, D; Edwards, J; Erbert, G; Felker, B; Fornes, J; Frieders, G; Froula, D H; Gardner, S D; Gates, C; Gonzalez, M; Grace, S; Gregori, G; Greenwood, A; Griffith, R; Hall, T; Hammel, B A; Haynam, C; Heestand, G; Henesian, M; Hermes, G; Hinkel, D; Holder, J; Holdner, F; Holtmeier, G; Hsing, W; Huber, S; James, T; Johnson, S; Jones, O S; Kalantar, D; Kamperschroer, J H; Kauffman, R; Kelleher, T; Knight, J; Kirkwood, R K; Kruer, W L; Labiak, W; Landen, O L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S; Latray, D; Lee, A; Lee, F D; Lund, D; MacGowan, B; Marshall, S; McBride, J; McCarville, T; McGrew, L; Mackinnon, A J; Mahavandi, S; Manes, K; Marshall, C; Mertens, E; Meezan, N; Miller, G; Montelongo, S; Moody, J D; Moses, E; Munro, D; Murray, J; Neumann, J; Newton, M; Ng, E; Niemann, C; Nikitin, A; Opsahl, P; Padilla, E; Parham, T; Parrish, G; Petty, C; Polk, M; Powell, C; Reinbachs, I; Rekow, V; Rinnert, R; Riordan, B; Rhodes, M

    2003-11-11

    The first experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) have employed the first four beams to measure propagation and laser backscattering losses in large ignition-size plasmas. Gas-filled targets between 2 mm and 7 mm length have been heated from one side by overlapping the focal spots of the four beams from one quad operated at 351 nm (3{omega}) with a total intensity of 2 x 10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}. The targets were filled with 1 atm of CO{sub 2} producing of up to 7 mm long homogeneously heated plasmas with densities of n{sub e} = 6 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3} and temperatures of T{sub e} = 2 keV. The high energy in a NIF quad of beams of 16kJ, illuminating the target from one direction, creates unique conditions for the study of laser plasma interactions at scale lengths not previously accessible. The propagation through the large-scale plasma was measured with a gated x-ray imager that was filtered for 3.5 keV x rays. These data indicate that the beams interact with the full length of this ignition-scale plasma during the last {approx}1 ns of the experiment. During that time, the full aperture measurements of the stimulated Brillouin scattering and stimulated Raman scattering show scattering into the four focusing lenses of 6% for the smallest length ({approx}2 mm). increasing to 12% for {approx}7 mm. These results demonstrate the NIF experimental capabilities and further provide a benchmark for three-dimensional modeling of the laser-plasma interactions at ignition-size scale lengths.

  16. An MPP hydrocode to study laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, R L; Langdon, A B; Langer, S H; Still, C H; Suter, L J; Williams E A

    1998-10-01

    Because of the increased size and power inherent in a laser-AGEX on NIF, laser-plasma interactions (LPI) observed in NOVA AGEX play an increasingly important role. The process by which filamentation and stimulated backscatter grow is complex. Furthermore, there is a competition among the instabilities so that lessening one can increase another. Therefore, simulating them is an integral part to successful experiments on NIF. In this paper, we present a massively parallel hydrocode to simulate laser-plasma interactions in NIF-relevant AGEX regimes.

  17. Nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction in Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, Thomas James; Bliss, David E.; Campbell, Edward Michael; Gomez, Matthew R.; Harding, Eric; Harvey-Thompson, Adam James; Hansen, Stephanie B.; Jennings, Christopher Ashley; Kimmel, Mark W.; et al

    2016-03-04

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. Although magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Ultimately, nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Wemore » determine and discuss key LPI processes and mitigation methods. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.« less

  18. Nonlinear laser-plasma interaction in magnetized liner inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissel, Matthias; Awe, T. J.; Bliss, D. E.; Campbell, M. E.; Gomez, M. R.; Harding, E.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Hansen, S. B.; Jennings, C.; Kimmel, M. W.; Knapp, P.; Lewis, S. M.; McBride, R. D.; Peterson, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Scoglietti, D. J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shores, J. E.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Smith, I. C.; Speas, C. S.; Vesey, R. A.; Porter, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is pursuing a variation of Magneto-Inertial Fusion called Magnetized Liner Inertial Fusion, or MagLIF. The MagLIF approach requires magnetization of the deuterium fuel, which is accomplished by an initial external B-Field and laser-driven pre-heat. While magnetization is crucial to the concept, it is challenging to couple sufficient energy to the fuel, since laser-plasma instabilities exist, and a compromise between laser spot size, laser entrance window thickness, and fuel density must be found. Nonlinear processes in laser plasma interaction, or laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), complicate the deposition of laser energy by enhanced absorption, backscatter, filamentation and beam-spray. Key LPI processes are determined, and mitigation methods are discussed. Results with and without improvement measures are presented.

  19. Modelling of relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berwick, Stuart James

    In order to characterise the propagation and stability of linearly polarised laser pulses of arbitrary intensity interacting with underdense plasma, a one-dimensional, fully relativistic, covariant electron fluid model is derived. As a first step, the model is Lorentz transformed into a frame moving with the group velocity of the laser pulse. A linear instability analysis is undertaken which generates an infinite hierarchy of homogeneous mode-coupling equations describing the decay of the laser pump via stimulated Raman forward scattering (SRFS), stimulated Raman back scattering (SRBS) and the relativistic modulational instability (RMI). SRFS and RMI are seen to merge into a hybrid instability at high intensities (1>1018Wcm-2) and a 6-wave analysis (rather than the conventional 3 or 4-wave) is required to accurately predict growth. Next, an Eulerian fluid code is developed in order to evolve the full non- linear equations. The method of characteristics is used to integrate the electromagnetic wave equation and a predictor-corrector algorithm is used to integrate the equations of continuity and momentum. After testing, this code is used to simulate the propagation and stability of ultra-short (<200fs), 'table-top' and cos2 modulated laser pulses of relativistic intensities in underdense plasma. Comparison is made to the predictions of the dispersion relation and growth rates obtained in each case are reconciled. The spatiotemporal behaviour is discussed with reference to the results of a 3-wave WKB model of the interaction. The importance of seeding mechanisms, pulse shape and relativity on the evolution of the instabilities is also discussed.

  20. Negative ion beam generation in laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jequier, Sophie; Tikhonchuk, Vladimir; Ter-Avetisyan, Sargis

    2013-10-01

    Detection of a large number of energetic negative ions and neutral atoms have been reported in recent intense laser plasma interaction experiments. These particles were produced from fast positive ions (proton, carbon, oxygen) accelerated from a laser produced plasma when they were passing through a cold spray of water or ethanol. The negative ions formation is strongly related to the fast positive ions, and it is explained by a process of a single electron capture - loss. Double charge exchange, elastic scattering and energy loss phenomena have been neglected since their cross sections are much smaller. Assuming independent atoms approximation, we study populations evolution through the interaction zone analytically and numerically by solving the rate equations using cross sections drawn from literature. Taking into account the energy distribution of the incident ions, the calculations give the final energy distribution for the different species that can be compared to experimental spectra. First results obtained for hydrogen in the water case indicate that this model can explain the main observed features. The results concerning the carbon and oxygen ions will be also presented as well as refinement of the cross sections since some cross sections are missing for these energies.

  1. Laser plasma interaction experiments in the context of inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Bandulet, H.; Depierreux, S.; Lewis, K.; Michel, P.; Michard, A.; Baldis, H. A.; Hulin, S.; Pesme, D.; Hüller, S.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Riconda, C.; Weber, S.

    2004-12-01

    In laser fusion, the coupling and the propagation of the laser beams in the plasma surrounding the pellet must be well controlled for to succeed in producing a high energy level. To achieve thermonuclear ignition and high gain, the coupling efficiency must be as high as possible, the uniformity of the energy deposition must be very good and the fast electron generation must be minimized. This implies a deep understanding of the laser plasma interaction mechanisms to keep the nonlinear processes at a low level. Important advances in laser plasma interaction physics have been achieved thanks to the converging efforts of the experimental and theoretical approaches. Among the different studies of the last few years, we will report results on three themes which are important for future fusion experiments. The first concerns the ability of plasmas to induce temporal and spatial incoherence to the laser beams during their propagation. Beam smoothing, beam spraying and increased incoherence may in turn reduce the level of backscattering instabilities. In laser fusion, multiple beams are used to irradiate the target. The effect of the overlap of the laser beams on parametric instabilities may complicate the problem. Not only is there the interplay between instabilities driven by one beam, but also the interplay between instabilities driven by different beams. In the Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses (LULI) experiment, although the overall stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) reflectivity was reduced, a well-defined resonance of the amplitude of ion acoustic waves (IAWs) associated with SBS has been observed for waves propagating along the bisecting direction between two laser beams. Energy transfer between two identical laser beams has been observed and correlated with plasma induced incoherence. The nonlinear saturation of stimulated scattering instabilities is a fundamental ingredient of the understanding of the observed and future reflectivity levels

  2. Subpicosecond KrF{asterisk}-laser plasma interaction at intensities between 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Teubner, U.; Gibbon, P.; Foerster, E.; Fallies, F.; Audebert, P.; Geindre, J.P.; Gauthier, J.C.

    1996-07-01

    The interaction of high-intensity subpicosecond KrF{asterisk}-laser pulses with aluminium plasmas is investigated at intensities between 10{sup 14} and 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. Using a one-dimensional hydrocode, the laser energy absorption and time evolution of plasma parameters have been studied as a function of laser intensity, incidence angle, and polarization. Complementary particle-in-cell simulations have also been performed to check the collisionless absorption component carried by hot electrons and ions. These simulations are compared to previous experiments on laser pulse absorption and x-ray generation. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Improving the Capabilities of a Continuum Laser Plasma Interaction Code

    SciTech Connect

    Hittinger, J F; Dorr, M R

    2006-06-15

    The numerical simulation of plasmas is a critical tool for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). We have been working to improve the predictive capability of a continuum laser plasma interaction code pF3d, which couples a continuum hydrodynamic model of an unmagnetized plasma to paraxial wave equations modeling the laser light. Advanced numerical techniques such as local mesh refinement, multigrid, and multifluid Godunov methods have been adapted and applied to nonlinear heat conduction and to multifluid plasma models. We describe these algorithms and briefly demonstrate their capabilities.

  4. PIC Simulation of Laser Plasma Interactions with Temporal Bandwidths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsung, Frank; Weaver, J.; Lehmberg, R.

    2015-11-01

    We are performing particle-in-cell simulations using the code OSIRIS to study the effects of laser plasma interactions in the presence of temperal bandwidths under conditions relevant to current and future shock ignition experiments on the NIKE laser. Our simulations show that, for sufficiently large bandwidth, the saturation level, and the distribution of hot electrons, can be effected by the addition of temporal bandwidths (which can be accomplished in experiments using smoothing techniques such as SSD or ISI). We will show that temporal bandwidth along play an important role in the control of LPI's in these lasers and discuss future directions. This work is conducted under the auspices of NRL.

  5. Measurements of Energy Transport Patterns in Solid Density Laser Plasma Interactions at Intensities of 5x10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}

    SciTech Connect

    Lancaster, K. L.; Clarke, R. J.; Green, J. S.; Murphy, C. D.; Norreys, P. A.; Hey, D. S.; Akli, K. U.; Davies, J. R.; Habara, H.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Yabuuchi, T.; Key, M. H.; Kodama, R.; Krushelnick, K.; Simpson, P.; Zepf, M.; Stephens, R.; Stoeckl, C.

    2007-03-23

    K{sub {alpha}} x-ray emission, extreme ultraviolet emission, and plasma imaging techniques have been used to diagnose energy transport patterns in copper foils ranging in thickness from 5 to 75 {mu}m for intensities up to 5x10{sup 20} W cm{sup -2}. The K{sub {alpha}} emission and shadowgrams both indicate a larger divergence angle than that reported in the literature at lower intensities [R. Stephens et al., Phys. Rev. E 69, 066414 (2004)]. Foils 5 {mu}m thick show triple-humped plasma expansion patterns at the back and front surfaces. Hybrid code modeling shows that this can be attributed to an increase in the mean energy of the fast electrons emitted at large radii, which only have sufficient energy to form a plasma in such thin targets.

  6. Laser-plasma-interaction experiments using multikilojoule lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.P.

    1987-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of several laser-plasma-interaction experiments using multikilojoule lasers, and considers their implications for laser fusion. The experiments used 1.06, 0.53, 0.35, and 0.26 ..mu..m light to produce relatively large, warm, planar plasmas and to study the effect of laser wavelength and density-gradient scale length on the Stimulated Raman Scattering and on the scattering of light at frequencies near the incident laser frequency by Stimulated Brillouin Scattering or other processes. The results of these experiments suggest that some laser wavelength between 0.2 and 0.6 ..mu..m will be required for high-gain laser fusion.

  7. Simulating NIF laser-plasma interaction with multiple SRS frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Still, C H; Hinkel, D E; Langdon, A B; Palastro, J P; Williams, E A

    2009-10-05

    Understanding the energetics of a NIF ignition hohlraum is important to achieving ignition. Laser-plasma interactions (LPI) can reduce the radiation drive if backscatter occurs, and can also affect the hohlraum energetics by modifying the laser beam energy deposition which in turn can alter the implosion symmetry. The addition of a second SRS frequency to the modeling code pF3d can capture physics which would otherwise have been omitted. In the case of a wide or bi-modal SRS spectrum, this physics can be important. We discuss the modifications to the pF3d computational model, and exhibit its effect in a NIF ignition-relevant LPI simulation.

  8. Strong Field QED Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interaction Using BUMBLEBEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaolin; Tian, Yunxian; Huang, Tao; Chen, Wenlong; Li, Bin

    Next generation laser intensity could reach 1024 W/cm2, making strong field quantum electrodynamics (QED) effects in laser-plasma interaction a promising research field. The model of photon and pair production in strong field QED is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) code BUMBLEBEE with Monte Carlo (MC) algorithm. We apply the kirk and bell model to simulate the photon and pair production, where photon is produced through bremsstrahlung process and the pair is produced through the Bethe-Heitler process. There are two stages in the QED pair production process. Firstly, the intense laser interacts with a relativistic electron or positron to produce the photon. Secondly, the photon interacts with the same laser field to produce the e+-e- pair. The QED process is coupled to laser-plasma interaction processes before pushing the particles at each step. Using this code, the evolutions of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (~1023W/cm2) interaction with aluminum foil target are observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations.

  9. Experimental basis for laser-plasma interactions in ignition hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Berger, R L; Doeppner, T; Meezan, N B; Ralph, J; Ross, J S; Suter, L J; Glenzer, S H

    2009-11-12

    A series of laser plasma interaction experiments at OMEGA (LLE, Rochester) using gas-filled hohlraums shed light on the behavior of stimulated Raman scattering and stimulated Brillouin scattering at various plasma conditions encountered in indirect drive ignition designs. We present detailed experimental results that quantify the density, temperature, and intensity thresholds for both of these instabilities. In addition to controlling plasma parameters, the National Ignition Campaign relies on optical beam smoothing techniques to mitigate backscatter. We show that polarization smoothing is effective at controlling backscatter. These results provide an experimental basis for forthcoming experiments on National Ignition Facility.

  10. Pushing the Limits of Plasma Length in Inertial-Fusion Laser-Plasma Interaction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froula, D. H.; Divol, L.; London, R. A.; Michel, P.; Berger, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Neumayer, P.; Ross, J. S.; Wallace, R.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate laser beam propagation and low backscatter in laser produced hohlraum plasmas of ignition plasma length. At intensities I<5×1014Wcm-2 greater than 80% of the energy in a blue (3ω, 351 nm) laser is transmitted through a L=5-mm long, high-temperature (Te=2.5keV), high-density (ne=5×1020cm-3) plasma. These experiments show that the backscatter scales exponentially with plasma length which is consistent with linear theory. The backscatter calculated by a new steady state 3D laser-plasma interaction code developed for large ignition plasmas is in good agreement with the measurements.

  11. Plasma effects in high harmonic spectra from ultrarelativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, T. J. M.; Ondarza-Rovira, R.

    2016-03-01

    A single particle model has been applied to examine the competition between radiation from a strong Langmuir source and coherent bremsstrahlung in ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions. Output from this model shows generally satisfactory agreement with that from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, in particular reproducing spectra characterised by a decay index p = 5 / 3. At the highest intensities considered, both model and PIC spectra show the competing contribution from relativistic electron bremsstrahlung, characterised by a further relaxation in the decay index to p = 2 / 3. Combinations of laser and plasma parameters have been identified that define regions of parameter space where one or other emission is dominant.

  12. Bulk resonance absorption induced by relativistic effects in laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Wenjun; Sheng, Z.-M.; Zhang, J.; Yu, M. Y.

    2009-04-15

    Resonance absorption in relativistic laser-plasma interaction is studied via two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. As the laser intensity increases from the linear regime, the absorption rate first decreases due to relativistic modulation of the electron plasma oscillations excited at the mode conversion layer. However, the trend reverses after a critical intensity. The reversal can be attributed to the fact that the relativistic critical layer depends on the local intensity of the laser pulse, so that instead of occurring in a thin layer, resonance absorption occurs in a plasma bulk region, leading absorption rate increase. The reflected-light spectrum also shows broadening and splitting of the harmonics at high laser intensities, which can be attributed to critical-surface oscillations driven by the laser ponderomotive force.

  13. Discrete Variational Approach for Modeling Laser-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. Paxon; Shadwick, B. A.

    2014-10-01

    The traditional approach for fluid models of laser-plasma interactions begins by approximating fields and derivatives on a grid in space and time, leading to difference equations that are manipulated to create a time-advance algorithm. In contrast, by introducing the spatial discretization at the level of the action, the resulting Euler-Lagrange equations have particular differencing approximations that will exactly satisfy discrete versions of the relevant conservation laws. For example, applying a spatial discretization in the Lagrangian density leads to continuous-time, discrete-space equations and exact energy conservation regardless of the spatial grid resolution. We compare the results of two discrete variational methods using the variational principles from Chen and Sudan and Brizard. Since the fluid system conserves energy and momentum, the relative errors in these conserved quantities are well-motivated physically as figures of merit for a particular method. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-SC0008382 and by the National Science Foundation under Contract No. PHY-1104683.

  14. Enhancement of the maximum proton energy by funnel-geometry target in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Peng; Fan, Dapeng; Li, Yuxiao

    2016-09-01

    Enhancement of the maximum proton energy using a funnel-geometry target is demonstrated through particle simulations of laser-plasma interactions. When an intense short-pulse laser illuminate a thin foil target, the foil electrons are pushed by the laser ponderomotive force, and then form an electron cloud at the target rear surface. The electron cloud generates a strong electrostatic field, which accelerates the protons to high energies. If there is a hole in the rear of target, the shape of the electron cloud and the distribution of the protons will be affected by the protuberant part of the hole. In this paper, a funnel-geometry target is proposed to improve the maximum proton energy. Using particle-in-cell 2-dimensional simulations, the transverse electric field generated by the side wall of four different holes are calculated, and protons inside holes are restricted to specific shapes by these field. In the funnel-geometry target, more protons are restricted near the center of the longitudinal accelerating electric field, thus protons experiencing longer accelerating time and distance in the sheath field compared with that in a traditional cylinder hole target. Accordingly, more and higher energy protons are produced from the funnel-geometry target. The maximum proton energy is improved by about 4 MeV compared with a traditional cylinder-shaped hole target. The funnel-geometry target serves as a new method to improve the maximum proton energy in laser-plasma interactions.

  15. Intense transient magnetic-field generation by laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, R.F.

    1981-08-18

    In a laser system, the return current of a laser generated plasma is conducted near a target to subject that target to the magnetic field thereof. In alternate embodiments the target may be either a small non-fusion object for testing under the magnetic field or a laser-fusion pellet. In the laser-fusion embodiment, the laser-fusion pellet is irradiated during the return current flow and the intense transient magnetic field is used to control the hot electrons thereof to hinder them from striking and heating the core of the irradiated laser-fusion pellet.

  16. Plasma effects on harmonic spectra generated from moderately relativistic laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Ondarza-Rovira, R; Boyd, T J M

    2012-08-01

    When intense p-polarized laser light is incident on a plasma with an electron density many times the critical density, the flux of fast electrons created by Brunel absorption excites plasma oscillations. These oscillations may in turn affect the spectrum of high harmonics by modulating the spectrum at the plasma frequency, ω(p), and by coupling to the radiation field through the steep density gradient at the plasma-vacuum interface, so generating plasma line emission (PLE) at ω(p) and harmonics of ω(p). Both aspects depend sensitively on a range of plasma and laser pulse parameters, including the initial electron density, the density profile at the plasma-vacuum interface, and the intensity, pulse shape, and pulse length of the incident laser light. These various dependences have been characterised for moderately relativistic laser-plasma interactions by means of a series of particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. PMID:23005869

  17. Specular Reflectivity and Hot-Electron Generation in High-Contrast Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  18. Laser-plasma interaction in the context of inertial fusion: experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Lewis, K.; Bandulet, H.; Depierreux, S.; Hüller, S.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Pesme, D.; Loiseau, P.

    2007-08-01

    Many nonlinear processes may affect the laser beam propagation and the laser energy deposition in the underdense plasma surrounding the pellet. These processes, associated with anomalous and nonlinear absorption mechanisms, are fundamental issues in the context of Inertial Confinement Fusion. The work presented in this article refers to laser-plasma interaction experiments which were conducted under well-controlled conditions, and to their theoretical and numerical modeling. Thanks to important diagnostics improvements, the plasma and laser parameters were sufficiently characterized in these experiments to make it possible to carry out numerical simulations modeling the laser plasma interaction in which the hydrodynamics conditions were very close to the experimental ones. Two sets of experiments were carried out with the LULI 2000 and the six beam LULI laser facilities. In the first series of experiments, the interaction between two single hot spots was studied as a function of their distance, intensity and light polarization. In the second series, the intensity distribution of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) inside the plasma was studied by means of a new temporally resolved imaging system. Two-dimensional (2D) simulations were carried out with our code Harmony2D in order to model these experiments. For both series of experiments, the numerical results show a very good agreement with the experimental ones for what concerns the main SBS features, namely the spatial and temporal behavior of the SBS-driven acoustic waves, as well as the average SBS reflectivities. Thus, these well diagnosed experiments, carried out with well defined conditions, make it possible to benchmark our theoretical and numerical modelings and, hence, to improve our predictive capabilities for future experiments.

  19. Pushing the limits of plasma length in inertial fusion laser-plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Froula, D; Divol, L; London, R; Michel, P; Berger, R L; Meezan, N; Neumayer, P; Ross, J; Wallace, R; Glenzer, S H

    2007-08-02

    We demonstrate laser beam propagation and low backscatter in laser produced hohlraum plasmas of ignition plasma length. At intensities I < 5 x 10{sup 14} W cm{sup -2} greater than 80% of the energy in a blue (3{omega}, 351 nm) laser is transmitted through a L=5-mm long, high-temperature (T{sub e} = 2.5 keV), high-density (n{sub e} = 5 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}) plasma. These experiments show that the backscatter scales exponentially with plasma length which is consistent with linear theory. The backscatter calculated by a new steady state 3D laser-plasma interaction code developed for large ignition plasmas is in good agreement with the measurements.

  20. A Fokker-Planck code for laser plasma interaction in femtosecond-laser shock peening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhencheng; Wang, Guo-Xiang; Ye, Chang; Dong, Yalin

    2016-03-01

    A Fokker-Planck code is developed to simulate the laser-plasma interaction in the femtosecond-laser shock peening and forming processes. A numerical scheme dealing with high-energy concentration and its resulting steep gradient are presented, and the source code is provided as supplementary material for further usage. The breakdown of the classical heat transport theory is observed when the laser intensity increases. The difference in heat flow between the classical theory and simulation is presented. It is found that the classical heat transport theory overestimates heat flow by orders of magnitude during femtosecond-laser shock peening or forming. As a result, the electron pressure can be underestimated using the classical hydrodynamic code.

  1. Pushing the limits of plasma length in inertial-fusion laser-plasma interaction experiments.

    PubMed

    Froula, D H; Divol, L; London, R A; Michel, P; Berger, R L; Meezan, N B; Neumayer, P; Ross, J S; Wallace, R; Glenzer, S H

    2008-01-11

    We demonstrate laser beam propagation and low backscatter in laser produced hohlraum plasmas of ignition plasma length. At intensities I < 5 x 10(14) W cm(-2) greater than 80% of the energy in a blue (3 omega, 351 nm) laser is transmitted through a L=5-mm long, high-temperature (Te = 2.5 keV), high-density (ne = 5 x 10(20) cm(-3)) plasma. These experiments show that the backscatter scales exponentially with plasma length which is consistent with linear theory. The backscatter calculated by a new steady state 3D laser-plasma interaction code developed for large ignition plasmas is in good agreement with the measurements. PMID:18232778

  2. GPU-Accelerated PIC/MCC Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interaction Using BUMBLEBEE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaolin; Huang, Tao; Chen, Wenlong; Wu, Huidong; Tang, Maowen; Li, Bin

    2015-11-01

    The research of laser-plasma interaction in its wide applications relies on the use of advanced numerical simulation tools to achieve high performance operation while reducing computational time and cost. BUMBLEBEE has been developed to be a fast simulation tool used in the research of laser-plasma interactions. BUMBLEBEE uses a 1D3V electromagnetic PIC/MCC algorithm that is accelerated by using high performance Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) hardware. BUMBLEBEE includes a friendly user-interface module and four physics simulators. The user-interface provides a powerful solid-modeling front end and graphical and computational post processing functionality. The solver of BUMBLEBEE has four modules for now, which are used to simulate the field ionization, electron collisional ionization, binary coulomb collision and laser-plasma interaction processes. The ionization characteristics of laser-neutral interaction and the generation of high-energy electrons have been analyzed by using BUMBLEBEE for validation.

  3. Target micro-displacement measurement by a "comb" structure of intensity distribution in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.

    2015-05-01

    A "comb" structure of beam intensity distribution is designed and achieved to measure a target displacement of micrometer level in laser plasma propulsion. Base on the "comb" structure, the target displacement generated by nanosecond laser ablation solid target is measured and discussed. It is found that the "comb" structure is more suitable for a thin film target with a velocity lower than tens of millimeters per second. Combing with a light-electric monitor, the `comb' structure can be used to measure a large range velocity.

  4. Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.

    2014-10-01

    Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.

  5. Specular reflectivity and hot-electron generation in high-contrast relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, Gregory Elijah

    Ultra-intense laser (> 1018 W/cm2) interactions with matter are capable of producing relativistic electrons which have a variety of applications in state-of-the-art scientific and medical research conducted at universities and national laboratories across the world. Control of various aspects of these hot-electron distributions is highly desired to optimize a particular outcome. Hot-electron generation in low-contrast interactions, where significant amounts of under-dense pre-plasma are present, can be plagued by highly non-linear relativistic laser-plasma instabilities and quasi-static magnetic field generation, often resulting in less than desirable and predictable electron source characteristics. High-contrast interactions offer more controlled interactions but often at the cost of overall lower coupling and increased sensitivity to initial target conditions. An experiment studying the differences in hot-electron generation between high and low-contrast pulse interactions with solid density targets was performed on the Titan laser platform at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. To date, these hot-electrons generated in the laboratory are not directly observable at the source of the interaction. Instead, indirect studies are performed using state-of-the-art simulations, constrained by the various experimental measurements. These measurements, more-often-than-not, rely on secondary processes generated by the transport of these electrons through the solid density materials which can susceptible to a variety instabilities and target material/geometry effects. Although often neglected in these types of studies, the specularly reflected light can provide invaluable insight as it is directly influenced by the interaction. In this thesis, I address the use of (personally obtained) experimental specular reflectivity measurements to indirectly study hot-electron generation in the context of high-contrast, relativistic

  6. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime.

    PubMed

    Consoli, F; De Angelis, R; Duvillaret, L; Andreoli, P L; Cipriani, M; Cristofari, G; Di Giorgio, G; Ingenito, F; Verona, C

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation. PMID:27301704

  7. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consoli, F.; de Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation.

  8. Time-resolved absolute measurements by electro-optic effect of giant electromagnetic pulses due to laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime

    PubMed Central

    Consoli, F.; De Angelis, R.; Duvillaret, L.; Andreoli, P. L.; Cipriani, M.; Cristofari, G.; Di Giorgio, G.; Ingenito, F.; Verona, C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the first electro-optical absolute measurements of electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) generated by laser-plasma interaction in nanosecond regime. Laser intensities are inertial-confinement-fusion (ICF) relevant and wavelength is 1054 nm. These are the first direct EMP amplitude measurements with the detector rather close and in direct view of the plasma. A maximum field of 261 kV/m was measured, two orders of magnitude higher than previous measurements by conductive probes on nanosecond regime lasers with much higher energy. The analysis of measurements and of particle-in-cell simulations indicates that signals match the emission of charged particles detected in the same experiment, and suggests that anisotropic particle emission from target, X-ray photoionization and charge implantation on surfaces directly exposed to plasma, could be important EMP contributions. Significant information achieved on EMP features and sources is crucial for future plants of laser-plasma acceleration and inertial-confinement-fusion and for the use as effective plasma diagnostics. It also opens to remarkable applications of laser-plasma interaction as intense source of RF-microwaves for studies on materials and devices, EMP-radiation-hardening and electromagnetic compatibility. The demonstrated extreme effectivity of electric-fields detection in laser-plasma context by electro-optic effect, leads to great potential for characterization of laser-plasma interaction and generated Terahertz radiation. PMID:27301704

  9. Simulation of laser-plasma interaction experiments with gas-filled hohlraums on the LIL facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Teychenné, D.; Monteil, M.-C.; Casanova, M.; Marion, D.; Tran, G.; Huser, G.; Rousseaux, C.; Hüller, S.; Héron, A.; Pesme, D.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-plasma interaction is a major issue for achieving ignition in inertial confinement fusion schemes, and still a major concern for the upcoming french laser mégajoule (LMJ) program. In order to mitigate the deleterious effects due to laser-plasma instabilities (LPI), clearly evidenced during the recent US National Ignition Campaign conducted on the National Ignition Facility, we use the LIL facility as a demonstrator for LPI studies. In this article, we focus on preliminary results regarding the propagation of a typical LMJ quadruplet through gas-filled hohlraums. Results on hohlraum energetics will then be discussed.

  10. Dense Monoenergetic Proton Beams from Chirped Laser-Plasma Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galow, Benjamin J.; Salamin, Yousef I.; Liseykina, Tatyana V.; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2011-10-01

    Interaction of a frequency-chirped laser pulse with single protons and a hydrogen gas target is studied analytically and by means of particle-in-cell simulations, respectively. The feasibility of generating ultraintense (107 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons (energy spread of about 1%) is demonstrated. Phase synchronization of the protons and the laser field, guaranteed by the appropriate chirping of the laser pulse, allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy, from state-of-the-art laser systems of intensities of the order of 1021W/cm2.

  11. Particle density and temperature distribution in the early stage of laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, V. G.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.

    1996-05-01

    Starting from the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, particle density and temperature profiles and their time evolution are calculated, valid for the initial stage of laser-plasma interaction. The main focus of the work is on the analysis of the classical problem of two semi-infinite media kept at different temperatures and on the ensuing system evolution. Preliminary analytical results are presented.

  12. Plasma physics applications to intense radiation sources, pulsed power and space physics. Short pulse ultra intense laser-plasma interaction experiment. Final report, 1 January 1990-31 May 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sudan, R.N.

    1993-05-31

    Intense bright x-ray sources from dense z-pinch and x-pinch plasmas are being investigated for photo-pumping x-ray laser media. Crossed Aluminum wire X-pinches with mass line density up to hundreds of micrograms per centimeter have been imploded by up to 600 kA current for 40 ns using a 0.5 TW pulsed power generator. High density bright spots are observed. Soft x-ray spectroscopy was used to infer plasma density of up to approx. 10 to the 20th power per cubic cm and temperature of 100 -300 eV. The optimum mass loading for different ionization stages of Aluminum ions was examined. Parallel wire z-pinches yielded both lower density up to approx. 10(19)cm-3, and lower temperatures (70 - 200 eV), than the X-pinch plasmas.

  13. Towards modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions with hydrocodes: the thick-ray approach.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Nicolaï, P; Tikhonchuk, V

    2014-03-01

    This paper deals with the computation of laser beam intensity in large-scale radiative hydrocodes applied to the modeling of nonlinear laser-plasma interactions (LPIs) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is adapted for light waves in an inhomogeneous medium and modified to include the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption and the ponderomotive force. This thick-ray model is compared to the standard ray-tracing (RT) approach, both in the chic code. The PCGO model leads to different power deposition patterns and better diffraction modeling compared to standard RT codes. The intensity-reconstruction technique used in RT codes to model nonlinear LPI leads to artificial filamentation and fails to reproduce realistic ponderomotive self-focusing distances, intensity amplifications, and density channel depletions, whereas PCGO succeeds. Bundles of Gaussian thick rays can be used to model realistic non-Gaussian ICF beams. The PCGO approach is expected to improve the accuracy of ICF simulations and serve as a basis to implement diverse LPI effects in large-scale hydrocodes. PMID:24730950

  14. Kinetically driven Raman scattering in short, bi-speckle laser-plasma interaction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glize, Kevin; Rousseaux, Christophe; Baton, Sophie; Dervieux, Vincent; Lancia, Livia

    2015-11-01

    In order to investigate collective speckles behavior in laser-plasma interaction, bi-speckle experiments have been performed using the ELFIE facility (LULI). Two independent laser pulses (1.06 nm, 1.5 ps FWHM) interact with preformed He plasma (0.06 nc, 300 eV). The first beam drives stimulated Raman scattering, while the second, which its intensity is set near SRS threshold, is focused near the first one (typically 90 μm). The interaction, with crossed and parallel polarization, was studied for both variation of the time delay and the lateral distance between the two pulses, featuring a highly resolved Thomson-scattering diagnostic and backward Raman imaging. It is shown that the kinetic perturbations are of primary importance on triggering SRS in the weak speckle, which exhibits SRS instability up to an expectedly long time delay after the interaction of the strong one. The experimental results will be discussed with the help of 2D PIC simulations (CALDER code).

  15. Measuring the coherence properties of light emission from laser-plasma interactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Batha, S.H.

    1998-03-06

    Several detrimental instabilities can be excited when a high-intensity laser interacts with plasma. The temporal evolution and spectra of the scattered light emitted by many of these instabilities are used to characterize the instabilities and to benchmark theories. It has been difficult to image the emission region with sufficient resolution to make quantitative comparisons with theory. Direct measurement of the emission region would yield information on ponderomotive steepening phenomena, the true emission zone of convective instabilities, and on the saturation of absolute instabilities. The increase in laser intensity caused by the filamentation instability is conjectured to elevate the levels of parametric instabilities found in high-energy laser-plasma interactions. Because the diameter of the filaments is very small (on the order of 10 {micro}m), it is impossible to image the emission sites directly and either to prove or to disprove this conjecture. The research reported here examines an alternate method of measuring the emission region of scattered light from parametric instabilities. This report provides a brief background of coherence theory by defining the relevant parameters in Section 2. A concrete example of the effect that multiple scattering sites would have on the proposed measurement is provided in Section 3. The following section briefly describes experiments that might be able to demonstrate the proposed technique. The conclusion raises the issue of coherence and its effect on the expected angular distribution of scattering light from parametric instabilities.

  16. On specular reflectivity measurements in high and low-contrast relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, G. E.; Link, A.; Ping, Y.; McLean, H. S.; Patel, P. K.; Freeman, R. R.; Schumacher, D. W.; Tiedje, H. F.; Tsui, Y. Y.; Fedosejevs, R.; Ramis, R.

    2015-01-15

    Using both experiment and 2D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we describe the use of specular reflectivity measurements to study relativistic (Iλ{sup 2 }> 10{sup 18 }W/cm{sup 2}⋅μm{sup 2}) laser-plasma interactions for both high and low-contrast 527 nm laser pulses on initially solid density aluminum targets. In the context of hot-electron generation, studies typically rely on diagnostics which, more-often-than-not, represent indirect processes driven by fast electrons transiting through solid density materials. Specular reflectivity measurements, however, can provide a direct measure of the interaction that is highly sensitive to how the EM fields and plasma profiles, critical input parameters for modeling of hot-electron generation, evolve near the interaction region. While the fields of interest occur near the relativistic critical electron density, experimental reflectivity measurements are obtained centimeters away from the interaction region, well after diffraction has fully manifested itself. Using a combination of PIC simulations with experimentally inspired conditions and an analytic, non-paraxial, pulse propagation algorithm, we calculate reflected pulse properties, both near and far from the interaction region, and compare with specular reflectivity measurements. The experiment results and PIC simulations demonstrate that specular reflectivity measurements are an extremely sensitive qualitative, and partially quantitative, indicator of initial laser/target conditions, ionization effects, and other details of intense laser-matter interactions. The techniques described can provide strong constraints on many systems of importance in ultra-intense laser interactions with matter.

  17. Relativistic laser-plasma interactions in the quantum regime.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, P K

    2011-04-01

    We consider nonlinear interactions between a relativistically strong laser beam and a plasma in the quantum regime. The collective behavior of electrons is modeled by a Klein-Gordon equation, which is nonlinearly coupled with the electromagnetic wave through the Maxwell and Poisson equations. This allows us to study nonlinear interactions between arbitrarily large-amplitude electromagnetic waves and a quantum plasma. We have used our system of nonlinear equations to study theoretically the parametric instabilities involving stimulated Raman scattering and modulational instabilities. A model for quasi-steady-state propagating electromagnetic wave packets is also derived, and which shows possibility of localized solitary structures in a quantum plasma. Numerical simulations demonstrate collapse and acceleration of electrons in the nonlinear stage of the modulational instability, as well as possibility of the wake-field acceleration of electrons to relativistic speeds by short laser pulses at nanometer length scales. Our study is relevant for understanding the localization of intense electromagnetic pulses in a quantum plasma with extremely high electron densities and relatively low temperature. PMID:21599316

  18. Optical Probing of CO2 Laser-Plasma Interactions at Near Critical Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chao

    The interaction of a high-power laser beam with plasma has been explored extensively in the context of laser-driven fusion, plasma-based acceleration of ions and electrons and high energy-density physics. One of the fundamental processes common to all these studies is the penetration of intense light into a dense matter through the hole boring effect and self-induced transparency. Light with a given wavelength lambda will be reflected once the electron density equals the critical electron plasma density nc = 1.1x 1021cm -3 /[lambda(mum)]2. The radiation pressure exerted on the critical density layer is characterized by the ponderomotive force of a focused laser pulse which scales with a laser intensity, I as Ilambda2 Wmum2/cm 2. At Ilambda2 ˜1017 Wmum2/cm2 and above, it becomes possible for the laser pulse not only to steepen the plasma profile but to push the overcritical plasma with ne > nc creating a cavity or a hole in the target. The phenomenon of hole boring, whereby a laser pulse propagates through a reduced density cavity to reach and push the critical density layer, is of importance in fast-ignition fusion because it may allow the laser pulse to deliver its energy closer to the compressed fuel where it can be converted into fast electrons that are needed to ignite a small portion of the fuel. The layer of plasma pushed by the radiation pressure can reflect and accelerate ions via the so called Hole Boring Radiation Pressure Acceleration mechanism. Also the density pile- up in combination with the strong electron heating at the critical density layer can facilitate the formation of a collisionless shock. This shock wave acceleration can produce high energy ion beams with a narrow energy spread. Numerous experiments have been carried out to study dynamics of laser plasma interaction indirectly using solid state targets that are opaque for 1?m laser. However, by using a longer wavelength CO2 laser, lambda = 10.6mum, the critical plasma density is decreased

  19. Hybrid Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Fast Electron Transport in Inhomogeneous Plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B I; Kemp, A; Divol, L

    2009-05-27

    A new framework is introduced for kinetic simulation of laser-plasma interactions in an inhomogenous plasma motivated by the goal of performing integrated kinetic simulations of fast-ignition laser fusion. The algorithm addresses the propagation and absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave in an ionized plasma leading to the generation and transport of an energetic electron component. The energetic electrons propagate farther into the plasma to much higher densities where Coulomb collisions become important. The high-density plasma supports an energetic electron current, return currents, self-consistent electric fields associated with maintaining quasi-neutrality, and self-consistent magnetic fields due to the currents. Collisions of the electrons and ions are calculated accurately to track the energetic electrons and model their interactions with the background plasma. Up to a density well above critical density, where the laser electromagnetic field is evanescent, Maxwell's equations are solved with a conventional particle-based, finite-difference scheme. In the higher-density plasma, Maxwell's equations are solved using an Ohm's law neglecting the inertia of the background electrons with the option of omitting the displacement current in Ampere's law. Particle equations of motion with binary collisions are solved for all electrons and ions throughout the system using weighted particles to resolve the density gradient efficiently. The algorithm is analyzed and demonstrated in simulation examples. The simulation scheme introduced here achieves significantly improved efficiencies.

  20. Three dimensional modeling of Laser-Plasma interaction: benchmarking our predictive modeling tools vs. experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L; Berger, R; Meezan, N; Froula, D H; Dixit, S; Suter, L; Glenzer, S H

    2007-11-08

    We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA[2]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d[3]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements(SBS thresholds, reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  1. Three-dimensional modeling of laser-plasma interaction: Benchmarking our predictive modeling tools versus experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L.; Berger, R. L.; Meezan, N. B.; Froula, D. H.; Dixit, S.; Michel, P.; London, R.; Strozzi, D.; Ross, J.; Williams, E. A.; Still, B.; Suter, L. J.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2008-05-15

    New experimental capabilities [Froula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 085001 (2007)] have been developed to study laser-plasma interaction (LPI) in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester). By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV was created. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed to benchmark hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [Meezan et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056304 (2007)]. As a result of this effort, these simulations can be used with much confidence as input parameters for the LPI simulation code PF3D [Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 4337 (1998)]. In this paper, it is shown that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, whole beam three-dimensional linear kinetic modeling of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) reproduces quantitatively the experimental measurements (SBS thresholds, reflectivity values, and the absence of measurable stimulated Raman scattering). This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations. These simulations accurately predicted the strong reduction of SBS measured when polarization smoothing is used.

  2. Simulation of laser-plasma interactions and fast-electron transport in inhomogeneous plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.I. Kemp, A.J.; Divol, L.

    2010-06-20

    A new framework is introduced for kinetic simulation of laser-plasma interactions in an inhomogeneous plasma motivated by the goal of performing integrated kinetic simulations of fast-ignition laser fusion. The algorithm addresses the propagation and absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave in an ionized plasma leading to the generation and transport of an energetic electron component. The energetic electrons propagate farther into the plasma to much higher densities where Coulomb collisions become important. The high-density plasma supports an energetic electron current, return currents, self-consistent electric fields associated with maintaining quasi-neutrality, and self-consistent magnetic fields due to the currents. Collisions of the electrons and ions are calculated accurately to track the energetic electrons and model their interactions with the background plasma. Up to a density well above critical density, where the laser electromagnetic field is evanescent, Maxwell's equations are solved with a conventional particle-based, finite-difference scheme. In the higher-density plasma, Maxwell's equations are solved using an Ohm's law neglecting the inertia of the background electrons with the option of omitting the displacement current in Ampere's law. Particle equations of motion with binary collisions are solved for all electrons and ions throughout the system using weighted particles to resolve the density gradient efficiently. The algorithm is analyzed and demonstrated in simulation examples. The simulation scheme introduced here achieves significantly improved efficiencies.

  3. Mono-Energetic Beams from Laser Plasma Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.; Schroeder, C.B.; Toth,Cs.; van Tilborg, J.; Cary, John R.; Bruhwiler, David L.; Nieter, Chet

    2005-05-09

    A laser driven wakefield accelerator has been tuned to produce high energy electron bunches with low emittance and energy spread by extending the interaction length using a plasma channel. Wakefield accelerators support gradients thousands of times those achievable in RF accelerators, but short acceleration distance, limited by diffraction, has resulted in low energy beams with 100 percent electron energy spread. In the present experiments on the L'OASIS laser, the relativistically intense drive pulse was guided over 10 diffraction ranges by a plasma channel. At a drive pulse power of 9 TW, electrons were trapped from the plasma and beams of percent energy spread containing > 200 pC charge above 80 MeV and with normalized emittance estimated at< 2pi-mm-mrad were produced. Data and simulations (VORPAL code) show the high quality bunch was formed when beam loading turned off injection after initial trapping, and when the particles were extracted as they dephased from the wake. Up to 4TW was guided without trapping, potentially providing a platform for controlled injection. The plasma channel technique forms the basis of a new class of accelerators, with high gradients and high beam quality.

  4. Laser-plasma interactions in large gas-filled hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.E.; Powers, L.V.; Berger, R.L.

    1996-06-01

    Indirect-drive targets planned for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser consist of spherical fuel capsules enclosed in cylindrical Au hohlraums. Laser beams, arranged in cylindrical rings, heat the inside of the Au wall to produce x rays that in turn heat and implode the capsule to produce fusion conditions in the fuel. Detailed calculations show that adequate implosion symmetry can be maintained by filling the hohlraum interior with low-density, low-Z gases. The plasma produced from the heated gas provides sufficient pressure to keep the radiating Au surface from expanding excessively. As the laser heats this gas, the gas becomes a relatively uniform plasma with small gradients in velocity and density. Such long-scale-length plasmas can be ideal mediums for stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS). SBS can reflect a large fraction of the incident laser light before it is absorbed by the hohlraum; therefore, it is undesirable in an inertial confinement fusion target. To examine the importance of SBS in NIF targets, the authors used Nova to measure SBS from hohlraums with plasma conditions similar to those predicted for high-gain NIF targets. The plasmas differ from the more familiar exploding foil or solid targets as follows: they are hot (3 keV); they have high electron densities (n{sub e}=10{sup 21}cm{sup {minus}3}); and they are nearly stationary, confined within an Au cylinder, and uniform over large distances (>2 mm). These hohlraums have <3% peak SBS backscatter for an interaction beam with intensities of 1-4 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, a laser wavelength of 0.351{micro}m, f/4 or f/8 focusing optics, and a variety of beam smoothing implementations. Based on these conditions the authors conclude that SBS does not appear to be a problem for NIF targets.

  5. Accelerating piston action and plasma heating in high-energy density laser plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, M. C.; Wilks, S. C.; Baring, M. G.

    2013-03-01

    In the field of high-energy density physics (HEDP), lasers in both the nanosecond and picosecond regimes can drive conditions in the laboratory relevant to a broad range of astrophysical phenomena, including gamma-ray burst afterglows and supernova remnants. In the short-pulse regime, the strong light pressure (>Gbar) associated ultraintense lasers of intensity I > 1018 W/cm2 plays a central role in many HEDP applications. Yet, the behavior of this nonlinear pressure mechanism is not well-understood at late time in the laser-plasma interaction. In this paper, a more realistic treatment of the laser pressure 'hole boring' process is developed through analytical modeling and particle-in-cell simulations. A simple Liouville code capturing the phase space evolution of ponderomotively-driven ions is employed to distill effects related to plasma heating and ion bulk acceleration. Taking into account these effects, our results show that the evolution of the laser-target system encompasses ponderomotive expansion, equipartition, and quasi-isothermal expansion epochs. These results have implications for light piston-driven ion acceleration scenarios, and astrophysical applications where the efficiencies of converting incident Poynting flux into bulk plasma flow and plasma heat are key unknown parameters.

  6. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation.

    PubMed

    Colaïtis, A; Duchateau, G; Ribeyre, X; Maheut, Y; Boutoux, G; Antonelli, L; Nicolaï, Ph; Batani, D; Tikhonchuk, V

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure. PMID:26565161

  7. Coupled hydrodynamic model for laser-plasma interaction and hot electron generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colaïtis, A.; Duchateau, G.; Ribeyre, X.; Maheut, Y.; Boutoux, G.; Antonelli, L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Batani, D.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes. Hot electron (HE) transport and absorption are described within the multigroup angular scattering approximation, adapted for transversally Gaussian electron beams. This multiscale inline LPI-HE model is used to interpret several shock ignition experiments, highlighting the importance of target preheating by HEs and the shortcomings of standard geometrical optics when modeling the propagation and absorption of intense laser pulses. It is found that HEs from parametric instabilities significantly increase the shock pressure and velocity in the target, while decreasing its strength and the overall ablation pressure.

  8. Design of an Experiment to Observe Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, L.; Weaver, J.; Manheimer, W.; Zalesak, S.; Schmitt, A.; Fyfe, D.; Afeyan, B.; Charbonneau-Lefort, M.

    2007-11-01

    Recent proposed designs (Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) that may lead, for example, to the generation of fast electrons. The proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize LPI; this is being studied by experiments at NRL's NIKE facility. We used a modification of the FAST code that models laser pulses with arbitrary spatial and temporal profiles to assist in designing these experiments. The goal is to design targets and pulseshapes to create plasma conditions that will produce sufficient growth of LPI to be observable on NIKE. Using, for example, a cryogenic DT target that is heated by a brief pulse and allowed to expand freely before interacting with a second, high-intensity pulse, allows the development of long scalelengths at low electron temperatures and leads to a predicted 20-efold growth in two-plasmon amplitude.

  9. Time-Space Position of Warm Dense Matter in Laser Plasma Interaction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H

    2006-09-25

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been perform performed using an fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. Electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were cautiously compared with relevant 1D numerical simulation. Finally these results provide a first experience of searching for the time-space position of the so-called warm dense plasma in an ultra fast laser target interaction process. These experiments aim to prepare near solid-density plasmas for Thomson scattering experiments using the short wavelength free-electron laser FLASH, DESY Hamburg.

  10. Space-Time Characterization of Laser Plasma Interactions in the Warm Dense Matter Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L F; Uschmann, I; Forster, E; Zamponi, F; Kampfer, T; Fuhrmann, A; Holl, A; Redmer, R; Toleikis, S; Tschentsher, T; Glenzer, S H

    2008-04-30

    Laser plasma interaction experiments have been performed using a fs Titanium Sapphire laser. Plasmas have been generated from planar PMMA targets using single laser pulses with 3.3 mJ pulse energy, 50 fs pulse duration at 800 nm wavelength. The electron density distributions of the plasmas in different delay times have been characterized by means of Nomarski Interferometry. Experimental data were compared with hydrodynamic simulation. First results to characterize the plasma density and temperature as a function of space and time are obtained. This work aims to generate plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime at near solid-density in an ultra-fast laser target interaction process. Plasmas under these conditions can serve as targets to develop x-ray Thomson scattering as a plasma diagnostic tool, e.g., using the VUV free-electron laser (FLASH) at DESY Hamburg.

  11. Pulse distortion and modulation instability in laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Pallavi; Singh, Ram Gopal; Upadhyay, Ajay K.

    2009-01-15

    The present paper deals with the propagation of a short, intense, Gaussian laser pulse in plasma. Using a one dimensional model, a wave equation including finite pulse length and group velocity dispersion is set up and solved to obtain the intensity distribution across the laser pulse. It is shown that the pulse profile becomes asymmetric as it propagates through plasma. Further, the growth rate of modulation instability and range of unstable frequencies across the laser pulse have been derived and graphically analyzed.

  12. Particle density and temperature distribution in the early stage of laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Molinari, V.G.; Mostacci, D.; Sumini, M.

    1996-05-01

    Starting from the Boltzmann-Vlasov equation, particle density and temperature profiles and their time evolution are calculated, valid for the initial stage of laser-plasma interaction. The main focus of the work is on the analysis of the classical problem of two semi-infinite media kept at different temperatures and on the ensuing system evolution. Preliminary analytical results are presented. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Proton shock acceleration in laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, M.; Davies, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Fahlen, J.; Ren, C.; Tsung, F.; Mori, W. B.

    2003-10-01

    The formation of strong, high Mach number (2--3), electrostatic shocks by laser pulses incident on overdense plasma slabs is observed in 1 and 2-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, for a wide range of intensities, pulse durations, target thicknesses and densities. The shocks propagate undisturbed across the plasma, accelerating the ions (protons). For dimensionless field strength parameter a_0=16 (Iλ^2 ≈ 3 × 10^20 W cm-2 μm^2, where I is intensity and λ wavelength) the highest energy protons are accelerated by the shock. A plateau in the ion spectrum provides a direct signature for shock acceleration.

  14. Random aspects of beam physics and laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charman, Andrew Emile

    each pass. Further examining the possibility of quantum mechanical effects of charges and their radiation, we turn to quantum treatments of Electromagnetically-Induced-Transparency (EIT) in magnetized plasmas, in which the medium---normally opaque to a resonantly-polarized EM probe field at the cyclotron frequency---can be made transparent by the application of an intense EM pump at a frequency detuned below the cyclotron frequency by the plasma frequency. This raises fundamental questions as to how and to what extent a seemingly classical phenomena in plasma can mimic a quantum mechanical effect in atoms. We address these questions by describing both systems in a common quantum mechanical language, where in the cold, unsaturated limit, the relevant excitations are associated with collective Bosonic modes, or quasi-particles. EIT can be understood in terms of the dressing of these modes via the pump-mediated interaction, leading to a dark-state polariton coherently combining both field and particle excitations that is largely immune to the cyclotron resonance. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  15. ISLPI'92 - International Symposium on Laser-Plasma Interactions, Shanghai, China, Nov. 9-12, 1992, Proceedings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhijiang; Xu, Zhizhan

    Laser-plasma interactions and target physics, X-ray lasers, radiation and particle emission from laser-produced plasmas, and advances in related fields are the broad topics addressed. Particular papers are presented on high-intensity ultrashort pulse laser interaction with dense plasmas, second harmonic generation by lightwave-plasma interaction in an oscillating magnetic field, the effect of illumination nonuniformity on the compression of high-aspect ratio laser-fusion targets, and ablation parameters from ion emission in laser-target interaction. Consideration is also given to photopumped Balmer beta X-ray lasers, the spatial characteristics of recombination X-ray lasers, ion cyclotron maser instability, a new type of cavity for a Raman free-electron laser, and the reflection of soft X-rays from quasi-periodic multilayer films.

  16. Femtosecond laser-plasma interaction with prepulse-generated liquid metal microjets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uryupina, D. S.; Ivanov, K. A.; Brantov, A. V.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Povarnitsyn, M. E.; Volkov, R. V.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse interaction with a microstructured surface of a melted metal is a promising source of hard x-ray radiation. Microstructuring is achieved by a weak prepulse that produces narrow high-density microjets. As an x-ray source, the interaction of the main laser pulse with such jets is shown to be nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient than the interaction with ordinary metal targets. This paper presents the results of optical and x-ray studies of laser-plasma interaction physics under such conditions supported by numerical simulations of microjet formation and fast-electron generation.

  17. Dynamics of electron bunches at the laser-plasma interaction in the bubble regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, V. I.; Svystun, O. M.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Tkachenko, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    The multi-bunches self-injection, observed in laser-plasma accelerators in the bubble regime, affects the energy gain of electrons accelerated by laser wakefield. However, understanding of dynamics of the electron bunches formed at laser-plasma interaction may be challenging. We present here the results of fully relativistic electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of laser wakefield acceleration driven by a short laser pulse in an underdense plasma. The trapping and acceleration of three witness electron bunches by the bubble-like structures were observed. It has been shown that with time the first two witness bunches turn into drivers and contribute to acceleration of the last witness bunch.

  18. Proton Shock Acceleration in Laser-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Luís O.; Marti, Michael; Davies, Jonathan R.; Fonseca, Ricardo A.; Ren, Chuang; Tsung, Frank S.; Mori, Warren B.

    2004-01-01

    The formation of strong, high Mach number (2 3), electrostatic shocks by laser pulses incident on overdense plasma slabs is observed in one- and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, for a wide range of intensities, pulse durations, target thicknesses, and densities. The shocks propagate undisturbed across the plasma, accelerating the ions (protons). For a dimensionless field strength parameter a0=16 (Iλ2≈3×1020 W cm-2 μm2, where I is the intensity and λ the wavelength), and target thicknesses of a few microns, the shock is responsible for the highest energy protons. A plateau in the ion spectrum provides a direct signature for shock acceleration.

  19. Nail-like targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pasley, J; Wei, M; Shipton, E; Chen, S; Ma, T; Beg, F N; Alexander, N; Stephens, R B; MacPhee, A G; Hey, D; Pape, S L; Patel, P; Mackinnon, A J; Key, M H; Offermann, D; Link, A; Chowdhury, E; Van-Woerkom, L D; Freeman, R R

    2007-12-18

    The interaction of ultra-high power picosecond laser pulses with solid targets is of interest both for benchmarking the results of hybrid particle in cell (PIC) codes and also for applications to re-entrant cone guided fast ignition. We describe the construction of novel targets in which copper/titanium wires are formed into 'nail-like' objects by a process of melting and micromachining, so that energy can be reliably coupled to a 24 {micro}m diameter wire. An extreme-ultraviolet image of the interaction of the Titan laser with such a target is shown.

  20. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Jaroszynski, D A; Bingham, R; Brunetti, E; Ersfeld, B; Gallacher, J; van der Geer, B; Issac, R; Jamison, S P; Jones, D; de Loos, M; Lyachev, A; Pavlov, V; Reitsma, A; Saveliev, Y; Vieux, G; Wiggins, S M

    2006-03-15

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged particles to high energies over very short distances, as high as 1GeV in a few millimetres. The short length scale of plasma waves provides a means of developing very compact high-energy accelerators, which could form the basis of compact next-generation light sources with unique properties. Tuneable X-ray radiation and particle pulses with durations of the order of or less than 5fs should be possible and would be useful for probing matter on unprecedented time and spatial scales. If developed to fruition this revolutionary technology could reduce the size and cost of light sources by three orders of magnitude and, therefore, provide powerful new tools to a large scientific community. We will discuss how a laser-driven plasma wakefield accelerator can be used to produce radiation with unique characteristics over a very large spectral range. PMID:16483958

  1. Parametric study of transport beam lines for electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scisciò, M.; Lancia, L.; Migliorati, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Antici, P.

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, laser-plasma acceleration of high-energy electrons has attracted strong attention in different fields. Electrons with maximum energies in the GeV range can be laser-accelerated within a few cm using multi-hundreds terawatt (TW) lasers, yielding to very high beam currents at the source (electron bunches with up to tens-hundreds of pC in a few fs). While initially the challenge was to increase the maximum achievable electron energy, today strong effort is put in the control and usability of these laser-generated beams that still lack of some features in order to be used for applications where currently conventional, radio-frequency (RF) based, electron beam lines represent the most common and efficient solution. Several improvements have been suggested for this purpose, some of them acting directly on the plasma source, some using beam shaping tools located downstream. Concerning the latter, several studies have suggested the use of conventional accelerator magnetic devices (such as quadrupoles and solenoids) as an easy implementable solution when the laser-plasma accelerated beam requires optimization. In this paper, we report on a parametric study related to the transport of electron beams accelerated by laser-plasma interaction, using conventional accelerator elements and tools. We focus on both, high energy electron beams in the GeV range, as produced on petawatt (PW) class laser systems, and on lower energy electron beams in the hundreds of MeV range, as nowadays routinely obtained on commercially available multi-hundred TW laser systems. For both scenarios, our study allows understanding what are the crucial parameters that enable laser-plasma accelerators to compete with conventional ones and allow for a beam transport. We show that suitable working points require a tradeoff-combination between low beam divergence and narrow energy spread.

  2. SiC detector damage and characterization for high intensity laser-plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrisi, L.; Cannavò, A.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon-Carbide (SiC) detectors are always more extensively employed as diagnostics in laser-generated plasma due to their remarkable properties such as their high band gap, high carrier velocity, high detection efficiency, high radiation resistance and low leakage current at room temperature. SiC detectors, in comparison with Si detectors, have the advantage of being insensitive to visible light, having low reverse current at high temperature and high radiation hardness. A similar energy resolution characterizes the two types of detectors, being 0.8% in Si and 1.0% in SiC, as measured detecting 5.8 MeV alpha particles. Generally, SiC detectors are employed as laser-plasma diagnostics in time-of-flight configuration, permitting the simultaneous detection of photons, electrons and ions based on discrimination of velocity. SiC detectors can be employed in the proportionality regime, because their response is proportional to the radiation energy deposited in the active layer. Using thin absorbers in front of the detectors makes it possible to have further information on the radiation nature, intensity and energy. Surface characterization of SiC before and after prolonged exposure to hot plasma laser generated shows the formation of bulk defects and thin film deposition on the detector surface limiting the device functionality.

  3. Study of laser plasma interactions in the relativistic regime

    SciTech Connect

    Umstadter, D.

    1997-08-13

    We discuss the first experimental demonstration of electron acceleration by a laser wakefield over instances greater than a Rayleigh range (or the distance a laser normally propagates in vacuum). A self-modulated laser wakefield plasma wave is shown to have a field gradient that exceeds that of an RF linac by four orders of magnitude (E => 200 GV/m) and accelerates electrons with over 1-nC of charge per bunch in a beam with space-charge-limited emittance (1 mm-mrad). Above a laser power threshold, a plasma channel, created by the intense ultrashort laser pulse (I approx. 4 x1018 W/CM2, gamma = 1 micron, r = 400 fs), was found to increase the laser propagation distance, decrease the electron beam divergence, and increase the electron energy. The plasma wave, directly measured with coherent Thomson scattering is shown to damp-due to beam loading-in a duration of 1.5 ps or approx. 100 plasma periods. These results may have important implications for the proposed fast ignitor concept.

  4. Laser plasma interaction physics in the context of fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, C.; Fuchs, J.; Depierreux, S.; Baldis, H. A.; Pesme, D.; Myatt, J.; Hüller, S.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Laval, G.

    2000-08-01

    Of vital importance for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) are the understanding and control of the nonlinear processes which can occur during the propagation of the laser pulses through the underdense plasma surrounding the fusion capsule. The control of parametric instabilities has been studied experimentally, using the LULI six-beam laser facility, and also theoretically and numerically. New results based on the direct observation of plasma waves with Thomson scattering of a short wavelength probe beam have revealed the occurence of the Langmuir decay instability. This secondary instability may play an imporant role in the saturation of stimulated Raman scattering. Another mechanism for reducing the growth of the scattering instabilities is the so-called `plasma-induced incoherence'. Namely, recent theoretical studies have shown that the propagation of laser beams through the underdense plasma can increase their spatial and temporal incoherence. This plasma-induced beam smoothing can reduce the levels of parametric instabilities. One signature of this process is a large increase of the spectral width of the laser light after propagation through the plasma. Comparison of the experimental results with numerical simulations shows an excellent agreement between the observed and calculated time-resolved spectra of the transmitted laser light at various laser intensities.

  5. Microwave modeling of laser plasma interactions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    For a large laser fusion targets and nanosecond pulse lengths, stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and self-focusing are expected to be significant problems. The goal of the contractual effort was to examine certain aspects of these physical phenomena in a wavelength regime (lambda approx.5 cm) more amenable to detailed diagnostics than that characteristic of laser fusion (lambda approx.1 micron). The effort was to include the design, fabrication and operation of a suitable experimental apparatus. In addition, collaboration with Dr. Neville Luhmann and his associates at UCLA and with Dr. Curt Randall of LLNL, on analysis and modelling of the UCLA experiments was continued. Design and fabrication of the TRW experiment is described under ''Experiment Design'' and ''Experimental Apparatus''. The design goals for the key elements of the experimental apparatus were met, but final integration and operation of the experiment was not accomplished. Some theoretical considerations on the interaction between Stimulated Brillouin Scattering and Self-Focusing are also presented.

  6. Electron acceleration in long scale laser - plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamperidis, Christos; Mangles, Stuart P. D.; Nagel, Sabrina R.; Bellei, Claudio; Krushelnick, Karl; Najmudin, Zulfikar; Bourgeois, Nicola; Marques, Jean Raphael; Kaluza, Malte C.

    2006-10-01

    Broad energy electron bunches are produced through the Self-Modulated Laser Wakefield Acceleration scheme at the 30J, 300 fsec laser, LULI, France, with long scale underdense plasmas, created in a He filled gas cell and in He gas jet nozzles of various lengths. With c.τlaser>>λplasma, electrons reached Emax ˜ 200MeV. By carefully controlling the dynamics of the interaction and by simultaneous observations of the electron energy spectra and the forward emitted optical spectrum, we found that a plasma density threshold (˜5.10^18 cm-3) exists for quasi-monoenergetic (˜30MeV) features to appear. The overall plasma channel size was inferred from the collected Thomson scattered light. 2D PIC simulations indicate that the main long laser pulse breaks up into small pulselets that eventually get compressed and tightly focused inside the first few plasma periods, leading to a bubble like acceleration of electron bunches.

  7. Modeling ultrafast shadowgraphy in laser-plasma interaction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siminos, E.; Skupin, S.; Sävert, A.; Cole, J. M.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Kaluza, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    Ultrafast shadowgraphy is a new experimental technique that uses few-cycle laser pulses to image density gradients in a rapidly evolving plasma. It enables structures that move at speeds close to the speed of light, such as laser driven wakes, to be visualized. Here we study the process of shadowgraphic image formation during the propagation of a few cycle probe pulse transversely through a laser-driven wake using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. In order to construct synthetic shadowgrams a near-field snapshot of the ultrashort probe pulse is analyzed by means of Fourier optics, taking into account the effect of a typical imaging setup. By comparing synthetic and experimental shadowgrams we show that the generation of synthetic data is crucial for the correct interpretation of experiments. Moreover, we study the dependence of synthetic shadowgrams on various parameters such as the imaging system aperture, the position of the object plane and the probe pulse delay, duration and wavelength. Finally, we show that time-dependent information from the interaction can be recovered from a single shot by using a broadband, chirped probe pulse and subsequent spectral filtering.

  8. Few-cycle optical probe-pulse for investigation of relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, M. B.; Sävert, A.; Polz, J.; Schnell, M.; Rinck, T.; Möller, M.; Hansinger, P.; Jäckel, O.; Paulus, G. G.; Kaluza, M. C.; Veisz, L.

    2013-11-04

    The development of a few-cycle optical probe-pulse for the investigation of laser-plasma interactions driven by a Ti:sapphire, 30 Terawatt (TW) laser system is described. The probe is seeded by a fraction of the driving laser's energy and is spectrally broadened via self-phase modulation in a hollow core fiber filled with a rare gas, then temporally compressed to a few optical cycles via chirped mirrors. Shadowgrams of the laser-driven plasma wave created in relativistic electron acceleration experiments are presented with few-fs temporal resolution, which is shown to be independent of post-interaction spectral filtering of the probe-beam.

  9. Dependence of laser-plasma interaction physics on laser wavelength and plasma scalelength

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, E.M.

    1984-04-09

    We discuss the dependence of many features of laser-plasma interaction physics on both the laser wavelength and plasma dimensions. Experimental results that are presented include absorption, stimulated Brillouin scattering, suprathermal electron production, and optical signatures of the two plasmon decay and stimulated Raman instabilities. While the experiments show beneficial effects of decreasing laser wavelength on the coupling physics, the mix and efficiency of the various interaction processes is shown to be strongly dependent on the size of the underdense plasma. 42 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Physics of laser-plasma interaction for shock ignition of fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Colaïtis, A.; Vallet, A.; Llor Aisa, E.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, Ph; Ribeyre, X.

    2016-01-01

    The shock ignition scheme is an alternative approach, which aims to achieve ignition of fusion reactions in two subsequent steps: first, the target is compressed at a low implosion velocity and second, a strong converging shock is launched during the stagnation phase and ignites the hot spot. In this paper we describe the major elements of this scheme and recent achievements concerning the laser-plasma interaction, the crucial role of hot electrons in the shock generation, the shock amplification in the imploding shell and the ignition conditions.

  11. Development and characterization of very dense submillimetric gas jets for laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Sylla, F; Veltcheva, M; Kahaly, S; Flacco, A; Malka, V

    2012-03-01

    We report on the characterization of recently developed submillimetric He gas jets with peak density higher than 10(21) atoms/cm(3) from cylindrical and slightly conical nozzles of throat diameter of less than 400 μm. Helium gas at pressure 300-400 bar has been developed for this purpose to compensate the nozzle throat diameter reduction that affects the output mass flow rate. The fast-switching electro-valve enables to operate the jet safely for multi-stage vacuum pump assembly. Such gaseous thin targets are particularly suitable for laser-plasma interaction studies in the unexplored near-critical regime. PMID:22462922

  12. Development and characterization of very dense submillimetric gas jets for laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sylla, F.; Kahaly, S.; Flacco, A.; Malka, V.; Veltcheva, M.

    2012-03-15

    We report on the characterization of recently developed submillimetric He gas jets with peak density higher than 10{sup 21} atoms/cm{sup 3} from cylindrical and slightly conical nozzles of throat diameter of less than 400 {mu}m. Helium gas at pressure 300-400 bar has been developed for this purpose to compensate the nozzle throat diameter reduction that affects the output mass flow rate. The fast-switching electro-valve enables to operate the jet safely for multi-stage vacuum pump assembly. Such gaseous thin targets are particularly suitable for laser-plasma interaction studies in the unexplored near-critical regime.

  13. Generating intense fully coherent soft x-ray radiation based on a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Feng, Chao; Xiang, Dao; Deng, Haixiao; Huang, Dazhang; Wang, Dong; Zhao, Zhentang

    2015-06-01

    Laser-plasma based accelerator has the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of future x-ray light sources to the university-laboratory scale. However, the large energy spread of the laser-plasma accelerated electron beam may hinder the way for short wavelength free-electron laser generation. In this paper, we propose a novel method for directly imprinting strong coherent micro-bunching on the electron beam with large intrinsic energy spread by using a wavefront-tilted conventional optical laser beam and a weak dipole magnet. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations demonstrate that this technique can be used for the generation of fully coherent femtosecond soft x-ray radiation at gigawatts level with a very short undulator. PMID:26072855

  14. Particle-in-Cell Modeling of Laser-Plasma Interactions in Three Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Maximov, A. V.; Yan, R.; Li, J.; Ren, C.; Myatt, J. F.

    2014-10-01

    In the direct-drive method of inertial confinement fusion, the laser-plasma interactions (LPI's) near quarter-critical density are very important for laser absorption and fast-electron generation. Three-dimensional simulations with the particle-in-cell (PIC) code OSIRIS have allowed us to study different parametric instabilities including two-plasmon decay, stimulated Raman scattering, and stimulated Brillouin scattering. These instabilities may coexist and interact in the region near quarter-critical density. The spectra of forward-going and backward-going scattered light and fast electrons in two-dimensional and three-dimensional PIC simulations have been studied. Characteristics of LPI driven by a plane-wave laser and by an incoherent laser beam are compared. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  15. Anomalous self-generated electrostatic fields in nanosecond laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lancia, L.; Antici, P.; Grech, M.; Weber, S.; Marques, J.-R.; Romagnani, L.; Bourgeois, N.; Audebert, P.; Fuchs, J.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Bellue, A.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaie, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Grismayer, T.; Lin, T.; Nkonga, B.; Kodama, R.

    2011-03-15

    Electrostatic (E) fields associated with the interaction of a well-controlled, high-power, nanosecond laser pulse with an underdense plasma are diagnosed by proton radiography. Using a current three-dimensional wave propagation code equipped with nonlinear and nonlocal hydrodynamics, we can model the measured E-fields that are driven by the laser ponderomotive force in the region where the laser undergoes filamentation. However, strong fields of up to 110 MV/m measured in the first millimeter of propagation cannot be reproduced in the simulations. This could point to the presence of unexpected strong thermal electron pressure gradients possibly linked to ion acoustic turbulence, thus emphasizing the need for the development of full kinetic collisional simulations in order to properly model laser-plasma interaction in these strongly nonlinear conditions.

  16. Generation of thin, near critical density gas targets for laser plasma interaction experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi, Fatholah; Goers, Andy; Hine, George; Feder, Linus; Miao, Bo; Milchberg, Howard

    2015-11-01

    We present the design and characterization of a thin (200µm FWHM), high density pulsed gas jet which we use to study near critical and overcritical laser plasma interactions. We show that cryogenic cooling of the pulsed jet provides the necessary density enhancement for reaching overcritical plasma densities at 800 nm (> 1 . 7 × >102 1 cm-3) with pure hydrogen gas at plenum pressures below 1000 psi. Further, we present 2D and 3D PIC simulations showing the interaction of femtosecond pulses with our experimentally measured near critical gas density profile. The simulations show electron and ion acceleration at drive pulse energies as low as a few tens of millijoules. This work supported by DTRA and the US Department of Energy.

  17. Effect of relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities on stimulated Raman scattering in laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P.; Gupta, M. K.

    2006-11-15

    In this paper, the authors have investigated the effect of ultra-intense laser beam filaments on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in unmagnetized plasma when relativistic and ponderomotive nonlinearities are operative. First, the filamentary dynamics of laser beam is studied. In these structures, the plasma wave generation and associated SRS process are studied. The effect of filamentation on SRS back reflectivity has been studied in detail. For the typical laser plasma parameters, i.e., laser beam Nd:YAG ({lambda}=1064 nm), laser beam radius=15 {mu}m, laser power flux=6x10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}, electron density=1.9x10{sup 19} per cm{sup 3}, the SRS reflectivity reduces by a factor 2.5 due to ponderomotive effects.

  18. Annual Scientific Report for DE-FG03-02NA00063 Coherent imaging of laser-plasma interactions using XUV high harmonic radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Prof. Henry C. Kapteyn

    2005-05-03

    In this project, we use coherent short-wavelength light generated using high-order harmonic generation as a probe of laser-plasma dynamics and phase transitions on femtosecond time-scales. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with materials and plasmas is relevant to stockpile stewardship, to understanding the equation of state of matter at high pressures and temperatures, and to plasma concepts such as the fast-ignitor ICF fusion concept and laser-based particle acceleration. Femtosecond laser technology makes it possible to use a small-scale setup to generate 20fs pulses with average power >10W at multiple kHz repetition rates, that can be focused to intensities in excess of 1017W/cm2. These lasers can be used either to rapidly heat materials to initiate phase transitions, or to create laser plasmas over a wide parameter space. These lasers can also be used to generate fully spatially coherent XUV beams with which to probe these materials and plasma systems. We are in process of implementing imaging studies of plasma hydrodynamics and warm, dense matter. The data will be compared with simulation codes of laser-plasma interactions, making it possible to refine and validate these codes.

  19. Laser-plasma interactions with a Fourier-Bessel particle-in-cell method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, Igor A.; Lehe, Remi; Lifschitz, Agustin

    2016-03-01

    A new spectral particle-in-cell (PIC) method for plasma modeling is presented and discussed. In the proposed scheme, the Fourier-Bessel transform is used to translate the Maxwell equations to the quasi-cylindrical spectral domain. In this domain, the equations are solved analytically in time, and the spatial derivatives are approximated with high accuracy. In contrast to the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) methods, that are used commonly in PIC, the developed method does not produce numerical dispersion and does not involve grid staggering for the electric and magnetic fields. These features are especially valuable in modeling the wakefield acceleration of particles in plasmas. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the code PLARES-PIC, and the test simulations of laser plasma interactions are compared to the ones done with the quasi-cylindrical FDTD PIC code CALDER-CIRC.

  20. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave and generation of magnetic turbulence in laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Modi, K. V.; Tiwary, Prem Pyari; Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, R. P.; Satsangi, V. R.

    2014-10-15

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the magnetic turbulence in laser plasma interaction due to the nonlinear coupling of magnetosonic wave with ion acoustic wave in overdense plasma. For this study, dynamical equations of magnetosonic waves and the ion acoustic waves have been developed in the presence of ponderomotive force due to the pump magnetosonic wave. Slowly converging and diverging behavior has been studied semi-analytically, this results in the formation of filaments of the magnetosonic wave. Numerical simulation has also been carried out to study nonlinear stage. From the results, it has been found that the localized structures become quite complex in nature. Further, power spectrum has been studied. Results show that the spectral index follows (∼k{sup −2.0}) scaling at smaller scale. Relevance of the present investigation has been shown with the experimental observation.

  1. Analyses of laser-plasma interactions in National Ignition Facility ignition targets

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Langdon, A. B.; Langer, S. H.; Still, C. H.; Williams, E. A.

    2008-05-15

    A capability to analyze laser-plasma interactions (LPI) for ignition targets to be fielded at the National Ignition Facility has been developed and exercised. LPI in these targets may cause direct energy loss (backscatter) or energy redirection (beam spray, deflection, and energy transfer). These analyses range from analyzing the gain exponents for backscatter and beam spray to performing massively parallel, three-dimensional simulations of laser beam propagation in the most promising candidate ignition target designs. In the former assessment, ignition designs are iterated to reduce the gain exponent values. In the latter, beam propagation simulations are performed to analyze the reflectivity and beam transmission of speckled laser beams in the computed plasma profiles of the ignition targets. In current ignition designs, laser reflectivity is calculated to be well below 10%.

  2. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo

    2015-03-01

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ˜100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach.

  3. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-03-15

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach.

  4. Laser-plasma interaction in ignition relevant plasmas: benchmarking our 3D modelling capabilities versus recent experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Divol, L; Froula, D H; Meezan, N; Berger, R; London, R A; Michel, P; Glenzer, S H

    2007-09-27

    We have developed a new target platform to study Laser Plasma Interaction in ignition-relevant condition at the Omega laser facility (LLE/Rochester)[1]. By shooting an interaction beam along the axis of a gas-filled hohlraum heated by up to 17 kJ of heater beam energy, we were able to create a millimeter-scale underdense uniform plasma at electron temperatures above 3 keV. Extensive Thomson scattering measurements allowed us to benchmark our hydrodynamic simulations performed with HYDRA [1]. As a result of this effort, we can use with much confidence these simulations as input parameters for our LPI simulation code pF3d [2]. In this paper, we show that by using accurate hydrodynamic profiles and full three-dimensional simulations including a realistic modeling of the laser intensity pattern generated by various smoothing options, fluid LPI theory reproduces the SBS thresholds and absolute reflectivity values and the absence of measurable SRS. This good agreement was made possible by the recent increase in computing power routinely available for such simulations.

  5. The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin; Guo, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.

  6. The development of laser-plasma interaction program LAP3D on thousands of processors

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaoyan Hao, Liang; Liu, Zhanjun; Zheng, Chunyang; Li, Bin Guo, Hong

    2015-08-15

    Modeling laser-plasma interaction (LPI) processes in real-size experiments scale is recognized as a challenging task. For explorering the influence of various instabilities in LPI processes, a three-dimensional laser and plasma code (LAP3D) has been developed, which includes filamentation, stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBS), stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS), non-local heat transport and plasmas flow computation modules. In this program, a second-order upwind scheme is applied to solve the plasma equations which are represented by an Euler fluid model. Operator splitting method is used for solving the equations of the light wave propagation, where the Fast Fourier translation (FFT) is applied to compute the diffraction operator and the coordinate translations is used to solve the acoustic wave equation. The coupled terms of the different physics processes are computed by the second-order interpolations algorithm. In order to simulate the LPI processes in massively parallel computers well, several parallel techniques are used, such as the coupled parallel algorithm of FFT and fluid numerical computation, the load balance algorithm, and the data transfer algorithm. Now the phenomena of filamentation, SBS and SRS have been studied in low-density plasma successfully with LAP3D. Scalability of the program is demonstrated with a parallel efficiency above 50% on about ten thousand of processors.

  7. Spatio-temporal evolution of magnetosonic wave in the laser plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, R. P. Singh, Ram Kishor Sharma, Swati; Tiwary, Prem Pyari; Modi, K. V.; Satsangi, V. R.

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the transient response of nonlinear coupling between magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave in the overdense plasma. Filamentation of magnetosonic wave has been considered to be responsible for magnetic turbulence during the laser plasma interaction. The ion acoustic wave gets excited due to the ponderomotive force exerted by magnetosonic wave and this ion acoustic wave in turn generates perturbation in the background density in the form of spatial density harmonics. Numerical simulation has been carried out for dimensionless coupled equations of magnetosonic wave and ion acoustic wave; and the results show quite complex localized structures that grow with time. The power spectrum has also been studied which shows that the spectral index follows an approximate scaling of the order of ∼k{sup −2.4} at smaller scales. The data obtained from numerical simulation are used in semi analytical model to better understand the mechanism of nonlinear evolution of magnetosonic wave. The results indicate considerable randomness in the spatial structure of the magnetic field profile which gives sufficient indication of turbulence.

  8. Laser-plasma interactions in NIF-scale plasmas (HLP5 and HLP6)

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.; Berger, R.; Fernandez, J.

    1996-06-01

    The understanding of laser-plasma interactions in ignition-scale inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraum targets is important for the success of the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). The success of an indirect-drive ICF ignition experiment depends on the ability to predict and control the history and spatial distribution of the x-radiation produced by the laser beams that are absorbed by the inside of the hohlraum wall. Only by controlling the symmetry of this x-ray drive is it possible to obtain the implosion symmetry in the fusion pellet necessary for ignition. The larger hohlraums and longer time scales required for ignition-scale targets result in the presence of several millimeters of plasma (electron density n{sub e} {approximately} 0.1 n{sub c} {approximately} 10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3}), through which the 3{omega} (351-nm) laser beams must propagate before they are absorbed at the hohlraum wall. Hydrodynamic simulations show this plasma to be very uniform [density-gradient scalelength L{sub n} = n{sub e}(dn{sub e}/dx){sup {minus}1}{approximately} 2mm] and to exhibit low velocity gradients [velocity-gradient scale-length L{sub v} = c{sub s}(dv/dx){sup {minus}1} > 6 mm].

  9. On the electrodynamic model of ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions caused by radiation reaction effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bashinov, A. V.; Kim, A. V.; University of Nizhny Novgorod, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod

    2013-11-15

    A simple electrodynamic model is developed to define plasma-field structures in self-consistent ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interactions when the radiation reaction effects come into play. An exact analysis of a circularly polarized laser interacting with plasmas is presented. We define fundamental notions, such as nonlinear dielectric permittivity, ponderomotive and dissipative forces acting in a plasma. Plasma-field structures arising during the ultra-relativisitc interactions are also calculated. Based on these solutions, we show that about 50% of laser energy can be converted into gamma-rays in the optimal conditions of laser-foil interaction.

  10. Katherine E. Weimer Award Talk: Instabilities and magnetic reconnection in space plasma and the physics of laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lin

    2008-11-01

    First-principles, kinetic simulations are invaluable for understanding nonlinear plasma physics in a diverse range of complex systems ranging from magnetic reconnection in space and astrophysics to laser plasma interactions in both long- and short-pulse regimes. Employing the state-of-the-art particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code VPIC, with and without Coulomb collisions, to conduct three-dimensional simulations at unprecedented scales on the world's most powerful supercomputers, we address three outstanding problems. First, magnetic reconnection in electron-positron plasmas involves a complex interaction of tearing and kink modes. The diffusion region tends to elongate in the outflow direction and become unstable to secondary kinking and formation of ``plasmoid-rope'' structures. These secondary instabilities determine the time-dependent nature of reconnection. Second, backward stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in a laser speckle involves two intricate electron plasma wave behaviors, wavefront bending and self-focusing, caused by trapped electron nonlinear frequency shift and amplitude-dependent damping. Self-focusing exhibits loss of angular coherence by formation of a filament necklace and leads to a reduction of electron plasma wave coherence. The latter reduces source coherence for backscattered light and increases damping, which fundamentally limits how much backscatter can occur from a laser speckle. Finally, we show how GeV ion beams can be generated via the interaction of ultra-intense short-pulse lasers with solid-density targets. This ``Break-out Afterburner'' mechanism promises to enable development of ultra-compact GeV ion beam sources. (Collaborators: B. J. Albright, B. Bergen, K. J. Bowers, W. Daughton, J. C. Fernandez. K. A. Flippo, B. M. Hegelich, J. Kline, T. Kwan, D. Montgomery, H. Rose, and D. Winske)

  11. Ion Acceleration by Laser Plasma Interaction from Cryogenic Micro Jets - Oral Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Propp, Adrienne

    2015-08-25

    Processes that occur in extreme conditions, such as in the center of stars and large planets, can be simulated in the laboratory using facilities such as SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Jupiter Laser Facility (JLF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These facilities allow scientists to investigate the properties of matter by observing their interactions with high power lasers. Ion acceleration from laser plasma interaction is gaining greater attention today due to its widespread potential applications, including proton beam cancer therapy and fast ignition for energy production. Typically, ion acceleration is achieved by focusing a high power laser on thin foil targets through a mechanism called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration. Based on research and recent experiments, we hypothesized that a pure liquid cryogenic jet would be an ideal target for this type of interaction, capable of producing the highest proton energies possible with today’s laser technologies. Furthermore, it would provide a continuous, pure target, unlike metal foils which are consumed in the interaction and easily contaminated. In an effort to test this hypothesis and investigate new, potentially more efficient mechanisms of ion acceleration, we used the 527 nm split beam, frequency-doubled TITAN laser at JLF. Data from the cryogenic jets was limited due to the flow of current up the jet into the nozzle during the interaction, heating the jet and damaging the orifice. However, we acheived a pure proton beam with an indiciation of a monoenergetic feature. Furthermore, data from gold and carbon wires showed surprising and interesting results. Preliminary analysis of data from two ion emission diagnostics, Thomson parabola spectrometers (TPs) and radio chromic films (RCFs), suggests that shockwave acceleration occurred rather than target normal sheath acceleration, the standard mechanism of ion acceleration. Upon completion of the experiment at TITAN, I researched the

  12. X-ray optics for laser-plasma sources: Aplications of intense SXR and EUV radiation pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk; Jarocki, Roman; Kostecki, Jerzy; Szczurek, Anna; Szczurek, Miroslaw; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Pina, Ladislav

    2012-05-17

    In this work we present a short review of SXR and EUV optics that have been designed and developed for experiments concerning material processing and imaging, using a laser-plasma radiation source based on a gas puff target. Three different kinds of mirrors employed as the EUV collectors are presented: the grazing incidence axisymmetrical ellipsoidal mirror, the grazing incidence multifoil mirror, and the ellipsoidal mirror with Mo/Si multilayer coating. Experiments concerning characterization of the mirrors were performed using EUV radiation from Kr or Xe plasmas produced in a double stream gas puff target irradiated with Nd:YAG laser pulses (4ns, 0.8 J, 10 Hz). Intensity of the focused radiation was sufficient for micromachining of organic polymers and surface modification of organic and inorganic solids. Different kinds of micro-and nanostructures created in near-surface layers of different kinds polymers were obtained. Significant differences were revealed in XPS spectra acquired for irradiated and not irradiated polymers.

  13. Integrated kinetic simulation of laser-plasma interactions, fast-electron generation, and transport in fast ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, A. J.; Cohen, B. I.; Divol, L.

    2010-05-15

    We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale using a new approach that combines a three-dimensional collisional electromagnetic particle-in-cell code with a magnetohydrodynamic-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves, and an Ohm's law with electron inertia effects neglected determines the electric field. In addition to yielding orders of magnitude in speed-up while avoiding numerical instabilities, this allows us to model the whole problem in a single unified framework: the laser-plasma interaction at subcritical densities, energy deposition at relativistic critical densities, and fast- electron transport in solid densities. Key questions such as the multipicosecond temporal evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction, and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport will be addressed. We will report applications to current experiments.

  14. Integrated Kinetic Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interactions, Fast-Electron Generation and Transport in Fast Ignition

    SciTech Connect

    Kemp, A; Cohen, B; Divol, L

    2009-11-16

    We present new results on the physics of short-pulse laser-matter interaction of kilojoule-picosecond pulses at full spatial and temporal scale, using a new approach that combines a 3D collisional electromagnetic Particle-in-Cell code with an MHD-hybrid model of high-density plasma. In the latter, collisions damp out plasma waves, and an Ohm's law with electron inertia effects neglected determines the electric field. In addition to yielding orders of magnitude in speed-up while avoiding numerical instabilities, this allows us to model the whole problem in a single unified framework: the laser-plasma interaction at sub-critical densities, energy deposition at relativistic critical densities, and fast-electron transport in solid densities. Key questions such as the multi-picosecond temporal evolution of the laser energy conversion into hot electrons, the impact of return currents on the laser-plasma interaction, and the effect of self-generated electric and magnetic fields on electron transport will be addressed. We will report applications to current experiments.

  15. Using time-integrated K{sub {alpha}} images to study refluxing and the extent of pre-plasmas in intense laser-plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, V. M.; Schumacher, D. W.; Kemp, G. E.; Krygier, A. G.; Van Woerkom, L. D.; Akli, K. U.; Freeman, R. R.; Stephens, R. B.; Link, A.

    2011-11-15

    We report the results of an experimental and numerical modeling study of the formation of time-integrated K{sub {alpha}} images by electrons excited during an intense laser-plasma interaction. We report the use of the spatial structure of time-integrated K{sub {alpha}} images to quantitatively characterize the pre-plasma profile near the critical surface and to verify the near elimination of back-surface refluxing from targets when a thick layer of a low-Z material is attached to the back. The time integrated K{sub {alpha}} images are found to be sensitive to the relative separation between the critical surface and the bulk target, permitting a single parameter exponential pre-plasma scale length to be determined by fitting to experimental results. The refluxed electrons affect different parts of the K{sub {alpha}} images in a manner that varies depending on the location of the refluxing. We use these properties to characterize refluxing also by fitting to experimental results. Experiments were performed using the Titan laser at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the simulations used a customized version of the hybrid-PIC code, LSP. We find good quantitative match between experiment and simulation.

  16. Scaling laws for collisionless laser-plasma interactions of relevance for laboratory astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D D; Rermington, B A

    2006-04-04

    Scaling laws for interaction of ultra-intense laser beams with a collisionless plasmas are discussed. Special attention is paid to the problem of the collective ion acceleration. Symmetry arguments in application to the generation of the poloidal magnetic field are presented. A heuristic model for evaluating the magnetic field strength is proposed.

  17. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Direct ignition of inertial fusion targets by a laser-plasma ion stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, Sergei Yu

    2001-10-01

    This paper outlines the theoretical direct-ignition model of the pre-compressed thermonuclear material of an inertial fusion target under the action of a high-power pulse of light ions from a laser plasma. It is shown that plasma streams with parameters required for the ignition can be obtained from a plane target-generator, located separately from the fusion target upon its fast thermal explosion driven by a high-power laser pulse. This method of direct ignition implies the use of a fusion target whose design provides the supply of the igniting driver energy to the compressed thermonuclear material. This target may be a cylindrical target with partially open ends or a spherical target with one or two conic openings.

  18. Generation of narrow divergence electron beams in relativistic laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, H.; Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Vranic, M.; Silva, L. O.; Borghesi, M.; Doria, D.; Kar, Satya; Sarri, G.; Heathcote, R.; Scott, R.; Trines, R.; Guillaume, E.; Higson, E.; Swain, J.; Tang, K.; Weston, J.; Zak, P.; Tanaka, K. A.; Amano, Y.; Habara, H.; Skramic, M.; Bingham, B.; Norreys, P. A.

    2013-10-01

    The evacuation of plasma from channels formed during the interaction of intense laser pulses with under-dense plasma is attractive for a number of applications, particularly fast ignition inertial fusion. We investigated the channel formation using proton radiography as the diagnostic tool. We observed the interactions of ultra-intense laser pulse (120 J/ 15 ps/ 1053 nm) with a large scale-length plasma which was formed by the expansion of a plastic foil target by preheating with a laser pulse comprising 200 J/ 1 ns/ 527 nm, focused to 400-diameter. This experiment was set-up to mimic the coronal plasma experienced during the compression phase of a directly driven implosion. The results showed that laser-induced electron beam were guided by self-generated magnetic field. JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowships for Research Abroad.

  19. Three-Dimensional Modeling of Laser-Plasma Interactions Near the Quarter-Critical Density in Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, H.; Maximov, A. V.; Yan, R.; Ren, C.; Li, J.; Myatt, J. F.

    2015-11-01

    Three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in the plasma region near quarter-critical density for the parameters typical for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments. The laser-plasma instabilities of two-plasmon decay (TPD), stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), and stimulated Brillouin scattering have been identified in the time evolution of different electric- and magnetic-field components. A good agreement between the simulation results and the theories of TPD and SRS has been observed. In the nonlinear saturation regime, the field intensities and the fast-electron distributions are compared for plane-wave and speckled laser beams. The effects of collisions are studied. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Design and characterization of supersonic nozzles for wide focus laser-plasma interactions.

    PubMed

    Lemos, N; Lopes, N; Dias, J M; Viola, F

    2009-10-01

    In this work we optimize the contour of supersonic nozzles to produce long and stable gas jets suitable to be used in loose focus laser-plasma applications. The nozzle design method takes into account the inclusion of a boundary layer that increases the length of the usable gas jet. Two 8 mm supersonic nozzles were characterized, one with a Mach number of 3 and another with a Mach number of 6, using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer performed with a He:Ne 4 cm expanded laser beam. The experimental results confirm that the inclusion of the boundary layer produces an 8 mm constant longitudinal density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 6 (NM6) and a 4.5 mm constant longitudinal density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 3 (NM3). PMID:19895054

  1. Design and characterization of supersonic nozzles for wide focus laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lemos, N.; Lopes, N.; Dias, J. M.

    2009-10-15

    In this work we optimize the contour of supersonic nozzles to produce long and stable gas jets suitable to be used in loose focus laser-plasma applications. The nozzle design method takes into account the inclusion of a boundary layer that increases the length of the usable gas jet. Two 8 mm supersonic nozzles were characterized, one with a Mach number of 3 and another with a Mach number of 6, using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer performed with a He:Ne 4 cm expanded laser beam. The experimental results confirm that the inclusion of the boundary layer produces an 8 mm constant longitudinal density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 6 (NM6) and a 4.5 mm constant longitudinal density profile for the nozzle with a Mach number of 3 (NM3).

  2. A scalable high-energy diode-pumped solid state laser for laser-plasma interaction science and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vido, M.; Ertel, K.; Mason, P. D.; Banerjee, S.; Phillips, P. J.; Butcher, T. J.; Smith, J. M.; Shaikh, W.; Hernandez-Gomes, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Collier, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Laser systems efficiently generating nanosecond pules at kJ energy levels and at multi-Hz repetition rates are required in order to translate laser-plasma interactions into practical applications. We have developed a scalable, actively-cooled diode-pumped solid state laser amplifier design based on a multi-slab ceramic Yb:YAG architecture called DiPOLE (Diode-Pumped Optical Laser for Experiments) capable of meeting such requirements. We demonstrated 10.8 J, 10 Hz operation at 1030 nm using a scaled-down prototype, reaching an optical-to-optical efficiency of 22.5%. Preliminary results from a larger scale version, delivering 100 J pulse energy at 10 Hz, are also presented.

  3. Beaming of High-Order Harmonics Generated from Laser-Plasma Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeung, M.; Dromey, B.; Adams, D.; Cousens, S.; Hörlein, R.; Nomura, Y.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Zepf, M.

    2013-04-01

    Beam divergences of high-order extreme ultraviolet harmonics from intense laser interactions with steep plasma density gradients are studied through experiment and Fourier analysis of the harmonic spatial phase. We show that while emission due to the relativistically oscillating mirror mechanism can be explained by ponderomotive surface denting, in agreement with previous results, the divergence of the emission due to the coherent wake emission mechanism requires a combination of the dent phase and an intrinsic emission phase. The temporal dependence of the divergences for both mechanisms is highlighted while it is also shown that the coherent wake emission divergence can be small in circumstances where the phase terms compensate each other.

  4. Laser-generated proton bunches from chirped laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galow, Benjamin; Salamin, Yousef; Liseykina, Tatyana; Harman, Zoltan; Li, Jian-Xing; Keitel, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    Detailed single- and many-particle calculations are carried out for the acceleration of protons employing linearly-polarized plane-wave and tightly-focused chirped laser pulses of several ten to several hundred femtosecond durations, petawatt peak powers and relativistic peak intensities of the order of 10^21-10^22 W/cm^2 [1,2]. Analytic and numerical methods of calculation are used in the single-particle cases (in vacuum), and particle-in-cell (pic) simulations (under-dense plasma) are employed in the many-particle investigations, without and with electromagnetic particle-particle interactions, respectively. Feasibility of generating ultra-intense (10^7 particles per bunch) and phase-space collimated beams of protons is demonstrated. Interaction of the protons with the quasi-static part of the laser pulse allows the particles to gain sufficient kinetic energy (around 250 MeV) required for such applications as hadron cancer therapy.[4pt] [1] B. J. Galow, Y. I. Salamin, T. V. Liseykina, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 185002 (2011)[0pt] [2] Y. I. Salamin, J.-X. Li, B. J. Galow, Z. Harman, and C. H. Keitel, submitted (2012)

  5. Laser-Plasma Interactions on NIKE and the Fusion Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Lee; Weaver, James

    2008-11-01

    Recent proposed designs for a Fusion Test Facility (FTF) (Obenchain et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056320 (2006)) for direct-drive ICF targets for energy applications involve high implosion velocities combined with higher laser irradiances. The use of high irradiances increases the likelihood of deleterious laser plasma instabilities (LPI) but the proposed use of a 248 nm KrF laser to drive these targets is expected to minimize the LPI risk. We examine, using simulation results from NRL's FAST hydrocode, the proposed operational regimes of the FTF in relation to the thresholds for the SRS, SBS, and 2-plasmon instabilities. Simulations are also used to help design and interpret ongoing experiments being conducted at NRL's NIKE facility for the purpose of generating and studying LPI. Target geometries and laser pulseshapes were devised in order to create plasma conditions with long scalelengths and low electron temperatures that allow the growth of parametric instabilities. These simulations include the effects of finite beam angles through the use of raytracing.

  6. MHD simulations of magnetized laser-plasma interaction for laboratory astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiar, Benjamin; Ciardi, Andrea; Vinci, Tommaso; Revet, Guilhem; Fuchs, Julien; Higginson, Drew

    2015-11-01

    Laser-driven plasmas coupled with externally applied strong, steady-state, magnetic fields have applications that range from ICF to astrophysical studies of jet collimation, accretion shock dynamics in young stars and streaming instabilities in space plasmas. We have recently included the modelling of laser energy deposition in our three-dimensional, resistive two-temperature MHD code GORGON. The model assumes linear inverse-bremsstrahlung absorption and the laser propagation is done in the geometrical optics approximation. We present full scale numerical simulations of actual experiments performed on the ELFIE installation at LULI, including plasma generated from single and multiple laser plasmas embedded in a magnetic field of strength up to 20 T, and experiments and astrophysical simulations that have shown the viability of poloidal magnetic fields to directly result in the collimation of outflows and the formation of jets in astrophysical accreting systems, such as in young stellar objects. The authors acknowledge the support from the Ile-de-France DIM ACAV, from the LABEX Plas@par and from the ANR grant SILAMPA.

  7. Laser-driven three-stage heavy-ion acceleration from relativistic laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Lin, C; Liu, B; Sheng, Z M; Lu, H Y; Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Schreiber, J; He, X T; Chen, J E; Zepf, M; Yan, X Q

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage heavy ion acceleration scheme for generation of high-energy quasimonoenergetic heavy ion beams is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling. The scheme is based on the interaction of an intense linearly polarized laser pulse with a compound two-layer target (a front heavy ion layer + a second light ion layer). We identify that, under appropriate conditions, the heavy ions preaccelerated by a two-stage acceleration process in the front layer can be injected into the light ion shock wave in the second layer for a further third-stage acceleration. These injected heavy ions are not influenced by the screening effect from the light ions, and an isolated high-energy heavy ion beam with relatively low-energy spread is thus formed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that ∼100MeV/u quasimonoenergetic Fe24+ beams can be obtained by linearly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 1.1×1021W/cm2. PMID:24580346

  8. MULTI-fs - A computer code for laser-plasma interaction in the femtosecond regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramis, R.; Eidmann, K.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Hüller, S.

    2012-03-01

    The code MULTI-fs is a numerical tool devoted to the study of the interaction of ultrashort sub-picosecond laser pulses with matter in the intensity range from 10 11 to 10 17 W cm -2. Hydrodynamics is solved in one-dimensional geometry together with laser energy deposition and transport by thermal conduction and radiation. In contrast to long nanosecond pulses, short pulses generate steep gradient plasmas with typical scale lengths in the order of the laser wavelength and smaller. Under these conditions, Maxwell's equations are solved explicitly to obtain the light field. Concerning laser absorption, two different models for the electron-ion collision frequency are implemented to cover the regime of warm dense matter between high-temperature plasma and solid matter and also interaction with short-wave-length (VUV) light. MULTI-fs code is based on the MULTI radiation-hydrodynamic code [R. Ramis, R. Schmalz, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Comp. Phys. Comm. 49 (1988) 475] and most of the original features for the treatment of radiation are maintained. Program summaryProgram title: MULTI-fs Catalogue identifier: AEKT_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKT_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 49 598 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 443 771 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN Computer: PC (32 bits and 64 bits architecture) Operating system: Linux/Unix RAM: 1.6 MiB Classification: 19.13, 21.2 Subprograms used: Cat Id: AECV_v1_0; Title: MULTI2D; Reference: CPC 180 (2009) 977 Nature of problem: One-dimensional interaction of intense ultrashort (sub-picosecond) and ultraintense (up to 10 17 W cm -2) laser beams with matter. Solution method: The hydrodynamic motion coupled to laser propagation and

  9. Neutron production by fast protons from ultraintense laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.M.; McKenna, P.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; McCanny, T.; Robson, L.; Shimizu, S.; Singhal, R.P.; Wei, M.S.; Krushelnick, K.; Clarke, R.J.; Neely, D.; Norreys, P.A.

    2004-12-01

    Tens of MeV proton beams have been generated by interactions of the VULCAN petawatt laser with foil targets and used to induce nuclear reactions in zinc and boron samples. The numbers of {sup 11}C, {sup 66}Ga, {sup 67}Ga, {sup 68}Ga, {sup 61}Cu, {sup 62}Zn, {sup 63}Zn, and {sup 69m}Zn nuclei have been measured and used to determine the proton energy spectrum. It is known that (p,n) reactions provide an important method for producing neutron sources and in the present experiment up to {approx}10{sup 9} neutrons sr{sup -1} have been generated via {sup 11}B(p,n){sup 11}C reactions. Using experimentally determined proton energy spectra, the production of neutrons via (p,n) reactions in various targets has been simulated, to quantify neutron pulse intensities and energy spectra. It has been shown that as high as 4x10{sup 9} neutrons sr{sup -1} per laser pulse can be generated via {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}B reactions using the present VULCAN petawatt laser-pulse conditions.

  10. Ultra-relativistic ion acceleration in the laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Yongsheng; Wang Naiyan; Tang Xiuzhang; Shi Yijin; Xueqing Yan

    2012-09-15

    An analytical relativistic model is proposed to describe the relativistic ion acceleration in the interaction of ultra-intense laser pulses with thin-foil plasmas. It is found that there is a critical value of the ion momentum to make sure that the ions are trapped by the light sail and accelerated in the radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) region. If the initial ion momentum is smaller than the critical value, that is in the classical case of RPA, the potential has a deep well and traps the ions to be accelerated, as the same described before by simulation results [Eliasson et al., New J. Phys. 11, 073006 (2009)]. There is a new ion acceleration region different from RPA, called ultra-relativistic acceleration, if the ion momentum exceeds the critical value. In this case, ions will experience a potential downhill. The dependence of the ion momentum and the self-similar variable at the ion front on the acceleration time has been obtained. In the ultra-relativistic limit, the ion momentum at the ion front is proportional to t{sup 4/5}, where t is the acceleration time. In our analytical hydrodynamical model, it is naturally predicted that the ion distribution from RPA is not monoenergetic, although the phase-stable acceleration mechanism is effective. The critical conditions of the laser and plasma parameters which identify the two acceleration modes have been achieved.

  11. Laser Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malka, Victor

    The continuing development of powerful laser systems has permitted to extend the interaction of laser beams with matter far into the relativistic domain, and to demonstrate new approaches for producing energetic particle beams. The extremely large electric fields, with amplitudes exceeding the TV/m level, that are produced in plasma medium are of relevance particle acceleration. Since the value of this longitudinal electric field, 10,000 times larger than those produced in conventional radio-frequency cavities, plasma accelerators appear to be very promising for the development of compact accelerators. The incredible progresses in the understanding of laser plasma interaction physic, allows an excellent control of electron injection and acceleration. Thanks to these recent achievements, laser plasma accelerators deliver today high quality beams of energetic radiation and particles. These beams have a number of interesting properties such as shortness, brightness and spatial quality, and could lend themselves to applications in many fields, including medicine, radio-biology, chemistry, physics and material science,security (material inspection), and of course in accelerator science.

  12. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  13. Energy partition, γ-ray emission, and radiation reaction in the near-quantum electrodynamical regime of laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, L. L.; Pukhov, A.; Nerush, E. N.; Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Shen, B. F.; Akli, K. U.

    2014-02-15

    When extremely intense lasers (I ≥ 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}) interact with plasmas, a significant fraction of the pulse energy is converted into photon emission in the multi-MeV energy range. This emission results in a radiation reaction (RR) force on electrons, which becomes important at ultrahigh intensities. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations which include a quantum electrodynamics model for the γ–photons emission, the corresponding RR force and electron-positron pair creation, the energy partition in the laser-plasma system is investigated. At sufficiently high laser amplitudes, the fraction of laser energy coupled to electrons decreases, while the energy converted to γ-photons increases. The interaction becomes an efficient source of γ-rays when I > 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2}, with up to 40% of the laser energy converted to high-energy photons. A systematic study of energy partition and γ-photon emission angle shows the influence of laser intensity and polarization for two plasma conditions: high-density carbon targets and a low-density hydrogen targets. We find that in the opaque region, the laser-to-photon conversion efficiency scales as I{sub 0}{sup 3/2} for linearly polarized and I{sub 0}{sup 2−2.5} for circularly polarized lasers, respectively. In the relativistically transparent regime, the power-laws merge into I{sub 0}{sup 1/2} for both polarizations and photon emission peaks in the forward direction with a relatively small divergence angle (<20°), resulting in a collimated γ-ray beam.

  14. The impact of laser plasma interactions on three-dimensional drive symmetry in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J. L. Michel, P.; Thomas, C. A.; Town, R. P. J.

    2014-07-15

    Achieving symmetric hohlraum radiation drive is an important aspect of indirectly driven inertial confinement fusion experiments. However, when experimentally delivered laser powers deviate from ideal conditions, the resultant radiation field can become asymmetric. Two situations in which this may arise are random uncorrelated fluctuations, in as-delivered laser power and laser beams that do not participate in the implosion (either intentionally or unintentionally). Furthermore, laser plasma interactions in the hohlraum obfuscate the connection between laser powers and radiation drive. To study the effect of these situations on drive symmetry, we develop a simplified model for crossed-beam energy transfer, laser backscatter, and plasma absorption that can be used in conjunction with view factor calculations to expediently translate laser powers into three-dimensional capsule flux symmetries. We find that crossed-beam energy transfer can alter both the statistical properties of uncorrelated laser fluctuations and the impact of missing laser beams on radiation symmetry. A method is proposed to mitigate the effects of missing laser beams.

  15. High quality electron bunch generation with CO{sub 2}-laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei E-mail: jcxu@siom.ac.cn; Xu, Jiancai E-mail: jcxu@siom.ac.cn; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-02-15

    CO{sub 2} laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO{sub 2} laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO{sub 2}-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  16. High quality electron bunch generation with CO2-laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lingang; Shen, Baifei; Xu, Jiancai; Ji, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Wang, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xueyan; Yi, Longqing; Yu, Yahong; Shi, Yin; Xu, Tongjun; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-02-01

    CO2 laser-driven electron acceleration in low-density plasma is demonstrated using particle-in-cell simulation. An intense CO2 laser pulse of long wavelength excites a wake bubble that has a large elongated volume for accelerating a large number of electrons before reaching the charge saturation limit. A transversely injected laser pulse is used to induce and control the electron injection. It is found that an electron bunch with total charge up to 10 nC and absolute energy spread less than 16 MeV can be obtained. As a result, the charge per energy interval of the bunch reaches up to 0.6 nC/MeV. Intense CO2-laser based electron acceleration can provide a new direction for generating highly charged electron bunches with low energy spread, which is of much current interest, especially for table-top X-ray generation.

  17. Suppression of stochastic pulsation in laser-plasma interaction by smoothing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hora, Heinrich; Aydin, Meral

    1992-04-01

    The control of the very complex behavior of a plasma with laser interaction by smoothing with induced spatial incoherence or other methods was related to improving the lateral uniformity of the irradiation. While this is important, it is shown from numerical hydrodynamic studies that the very strong temporal pulsation (stuttering) will mostly be suppressed by these smoothing methods too.

  18. Suppression of stochastic pulsation in laser-plasma interaction by smoothing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Hora, H. ); Aydin, M. )

    1992-04-15

    The control of the very complex behavior of a plasma with laser interaction by smoothing with induced spatial incoherence or other methods was related to improving the lateral uniformity of the irradiation. While this is important, it is shown from numerical hydrodynamic studies that the very strong temporal pulsation (stuttering) will mostly be suppressed by these smoothing methods too.

  19. Detection of surface changes of materials caused by intense irradiation with laser-plasma EUV source utilizing scattered or luminescent radiation excited with the EUV pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartnik, A.; Fiedorowicz, H.; Jarocki, R.; Kostecki, J.; Rakowski, R.; Szczurek, M.

    2008-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation is absorbed in a thin surface layer of any material. Irradiation of material samples with intense EUV pulses may cause different surface changes. Some of them, especially connected with material desorption, can be clearly visible using an optical or electron microscope. Other changes concerning crystal structure or chemical composition may not be visible under the microscope. They can however be detected using the EUV radiation itself. In this paper a new method of measurement of surface changes by irradiation with a laser-plasma EUV source is presented. The radiation was collected and focused on a material surface using a specially designed multifoil collector. Radiation scattered or excited in the material was detected with the use of a Wolter-type mirror coupled to a back-illuminated CCD camera. Depending on material samples, images with different intensity distributions were registered. For some samples, the intensity distributions of the images obtained before and after irradiation were slightly different. The intensity differences in such cases allowed us to obtain differential images. The appearance of such images was assumed to be evidence of surface changes.

  20. Modeling of imaging diagnostics for laser plasma interaction experiments with the code PARAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, K.; Riazuelo, G.; Labaune, C.

    2005-09-01

    We have developed a diagnostic simulation tool for the code PARAX to interpret recent measurements of far-field images of the laser light transmitted through a preformed plasma. This includes the complete treatment of the propagation of the light coming from a well-defined region of plasma through the rest of the plasma and all the optics of the imaging system. We have modeled the whole light path, as well as the spatio-temporal integration of the instruments, and the limited collecting aperture for the light emerging out of the plasma. The convolution of computed magnitudes with the plasma and diagnostics transfer functions is indispensable to enable the comparison between experiments and simulations. This tool is essential in the study of the propagation of intense laser beams in plasma media.

  1. High efficiency proton beam generation through target thickness control in femtosecond laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J. S. Robinson, A. P. L.; Booth, N.; Carroll, D. C.; Rusby, D.; Wilson, L.; Dance, R. J.; Gray, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; McKenna, P.; Murphy, C. D.

    2014-05-26

    Bright proton beams with maximum energies of up to 30 MeV have been observed in an experiment investigating ion sheath acceleration driven by a short pulse (<50 fs) laser. The scaling of maximum proton energy and total beam energy content at ultra-high intensities of ∼10{sup 21} W cm{sup −2} was investigated, with the interplay between target thickness and laser pre-pulse found to be a key factor. While the maximum proton energies observed were maximised for μm-thick targets, the total proton energy content was seen to peak for thinner, 500 nm, foils. The total proton beam energy reached up to 440 mJ (a conversion efficiency of 4%), marking a significant step forward for many laser-driven ion applications. The experimental results are supported by hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations.

  2. Theoretical foundations of detection of terahertz radiation in laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A. A.

    2013-02-15

    A theory is developed enabling one to calculate the temporal profile and spectrum of a terahertz wave packet from the energy of the second harmonic of optical radiation generated during the nonlinear interaction between terahertz and circularly polarized laser pulses in the skin layer of an overdense plasma. It is shown that the spectral and temporal characteristics of the envelope of the second harmonic of optical radiation coincide with those of the terahertz pulse only at small durations of the detecting laser radiation. For long laser pulses, the temporal profile and spectrum of the second harmonic are mainly determined by the characteristics of optical radiation at the carrier frequency.

  3. Optimization of some laser and target features for laser-plasma interaction in the context of fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depierreux, S.; Labaune, C.; Michel, D. T.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.; Tassin, V.; Stenz, C.; Borisenko, N. G.; Nazarov, W.; Grech, M.; Hüller, S.; Limpouch, J.; Loiseau, P.; Nicolaï, P.; Pesme, D.; Rozmus, W.; Meyer, C.; D-Nicola, P.; Wrobel, R.; Alozy, E.; Romary, P.; Thiell, G.; Soullié, G.; Reverdin, C.; Villette, B.; Rabec-le-Gloahec, M.; Godinho, C.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents experimental results obtained at LULI 2000 and LIL about (i) the compared laser plasma coupling at 526 (2ω) and 351 nm (3ω) and (ii) the early laser imprint suppression using foam targets as plasma smoother of the laser beam. Both experiments are described, part of the experimental results are presented and discussed.

  4. Direct spectroscopic observation of ion deceleration accompanying laser plasma-wall interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renner, O.; Krouský, E.; Liska, R.; Šmíd, M.; Larroche, O.; Dalimier, E.; Rosmej, F. B.

    2010-08-01

    Interactions of plasma jets with solid surfaces are extensively studied in context with development of future fusion devices. In experiments carried out on the iodine laser system PALS, the energetic ions were produced at double-foil Al/Mg targets irradiated by one or two counter-propagating laser beams. The plasma jets from the rear surface of the laser-exploded Al foil streamed towards the Mg target representing the wall preheated by the action of the high-energy photons, particle and/or laser beams. Instead of being trapped by the cold secondary-target material, the forward-accelerated Al ions collided with the counter-propagating matter ejected from the wall. The environmental conditions in near-wall plasmas were analyzed with the high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy and temporally-resolved x-ray imaging. The deceleration of the incident Al ions in the near-wall region was directly observed and quantitatively characterized via Doppler shifts of the J-satellite from the Al Lya spectral group. The interaction scenario was modelled using the 2D arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian hydrocode PALE and the multifluid code MULTIF.

  5. A four-color beam smoothing irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments at LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Eimerl, D.; Ehrlich, R.B.; Laumann, C.W.; Miller, J.L.

    1995-06-26

    A novel four-color beam smoothing scheme with a capability similar to that planned for the proposed National Ignition Facility has been deployed on the Nova laser, and has been successfully used for laser fusion experiments. Wavefront aberrations in high power laser systems produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot that can significantly degrade the coupling of the energy into a fusion target, driving various plasma instabilities. The introduction of temporal and spatial incoherence over the face of the beam using techniques such as smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) can reduce these variation in the focal irradiance when averaged over a finite time interval. We developed a multiple frequency source that is spatially separated into four quadrants, each containing a different central frequency. Each quadrant is independently converted to the third harmonic in a four-segment Type I/ Type II KDP crystal array with independent phase-matching for efficient frequency conversion. Up to 2.3 kJ of third harmonic light is generated in a 1 ns pulse, corresponding to up to 65% conversion efficiency. SSD is implemented by adding limited frequency modulated bandwidth to each frequency component. Smoothing by spectral dispersion is implemented during the spatial separation of the FM modulated beams to provide additional smoothing, reaching a 16% rms intensity variation level. The four- color system was successfully used to probe NIF-like plasmas, producing {lt} 1% SBS backscatter at {gt} 2x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. This paper discusses the detailed implementation and performance of the segmented four-color system on the Nova laser system.

  6. Laser-Plasma Interactions in Drive Campaign targets on the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Moody, J. D.; Amendt, P. A.; Lasinski, B. F.; MacGowan, B. J.; Meeker, D.; Michel, P. A.; Ralph, J.; Rosen, M. D.; Ross, J. S.; Schneider, M. B.; Storm, E.; Strozzi, D. J.; Williams, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    The Drive campaign [D A Callahan et al., this conference] on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] has the focused goal of understanding and optimizing the hohlraum for ignition. Both the temperature and symmetry of the radiation drive depend on laser and hohlraum characteristics. The drive temperature depends on the coupling of laser energy to the hohlraum, and the symmetry of the drive depends on beam-to-beam interactions that result in energy transfer [P. A. Michel, S. H. Glenzer, L. Divol, et al, Phys. Plasmas 17, 056305 (2010).] within the hohlraum. To this end, hohlraums are being fielded where shape (rugby vs. cylindrical hohlraums), gas fill composition (neopentane at room temperature vs. cryogenic helium), and gas fill density (increase of ∼ 150%) are independently changed. Cylindrical hohlraums with higher gas fill density show improved inner beam propagation, as should rugby hohlraums, because of the larger radius over the capsule (7 mm vs. 5.75 mm in a cylindrical hohlraum). Energy coupling improves in room temperature neopentane targets, as well as in hohlraums at higher gas fill density. In addition cross-beam energy transfer is being addressed directly by using targets that mock up one end of a hohlraum, but allow observation of the laser beam uniformity after energy transfer. Ideas such as splitting quads into “doublets” by re-pointing the right and left half of quads are also being pursued. LPI results of the Drive campaign will be summarized, and analyses of future directions presented.

  7. Four-color laser irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B.

    1996-06-01

    Since 1986, optical smoothing of the laser irradiance on targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has gained increasing attention. Optical smoothing can significantly reduce wavefront aberrations that produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot. Hot spots in the laser irradiance can induce local self focusing of the light, producing filamentation of the plasma. Filamentation can have detrimental consequences on the hydrodynamics of an ICF plasma, and can affect the growth of parametric instabilities, as well as add to the complexity of the study of such instabilities as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). As experiments approach and exceed breakeven (i.e., where driver energy = fusion yield), the likelihood of significant excitation of these processes increases. As a result, the authors are including a scheme for implementing optical-beam smoothing for target experiments in the baseline design for the proposed next-generation ICF facility--the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To verify the efficacy of this design for the suppression of parametric instabilites in NIF-like indirect-drive targets, the authors successfully modified a Nova beamline to simulate the proposed NIF conditions. In this article, they discuss the laser science associated with a four-color target campaign on Nova to test the effect of f-number (ratio of focal length to beam diameter) and temporal smoothing on the scaling of SBS with a four-segment interaction beam using NIF-like parameters. The results of the target series associated with the four-color configuration are discussed elsewhere.

  8. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Thresholds of surface plasma formation by the interaction of laser pulses with a metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borets-Pervak, I. Yu; Vorob'ev, V. S.

    1995-04-01

    An analysis is made of a model of the formation of a surface laser plasma which takes account of the heating and vaporisation of thermally insulated surface microdefects. This model is used in an interpretation of experiments in which such a plasma has been formed by irradiation of a titanium target with microsecond CO2 laser pulses. A comparison with the experimental breakdown intensities is used to calculate the average sizes of microdefects and their concentration: the results are in agreement with the published data. The dependence of the delay time of plasma formation on the total energy in a laser pulse is calculated.

  9. Laser plasma interaction on rugby hohlraum on the Omega Laser Facility: Comparisons between cylinder, rugby, and elliptical hohlraums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Villette, B.; Laffite, S.; Seytor, P.; Fremerye, P.; Seka, W.; Teychenné, D.; Debayle, A.; Marion, D.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-02-01

    Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The impact of these geometry differences on the laser plasma instabilities is examined. Using comparisons with hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the code FCI2 and postprocessed by Piranah, we have been able to reproduce the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering spectrum of the different beams. Using a methodology based on a statistical analysis for the gain calculations, we show that the behavior of the laser plasma instabilities in rugby hohlraums can be reproduced. The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques to mitigate these instabilities are discussed, and we show that while rugby hohlraums exhibit more laser plasma instabilities than cylinder hohlraum, the latter can be mitigated in the case of an elliptical hohlraum.

  10. The interaction of intense subpicosecond laser pulses with underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, C.A.

    1995-05-11

    Laser-plasma interactions have been of interest for many years not only from a basic physics standpoint, but also for their relevance to numerous applications. Advances in laser technology in recent years have resulted in compact laser systems capable of generating (psec), 10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2} laser pulses. These lasers have provided a new regime in which to study laser-plasma interactions, a regime characterized by L{sub plasma} {ge} 2L{sub Rayleigh} > c{tau}. The goal of this dissertation is to experimentally characterize the interaction of a short pulse, high intensity laser with an underdense plasma (n{sub o} {le} 0.05n{sub cr}). Specifically, the parametric instability known as stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) is investigated to determine its behavior when driven by a short, intense laser pulse. Both the forward Raman scatter instability and backscattered Raman instability are studied. The coupled partial differential equations which describe the growth of SRS are reviewed and solved for typical experimental laser and plasma parameters. This solution shows the growth of the waves (electron plasma and scattered light) generated via stimulated Raman scatter. The dispersion relation is also derived and solved for experimentally accessible parameters. The solution of the dispersion relation is used to predict where (in k-space) and at what frequency (in {omega}-space) the instability will grow. Both the nonrelativistic and relativistic regimes of the instability are considered.

  11. Flash imaging of fine structures of cellular organelles by contact x-ray microscopy with a high intensity laser plasma x-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, Masataka; Ishino, Masahiko; Kishimoto, Maki; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shinohara, Kunio

    2011-09-01

    X-ray flash imaging by contact microscopy with a highly intense laser-plasma x-ray source was achieved for the observation of wet biological cells. The exposure time to obtain a single x-ray image was about 600 ps as determined by the pulse duration of the driving laser pulse. The x-ray flash imaging makes it possible to capture an x-ray image of living biological cells without any artificial treatment such as staining, fixation, freezing, and so on. The biological cells were cultivated directly on the surface of the silicon nitride membranes, which are used for the x-ray microscope. Before exposing the cells to x-rays they were observed by a conventional fluorescent microscope as reference, since the fluorescent microscopes can visualize specific organelles stained with fluorescent dye. Comparing the x-ray images with the fluorescent images of the exact same cells, each cellular organelle observed in the x-ray images was identified one by one and actin filaments and mitochondria were clearly identified in the x-ray images.

  12. Generation of a train of attosecond pulses in the reflected field from a laser-plasma interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis; Rzazewski, Kazimierz

    1998-02-20

    We present a mechanism for the generation of a chain of attosecond pulses through the interaction of a intense laser field with a solid surface. We include one-dimensional particle-in-cell calculations in support of this idea and we discuss the underlying physics in the light of a simple moving mirror model.

  13. QED effects and radiation generation in relativistic laser plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostyukov, I. Yu.; Nerush, E. N.; Bashmakov, V. F.

    2011-06-01

    The radiative and quantum effects in laser plasmas are discussed. The self-consistent numerical model based on particle-in-cell and Monte-Carlo methods are developed. First we analyze the spectra of Compton backscattered photons and betatron radiation in the classical and quantum regimes. Then we address an interaction between intense laser pulse and relativistic electron beam. Finally we discuss the electron-positron pair plasma production in extremely-intense laser field. It is shown that such plasma can be an efficient source of energetic gammaquanta.

  14. Intense terahertz emission from relativistic circularly polarized laser pulses interaction with overdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Ya; Yu, Wei

    2013-10-15

    During the interaction of a relativistic circularly polarized laser pulse with an overdense plasma target, the longitudinal motion of bunches of electrons under the action of light pressure and electrostatic restore force can emit intense terahertz (THz) pulses. This mechanism allows high pump laser intensity and large electron number participating in the emission. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are carried out to investigate the THz emission. The results suggest that such a source can produce remarkably intense THz pulses with energy of several mJ/sr and power of tens of gigawatts, which could find applications in nonlinear studies and relativistic laser-plasma interaction diagnostics.

  15. Electron Generation and Transport in Intense Relativistic Laser-Plasma Interactions Relevant to Fast Ignition ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Tammy Yee Wing

    2010-01-01

    The reentrant cone approach to Fast Ignition, an advanced Inertial Confinement Fusion scheme, remains one of the most attractive because of the potential to efficiently collect and guide the laser light into the cone tip and direct energetic electrons into the high density core of the fuel. However, in the presence of a preformed plasma, the laser energy is largely absorbed before it can reach the cone tip. Full scale fast ignition laser systems are envisioned to have prepulses ranging between 100 mJ to 1 J. A few of the imperative issues facing fast ignition, then, are the conversion efficiency with which the laser light is converted to hot electrons, the subsequent transport characteristics of those electrons, and requirements for maximum allowable prepulse this may put on the laser system. This dissertation examines the laser-to-fast electron conversion efficiency scaling with prepulse for cone-guided fast ignition. Work in developing an extreme ultraviolet imager diagnostic for the temperature measurements of electron-heated targets, as well as the validation of the use of a thin wire for simultaneous determination of electron number density and electron temperature will be discussed.

  16. Electron transport in cone targets in high intensity laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Galloudec, Nathalie; D'Humieres, Emmanuel; Cho, Byoung-Ick; Osterholz, Jens; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Ditmire, Todd

    2008-11-01

    Copper cones targets of different roughnesses were irradiated with the Thor laser (0.5J, 40fs, 800nm, 7 micron focal spot, 3.10^19W/cm^2) at UT Austin. Hot electron transport in the tip has been diagnosed with Coherent Transition of Radiation (CTR). Progress at the NTF has been made and a new diagnostic is being designed to provide a CTR at both φ and 2 φ. Results supported by simulations will present the current knowledge and trace a path to future progress.

  17. Effect of the laser wavelength: A long story of laser-plasma interaction physics for Inertial Confinement Fusion Teller Medal Lecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Christine

    2013-11-01

    Laser-driven Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) relies on the use of high-energy laser beams to compress and ignite a thermonuclear fuel with the ultimate goal of producing energy. Fusion is the holy grail of energy sources-combining abundant fuel with no greenhouse gas emissions, minimal waste products and a scale that can meet mankind's long-term energy demands. The quality and the efficiency of the coupling of the laser beams with the target are an essential step towards the success of laser fusion. A long-term program on laser-plasma interaction physics has been pursued to understand the propagation and the coupling of laser pulses in plasmas for a wide range of parameters.

  18. Laser-plasma ion beams-experiments towards charge transfer x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J.R.; Fill, E.E. ); Bruch, R. ); Schneider, D. )

    1993-06-05

    Laser plasmas produced at intensities of up to 10[sup 14] W/cm[sup 2] expand towards a secondary target a few millimeters away. The intense x-ray emission during the interaction plasma-target was recorded spectrally, spatially and time-resolved. A number of processes, like recombination and charge transfer may account for this strong radiation. The implications of these experiments to the design of a charge transfer x-ray laser are discussed.

  19. Computational modeling of laser-plasma interactions: pulse self-modulation and energy transfer between intersecting laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Rotem; Barmashenko, Boris; Bar, Ilana

    2013-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with a self-induced plasma channel in air and the energy transfer between two intersecting laser pulses were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method. Implementation of a simple numerical code enabled modeling of various phenomena, including pulse self-modulation in the spatiotemporal and spectral domains, conical emission, and energy transfer between two intersecting laser beams. The mechanism for energy transfer was found to be related to a plasma waveguide array induced by Moiré patterns of the interfering electric fields. The simulation results provide a persuasive replication and explanation of previous experimental results, when carried out under comparable physical conditions, and lead to prediction of others. This approach allows us to further examine the effect of the laser and plasma parameters on the simulation results and to investigate the underlying physics. PMID:23944583

  20. Computational modeling of laser-plasma interactions: Pulse self-modulation and energy transfer between intersecting laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupfer, Rotem; Barmashenko, Boris; Bar, Ilana

    2013-07-01

    The nonlinear interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with a self-induced plasma channel in air and the energy transfer between two intersecting laser pulses were simulated using the finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell method. Implementation of a simple numerical code enabled modeling of various phenomena, including pulse self-modulation in the spatiotemporal and spectral domains, conical emission, and energy transfer between two intersecting laser beams. The mechanism for energy transfer was found to be related to a plasma waveguide array induced by Moiré patterns of the interfering electric fields. The simulation results provide a persuasive replication and explanation of previous experimental results, when carried out under comparable physical conditions, and lead to prediction of others. This approach allows us to further examine the effect of the laser and plasma parameters on the simulation results and to investigate the underlying physics.

  1. Laser-Plasma Interaction in Presence of an Obliquely External Magnetic Field: Application to Laser Fusion without Radioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobaraki, M.; Jafari, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear interaction of ultra-high power laser beam with fusion plasma at relativistic regime in the presence of obliquely external magnetic Geld has been studied. Imposing an external magnetic Geld on plasma can modify the density profile of the plasma so that the thermal conductivity of electrons reduces which is considered to be the decrease of the threshold energy for ignition. To achieve the fusion of Hydrogen-Boron (HB) fuel, the block acceleration model of plasma is employed. Energy production by HB isotopes can be of interest, since its reaction does not generate radioactive tritium. By using the inhibit factor in the block model acceleration of plasma and Maxwell's as well as the momentum transfer equations, the electron density distribution and dielectric permittivity of the plasma medium are obtained. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the intensity of the external magnetic field, the oscillation of the laser magnetic field decreases, while the dielectric permittivity increases. Moreover, the amplitude of the electron density becomes highly peaked and the plasma electrons are strongly bunched with increasing the intensity of external magnetic field. Therefore, the magnetized plasma can act as a positive focusing lens to enhance the fusion process. Besides, we find that with increasing θ-angle (from oblique external magnetic field) between 0 and 90°, the dielectric permittivity increases, while for θ between 90° and 180°, the dielectric permittivity decreases with increasing θ.

  2. Modeling of radiative and quantum electrodynamics effects in PIC simulations of ultra-relativistic laser-plasma interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobet, M.; d'Humières, E.; Grech, M.; Ruyer, C.; Davoine, X.; Gremillet, L.

    2016-03-01

    Next generation of ultra-intense laser facilities will lead to novel physical conditions ruled by collective and quantum electrodynamics effects, such as synchrotron-like emission of high-energy photons and e + e - pair generation. In view of the future experiments performed in this regime, the latter processes have been implemented into the particle-in-cell code CALDER.

  3. Excitation of nuclear isomers by X rays from laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Aleksandr A; Karpeshin, F; Trzhaskovskaya, M B; Platonov, Konstantin Yu; Rozhdestvenskii, Yu V

    2010-06-23

    The possibility of obtaining isomer nuclei is studied by the example of the molybdenum isomer {sup 93}Mo upon irradiation of a niobium {sup 93}Nb target by {approx}50-J, 100-fs laser pulses. It is shown that the modern laser technique allows production of isomer nuclei by accelerated protons and radiative de-excitation of isomer nuclear states by thermal or line X-rays from laser plasma. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  4. Interaction of High Intensity Electromagnetic Waves with Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    G. Shvets

    2008-10-03

    The focus of our work during the duration of this grant was on the following areas: (a) the fundamental plasma physics of intense laser-plasma interactions, including the nonlinear excitation of plasma waves for accelerator applications, as well as the recently discovered by us phenomenon of the relativistic bi-stability of relativistic plasma waves driven by a laser beatwave; (b) interaction of high power microwave beams with magnetized plasma, including some of the recently discovered by us phenomena such as the Undulator Induced Transparency (UIT) as well as the new approaches to dynamic manipulation of microwave pulses; (c) investigations of the multi-color laser pulse interactions in the plasma, including the recently discovered by us phenomenon of Electromagnetic Cascading (EC) and the effect of the EC of three-dimensional dynamics of laser pulses (enhanced/suppressed selffocusing etc.); (d) interaction of high-current electron beams with the ambient plasma in the context of Fast Ignitor (FI) physics, with the emphasis on the nonlinear dynamics of the Weibel instability and beam filamentation.

  5. Review of upconverted Nd-glass laser plasma experiments at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, K.R.

    1982-05-01

    Systematic scaling experiments aimed at deducing the dependence of laser-plasma interaction phenomena on target plasma material and target irradiation history have been underway in laboratories all over the world in recent years. During 1980 and 1981 the Livermore program undertook to measure the laser light absorption of high and low Z plasmas and the partition of the absorbed energy amongst the thermal and suprathermal electron populations as a function of both laser intensity and wavelength. Simulations suggested that short wavelength laser light would couple more efficiently than longer wavelengths to target plasmas. Shorter wavelength heating of higher electron plasma densities would, it was felt, lead to laser-plasma interactions freer of anomalous absorption processes. The following sections review LLNL experiments designed to test these hypotheses.

  6. Calculations for NIF first quad gas-filled hohlraum experiments testing beryllium microstructure growth and laser plasma interaction physics

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, S. R.; Fernández, J. C.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kindel, J. M.; Langdon, A. Bruce

    2004-01-01

    The first quad of the NIF provides four nearly collinear f/20 laser beams, which can be treated as a single f/8 beam of maximum energy 16 kJ. We are designing experiments on halfraums in which the composite beam is focused in the plane of the (single) halfraum laser entry hole (LEH) with its symmetry axis collinear with the halfiaum symmetry axis. For most of the calculations, the halfraum diameter is 1.6mm, the LEH is 1.2mm, and axial length is 3.0mm. The incident laser power consists of an early foot followed by a final peak. Peak radiation temperatures for this relatively narrow hohlraum are greater than for wider hohlraums of the same length. Plasma conditions within the halfraum are calculated with Lasnex using azimuthally symmetric, (r,z) geometry, taking into account a polyimide membrane which contains the fill gas (CH{sub 2}) within the halfraum. Estimates for microstructure growth due to the volume crystalline structure within a beryllium slab mounted in the halfraum sidewall are obtained by a post-processor, which applies plasma conditions within the halfraum to an ablatively accelerated, two-dimensional beryllium slab. We present a detailed simulation of the hohlraum conditions resulting from a laser spot of diameter 500 {mu}m, with peak intensity at 3.5 x 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}, a comparison with a simulation with the same power-time profile at an intensity about 1/4 as great, and a comparison with a simulation with more detailed attention to hydro coupling between the gold and gas-fill regions of the hohlraum. We are currently attempting to model the consequences of possible beam filamentation during the pulse.

  7. Experimental evidence of the inverse Faraday effect in laser-plasma interaction and a miniature magnetic bottle

    SciTech Connect

    Eliezer, S.; Horovitz, Y.; Henis, Z.; Ludmirsky, A.; Shpitalnik, R.; Moshe, E.; Arad, B.; Paiss, Y.

    1997-04-15

    Measurements of the inverse Faraday effect and of the absorption of circularly polarized laser light in plasmas are reported. The experiments were performed with a Nd:YAG with irradiances in the range {approx}10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The absorption of circularly polarized light was higher by 14% relative to the absorption of linear polarized light. This increase in the laser absorption may be related to the axial magnetic field created by the circularly polarized laser light. Axial magnetic fields of the order of 10 kGauss were measured at irradiances {approx}10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} using the Faraday rotation diagnostic. At low intensities of {approx}10{sup 9} W/cm{sup 2}, the magnetic field was obtained from the voltage signal induced through a ferrite ring in an output coil. The axial magnetic field induced by the circular polarized laser light increases linearly with the laser irradiance. A concept of hot plasma confinement in a mini magnetic bottle relying on the magnetic field generation induced by the circularly polarized laser field is described.

  8. Role of cavitons in laser-plasma interactions: Final report for the period August 15, 1984-August 14, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.Y.; Tanikawa, T.

    1986-09-01

    We have observed three new phenomena associated with cavitons generated at the critical layer in an inhomogeneous plasma. Half-harmonic ((1/2)..omega../sub 0/, (3/2)..omega../sub 0/, etc.) electromagnetic (em) radiation, accompanying the resonant absorption of the high-power microwave at ..omega../sub 0/ by an inhomogeneous plasma, appears to originate from the cavitons. Double layers have been found to develop near the locations of cavitons. Acceleration of ions by these double layers has also been observed. The evolution of resonantly excited electron plasma waves and density profile modification at the critical layer has been studied in detail. Conditions under which the role of cavitons becomes significant in em wave-plasma interactions are discussed.

  9. Laser-plasma interactions from thin tapes for high-energy electron accelerators and seeding compact FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Brian Henry

    This thesis comprises a detailed investigation of the physics of using a plasma mirror (PM) from a tape by reflecting ultrashort pulses from a laser-triggered surface plasma. The tapes used in the characterization of the PM are VHS and computer data storage tape. The tapes are 6.6 m (computer storage tape) and 15 m (VHS) thick. Each tape is 0.5 inches wide, and 10s of meters of tape are spooled using a tape drive; providing thousands of shots on a single reel of tape. The amount of reflected energy of the PM was studied for different input intensities. The fluence was varied by translating the focus of the laser upstream and downstream of the tape, which changed the spot size on the tape surface and hence changed the fluence. This study measured reflectances from both sides of the two tapes, and for input light of both s and p-polarizations. Lastly, an analytic model was developed to understand the reflectance as a function of fluence for each tape material and polarization. Another application that benefits from the advancements of LPA technology is an LPAbased FEL. By sending a high quality electron bunch through an undulator (a periodic structure of positive and negative magnetic poles), the electrons oscillate transversely to the propagation axis and produce radiation. The 1.5 m THUNDER undulator at the BELLA Center has been commissioned using electron beams of 400MeV beams with broad energy spread (35%). To produce a coherent LPA-based FEL, the beam quality would need to improve to sub-percent level energy spread. A seed source could be used to help induce bunching of the electron beam within the undulator. This thesis described the experimental investigation of the physics of using solid-based surface high-harmonic generation (SHHG) from a thin tape as a possible seed source for an FEL. A thin tape placed within centimeters of the undulator's entrance could act as a harmonic generating source, while simultaneously transmitting an electron beam. This removes

  10. On the origin of super-hot electrons from intense laser interactions with solid targets having moderate scale length preformed plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Krygier, A. G.; Schumacher, D. W.; Freeman, R. R.

    2014-02-15

    We use particle-in-cell modeling to identify the acceleration mechanism responsible for the observed generation of super-hot electrons in ultra-intense laser-plasma interactions with solid targets with pre-formed plasma. We identify several features of direct laser acceleration that drive the generation of super-hot electrons. We find that, in this regime, electrons that become super-hot are primarily injected by a looping mechanism that we call loop-injected direct acceleration.

  11. Progress on laser plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, P.

    1986-04-01

    Several laser plasma accelerator schemes are reviewed, with emphasis on the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator (PBWA). Theory indicates that a very high acceleration gradient, of order 1 GeV/m, can exist in the plasma wave driven by the beating lasers. Experimental results obtained on the PBWA experiment at UCLA confirms this. Parameters related to the PBWA as an accelerator system are derived, among them issues concerning the efficiency and the laser power and energy requirements are discussed.

  12. Resonance laser-plasma excitation of coherent terahertz phonons in the bulk of fluorine-bearing crystals under high-intensity femtosecond laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Potemkin, F V; Mareev, E I; Khodakovskii, N G; Mikheev, P M

    2013-08-31

    The dynamics of coherent phonons in fluorine-containing crystals was investigated by pump-probe technique in the plasma production regime. Several phonon modes, whose frequencies are overtones of the 0.38-THz fundamental frequency, were simultaneously observed in a lithium fluoride crystal. Phonons with frequencies of 1 and 0.1 THz were discovered in a calcium fluoride crystal and coherent phonons with frequencies of 1 THz and 67 GHz were observed in a barium fluoride crystal. Furthermore, in the latter case the amplitudes of phonon mode oscillations were found to significantly increase 15 ps after laser irradiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  13. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1percent per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within +/-10 percent.

  14. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-11-01

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm2 and 0.4 pC/ps/mm2, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within ±10%.

  15. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Sokollik, T.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Bryne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-11-04

    The electron energy dependence of a scintillating screen (Lanex Fast) was studied with sub-nanosecond electron beams ranging from 106 MeV to 1522 MeV at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron booster accelerator. The sensitivity of the Lanex Fast decreased by 1% per 100 MeV increase of the energy. The linear response of the screen against the charge was verified with charge density and intensity up to 160 pC/mm{sup 2} and 0.4 pC/ps/mm{sup 2}, respectively. For electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnostics has been performed using a Lanex screen, an integrating current transformer, and an activation based measurement. The charge measured by each diagnostic was found to be within {+-}10%.

  16. Picosecond Neutron Yields from Ultra-Intense Laser-Target Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, C. Leland; Fuchs, Julien

    2009-11-01

    High-flux neutron sources for neutron imaging and materials analysis applications have typically been provided by accelerator-based (Spallation Neutron Source) and reactor-based (High Flux Isotope Reactor) neutron sources. A novel approach is to use ultra-intense (> 10^18 W/cm^2) laser-target interactions to generate picosecond, collimated neutrons. Here we examine the feasibility of a source based on current (LULI) and upcoming laser facility capabilities. A Monte-Carlo code calculates angular and energy distributions of neutrons generated by D-D fusion events occurring within a deuterated target for a given incident beam of D+ ions. The parameters of the deuteron beam are well understood from laser-plasma and laser-target studies relevant to fast-ignition fusion. Expected neutron yields are presented in comparison to conventional neutron sources, previous experimental neutron yields, and within the context of neutron shielding safety requirements.

  17. Low-emittance monoenergetic electron and ion beams from ultra-intense laser-solid interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, T E; Roth, M; Allen, M M; Johnson, J; Hatchett, S P; Le Sage, G P; Wilks, S C

    2000-03-03

    Recent experiments at the LLNL Petawatt Laser have demonstrated the generation of intense, high energy beams of electrons and ions from the interaction of ultra-intense laser light with solid targets. Focused laser intensities as high as 6 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} are achieved, at which point the quiver energies of the target electrons extend to {approx}10 MeV. In this new, fully relativistic regime of laser-plasma interactions, nuclear processes become important and nuclear techniques are required to diagnose the high-energy particle production. In recent experiments we have observed electrons accelerated to 100 MeV, up to 60 MeV brehmsstrahlung generation, photo-nuclear fission and positron-electron pair creation. We also have observed monoenergetic jets of electrons having sufficiently small emittance to be interesting as a laser-accelerated beam, if the production mechanism could be understood and controlled. The huge flux of multi-MeV ponderomotively accelerated electrons produced in the laser-solid interaction is also observed to accelerate contaminant ions from the rear surface of the solid target up to 50 MeV. We describe spectroscopic measurements which reveal intense monoenergetic beam features in the proton energy spectrum. The total spectrum contains >10{sup 13} protons, while the monoenergetic beam pulses contain {approx}1 nC of protons, and exhibits a longitudinal and transverse emittance smaller than conventional RF proton accelerator beams.

  18. WE-E-18A-05: Bremsstrahlung of Laser-Plasma Interaction at KeV Temperature: Forward Dose and Attenuation Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Saez-Beltran, M; Fernandez Gonzalez, F

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To obtain an analytical empirical formula for the photon dose source term in forward direction from bremsstrahlung generated from laser-plasma accelerated electron beams in aluminum solid targets, with electron-plasma temperatures in the 10–100 keV energy range, and to calculate transmission factors for iron, aluminum, methacrylate, lead and concrete and air, materials most commonly found in vacuum chamber labs. Methods: Bremsstrahlung fluence is calculated from the convolution of thin-target bremsstrahlung spectrum for monoenergetic electrons and the relativistic Maxwell-Juettner energy distribution for the electron-plasma. Unattenuatted dose in tissue is calculated by integrating the photon spectrum with the mass-energy absorption coefficient. For the attenuated dose, energy dependent absorption coefficient, build-up factors and finite shielding correction factors were also taken into account. For the source term we use a modified formula from Hayashi et al., and we fitted the proportionality constant from experiments with the aid of the previously calculated transmission factors. Results: The forward dose has a quadratic dependence on electron-plasma temperature: 1 joule of effective laser energy transferred to the electrons at 1 m in vacuum yields 0,72 Sv per MeV squared of electron-plasma temperature. Air strongly filters the softer part of the photon spectrum and reduce the dose to one tenth in the first centimeter. Exponential higher energy tail of maxwellian spectrum contributes mainly to the transmitted dose. Conclusion: A simple formula for forward photon dose from keV range temperature plasma is obtained, similar to those found in kilovoltage x-rays but with higher dose per dissipated electron energy, due to thin target and absence of filtration.

  19. Interaction of plasmas with intense lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, William L.

    2000-06-01

    The interaction of plasmas with intense lasers is an excellent example of how different fields of physics are interconnected. Invention of the laser and its ongoing development has allowed the creation and study of high temperature, dense matter in the laboratory. The results both advance the underlying plasma science and are relevant to many fields ranging from astrophysics to fusion and nonlinear physics. A brief overview of the interaction physics is given. Selected topics are discussed to illustrate the exciting progress in experimental, theoretical, and computational investigations with focused laser intensities up to 10{sup 21} W/cm{sup 2}. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  20. Light-curing polymers for laser plasma generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loktionov, E. Y.; Protasov, Y. S.; Protasov, Y. Y.; Telekh, V. D.

    2015-07-01

    Solid rather than liquid media are used in pulsed laser plasma generators despite sophisticated transportation and dosing system need for a long-term operation. Liquid media could be more preferable due to transfer and dosing (down to 10-14 L) being well developed, but plasma generation of those results in intense droplet formation and kinetic energy losses. Combination of liquids transportation advantages and solids plasma generation efficiency might resolve this trade-off. Liquid-to-solid transition can be induced by cooling down to sublimation temperature, thermo-, photo- or electron induced polymerization (curing). Light cured polymers seem to be very useful as active media for plasma generators, since they can be solidified very fast (ca. 30 ms) just before impact. We considered experimentally several UV- curing polymer and mixtures ablation regimes and supply schemes for laser plasma generation. The best results were obtained for liquid polymer at high-power pulsed irradiation matching curing optimum wavelength.

  1. Intra-pulse transition between ion acceleration mechanisms in intense laser-foil interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padda, H.; King, M.; Gray, R. J.; Powell, H. W.; Gonzalez-Izquierdo, B.; Stockhausen, L. C.; Wilson, R.; Carroll, D. C.; Dance, R. J.; MacLellan, D. A.; Yuan, X. H.; Butler, N. M. H.; Capdessus, R.; Borghesi, M.; Neely, D.; McKenna, P.

    2016-06-01

    Multiple ion acceleration mechanisms can occur when an ultrathin foil is irradiated with an intense laser pulse, with the dominant mechanism changing over the course of the interaction. Measurement of the spatial-intensity distribution of the beam of energetic protons is used to investigate the transition from radiation pressure acceleration to transparency-driven processes. It is shown numerically that radiation pressure drives an increased expansion of the target ions within the spatial extent of the laser focal spot, which induces a radial deflection of relatively low energy sheath-accelerated protons to form an annular distribution. Through variation of the target foil thickness, the opening angle of the ring is shown to be correlated to the point in time transparency occurs during the interaction and is maximized when it occurs at the peak of the laser intensity profile. Corresponding experimental measurements of the ring size variation with target thickness exhibit the same trends and provide insight into the intra-pulse laser-plasma evolution.

  2. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Hazi, A; van Maren, R; Chen, S; Fuchs, J; Gauthier, M; Pape, S L; Rygg, J R; Shepherd, R

    2010-05-11

    Ultra intense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In additions to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel, spatially imaging proton spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution, but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and non-imaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  3. High-order harmonic generation from laser plasma produced by pulses of different duration

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, R. A.; Suzuki, M.; Baba, M.; Kuroda, H.

    2007-08-15

    The high-order harmonic generation was analyzed by interaction of the femtosecond pulses with the laser plasma produced on the surfaces of various targets. The plasma formation was accomplished by the interaction of the prepulse radiation of different pulse duration (160 fs, 1.5 ps, 210 ps, and 20 ns) with the low-Z (lithium, boron, carbon), medium-Z (manganese, zinc, nickel), and high-Z (silver, barium) targets. We showed that plasma formation conditions play a crucial role in harmonic generation and the optimization of this process mostly depends on the energy of prepulse rather than its intensity at the target surface. These studies also demonstrated that the delay between the prepulse and femtosecond pulse is another important parameter, which distinguishes harmonic generation in the cases of the low- and high-Z targets.

  4. Development of laser-plasma diagnostics using ultrafast atomic-scale dynamics. 96-ERD-046 final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, P.R.; Kulander, K.C.; Boreham, B.W.

    1997-03-01

    Ultrashort laser pulse systems allow examination of intense, ultrafast laser-plasma interactions. More specifically, intense laser irradiation can induce short xuv/x-ray bursts from the surface of condensed phase targets. Ultrafast xuv/x-ray detection is needed to understand laser-plasma interactions in this dynamic regime. Support of the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program requires this critical understanding. Our effort here has been to extend understanding of atomic-scale dynamics in such environments with the goal of developing next generation ultrafast xuv/x-ray diagnostics where the sensors will be the atoms and ions themselves and the time resolution will approach that of the induced atomic transitions ({approx} a few femtoseconds). Pivotal contributions to the rapidly developing field of highly nonperturbative interactions of ultrashort pulse lasers with atoms/ions have been made at this laboratory. In the visible/infrared wavelength regions the temporal and spectral content of ultrashort laser pulses are now reliably monitored within a single pulse using frequency resolved optical gating (FROG) which is based on rapid nonlinear optical processes such as the Kerr effect. New applications of this basic concept are still being developed. Corresponding detection for the xuv/x-ray wavelengths does not exist and is urgently needed in many laboratory programs. The FROG technique cannot be applied in the xuv/x-ray region. Current x-ray streak camera technology is limited to {approx}0.5 picosecond resolution.

  5. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Energetic electrons and x-ray photons from multiterawatt Ti:sapphire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickles, P. V.; Kalachnikov, M. P.; Warwick, P. J.; Janulewicz, K. A.; Sandner, W.; Jahnke, U.; Hilscher, D.; Schnurer, M.; Nolte, R.; Rousse, A.

    1999-05-01

    The energy distribution and yield of electrons and hard x-ray photons were investigated by irradiating tungsten and tantalum targets with ~ 30 fs pulses in the intensity range 1018 — 1019 W cm-2 by using the Laboratoire d'Optique Appliquee (LOA) as well as the Max Born Institut (MBI) multiterawatt Ti:sapphire lasers. For the measurement of the hard x-ray emission in the energy range from 15 keV to 700 keV at the LOA a 9-channel spectrometer of calibrated thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) was used. The scaling of the hard x-rays was studied by varying the incident laser energy within one order of magnitude and the pulsewidth by a factor of 5. The hot electron output was investigated in the range 300 keV — 1 MeV with the new MBI Ti:sapphire laser by using a time-of-flight spectrometer. The results indicate a sensitive interplay between the temporal laser shape and laser intensity.

  6. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.; Malka, V.

    2013-06-01

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  7. Probing electron acceleration and x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thaury, C.; Ta Phuoc, K.; Corde, S.; Brijesh, P.; Lambert, G.; Malka, V.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Bloom, M. S.; Kneip, S.

    2013-06-15

    While laser-plasma accelerators have demonstrated a strong potential in the acceleration of electrons up to giga-electronvolt energies, few experimental tools for studying the acceleration physics have been developed. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for probing the acceleration process. A second laser beam, propagating perpendicular to the main beam, is focused on the gas jet few nanosecond before the main beam creates the accelerating plasma wave. This second beam is intense enough to ionize the gas and form a density depletion, which will locally inhibit the acceleration. The position of the density depletion is scanned along the interaction length to probe the electron injection and acceleration, and the betatron X-ray emission. To illustrate the potential of the method, the variation of the injection position with the plasma density is studied.

  8. High-energy 4{omega} probe laser for laser-plasma experiments at nova

    SciTech Connect

    Glenzer, S. H., LLNL

    1998-06-02

    For the characterization of inertial confinement fusion plasmas we implemented a high-energy 4{omega} probe laser at the Nova laser facility. A total energy of > 50 Joules at 4{omega}, a focal spot size of order 100 {micro}m, and a pointing accuracy of 100 {micro}m was demonstrated for target shots. This laser provides intensities of up to 3 x 10{sup 14}W cm{sup -2} and therefore fulfills high-power requirements for laser-plasma interaction experiments. The 4{omega} probe laser is now routinely used for Thomson scattering. Successful experiments were performed in gas-filled hohlraums at electron densities of n{sub e} > 2 X 10{sup 21}cm{sup -3} which represents the highest density plasma so far being diagnosed with Thomson scattering.

  9. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Threshold for gas breakdown initiated by an interaction of laser light with aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borets-Pervak, I. Yu; Vorob'ev, V. S.

    1993-03-01

    A model constructed previously for plasma production through the laser heating, evaporation, and ionization of a microscopic surface defect is refined in an effort to determine the breakdown conditions in an aerosol. Simple analytic expressions are derived for the threshold laser intensity as a function of the wavelength of the laser light, the dimensions and material of the aerosol particles, the shape of the laser pulse, and the evaporated volume of the particle. The results are compared with experiments on the laser breakdown of air caused by beams from CO2 and Nd lasers in the presence of an aerosol consisting of carbon particles 0.1-25 μm in radius. The results are also compared with the predictions of the explosion model.

  10. Detailed Experimental Study of Ion Acceleration by Interaction of an Ultra-Short Intense Laser with an Underdense Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kahaly, S.; Sylla, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Flacco, A.; Veltcheva, M.; Malka, V.

    2016-01-01

    Ion acceleration from intense (Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2 μm2) laser-plasma interaction is experimentally studied within a wide range of He gas densities. Focusing an ultrashort pulse (duration  ion plasma period) on a newly designed submillimetric gas jet system, enabled us to inhibit total evacuation of electrons from the central propagation channel reducing the radial ion acceleration associated with ponderomotive Coulomb explosion, a mechanism predominant in the long pulse scenario. New ion acceleration mechanism have been unveiled in this regime leading to non-Maxwellian quasi monoenergetic features in the ion energy spectra. The emitted nonthermal ion bunches show a new scaling of the ion peak energy with plasma density. The scaling identified in this new regime differs from previously reported studies. PMID:27531755

  11. Detailed Experimental Study of Ion Acceleration by Interaction of an Ultra-Short Intense Laser with an Underdense Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, S; Sylla, F; Lifschitz, A; Flacco, A; Veltcheva, M; Malka, V

    2016-01-01

    Ion acceleration from intense (Iλ(2) > 10(18) Wcm(-2) μm(2)) laser-plasma interaction is experimentally studied within a wide range of He gas densities. Focusing an ultrashort pulse (duration  ion plasma period) on a newly designed submillimetric gas jet system, enabled us to inhibit total evacuation of electrons from the central propagation channel reducing the radial ion acceleration associated with ponderomotive Coulomb explosion, a mechanism predominant in the long pulse scenario. New ion acceleration mechanism have been unveiled in this regime leading to non-Maxwellian quasi monoenergetic features in the ion energy spectra. The emitted nonthermal ion bunches show a new scaling of the ion peak energy with plasma density. The scaling identified in this new regime differs from previously reported studies. PMID:27531755

  12. Multistage coupling of independent laser-plasma accelerators.

    PubMed

    Steinke, S; van Tilborg, J; Benedetti, C; Geddes, C G R; Schroeder, C B; Daniels, J; Swanson, K K; Gonsalves, A J; Nakamura, K; Matlis, N H; Shaw, B H; Esarey, E; Leemans, W P

    2016-02-11

    Laser-plasma accelerators (LPAs) are capable of accelerating charged particles to very high energies in very compact structures. In theory, therefore, they offer advantages over conventional, large-scale particle accelerators. However, the energy gain in a single-stage LPA can be limited by laser diffraction, dephasing, electron-beam loading and laser-energy depletion. The problem of laser diffraction can be addressed by using laser-pulse guiding and preformed plasma waveguides to maintain the required laser intensity over distances of many Rayleigh lengths; dephasing can be mitigated by longitudinal tailoring of the plasma density; and beam loading can be controlled by proper shaping of the electron beam. To increase the beam energy further, it is necessary to tackle the problem of the depletion of laser energy, by sequencing the accelerator into stages, each powered by a separate laser pulse. Here, we present results from an experiment that demonstrates such staging. Two LPA stages were coupled over a short distance (as is needed to preserve the average acceleration gradient) by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from a first LPA were focused to a twenty-micrometre radius--by a discharge capillary-based active plasma lens--into a second LPA, such that the beams interacted with the wakefield excited by a separate laser. Staged acceleration by the wakefield of the second stage is detected via an energy gain of 100 megaelectronvolts for a subset of the electron beam. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second-stage laser pulse allowed us to reconstruct the temporal wakefield structure and to determine the plasma density. Our results indicate that the fundamental limitation to energy gain presented by laser depletion can be overcome by using staged acceleration, suggesting a way of reaching the electron energies required for collider applications. PMID:26829223

  13. Generation and analysis of quasimonoenergetic electron beams by laser-plasma interaction in transitional region from the self-modulated laser wakefield to bubble acceleration regime

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, S.; Miura, E.

    2009-09-15

    Generation of quasimonoenergetic electron beams in a transitional region from the self-modulated laser wakefield to bubble acceleration regime is reported. Quasimonoenergetic electron beams containing more than 3x10{sup 8} electrons in the monoenergetic peak with energies of 40-60 MeV have been obtained from a plasma with an electron density of 1.6x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} produced by an 8 TW, 50 fs laser pulse. The generation of quasimonoenergetic electron beams is investigated by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Few periods of the plasma wave are located inside the laser pulse, because the laser pulse duration is longer than the wavelength of the plasma wave. Electrons trapped in the first period of the plasma wave can form the monoenergetic bunch, even though the trapped electrons interact directly with the laser field. The quasimonoenergetic electron beam can be obtained due to the small contribution of the direct acceleration by the laser field. This type of monoenergetic electron acceleration is different from that of both the self-modulated laser wakefield and bubble acceleration regimes, in which the trapped electrons in the plasma wave are located behind the laser pulse due to the pulse compression or fragmentation and free from the laser electric field. This result suggests a new regime for the quasimonoenergetic electron acceleration in the region between the self-modulation and bubble regime.

  14. LASER-PLASMA-ACCELERATOR-BASED GAMMA GAMMA COLLIDERS

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Toth, Cs.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-05-04

    Design considerations for a next-generation linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed, and a laser-plasma-accelerator-based gamma-gamma collider is considered. An example of the parameters for a 0.5 TeV laser-plasma-accelerator gamma gamma collider is presented.

  15. Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2009-01-22

    Design considerations for a next-generation electron-positron linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed. Several of the advantages and challenges of laser-plasma-based accelerator technology are addressed. An example of the parameters for a 1 TeV laser-plasma-based collider is presented.

  16. Multiple pulse resonantly enhanced laser plasma wakefield acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Corner, L.; Walczak, R.; Nevay, L. J.; Dann, S.; Hooker, S. M.; Bourgeois, N.; Cowley, J.

    2012-12-21

    We present an outline of experiments being conducted at Oxford University on multiple-pulse, resonantly-enhanced laser plasma wakefield acceleration. This method of laser plasma acceleration uses trains of optimally spaced low energy short pulses to drive plasma oscillations and may enable laser plasma accelerators to be driven by compact and efficient fibre laser sources operating at high repetition rates.

  17. Design considerations for a laser-plasma linear collider

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Toth, Cs.; Leemans, W. P.

    2008-08-01

    Design considerations for a next-generation electron-positron linear collider based on laser-plasma-accelerators are discussed. Several of the advantages and challenges of laser-plasma based accelerator technology are addressed. An example of the parameters for a 1 TeV laser-plasma based collider is presented.

  18. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  19. Control of laser plasma instabilities in hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, W.L.

    1996-12-01

    Laser plasma instabilities are an important constraint on the operating regime for inertial fusion. Many techniques have been developed to control the various laser-driven instabilities. Experiments with long scale length plasmas are testing these instability levels, the nonlinear regimes, and the control mechanisms.

  20. Atomic mass dependent electrostatic diagnostics of colliding laser plasma plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeates, P.; Fallon, C.; Kennedy, E. T.; Costello, J. T.; School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University , Dublin 7

    2013-09-15

    The behaviours of colliding laser plasma plumes (C{sub p}) compared with single plasma plumes (S{sub p}) are investigated for 14 different atomic mass targets. A Faraday cup, situated at the end of a drift tube (L = 0.99 m), is employed to record the time-of-flight (TOF) current traces for all elements and both plume configurations, for a fixed laser intensity of I{sub p} = 4.2 × 10{sup 10} W cm{sup −2} (F = 0.25 kJ cm{sup −2}). The ratio of the peak current from the C{sub p} relative to twice that from the S{sub p} is designated as the peak current ratio while the ratio of the integrated charge yield from the C{sub p} relative to twice that from the S{sub p} is designated as the charge yield ratio. Variation of the position of the Faraday cup within the drift tube (L = 0.33, 0.55, and 0.99 m) in conjunction with a lower laser fluence (F = 0.14 kJ cm{sup −2}) facilitated direct comparison of the changing TOF traces from both plasma configurations for the five lightest elements studied (C, Al, Si, Ti, and Mn). The results are discussed in the frame of laser plasma hydrodynamic modelling to approximate the critical recombination distance L{sub CR}. The dynamics of colliding laser plasma plumes and the atomic mass dependence trends observed are presented and discussed.

  1. Ablation of carbon-doped liquid propellant in laser plasma propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z. Y.; Liang, T.; Zhang, S. Q.; Gao, L.; Gao, H.; Zhang, Z. L.

    2016-04-01

    Carbon-doped liquid glycerol ablated by nanosecond pulse laser is investigated in laser plasma propulsion. It is found that the propulsion is much more correlated with the carbon content. The doped carbon can change the laser intensity and laser focal position so as to reduce the splashing quantity of the glycerol. Less consumption of the liquid volume results in a high specific impulse.

  2. Operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2012-12-21

    The operational plasma density and laser parameters for future colliders based on laser-plasma accelerators are discussed. Beamstrahlung limits the charge per bunch at low plasma densities. Reduced laser intensity is examined to improve accelerator efficiency in the beamstrahlung-limited regime.

  3. Quantitative shadowgraphy for laser-plasma interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boné, A.; Lemos, N.; Figueira, G.; Dias, J. M.

    2016-04-01

    A new all optic non-perturbative diagnostic for measuring densities of long plasma structures is presented. A model based on the refraction of a laser beam crossing a cylindrical column of plasma with a Gaussian density profile is derived and used to measure plasma electronic densities. The model shows good agreement with the performed ray tracing simulations. Experimental measurements of the electronic density of plasma columns ranging from 2 to 8× {{10}18} cm-3 are presented and show good agreement when compared to interferometry measurements.

  4. Laser Plasma and Hydrodynamics Experiments with KrF Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, James

    2006-10-01

    The proposed Fusion Test Facility (FTF) will exploit the unique features of Krypton Fluoride (KrF) lasers to achieve ignition and substantial gain (>20) at <500 kJ laser energies using direct drive.[1] The strategy uses highly uniform, high bandwidth, 248 nm KrF laser illumination at intensities near 2 x 10^15 W/cm^2 to accelerate low-aspect ratio pellets to implosion velocities of 400 km/s. Higher than usual implosion velocity allows ignition at substantially reduced laser energy. Amplitudes of both hydrodynamic instability during the pellet implosion and deleterious laser plasma instability (LPI) in the corona must be kept sufficiently low if one is to achieve ignition and gain. Increased laser intensity reduces hydrodynamic instability because it allows acceleration of thicker, low aspect ratio pellets, but is also more likely to produce deleterious LPI. The deep UV wavelength of KrF should allow use of these higher intensities. Studies of hydrodynamic instabilities and laser plasma instabilities (LPI) are the subject of ongoing experiments at the 2-3 kJ Nike KrF laser. The Nike laser has demonstrated highly uniform UV irradiation of planar targets at moderate laser intensities (I˜10^14 W/cm^2), including the recent addition of short duration ``spike'' prepulses for hydrodynamic stability studies. A new effort in LPI physics is underway at the Nike facility where the peak intensity is being extended above 10^15 W/cm^2 by a combination of smaller focal diameters and shorter pulse lengths. This talk will discuss progress in the ongoing experiments at Nike in support of the FTF design. [1] S. P. Obenschain, et al., Phys. Plasmas 13 056329 (2006).

  5. Efficient fast electron generation in an interaction of Intense, ultrashort laser with metal nanoparticle coated dielectric target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Deep; Tata, Sheroy; Shaikh, Moniruzzaman; Lad, Amit D.; Adak, Amitava; Sarkar, Subhrangsu; Ayyub, Pushan; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2016-05-01

    Hot electron generation in intense laser-matter interaction studies is a topic of great interest due in significant part to its applications in fast ignitor scheme in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). We measure the hot electron energy spectrum from Ag nanoparticle coated fused silica target (100 μm thick) interacting with an intense (I∼1018W/cm2), short pulse (τ∼ 30× 10-15s) laser and compare the results with those of an uncoated fused silica. Enhancement in hot electron energy and hard x-ray yield is measured as a function of thickness of Ag nano-coating, varied from tens of nm to hundreds of nm. The hot electron temperatures and integrated x-ray yield are observed to be greater for subwavelength film thicknesses for the case of a p-polarized laser. Such results indicate that metal nanoparticle layers have an important role to play in the enhancement of laser-plasma coupling efficiency for short scale-length plasmas created in femtosecond laser interactions.

  6. γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ATM focus formation in cancer cells after laser plasma X irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Nishikino, Masaharu; Okano, Yasuaki; Ohshima, Shinsuke; Hasegawa, Noboru; Ishino, Masahiko; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    2010-10-01

    The usefulness of laser plasma X-ray pulses for medical and radiation biological studies was investigated, and the effects of laser plasma X rays were compared with those of conventional sources such as a linear accelerator. A cell irradiation system was developed that used copper-Kα (8 keV) lines from an ultrashort high-intensity laser to produce plasma. The absorbed dose of the 8 keV laser plasma X-ray pulse was estimated accurately with Gafchromic® EBT film. When the cells were irradiated with approximately 2 Gy of laser plasma X rays, the circular regions on γ-H2AX-positive cells could be clearly identified. Moreover, the numbers of γ-H2AX and phosphorylated ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) foci induced by 8 keV laser plasma X rays were comparable to those induced by 4 MV X rays. These results indicate that the laser plasma X ray source may be useful for radiation biology studies. PMID:20718602

  7. Ultra Intense Laser Pulse Interactions with Planer and Spherical Plasmas for Fast Ignitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuo A.

    1999-11-01

    The fast ignitor concept requires the guiding or penetration of an ultra-intense laser close to a highly compressed (1000 times solid density) core and the generation of energetic electrons (MeV). Ultra-intense laser plasma interactions have been intensively studied using the Peta Watt Module (PWM) laser system synchronized with the GEKKO XII laser system. The ultra-intense laser pulse of 50J energy, 0.5-1 psec pulse width and 1053 nm laser wavelength could be focused onto a preformed plasma created on a solid target at an intensity of 1e19 W/cm2. The preformed plasma had a cut-off density surface at around 100 micron from the surface. Changing the focus position of this 100 TW laser pulse relative to the preformed plasma, we found an anomalous mode. Side view of x-ray pinhole camera showed that there was a local tiny spot almost at the surface of the solid target which indicates the propagation of the pulse in the long scale-length plasma into an over-dense region for over 100 micorn distance. The erergy spectrum and angular distribution of more than MeV electrons were measured. Its energy transport was studied with K-a spectroscopy. The backscattered light of the ultra-intense laser light was spectrally and spatially resolved. The backscattered light image showed several hot spots within the focused region. The spatilally resolved spectra of the backscattered light were totally different at the hot spots and surrounding regions. The details of neutron spectra were measured using ``MANDALA" neutron spectormeters with a total of 841 channel photo-multiplier detectors. The data indicates that deuterium ions were accelerated by the hot electrons up to 100 keV and created beam fusion reactions within solid CD targets. Guiding channels were created utilizing a ponderomotive self-focusing in preformed plasmas created on a solid target. The self-focus channel was measured by both UV and x-ray laser probes. The details of the experiment as well as the theoretical

  8. XUV radiation from gaseous nitrogen and argon target laser plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, P.; Vrbová, M.; Brůža, P.; Pánek, D.; Krejčí, F.; Kroupa, M.; Jakůbek, J.

    2012-06-01

    Laser plasma created in gaseous target is studied as a source of radiation in the "water window" wavelength range. Plasma is created by focusing an 800 mJ/7 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse into the gas-puff target. Using nitrogen gas results in emission of an intense quasi-monochromatic radiation with the wavelength 2.88 nm, corresponding to the quantum transition 1s2p → 1s2 of helium -like nitrogen ion. The emission spectrum with argon target covers all the water window range. Laboratory and computer experiments have been performed for both target gases. The spatial distributions of emitted energy in the water window spectral range were compared. The total emitted energy with argon was one order higher than with nitrogen.

  9. Electron beam charge diagnostics for laser plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Lin, C.; Smith, A.; Rodgers, D.; Donahue, R.; Byrne, W.; Leemans, W. P.

    2011-06-01

    A comprehensive study of charge diagnostics is conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). First, a scintillating screen (Lanex) was extensively studied using subnanosecond electron beams from the Advanced Light Source booster synchrotron, at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The Lanex was cross calibrated with an integrating current transformer (ICT) for up to the electron energy of 1.5 GeV, and the linear response of the screen was confirmed for charge density and intensity up to 160pC/mm2 and 0.4pC/(psmm2), respectively. After the radio-frequency accelerator based cross calibration, a series of measurements was conducted using electron beams from an LPA. Cross calibrations were carried out using an activation-based measurement that is immune to electromagnetic pulse noise, ICT, and Lanex. The diagnostics agreed within ±8%, showing that they all can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs.

  10. Laser-plasma-based linear collider using hollow plasma channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, C. B.; Benedetti, C.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-09-01

    A linear electron-positron collider based on laser-plasma accelerators using hollow plasma channels is considered. Laser propagation and energy depletion in the hollow channel is discussed, as well as the overall efficiency of the laser-plasma accelerator. Example parameters are presented for a 1-TeV and 3-TeV center-of-mass collider based on laser-plasma accelerators.

  11. Relativistic effects in the interaction of high intensity ultra-short laser pulse with collisional underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Abedi, Samira; Dorranian, Davoud; Abari, Mehdi Etehadi; Shokri, Babak

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, the effect of weakly relativistic ponderomotive force in the interaction of intense laser pulse with nonisothermal, underdense, collisional plasma is studied. Ponderomotive force modifies the electron density and temperature distribution. By considering the weakly relativistic effect and ohmic heating of plasma electrons, the nonlinear dielectric permittivity of plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. It is shown that with considering the ohmic heating of electrons and collisions, the effect of ponderomotive force in weakly relativistic regime leads to steepening the electron density profile and increases the temperature of plasma electrons noticeably. Bunches of electrons in plasma become narrower. By increasing the laser pulse strength, the wavelength of density oscillations decreases. In this regime of laser-plasma interaction, electron temperature increases sharply by increasing the intensity of laser pulse. The amplitude of electric and magnetic fields increases by increasing the laser pulse energy while their wavelength decreases and they lost their sinusoidal form.

  12. Current new applications of laser plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hauer, A.A.; Forslund, D.W.; McKinstrie, C.J.; Wark, J.S.; Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Hamil, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes several new applications of laser-produced plasmas that have arisen in the last few years. Most of the applications have been an outgrowth of the active research in laser/matter interaction inspired by the pursuit of laser fusion. Unusual characteristics of high-intensity laser/matter interaction, such as intense x-ray and particle emission, were noticed early in the field and are now being employed in a significant variety of applications outside the fusion filed. Applications range from biology to materials science to pulsed-power control and particle accelerators. 92 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. A Dual Aspect Process Model of Intensive Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firth, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Intensive Interaction is an empirically researched approach to developing fundamental communication and sociability for people with severe and profound learning disabilities and/or autism. However, it is the author's contention that certain aspects of Intensive Interaction are not universally conceptualised in a uniform manner, and that there are…

  14. Laser plasma at low air pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vas'kovskii, Iu. M.; Moiseev, V. N.; Rovinskii, R. E.; Tsenina, I. S.

    1993-01-01

    The ambient-pressure dependences of the dynamic and optical characteristics of a laser plasma generated by CO2-laser irradiation of an obstacle are investigated experimentally. The change of the sample's surface roughness after irradiation is investigated as a function of air pressure. It is concluded that the transition from the air plasma to the erosion plasma takes place at an air pressure of about 1 mm Hg. The results confirm the existing theory of plasma formation near the surface of an obstacle under the CO2-laser pulse effect in air.

  15. Generation of highly collimated high-current ion beams by skin-layer laser-plasma interaction at relativistic laser intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Badziak, J.; Jablonski, S.; Glowacz, S.

    2006-08-07

    Generation of fast ion beams by laser-induced skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration has been studied using a two-dimensional (2D) two-fluid relativistic computer code. It is shown that the key parameter determining the spatial structure and angular divergence of the ion beam is the ratio d{sub L}/L{sub n}, where d{sub L} is the laser beam diameter and L{sub n} is the plasma density gradient scale length. When d{sub L}>>L{sub n}, a dense highly collimated megaampere ion (proton) beam of the ion current density approaching TA/cm{sup 2} can be generated by skin-layer ponderomotive acceleration, even with a tabletop subpicosecond laser.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of laser plasma in a deep crater

    SciTech Connect

    Kononenko, Taras V; Konov, Vitalii I; Walter, D; Dausinger, F

    2009-04-30

    The time dynamics of plasma-emission spectra is studied experimentally at different stages of the drilling of a steel plate by 100-fs and 5-ps laser pulses: from a shallow crater to a hole. The change in the time dependence of the plasma temperature caused by variations in the irradiated surface geometry is analysed. It is found that the time interval needed to reach a particular temperature (about 8000 K) drastically increases from 40-50 to 150-200 ns when a specific crater depth is achieved. The opposite tendency is observed as the crater depth grows further and a hole is produced. Strong self-absorption in a plasma plume inside a deep crater is experimentally confirmed which results in the appearance of line absorption against a continuous emission spectrum. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  17. Laser plasma instability experiments with KrF lasersa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Afeyan, B.; Phillips, L.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.; Brown, C.; Karasik, M.; Serlin, V.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Mostovych, A. N.; Holland, G.; Obenschain, S.; Chan, L.-Y.; Kehne, D.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Schmitt, A. J.; Colombant, D.; Velikovich, A.

    2007-05-01

    Deleterious effects of laser-plasma instability (LPI) may limit the maximum laser irradiation that can be used for inertial confinement fusion. The short wavelength (248nm), large bandwidth, and very uniform illumination available with krypton-fluoride (KrF) lasers should increase the maximum usable intensity by suppressing LPI. The concomitant increase in ablation pressure would allow implosion of low-aspect-ratio pellets to ignition with substantial gain (>20) at much reduced laser energy. The proposed KrF-laser-based Fusion Test Facility (FTF) would exploit this strategy to achieve significant fusion power (150MW) with a rep-rate system that has a per pulse laser energy well below 1 MJ. Measurements of LPI using the Nike KrF laser are presented at and above intensities needed for the FTF (I˜2×1015W/cm2). The results to date indicate that LPI is indeed suppressed. With overlapped beam intensity above the planar, single beam intensity threshold for the two-plasmon decay instability, no evidence of instability was observed via measurements of 3/2ωo and 1/2ωo harmonic emissions.

  18. Intense Magnetized Plasma-Wall Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Bruno S.; Fuelling, Stephan

    2013-11-30

    This research project studied wall-plasma interactions relevant to fusion science. Such interactions are a critical aspect of Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) because flux compression by a pusher material, in particular the metal for the liner approach to MIF, involves strong eddy current heating on the surface of the pusher, and probably interactions and mixing of the pusher with the interior fuel during the time when fusion fuel is being burned. When the pusher material is a metal liner, high-energy-density conditions result in fascinating behavior. For example, "warm dense matter" is produced, for which material properties such as resistivity and opacity are not well known. In this project, the transformation into plasma of metal walls subjected to pulsed megagauss magnetic fields was studied with an experiment driven by the UNR 1 MA Zebra generator. The experiment was numerically simulated with using the MHRDR code. This simple, fundamental high-energy-density physics experiment, in a regime appropriate to MIF, has stimulated an important and fascinating comparison of numerical modeling codes and tables with experiment. In addition, we participated in developing the FRCHX experiment to compress a field-reversed-configuration (FRC) plasma with a liner, in collaboration with researchers from Air Force Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Lab, and we helped develop diagnostics for the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL. Last, but not least, this project served to train students in high-energy-density physics.

  19. Revisiting trough interactions and tropical cyclone intensity change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peirano, C. M.; Corbosiero, K. L.; Tang, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    An updated climatology of Atlantic basin tropical cyclone (TC) intensity change in the presence of upper tropospheric trough forcing is presented. To control for changes in the background thermodynamic environment, a methodology that normalizes intensity change by the potential intensity of the TC is used to more narrowly focus on the effect of troughs compared to previous studies. Relative to the full sample of Atlantic TCs, troughs are a negative influence on intensification: trough interaction cases are 4% less likely to intensify and 5% more likely to weaken. Troughs are especially detrimental compared to TCs without trough forcing: trough interaction cases are 14% less likely to intensify and 13% more likely to weaken. Additionally, eddy flux convergence of angular momentum, previously shown to positively affect TC intensity change, is shown to be a weak predictor of intensity change compared to vertical wind shear, which is enhanced during a trough interaction.

  20. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Generating collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation from an X-pinch in the wavelength region 0.4-1.0 nm by means of spherical crystal mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenov, A. Ya; Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    1993-05-01

    The generation of collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation in the wavelength interval 0.4-1.0 nm from an X-pinch is reported. This is the first such report. High-quality mica crystals with dimensions of 10 × (30-35) mm were used to form beams with an energy of 2-3.2 μJ, a wavelength spread Δλ/λ=4 · 10-3, and a divergence of 5 · 10-4 rad. The mica crystals were bent into spherical surfaces with a radius of curvature of 10 or 25 cm. The characteristics of the resulting beams are compared with those of the beams from Ta lasers, with a wavelength ~4.5 nm, which are the shortest-wavelength x-ray lasers which have been reported to date. This comparison shows that the beams obtained in the present study are better than those from the Ta laser in terms of several characteristics (divergence, wavelength, and efficiency), while they are worse (but not greatly so) in terms of certain other characteristics (wavelength spread and energy in the pulse. It is thus possible today to solve many practical problems involving the use of collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation in the wavelength interval 0.25-2.0 nm. These problems can be solved with the help of the x radiation from an X-pinch or from plasmas produced by picosecond or femtosecond table-top lasers and short-focal-length, large-aperture crystal mirrors.

  1. Carbon Multicharged Ion Generation from Laser Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2014-10-01

    Multicharged ions (MCI) have potential uses in different areas such as microelectronics and medical physics. Carbon MCI therapy for cancer treatment is considered due to its localized energy delivery to hard-to-reach tumors at a minimal damage to surrounding tissues. We use a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 40 ns pulse width operated at 1064 nm to ablate a graphite target in ultrahigh vacuum. A time-of-flight energy analyzer followed by a Faraday cup is used to characterize the carbon MCI extracted from the laser plasma. The MCI charge state and energy distribution are obtained. With increase in the laser fluence, the ion charge states and ion energy are increased. Carbon MCI up to C+9 are observed along with carbon clusters. When an acceleration voltage is applied between the carbon target and a grounded mesh, ion extraction is observed to increase with the applied voltage. National Science Foundation.

  2. Staging of laser-plasma accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinke, S.; van Tilborg, J.; Benedetti, C.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Daniels, J.; Swanson, K. K.; Gonsalves, A. J.; Nakamura, K.; Shaw, B. H.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.

    2016-05-01

    We present results of an experiment where two laser-plasma-accelerator stages are coupled at a short distance by a plasma mirror. Stable electron beams from the first stage were used to longitudinally probe the dark-current-free, quasi-linear wakefield excited by the laser of the second stage. Changing the arrival time of the electron beam with respect to the second stage laser pulse allowed reconstruction of the temporal wakefield structure, determination of the plasma density, and inference of the length of the electron beam. The first stage electron beam could be focused by an active plasma lens to a spot size smaller than the transverse wake size at the entrance of the second stage. This permitted electron beam trapping, verified by a 100 MeV energy gain.

  3. Simulations of the interaction of intense petawatt laser pulses with dense Z-pinch plasmas : final report LDRD 39670.

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, Dale Robert; MacFarlane, Joseph John; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Campbell, Robert B.

    2004-11-01

    We have studied the feasibility of using the 3D fully electromagnetic implicit hybrid particle code LSP (Large Scale Plasma) to study laser plasma interactions with dense, compressed plasmas like those created with Z, and which might be created with the planned ZR. We have determined that with the proper additional physics and numerical algorithms developed during the LDRD period, LSP was transformed into a unique platform for studying such interactions. Its uniqueness stems from its ability to consider realistic compressed densities and low initial target temperatures (if required), an ability that conventional PIC codes do not possess. Through several test cases, validations, and applications to next generation machines described in this report, we have established the suitability of the code to look at fast ignition issues for ZR, as well as other high-density laser plasma interaction problems relevant to the HEDP program at Sandia (e.g. backlighting).

  4. Mapping the x-ray emission region in a laser-plasma accelerator.

    PubMed

    Corde, S; Thaury, C; Phuoc, K Ta; Lifschitz, A; Lambert, G; Faure, J; Lundh, O; Benveniste, E; Ben-Ismail, A; Arantchuk, L; Marciniak, A; Stordeur, A; Brijesh, P; Rousse, A; Specka, A; Malka, V

    2011-11-18

    The x-ray emission in laser-plasma accelerators can be a powerful tool to understand the physics of relativistic laser-plasma interaction. It is shown here that the mapping of betatron x-ray radiation can be obtained from the x-ray beam profile when an aperture mask is positioned just beyond the end of the emission region. The influence of the plasma density on the position and the longitudinal profile of the x-ray emission is investigated and compared to particle-in-cell simulations. The measurement of the x-ray emission position and length provides insight on the dynamics of the interaction, including the electron self-injection region, possible multiple injection, and the role of the electron beam driven wakefield. PMID:22181891

  5. Optical shaping of gas targets for laser-plasma ion sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dover, N. P.; Cook, N.; Tresca, O.; Ettlinger, O.; Maharjan, C.; Polyanskiy, M. N.; Shkolnikov, P.; Pogorelsky, I.; Najmudin, Z.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the experimental demonstration of a technique to generate steep density gradients in gas-jet targets of interest to laser-plasma ion acceleration. By using an intentional low-energy prepulse, we generated a hydrodynamic blast wave in the gas to shape the target prior to the arrival of an intense CO2 λ≈ 10m drive pulse. This technique has been recently shown to facilitate the generation of ion beams by shockwave acceleration (Tresca et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 115 (9), 2015, 094802). Here, we discuss and introduce a model to understand the generation of these blast waves and discuss in depth the experimental realisation of the technique, supported by hydrodynamics simulations. With appropriate prepulse energy and timing, this blast wave can generate steepened density gradients as short as &ap 20μm (1/e), opening up new possibilities for laser-plasma studies with near-critical gaseous targets.

  6. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator.

    PubMed

    Andriyash, I A; Lehe, R; Lifschitz, A; Thaury, C; Rax, J-M; Krushelnick, K; Malka, V

    2014-01-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas. PMID:25145401

  7. An ultracompact X-ray source based on a laser-plasma undulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriyash, I. A.; Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A.; Thaury, C.; Rax, J.-M.; Krushelnick, K.; Malka, V.

    2014-08-01

    The capability of plasmas to sustain ultrahigh electric fields has attracted considerable interest over the last decades and has given rise to laser-plasma engineering. Today, plasmas are commonly used for accelerating and collimating relativistic electrons, or to manipulate intense laser pulses. Here we propose an ultracompact plasma undulator that combines plasma technology and nanoengineering. When coupled with a laser-plasma accelerator, this undulator constitutes a millimetre-sized synchrotron radiation source of X-rays. The undulator consists of an array of nanowires, which are ionized by the laser pulse exiting from the accelerator. The strong charge-separation field, arising around the wires, efficiently wiggles the laser-accelerated electrons. We demonstrate that this system can produce bright, collimated and tunable beams of photons with 10-100 keV energies. This concept opens a path towards a new generation of compact synchrotron sources based on nanostructured plasmas.

  8. Summary Report of Working Group 6: Laser-Plasma Acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Leemans, Wim P.; Downer, Michael; Siders, Craig

    2006-07-01

    A summary is given of presentations and discussions in theLaser-Plasma Acceleration Working Group at the 2006 Advanced AcceleratorConcepts Workshop. Presentation highlights include: widespreadobservation of quasi-monoenergetic electrons; good agreement betweenmeasured and simulated beam properties; the first demonstration oflaser-plasma acceleration up to 1 GeV; single-shot visualization of laserwakefield structure; new methods for measuring<100 fs electronbunches; and new methods for "machining" laser-plasma acceleratorstructures. Discussion of future direction includes: developing a roadmapfor laser-plasma acceleration beyond 1 GeV; a debate over injection andguiding; benchmarking simulations with improved wake diagnostics;petawatt laser technology for future laser-plasmaaccelerators.

  9. Study of mechanisms for magnetic field diffusion into an expanding laser plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bessarab, A. V.; Bondarenko, G. A.; Dolgoleva, G. V.; Zhmailo, V. A.; Kunin, A. V.; Nikitin, I. N.; Novikova, E. A.; Statsenko, V. P.; Sungatullin, R. R.

    2007-10-15

    The interaction of plasma clouds generated during laser irradiation of a spherical target in a background gas with a magnetic field was studied on the MKV-4 test bench of the Iskra-5 facility. The dynamics of the plasma cloud expansion in a 300- to 500-Oe magnetic field was investigated using magnetic and probe diagnostics. The results obtained are compared with calculations by different models of laser plasma diffusion in a magnetic field.

  10. Intense high repetition rate Mo Kα x-ray source generated from laser solid interaction for imaging application

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.; Li, M. H.; Yan, W. C.; Ma, Y.; Zhao, J. R.; Li, Y. F.; Chen, L. M.; Guo, X.; Li, D. Z.; Chen, Y. P.; Zhang, J.

    2014-11-15

    We report an efficient Mo Kα x-ray source produced by interaction of femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser pulses with a solid Molybdenum target working at 1 kHz repetition rate. The generated Mo Kα x-ray intensity reaches to 4.7 × 10{sup 10} photons sr{sup −1} s{sup −1}, corresponding to an average power of 0.8 mW into 2π solid angle. The spatial resolution of this x-ray source is measured to be 26 lp/mm. With the high flux and high spatial resolution characteristics, high resolving in-line x-ray radiography was realized on test objects and large size biological samples within merely half a minute. This experiment shows the possibility of laser plasma hard x-ray source as a new low cost and high resolution system for radiography and its ability of ultrafast x-ray pump-probe study of matter.