Science.gov

Sample records for intensive hog farming

  1. People on the Farm: Corn and Hog Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet provides information on corn and hog farming on a small farm through a profile of a farm family. According to the profile, John and Mary Miller and their three children are a comfortable family operating a corn and hog farm in Iowa. John, the principal farmer, uses a variety of skills in management, veterinary science, soil science,…

  2. Energy integrated farm system: Del Valle Hog Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The Del Valle Hog Farm, a Texas hog farm with grain crops, is designed to conserve energy through methane generation, alcohol production, and efficient use of electrical energy. The integrated energy concepts to be demonstrated are: methane generation from swine manure to produce electricity and heat for alcohol fermentation and distillation and to produce hot water for heating the digester reactors and the hog feeding pens; and alcohol production from milo and distillation of 170 proof alcohol by use of methane and generated electricity. Specific energy technologies to be implemented are: anaerobic digester; gas compressors to store methane for peak demands; engine generator powered by methane; waste-heat exchanger on engine generator to produce hot water; continuous-process alcohol facility to produce 24 gal/day; and crop management.

  3. Hog farm in California uses anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, D.

    1995-12-31

    This article describes a system of covered lagoons which help address the waste management problems of hog farmers as well as producing methane used to power generators. Four advantages of anaerobic digestion are described along with the system: energy production from methane; fertilizer for fields; economic development in rural areas; and improved water quality through reduction of nonpoint source pollution. Address for full report is given.

  4. Groundwater Contamination Due to Activities of an Intensive Hog Farming Operation Located on a Geologic Fault in East Mediterranean: A Study on COD, BOD₅ and Microbial Load.

    PubMed

    Michalopoulos, Charalampos; Tzamtzis, Nikolaos; Liodakis, Stylianos

    2016-02-01

    The application of treated animal wastewater produced in intensive fog farming operations (IHFOs) on surface soil, leads to groundwater contamination. In this study, the contamination of a Mediterranean aquifer caused by long-term application of treated wastewater, produced by an IHFO, on a plot with a geologic fault within the IHFO boundaries, was investigated. Groundwater samples were taken from monitoring wells close to the IHFO. A significant increase of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), total viable count (TVC) and total coliform (TC) concentrations was found in wells, compared to control monitoring well, which were mainly affected by the subsurface flow of contaminated water, due to the presence of the geologic fault. During the winter, significant increases in concentrations of COD, BOD5, TVC and TC were noted and attributed to increased precipitation, which assisted in the accelerated transport of organic compounds and microbial load, through geologic fault, to groundwater. PMID:26290314

  5. Comparison of airborne bacterial communities from a hog farm and spray field.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Sung, Jung-Suk

    2015-05-01

    Airborne bacteria from hog farms may have detrimental impacts on human health, particularly in terms of antibiotic resistance and pathogen zoonosis. Despite human health risks, very little is known about the composition and diversity of airborne bacteria from hog farms and hog-related spray fields. We used pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes to compare airborne bacterial communities in a North Carolina hog farm and lagoon spray field. In addition, we isolated and identified antibiotic-resistant bacteria from both air samples. Based on 16S rRNA gene pyrosequence analysis, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the dominant phyla in airborne bacterial communities from both hog farm and spray field sites. Within the Firmicutes genera, Clostridium spp. were more abundant in the hog farm, whereas Staphylococcus spp. were higher in the spray field. The presence of opportunitic pathogens, including several Staphylococcus species and Propionibacterium acnes, was detected in both bioaerosol communities based on phylogenetic analysis. The isolation and identification of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from air samples also showed similar results with dominance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in both hog farm and spray field air. Thus, the existence of opportunistic pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria in airborne communities evidences potential health risks to farmers and other residents from swine bioaerosol exposure. PMID:25406533

  6. Study of the ubiquitous hog farm system using wireless sensor networks for environmental monitoring and facilities control.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  7. Study of the Ubiquitous Hog Farm System Using Wireless Sensor Networks for Environmental Monitoring and Facilities Control

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeonghwan; Yoe, Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Many hog farmers are now suffering from high pig mortality rates due to various wasting diseases and increased breeding costs, etc. It is therefore necessary for hog farms to implement systematic and scientific pig production technology to increase productivity and produce high quality pork in order to solve these problems. In this study, we describe such a technology by suggesting a ubiquitous hog farm system which applies WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) technology to the pig industry. We suggest that a WSN and CCTV (Closed-circuit television) should be installed on hog farms to collect environmental and image information which shall then help producers not only in monitoring the hog farm via the Web from outside the farm, but also facilitate the control of hog farm facilities in remote locations. In addition, facilities can be automatically controlled based on breeding environment parameters which are already set up and a SMS notice service to notify of deviations shall provide users with convenience. Hog farmers may increase production and improve pork quality through this ubiquitous hog farm system and prepare a database with information collected from environmental factors and the hog farm control devices, which is expected to provide information needed to design and implement suitable control strategies for hog farm operation. PMID:22163497

  8. Prevention of losses for hog farmers in China: insurance, on-farm biosecurity practices, and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yue-hua; Li, Chu-Shiu; Liu, Chwen-Chi; Chen, Kevin Z

    2013-10-01

    Using agricultural household survey data and claim records from insurers in China, this paper analyzes hog producers' choice of the ways to prevent possible losses and identifies the relationships among biosecurity practices, vaccination, and hog insurance. By combining one probit and two structural equations, we adopt three-stage estimations by a mixed-process model to obtain results. The findings indicate that biosecurity practices provide the basic infrastructure for operating pig farms and complement both the usage of quality vaccines and the uptake of hog insurance. In addition, there is a strong substitution relationship between the quality of vaccine and the demand for hog insurance. Hog farmers that implement better biosecurity practices are more likely to seek high-quality vaccines or buy into hog insurance schemes, but not both. For those households with hog insurance, better biosecurity status, better management practices, and higher-quality vaccines significantly help to reduce loss ratios. However, we also find a moral hazard effect in that higher premium expenditures by the insured households might induce larger loss ratios. PMID:23870329

  9. Modeling studies of ammonia dispersion and dry deposition at some hog farms in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep S; Arya, S Pal; Aneja, Viney P

    2008-09-01

    A modeling study was conducted on dispersion and dry deposition of ammonia taking one hog farm as a unit. The ammonia emissions used in this study were measured under our OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen) project over a waste lagoon and from hog barns. Meteorological data were also collected at the farm site. The actual layout of barns and lagoons on the farms was used to simulate dry deposition downwind of the farm. Dry deposition velocity, dispersion, and dry deposition of ammonia were studied over different seasons and under different stability conditions using the short-range dispersion/air quality model, AERMOD. Dry deposition velocities were highest under near-neutral conditions and lowest under stable conditions. The highest deposition at short range occurred under nighttime stable conditions and the lowest occurred during daytime unstable conditions. Significant differences in deposition over crop and grass surfaces were observed under stable conditions. PMID:18817112

  10. Preliminary evaluation of swine manure as alternative feedstock for the Del Valle Hog Farm fuel alcohol facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Vinson, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this proejct was to investigate the use of swine manure as a feedstock for fuel alcohol plants. The project was conducted on the Del Valle Hog Farm and made use of the 24 gal/day fuel alcohol plant in operation there. The project involved the determination of the starch content of various samples of hog manure, and if an adequate source of starch was found, to use that manure as feedstock in full scale tests that would lead to a determination of the economic feasibility of such use. A full scale test consists of the conversion and fermentation of about 250 gallon batches of test feedstock. The production yield was determined by measurement of evolved gas during fermentation. The analysis of raw hog manure samples indicate that a good portion, about 19% by weight, of the dry matter is starch. The plant modifications required to operate with hog manure as feedstock appear to be reasonable and inexpensive. Full efficiency of conversion and fermentation was achieved with mash of about 4% solids concentration. However, with solids concentrations of 10% to 15%, the yeast died within a short time. A theory for the yeast deaths is that some yeast poison is present in the manure, and that it can be mitigated by dilution with water. Lab scale experiments confirm the dilution dependent behavior, however, no determination of the nature of the poison has been made. The study concludes that hog manure would be a viable feedstock if the yeast deaths can be prevented. The mash concentration could then be raised to 25% solids, and with screened manure of say 40% starch, the alcohol plant would work at 137% capacity with the same operating costs (acid, lime, yeast, but not heat) as with a batch of milo.

  11. Use of passive samplers to measure atmospheric ammonia levels in a high-density industrial hog farm area of eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) in North Carolina release ammonia (NH 3), hydrogen sulfide, VOCs, and particulate matter to the atmosphere. These operations are located mainly in the NC coastal plain and can create potential health hazards for nearby human populations. Limited work has been performed to measure NH 3 at the community level to assess potential human exposure. In an effort to address this issue, a study was designed to measure NH 3 levels near hog CAFOs and community locations (i.e. homes and schools) in Eastern NC. NH 3 was collected using passive diffusion tubes in triplicate exposed primarily in weekly intervals. Sampling occurred from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) at varying distances from hog CAFOs in close proximity to homes and schools. Average weekly NH3 levels were measured as mass (μg NH 3-N) and converted to concentration (ppb). Mean level of 13.8 ppb near homes and schools (<2 km) was 4-12 times greater than ambient background levels (1-3 ppb), reaching as high as 80 ppb. Exposed sites (<2 km from a hog CAFO) had a mean level of 12.8 ppb which was over 2 times higher than the mean level of 5.5 ppb at less exposed sites (>2 km from a hog CAFO). The study establishes that passive sampling can be effectively used to measure average atmospheric ammonia levels at community locations near hog CAFOs in Eastern NC. The collected data indicate the relative exposure for human populations who live near a hog CAFO. The closer a populace is to the hog CAFO, the more intense the exposure. These results require more validation in the field by comparison to a reference method.

  12. Assessment of soil-gas and soil contamination at the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Andral W.; Falls, W. Fred; Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil gas and soil were assessed for contaminants at the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area at Fort Gordon, Georgia, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included delineating organic contaminants present in soil-gas and inorganic contaminants present in soil samples collected from the area estimated to be the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area. This assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to Fort Gordon personnel pursuant to requirements for the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. All soil-gas samplers contained total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. The highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass detected was 121.32 micrograms in a soil-gas sampler from the western corner of the Old Metal Workshop Hog Farm Area along Sawmill Road. The highest undecane mass detected was 73.28 micrograms at the same location as the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon mass. Some soil-gas samplers detected toluene mass greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram; the highest detection of toluene mass was 0.07 microgram. Some soil-gas samplers were installed in areas of high-contaminant mass to assess for explosives and chemical agents. Explosives or chemical agents were not detected above their respective method detection levels for all soil-gas samplers installed. Inorganic concentrations in five soil samples collected did not exceed regional screening levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Barium concentrations, however, were up to eight times higher than the background concentrations reported in similar Coastal Plain sediments of South Carolina.

  13. Organic Farming Benefits Local Plant Diversity in Vineyard Farms Located in Intensive Agricultural Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  14. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-01-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10706528

  15. Environmental injustice in North Carolina's hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Cole, D; Grant, G

    2000-03-01

    Rapid growth and the concentration of hog production in North Carolina have raised concerns of a disproportionate impact of pollution and offensive odors on poor and nonwhite communities. We analyzed the location and characteristics of 2,514 intensive hog operations in relation to racial, economic, and water source characteristics of census block groups, neighborhoods with an average of approximately 500 households each. We used Poisson regression to evaluate the extent to which relationships between environmental justice variables and the number of hog operations persisted after consideration of population density. There are 18.9 times as many hog operations in the highest quintile of poverty as compared to the lowest; however, adjustment for population density reduces the excess to 7.2. Hog operations are approximately 5 times as common in the highest three quintiles of the percentage nonwhite population as compared to the lowest, adjusted for population density. The excess of hog operations is greatest in areas with both high poverty and high percentage nonwhites. Operations run by corporate integrators are more concentrated in poor and nonwhite areas than are operations run by independent growers. Most hog operations, which use waste pits that can contaminate groundwater, are located in areas with high dependence on well water for drinking. Disproportionate impacts of intensive hog production on people of color and on the poor may impede improvements in economic and environmental conditions that are needed to address public health in areas which have high disease rates and low access to medical care as compared to other areas of the state. PMID:10706528

  16. INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF HOG BARN SHOWING MILKING STANCHIONS AND DIAGONAL SHEATHING, LOOKING EAST. (In the 1940s the hog barn was converted to a calf barn to service the growing dairy. After a fire on the property took the Engle’s main barn in 1954, the building was converted into a milking parlor.) - Engle Farm, Barn, 89 South Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  17. Duck nesting in intensively farmed areas of North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higgins, K.F.

    1977-01-01

    A study to determine the major factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas in eastern North Dakota was conducted from 1969 through 1974. A total of 186 duck nests was found during searches on 6,018 ha of upland. Nest density per km2 for 5 major habitat types was 20.2 in untilled upland, 3.7 in standing grain stubble, 1.6 in mulched grain stubble, 1.2 in summer fallow, and 1.1 in growing grain. Pintails (Anas acuta) nested in cultivated cropland types in greater prevalence than other duck species. Nest densities were 12 times greater on untilled upland (20.2/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (1.7/km2), and hatched-clutch densities were 16 times greater on untilled upland (4.8/km2) than on annually tilled cropland (0.3/km2). Hatching success was greater on untilled upland (25%) than on tilled cropland (17%). Of 186 nests found, 77 percent did not hatch; 76 percent of the failures were attributed to predators and 19 percent to farming operations. Poor quality nesting cover, the result of intensive land use practices, and nesting failures caused by machinery and predators mainly mammals, were the principal factors limiting duck nesting and production on intensively farmed areas.

  18. Predicting the distribution of intensive poultry farming in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; D’Aietti, Laura; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Intensification of animal production can be an important factor in the emergence of infectious diseases because changes in production structure influence disease transmission patterns. In 2004 and 2005, Thailand was subject to two highly pathogenic avian influenza epidemic waves and large surveys were conducted of the poultry sector, providing detailed spatial data on various poultry types. This study analysed these data with the aim of establishing the distributions of extensive and intensive poultry farms, based on the number of birds per holder. Once poultry data were disaggregated into these two production systems, they were analysed in relation to anthropogenic factors using simultaneous autoregressive models. Intensive chicken production was clustered around the capital city of Bangkok and close to the main consumption and export centres. Intensively-raised ducks, mainly free-grazing, showed a distinct pattern with the highest densities distributed in a large area located in the floodplain of the Chao Phraya River. Accessibility to Bangkok, the percentage of irrigated areas and human population density were the most important predictors explaining the geographical distribution of intensively-raised poultry. The distribution of extensive poultry showed a higher predictability. Extensive poultry farms were distributed more homogeneously across the country and their distribution was best predicted by human population density. PMID:22323841

  19. Effect of farming strategies on environmental impact of intensive dairy farms in Italy.

    PubMed

    Guerci, Matteo; Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Penati, Chiara; Tamburini, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Agriculture and animal husbandry are important contributors to global emissions of greenhouse (GHG) and acidifying gases. Moreover, they contribute to water pollution and to consumption of non-renewable natural resources such as land and energy. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows evaluation of the environmental impact of a process from the production of inputs to the final product and to assess simultaneously several environmental impact categories among which GHG emissions, acidification, eutrophication, land use and energy use. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate, using the LCA methodology, the environmental impact of milk production in a sample of 41 intensive Italian dairy farms and to identify, among different farming strategies, those associated with the best environmental performances. The functional unit was 1 kg Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). Farms showed characteristics of high production intensity: FPCM, expressed as tonnes per hectare, was 30·8±15·1. Total GHG emission per kg FPCM at farm gate was 1·30±0·19 kg CO2 eq. The main contributors to climate change potential were emissions from barns and manure storage (50·1%) and emissions for production and transportation of purchased feeds (21·2%). Average emission of gases causing acidification to produce 1 kg FPCM was 19·7±3·6 g of SO2 eq. Eutrophication potential was 9·01±1·78 ${\\rm PO}_{\\rm 4}^{{\\rm 3} -} {\\rm eq}.$ per kg FPCM on average. Farms from this study needed on average 5·97±1·32 MJ per kg FPCM from non-renewable energy sources. Energy consumption was mainly due to off-farm activities (58%) associated with purchased factors. Land use was 1·51±0·25 m2 per kg FPCM. The farming strategy based on high conversion efficiency at animal level was identified as the most effective to mitigate the environmental impact per kg milk at farm gate, especially in terms of GHG production and non-renewable energy use per kg FPCM. PMID:23806128

  20. Production costs and animal welfare for four stylized hog production systems.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Lacey; Norwood, F Bailey

    2011-01-01

    Nonhuman animal welfare is arguably the most contentious issue facing the hog industry. Animal advocacy groups influence the regulation of hog farms and induce some consumers to demand more humane pork products. Hog producers are understandably reluctant to improve animal well being unless the premium they extract exceeds the corresponding increase in cost. To better understand the relationship between animal welfare and production costs under different farm systems, this study investigates 4 stylized hog production systems. The results show that increasing animal welfare for all hogs in the United States will increase retail pork prices by a maximum of 2% for a small welfare increase and 5% for a large welfare increase. The cost of banning gestation crates measured by this study is lower than the consumer willingness-to-pay from other studies. PMID:21191844

  1. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  2. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  3. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  4. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  5. 9 CFR 311.3 - Hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... kidneys and the lymph nodes which resemble lesions of hog cholera, they shall be regarded as those of hog... kidneys and lymph nodes of carcasses of hogs which appeared normal on ante-mortem inspection, further..., characteristic lesions of hog cholera are found in some organ or tissue in addition to those in the kidneys or...

  6. From pigsties to hog heaven?

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, D A

    2001-01-01

    In the continuing transformation of U.S. agriculture, North Carolina finds itself on the front edge of change. Between 1989 and 1998, the number of hogs in the state's pork industry quintupled---and so has the amount of hog waste that must be disposed of. Now the state has engaged private and public resources in a rapid search for better ways for handling hog waste. A technology review panel has approved the first round of proposals for a number of novel technologies to be developed through funds from a government-industry agreement. A second batch of proposals is expected to be approved by late summer. PMID:11485887

  7. General view of Crow Farm, view looking east of Crow ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of Crow Farm, view looking east of Crow Farm, showing farm house, hog house, and coal house - Jacob Crow Farm, Crow Creek Road, 1 mile south of intersection of Routes 15 & 28, Cameron, Marshall County, WV

  8. Assessing hog lagoon waste contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed using Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Arfken, Ann M; Song, Bongkeun; Mallin, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    Hog lagoons can be major sources of waste and nutrient contamination to watersheds adjacent to pig farms. Fecal source tracking methods targeting Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in pig fecal matter may underestimate or fail to detect hog lagoon contamination in riverine environments. In order to detect hog lagoon wastewater contamination in the Cape Fear Watershed, where a large number of hog farms are present, we conducted pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes in hog lagoon waste and identified new hog lagoon-specific marker sequences. Additional pyrosequencing analyses of Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA genes were conducted with surface water samples collected at 4 sites during 5 months in the Cape Fear Watershed. Using an operational taxonomic unit (OTU) identity cutoff value of 97 %, these newly identified hog lagoon markers were found in 3 of the river samples, while only 1 sample contained the pig fecal marker. In the sample containing the pig fecal marker, there was a relatively high percentage (14.1 %) of the hog lagoon markers and a low pig fecal marker relative abundance of 0.4 % in the Bacteroidetes 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that hog lagoon contamination must be somewhat significant in order for pig fecal markers to be detected, and low levels of hog lagoon contamination cannot be detected targeting only pig-specific fecal markers. Thus, new hog lagoon markers have a better detection capacity for lagoon waste contamination, and in conjunction with a pig fecal marker, provide a more comprehensive and accurate detection of hog lagoon waste contamination in susceptible watersheds. PMID:26189016

  9. 2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL SYSTEM FOR CANTILEVERED HOG RUN; BUILDING 168 (1960 HOG KILL) IS BENEATH HOG RUN - Rath Packing Company, Cantilevered Hog Run, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  10. Prokaryotic Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Organic, Intensive, and Transitional Coffee Farms in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Adam Collins; Silva, Lívia Carneiro Fidéles; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Ouverney, Cleber Costa

    2015-01-01

    Despite a continuous rise in consumption of coffee over the past 60 years and recent studies showing positive benefits linked to human health, intensive coffee farming practices have been associated with environmental damage, risks to human health, and reductions in biodiversity. In contrast, organic farming has become an increasingly popular alternative, with both environmental and health benefits. This study aimed to characterize and determine the differences in the prokaryotic soil microbiology of three Brazilian coffee farms: one practicing intensive farming, one practicing organic farming, and one undergoing a transition from intensive to organic practices. Soil samples were collected from 20 coffee plant rhizospheres (soil directly influenced by the plant root exudates) and 10 control sites (soil 5 m away from the coffee plantation) at each of the three farms for a total of 90 samples. Profiling of 16S rRNA gene V4 regions revealed high levels of prokaryotic diversity in all three farms, with thousands of species level operational taxonomic units identified in each farm. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was found between each farm's coffee rhizosphere microbiome, as well as between coffee rhizosphere soils and control soils. Two groups of prokaryotes associated with the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal genus Candidatus Nitrososphaera and the bacterial order Rhizobiales were found to be abundant and statistically different in composition between the three farms and in inverse relationship to each other. Many of the nitrogen-fixing genera known to enhance plant growth were found in low numbers (e.g. Rhizobium, Agrobacter, Acetobacter, Rhodospirillum, Azospirillum), but the families in which they belong had some of the highest relative abundance in the dataset, suggesting many new groups may exist in these samples that can be further studied as potential plant growth-promoting bacteria to improve coffee production while diminishing negative

  11. Gastrointestinal helminths of wild hogs and their potential livestock and public health significance in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Okoro, C K; Wilson, B S; Lorenzo-Morales, J; Robinson, R D

    2016-03-01

    An investigation into the potential for transmission of gastrointestinal helminths from wild hogs to livestock and humans was prompted by concerns of recreational wild-hog hunting in the Caribbean region and the recent practice, by livestock farmers in Jamaica, of co-rearing wild and domesticated swine. Thirty-one wild hogs from the Hellshire Hills, a dry limestone forest in southern Jamaica, were necropsied during the period June 2004 to August 2006. Thirteen of the captured animals were male and 18 female. Four species of adult helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts of the wild hogs: Hyostrongylus rubidus (77%), Globocephalus urosubulatus (48%), Oesophagostomum dentatum (42%) and Macroacanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (77%). Two (6.2%), ten (32.2%) and 18 (58.0%) hogs harboured one, two and three species of helminths, respectively. Mean infection intensities varied from 8.1 for M. hirudinaceus, to 115.5 for O. dentatum. There was no association between any of the recovered helminths and sex of the host; however, a multivariate analysis indicated a positive association between the prevalence of G. urosubulatus and host age (odds ratio (OR) = 6.517). Domesticated hogs co-reared with wild hogs are potentially at risk of infection with all four helminths, while wild-hog hunters and pig farmers may be exposed to M. hirudinaceus. PMID:26821705

  12. Prokaryotic Diversity in the Rhizosphere of Organic, Intensive, and Transitional Coffee Farms in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Adam Collins; Silva, Lívia Carneiro Fidéles; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Ouverney, Cleber Costa

    2015-01-01

    Despite a continuous rise in consumption of coffee over the past 60 years and recent studies showing positive benefits linked to human health, intensive coffee farming practices have been associated with environmental damage, risks to human health, and reductions in biodiversity. In contrast, organic farming has become an increasingly popular alternative, with both environmental and health benefits. This study aimed to characterize and determine the differences in the prokaryotic soil microbiology of three Brazilian coffee farms: one practicing intensive farming, one practicing organic farming, and one undergoing a transition from intensive to organic practices. Soil samples were collected from 20 coffee plant rhizospheres (soil directly influenced by the plant root exudates) and 10 control sites (soil 5 m away from the coffee plantation) at each of the three farms for a total of 90 samples. Profiling of 16S rRNA gene V4 regions revealed high levels of prokaryotic diversity in all three farms, with thousands of species level operational taxonomic units identified in each farm. Additionally, a statistically significant difference was found between each farm’s coffee rhizosphere microbiome, as well as between coffee rhizosphere soils and control soils. Two groups of prokaryotes associated with the nitrogen cycle, the archaeal genus Candidatus Nitrososphaera and the bacterial order Rhizobiales were found to be abundant and statistically different in composition between the three farms and in inverse relationship to each other. Many of the nitrogen-fixing genera known to enhance plant growth were found in low numbers (e.g. Rhizobium, Agrobacter, Acetobacter, Rhodospirillum, Azospirillum), but the families in which they belong had some of the highest relative abundance in the dataset, suggesting many new groups may exist in these samples that can be further studied as potential plant growth-promoting bacteria to improve coffee production while diminishing negative

  13. Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity – Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Erik; Lindborg, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on. PMID:25275484

  14. Farm animal well-being and intensive production systems.

    PubMed

    Swanson, J C

    1995-09-01

    Animal welfare, or well-being, is a social issue with ethical, scientific, political, and aesthetic properties. Answering questions about the welfare of animals requires scientific definition, assessment, solutions, and public acceptance. With respect to the actual well-being of the animal, most issues are centered on how the animal "feels" when managed within a specific level of confinement, during special agricultural practices (e.g., tail docking, beak trimming, etc.) and handling. Questions of this nature may require exploration of animal cognition, motivation, perception, and emotional states in addition to more commonly recognized indicators of well-being. Several general approaches have emerged for solving problems concerning animal well-being in intensive production systems: environmental, genetic, and therapeutic. Environmental approaches involve modifying existing systems to accommodate specific welfare concerns or development of alternative systems. Genetic approaches involve changing the behavioral and (or) physiological nature of the animal to reduce or eliminate behaviors that are undesirable within intensive system. Therapeutic approaches of a physical (tail docking, beak trimming) and physiological (drug and nutritional therapy) nature bring both concern and promise with regard to the reduction of confinement stress. Finally, the recent focus on commodity quality assurance programs may indirectly provide benefits for animal well-being. Although research in the area of animal well-being will provide important information for better animal management, handling, care, and the physical design of intensive production systems there is still some uncertainty regarding public acceptance. The aesthetics of modern intensive production systems may have as much to do with public acceptance as with science. PMID:8582867

  15. PREVALENCE OF YERSINIA ENTEROCOLITICA IN MARKET WEIGHT HOGS IN THE UNITED STATES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are the major animal reservoir for Y. enterocolitica strains, which are potentially pathogenic for humans. The goals of this study were (1) to estimate the individual animal and on-farm prevalences of Y. enterocolitica in hogs based on tonsil samples collected during National Animal Health Mon...

  16. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-04-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  17. Environmental injustice and the Mississippi hog industry.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sacoby M; Howell, Frank; Wing, Steve; Sobsey, Mark

    2002-01-01

    The recent growth and restructuring of the swine industry in the state of Mississippi has raised various environmental and socioeconomic concerns. We spatially examined the location and attributes of 67 industrial hog operations to determine if African American and low-income communities have a high prevalence of industrial hog operations located near their neighborhoods at the census block group level. We used spatial data and cross-classification analysis to compare the prevalence of industrial hog operations in neighborhoods that are primarily African American and low income with the prevalence in neighborhoods that are African American and affluent. We also used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between the environmental justice variables and the location of the industrial hog operations. The block group characterization showed a high prevalence of hog operations in the four highest quintiles compared with the lowest quintile for percentage African American and percentage poverty. At increasing levels of percentage African Americans and percentage of persons in poverty, there are 2.4-3.6 times more operations compared with the referent group; additionally, scale adjustment to only the hog counties reduces this to 1.8-3.1 more operations compared with the referent group. The inequitable distribution of hog-confined agricultural feeding operations in these communities may have adverse environmental impacts associated with industrial hog production, such as increased health risks and quality of life degradation, as have occurred in other areas having similar facilities. PMID:11929728

  18. Health effects from breathing air near CAFOs for feeder cattle or hogs.

    PubMed

    Von Essen, Susanna G; Auvermann, Brent W

    2005-01-01

    There is concern that livestock operations for fattening cattle and raising hogs known as concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release substances into the air that have negative effects on the health of persons living nearby. These substances include dust containing endotoxin and other microbial products as well as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and a variety of volatile organic compounds. Odors from these farms are considered offensive by some neighbors. A variety of medical complaints are reported to be more common in those people who live near CAFOs for raising hogs than in people without this exposure. Respiratory health effects, including symptoms of pulmonary disease and lung function test result abnormalities, have been described in workers employed in CAFOs where hogs are raised. Health effects after inhalation exposure of neighbors to substances released into the ambient air from these farms is less well characterized. It must be noted that CAFO workers may differ from neighbors in terms of their exposures and general health status. The presence of dust and other substances from cattle feedlots also causes some neighbors to voice concerns about the impact on their health but this exposure has been studied less extensively than exposure to substances released from CAFOs where hogs are raised. Further research needs to be done to look for measurable health effects attributable to living near all CAFOs in order to better understand the impact of these farms. PMID:16702123

  19. Mercury distribution in a mangrove tidal creek affected by intensive shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Costa, B G B; Soares, T M; Torres, R F; Lacerda, L D

    2013-05-01

    In this study, the Hg distributions in water and sediments from a mangrove creek that receives intensive shrimp farming effluents were determined. The average dissolved and particulate Hg concentrations in the water varied from 3.1 to 9.2 ng L(-1) and from 4.4 to 9.4 ng L(-1), respectively. However, the Hg concentrations in the suspended particulate matter and the bottom sediments varied from 95.4 to 115.7 ng g(-1) and from 1.6 to 10.3 ng g(-1), respectively. A Ward quadratic distance cluster analysis based on the Hg concentrations and hydro- and geochemical parameters (oxygen, salinity, temperature, pH, and organic matter and aluminum content) showed the effects of shrimp farming effluents on the Hg distribution pattern. Furthermore, these results were supported by the Hg distribution in the sediment cores. This study emphasizes the necessity of including Hg as a potential pollutant when monitoring the environmental impacts of intensive shrimp farming. PMID:23370694

  20. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Marius; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Cinardi, Giuseppina; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; D'Aietti, Laura; Wint, William; Newman, Scott H; Robinson, Timothy P

    2015-01-01

    The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption) and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation). A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power parity). This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification. PMID:26230336

  1. Income Disparities and the Global Distribution of Intensively Farmed Chicken and Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Marius; Conchedda, Giulia; Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Cinardi, Giuseppina; Linard, Catherine; Nicolas, Gaëlle; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; D'Aietti, Laura; Wint, William; Newman, Scott H.; Robinson, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    The rapid transformation of the livestock sector in recent decades brought concerns on its impact on greenhouse gas emissions, disruptions to nitrogen and phosphorous cycles and on land use change, particularly deforestation for production of feed crops. Animal and human health are increasingly interlinked through emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, and antimicrobial resistance. In many developing countries, the rapidity of change has also had social impacts with increased risk of marginalisation of smallholder farmers. However, both the impacts and benefits of livestock farming often differ between extensive (backyard farming mostly for home-consumption) and intensive, commercial production systems (larger herd or flock size, higher investments in inputs, a tendency towards market-orientation). A density of 10,000 chickens per km2 has different environmental, epidemiological and societal implications if these birds are raised by 1,000 individual households or in a single industrial unit. Here, we introduce a novel relationship that links the national proportion of extensively raised animals to the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (in purchasing power parity). This relationship is modelled and used together with the global distribution of rural population to disaggregate existing 10 km resolution global maps of chicken and pig distributions into extensive and intensive systems. Our results highlight countries and regions where extensive and intensive chicken and pig production systems are most important. We discuss the sources of uncertainties, the modelling assumptions and ways in which this approach could be developed to forecast future trajectories of intensification. PMID:26230336

  2. The conserved dual phosphorylation sites of the Candida albicans Hog1 protein are crucial for white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Han; Liang, Shen-Huan; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen capable of causing life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans has a unique morphological transition between white and opaque phases. These two cells differ in virulence, mating capability, biofilm formation, and host-cell interaction. Previous studies revealed that deletion of the SSK2, PBS2, or HOG1 gene resulted in 100% opaque cell formation and suppressed the mating response. Thr-174 and Tyr-176 of the Hog1 protein are important phosphoacceptors and can be activated in response to stimuli. In this study, we first demonstrated the importance of two conserved phosphorylation sites in white-opaque switching, mating, and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesion. Six Hog1 point-mutated strains were generated, including nonphosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174A), Hog1(Y176F), and Hog1(T174A,Y176F)) and negatively charged phosphorylated strains (Hog1(T174D), Hog1(Y176D), and Hog1(T174D,Y176D)). Point mutation on Thr-174, Tyr-176 or in combination with the Hog1 protein in C. albicans MTL homozygous strains stimulated opaque cell formation at a frequency of 100%. Furthermore, mating projections of point-mutated strains were significantly shorter and their mating efficiencies and pheromone-stimulated cell adhesive numbers were lower than those of the wild-type. By investigating the effects of Hog1 phosphorylation in ssk1Δ and sln1Δ, we also demonstrate that the phosphorylation intensity of Hog1p is directly involved in the white-opaque switching. Taken together, the results of our study demonstrate that dual phosphorylation sites of C. albicans are crucial for white-opaque transition, sexual mating, and pheromone-induced cell adhesion. PMID:27118797

  3. Children's exposures to farm worksite hazards on management-intensive grazing operations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Regina M; Berg, Richard L; Marlenga, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural injuries continue to be an important source of childhood mortality and morbidity. There is an agreement within the injury prevention community that environmental modification is the most effective strategy for injury prevention. A growing trend among dairy farmers in the upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States is the adoption of management-intensive grazing (MIG) as a new technique for dairy management that actually encompasses environmental modification, decreasing the reliance on and use of tractors and machinery (major sources of fatal and nonfatal injuries to children). The purpose of this study was to explore how restructuring the work and the work environment through the use of MIG may affect children's exposure to farm worksite hazards. The study specifically focused on the most hazardous farm worksite exposures for children based on injury surveillance data (tractors, machinery, large animals, heights, and water sources). An online survey was sent to 68 Wisconsin agricultural extension agents knowledgeable about dairy operations in their counties to collect data regarding their perceptions of potential childhood farm safety hazards on MIG operations. A total of 31 surveys were returned using the online survey system, resulting in a 46% response rate. Survey results suggest that children on MIG operations do in fact have decreased exposure to farm machinery. However, there was a perceived increase in children's overall worksite exposure, in addition to specific increases in exposure to all-terrain vehicles and animals. Adoption of a MIG system clearly involves changes in exposures for children, and understanding the full impact of these changes will require further study of the effects of these exposure tradeoffs on the risks for injuries of varying nature and severity. PMID:19437277

  4. Organic Farming and Landscape Structure: Effects on Insect-Pollinated Plant Diversity in Intensively Managed Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Power, Eileen F.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Stout, Jane C.

    2012-01-01

    Parallel declines in insect-pollinated plants and their pollinators have been reported as a result of agricultural intensification. Intensive arable plant communities have previously been shown to contain higher proportions of self-pollinated plants compared to natural or semi-natural plant communities. Though intensive grasslands are widespread, it is not known whether they show similar patterns to arable systems nor whether local and/or landscape factors are influential. We investigated plant community composition in 10 pairs of organic and conventional dairy farms across Ireland in relation to the local and landscape context. Relationships between plant groups and local factors (farming system, position in field and soil parameters) and landscape factors (e.g. landscape complexity) were investigated. The percentage cover of unimproved grassland was used as an inverse predictor of landscape complexity, as it was negatively correlated with habitat-type diversity. Intensive grasslands (organic and conventional) contained more insect-pollinated forbs than non-insect pollinated forbs. Organic field centres contained more insect-pollinated forbs than conventional field centres. Insect-pollinated forb richness in field edges (but not field centres) increased with increasing landscape complexity (% unimproved grassland) within 1, 3, 4 and 5km radii around sites, whereas non-insect pollinated forb richness was unrelated to landscape complexity. Pollination systems within intensive grassland communities may be different from those in arable systems. Our results indicate that organic management increases plant richness in field centres, but that landscape complexity exerts strong influences in both organic and conventional field edges. Insect-pollinated forb richness, unlike that for non-insect pollinated forbs, showed positive relationships to landscape complexity reflecting what has been documented for bees and other pollinators. The insect-pollinated forbs, their

  5. Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis antibodies in intensive pig farms in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis) is a major concern to the pig industry worldwide. Although 8.3 billion pigs are produced each year in China, few reports on the prevalence of L.intracellularis infection are available. The aim of the current study was to estimate the seroprevalence of L. intracellularis antibodies in intensive pig farms in China. Results A total of 1060 serum samples were collected from 14 commercial pig farms located throughout China. Animals from all age groups were sampled including pre-weaning piglets, weaners, fattening pigs, adult sows and boars. Antibodies against L. intracellularis were detected using a specific blocking ELISA. Of the 1060 serum samples, 602 were identified as positive using the ELISA test. The apparent seroprevalence of L. intracellularis seropositivity was 57% (95% CI 50 to 64%). The true prevalence (that is, prevalence corrected for the imperfect sensitivity and specificity of the testing method) was 77% (95% CI 70 to 83%). Conclusions The highest true prevalence was observed in sows and boars, suggesting that within a herd these stock classes are a reservoir for infection. The prevalence of L. intracellularis seropositivity in local breed pigs was significantly less than that in imported breeds. A higher seroprevalence was found in pigs in herds in Central and Northern China, which may correspond to the greater use of the intensive production systems in these areas. We conclude that L. intracellularis is widely prevalent in commercial pigs in China. PMID:24774304

  6. 8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of viaduct, hog shed to left. View to west. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  7. 9 CFR 319.144 - Whole hog sausage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Whole hog sausage. 319.144 Section 319... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.144 Whole hog sausage. “Whole Hog Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh and/or frozen meat from swine...

  8. Impacts of intensive agricultural irrigation and livestock farming on a semi-arid Mediterranean catchment.

    PubMed

    Martín-Queller, Emi; Moreno-Mateos, David; Pedrocchi, César; Cervantes, Juan; Martínez, Gonzalo

    2010-08-01

    Irrigation return flows (IRF) are a major contributor of non-point source pollution to surface and groundwater. We evaluated the effects of irrigation on stream hydrochemistry in a Mediterranean semi-arid catchment (Flumen River, NE Spain). The Flumen River was separated into two zones based on the intensity of irrigation activities in the watershed. General linear models were used to compare the two zones. Relevant covariables (urban sewage, pig farming, and gypsum deposits in the basin) were quantified with the help of geographic information system techniques, accompanied by ground-truthing. High variability of the water quality parameters and temporal dynamics caused by irrigation were used to distinguish the two river reaches. Urban activity and livestock farming had a significant effect on water chemistry. An increase in the concentration of salts (240-541 microS.cm(-1) more in winter) and nitrate (average concentrations increased from 8.5 to 20.8 mg.l(-1) during irrigation months) was associated with a higher level of IRF. Those river reaches more strongly influenced by urban areas tended to have higher phosphorus (0.19-0.42 mg.l(-1) more in winter) concentrations. These results support earlier research about the significant consequences to water quality of both urban expansion and intensive agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions. Data also indicate that salinization of soils, subsoils, surface water, and groundwater can be an unwelcome result of the application of pig manure for fertilization (increase in sodium concentration in 77.9 to 138.6 mg.l(-1)). PMID:19585246

  9. Hog fuel drying using vapour recompression

    SciTech Connect

    Azarniouch, M.K.; Sayegh, N.N.

    1983-12-01

    Hog fuel is a broad term used by the forest products industry to describe all types of wood residues that are used as fuel. These can be bark, wood chip rejects, sawdust, shavings, etc. The moisture content of these residuals depends mainly on their source and on the conditions of storage and could range from 50 to 70% (wet basis). The introduction of the significant amounts of water contained in the hog fuel impairs the efficiency of operating a hog-fuel boiler by: (i) reducing the net heating value of the fuel, (ii) increasing the particulate emissions caused by incomplete combustion, (iii) requiring higher air flows to maintain combustion, (iv) decreasing the rate of combustion, and (v) reducing the heat flux as a result of lower flame temperatures. Several drying systems are commercially available for the drying of hog fuel and most of them use the waste heat in the flue gas as the source of heat for the drying operation. Commercial flue gas dryers are rotary, cascade or flash type. However, all of these suffer from the same inherent disadvantages.

  10. Positivity and Intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum Infective Larvae in Farmed and Wild-Caught Swamp Eels in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Saksirisampant, Wilai

    2012-01-01

    From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean±SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1±0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2±0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3±0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3±1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels. PMID:22711921

  11. On-farm habitat restoration counters biotic homogenization in intensively managed agriculture.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Kremen, Claire

    2016-02-01

    To slow the rate of global species loss, it is imperative to understand how to restore and maintain native biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. Currently, agriculture is associated with lower spatial heterogeneity and turnover in community composition (β-diversity). While some techniques are known to enhance α-diversity, it is unclear whether habitat restoration can re-establish β-diversity. Using a long-term pollinator dataset, comprising ∼9,800 specimens collected from the intensively managed agricultural landscape of the Central Valley of California, we show that on-farm habitat restoration in the form of native plant 'hedgerows', when replicated across a landscape, can boost β-diversity by approximately 14% relative to unrestored field margins, to levels similar to some natural communities. Hedgerows restore β-diversity by promoting the assembly of phenotypically diverse communities. Intensively managed agriculture imposes a strong ecological filter that negatively affects several important dimensions of community trait diversity, distribution, and uniqueness. However, by helping to restore phenotypically diverse pollinator communities, small-scale restorations such as hedgerows provide a valuable tool for conserving biodiversity and promoting ecosystem services. PMID:26542192

  12. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. The protocol, which highlights key points and motivates farmers to achieve improvements, has received much attention from interested parties. Abstract Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfare on the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype including animal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up. The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing the prototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptability among stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status, based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to the first contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimal handling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfare problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individual evaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported by an effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goat app. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfare conditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol may be a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrument for

  13. Intensive management in grasslands causes diffuse water pollution at the farm scale.

    PubMed

    Peukert, Sabine; Griffith, Bruce A; Murray, Phillip J; Macleod, Christopher J A; Brazier, Richard E

    2014-11-01

    Arable land use is generally assumed to be the largest contributor to agricultural diffuse pollution. This study adds to the growing evidence that conventional temperate intensively managed lowland grasslands contribute significantly to soil erosion and diffuse pollution rates. This is the first grassland study to monitor hydrological characteristics and multiple pollutant fluxes (suspended sediment [SS] and the macronutrients: total oxidized nitrogen-N [TON], total phosphorus [TP], and total carbon [TC]) at high temporal resolution (monitoring up to every 15 min) over 1 yr. Monitoring was conducted across three fields (6.5-7.5 ha) on the North Wyke Farm Platform, UK. The estimated annual erosion rates (up to 527.4 kg ha), TP losses (up to 0.9 kg ha), and TC losses (up to 179 kg ha) were similar to or exceeded the losses reported for other grassland, mixed land-use, and arable sites. Annual yields of TON (up to 3 kg ha) were less than arable land-use fluxes and earlier grassland N studies, an important result as the study site is situated within a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. The high-resolution monitoring allowed detailed "system's functioning" understanding of hydrological processes, mobilization- transport pathways of individual pollutants, and the changes of the relative importance of diffuse pollutants through flow conditions and time. Suspended sediment and TP concentrations frequently exceeded water quality guidelines recommended by the European Freshwater Fisheries Directive (25 mg L) and the European Water Framework Directive (0.04 mg soluble reactive P L), suggesting that intensively managed grasslands pose a significant threat to receiving surface waters. Such sediment and nutrient losses from intensively managed grasslands should be acknowledged in land management guidelines and advice for future compliance with surface water quality standards. PMID:25602218

  14. Outbreak of swine erysipelas in a semi-intensive wild boar farm in Spain.

    PubMed

    Risco, D; Llario, P F; Velarde, R; García, W L; Benítez, J M; García, A; Bermejo, F; Cortés, M; Rey, J; de Mendoza, J H; Gómez, L

    2011-10-01

    Swine erysipelas (SE) is a disease caused by the bacterium Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae and is one of the best-known and most serious diseases affecting domestic pigs. However, few studies exist concerning the susceptibility of wild boars to this disease and the role of this species as a reservoir. This study investigates and describes an outbreak of SE that occurred on a semi-intensive wild boar breeding farm housing 40 boars in Extremadura (SW Spain) on 11-18 February 2010. Seven animals died, of which four were examined post-mortem. Of these, three (two females and one male) were approximately 3 months old, and one was 1 year old (male). Lesions were consistent with acute septicaemia, consisting of cutaneous erythema/cyanosis and petechial haemorrhages in kidneys, urinary bladder, lungs and meninges. The 1-year-old male also had proliferative polyarthritis. Histopathology confirmed the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation and vasculitis. Additionally, a bilateral acute panuveitis with concurrent necrotizing vasculitis and diffuse corneal oedema, neither of which have been described before in this disease, were found in the 3-month-old male boar. E. rhusiopathiae was isolated from all four animals in pure cultures from several tissues. Of these four animals, antibodies against E. rhusiopathiae, using an indirect ELISA test, were only detected in the 1-year-old male boar with polyarthritis. Posteriorly, of nine live adults tested for antibodies, four (including an adult male with polyarthritis) were positive. PMID:21649879

  15. Helminths of sympatric striped, hog-nosed, and spotted skunks in west-central Texas.

    PubMed

    Neiswenter, Sean A; Pence, Danny B; Dowler, Robert C

    2006-07-01

    Twenty-eight hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus leuconotus), 23 striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), and nine spotted skunks (Spilogale gracilis) from an area of sympatry in west-central Texas were examined for helminth parasites. Shared helminth species among all three host species were one nematode (Physaloptera maxillaris), two acanthocephalans (Pachysentis canicola, Macracanthorhynchus ingens), and one cestode (Mathevotaenia mephitis). Two nematodes (Gongylonema sp. and Filaria taxidaea) occurred in both the striped and hog-nosed skunks. One nematode (Filaroides milksi) and one acanthocephalan (Oncicola canis) were collected only from C. leuconotus. The most common helminth infections for striped and hog-nosed skunks were P. maxillaris and P. canicola. Helminth species richness was highest in hog-nosed skunks, but striped skunks had the highest prevalences and intensities of all the common helminth species. The helminth fauna of spotted skunks was markedly depauperate in terms of species richness and helminth abundance compared to the other two host species. Differences in helminth communities across these three sympatric skunks may be related to differences in their relative abundance, behavior, food habits, and geographic range. PMID:17092881

  16. Rainfed farming systems in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter on rainfed farming systems in the USA describes characteristics of four major rainfed farming regions in the USA: Great Plains wheat-sorghum-cattle region, midwestern corn-soybean-hogs region, southern cotton-peanut-poultry region, and coastal diversified crops-dairy region. Rainfed fa...

  17. Fractal water quality fluctuations spanning the periodic table in an intensively farmed watershed.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Alice H; Kirchner, James W; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Faucheux, Mikael; Gruau, Gérard; Mérot, Philippe

    2014-01-21

    Recently developed measurement technologies can monitor surface water quality almost continuously, creating high-frequency multiparameter time series and raising the question of how best to extract insights from such rich data sets. Here we use spectral analysis to characterize the variability of water quality at the AgrHys observatory (Western France) over time scales ranging from 20 min to 12 years. Three years of daily sampling at the intensively farmed Kervidy-Naizin watershed reveal universal 1/f scaling for all 36 solutes, yielding spectral slopes of 1.05 ± 0.11 (mean ± standard deviation). These 36 solute concentrations show varying degrees of annual cycling, suggesting different controls on watershed export processes. Twelve years of daily samples of SO4, NO3, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) show that 1/f scaling does not continue at frequencies below 1/year in those constituents, whereas a 12-year daily record of Cl shows a general 1/f trend down to the lowest measurable frequencies. Conversely, approximately 12 months of 20 min NO3 and DOC measurements show that at frequencies higher than 1/day, the spectra of these solutes steepen to slopes of roughly 3, and at time scales shorter than 2-3 h, the spectra flatten to slopes near zero, reflecting analytical noise. These results confirm and extend the recent discovery of universal fractal 1/f scaling in water quality at the relatively pristine Plynlimon watershed in Wales, further demonstrating the importance of advective-dispersive transport mixing in catchments. However, the steeper scaling at subdaily time scales suggests additional short-term damping of solute concentrations, potentially due to in-stream or riparian processes. PMID:24328425

  18. Managing ammonia on hog farms to improve environmental quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic lagoons are widely used across the southeastern United States to store and treat wastewater generated from confined swine production operations. During lagoon treatment, gaseous losses of nitrogen (N) in the form of ammonia occur as a result of mineralization of organic N compounds and sub...

  19. Serological investigation of Leptospira infection and its circulation in one intensive-type water buffalo farm in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Marvin A; Mingala, Claro N; Gloriani, Nina G; Yanagihara, Yasutake; Isoda, Norikazu; Nakajima, Chie; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Koizumi, Nobuo

    2016-02-01

    Water buffalo is an indispensable livestock in the Philippines. Leptospirosis is a serious zoonosis that can be fatal to humans and cause reproductive problems in livestock. Leptospirosis has been reported in some countries where water buffaloes are commercially raised, highlighting the Leptospira prevalence in this farming system, but information on leptospirosis in water buffalo farms in the Philippines is limited. In this study, we collected blood samples from rats (n = 21), and water buffaloes (n = 170) from different groups and locations in one intensive-type buffalo farm in the Philippines. Serum was analyzed by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Anti-Leptospira antibodies reacting with serogroups Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were found in sera of 30% tested rats, and 48% of water buffalo sera tested positive for at least one Leptospira strain, in which serogroups Mini, Hebdomadis, Tarassovi and Pyrogenes were predominantly agglutinated. The number of seropositive young water buffaloes (< 1 year-old) was lower than that of older seropositive ones. Furthermore, sera from younger water buffaloes were reactive with single serotypes with low MAT titers, but older animals were reactive with multiple Leptospira strains with variable MAT titers. In addition, antibodies against serogroups Icterohaemorrhagiae and Pomona were detected in both animals. Finally, Leptospira infection was found associated with age and animal grouping, highlighting the impact of management in the persistence of leptospirosis at intensive-type buffalo farm settings in the Philippines. Further investigation and appropriate control strategies are required to prevent leptospirosis from causing risks to public health and economic losses to the water buffalo farming industry. PMID:27348885

  20. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  1. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  2. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  3. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  4. 9 CFR 311.24 - Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with tapeworm cysts. 311.24 Section 311.24 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... affected with tapeworm cysts. Carcasses of hogs affected with tapeworm cysts (Cysticercus cellulosae)...

  5. 2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Viaduct deck, Omaha livestock market offices to left, hog sheds to right. View to east. - South Omaha Union Stock Yards, "O" Street Viaduct, "O" Street Spanning Hog Pens; South Omaha Terminal Railway Company Tracks & Union Pacific Railroad Tracks, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  6. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  7. Using the coupled wake boundary layer model to evaluate the effect of turbulence intensity on wind farm performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Richard J. A. M.; Gayme, Dennice; Meneveau, Charles

    2015-06-01

    We use the recently introduced coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model to predict the effect of turbulence intensity on the performance of a wind farm. The CWBL model combines a standard wake model with a “top-down” approach to get improved predictions for the power output compared to a stand-alone wake model. Here we compare the CWBL model results for different turbulence intensities with the Horns Rev field measurements by Hansen et al., Wind Energy 15, 183196 (2012). We show that the main trends as function of the turbulence intensity are captured very well by the model and discuss differences between the field measurements and model results based on comparisons with LES results from Wu and Porté-Agel, Renewable Energy 75, 945-955 (2015).

  8. A descriptive spatial analysis of bovine tuberculosis in intensively controlled cattle farms in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Porphyre, Thibaud; McKenzie, Joanna; Stevenson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We describe the temporal and geographical distribution of confirmed cases of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in a population of cattle in the south-east of the North Island of New Zealand. Data were derived from routine TB testing conducted between 1980 and 2003 and included details for 69 farms. Four six-year periods were defined to coincide with changes in depopulation strategies against the wildlife TB reservoir, the brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula. For the periods 1980 to 1985 and 1986 to 1991 the median annual incidence rate of TB was 0.4 and 4.7 cases per 1000 cattle-years at risk, respectively. For the period 1992 to 2003 the median annual incidence rate of TB decreased to 1.8 cases per 1000 cattle-years at risk, coincident with the use of poisoning to control possums in the surrounding forest park (a major possum habitat area). We identified clusters of TB cases adjacent to the forest park and found no evidence of spatio-temporal interaction of TB risk among farms. Our findings support the hypothesis that possums living in the forest park are a source of bovine TB in this area and that farm-to-farm spread of disease was not an important infection mechanism. PMID:17425934

  9. Dry hog fuel to improve effiency, cut emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Schwieger, B.

    1980-02-01

    Various dryers in wood-fired powerplants are described and it is stated that when moisture levels of hog fuel rise above 55%, boilers cannot produce enough heat to sustain combustion. Methods to avoid this problem are suggested and include the burning of a low-moisture fuel in conjunction with the hog fuel and the installation of a dryer to remove some moisture from the fuel before it enter the furnace. It is generally agreed that flue-gas dryers should be considered in the design of hog-fuel-fired steam sytems whenever fuel moisture exceeds about 50%.

  10. Frequency of virulence genes of Escherichia coli among newborn piglets from an intensive pig farm in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Alustiza, Fabrisio E; Picco, Natalia Y; Bellingeri, Romina V; Terzolo, Horacio R; Vivas, Adriana B

    2012-01-01

    The enterotoxigenic and porcine enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EtEc and PEPEc) strains are agents associated with swine neonatal diarrhea, causing economic losses in swine production. The main goal of this study was to identify virulence genes of EtEc, verotoxigenic (VtEc) and PEPEc in intestinal strains responsible for swine diseases, by molecular typing using Pcr in newborn piglets from an intensive farm system. Two hundred and sixty seven rectal swabbings from 7-15 days- old landrace x large White crossbred piglets were taken, and 123 randomly selected samples, biochemically compatible with E. coli, were tested for E. coli virulence genes by Pcr. A frequency (%) compatible with: 68 EtEc, 24 VtEc, and 8 EPEc were found. of all E. coli strains studied, 19.51 % carried at least one virulence gene. These data showed conclusively that, in spite of the application of strict sanitary measures in the intensive farm, genes encoding virulence factors of intestinal pathogens compatible with EtEc are still detected; therefore these strains will probably keep circulating among animals. PMID:23267620

  11. 22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. William E. Barrett, Photographer, August 1975. CHIPPER OR 'HOG' FOR REDUCING SCRAPS TO WOOD CHIPS. HOUSING PARTIALLY REMOVED. - Meadow River Lumber Company, Highway 60, Rainelle, Greenbrier County, WV

  12. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG DRESSING AREA ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING WEST; WORKERS STOOD ON RAISED PLATFORMS TO EVISCERATE AND WASH CARCASSES; EXPANDED STEEL GRATING PROVIDED NON-SLIP WORKING SURFACE; STAINLESS-STEEL BAFFLES BETWEEN PLATFORMS HELPED TO CONTAIN STEAM AND WATER SPRAY; METAL TROUGHS BELOW PLATFORMS AND CONCRETE GUTTERS IN FLOOR HELPED CHANNEL WASTE WATER TO DRAINS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF HOG KILLING ROOM ON LEVEL 4; LOOKING NORTHWEST; A PORTION OF THE SCALDING TANK IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT, CENTER; CONCRETE PYLONS AT LOWER RIGHT SUPPORTED BY SCRAPING MACHINE; FINAL SCRAPING WAS DONE BY WORKERS STANDING ON ELEVATED PLATFORMS AT LEFT; BATHTUB-SHAPED CART NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO WAS USED TO TRANSPORT OFFAL TO RENDERING AREAS - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers. PMID:26479477

  15. PCA-HOG symmetrical feature based diseased cell detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Min-jie

    2016-04-01

    A histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) feature is applied to the field of diseased cell detection, which can detect diseased cells in high resolution tissue images rapidly, accurately and efficiently. Firstly, motivated by symmetrical cellular forms, a new HOG symmetrical feature based on the traditional HOG feature is proposed to meet the condition of cell detection. Secondly, considering the high feature dimension of traditional HOG feature leads to plenty of memory resources and long runtime in practical applications, a classical dimension reduction method called principal component analysis (PCA) is used to reduce the dimension of high-dimensional HOG descriptor. Because of that, computational speed is increased greatly, and the accuracy of detection can be controlled in a proper range at the same time. Thirdly, support vector machine (SVM) classifier is trained with PCA-HOG symmetrical features proposed above. At last, practical tissue images is detected and analyzed by SVM classifier. In order to verify the effectiveness of this new algorithm, it is practically applied to conduct diseased cell detection which takes 200 pieces of H&E (hematoxylin & eosin) high resolution staining histopathological images collected from 20 breast cancer patients as a sample. The experiment shows that the average processing rate can be 25 frames per second and the detection accuracy can be 92.1%.

  16. Water-quality analysis of an intensively used on-farm storage reservoir in the northeast Arkansas delta.

    PubMed

    Moore, Matthew T; Pierce, Jon R; Farris, Jerry L

    2015-07-01

    The use of farm reservoirs for supplemental irrigation is gaining popularity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP). Due to depletions of several aquifers, many counties within the MAP have been designated as critical-use groundwater areas. To help alleviate stress on these aquifers, many farmers are implementing storage reservoirs for economic and conservation benefits. When used in tandem with a tailwater recovery system, reservoirs have the potential to trap and transform potential contaminants (e.g., nutrients and pesticides) rather than releasing them through drainage into receiving systems such as lakes, rivers, and streams. Roberts Reservoir is an intensively used, 49-ha on-farm storage reservoir located in Poinsett County, Arkansas. Water-quality analyses and toxicity assessments of the reservoir and surrounding ditches indicated a stable water-quality environment with no observed toxicity present in collected samples. Results of this study suggest that water released into a local receiving stream poses no contaminant risk and could be maintained for irrigation purposes, thereby decreasing the need for additional groundwater depletion. PMID:25912809

  17. The unique characteristics of HOG pathway MAPKs in the extremely halotolerant Hortaea werneckii.

    PubMed

    Kejžar, Anja; Cibic, Matej; Grøtli, Morten; Plemenitaš, Ana; Lenassi, Metka

    2015-04-01

    HwHog1A/B, Hortaea werneckii homologues of the MAP kinase Hog1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are vital for the extreme halotolerance of H. werneckii. In mesophilic S. cerevisiae, Hog1 is phosphorylated already at low osmolyte concentrations, and regulates expression of a similar set of genes independent of osmolyte type. To understand how HwHog1 kinases activity is regulated in H. werneckii, we studied HwHog1A/B activation in vivo, by following phosphorylation of HwHog1A/B in H. werneckii exposed to various osmolytes, and in vitro, by measuring kinase activities of recombinant HwHog1A, HwHog1B and Hog1ΔC. To this end, highly pure and soluble recombinant Hog1 homologues were isolated from insect cells. Our results demonstrate that HwHog1A/B are, in general, transiently phosphorylated in cells shocked with ≥3 M osmolyte, yet constitutive phosphorylation is observed at extreme NaCl and KCl concentrations. Importantly, phosphorylation profiles differ depending on the osmolyte type. Additionally, phosphorylated recombinant HwHog1A/B show lower specific kinase activities compared to Hog1ΔC. In summary, HOG pathway MAPKs in the extremely halotolerant H. werneckii show unique characteristics compared to S. cerevisiae homologues. The reported findings contribute to defining the key determinants of H. werneckii osmotolerance, which is important for its potential transfer to economically relevant microorganisms and crops. PMID:25825474

  18. [Wastewater pollution characteristics from typical intensive pig farms in the Pearl River Delta and its ecological risk assessment].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Ying; Peng, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Jun-Hong; Huang, Ji-Chuan; Xu, Pei-Zhi; Yang, Shao-Hai

    2013-10-01

    Based on the wastewater quality investigation data from March 2009 to November 2011, wastewater qualities from typical intensive pig farms were assessed in the Pearl River Delta by single and comprehensive pollution index model. The results showed that key pollutants of piggery wastewater were fecal coliform (FC), total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), with their average mass concentrations of 1.98 x 10(9) CFU.L-1, 158.61 mg.L-1, 5 608.68 mg.L-1 and 1984.34 mg.L-1, respectively; key pollutants of biogas slurry were FC, TP, ammonia nitrogen (NH+4 -N) and suspended substance (SS), with their average mass concentrations of 8. 10 x 10(6) CFU.L-1, 81.76 mg.L-1, 476.24 mg.L-1 and 464.58 mg.L-1, respectively. Under the effect of wastewater pollutants, environment surrounding of typical intensive pig farms was seriously polluted, which decreased gradually from piggery wastewater to biogas slurry, and comprehensive pollution indices were 11.41, 6.91, 5.27, respectively. The risk analysis showed that the high-risk wastewater could never be discharged directly and irrigated crops. After the anaerobic treatment, FC, TP, NH+4 -N and SS were still strong factors with the potential ecological risk in the biogas slurry. In the long run, the ecological risk still exists for direct discharge or irrigation of them, and it is necessary to apply further treatment. PMID:24364317

  19. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology. PMID:25000791

  20. The Cook Agronomy Farm LTAR: Knowledge Intensive Precision Agro-ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huggins, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Drowning in data and starving for knowledge, agricultural decision makers require evidence-based information to enlighten sustainable intensification. The agro-ecological footprint of the Cook Agronomy Farm (CAF) Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) site is embedded within 9.4 million ha of diverse land uses primarily cropland (2.9 million ha) and rangeland (5.3 million ha) that span a wide annual precipitation gradient (150 mm through 1400 mm) with diverse social and natural capital (see Figure). Sustainable intensification hinges on the development and adoption of precision agro-ecological practices that rely on meaningful spatio-temporal data relevant to land use decisions at within-field to regional scales. Specifically, the CAF LTAR will provide the scientific foundation (socio-economical and bio-physical) for enhancing decision support for precision and conservation agriculture and synergistic cropping system intensification and diversification. Long- and short-term perspectives that recognize and assess trade-offs in ecosystem services inherent in any land use decision will be considered so as to promote the development of more sustainable agricultural systems. Presented will be current and future CAF LTAR research efforts required for the development of sustainable agricultural systems including cropping system cycles and flows of nutrients, water, carbon, greenhouse gases and other biotic and abiotic factors. Evaluation criteria and metrics associated with long-term agro-ecosystem provisioning, supporting, and regulating services will be emphasized.

  1. A Catchment Systems Engineering (CSE) approach to managing intensively farmed land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonczyk, Jennine; Quinn, Paul; Barber, Nicholas; Wilkinson, Mark; ODonnell, Greg

    2014-05-01

    Rural land management practices can have a significant impact on the hydrological and nutrient dynamics within a catchment which can dramatically alter the way it processes water, exacerbating nutrient losses from the system. A collaborative and holistic approach for managing potential conflicts between land management activity for food production alongside the aspiration to achieve good water quality and the need to make space for water can ensure the long-term sustainability of our agricultural catchments. Catchment System Engineering (CSE) is an interventionist approach to altering the catchment scale runoff regime through the manipulation of hydrological flow pathways throughout the catchment. By targeting hydrological flow pathways at source, such as overland flow, field drain and ditch function, a significant component of the runoff generation can be managed, greatly reducing erosive soil losses. Coupled with management of farm nutrients at source many runoff attenuation features or measures can be co-located to achieve benefits for water quality. Examples of community-led mitigation measures using the CSE approach will be presented from two catchments in Northumberland, Northern England, that demonstrate the generic framework for identification of multipurpose features that slow, store and filter runoff at strategic locations in the landscape. Measures include within-field barriers, edge of field traps and within-field sediment filters and sediment traps which demonstrate how sediment can be trapped locally (including silt and clay fractions) and be recovered for use back on the land. Deliverables from this CSE approach includes the reduction of downstream flood risk and capturing of sediment and associated nutrients. The CSE approach allows for a more natural flood and nutrient management approach which helps to restore vital catchment functions to re-establish a healthy catchment system.

  2. Serosurvey of leptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida.

    PubMed

    Chatfield, Jenifer; Milleson, Michael; Stoddard, Robyn; Bui, Duy M; Galloway, Renee

    2013-06-01

    Leptospira is a global pathogen of emerging public health importance in both developing and industrialized nations and can infect almost all mammalian species, including humans. As suburbanization and the popularity of outdoor recreational activities increases, so do human-wildlife and companion animal-wildlife interfaces. Florida offers a tropical climate favorable for outdoor activities and a semirural landscape that sustains an abundant feral hog population. Because no survey ofleptospirosis in feral hogs (Sus scrofa) in Florida has been published to our knowledge, we sought to establish preliminary seroprevalence ofleptospirosis exposure in feral hogs in Florida. Blood samples were collected opportunistically from 158 male and 166 female feral hogs taken at managed hunts and by permitted trappers in the northern, central, and southern regions of Florida. Samples were then analyzed using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibody titers to 20 Leptospira serovars representing 17 serogroups. A titer of > 1:100 was considered positive; 33% (107/324 total samples) were positive to at least one serovar, and 46% of those were positive to multiple serovars. Antibodies to L. interrogans serovar Bratislava strain Jez Bratislava (serogroup Australis) was the most common, with 18% (58/324) testing positive for antibodies. These initial data indicate that there is a significant possibility of feral hogs having a larger role in the complex etiology of leptospirosis in Florida than historically estimated and that further investigation is warranted. PMID:23805559

  3. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1 sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  4. Evaluation of N environmental risks on Andosols from an intensive dairy farming watershed using DNDC.

    PubMed

    Deng, Meihua; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko D; Zeng, Lin; Hojito, Masayuki; Zhang, Tianzhu; Yoh, Muneoki

    2015-04-15

    Manure nitrogen (N) in the livestock sector has become a key driver of environmental change. The denitrification-decomposition (DNDC) model was used to evaluate N pollution strengths on Andosols with intensive dairy manure application in Upper Naka River Watershed, Japan. The calibrated model was capable of predicting Andosol N flows because the simulated soil mineral N content, soil nitrogen oxide (N2O) fluxes, denitrification rate, and crop N uptake matched the patterns and magnitudes of the field observations from a wide range of soil textures, as well as manure management and cropping systems. The simulations showed that current intensive manure application systems caused low crop N use efficiency and a large amount of NO3(-)-N leaching and N2O emission. The crop N use efficiency was 27%-42% and 37%-55% of input N for uplands and paddy rice, respectively. The uplands showed much more serious N environmental pollution risks with N leaching 123-362 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and N2O emissions 6.53-11.8 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) than that in the lowland paddy rice with N leaching 17.4-103 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) and N2O emissions 0.59-2.77 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Forage rice/barley crop systems have high N cleaning capability due to the greater crop N uptake which reached to 304 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). High precipitation stimulated more NO3(-)-N leaching. Sandy soil also showed higher N leaching and was unsuitable for paddy rice. Slurry application stimulated more N2O emission than compost manure. To mitigate the current high N pollution, the critical N application rate was recommended to be approximately 380, 470, 640, and 390 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) for loam sand planted with maize/grass, loam soil with maize/grass, forage rice/barley, and rice/fallow with winter manure application, respectively. PMID:25668202

  5. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  6. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  7. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  8. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  9. 9 CFR 309.5 - Swine; disposal because of hog cholera.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine; disposal because of hog cholera... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.5 Swine; disposal because of hog cholera. (a) All swine found by an inspector to be affected with hog cholera shall be identified as U.S. Condemned...

  10. Environmental Inequity: An Analysis of Large-Scale Hog Operations in 17 States, 1982-1997

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stretesky, Paul B.; Johnston, Janis E.; Arney, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    This study extends ideas of environmental equity to large-scale hog operations. We investigate counties in 17 hog producing states to determine whether large-scale hog operations are more likely to be sited and expanded in areas that have a disproportionate number of Black, Hispanic, and/or economically disadvantaged residents. The data for this…

  11. Polymorphisms of pesticide-metabolizing genes in children living in intensive farming communities.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martín, Antonio; Hernández, Antonio F; Martínez-González, Luis Javier; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; López-Flores, Inmaculada; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Lacasana, Marina

    2015-11-01

    Polymorphisms in genes encoding xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XME) are important parameters accounting for the wide inter-individual variability to environmental exposures. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and Cytochrome-P450 constitute major classes of XME involved in the detoxification of pesticide chemicals, in particular organophosphates. This study explored the allelic frequency, linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis of ten common polymorphic variants of seven key genes involved in organophosphate metabolism (BCHE-K, BCHE-A, PON1 Q192R, PON1 L55M, PON1 -108C/T, CYP2C19 G681A, CYP2D6 G1846A, CYP3AP1 -44G/A, GSTM1∗0 and GSTT1∗0) in a children population living near an intensive agriculture area in Spain. It was hypothesized that individuals with unfavorable combinations of gene variants will be more susceptible to adverse effects from organophosphate exposure. Genomic DNA from 496 healthy children was isolated and amplified by PCR. Hydrolysis probes were used for the detection of eight specific SNPs and two copy number variants (CNVs) by using TaqMan® Assay-based real-time PCR. Frequencies of SNPs and CNVs in the target genes were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and broadly consistent with European populations. Linkage disequilibrium was found between the three PON1 genetic polymorphisms studied and between BCHE-K and BCHE-A. The adverse genotype combination (unusual BCHE variants, PON1 55MM/-108TT and null genotype for both GSTM1 and GSTT1) potentially conferring a greater genetic risk from exposure to organophosphates was observed in 0.2% of our study population. This information allows broadening our knowledge about differential susceptibility toward environmental toxicants and may be helpful for further research to understand the inter-individual toxicokinetic variability in response to organophosphate pesticides exposure. PMID:26318115

  12. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    SciTech Connect

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  13. 7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CONVEYOR DISCHARGE IN HOG HAIR PROCESSING AREA, NORTHWEST CORNER OF LEVEL 2; HAIR WAS TRANSPORTED BY CONVEYOR FROM BUILDING 40, THEN WASHED, DRIED AND BALED IN BUILDING 148 - Rath Packing Company, Grease Interceptor Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Novel reporter gene expression systems for monitoring activation of the Aspergillus nidulans HOG pathway.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Kentaro; Yoshimi, Akira; Furukawa, Takako; Hoshi, Yukiko; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Sato, Natsuko; Fujioka, Tomonori; Mizutani, Osamu; Mizuno, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Abe, Keietsu

    2007-07-01

    The Aspergillus nidulans high-osmolarity glycerol response (AnHOG) pathway is involved in osmoadaptation. We found that fludioxonil, a fungicide, causes improper activation of HogA mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in A. nidulans. Here we present novel reporter systems for monitoring activation of the AnHOG pathway. The promoter region of gfdB (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), whose expression depends on the presence of HogA, was fused to a beta-glucuronidase uidA gene (GUS) to construct the reporter, which was introduced into A. nidulans wild type and hogADelta. Increased GUS activity was detected in the wild type only when it was treated with high osmolarity or fludioxonil, while reporter activity was scarcely stimulated in the hogADelta mutant. These results indicate that the reporter activity is controlled via HogA activation. Furthermore, we present possible applications of the reporter systems in screening new antifungal compounds. PMID:17617716

  15. Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.

    PubMed

    Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

    2010-03-01

    The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

  16. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices

    PubMed Central

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  17. Control of a Reassortant Pandemic 2009 H1N1 Influenza Virus Outbreak in an Intensive Swine Breeding Farm: Effect of Vaccination and Enhanced Farm Management Practices.

    PubMed

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Beato, Maria Serena; Angeloni, Giorgia; Monne, Isabella; Buniolo, Filippo; Zuliani, Federica; Morini, Matteo; Castellan, Alberto; Bonfanti, Lebana; Marangon, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses in swine cause considerable economic losses and raise concerns about their zoonotic potential. The current paucity of thorough empirical assessments of influenza A virus infection levels in swine herds under different control interventions hinders our understanding of their effectiveness. Between 2012 and 2013, recurrent outbreaks of respiratory disease caused by a reassortant pandemic 2009 H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus were registered in a swine breeding farm in North-East Italy, providing the opportunity to assess an outbreak response plan based on vaccination and enhanced farm management. All sows/gilts were vaccinated with a H1N1pdm-specific vaccine, biosecurity was enhanced, weaning cycles were lengthened, and cross-fostering of piglets was banned. All tested piglets had maternally-derived antibodies at 30 days of age and were detectable in 5.3% of ~90 day-old piglets. There was a significant reduction in H1N1pdm RT-PCR detections after the intervention. Although our study could not fully determine the extent to which the observed trends in seropositivity or RT-PCR positivity among piglets were due to the intervention or to the natural course of the disease in the herd, we provided suggestive evidence that the applied measures were useful in controlling the outbreak, even without an all-in/all-out system, while keeping farm productivity at full. PMID:25932349

  18. Ptc1, a type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase, inactivates the HOG pathway by dephosphorylating the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1.

    PubMed

    Warmka, J; Hanneman, J; Lee, J; Amin, D; Ota, I

    2001-01-01

    The HOG (high-osmolarity glycerol) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway regulates the osmotic stress response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatases (PTCs), Ptc1, Ptc2, and Ptc3, have been isolated as negative regulators of this pathway. Previously, multicopy expression of PTC1 and PTC3 was shown to suppress lethality of the sln1Delta strain due to hyperactivation of the HOG pathway. In this work, we show that PTC2 also suppresses sln1Delta lethality. Furthermore, the phosphatase activity of these PTCs was needed for suppression, as mutation of a conserved Asp residue, likely to coordinate a metal ion, inactivated PTCs. Further analysis of Ptc1 function in vivo showed that it inactivates the MAPK, Hog1, but not the MEK, Pbs2. In the wild type, Hog1 kinase activity increased transiently, approximately 12-fold in response to osmotic stress, while overexpression of PTC1 limited activation to approximately 3-fold. In contrast, overexpression of PTC1 did not inhibit phosphorylation of Hog1 Tyr in the phosphorylation lip, suggesting that Ptc1 does not act on Pbs2. Deletion of PTC1 also strongly affected Hog1, leading to high basal Hog1 activity and sustained Hog1 activity in response to osmotic stress, the latter being consistent with a role for Ptc1 in adaptation. In vitro, Ptc1 but not the metal binding site mutant, Ptc1D58N, inactivated Hog1 by dephosphorylating the phosphothreonine but not the phosphotyrosine residue in the phosphorylation lip. Consistent with its role as a negative regulator of Hog1, which accumulates in the nucleus upon activation, Ptc1 was found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Thus, one function of Ptc1 is to inactivate Hog1. PMID:11113180

  19. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Costs of Production, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report presents the Economic Research Service's estimates of the costs of producing wheat, feed grains, cotton, and dairy commodities. It includes costs for other farm products that compete with the required commodities, namely rice, peanuts, soybeans, flax, sunflowers, fed cattle, hogs, sheep, and sugar. The report begins by assessing costs…

  20. Feral Hogs Management at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge: Analysis of Current Management Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, Arie; Hinkle, C. Ross; Epstein, Marc

    2002-01-01

    This ST1 Technical Memorandum (TM) summarizes a two-month project on feral hog management in Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge (MINWR). For this project, feral hogs were marked and recaptured, with the help of local trappers, to estimate population size and habitat preferences. Habitat covers included vegetation cover and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data for MINWR. In addition, an analysis was done of hunting records compiled by the Refuge and hog-car accidents compiled by KSC Security.

  1. Trophic status of earthen ponds used for semi-intensive shrimp (Litopenaeus stylirostris, Stimpson, 1874) farming in New Caledonia (Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Antonio; Della Patrona, Luc; Beliaeff, Benoit

    2011-10-01

    We have investigated temporal variability in the quantity and biochemical composition of sediment organic matter along with variables proxies of water eutrophication (e.g., inorganic nutrient and chlorophyll-a) at two shrimp farms located in the Southern coast of New Caledonia and characterised by clear differences in shrimp feeding practices and levels of initial trophic conditions. The results of our study reveal that the trophic status of the water column increased during the rearing cycle at both sites, determining a general, though moderated, eutrophication. However, the water column trophic descriptors did not allow to discriminate differences in the trophic status among the investigated sites or between sites in the same farming plant, even if they were subjected to different feeding practices and largely different initial characteristics of the sediment. Temporal variations in biopolymeric C and phytopigment sedimentary contents (used as proxies of benthic eutrophication) varied inconsistently among sites. The multivariate analyses did not identify significant temporal patterns in the benthic trophic status, but allowed discriminating the four investigated sites. The semi-intensive shrimp farming significantly contributed to changing the water column and sediments trophic status of the earthen ponds, but the extent of those changes was not consistently observed in all ponds. In any of the investigated ponds the trophic status exceeded concerning thresholds over which hypoxia or anoxia could occur. We conclude that the established semi-intensive practices adopted so far for shrimp farming activities in the earthen ponds of New Caledonia are able to maintain the status of the ponds below the eutrophication levels over which dystrophic crises could sharply abate most of the reared biomass. PMID:21880358

  2. Water quality analysis of an intensively used on-farm storage reservoir in the northeast Arkansas delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of farm reservoirs for supplemental irrigation is gaining popularity in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP). Due to depletions of several aquifers, many counties within the MAP have been designated as critical-use groundwater areas. To help alleviate stress on these aquifers, many farmers...

  3. Osmostress-Induced Cell Volume Loss Delays Yeast Hog1 Signaling by Limiting Diffusion Processes and by Hog1-Specific Effects

    PubMed Central

    Babazadeh, Roja; Adiels, Caroline Beck; Smedh, Maria; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Goksör, Mattias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Signal transmission progresses via a series of transient protein-protein interactions and protein movements, which require diffusion within a cell packed with different molecules. Yeast Hog1, the effector protein kinase of the High Osmolarity Glycerol pathway, translocates transiently from the cytosol to the nucleus during adaptation to high external osmolarity. We followed the dynamics of osmostress-induced cell volume loss and Hog1 nuclear accumulation upon exposure of cells to different NaCl concentrations. While Hog1 nuclear accumulation peaked within five minutes following mild osmotic shock it was delayed up to six-fold under severe stress. The timing of Hog1 nuclear accumulation correlated with the degree of cell volume loss and the cells capacity to recover. Also the nuclear translocation of Msn2, the transcription factor of the general stress response pathway, is delayed upon severe osmotic stress suggesting a general phenomenon. We show by direct measurements that the general diffusion rate of Hog1 in the cytoplasm as well as its rate of nuclear transport are dramatically reduced following severe volume reduction. However, neither Hog1 phosphorylation nor Msn2 nuclear translocation were as much delayed as Hog1 nuclear translocation. Our data provide direct evidence that signaling slows down during cell volume compression, probably as a consequence of molecular crowding. Hence one purpose of osmotic adaptation is to restore optimal diffusion rates for biochemical and cell biological processes. In addition, there may be mechanisms slowing down especially Hog1 nuclear translocation under severe stress in order to prioritize Hog1 cytosolic targets. PMID:24278344

  4. Identification of a novel HOG1 homologue from an industrial glycerol producer Candida glycerinogenes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hao; Lu, Xinyao; Wang, Chengyin; Zong, Hong; Fang, Huiying; Sun, Jin; Zhuge, Jian; Zhuge, Bin

    2014-12-01

    Candida glycerinogenes, a glycerol production industrial strain with hyperosmo-adaptation can grow well in 15 % (w/v) NaCl or 55 % (w/v) glucose. To understand the osmo-adaptation mechanism in C. glycerinogenes, the mitogen-activated protein kinase HOG1 gene (CgHOG1), which plays an essential role in the yeast hyperosmotic response, was isolated by degenerate PCR and SEFA-Formed Adaptor PCR. The CgHOG1 gene was then transformed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae hog1Δ null mutant, which restored the recombination S. cerevisiae to the wild-type phenotype with osmo-adaptation. To further clarify the function of CgHOG1, the phosphorylation of CgHOG1 and transcription of the glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (GPD1) of the CgHOG1-harbouring S. cerevisiae mutant was detected, and found to be similar to that of wild-type S. cerevisiae. In addition, the recombination S. cerevisiae with CgHOG1 gene significantly accumulated intracellular glycerol when stressed with NaCl. PMID:25119307

  5. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF FINISHING HOGS CONSUMING 'DUN' OR 'WHITE' FIELD PEAS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty commercial cross barrows and gilts (initial BW = 74.5 ± 16.4 kg) were used in a completely randomized design experiment to examine the effects of two varieties of field peas on growth performance and carcass characteristics of finishing hogs. Hogs were weighed, randomly assigned to pens (10 pi...

  6. 9 CFR 310.11 - Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cleaning of hog carcasses before incising. 310.11 Section 310.11 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POST-MORTEM INSPECTION § 310.11 Cleaning of hog...

  7. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY... OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.22 Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. Carcasses of hogs affected with urticaria (nettle rash), tinea tonsurans,...

  8. Relationship between ketosis and dairy cows' blood metabolites in intensive production farms of the periurban area of Dakar.

    PubMed

    Yameogo, Nongasida; Ouedraogo, Georges Anicet; Kanyandekwe, Christine; Sawadogo, Germain Jerome

    2008-10-01

    This study which involved 140 Holstein and Montbeliard was carried out in the periurban area of Dakar with the aim to establish the relationship between ketosis, milk production and biochemical blood metabolites. The results showed that ketosis is a real problem in periurban farms around the city of Dakar with high proportions of 33.57% for subclinical ketosis and 6.43% for clinical ketosis. In their second month of milking, cows with subclinical ketosis had a decrease of 12.4 and 15.,6% in milk yield respectively for Montbeliard and Holstein, whereas cows with clinical ketosis had a decrease of 18.6 and 26%. Ketogenic cows (subclinical and clinical) have significantly lower average levels of blood glucose (p<0.05) and significantly higher average levels of blood urea (p<0.05) than cows with normal blood beta-Hydroxy Butyrate (BbHB) levels. Also, from one farm to another, significant difference was recorded with concentration of total proteins and globulin, calcium and magnesium. PMID:18716904

  9. In situ observations of the influence of a large onshore wind farm on near-surface temperature, turbulence intensity and wind speed profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Craig M.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Pryor, S. C.

    2013-09-01

    Observations of wakes from individual wind turbines and a multi-megawatt wind energy installation in the Midwestern US indicate that directly downstream of a turbine (at a distance of 190 m, or 2.4 rotor diameters (D)), there is a clear impact on wind speed and turbulence intensity (TI) throughout the rotor swept area. However, at a downwind distance of 2.1 km (26 D downstream of the closest wind turbine) the wake of the whole wind farm is not evident. There is no significant reduction of hub-height wind speed or increase in TI especially during daytime. Thus, in high turbulence regimes even very large wind installations may have only a modest impact on downstream flow fields. No impact is observable in daytime vertical potential temperature gradients at downwind distances of >2 km, but at night the presence of the wind farm does significantly decrease the vertical gradients of potential temperature (though the profile remains stably stratified), largely by increasing the temperature at 2 m.

  10. Trends in nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining intensively farmed Danish catchments, 1990-2014. How can the observed trend be explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windolf, Jørgen; Børgesen, Christen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Kronvang, Brian; Larsen, Søren E.; Tornbjerg, Henrik

    2016-04-01

    The total land-based nitrogen load to Danish coastal waters has decreased by 50% since 1990 through a reduction of the outlet of nitrogen from sewage point sources and diffuse sources. On a national scale nitrogen load from diffuse sources, has been reduced by 43% , mainly due to limitation of the amount of N input to different crops, rules for timing and application of manure, mandatory demands for catch crops and restoration of wetlands. The latter increasing the nitrogen retention capacity in surface waters. However, on a local scale huge variations exist in the reduction of the diffuse nitrogen load. Since 1990, an important part of the Danish national monitoring program on the aquatic environment (NOVANA) has been directed at quantifying the nitrogen concentrations and load in 48 minor streams draining small intensively farmed catchments. The 48 catchments have a mean size of 18 km2, farmed area constitutes more than 60% of the catchment area and the catchments have no significant outlets of sewage to the streams. The statistical trend results (based on a seasonal Mann-Kendall) from these 48 streams show a 9-65% reduction in the diffuse nitrogen load (mean: 48%). The large differences in trends in the diffuse N load are related to differences in catchment-specific variables such as nitrogen surpluses, nitrogen leaching from the root zone, hydrogeology and nitrogen retention in ground and surface waters.

  11. Anaerobic digestion of hog wastes: Principles and practice

    SciTech Connect

    Oleszkiewicz, J.A.; Bujoczek, G.

    1996-12-31

    The principles and overview of research, development and implementation of anaerobic digestion for hog wastes are discussed. Based on economic evaluations, an anaerobic technology is cost-effective, especially for a larger herd and becomes more competitive with aerobic treatment. Nevertheless, the rate of treatment is more sensitive and dependent on the particular fraction of manure being processed. Considering the different factors affecting anaerobic digestion, a complete mixed reactor with solids recycle (having high solids retention time and low hydraulic retention time) was found to be the more reliable system with regards to methane generation and manure stabilization. By solids recycle one can obtain significant saving in the reactor volume required, while still achieving the expected degree of treatment. It was also found that even though treatment using advanced anaerobic systems when compared with simple anaerobic systems is more expensive, the rate of return on investment and efficiency of the process are higher.

  12. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  13. Corporations and the State in the Global Era: The Case of Seaboard Farms and Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, Alessandro; Constance, Douglas H.

    2006-01-01

    Employing the case of the expansion and regulation of hog confined animal feeding operations (CAFO) in Texas combined with the actions of the transnational agri-food corporation Seaboard Farms, Inc., this paper probes the relationship between the state and corporations in the global era. It specifically investigates the ability of the state to…

  14. Developments in steam generator design for combustion of hog fuel and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, P.J.; Lutes, I.G.

    1982-05-01

    The cofiring of coal and hog fuel in industrial steam generators is a feasible alternative that provides greater fuel flexibility to the operator. Equipment specifically designed to be suitable for both fuels is readily available.

  15. Multi-features association-based local HOG description for image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Bingbing; Zhou, Shilin; Lei, Lin; Ji, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    Image matching has always been a very important research areas in computer vision. The performance will directly affect the matching results. Among local descriptors, the Scale Invariant Feature Transform(SIFT) is a milestone in image matching, while HOG as an excellent descriptor is widely used in 2D object detection, but it seldom used as a descriptor for matching. In this article, we suppose to pool these algorithms and we use a simple modification of the Rotation- Invariant HOG(RI-HOG) to describe the feature domain detected by SIFT. The RI-HOG is Fourier analyzed in the polar/spherical coordinates. Later in our experiment, we test the performance of our method on a datasets. We are surprised to find that the method outperforms other descriptors in image matching in accuracy.

  16. The Hog1 SAPK controls the Rtg1/Rtg3 transcriptional complex activity by multiple regulatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Roig, Clàudia; Noriega, Núria; Duch, Alba; Posas, Francesc; de Nadal, Eulàlia

    2012-01-01

    Cells modulate expression of nuclear genes in response to alterations in mitochondrial function, a response termed retrograde (RTG) regulation. In budding yeast, the RTG pathway relies on Rtg1 and Rtg3 basic helix-loop-helix leucine Zipper transcription factors. Exposure of yeast to external hyperosmolarity activates the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK), which is a key player in the regulation of gene expression upon stress. Several transcription factors, including Sko1, Hot1, the redundant Msn2 and Msn4, and Smp1, have been shown to be directly controlled by the Hog1 SAPK. The mechanisms by which Hog1 regulates their activity differ from one to another. In this paper, we show that Rtg1 and Rtg3 transcription factors are new targets of the Hog1 SAPK. In response to osmostress, RTG-dependent genes are induced in a Hog1-dependent manner, and Hog1 is required for Rtg1/3 complex nuclear accumulation. In addition, Hog1 activity regulates Rtg1/3 binding to chromatin and transcriptional activity. Therefore Hog1 modulates Rtg1/3 complex activity by multiple mechanisms in response to stress. Overall our data suggest that Hog1, through activation of the RTG pathway, contributes to ensure mitochondrial function as part of the Hog1-mediated osmoadaptive response. PMID:22956768

  17. Hog1 Targets Whi5 and Msa1 Transcription Factors To Downregulate Cyclin Expression upon Stress

    PubMed Central

    González-Novo, Alberto; Jiménez, Javier; Clotet, Josep; Nadal-Ribelles, Mariona; Cavero, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Yeast cells have developed complex mechanisms to cope with extracellular insults. An increase in external osmolarity leads to activation of the stress-activated protein kinase Hog1, which is the main regulator of adaptive responses, such as gene expression and cell cycle progression, that are essential for cellular survival. Upon osmostress, the G1-to-S transition is regulated by Hog1 through stabilization of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and the downregulation of G1 cyclin expression by an unclear mechanism. Here, we show that Hog1 interacts with and phosphorylates components of the core cell cycle transcriptional machinery such as Whi5 and the coregulator Msa1. Phosphorylation of these two transcriptional regulators by Hog1 is essential for inhibition of G1 cyclin expression, for control of cell morphogenesis, and for maximal cell survival upon stress. The control of both Whi5 and Msa1 by Hog1 also revealed the necessity for proper coordination of budding and DNA replication. Thus, Hog1 regulates G1 cyclin transcription upon osmostress to ensure coherent passage through Start. PMID:25733686

  18. A Hybrid Vehicle Detection Method Based on Viola-Jones and HOG + SVM from UAV Images.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yongzheng; Yu, Guizhen; Wang, Yunpeng; Wu, Xinkai; Ma, Yalong

    2016-01-01

    A new hybrid vehicle detection scheme which integrates the Viola-Jones (V-J) and linear SVM classifier with HOG feature (HOG + SVM) methods is proposed for vehicle detection from low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) images. As both V-J and HOG + SVM are sensitive to on-road vehicles' in-plane rotation, the proposed scheme first adopts a roadway orientation adjustment method, which rotates each UAV image to align the roads with the horizontal direction so the original V-J or HOG + SVM method can be directly applied to achieve fast detection and high accuracy. To address the issue of descending detection speed for V-J and HOG + SVM, the proposed scheme further develops an adaptive switching strategy which sophistically integrates V-J and HOG + SVM methods based on their different descending trends of detection speed to improve detection efficiency. A comprehensive evaluation shows that the switching strategy, combined with the road orientation adjustment method, can significantly improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the vehicle detection from UAV images. The results also show that the proposed vehicle detection method is competitive compared with other existing vehicle detection methods. Furthermore, since the proposed vehicle detection method can be performed on videos captured from moving UAV platforms without the need of image registration or additional road database, it has great potentials of field applications. Future research will be focusing on expanding the current method for detecting other transportation modes such as buses, trucks, motors, bicycles, and pedestrians. PMID:27548179

  19. Improving risk models for avian influenza: the role of intensive poultry farming and flooded land during the 2004 Thailand epidemic.

    PubMed

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention. PMID:23185352

  20. Improving Risk Models for Avian Influenza: The Role of Intensive Poultry Farming and Flooded Land during the 2004 Thailand Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Van Boeckel, Thomas P.; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Robinson, Timothy; Biradar, Chandrashekhar M.; Xiao, Xiangming; Gilbert, Marius

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996 when Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza type H5N1 first emerged in southern China, numerous studies sought risk factors and produced risk maps based on environmental and anthropogenic predictors. However little attention has been paid to the link between the level of intensification of poultry production and the risk of outbreak. This study revised H5N1 risk mapping in Central and Western Thailand during the second wave of the 2004 epidemic. Production structure was quantified using a disaggregation methodology based on the number of poultry per holding. Population densities of extensively- and intensively-raised ducks and chickens were derived both at the sub-district and at the village levels. LandSat images were used to derive another previously neglected potential predictor of HPAI H5N1 risk: the proportion of water in the landscape resulting from floods. We used Monte Carlo simulation of Boosted Regression Trees models of predictor variables to characterize the risk of HPAI H5N1. Maps of mean risk and uncertainty were derived both at the sub-district and the village levels. The overall accuracy of Boosted Regression Trees models was comparable to that of logistic regression approaches. The proportion of area flooded made the highest contribution to predicting the risk of outbreak, followed by the densities of intensively-raised ducks, extensively-raised ducks and human population. Our results showed that as little as 15% of flooded land in villages is sufficient to reach the maximum level of risk associated with this variable. The spatial pattern of predicted risk is similar to previous work: areas at risk are mainly located along the flood plain of the Chao Phraya river and to the south-east of Bangkok. Using high-resolution village-level poultry census data, rather than sub-district data, the spatial accuracy of predictions was enhanced to highlight local variations in risk. Such maps provide useful information to guide intervention. PMID:23185352

  1. Bringing Home the Bacon? The Myth of the Role of Corporate Hog Farming in Rural Revitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    As rural communities decline due to job losses in agriculture and other industries, they often aggressively court new industries. In such circumstances, a community should question what a proposed new industry will require in terms of infrastructure; the effects of the new labor force on schools, businesses, and housing; the impact on the…

  2. Preliminary evaluation of insecticide resistance in a strain of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) from an intensive chicken farm of Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Pezzi, Marco; Lanfredi, Massimo; Chicca, Milvia; Tedeschi, Paola; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Leis, Marilena

    2011-01-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L., a relevant sanitary pest, is mainly controlled by insecticides. However, an inappropriate use of chemicals may induce resistance, treatment efficacy decline and environmental damages. We evaluated toxicity of some organophosphates, pyrethroids, spinosad and neonicotinoids by topical applications on adults of a M. domestica strain (OcRo) collected from an intensive chicken farm in Northern Italy, in comparison to a susceptible strain (s-DBF). The OcRo strain exhibited higher levels of resistance (RR₅₀) to four pesticides in comparison to s-DBF. Spinosad and imidacloprid had very low RR₅₀, thus were still efficient in OcRo control. We also tested resistance to pesticides in OcRo after topical applications of synergistic compounds. Hydrolases were involved in phosphorganic detoxification and cytochrome P450 monoxygenases in that of pyrethroids. These results indicate that OcRo strain is now multiresistant to organophosphates and pyrethroids, and this should be considered for an environmentally safe pest management. PMID:21726145

  3. Microhabitat use, not temperature, regulates intensity of Gyrodactylus cichlidarum long-term infection on farmed tilapia--are parasites evading competition or immunity?

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Muñoz-Córdova, Germán; Garduño-Lugo, Mario; Salazar-Ulloa, Martha; Mercado-Vidal, Gabriel

    2012-02-10

    Gyrodactylids (Monogenea) are ectoparasites of fish, some of which negatively affect commercially valuable fishes. Temperature strongly regulates population dynamics of these viviparous flatworms in farmed and wild fish populations, with most gyrodactylid species showing positive temperature-abundance associations. In agreement with epidemiological theory, numerous laboratory studies demonstrate that these parasites cannot persist in confined fish populations without periodic introduction of susceptible hosts. Extinction of gyrodactylid populations is due to host immunity, which develops in several fish species. In this one-year study, we followed populations of the recognized pathogen Gyrodactylus cichlidarum infecting four genetic groups of confined tilapia (wild type Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus, red O. n. niloticus, Mozambique tilapia O. mossambicus and a red synthetic population called Pargo-UNAM) kept under farming conditions and subject to natural environmental fluctuations. Based on the antecedents given, we postulated the following three hypotheses: (1) parasite abundance will be regulated by water temperature; (2) parasites will induce host mortality, particularly during periods of rapid infrapopulation growth; and (3) gyrodactylid populations will eventually become extinct on confined fish hosts. We disproved the three hypotheses: (1) parasite numbers fluctuated independently of temperature but were associated to changes in microhabitat use; (2) although gyrodactylid populations exhibited considerable growth, no evidence was found of negative effects on the hosts; and (3) infections persisted for one year on confined fish. Microhabitat use changed over time, with most worms apparently migrating anteriorly from the caudal fin and ending on the pectoral fins. Gyrodactylid populations followed similar trajectories in all fish, aggregating and dispersing repeatedly. Several instances were found where increased parasite dispersion coincided

  4. Examination of atmospheric ammonia levels near hog CAFOs, homes, and schools in Eastern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Sacoby M.; Serre, Marc L.

    Hog concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) release ammonia (NH 3) in Eastern North Carolina (NC) to the atmosphere which is potentially hazardous for nearby human populations at community locations particularly homes and schools. We present NH 3 weekly average concentrations that were collected using passive diffusion tubes from October 2003 to May 2004 (20 sites) and from July 2004 to October 2004 (23 sites) near community locations in close proximity to hog CAFOs. The data for each phase of sampling was stratified by distance from the nearest hog CAFO. The mean Phase I levels were 16, 8, 7 and 5 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, and 2 km or more, respectively. The mean levels for Phase II were 29, 16, and 11 ppb for distances <0.5, 0.5-1, and 1 km or more, respectively. The results of the distance stratification are the best results of this study and provide the strongest evidence that distance to one or more CAFOs is the key variable in controlling weekly NH 3 atmospheric concentration at the community level in Eastern NC. Statistical analyses confirmed that source terms such as distance to a hog CAFO and live weight per operation, as well as temperature, wind speed and wind direction were important predictors of atmospheric NH 3 at community locations. The results indicate potential zones of exposure for human populations who live or go to school near hog CAFOs.

  5. Pheromone-Induced Morphogenesis Improves Osmoadaptation Capacity by Activating the HOG MAPK Pathway**

    PubMed Central

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. Here, we investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell-wall integrity response (CWI). Although these MAPK pathways share components with each and a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity response (HOG), they are normally only activated by distinct stimuli, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity- dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the “shmooing” morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the cell wall integrity MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover that improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to enable responses to yeast to multiple stimuli. PMID:23612707

  6. Pheromone-induced morphogenesis improves osmoadaptation capacity by activating the HOG MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Baltanás, Rodrigo; Bush, Alan; Couto, Alicia; Durrieu, Lucía; Hohmann, Stefan; Colman-Lerner, Alejandro

    2013-04-23

    Environmental and internal conditions expose cells to a multiplicity of stimuli whose consequences are difficult to predict. We investigate the response to mating pheromone of yeast cells adapted to high osmolarity. Events downstream of pheromone binding involve two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades: the pheromone response (PR) and the cell wall integrity (CWI) response. Although the PR MAPK pathway shares components with a third MAPK pathway, the high osmolarity (HOG) response, each one is normally only activated by its cognate stimulus, a phenomenon called insulation. We found that in cells adapted to high osmolarity, PR activated the HOG pathway in a pheromone- and osmolarity-dependent manner. Activation of HOG by the PR was not due to loss of insulation, but rather a response to a reduction in internal osmolarity, which resulted from an increase in glycerol release caused by the PR. By analyzing single-cell time courses, we found that stimulation of HOG occurred in discrete bursts that coincided with the "shmooing" morphogenetic process. Activation required the polarisome, the CWI MAPK Slt2, and the aquaglyceroporin Fps1. HOG activation resulted in high glycerol turnover, which improved adaptability to rapid changes in osmolarity. Our work shows how a differentiation signal can recruit a second, unrelated sensory pathway to fine-tune yeast response in a complex environment. PMID:23612707

  7. Sub-iliac Lymph Nodes at Slaughter Lack Ability to Predict Salmonella-enteric Prevalence for Swine Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of deep systemic sub-iliac lymph nodes collected at slaughter as predictors of Salmonella prevalence in live hogs. An observational study was conducted on 24 farms from September 2006 to February 2009. At least one cohort or herd was visited for each fa...

  8. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department... pigs and market hogs. Pursuant to the provisions of § 1230.71, purchasers of feeder pigs or market...

  9. HwHog1 kinase activity is crucial for survival of Hortaea werneckii in extremely hyperosmolar environments.

    PubMed

    Kejžar, Anja; Grötli, Morten; Tamás, Markus J; Plemenitaš, Ana; Lenassi, Metka

    2015-01-01

    Although suggested, the involvement of the HOG pathway in adaptation processes in extremely halotolerant fungus Hortaea werneckii has never been specifically demonstrated. Here, we show that the H. werneckii HOG pathway is very robust, and that it includes two functionally redundant MAPK homologues, HwHog1A and HwHog1B, that show osmolyte-type-dependent phosphorylation. Inhibition of HwHog1 kinase activity with the ATP analogue BPTIP restricts H. werneckii colony growth at 3.0M NaCl, KCl and sorbitol, most likely due to restricted cell division. On the other hand, HwHog1-regulated transcription of a selected group of genes (HwSTL1, HwGUT2, HwOPI3, HwGDH1, HwUGP1, HwGPD1) is an osmolyte-specific process that is important for induction of gene transcription with high NaCl, for regulation of specific genes with high sorbitol, and has no role in KCl stressed cells. Survival of H. werneckii at moderate NaCl and KCl concentrations is not dependent on HwHog1 activity or the calcineurin pathway, and thus alternative mechanisms must exist. The HOG pathway described here is vital for the extreme osmotolerance of H. werneckii, and its regulation shows important differences from the homologue pathways characterised in other mesophilic and halotolerant fungi. PMID:25483129

  10. Reactions of human and hog intrinsic factors with type I antibody to intrinsic factor

    PubMed Central

    Gullberg, R.

    1970-01-01

    A simple and rapid small-scale gel filtration method was applied in studies of type I antibody to intrinsic factor using radioactive vitamin B12 of high specific activity and purified human and hog intrinsic factor preparations, taking into account the unsaturated B12-binding capacity of the individual pernicious anaemia sera. This procedure allows the use of small amounts of reagents. Evidence was obtained for a close antigenic similarity of determinants of human and hog intrinsic factor. The use of purified intrinsic-factor preparations is important. PMID:4097742

  11. SEASONAL EMISSIONS OF AMMONIA AND METHANE FROM A HOG WASTE LAGOON WITH BIOACTIVE COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the use of plane-integrated (PI) open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (OP-FTIR) to measure the flux of ammonia and methane from a hog waste lagoon before and after the installation of a bioactive cover. A computed tomography algorithm using a smoo...

  12. Human gait recognition by pyramid of HOG feature on silhouette images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Park, Jeanrok; Man, Hong

    2013-03-01

    As a uncommon biometric modality, human gait recognition has a great advantage of identify people at a distance without high resolution images. It has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in the fields of computer vision and remote sensing. In this paper, we propose a human gait recognition framework that consists of a reliable background subtraction method followed by the pyramid of Histogram of Gradient (pHOG) feature extraction on the silhouette image, and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based classifier. Through background subtraction, the silhouette of human gait in each frame is extracted and normalized from the raw video sequence. After removing the shadow and noise in each region of interest (ROI), pHOG feature is computed on the silhouettes images. Then the pHOG features of each gait class will be used to train a corresponding HMM. In the test stage, pHOG feature will be extracted from each test sequence and used to calculate the posterior probability toward each trained HMM model. Experimental results on the CASIA Gait Dataset B1 demonstrate that with our proposed method can achieve very competitive recognition rate.

  13. Regulation of Candida albicans Interaction with Macrophages through the Activation of HOG Pathway by Genistein.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shuna; Hassan, Rabeay Y A; Heintz-Buschart, Anna; Bilitewski, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    The severity of infections caused by Candida albicans, the most common opportunistic human fungal pathogen, needs rapid and effective antifungal treatments. One of the effective ways is to control the virulence factors of the pathogen. Therefore, the current study examined the effects of genistein, a natural isoflavone present in soybeans, on C. albicans. The genistein-treated C. albicans cells were then exposed to macrophages. Although no inhibition effect on the growth rates of C. albicans was noted an enhancement of the immune response to macrophages has been observed, indicated by phagocytosis and release of cytokines TNF-α and IL-10. The effect of genistein on the enhanced phagocytosis can be mimicked by the fungicides fludioxonil or iprodione, which inhibit the histidine kinase Cos1p and lead to activation of HOG pathway. The western blot results showed a clear phosphorylation of Hog1p in the wild type strain of C. albicans after incubation with genistein. In addition, effects of genistein on the phosphorylation of Hog1p in the histidine kinase mutants Δcos1 and Δsln1 were also observed. Our results thus indicate a new bio-activity of genistein on C. albicans by activation of the HOG pathway of the human pathogen C. albicans. PMID:26828477

  14. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  15. 9 CFR 311.22 - Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hogs affected with urticaria, tinea tonsurans, demodex follicurlorum, or erythema. 311.22 Section 311.22 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-PLANT REDUCTION OF WASTEWATER FROM HOG SLAUGHTERING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastes generated were characterized and quantified in typical hog slaughtering operations both before and after modifications were made to reduce wastewater volume and strength and to increase by-product recovery. The research was carried out in the Oscar Mayer plants at Madison,...

  17. Delayed Turnover of Unphosphorylated Ssk1 during Carbon Stress Activates the Yeast Hog1 Map Kinase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Vallejo, Milene Carmes; Mayinger, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway coordinates the adaptation to osmotic stress and was recently reported to respond to acute changes in glucose levels. Similarly as in osmotic stress, glucose starvation leads to a transient accumulation of Hog1 in the nucleus. However, the kinetics and the mechanism of Hog1 activation are different for these stress conditions. During osmotic shock the activation of Hog1 can be transduced by either the Sho1 or the Sln1/Ypd1/Ssk1 branch. During glucose starvation the phosphorylation of Hog1 is slower and is completely dependent on Ssk1, but independent of Sho1. To characterize the mechanism of activation of Hog1 during carbon stress, we examined the turnover of Ssk1 protein levels upon glucose starvation in the presence of cycloheximide and monitored protein levels by western blotting. Our data demonstrate that unphosphorylated Ssk1 was quickly degraded during exponential growth and after osmotic stress but remained remarkably stable during glucose limitation. We conclude that glucose starvation induces a delay in the turnover of unphosphorylated Ssk1, which is sufficient to activate the Hog1 MAPK pathway. Although unphosphorylated Ssk1 is known to be degraded by the proteasome, its stabilization is apparently not due to changes in cellular localization or decrease in ubiquitination levels during glucose limitation. PMID:26340004

  18. Involvement of the mitogen activated protein kinase Hog1p in the response of Candida albicans to iron availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron is an essential nutrient for almost all organisms, and generating iron limiting conditions for pathogens is one of the host defense strategies against microbial infections. Excess of iron can be toxic; therefore, iron uptake is tightly controlled. The high affinity iron uptake system of the opportunistic pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been shown to be essential for virulence. Several transcription factors and regulators of iron uptake genes were identified, but the knowledge of signaling pathways is still limited. Gene expression profiling of the Δhog1 deletion mutant indicated an involvement of the mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase Hog1p. However, the function of Hog1p in the response of C. albicans to iron availability was not studied in detail. Thus, we analyzed phenotypic and molecular responses of C. albicans to different iron concentrations particularly with respect to the activity of the Hog1p MAP kinase module. Results We observed flocculation of yeast cells, when the iron ion concentration was equal to or higher than 5 μM. This phenotype was dependent on the MAP kinase Hog1p and the corresponding MAP kinase kinase Pbs2p. Moreover, high extracellular iron ion concentrations led to hyper-phosphorylation of Hog1p. We determined lower amounts of multicopper ferroxidase (MCFO) proteins and lower ferric reductase activity, when the iron ion concentration in the medium was increased. This effect was also observed for the Δhog1 mutant. However, the amounts of MCFO proteins and the cell surface ferric reductase activity were increased in the Δhog1 in comparison to wild type cells. This effect was independent of iron availability in growth media. Conclusions In C. albicans, the MAP kinase Hog1p is part of the network regulating the response of the organism to iron availability. Hog1p was transiently phosphorylated under high iron concentrations and was essential for a flocculent phenotype. Furthermore, deletion of HOG1 led to

  19. Tightly-coupled plant-soil nitrogen cycling: Implications for multiple ecosystem services on organic farms across an intensively managed agricultural landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variability among farms across an agricultural landscape may reveal diverse biophysical contexts and experiences that show innovations and insights to improve nitrogen (N) cycling and yields, and thus the potential for multiple ecosystem services. In order to assess potential tradeoffs between yield...

  20. SWAT Model Application to Assess the Impact of Intensive Corn‐farming on Runoff, Sediments and Phosphorous loss from an Agricultural Watershed in Wisconsin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential future increase in corn-based biofuel may be expected to have a negative impact on water quality in streams and lakes of the Midwestern US due to increased agricultural chemicals usage. This study used the SWAT model to assess the impact of continuous-corn farming o...

  1. Farm Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcoux, Mary F.

    1990-01-01

    Described are activities using ants. Ant hunting, a list of books on the topic, information, and ant farming are included. The procedures for assembling and maintenance of an ant farm are presented. (KR)

  2. Boron contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure, selected fertilizers, and water in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Komor, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    Boron-isotope (δ11B) values may be useful as surrogate tracers of contaminants and indicators of water mixing in agricultural settings. This paper characterizes the B contents and isotopic compositions of hog manure and selected fertilizers, and presents δ11B data for ground and surface water from two agricultural areas. Boron concentrations in dry hog manure averaged 61 mg/kg and in commercial fertilizers ranged from below detection limits in some brands of ammonium nitrate and urea to 382 mg/kg in magnesium sulfate. Values of δ11B of untreated hog manure ranged from 7.2 to 11.2o/oo and of N fertilizers were −2.0 to 0.7o/oo. In 22 groundwater samples from a sand-plain aquifer in east-central Minnesota, B concentrations averaged 0.04 mg/L and δ11B values ranged from 2.3 to 41.5o/oo. Groundwater beneath a hog feedlot and a cultivated field where hog manure was applied had B-isotope compositions consistent with the water containing hog-manure leachate. In a 775-km2 watershed with silty-loam soils in southcentral Minnesota: 18 samples of subsurface drainage from corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) fields had average B concentrations of 0.06 mg/L and δ11B values of 5.3 to 15.1o/oo; 27 stream samples had average B concentrations of 0.05 mg/L and δ11B values of 1.0 to 19.0o/oo; and eight groundwater samples had average B concentrations of 0.09 mg/L and δ11B values of −0.3 to 23.0o/oo. Values of δ11B and B concentrations, when plotted against one another, define a curved mixing trend that suggests subsurface drainage and stream water contain mixtures of B from shallow and deep groundwater.

  3. Field immobilization of Molina's hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) using ketamine and xylazine.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Diego F; Vidal, Estela Luengos; Casanave, Emma B; Lucherini, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    We injected 27 adult Molina's hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga) intramuscularly by hand with ketamine hydrochloride (KH) and xylazine hydrochloride (XH) in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Skunks were immobilized with a mean (±SD) dosage of 24.9±6.5 mg/kg KH and 1.9±0.6 mg/kg XH. The mean effective dosages of KH (27.6 mg/kg) and XH (1.7 mg/kg) were higher and lower, respectively, than those reported in skunks previously. Mean induction and recovery time were 5.3±1.9 min and 47.7±18.5 min, respectively. Hypothermia was the only problem detected in field immobilization and occurred in winter but did not appear to be associated with to drug doses. We conclude that KH/XH is a safe immobilizing drug combination for Molina's hog-nosed skunk. PMID:22247386

  4. Hydrologic conditions related to the Hog Canyon Riparian Restoration Project, dinosaur national monument. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, L.; Wagner, J.

    1992-10-01

    In September, 1990, an interdisciplinary team of hydrologists, botanists, soil scientists, and park resource managers met to develop a plan for evaluating riparian conditions and management opportunities for Hog Canyon. At this meeting a set of study objectives was developed to help focus information needs. This report focuses on analysis of hydrologic data collected during the first year of the study. Specifically, the authors discuss seasonal surface and ground water hydrologic conditions, stream channel and ground water relationships, soil moisture conditions, and other aspects of Hog Canyon hydrology relevant to the management objectives. A set of preliminary management/restoration alternatives are also presented as a starting point for continued discussions by the evaluation team.

  5. Tertiary amines related to brompheniramine: preferred conformations for N-oxygenation by the hog liver flavin-containing monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Cashman, J R; Celestial, J R; Leach, A; Newdoll, J; Park, S B

    1993-08-01

    The metabolism of racemic, (D)- and (L)-brompheniramine, a widely used antihistamine, was studied with microsomes and with highly purified flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) from hog liver. In addition, a number of other similar tertiary amines were evaluated as substrates for FMO activity from hog liver and the kinetic constants obtained were compared with brompheniramine. Although some N-demethylation was observed, the major metabolite of brompheniramine and the other tertiary amines examined in hog liver microsomes was the metabolite containing an aliphatic nitrogen N-oxide. Brompheniramine was extensively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. N-Oxygenation of brompheniramine in both microsomes and with highly purified FMO from hog liver was enantioselective. The Km for N-oxygenation of (D)-brompheniramine was markedly lower than the Km for (L)-brompheniramine. (E)- and (Z)-zimeldine are less conformationally flexible model compounds of brompheniramine, and these compounds were also examined and were found to be stereoselectively N-oxygenated by the highly purified FMO from hog liver. The similarities and differences in Km and Vmax values were evaluated in terms of possible conformations of the substrates determined by SYBYL molecular mechanics calculations. Distance map data indicated that FMO preferentially accommodated selected conformations of tertiary amines. Thus, (D)-brompheniramine and (Z)-zimeldine presumably have the aliphatic tertiary amine nitrogen atom and aromatic ring center at a defined distance and geometry and were more efficiently N-oxygenated than their respective isomers. PMID:8415393

  6. Nbp2 targets the Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase to the HOG MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Mapes, James; Ota, Irene M

    2004-01-28

    The yeast high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway signals via the Pbs2 MEK and the Hog1 MAPK, whose activity requires phosphorylation of Thr and Tyr in the activation loop. The Ptc1-type 2C Ser/Thr phosphatase (PP2C) inactivates Hog1 by dephosphorylating phospho-Thr, while the Ptp2 and Ptp3 protein tyrosine phosphatases dephosphorylate phospho-Tyr. In this work, we show that the SH3 domain-containing protein Nbp2 negatively regulates Hog1 by recruiting Ptc1 to the Pbs2-Hog1 complex. Consistent with this role, NBP2 acted as a negative regulator similar to PTC1 in phenotypic assays. Biochemical analysis showed that Nbp2, like Ptc1, was required to inactivate Hog1 during adaptation. As predicted for an adapter, deletion of NBP2 disrupted Ptc1-Pbs2 complex formation. Furthermore, Nbp2 contained separate binding sites for Ptc1 and Pbs2: the novel N-terminal domain bound Ptc1, while the SH3 domain bound Pbs2. In addition, the Pbs2 scaffold bound the Nbp2 SH3 via a Pro-rich motif distinct from that which binds the SH3 domain of the positive regulator Sho1. Thus, Nbp2 recruits Ptc1 to Pbs2, a scaffold for both negative and positive regulators. PMID:14685261

  7. Removal of humic acid from composted hog waste by the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junying; Song, Yunmeng; Ruan, Roger; Liu, Yuhuan

    2015-01-01

    The potential hazards of humic acid (HA) associated with hog waste effluent, coupled with increasing awareness of environmental problems, have prompted many countries to control disposal of effluents into water bodies and to maximize removal of HA. Here we employed the white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, to degrade the HA in composted hog waste effluent, evaluated by the response surface method. Preliminary experiments demonstrate that pH, temperature and quantity of inoculum are significant variables determining success of the fungus. In total, 13 experiments were conducted with three variables designated as A (pH), B (temperature) and C (inoculum amount). The optimal conditions for reduction of HA by P. chrysosporium are pH 6, 31.5°C and an inoculum quantity of 5.86 g. Predicted and experimental results exhibit strong agreement, indicating efficiency in the model obtained by response surface method. Therefore, P. chrysosporium is an effective micro-organism for removal of HA from composted hog waste effluent. PMID:26114276

  8. Infrared image segmentation using HOG feature and kernel extreme learning machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Ying; Wang, Luping; Zhang, Luping

    2015-10-01

    Image segmentation is an important application in computer vision. Nowadays, image segmentation of infrared image has not gain as much attention as image segmentation of visible light image. But this application is very useful. For example, searching and tracking targets with infrared search and track system (IRST) has been widely used these days due to its special passive mode. So it can be used as a kind of supplementary equipment for radar. Infrared image segmentation can help computers identify backgrounds of the image, and help it automatically adjust the related parameters for the next work, such as targets recognition or targets detection. Our work proposed a new image segmentation method for infrared image using histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) feature and kernel extreme learning machine (kernel ELM). HOG are feature descriptors which can be used in computer vision and image processing for the purpose of object detection. In this paper, we extract HOG feature of infrared image, and use this feature as the basis for classification. After having feature, we use kernel extreme learning machine to do the segmentation. Kernel extreme learning machine has shown many excellent characteristics in classification. By testing our algorithm proposed in our paper, we demonstrated that our algorithm is effective and feasible.

  9. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  10. Epidemiological approach to the association between economic efficiency and productivity on swine farms in Prince Edward Island.

    PubMed Central

    Van Til, L D; O'Rourke, R L; Dohoo, I R

    1991-01-01

    Regression analysis was used to determine the ability of a number of biological parameters to predict economic efficiency. Detailed feed, financial, and production records were maintained by a random sample of eighteen Prince Edward Island (PEI) swine producers (each producing over 1000 market hogs per year). Relative economic efficiency of the operations was measured using return to management and labor (RML). Of the routinely monitored biological parameters, RML on PEI farrow-finish operations was best predicted (R2 = 64.8%) by: marketed per square meter per year (p = 0.008) and marketed per sow per year (p = 0.096). Regression of fixed costs revealed that biological parameters had limited ability to predict fixed costs per hog on farrow-finish operations (R2 = 30.7%). The only parameter contributing to the prediction of the fixed cost component of RML was feeder hog density (p = 0.077). The variable cost component of RML on farrow-finish operations was predicted (R2 = 94.3%) by feed cost per kg gain (p = 0.000), and marketed per sow per year (p = 0.044). The routinely recorded biological parameters on feeder farms had only limited ability to predict RML in this study (R2 = 43.7%). The only parameter of any importance was marketed per square meter per year (p = 0.106). Prediction of the fixed cost component of RML on feeder farms (R2 = 67.4%) was best realized by measuring feeder hog density (p = 0.045). The variable cost component of RML on feeder farms was reasonably well predicted (R2 = 74.7%) by feed cost per kg gain (p = 0.012). Although this parameter is difficult to monitor from records currently maintained on most farms, it points out the need to monitor feed consumption on swine farms. PMID:1889038

  11. Reconstruction of the High-Osmolarity Glycerol (HOG) Signaling Pathway from the Halophilic Fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Konte, Tilen; Terpitz, Ulrich; Plemenitaš, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The basidiomycetous fungus Wallemia ichthyophaga grows between 1.7 and 5.1 M NaCl and is the most halophilic eukaryote described to date. Like other fungi, W. ichthyophaga detects changes in environmental salinity mainly by the evolutionarily conserved high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the HOG pathway has been extensively studied in connection to osmotic regulation, with a valuable knock-out strain collection established. In the present study, we reconstructed the architecture of the HOG pathway of W. ichthyophaga in suitable S. cerevisiae knock-out strains, through heterologous expression of the W. ichthyophaga HOG pathway proteins. Compared to S. cerevisiae, where the Pbs2 (ScPbs2) kinase of the HOG pathway is activated via the SHO1 and SLN1 branches, the interactions between the W. ichthyophaga Pbs2 (WiPbs2) kinase and the W. ichthyophaga SHO1 branch orthologs are not conserved: as well as evidence of poor interactions between the WiSho1 Src-homology 3 (SH3) domain and the WiPbs2 proline-rich motif, the absence of a considerable part of the osmosensing apparatus in the genome of W. ichthyophaga suggests that the SHO1 branch components are not involved in HOG signaling in this halophilic fungus. In contrast, the conserved activation of WiPbs2 by the S. cerevisiae ScSsk2/ScSsk22 kinase and the sensitivity of W. ichthyophaga cells to fludioxonil, emphasize the significance of two-component (SLN1-like) signaling via Group III histidine kinase. Combined with protein modeling data, our study reveals conserved and non-conserved protein interactions in the HOG signaling pathway of W. ichthyophaga and therefore significantly improves the knowledge of hyperosmotic signal processing in this halophilic fungus. PMID:27379041

  12. Energy integrated swine farm system in Nebraska: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Splinter, W.E.; Schulte, D.D.

    1987-05-01

    One of the guidelines used to establish the Energy-Integrated Farm System (EIFS) was that it be representative of Midwest agriculture. Sales of irrigated crops and hogs in Nebraska generate over 50% of the state's revenue. Thus, an irrigated crop and wine farm was chosen for demonstration. The concept of this project involved the use of ''state-of-the-art'' technology in an attempt to achieve zero flow of direct and indirect petroleum input into the farming operation. Specific objectives were: utilization of energy-saving irrigation scheduling and low-pressure center-pivot and gated-pipe irrigation systems; use of 190 proof ethanol produced from sweet sorghum as a replacement for fuel in farm engines; reduced tillage and fertilizer usage for energy, soil and water conservation; development of solar energy and methane gas usage in an integrated fashion for electricity production and for hot-water and space heating in a swine-production facility; use of mini- and micro-computer technology for on-farm energy conservation and management; recovery of waste heat and carbon dioxide from alcohol fermentation and swine production for greenhouse production of vegetables; demonstration of natural air grain drying, use of windbreaks, and other energy conservation practices; and determination of the economic feasibility of energy integrated farming for swine and irrigated crop production. A new farm was constructed to achieve these objectives. This report describes the system, its components and gives an economic analysis.

  13. Bittersweet Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Bettye Ruth

    1990-01-01

    The article describes Bittersweet Farms, a rural Ohio farm community for autistic adults. The program is based on the rural, extended family community as a model and includes work components (horticulture, animal care, woodworking and carpentry, maintenance, housekeeping, food preparation), recreational activities, community integration, physical…

  14. Metabolic Respiration Induces AMPK- and Ire1p-Dependent Activation of the p38-Type HOG MAPK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Hema; Cullen, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionarily conserved mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate the response to stress as well as cell differentiation. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, growth in non-preferred carbon sources (like galactose) induces differentiation to the filamentous cell type through an extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK)-type MAPK pathway. The filamentous growth MAPK pathway shares components with a p38-type High Osmolarity Glycerol response (HOG) pathway, which regulates the response to changes in osmolarity. To determine the extent of functional overlap between the MAPK pathways, comparative RNA sequencing was performed, which uncovered an unexpected role for the HOG pathway in regulating the response to growth in galactose. The HOG pathway was induced during growth in galactose, which required the nutrient regulatory AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) Snf1p, an intact respiratory chain, and a functional tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The unfolded protein response (UPR) kinase Ire1p was also required for HOG pathway activation in this context. Thus, the filamentous growth and HOG pathways are both active during growth in galactose. The two pathways redundantly promoted growth in galactose, but paradoxically, they also inhibited each other's activities. Such cross-modulation was critical to optimize the differentiation response. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans showed a similar regulatory circuit. Thus, an evolutionarily conserved regulatory axis links metabolic respiration and AMPK to Ire1p, which regulates a differentiation response involving the modulated activity of ERK and p38 MAPK pathways. PMID:25356552

  15. The HOG MAP kinase pathway is required for the induction of methylglyoxal-responsive genes and determines methylglyoxal resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Jaime; Rodríguez-Vargas, Sonia; Prieto, Jose A

    2005-04-01

    A sudden overaccumulation of methylglyoxal (MG) induces, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression of MG-protective genes, including GPD1, GLO1 and GRE3. The response is partially dependent on the transcriptional factors Msn2p/Msn4p, but unrelated with the general stress response mechanism. Here, we show that the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG)-pathway controls the genetic response to MG and determines the yeast growth capacity upon MG exposure. Strains lacking the MAPK Hog1p, the upstream component Ssk1p or the HOG-dependent nuclear factor Msn1p, showed a reduction in the mRNA accumulation of MG-responsive genes after MG addition. Moreover, hyperactivation of Hog1p by deletion of protein phosphatase PTP2 enhanced the response, while blocking the pathway by deletion of the MAPKK PBS2 had a negative effect. In addition, the activity of Hog1p affected the basal level of GPD1 mRNA under non-inducing conditions. These effects had a great influence on MG resistance, as hog1Delta and other HOG-pathway mutants with impaired MG-specific expression displayed MG sensitivity, whereas those with enhanced expression exhibited MG resistance as compared with the wild-type. However, MG does not trigger the overphosphorylation of Hog1p or its nuclear import in the parental strain. Moreover, dual phosphorylation of Hog1p appears to be dispensable in the triggering of the transcriptional response, although a phosphorylable form of Hog1p is fundamental for the transcriptional activity. Overall, our results suggest that the basal activity of the HOG-pathway serves to amplify the expression of MG-responsive genes under non-inducing and inducing conditions, ensuring cell protection against this toxic glycolytic by-product. PMID:15773992

  16. Dissecting the role of histidine kinase and HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling in stress tolerance and pathogenicity of Parastagonospora nodorum on wheat.

    PubMed

    John, Evan; Lopez-Ruiz, Francisco; Rybak, Kasia; Mousley, Carl J; Oliver, Richard P; Tan, Kar-Chun

    2016-06-01

    The HOG1 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is activated through two-component histidine kinase (HK) signalling. This pathway was first characterized in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a regulator of osmotolerance. The fungus Parastagonospora nodorum is the causal agent of septoria nodorum blotch of wheat. This pathogen uses host-specific effectors in tandem with general pathogenicity mechanisms to carry out its infection process. Genes showing strong sequence homology to S. cerevisiae HOG1 signalling pathway genes have been identified in the genome of P. nodorum. In this study, we examined the role of the pathway in the virulence of P. nodorum on wheat by disrupting putative pathway component genes: HOG1 (SNOG_13296) MAPK and NIK1 (SNOG_11631) hybrid HK. Mutants deleted in NIK1 and HOG1 were insensitive to dicarboximide and phenylpyrrole fungicides, but not a fungicide that targets ergosterol biosynthesis. Furthermore, both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants showed increased sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress. However, HOG1, but not NIK1, is required for tolerance to elevated temperatures. HOG1 deletion conferred increased tolerance to 6-methoxy-2-benzoxazolinone, a cereal phytoalexin. This suggests that the HOG1 signalling pathway is not exclusively associated with NIK1. Both Δnik1 and Δhog1 mutants retained the ability to infect and cause necrotic lesions on wheat. However, we observed that the Δhog1 mutation resulted in reduced production of pycnidia, asexual fruiting bodies that facilitate spore dispersal during late infection. Our study demonstrated the overlapping and distinct roles of a HOG1 MAPK and two-component HK signalling in P. nodorum growth and pathogenicity. PMID:26978567

  17. Volatile components in defensive spray of the hog-nosed skunk,Conepatus mesoleucus.

    PubMed

    Wood, W F; Fisher, C O; Graham, G A

    1993-04-01

    GC-MS analysis of the anal sac secretion from the hog-nosed skunk,Conepatus mesoleucus, showed two major volatile components, (E)-2-butene-1-thiol and (E)-S-2-butenyl thioacetate. Minor volatile components identified from this secretion were phenylmethanethiol, 2-methylquinoline, 2-quinolinemethanethiol, and bis[(E)-2-butenyl] disulfide. 3-Methyl-1-butanethiol, a major component in the defensive spray of the striped skunk,Mephitis mephitis, and the spotted skunk,Spilogale putorius, was absent from this secretion. PMID:24249022

  18. Lack of mutagenicity of extracts and filtrates from ''hog-fuel'' fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Scribner, J.D.; Fisk, S.R.

    1982-11-01

    There has been concern that mutagenic material might be present in the fly ash released from burning bark and wood-chips (''hog-fuel'') in the boilers of various mills of a large forest products corporation. Using five different strains of histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium, we have found that none of the samples from six different plants, in various parts of the United States, contains serum-extractable mutagens, and that only one of these contains mutagens extractable with hot benzene. Another sample, taken from a different boiler run at the same plant which produced the mutagenic sample, was without mutagenic activity. (JMT)

  19. The mitogen-activated protein kinase gene, VdHog1, regulates osmotic stress response, microsclerotia formation and virulence in Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglin; Tian, Longyan; Xiong, Dianguang; Klosterman, Steven J; Xiao, Shuxiao; Tian, Chengming

    2016-03-01

    The fungus Verticillium dahliae has gained worldwide notoriety as a destructive plant pathogen, causing vascular wilt diseases on diverse plant species. V. dahliae produces melanized resting bodies, known as microsclerotia, which can survive for 15years in the soil, and are thus critically important in its disease cycle. However, the molecular mechanisms that underpin microsclerotia formation, survival, and germination remain poorly understood. In this study, we observed that deletion of VdHog1 (ΔVdHog1), encoding a homolog of a high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) response mitogen-activated protein kinase, displayed decreased numbers of melanized microsclerotia in culture, heightened sensitivity to hyperosmotic stress, and increased resistance to the fungicide fludioxonil. Through RNA-Seq analysis, we identified 221 genes differentially expressed in the ΔVdHog1 strain. Interestingly, the expression levels of genes involved in melanin biosynthesis, as well as the hydrophobin gene VDH1, involved in the early stage of microsclerotia formation, were significantly decreased in the ΔVdHog1 strains relative to the wild-type expression levels. The ΔVdHog1 strains exhibited decreased virulence relative to the wild type strain on smoke tree seedlings. These results indicate that VdHog1 regulates hyperosmotic stress responses in V. dahliae, and establishes the Hog1-mediated pathway as a target to further probe the up- and downstream processes that regulate asexual development in this fungus. PMID:26812120

  20. Assessment of Swine Worker Exposures to Dust and Endotoxin during Hog Load-Out and Power Washing

    PubMed Central

    O’shaughnessy, Patrick; Peters, Thomas; Donham, Kelley; Taylor, Craig; Altmaier, Ralph; Kelly, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Field measurements of personal and area dust and endotoxin concentrations were obtained while agricultural workers performed two work tasks that have been previously unreported: hog load-out and swine building power washing. Hog load-out involves moving hogs from their pens in finishing buildings into a truck for transport to a meat processor. High pressure power washing is conducted for sanitation purposes after a building has been emptied of hogs to remove surface and floor debris. This debri consists of feed, feces, and hog dander as dust or an encrusted form. The hog load-out process necessarily increases pig activity which is known to increase airborne dust concentrations. An unintended consequence of power washing is that the material covering surfaces is forcibly ejected into the atmosphere, creating the potential for a highly concentrated aerosol exposure to workers. The load-out process resulted in a median personal inhalable mass concentration of 7.14 mg m− 3 and median endotoxin concentration of 12 150 endotoxin units (EU) m− 3. When converted to an 8-h time-weighted average for a ‘total’ sampler, one of the 19 samples exceeded a regulatory limit of 15 mg m− 3. An impinger was used to sample power washing endotoxin concentrations, which resulted in a median personal concentration of 40 350 EU m− 3. These concentrations were among the highest found in the literature for any occupation. With the lack of engineering controls present to reduce airborne contaminant concentrations in swine buildings, either respirator use or a reduction in exposure time is recommended while performing these tasks. PMID:22425653

  1. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    PubMed

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  2. Effect of Season, Transport Length, Deck Location, and Lairage Length on Pork Quality and Blood Cortisol Concentrations of Market Hogs

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David; Young, Jennifer; Carr, Chad; Ryan, Matt; Berg, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Transport of hogs is a routine practice in the swine industry. Loading pigs onto the trailer, transporting them to the plant, and having them wait in an unfamiliar pen at the plant prior to slaughter are all stressful to the pigs. Seasonal changes in temperatures can also affect the amount of stress a hog is subjected to during transport to market. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transportation and lairage conditions on stress, evaluated by measuring serum cortisol concentrations, and the effect on pork quality. Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal environment, transport conditions, and time in lairage on pork quality and serum cortisol concentrations. Market hogs were slaughtered during winter (n = 535), spring (n = 645), summer (n = 644), and fall (n = 488). Within season, hogs were randomly assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with 2 deck locations (top vs. bottom) and 2 transport and lairage durations (3 h vs. 6 h). Blood samples were collected at exsanguination for analysis of cortisol concentration. Loins were collected at 24 h postmortem for pork quality assessment. Season and deck did not have a main effect on cortisol concentrations or pork quality. Hogs transported 6 h had increased cortisol concentrations (103.0 vs. 95.5 ng/mL; P < 0.001) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.09), b* (6.28 vs. 6.36; P = 0.03), and hue angle (20.70 vs. 20.95; P = 0.03) compared to hogs transported 3 h. Hogs subjected to 6 h of lairage had increased 24-h pH (5.69 vs. 5.66; P = 0.005), a* (16.64 vs. 16.48; P < 0.0001), b* (6.42 vs. 6.22; P < 0.0001), saturation (17.85 vs. 17.64; P < 0.0001), and hue angle (21.01 vs. 20.65; P = 0.002) and decreased L* (52.49 vs. 52.69; P = 0.07) when compared to hogs subjected to 3 h of lairage. PMID:26479004

  3. Mammalian folylpoly-. gamma. -glutamate synthetase. 1. Purification and general properties of the hog liver enzyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cichowicz, D.J.; Shane, B.

    1987-01-27

    Folylpolyglutamate synthetase was purified 30,000-150,000-fold from hog liver. Purification required the use of protease inhibitors, and the protein was purified to homogeneity in two forms. Both forms of the enzyme were monomers of M/sub r/ 62,000 and had similar specific activities. The specific activity of the homogeneous protein was over 2000-fold higher than reported for partially purified folylpolyglutamate synthetases from other mammalian sources. Enzyme activity was absolutely dependent on the presence of a reducing agent and a monovalent cation, of which K/sup +/ was most effective. The purified enzyme catalyzed a MgATP-dependent addition of glutamate to tetrahydrofolate with the concomitant stoichiometric formation of MgADP and phosphate. Under conditions that resembled the expected substrate and enzyme concentrations in hog liver, tetrahydrofolate was metabolized to long glutamate chain length derivatives with the hexaglutamate, the major in vivo folate derivative, predominating. Enzyme activity was maximal at about pH 9.5. The high-pH optimum was primarily due to an increase in the K/sub m/ value for the L-glutamate substrate at lower pH values, and the reaction proceeded effectively at physiological pH provided high levels of glutamate were supplied.

  4. Continuous human action recognition using depth-MHI-HOG and a spotter model.

    PubMed

    Eum, Hyukmin; Yoon, Changyong; Lee, Heejin; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method for spotting and recognizing continuous human actions using a vision sensor. The method is comprised of depth-MHI-HOG (DMH), action modeling, action spotting, and recognition. First, to effectively separate the foreground from background, we propose a method called DMH. It includes a standard structure for segmenting images and extracting features by using depth information, MHI, and HOG. Second, action modeling is performed to model various actions using extracted features. The modeling of actions is performed by creating sequences of actions through k-means clustering; these sequences constitute HMM input. Third, a method of action spotting is proposed to filter meaningless actions from continuous actions and to identify precise start and end points of actions. By employing the spotter model, the proposed method improves action recognition performance. Finally, the proposed method recognizes actions based on start and end points. We evaluate recognition performance by employing the proposed method to obtain and compare probabilities by applying input sequences in action models and the spotter model. Through various experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for recognizing continuous human actions in real environments. PMID:25742172

  5. Biophysical properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relationship with HOG pathway activation.

    PubMed

    Schaber, Jörg; Adrover, Miquel Angel; Eriksson, Emma; Pelet, Serge; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Klein, Dagmara; Posas, Francesc; Goksör, Mattias; Peter, Mathias; Hohmann, Stefan; Klipp, Edda

    2010-10-01

    Parameterized models of biophysical and mechanical cell properties are important for predictive mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The concepts of turgor, cell wall elasticity, osmotically active volume, and intracellular osmolarity have been investigated for decades, but a consistent rigorous parameterization of these concepts is lacking. Here, we subjected several data sets of minimum volume measurements in yeast obtained after hyper-osmotic shock to a thermodynamic modeling framework. We estimated parameters for several relevant biophysical cell properties and tested alternative hypotheses about these concepts using a model discrimination approach. In accordance with previous reports, we estimated an average initial turgor of 0.6 ± 0.2 MPa and found that turgor becomes negligible at a relative volume of 93.3 ± 6.3% corresponding to an osmotic shock of 0.4 ± 0.2 Osm/l. At high stress levels (4 Osm/l), plasmolysis may occur. We found that the volumetric elastic modulus, a measure of cell wall elasticity, is 14.3 ± 10.4 MPa. Our model discrimination analysis suggests that other thermodynamic quantities affecting the intracellular water potential, for example the matrix potential, can be neglected under physiological conditions. The parameterized turgor models showed that activation of the osmosensing high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway correlates with turgor loss in a 1:1 relationship. This finding suggests that mechanical properties of the membrane trigger HOG pathway activation, which can be represented and quantitatively modeled by turgor. PMID:20563574

  6. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    PubMed

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination. PMID:26279315

  7. INNOVATIVE APPROACH FOR MEASURING AMMONIA AND METHANE FLUXES FROM A HOG FARM USING OPEN-PATH FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a new approach to quantify emissions from area air pollution sources. The approach combines path-integrated concentration data acquired with any path-integrated optical remote sensing (PI-ORS) technique and computed tomography (CT) technique. In this study, an...

  8. Twelve years of repeated wild hog activity promotes population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant in a coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Oldfield, Callie A; Evans, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    Invasive animals can facilitate the success of invasive plant populations through disturbance. We examined the relationship between the repeated foraging disturbance of an invasive animal and the population maintenance of an invasive plant in a coastal dune ecosystem. We hypothesized that feral wild hog (Sus scrofa) populations repeatedly utilized tubers of the clonal perennial, yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) as a food source and evaluated whether hog activity promoted the long-term maintenance of yellow nutsedge populations on St. Catherine's Island, Georgia, United States. Using generalized linear mixed models, we tested the effect of wild hog disturbance on permanent sites for yellow nutsedge culm density, tuber density, and percent cover of native plant species over a 12-year period. We found that disturbance plots had a higher number of culms and tubers and a lower percentage of native live plant cover than undisturbed control plots. Wild hogs redisturbed the disturbed plots approximately every 5 years. Our research provides demographic evidence that repeated foraging disturbances by an invasive animal promote the long-term population maintenance of an invasive clonal plant. Opportunistic facultative interactions such as we demonstrate in this study are likely to become more commonplace as greater numbers of introduced species are integrated into ecological communities around the world. PMID:27110354

  9. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  10. Predicting spacing behavior and mating systems of solitary cervids: a study of hog deer and Indian muntjac.

    PubMed

    Odden, Morten; Wegge, Per

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of current theory for predicting ecological and allometric effects on space use, social structure and mating systems of poorly known solitary cervids, based on a comparative analysis of radio-telemetry data on hog deer Axis porcinus (N=32) and Indian muntjac Muntiacus muntjak (N=28). The larger and sexually size-dimorphic hog deer inhabit highly productive alluvial floodplains, where resource distribution is patchy and spatiotemporally unpredictable. As predicted for this species, site fidelity was low and range sizes varied among sex and age groups and among seasons. Hog deer were probably non-territorial, as home range sizes seemed too large to be exclusive when taking into account their high population density. Extensive movements of adult males during the rut implied "roaming" as a mating strategy. The smaller, forest-dwelling and sexually size-monomorphic muntjacs inhabit a more uniform and stable habitat. As predicted, muntjacs exhibited higher site fidelity than hog deer, and no seasonal variations in home range sizes. Adults exhibited relatively large home range overlap, both inter- and intrasexually. Hence, strict territoriality did not occur, but their well-defined home ranges and high site fidelity indicated some form of site-specific dominance. In conclusion, habitat characteristics were appropriate predictors of home range sizes and site fidelity. Body mass appeared to be a suitable predictor of intraspecific patterns in space use but a poor predictor of interspecific patterns, probably due to a confounding effect of habitat productivity. PMID:17614268

  11. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 7 CFR 1230.113 - Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection and remittance of assessments for the sale of feeder pigs and market hogs. 1230.113 Section 1230.113 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Gains to species diversity in organically farmed fields are not propagated at the farm level.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Manuel K; Lüscher, Gisela; Jeanneret, Philippe; Arndorfer, Michaela; Ammari, Youssef; Bailey, Debra; Balázs, Katalin; Báldi, András; Choisis, Jean-Philippe; Dennis, Peter; Eiter, Sebastian; Fjellstad, Wendy; Fraser, Mariecia D; Frank, Thomas; Friedel, Jürgen K; Garchi, Salah; Geijzendorffer, Ilse R; Gomiero, Tiziano; Gonzalez-Bornay, Guillermo; Hector, Andy; Jerkovich, Gergely; Jongman, Rob H G; Kakudidi, Esezah; Kainz, Max; Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anikó; Moreno, Gerardo; Nkwiine, Charles; Opio, Julius; Oschatz, Marie-Louise; Paoletti, Maurizio G; Pointereau, Philippe; Pulido, Fernando J; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre; Siebrecht, Norman; Sommaggio, Daniele; Turnbull, Lindsay A; Wolfrum, Sebastian; Herzog, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Organic farming is promoted to reduce environmental impacts of agriculture, but surprisingly little is known about its effects at the farm level, the primary unit of decision making. Here we report the effects of organic farming on species diversity at the field, farm and regional levels by sampling plants, earthworms, spiders and bees in 1470 fields of 205 randomly selected organic and nonorganic farms in twelve European and African regions. Species richness is, on average, 10.5% higher in organic than nonorganic production fields, with highest gains in intensive arable fields (around +45%). Gains to species richness are partly caused by higher organism abundance and are common in plants and bees but intermittent in earthworms and spiders. Average gains are marginal +4.6% at the farm and +3.1% at the regional level, even in intensive arable regions. Additional, targeted measures are therefore needed to fulfil the commitment of organic farming to benefit farmland biodiversity. PMID:24958283

  15. Influence of β-glucan Leiber®Beta-S on selected innate immunity parameters of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in an intensive farming system

    PubMed Central

    Siwicki, Andrzej K.; Robak, Stanisław; Kazuń, Krzysztof; Kazuń, Barbara; Głąbski, Edward; Szczucińska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional support plays an important role in promoting high cellular and humoral innate immunity activity and in preventing outbreaks of disease. The effects of β-glucan Leiber®Beta-S dietary supplementation on selected nonspecific immune parameters in juvenile European eel (Anguilla anguilla) in an intensive culture system were studied. The fish were fed commercial pellets containing either 0 (control group) or 200 mg Leiber®Beta-S kg-1 of feed (glucan-fed group). After four and eight weeks of feeding, the levels of the following immunological parameters were measured: phagocyte respiratory burst activity, phagocyte potential killing activity, lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A or lipopolysaccharide, serum lysozyme activity, and total immunoglobulin (Ig) serum levels. After four and eight weeks of feeding 200 mg Leiber®Beta-S kg feed-1 the levels of all immune parameters were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the glucan-treated group than in the control group. After eight weeks of feeding the fish 200 mg Leiber®Beta-S kg feed-1 and after an additional eight weeks in ponds, the levels of all immune parameters, excluding lymphocyte proliferation stimulated by concanavaline A, were statistically significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the glucan-fed group than in the control group. These data suggest that feeding juvenile eel Leiber®Beta-S for four and eight weeks might improve innate immunity. PMID:26155177

  16. Household and farm transitions in environmental context

    PubMed Central

    Deane, Glenn D.; Gutmann, Myron P.

    2010-01-01

    Recent debate in the literature on population, environment, and land use questions the applicability of theory that patterns of farm extensification and intensification correspond to the life course of farmers and to the life cycle of farm families. This paper extends the debate to the agricultural development of the United States Great Plains region, using unique data from 1875 to 1930 that link families to farms over time in 25 environmentally diverse Kansas townships. Results of multilevel statistical modeling indicate that farmer’s age, household size, and household structure are simultaneously related to both the extent of farm operations and the intensity of land use, taking into account local environmental conditions and time trends as Kansas was settled and developed. These findings validate farm- and life cycle theories and offer support for intergenerational motivations for farm development that include both daughters and sons. Environmental variation in aridity was a key driver of farm structure. PMID:21643468

  17. The HOG pathway controls osmotic regulation of transcription via the stress response element (STRE) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTT1 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Schüller, C; Brewster, J L; Alexander, M R; Gustin, M C; Ruis, H

    1994-01-01

    The HOG signal pathway of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is defined by the PBS2 and HOG1 genes encoding members of the MAP kinase kinase and of the MAP kinase family, respectively. Mutations in this pathway (deletions of PBS2 or HOG1, or point mutations in HOG1) almost completely abolish the induction of transcription by osmotic stress that is mediated by stress response elements (STREs). We have demonstrated previously that STREs also mediate induction of transcription by heat shock, nitrogen starvation and oxidative stress. This study shows that they are also activated by low external pH, sorbate, benzoate or ethanol stress. Induction by these other stress signals appears to be HOG pathway independent. HOG1-dependent osmotic induction of transcription of the CTT1 gene encoding the cytosolic catalase T occurs in the presence of a protein synthesis inhibitor and can be detected rapidly after an increase of tyrosine phosphorylation of Hog1p triggered by high osmolarity. Consistent with a role of STREs in the induction of stress resistance, a number of other stress protein genes (e.g. HSP104) are regulated like CTT1. Furthermore, catalase T was shown to be important for viability under severe osmotic stress, and heat shock was demonstrated to provide cross-protection against osmotic stress. Images PMID:7523111

  18. Development of a HOG-based real-time PCR method to detect stress response changes in mycotoxigenic moulds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    There is a need to understand the mechanism of adaptation of toxigenic fungal species which are able to colonise highly specialised foods such as cured meats where there is a high osmotic stress due to the presence up to 20-22% NaCl during the ripening process. A new tool able to detect changes in stress related genes would be useful to understand the ecological reasons for the ability of these species to grow in specialised niches. In this work a real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green was developed. Primers were designed from the Hog1 gene involved in osmo-adaptation in fungi. For this, conserved regions resulting from the alignment of 26 published partial sequences of such gene were used. Specificity of primers HogF2/R2 was demonstrated when amplified, producing a unique 131-bp PCR product with a Tm value of 84 °C. The qPCR method showed an efficiency of 98%, R(2) value > 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.7 log Hog1 gene copies. The qPCR method to measure changes in the Hog1 gene expression in relation to growth in ionic and non-ionic stressed environments (using 10-40% NaCl and sorbitol concentrations) was found to be suitable for two mycotoxigenic species (Penicillium nordicum, P. expansum). This assay will be a valuable tool for generating relevant Hog1 expression data from different mould species in relation to different stresses in food habitats. It will also be a good tool for a better understanding of the ability of xerophilic and xerotolerant species to colonise extreme environments. PMID:27052709

  19. The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

  20. Farm Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    In production of tractor and a line of farm vehicles, Deere and Company used a COSMIC computer program called FEATS for Finite Element Analysis of Thermal Stress in computer analysis of diesel engine pistons, connecting rods and rocker arms. Company reports that use of FEATS afforded considerable savings and improved analytical accuracies, process efficiencies and product reliability.

  1. In vitro synthesis of nitroxide free radicals by hog liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Valvis, I.I.; Lischick, D.; Shen, D.; Sofer, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biooxidation of 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine (TEMP), 4-hydroxy-2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine (TEMO) and diphenylamine (DPA) by hog liver microsomes to their respective nitroxide free radicals, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetra methylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO), 2,2,4,4-tetra methyl-1,3-oxazolidine-1-oxyl (TEMOO), and diphenylnitroxide (DPNO) has been investigated. For extending the life span of the liver microsomes, a calcium alginate immobilization procedure was used. The biooxidation rates of the above amines to their respective nitroxide metabolites were measured by means of oxygen uptake at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4. N-octylamine was found to be an activator in the biooxidation of the amines. The formation of the nitroxide radicals was identified by E.S.R. spectroscopy.

  2. Integrating Epidemiology, Education, and Organizing for Environmental Justice: Community Health Effects of Industrial Hog Operations

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve; Horton, Rachel Avery; Muhammad, Naeema; Grant, Gary R.; Tajik, Mansoureh; Thu, Kendall

    2008-01-01

    The environmental justice movement has stimulated community-driven research about the living and working conditions of people of color and low-income communities. We describe an epidemiological study designed to link research with community education and organizing for social justice. In eastern North Carolina, high-density industrial swine production occurs in communities of low-income people and people of color. We investigated relationships between the resulting pollution and the health and quality of life of the hog operations’ neighbors. A repeat-measures longitudinal design, community involvement in data collection, and integration of qualitative and quantitative research methods helped promote data quality while providing opportunities for community education and organizing. Research could affect policy through its findings and its mobilization of communities. PMID:18556620

  3. Automatic road sign detecion and classification based on support vector machines and HOG descriptos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, A.; Ioannidis, C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines the detection and classification of road signs in color-images acquired by a low cost camera mounted on a moving vehicle. A new method for the detection and classification of road signs is proposed based on color based detection, in order to locate regions of interest. Then, a circular Hough transform is applied to complete detection taking advantage of the shape properties of the road signs. The regions of interest are finally represented using HOG descriptors and are fed into trained Support Vector Machines (SVMs) in order to be recognized. For the training procedure, a database with several training examples depicting Greek road sings has been developed. Many experiments have been conducted and are presented, to measure the efficiency of the proposed methodology especially under adverse weather conditions and poor illumination. For the experiments training datasets consisting of different number of examples were used and the results are presented, along with some possible extensions of this work.

  4. Biophysical properties of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their relationship with HOG pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Adrover, Miquel Àngel; Eriksson, Emma; Pelet, Serge; Petelenz-Kurdziel, Elzbieta; Klein, Dagmara; Posas, Francesc; Goksör, Mattias; Peter, Mathias; Hohmann, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Parameterized models of biophysical and mechanical cell properties are important for predictive mathematical modeling of cellular processes. The concepts of turgor, cell wall elasticity, osmotically active volume, and intracellular osmolarity have been investigated for decades, but a consistent rigorous parameterization of these concepts is lacking. Here, we subjected several data sets of minimum volume measurements in yeast obtained after hyper-osmotic shock to a thermodynamic modeling framework. We estimated parameters for several relevant biophysical cell properties and tested alternative hypotheses about these concepts using a model discrimination approach. In accordance with previous reports, we estimated an average initial turgor of 0.6 ± 0.2 MPa and found that turgor becomes negligible at a relative volume of 93.3 ± 6.3% corresponding to an osmotic shock of 0.4 ± 0.2 Osm/l. At high stress levels (4 Osm/l), plasmolysis may occur. We found that the volumetric elastic modulus, a measure of cell wall elasticity, is 14.3 ± 10.4 MPa. Our model discrimination analysis suggests that other thermodynamic quantities affecting the intracellular water potential, for example the matrix potential, can be neglected under physiological conditions. The parameterized turgor models showed that activation of the osmosensing high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway correlates with turgor loss in a 1:1 relationship. This finding suggests that mechanical properties of the membrane trigger HOG pathway activation, which can be represented and quantitatively modeled by turgor. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00249-010-0612-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20563574

  5. The hog intestinal mucosa acylase I: subcellular localization, isolation, kinetic studies and biological function.

    PubMed

    Giardina, T; Biagini, A; Dalle Ore, F; Ferre, E; Reynier, M; Puigserver, A

    1997-05-01

    The soluble acylase I (N-acylamino acid amidohydrolase, EC 3.5.1.14) from hog intestinal mucosa was 11,000-fold purified for the first time using a new four-step procedure involving an immunoaffinity chromatography. The resulting protein, which had an isoelectric point of 5.2 and a M(r) of 90,000 was composed of two apparently identical N-acylated polypeptide chains. Its amino acid composition was comparable to that of hog kidney acylase I. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 8.0 and required Zn2+ or Co2+. The optimal temperature for the acylase reaction was 40 degrees C and the activation energy of thermodenaturation was estimated at 260 kJ mol-1. The enzyme was strongly inhibited when preincubated with chelating agents, by diethyl pyrocarbonate under histidine-modifying conditions as well as by sulfhydryl compounds. The reaction of the purified enzyme with the synthetic substrate furylacryloyl-L-methionine was partly characterized as follows: Km = 0.22 +/- 0.03 mM, kcat = 128.0 +/- 17.8 s-1 and kcat/Km = 5.8 +/- 1.6 x 10(5) M-1 s-1. The L-stereoisomer of methionine competitively inhibited the enzyme reaction with a Ki of 3.4 +/- 0.2 mM. It is suggested that acylase I might not only be involved in the catabolism of intracellular N-acylated protein but also be responsible for the biological utilization of N-acylated food proteins. PMID:9258435

  6. Manure nitrogen excretion and transformation on dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) passes through a continuing cycle on dairy farms. On confinement farms, cows are fed conserved forages, grain, protein and mineral supplements, and manure is collected, stored and applied to cropland. Grazing-based dairy farms use intensive rotational grazing to provide fresh forage, ge...

  7. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; López-Urbina, María T; González, Armando E

    2009-03-23

    This report describes the finding of Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929 (Cestoda, Diphyllobothridae) infecting the small intestine of two Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782), collected from the locality "Abra La Raya", at Cusco, Peru. Four cestodes were studied and identified as S. erinacei. This is the first report showing that the Andean hog-nosed skunk is one of the natural hosts for this parasite. PMID:19254648

  8. Groundwater nitrate pollution in intensively farmed regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    Intensified agricultural practices that have developed during the past century have helped improve food security for many people but have also added to nitrate pollution in water supply. Balancing the water needs for agriculture with the need for clean groundwater for drinking requires understanding factors such as the routes by which nitrate enters the water supply and how long nitrate remains in the water. The Thames River catchment provides a good study example because the water quality in the river, which supplies drinking water to millions of people, has been monitored for the past 140 years, and the region has undergone significant agricultural development over the past century. Howden et al. studied nitrate transport from agricultural land to water in the Thames basin using a simple model that considers an estimate of the amount of nitrate that could leach the groundwater based on land use practices along with an algorithm that determines the route nitrate would take to reach surface water or groundwater from agricultural areas.

  9. Risk of infectious gastroenteritis in young children living in Québec rural areas with intensive animal farming: results of a case-control study (2004-2007).

    PubMed

    Levallois, P; Chevalier, P; Gingras, S; Déry, P; Payment, P; Michel, P; Rodriguez, M

    2014-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of severe gastroenteritis in children living in Québec rural areas with intensive livestock activities. From September 2005 through June 2007, 165 cases of gastroenteritis in children aged from 6 months to 5 years, hospitalized or notified to the public health department were enrolled, and 326 eligible controls participated. The parents of cases and controls were asked questions about different gastroenteritis risk factors. The quality of the drinking water used by the participants was investigated for microbial indicators as well as for four zoonotic bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter spp, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp and Yersinia spp) and two enteric parasites (Cryptosporidium spp and Giardia spp). From 134 stool specimen analysed, viruses were detected in 82 cases (61%), while 28 (21%) were found with at least one of the bacteria investigated, and five cases were infected by parasites. Campylobacteriosis was the main bacterial infection (n = 15), followed by Salmonella sp (n = 7) and E. coli O157:H7 (n = 5) among cases with bacterial gastroenteritis. No significant difference was found between cases and controls regarding the quality of water consumed; the frequency of faecal contamination of private wells was also similar between cases and controls. Considering the total cases (including those with a virus), no link was found between severe gastroenteritis and either being in contact with animals or living in a municipality with the highest animal density (4th quartile). However, when considering only cases with a bacterial or parasite infection (n = 32), there was a weak association with pig density that was not statistically significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Contact with domestic, zoo or farm animals were the only environmental factor associated with the disease. PMID:23406420

  10. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  11. UvHOG1 is important for hyphal growth and stress responses in the rice false smut fungus Ustilaginoidea virens.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dawei; Wang, Yi; Han, Yu; Xu, Jin-Rong; Wang, Chenfang

    2016-01-01

    Rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens is one of the most important diseases of rice worldwide. Although its genome has been sequenced, to date there is no report on targeted gene deletion in U. virens and no molecular studies on genetic mechanisms regulating the infection processes of this destructive pathogen. In this study, we attempted to generate knockout mutants of the ortholog of yeast HOG1 MAP kinase gene in U. virens. One Uvhog1 deletion mutant was identified after screening over 600 hygromycin-resistant transformants generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. The Uvhog1 mutant was reduced in growth rate and conidiation but had increased sensitivities to SDS, Congo red, and hyperosmotic stress. Deletion of UvHOG1 resulted in reduced expression of the stress response-related genes UvATF1 and UvSKN7. In the Uvhog1 mutant, NaCl treatment failed to stimulate the accumulation of sorbitol and glycerol. In addition, the Uvhog1 mutant had reduced toxicity on shoot growth in rice seed germination assays. Overall, as the first report of targeted gene deletion mutant in U. virens, our results showed that UvHOG1 likely has conserved roles in regulating stress responses, hyphal growth, and possibly secondary metabolism. PMID:27095476

  12. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response. PMID:25697274

  13. Object tracking with adaptive HOG detector and adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Stefano; Paleari, Marco; Ariano, Paolo; Bona, Basilio

    2012-01-01

    Scenarios for a manned mission to the Moon or Mars call for astronaut teams to be accompanied by semiautonomous robots. A prerequisite for human-robot interaction is the capability of successfully tracking humans and objects in the environment. In this paper we present a system for real-time visual object tracking in 2D images for mobile robotic systems. The proposed algorithm is able to specialize to individual objects and to adapt to substantial changes in illumination and object appearance during tracking. The algorithm is composed by two main blocks: a detector based on Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) descriptors and linear Support Vector Machines (SVM), and a tracker which is implemented by an adaptive Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF). The SVM is re-trained online on new samples taken from previous predicted positions. We use the effective sample size to decide when the classifier needs to be re-trained. Position hypotheses for the tracked object are the result of a clustering procedure applied on the set of particles. The algorithm has been tested on challenging video sequences presenting strong changes in object appearance, illumination, and occlusion. Experimental tests show that the presented method is able to achieve near real-time performances with a precision of about 7 pixels on standard video sequences of dimensions 320 × 240.

  14. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (P<0.05). Therefore, a greater metabolic and energy imbalance occurs during exsanguination when pigs recover consciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber. PMID:24967538

  15. Fungi use the SakA (HogA) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Armant, Olivier; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    Stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent MAP kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. Besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). Light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. Here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in Aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing and osmosensing signalling pathway. In a screening for 'blind' mutants, the MAP kinase SakA (also known as HogA) was identified by whole-genome sequencing. The phytochrome FphA physically interacted with the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein YpdA and caused light-dependent phosphorylation of the MAP kinase SakA and its shuttling into nuclei. In the absence of phytochrome, SakA still responded to osmotic stress but not to light. The SakA pathway thus integrates several stress factors and can be considered to be a hub for environmental signals. PMID:27572639

  16. Detection of hog cholera virus and differentiation from other pestiviruses by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Wirz, B; Tratschin, J D; Müller, H K; Mitchell, D B

    1993-05-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with the polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. For this purpose, one primer pair was selected from a highly conserved region of the genome of pestiviruses. Using these primers (PEST 1-PEST 2), DNA fragments of between 72 and 74 bp could be amplified from all pestivirus isolates tested. In order to differentiate hog cholera virus (HCV) from bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV), we selected a primer pair from a conserved region in the genome of HCV strains that differed from that sequenced in the genome of BVDV strains. By using these primers (HCV 1-HCV 2), a DNA fragment of 478 bp could be specifically amplified from HCV isolates. By these means, viral RNA was detected in extracts of lymph node, spleen, tonsil, and lung. Such extracts were used directly for RT-PCR without prior RNA isolation. We also performed multiplex PCR by using both the PEST 1-PEST 2 and HCV 1-HCV 2 primer pairs in a single reaction. This allowed the differentiation of HCV from BVDV and BDV in one step. To assess the sensitivity of the method, RT-PCR was compared with virus propagation in tissue culture and subsequent detection by immunofluorescence staining. The results show that RT-PCR is useful for the rapid detection and differentiation of pestiviruses. PMID:8388887

  17. Social responsibility and research ethics in community-driven studies of industrialized hog production.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Environmental health research can document exposures and health effects that result from inequitable relationships between communities of low income or people of color and the institutions that derive benefits (profits, federal and state funding or services, avoidance of wastes) from activities and policies that burden these communities. Researchers, most of whom work in relatively privileged institutions, are placed in situations of conflicting loyalties if they conduct research in collaboration with, or on behalf of, communities burdened by environmental injustices. These conflicts can threaten the self-interest of researchers and may raise social and ethical issues that do not typically arise in research projects that respond to the agendas of institutions. This article describes how we addressed issues of research ethics and social responsibility in environmental health research on industrialized hog production in North Carolina. Researchers and institutional review boards are not well prepared to address ethical issues when interests of entire communities, as well as individual research participants, are involved. Community-driven research partnerships can help address problems in research ethics and can enhance the social responsibility of researchers and their institutions. PMID:12003746

  18. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Y.K.; Kim, K.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  19. Macelignan inhibits bee pathogenic fungi Ascophaera apis growth through HOG1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y K; Kim, K Y

    2016-07-01

    Ascosphaera apis is a bee pathogen that causes bee larvae infection disease, to which treatment is not yet well investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate antifungal susceptibility in vitro against A. apis and to identify a new antifungal agent for this pathogen through minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and western blot analysis. Macelignan had 1.56 and 3.125 μg/mL MIC against A. apis after 24 and 48 h, respectively, exhibiting the strongest growth inhibition against A. apis among the tested compounds (corosolic acid, dehydrocostus lactone, loganic acid, tracheloside, fangchinoline and emodin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside). Furthermore, macelignan showed a narrow-ranged spectrum against various fungal strains without any mammalian cell cytotoxicity. In spite of miconazole having powerful broad-ranged anti-fungal activity including A. apis, it demonstrated strong cytotoxicity. Therefore, even if macelignan alone was effective as an antifungal agent to treat A. apis, combined treatment with miconazole was more useful to overcome toxicity, drug resistance occurrence and cost effectiveness. Finally, HOG1 was revealed as a target molecule of macelignan in the anti-A. apis activity by inhibiting phosphorylation using S. cerevisiae as a model system. Based on our results, macelignan, a food-grade antimicrobial compound, would be an effective antifungal agent against A. apis infection in bees. PMID:27383123

  20. Interaction of PLP with GFP-MAL2 in the human oligodendroglial cell line HOG.

    PubMed

    Bello-Morales, Raquel; Pérez-Hernández, Marta; Rejas, María Teresa; Matesanz, Fuencisla; Alcina, Antonio; López-Guerrero, José Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The velocity of the nerve impulse conduction of vertebrates relies on the myelin sheath, an electrically insulating layer that surrounds axons in both the central and peripheral nervous systems, enabling saltatory conduction of the action potential. Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing glial cells in the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of the molecular basis of myelination and, specifically, of the transport of myelin proteins, will contribute to the search of the aetiology of many dysmyelinating and demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Recent investigations suggest that proteolipid protein (PLP), the major myelin protein, could reach myelin sheath by an indirect transport pathway, that is, a transcytotic route via the plasma membrane of the cell body. If PLP transport relies on a transcytotic process, it is reasonable to consider that this myelin protein could be associated with MAL2, a raft protein essential for transcytosis. In this study, carried out with the human oligodendrocytic cell line HOG, we show that PLP colocalized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-MAL2 after internalization from the plasma membrane. In addition, both immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence assays, indicated the existence of an interaction between GFP-MAL2 and PLP. Finally, ultrastructural studies demonstrated colocalization of GFP-MAL2 and PLP in vesicles and tubulovesicular structures. Taken together, these results prove for the first time the interaction of PLP and MAL2 in oligodendrocytic cells, supporting the transcytotic model of PLP transport previously suggested. PMID:21573057

  1. Tighter αC-helix-αL16-helix interactions seem to make p38α less prone to activation by autophosphorylation than Hog1.

    PubMed

    Tesker, Masha; Selamat, Sadiduddin Edbe; Beenstock, Jonah; Hayouka, Ruchama; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2016-04-01

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) are autoactivated through autophosphorylation of their activation loop. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases do not autophosphorylate spontaneously; relying instead upon mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) for their activation loop phosphorylation. Yet, in previous studies we identified mutations in the yeast MAPK high osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) that render it capable of spontaneous autophosphorylation and consequently intrinsically active (MKK-independent). Four of the mutations occurred in hydrophobic residues, residing in the αC-helix, which is conserved in all EPKs, and in the αL16-helix that is unique to MAPKs. These four residues interact together forming a structural element termed 'hydrophobic core'. A similar element exists in the Hog1's mammalian orthologues p38s. Here we show that the 'hydrophobic core' is a loose suppressor of Hog1's autophosphorylation. We inserted 18 point mutations into this core, 17 of which were able to render Hog1 MKK-independent. In p38s, however, only a very few mutations in the equivalent residues rendered these proteins intrinsically active. Structural analysis revealed that a salt bridge between the αC-helix and the αL16-helix that exists in p38α may not exist in Hog1. This bond further stabilizes the 'hydrophobic core' of p38, making p38 less prone to de-repressing its concealed autophosphorylation. Mutating equivalent hydrophobic residues in Jnk1 and Erk2 has no effect on their autophosphorylation. We propose that specific structural elements developed in the course of evolution to suppress spontaneous autophosphorylation of Hog1/p38. The suppressors were kept wobbly, probably to allow activation by induced autophosphorylation, but became stricter in mammalian p38s than in the yeast Hog1. PMID:26987986

  2. Tighter αC-helix–αL16-helix interactions seem to make p38α less prone to activation by autophosphorylation than Hog1

    PubMed Central

    Tesker, Masha; Selamat, Sadiduddin Edbe; Beenstock, Jonah; Hayouka, Ruchama; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    Many eukaryotic protein kinases (EPKs) are autoactivated through autophosphorylation of their activation loop. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases do not autophosphorylate spontaneously; relying instead upon mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) for their activation loop phosphorylation. Yet, in previous studies we identified mutations in the yeast MAPK high osmolarity glycerol (Hog1) that render it capable of spontaneous autophosphorylation and consequently intrinsically active (MKK-independent). Four of the mutations occurred in hydrophobic residues, residing in the αC-helix, which is conserved in all EPKs, and in the αL16-helix that is unique to MAPKs. These four residues interact together forming a structural element termed ‘hydrophobic core’. A similar element exists in the Hog1’s mammalian orthologues p38s. Here we show that the ‘hydrophobic core’ is a loose suppressor of Hog1’s autophosphorylation. We inserted 18 point mutations into this core, 17 of which were able to render Hog1 MKK-independent. In p38s, however, only a very few mutations in the equivalent residues rendered these proteins intrinsically active. Structural analysis revealed that a salt bridge between the αC-helix and the αL16-helix that exists in p38α may not exist in Hog1. This bond further stabilizes the ‘hydrophobic core’ of p38, making p38 less prone to de-repressing its concealed autophosphorylation. Mutating equivalent hydrophobic residues in Jnk1 and Erk2 has no effect on their autophosphorylation. We propose that specific structural elements developed in the course of evolution to suppress spontaneous autophosphorylation of Hog1/p38. The suppressors were kept wobbly, probably to allow activation by induced autophosphorylation, but became stricter in mammalian p38s than in the yeast Hog1. PMID:26987986

  3. Evolution of hedgehog and hedgehog-related genes, their origin from Hog proteins in ancestral eukaryotes and discovery of a novel Hint motif

    PubMed Central

    Bürglin, Thomas R

    2008-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays important roles in human and animal development as well as in carcinogenesis. Hh molecules have been found in both protostomes and deuterostomes, but curiously the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans lacks a bona-fide Hh. Instead a series of Hh-related proteins are found, which share the Hint/Hog domain with Hh, but have distinct N-termini. Results We performed extensive genome searches such as the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis and several nematodes to gain further insights into Hh evolution. We found six genes in N. vectensis with a relationship to Hh: two Hh genes, one gene with a Hh N-terminal domain fused to a Willebrand factor type A domain (VWA), and three genes containing Hint/Hog domains with distinct novel N-termini. In the nematode Brugia malayi we find the same types of hh-related genes as in C. elegans. In the more distantly related Enoplea nematodes Xiphinema and Trichinella spiralis we find a bona-fide Hh. In addition, T. spiralis also has a quahog gene like C. elegans, and there are several additional hh-related genes, some of which have secreted N-terminal domains of only 15 to 25 residues. Examination of other Hh pathway components revealed that T. spiralis - like C. elegans - lacks some of these components. Extending our search to all eukaryotes, we recovered genes containing a Hog domain similar to Hh from many different groups of protists. In addition, we identified a novel Hint gene family present in many eukaryote groups that encodes a VWA domain fused to a distinct Hint domain we call Vint. Further members of a poorly characterized Hint family were also retrieved from bacteria. Conclusion In Cnidaria and nematodes the evolution of hh genes occurred in parallel to the evolution of other genes that contain a Hog domain but have different N-termini. The fact that Hog genes comprising a secreted N-terminus and a Hog domain are found in many protists indicates that this gene family must have

  4. Mortality of Pratylenchus penetrans by Volatile Fatty Acids from Liquid Hog Manure

    PubMed Central

    Mahran, A.; Tenuta, M.; Hanson, M. L.; Daayf, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of our research program assessing the use of liquid hog manure (LHM) to control root-lesion nematodes, Pratylenchus penetrans, a series of acute toxicity tests was conducted to: (i) examine if non-ionized forms of volatile fatty acids (VFA) are responsible for the mortality of P. penetrans exposed to LHM under acidic conditions, (ii) determine if Caenorhabditis elegans can be a surrogate for P. penetrans in screening tests by comparing their sensitivities to VFA, (iii) characterize the nematicidal effect of individual VFA in LHM to P. penetrans, and (iv) determine whether individual VFA in LHM interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans. LHM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) more toxic to P. penetrans than a mixture of its main VFA components at concentrations of 5% and 10% (vol. VFA or LHM /vol. in buffer). Pratylenchus penetrans was more sensitive to acetic acid than C. elegans, whereas the sensitivity of both nematode species to n-caproic acid was similar. Individual VFA vary in their lethality to P. penetrans. n-valeric acid was the most toxic (LC95= 6.8 mM), while isobutyric acid was the least toxic (LC95 = 45.7 mM). Individual VFA did not interact in their toxicity to P. penetrans, and their effects were considered additive. VFA account for the majority of the lethal effect of LHM to P. penetrans under acidic conditions. Caenorhabditis elegans cannot be used as a surrogate to P. penetrans in toxicity studies using VFA. The efficacy of LHM to control P. penetrans can be evaluated by assessing its VFA content prior to application, and this evaluation is facilitated by the fact that the interaction of individual VFA appears to be simply additive. PMID:19259528

  5. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in surface waters near industrial hog operation spray fields.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, S M; Myers, K W; Heaney, C D; Larsen, J; Hall, D; Miller, M B; Stewart, J R

    2016-09-15

    Industrial hog operations (IHOs) have been identified as a source of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). However, few studies have investigated the presence of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus in the environment near IHOs, specifically surface waters proximal to spray fields where IHO liquid lagoon waste is sprayed. Surface water samples (n=179) were collected over the course of approximately one year from nine locations in southeastern North Carolina and analyzed for the presence of presumptive MRSA using CHROMagar MRSA media. Culture-based, biochemical, and molecular tests, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry were used to confirm that isolates that grew on CHROMagar MRSA media were S. aureus. Confirmed S. aureus isolates were then tested for susceptibility to 16 antibiotics and screened for molecular markers of MRSA (mecA, mecC) and livestock adaptation (absence of scn). A total of 12 confirmed MRSA were detected in 9 distinct water samples. Nine of 12 MRSA isolates were also multidrug-resistant (MDRSA [i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes]). All MRSA were scn-positive and most (11/12) belonged to a staphylococcal protein A (spa) type t008, which is commonly associated with humans. Additionally, 12 confirmed S. aureus that were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) were recovered, 7 of which belonged to spa type t021 and were scn-negative (a marker of livestock-adaptation). This study demonstrated the presence of MSSA, MRSA, and MDRSA in surface waters adjacent to IHO lagoon waste spray fields in southeastern North Carolina. To our knowledge, this is the first report of waterborne S. aureus from surface waters proximal to IHOs. PMID:27261430

  6. Yeast Skn7p activity is modulated by the Sln1p-Ypd1p osmosensor and contributes to regulation of the HOG pathway.

    PubMed

    Ketela, T; Brown, J L; Stewart, R C; Bussey, H

    1998-09-01

    Activation and control of the yeast HOG (High Osmolarity Glycerol) MAP kinase cascade is accomplished, in part, by a two-component sensory-response circuit comprised of the osmosensing histidine protein kinase Sln1p, the phospho-relay protein Ypd1p, and the response regulator protein Ssk1p. We found that deletion of SLN1 and/or YPD1 reduces reporter gene transcription driven by a second two-component response regulator -- Skn7p. The effect of sln1delta and ypd1delta mutations upon Skn7p activity is dependent on a functional two-component phosphorylation site (D427) in Skn7p, suggesting that Sln1p and Ypd1p may act as phosphodonors for Skn7p. We also observed that loss of PTC1 (a protein serine/threonine phosphatase implicated in negative control of the HOG pathway) in a skn7delta background results in severely retarded growth and in morphological defects. Deletion of either PBS2 or HOG1 alleviates the slow growth phenotype of ptc1delta skn7delta cells, suggesting that Skn7p may participate, in concert with known regulatory components, in modulating HOG pathway activity. The contribution of Skn7p to HOG pathway regulation appears to be modulated by the receiver domain, since non-phosphorylatable Skn7pD427N is unable to fully restore growth to ptc1/skn7 cells. PMID:9790591

  7. Pyrolysis of Woody Residue Feedstocks: Upgrading of Bio-Oils from Mountain-Pine-Beetle-Killed Trees and Hog Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zacher, Alan H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Preto, Fernando; Iisa, Kristiina

    2014-12-01

    Liquid transportation fuel blend-stocks were produced by pyrolysis and catalytic upgrading of woody residue biomass. Mountain pine beetle killed wood and hog fuel from a saw mill were pyrolyzed in a 1 kg/h fluidized bed reactor and subsequently upgraded to hydrocarbons in a continuous fixed bed hydrotreater. Upgrading was performed by catalytic hydrotreatment in a two-stage bed at 170°C and 405°C with a per bed LHSV between 0.17 and 0.19. The overall yields from biomass to upgraded fuel were similar for both feeds: 24-25% despite the differences in bio-oil (intermediate) mass yield. Pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was 61% from MPBK wood, and subsequent upgrading of the bio-oil gave an average mass yield of 41% to liquid fuel blend stocks. Hydrogen was consumed at an average of 0.042g/g of bio-oil fed, with final oxygen content in the product fuel ranging from 0.31% to 1.58% over the course of the test. Comparatively for hog fuel, pyrolysis bio-oil mass yield was lower at 54% due to inorganics in the biomass, but subsequent upgrading of that bio-oil had an average mass yield of 45% to liquid fuel, resulting in a similar final mass yield to fuel compared to the cleaner MPBK wood. Hydrogen consumption for the hog fuel upgrading averaged 0.041 g/g of bio-oil fed, and the final oxygen content of the product fuel ranged from 0.09% to 2.4% over the run. While it was confirmed that inorganic laded biomass yields less bio-oil, this work demonstrated that the resultant bio-oil can be upgraded to hydrocarbons at a higher yield than bio-oil from clean wood. Thus the final hydrocarbon yield from clean or residue biomass pyrolysis/upgrading was similar.

  8. Farm Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G. S.

    1966-01-01

    Accident and safety are related terms; the higher the accident rate in any industry, the greater is the need for safety measures designed to prevent accidents. This article discusses the accident and safety problems in agriculture, which includes horticulture and forestry. There is still a tendency among townspeople to think of the countryside as peaceful and tranquil, a place where nothing happens very quickly and far removed from violent death or crippling injury. This pleasant rustic picture has undergone a striking change in the last 30 years owing to considerable agricultural mechanization and the development of chemical pesticides, which have brought new dangers to those who live and work on the land. Although men have readily adapted themselves to new machines and methods, they have not proved as able to recognize new dangers and learn how to guard against them. In consequence, accidents have increased to such an extent that the whole industry has realized the need for positive preventive measures. In this country, it is generally accepted that an employer of labour has a responsibility to provide safe working conditions for those he employs. Farm safety legislation goes a little further and usually requires an employer to provide necessary safeguards, with the added requirement on a worker to make use of them. It is a feature of accident prevention work that it never reaches a stage when it can be regarded as complete. Even when a reduction in accidents has been achieved, the effort must be sustained or the trend will be quickly reversed. Images PMID:5904095

  9. Adaptor protein Ste50p links the Ste11p MEKK to the HOG pathway through plasma membrane association

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cunle; Jansen, Gregor; Zhang, Jianchun; Thomas, David Y.; Whiteway, Malcolm

    2006-01-01

    In a variety of yeast cellular pathways, the Ste50p protein regulates the kinase function of the mitogen extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEKK) Ste11p. Both Ste11p and Ste50p contain sterile α motif (SAM) domains; these are interchangeable, and can be replaced by other protein-interacting modules. Furthermore, the function of the Ras association (RA)-like domain of Ste50p can be mimicked by a plasma membrane recruiting signal, and direct plasma membrane targeting of Ste11p bypasses the requirement of Ste50p for Ste11p function. Thus the regulatory role of Ste50p requires both the N-terminal SAM domain to bind Ste11p and the C-terminal RA-like domain to direct kinase localization. We have identified Opy2p, an integral membrane protein that can interact with Ste50p, as a new component in the Sho1p–Ste11p/Ste50p signaling branch of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway. We propose that Opy2p can serve as a membrane anchor for the Ste50p/Ste11p module in the activation of the HOG pathway. PMID:16543225

  10. Sustainability evaluation of different systems for sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang

    2015-06-01

    Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic systems. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming systems of sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming system was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming system was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming system was lower than that of pond extensive farming system, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming system fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming system was lower than that of indoor farming system. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming system than those in indoor farming system. These results indicated that the current extensive farming system exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming system. A. japonicus farming systems showed more emergy benefits than fish farming systems. The pond farming systems of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming system.

  11. Farm Parents' Attitudes Towards Farm Safety Experts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neufeld, Steven J.; Cinnamon, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this article analyzes farm parent's attitudes towards the trustworthiness, usefulness, and use of advice from farm safety experts. The article evaluates four different perspectives on trust in expert: the Validity of Knowledge perspective, the Salient Values Similarity perspective, the Diffusion of…

  12. Farm Safety (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... wheels or blind spots. Because adults who are operating machinery may be unable to see or hear ... a tractor and farm vehicle safety course before operating farm vehicles. Finally, teach older kids how to ...

  13. Heat and Flux Configurations on Offshore Wind Farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucuksahin, D.; Bot, E. T. G.

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to determine the best configurations of the Heat and Flux concept for more profitable and utilizable settings in a wind farm in terms of increase in the energy yield and reduction in loadings. The computations are performed with alteration of a single parameter at a time. The reference farm for this study is EWTW, the ECN test farm in Wieringermeer, as this farm was also the reference for the validation of both the Heat and Flux concept and the software tool FarmFlow. All the studies are performed with FarmFlow developed by ECN, which computes wake deficits and turbulence intensities, resulting in the energy yield of all turbines in the farm.

  14. Intensive livestock operations, health, and quality of life among eastern North Carolina residents.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Wolf, S

    2000-01-01

    People who live near industrial swine operations have reported decreased health and quality of life. To investigate these issues, we surveyed residents of three rural communities, one in the vicinity of an approximately 6,000-head hog operation, one in the vicinity of two intensive cattle operations, and a third rural agricultural area without livestock operations that use liquid waste management systems. Trained interviewers obtained information about health symptoms and reduced quality of life during the previous 6 months. We completed 155 interviews, with a refusal rate of 14%. Community differences in the mean number of episodes were compared with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and employment status. The average number of episodes of many symptoms was similar in the three communities; however, certain respiratory and gastrointestinal problems and mucous membrane irritation were elevated among residents in the vicinity of the hog operation. Residents in the vicinity of the hog operation reported increased occurrences of headaches, runny nose, sore throat, excessive coughing, diarrhea, and burning eyes as compared to residents of the community with no intensive livestock operations. Quality of life, as indicated by the number of times residents could not open their windows or go outside even in nice weather, was similar in the control and the community in the vicinity of the cattle operation but greatly reduced among residents near the hog operation. Respiratory and mucous membrane effects were consistent with the results of studies of occupational exposures among swine confinement-house workers and previous findings for neighbors of intensive swine operations. Long-term physical and mental health impacts could not be investigated in this study. PMID:10706529

  15. Intensive livestock operations, health, and quality of life among eastern North Carolina residents.

    PubMed

    Wing, S; Wolf, S

    2000-03-01

    People who live near industrial swine operations have reported decreased health and quality of life. To investigate these issues, we surveyed residents of three rural communities, one in the vicinity of an approximately 6,000-head hog operation, one in the vicinity of two intensive cattle operations, and a third rural agricultural area without livestock operations that use liquid waste management systems. Trained interviewers obtained information about health symptoms and reduced quality of life during the previous 6 months. We completed 155 interviews, with a refusal rate of 14%. Community differences in the mean number of episodes were compared with adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and employment status. The average number of episodes of many symptoms was similar in the three communities; however, certain respiratory and gastrointestinal problems and mucous membrane irritation were elevated among residents in the vicinity of the hog operation. Residents in the vicinity of the hog operation reported increased occurrences of headaches, runny nose, sore throat, excessive coughing, diarrhea, and burning eyes as compared to residents of the community with no intensive livestock operations. Quality of life, as indicated by the number of times residents could not open their windows or go outside even in nice weather, was similar in the control and the community in the vicinity of the cattle operation but greatly reduced among residents near the hog operation. Respiratory and mucous membrane effects were consistent with the results of studies of occupational exposures among swine confinement-house workers and previous findings for neighbors of intensive swine operations. Long-term physical and mental health impacts could not be investigated in this study. PMID:10706529

  16. uFarm: a smart farm management system based on RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsuk; Lee, Moonsup; Jung, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hyunwook; Kim, Taehyoun

    2007-12-01

    Recently, the livestock industry in Korea has been threatened by many challenges such as low productivity due to labor intensiveness, global competition compelled by the Free Trade Agreement (FTA), and emerging animal disease issues such as BSE or foot-and-mouth. In this paper, we propose a smart farm management system, called uFarm, which would come up with such challenges by automating farm management. First, we automate labor-intensive jobs using equipments based on sensors and actuators. The automation subsystem can be controlled by remote user through wireless network. Second, we provide real-time traceability of information on farm animals using the radio-frequency identification (RFID) method and embedded data server with network connectivity.

  17. Optical flow based Kalman filter for body joint prediction and tracking using HOG-LBP matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Binu M.; Kendricks, Kimberley D.; Asari, Vijayan K.; Tuttle, Ronald F.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a real-time novel framework for tracking specific joints in the human body on low resolution imagery using optical flow based Kalman tracker without the need of a depth sensor. Body joint tracking is necessary for a variety of surveillance based applications such as recognizing gait signatures of individuals, identifying the motion patterns associated with a particular action and the corresponding interactions with objects in the scene to classify a certain activity. The proposed framework consists of two stages; the initialization stage and the tracking stage. In the initialization stage, the joints to be tracked are either manually marked or automatically obtained from other joint detection algorithms in the first few frames within a window of interest and appropriate image descriptions of each joint are computed. We employ the use of a well-known image coding scheme known as the Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to represent the joint local region where this image coding removes the variance to non-uniform lighting conditions as well as enhances the underlying edges and corner. The image descriptions of the joint region would then include a histogram computed from the LBP-coded ROI and a HOG (Histogram of Oriented Gradients) descriptor to represent the edge information. Next the tracking stage can be divided into two phases: Optical flow based detection of joints in corresponding frames of the sequence and prediction /correction phases of Kalman tracker with respect to the joint coordinates. Lucas Kanade optical flow is used to locate the individual joints in consecutive frames of the video based on their location in the previous frame. But more often, mismatches can occur due to the rotation of the joint region and the rotation variance of the optical flow matching technique. The mismatch is then determined by comparing the joint region descriptors using Chi-squared metric between a pair of frames and depending on this statistic, either the prediction

  18. Dust from hog confinement facilities impairs Ca2+ mobilization from sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum by inhibiting ryanodine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chengju; Moore, Caronda J.; Dodmane, Puttappa; Shao, Chun Hong; Romberger, Debra J.; Toews, Myron L.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals working in commercial hog confinement facilities have elevated incidences of headaches, depression, nausea, skeletal muscle weakness, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders, and cardiovascular diseases, and the molecular mechanisms for these nonrespiratory ailments remain incompletely undefined. A common element underlying these diverse pathophysiologies is perturbation of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. This study assessed whether the dust generated inside hog confinement facilities contains compounds that alter Ca2+ mobilization via ryanodine receptors (RyRs), key intracellular channels responsible for mobilizing Ca2+ from internal stores to elicit an array of physiologic functions. Hog barn dust (HBD) was extracted with phosphate-buffered saline, sterile-filtered (0.22 μm), and size-separated using Sephadex G-100 resin. Fractions (F) 1 through 9 (Mw >10,000 Da) had no measurable effects on RyR isoforms. However, F10 through F17, which contained compounds of Mw ≤2,000 Da, modulated the [3H]ryanodine binding to RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3 in a biphasic (Gaussian) manner. The Ki values for F13, the most potent fraction, were 3.8 ± 0.2 μg/ml for RyR1, 0.2 ± 0.01 μg/ml and 19.1 ± 2.8 μg/ml for RyR2 (two binding sites), and 44.9 ± 2.8 μg/ml and 501.6 ± 9.2 μg/ml for RyR3 (two binding sites). In lipid bilayer assays, F13 dose-dependently decreased the open probabilities of RyR1, RyR2, and RyR3. Pretreating differentiated mouse skeletal myotubes (C2C12 cells) with F13 blunted the amplitudes of ryanodine- and K+-induced Ca2+ transients. Because RyRs are present in many cell types, impairment in Ca2+ mobilization from internal stores via these channels is a possible mechanism by which HBD may trigger these seemingly unrelated pathophysiologies. PMID:23288552

  19. Expression of the yeast glycogen phosphorylase gene is regulated by stress-response elements and by the HOG MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Sunnarborg, S W; Miller, S P; Unnikrishnan, I; LaPorte, D C

    2001-12-01

    Yeast glycogen metabolism responds to environmental stressors such as nutrient limitation and heat shock. This response is mediated, in part, by the regulation of the glycogen metabolic genes. Environmental stressors induce a number of glycogen metabolic genes, including GPH1, which encodes glycogen phosphorylase. Primer extension analysis detected two start sites for GPH1, one of which predominated. Sequences upstream of these sites included a possible TATA element. Mutation of this sequence reduced GPH1 expression by a factor of 10 but did not affect start site selection. This mutation also did not affect the relative induction of GPH1 upon entry into stationary phase. Three candidates for stress response elements (STREs) were found upstream of the TATA sequence. Mutation of the STREs showed that they were required for regulation of GPH1 expression in early stationary phase, and in response to osmotic shock and heat shock. These elements appeared to act synergistically, since the intact promoter exhibited 30-fold more expression in stationary phase than the sum of that observed for each element acting independently. HOG1, which encodes a MAP kinase, has been implicated in control mediated by STREs. For GPH1, induction by osmotic shock depended on a functional HOG1 allele. In contrast, induction upon entry into stationary phase was only partially dependent on HOG1. Furthermore, the heat shock response, which can also be mediated by STREs, was independent of HOG1. These observations suggest that the GPH1 STREs respond to more than one pathway, only one of which requires HOG1. PMID:11748727

  20. Estimation of the dynamics and rate of transmission of classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Hone, J.; Pech, R.; Yip, P.

    1992-01-01

    Infectious diseases establish in a population of wildlife hosts when the number of secondary infections is greater than or equal to one. To estimate whether establishment will occur requires extensive experience or a mathematical model of disease dynamics and estimates of the parameters of the disease model. The latter approach is explored here. Methods for estimating key model parameters, the transmission coefficient (beta) and the basic reproductive rate (RDRS), are described using classical swine fever (hog cholera) in wild pigs as an example. The tentative results indicate that an acute infection of classical swine fever will establish in a small population of wild pigs. Data required for estimation of disease transmission rates are reviewed and sources of bias and alternative methods discussed. A comprehensive evaluation of the biases and efficiencies of the methods is needed. PMID:1582476

  1. High-throughput assessment of bacterial ecology in hog, cow and ovine casings used in sausages production.

    PubMed

    Rebecchi, Annalisa; Pisacane, Vincenza; Miragoli, Francesco; Polka, Justyna; Falasconi, Irene; Morelli, Lorenzo; Puglisi, Edoardo

    2015-11-01

    Natural casings derived from different intestine portions have been used for centuries in the production of fresh and dry-fermented sausages. Here we analysed by means of culture-dependent methods and Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons the bacterial ecology of hog, cow and ovine casings at different stages of their preparation for sausages production. Several strains of Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Vagococcus and Clostridium were counted, isolated and characterised at phylogenetic level. High-throughput sequencing analyses revealed a high bacterial diversity, which differed strongly between casings of different animal species. The technological processes involved in the preparation for casing had also a strong impact on the casings bacterial ecology, with a significant reduction of undesired microorganisms, and an increase in the proportion of lactobacilli and staphylococci. Natural casings were demonstrated to be complex ecological environments, whose role as microbiological inoculants in the production of sausages should not be underestimated. PMID:26003605

  2. NEW JERSEY FARM LABOR REPORT, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHARTIER, WALTER J.; WATTS, FRED

    FARMING IN NEW JERSEY IN 1963 WAS VARIED, VITAL, AND GEOGRAPHICALLY CONCENTRATED. A CONSTANT READY MARKET WAS INSURED BECAUSE OF LOCATION. AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE DECREASED BECAUSE OF URBANIZATION, INDUSTRIALIZATION, AND HIGHWAY DEVELOPMENT, CROP ACREAGE YIELDS INCREASED. THE TREND WAS TOWARD ALMOST TOTAL MECHANIZATION BECAUSE OF INTENSE CULTIVATION,…

  3. Low external pH induces HOG1-dependent changes in the organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall.

    PubMed

    Kapteyn, J C; ter Riet, B; Vink, E; Blad, S; De Nobel, H; Van Den Ende, H; Klis, F M

    2001-01-01

    Low environmental pH strongly affected the organization of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell wall, resulting in rapidly induced resistance to beta1,3-glucanase. At a molecular level, we found that a considerable amount of Cwp1p became anchored through a novel type of linkage for glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-dependent cell wall proteins, namely an alkali-labile linkage to beta1,3-glucan. This novel type of modification for Cwp1p did not require the presence of a GPI-derived structure connecting the protein with beta1,6-glucan. In addition, we found high levels of Cwp1p, which was double-anchored through both the novel alkali-sensitive bond to beta1,3-glucan and the alkali-resistant GPI-derived linkage to beta1,6-glucan. Further cell wall analyses demonstrated that Pir2p/Hsp150 and possibly other Pir cell wall proteins, which were already known to be linked to the beta1,3-glucan framework by an alkali-sensitive linkage, were also more efficiently retained in the cell wall at pH 3.5 than at pH 5.5. Consequently, the alkali-sensitive type of linkage of cell wall proteins to beta1,3-glucan was induced by low pH. The low pH-induced alterations in yeast cell wall architecture were demonstrated to be dependent on a functional HOG1 gene, but not on the Slt2p-mediated MAP kinase pathway. Consistent with this observation, DNA microarray studies revealed transcriptional induction of many known high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway-dependent genes, including four cell wall-related genes, namely CWP1, HOR7, SPI1 and YGP1. PMID:11136466

  4. Mitogen activated protein kinases SakA(HOG1) and MpkC collaborate for Aspergillus fumigatus virulence.

    PubMed

    Bruder Nascimento, Ariane Cristina Mendes de Oliveira; Dos Reis, Thaila Fernanda; de Castro, Patrícia Alves; Hori, Juliana I; Bom, Vinícius Leite Pedro; de Assis, Leandro José; Ramalho, Leandra Naira Zambelli; Rocha, Marina Campos; Malavazi, Iran; Brown, Neil Andrew; Valiante, Vito; Brakhage, Axel A; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Goldman, Gustavo H

    2016-06-01

    Here, we investigated which stress responses were influenced by the MpkC and SakA mitogen-activated protein kinases of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway in the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. The ΔsakA and the double ΔmpkC ΔsakA mutants were more sensitive to osmotic and oxidative stresses, and to cell wall damaging agents. Both MpkC::GFP and SakA::GFP translocated to the nucleus upon osmotic stress and cell wall damage, with SakA::GFP showing a quicker response. The phosphorylation state of MpkA was determined post exposure to high concentrations of congo red and Sorbitol. In the wild-type strain, MpkA phosphorylation levels progressively increased in both treatments. In contrast, the ΔsakA mutant had reduced MpkA phosphorylation, and surprisingly, the double ΔmpkC ΔsakA had no detectable MpkA phosphorylation. A. fumigatus ΔsakA and ΔmpkC were virulent in mouse survival experiments, but they had a 40% reduction in fungal burden. In contrast, the ΔmpkC ΔsakA double mutant showed highly attenuated virulence, with approximately 50% mice surviving and a 75% reduction in fungal burden. We propose that both cell wall integrity (CWI) and HOG pathways collaborate, and that MpkC could act by modulating SakA activity upon exposure to several types of stresses and during CW biosynthesis. PMID:26878695

  5. Dairy farm methane emissions using a dispersion model.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to know whole-farm methane (CH(4)) emissions since confined animal facilities such as beef cattle feedlots and dairy farms are emission "hot spots" in the landscape. However, measurements of whole-farm CH(4) emissions can differ between farms because of differences in contributing sources such as manure handling, number of lactating and nonlactating cows, and diet. Such differences may limit the usefulness of whole-farm emissions for national inventories and mitigation purposes unless the variance between farms is taken into account or a large number of farms can be examined. Our study describes the application of a dispersion model used in conjunction with field measurements of CH(4) concentration and stability of the air to calculate whole-farm emissions of CH(4) from three dairy farms in Alberta, Canada, during three sequential campaigns conducted in November 2004 and May and July 2005. The dairy farms ranged in herd size from 208 to 351 cows (102 to 196 lactating cows) and had different manure handling operations. The results indicate that the average CH(4) emission per cow (mixture of lactating and nonlactating) from the three dairy farms was 336 g d(-1), which was reduced to 271 g d(-1) when the emission (estimated) from the manure storage was removed. Further separation of source strength yielded an average CH(4) (enteric) emission of 363 g d(-1) for a lactating cow. The estimated CH(4) emission intensities were approximately 15 g CH(4) kg(-1) dry matter intake and 16.7 L CH(4) L(-1) of milk produced. The approach of understanding the farm-to-farm differences in CH(4) emissions as affected by diet, animal type, and manure management is essential when utilizing whole-farm emission measurements for mitigation and inventory applications. PMID:22218175

  6. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... jobs in the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, ... equipment can also reduce accidents. Occupational Safety and Health Administration

  7. SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM COOK ROAD, LOOKING WEST. (The farm buildings from left to right are: granary, garage, Gould house, and barn. The Olympic Mountains are visible in the distance.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  8. Biotechnology on the farm

    SciTech Connect

    Tangley, L.

    1986-10-01

    A new genetically engineered growth hormone promises to boost milk yields for dairy farms. Larger milk yields would worsen economic problems facing dairy farmers especially owners of small farms. The conflicts between new technologies and US agricultural policy are discussed here.

  9. Farming for Net Profit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors can influence farm management decisions. One important factor is economic returns. Staying in farming requires dealing with a wide range of changing conditions. Given these changing conditions, it is particularly important to “get the big decisions right”. This requires evaluating impac...

  10. Occupational Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    White, Gill; Cessna, Allan

    1989-01-01

    A number of occupational hazards exist for the farmer and farm worker. They include the hazards of farm machinery, biologic and chemical hazards, and social and environmental stresses. Recognizing of these hazards will help the family physician care for farmers and their families. PMID:21248929

  11. Not Your Family Farm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Grogg, Jill E.

    2007-01-01

    The information industry continues to consolidate, just as agribusiness has consolidated and now dominates farming. Both the family farm and the small information company still exist but are becoming rarer in an age of mergers, acquisitions, and increased economies of scale. Small companies distinguish themselves by high quality, special themes,…

  12. Occupations and the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert-Krocker, Laurie

    2001-01-01

    Describes "occupation" as a Montessori term, which the Hershey Montessori Farm School, in Huntsburg, Ohio, has adopted for any task arising from the needs of the farm that then generates a scientific or historic study. Includes lists of occupations pursued during 2000-2001 and samples of record forms students used to manage their work. (Author/KB)

  13. Migrant Farm Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesinger, Doris P.; Pfeffer, Max J.

    This paper documents migrant farm workers as being among the most persistently underprivileged groups in American society. Migrant farm workers typically receive low wages from irregular employment and live in poverty with access to only substandard housing and inadequate health care. The lack of economic improvement stems from a number of…

  14. High osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway-induced phosphorylation and activation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase are essential for glycerol accumulation and yeast cell proliferation under hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Dihazi, Hassan; Kessler, Renate; Eschrich, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    In response to changes in the environment, yeast cells coordinate intracellular activities to optimize survival and proliferation. The transductions of diverse extracellular stimuli are exerted through multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. The high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) MAPK pathway is activated by increased environmental osmolarity and results in a rise of the cellular glycerol concentration to adapt the intracellular osmotic pressure. We studied the importance of the short time regulation of glycolysis under hyperosmotic stress for the survival and proliferation of yeast cells. A stimulation of the HOG-MAPK pathway by increasing the medium osmolarity through addition of salt or glucose to cultivated yeast leads to an activation of 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase (PFK2), which is accompanied by a complex phosphorylation pattern of the enzyme. An increase in medium osmolarity with 5% NaCl activates PFK2 3-fold over the initial value. This change in the activity is the result of a 4-fold phosphorylation of the enzyme mediated by protein kinases from the HOG-MAPK pathway. In the case of hyperosmolar glucose a 5-fold PFK2 activation was achieved by a single phosphorylation with protein kinase A near the carboxyl terminus of the protein on Ser(644) and an additional 5-fold phosphorylation within the same amino-terminal fragment as in the presence of salt. The effect of hyperosmolar glucose is the result of an activation of the Ras-cAMP pathway together with the HOG-MAPK pathway. The activation of PFK2 leads to an activation of the upper part of glycolysis, which is a precondition for glycerol accumulation. Yeast cells containing PFK2 accumulate three times more glycerol than cells lacking PFK2, which are not able to grow under hypertonic stress. PMID:15037628

  15. Dairy farming on permanent grassland: can it keep up?

    PubMed

    Kellermann, M; Salhofer, K

    2014-10-01

    Based on an extensive data set for southern Germany, we compared the productive performance of dairy farms that operate solely on permanent grassland and dairy farms using fodder crops from arable land. We allowed for heterogeneous production technologies and identified more intensive and extensive production systems for both types of farms, whereby we based our notion of intensive versus extensive dairy production on differences in stocking density and milk yield per cow and year. To be able to compare the productivity levels and productivity developments of the various groups of farms, we developed a group- and chain-linked multilateral productivity index. We also analyzed how technical change, technical efficiency change, and a scale change effect contribute to productivity growth between the years 2000 and 2008. Our results revealed that permanent grassland farms can generally keep up with fodder-crop farms, even in an intensive production setting. However, extensively operating farms, especially those on permanent grassland, significantly lag behind in productivity and productivity change and run the risk of losing ground. PMID:25108855

  16. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  17. Enhanced Gender Recognition System Using an Improved Histogram of Oriented Gradient (HOG) Feature from Quality Assessment of Visible Light and Thermal Images of the Human Body

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dat Tien; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2016-01-01

    With higher demand from users, surveillance systems are currently being designed to provide more information about the observed scene, such as the appearance of objects, types of objects, and other information extracted from detected objects. Although the recognition of gender of an observed human can be easily performed using human perception, it remains a difficult task when using computer vision system images. In this paper, we propose a new human gender recognition method that can be applied to surveillance systems based on quality assessment of human areas in visible light and thermal camera images. Our research is novel in the following two ways: First, we utilize the combination of visible light and thermal images of the human body for a recognition task based on quality assessment. We propose a quality measurement method to assess the quality of image regions so as to remove the effects of background regions in the recognition system. Second, by combining the features extracted using the histogram of oriented gradient (HOG) method and the measured qualities of image regions, we form a new image features, called the weighted HOG (wHOG), which is used for efficient gender recognition. Experimental results show that our method produces more accurate estimation results than the state-of-the-art recognition method that uses human body images. PMID:27455264

  18. White meat-Green farm: case study of Brinson Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive on-farm resource utilization and renewable energy generation at the farm scale are not new concepts. However, truly encompassing implementation of these ideals is lacking. Brinson Farms operates 10 commercial broiler houses. The farm generates heat for its houses using biomass boile...

  19. Hazards of Farming

    PubMed Central

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher on the agenda for farmers, farm organizations, government, and health care professionals. PMID:21221275

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of intracellular pH and pH homeostasis in the hog carotid artery

    SciTech Connect

    Grieder, T.A.

    1989-01-01

    Intracellular pH (pH{sub i}) is an important determinant of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contractility and relaxation. Most NMR measurement of pH have been calculated from the chemical shift of inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) in {sup 31}P spectra. An alternative approach is to calculate pH from the difference in chemical shifts of signals in the {sup 19}F spectrum of cells loaded with difluoromethylalanine. This technique has higher sensitivity to pH changes and provides better time resolution than other NMR methods. In this study we report simultaneous measurements of pH{sub i} and the contractile state of single, intact hog carotid arterial segments, closed at both ends and superfused with HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-buffered Krebs solution at physiological pressures. At 28{degree}C, resting arteries maintained a pH{sub i} of 7.15 {+-} 0.03 units (n = 16). In a parallel study, helically cut strips studied with {sup 31}P NMR maintained a similar resting pH (7.18 {+-} 0.09).

  1. Genomic and metabolomic insights into the natural product biosynthetic diversity of a feral-hog-associated Brevibacillus laterosporus strain.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Christine M; Stamps, Blake W; King, Jarrod B; Price, Lauren S L; Powell, Douglas R; Stevenson, Bradley S; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria associated with mammals are a rich source of microbial biodiversity; however, little is known concerning the abilities of these microbes to generate secondary metabolites. This report focuses on a bacterium isolated from the ear of a feral hog from southwestern Oklahoma, USA. The bacterium was identified as a new strain (PE36) of Brevibacillus latersporus, which was shown via genomic analysis to contain a large number of gene clusters presumably involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A scale-up culture of B. latersporus PE36 yielded three bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (basiliskamides A and B and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid). Further studies of the isolate's secondary metabolome provided both new (auripyrazine) and previously-described pyrazine-containing compounds. In addition, a new peptidic natural product (auriporcine) was purified that was determined to be composed of a polyketide unit, two L-proline residues, two D-leucine residues, one L-leucine residue, and a reduced L-phenylalanine (L-phenylalanol). An examination of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are likely responsible for generating the basiliskamides and auriporcine. These combined genomic and chemical studies confirm that new and unusual secondary metabolites can be obtained from the bacterial associates of wild mammals. PMID:24595070

  2. Genomic and Metabolomic Insights into the Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity of a Feral-Hog-Associated Brevibacillus laterosporus Strain

    PubMed Central

    Theodore, Christine M.; Stamps, Blake W.; King, Jarrod B.; Price, Lauren S. L.; Powell, Douglas R.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Cichewicz, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria associated with mammals are a rich source of microbial biodiversity; however, little is known concerning the abilities of these microbes to generate secondary metabolites. This report focuses on a bacterium isolated from the ear of a feral hog from southwestern Oklahoma, USA. The bacterium was identified as a new strain (PE36) of Brevibacillus latersporus, which was shown via genomic analysis to contain a large number of gene clusters presumably involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A scale-up culture of B. latersporus PE36 yielded three bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (basiliskamides A and B and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid). Further studies of the isolate's secondary metabolome provided both new (auripyrazine) and previously-described pyrazine-containing compounds. In addition, a new peptidic natural product (auriporcine) was purified that was determined to be composed of a polyketide unit, two L-proline residues, two D-leucine residues, one L-leucine residue, and a reduced L-phenylalanine (L-phenylalanol). An examination of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are likely responsible for generating the basiliskamides and auriporcine. These combined genomic and chemical studies confirm that new and unusual secondary metabolites can be obtained from the bacterial associates of wild mammals. PMID:24595070

  3. A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Puerta, Luis A; Ticona, Daniel S; Lopez-Urbina, Maria T; Gonzalez, Armando E

    2012-08-01

    Atriotaenia sanmarci n. sp. (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) is described as a parasite of the Andean hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae), from Cusco, Perú. The new species is primarily distinguished from related species by the distribution, and greater number, of testes, i.e., 194-223 versus 40-60 in Atriotaenia sandgroundi (Sandground, 1926) Baer, 1935, 47-73 in Atriotaenia procyonis (Chandler, 1942) Spasskii, 1951, and 21-84 in Atriotaenia incisa Railliet, 1899. Also, there are differences with respect to the larger dimensions of suckers (300-371 µm vs. 140 in A. sandgroundi, 83-134 in A. procyonis, 70-140 in A. incisa, and 155-192 in Atriotaenia hastati Vaucher, 1982) and in the cirrus pouch length (204-732 µm vs. 90 in A. sandgroundi, 200-220 in A. procyonis, 100-180 in A. incisa, and 150-205 in A. hastati). The new species differs from A. sandgroundi and A. hastati in having a larger body size (122-133 mm vs. 10.6 and 10, respectively). This cestode is the fifth species of Atriotaenia Sandground, 1926. PMID:22339059

  4. A new analytical model for wind farm power prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niayifar, Amin; Porte-Agel, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    In this study, a new analytical approach is presented and validated to predict wind farm power production. The new model assumes a Gaussian distribution for the velocity deficit in the wake which has been recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porté-Agel (2014). To estimate the velocity deficit in the wake, this model needs the local wake growth rate parameter which is calculated based on the local turbulence intensity in the wind farm. The interaction of the wakes is modeled by use of the velocity deficit superposition principle. Finally, the power curve is used to estimate the power production from the wind turbines. The wind farm model is compared to large-eddy simulation (LES) data of Horns Rev wind farm for a wide range of wind directions. Reasonable agreement between the proposed analytical model and LES data is obtained. This prediction is substantially better than the one obtained with common wind farm softwares such as WAsP.

  5. Tifft Farm Nature Preserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Thomas B.; Gannon, David J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are the creation, development, activities, and programs of Tifft Farm, a 264-acre nature preserve and environmental education center in Buffalo, New York, constructed on a sanitary landfill. (BT)

  6. Farm Health and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States. Farms have many health and safety hazards, including Chemicals and pesticides Machinery, tools and ... inspection and maintenance can help prevent accidents. Using safety gloves, goggles and other protective equipment can also ...

  7. National Farm Medicine Center

    MedlinePlus

    Research Areas Applied Sciences Biomedical Informatics Clinical Research Epidemiology Farm Medicine Human Genetics Oral-Systemic Health Clinical Trials Services CM&R Research Lab Research Compliance Research Integrity & ...

  8. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  9. Wake Measurements in ECN's Scaled Wind Farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, J. W.; Schepers, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    In ECN's scaled wind farm the wake evolution is studied in two different situations. A single wake is studied at two different locations downstream of a turbine and a single wake is studied in conjunction with a triple wake. Here, the wake is characterized by the relative wind speed, the turbulence intensity, the vertical wind speed and the turbulence (an)isotropy. Per situation all wake measurements are taken simultaneously together with the inflow conditions.

  10. Certified safe farm: identifying and removing hazards on the farm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, R H; Grafft, L J; Kline, A K; Madsen, M D; Lange, J L; Donham, K J

    2010-04-01

    This article describes the development of the Certified Safe Farm (CSF) on-farm safety review tools, characterizes the safety improvements among participating farms during the study period, and evaluates differences in background variables between low and high scoring farms. Average farm review scores on 185 study farms improved from 82 to 96 during the five-year study (0-100 scale, 85 required for CSF certification). A total of 1292 safety improvements were reported at an estimated cost of $650 per farm. A wide range of improvements were made, including adding 9 rollover protective structures (ROPS), 59 power take-off (PTO) master shields, and 207 slow-moving vehicle (SMV) emblems; improving lighting on 72 machines: placing 171 warning decals on machinery; shielding 77 moving parts; locking up 17 chemical storage areas, adding 83 lockout/tagout improvements; and making general housekeeping upgrades in 62 farm buildings. The local, trained farm reviewers and the CSF review process overall were well received by participating farmers. In addition to our earlier findings where higher farm review scores were associated with lower self-reported health outcome costs, we found that those with higher farm work hours, younger age, pork production in confinement, beef production, poultry production, and reported exposure to agrichemicals had higher farm review scores than those who did not have these characteristics. Overall, the farm review process functioned as expected. encouraging physical improvements in the farm environment, and contributing to the multi-faceted CSF intervention program. PMID:20503809

  11. Microbial and sensorial models for head-on and gutted (HOG) Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar) stored from 0 to 15 °C.

    PubMed

    Churchill, Olivia J; Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Powell, Shane M; Tamplin, Mark L

    2016-08-01

    Predictive models offer efficient means to manage the quality and safety of highly perishable seafood. Salmon is an increasingly popular seafood, and relies on well managed domestic and international supply chains to minimize growth of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. While the literature describes predictive models for smoked and modified atmosphere packaged salmon, there are no reported models for spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes on head-on and gutted (HOG) aerobically-stored Atlantic salmon. Predictive models were developed for microbial and sensorial degradation of HOG Atlantic salmon stored at 0-15 °C until the end of shelf-life. Total Viable Count (TVC) and Pseudomonas spp. had similar growth rates at 0, 5 and 10 °C, but TVC rate was higher at 15 °C. L. monocytogenes growth rate at 0 °C was 0.004 log10 cfu/h, and showed a log-linear increase (R(2) = 0.99) to 0.079 log10 cfu/h at 15 °C. Sensory Quality Index (QI) scores were 2.4, 4.5, and 7.2 times greater at 5, 10 and 15 °C, respectively, compared to 0 °C. QI and TVC rates had a relatively strong relationship at 5 (R(2) = 0.87), 10 (R(2) = 0.80) and 15 °C (R(2) = 0.78), compared to 0 °C (R(2) = 0.50). These models are potential tools to manage the safety and quality of HOG Atlantic salmon in supply chains. PMID:27052713

  12. The Effects of in utero Viral Infection on Embryonic, Fetal, and Neonatal Survival: A Comparison of SMEDI (Porcine Picorna) Viruses with Hog Cholera Vaccinal Virus

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, H. W.; Wang, J. T.; Clark, C. D.; Hokanson, J. F.; Morimoto, T.; Bubash, G. R.

    1969-01-01

    SMEDI and hog cholera viruses were shown to have marked effects upon the survival of the embryo (from conception to 30 days of gestation), the fetus (from 30 days of gestation until birth), and the neonatal pig (from birth until five days after birth). Embryonic infection was characterized by death and absorption of the embryo and in some instances the return to estrus after an irregular estrous cycle. Embryonic infection also may have been responsible for the development of some abnormal pigs. Fetal infection caused death with mummification of one or more fetuses and occasionally all fetuses in the uterus. Infection established in early gestation produced effects on the fetus which apparently persisted until after birth and varied from a persistent viremia (as in hog cholera infection) to an undefined lack of resistance in the newborn (as in SMEDI virus infection). Hog cholera vaccinal virus was the more virulent of the two virus types and reacted somewhat like rubella virus, in that infection apparently could be established in the fetus even in middle trimester of pregnancy, and possibly later. SMEDI viruses, in contrast, were less virulent and were most pathogenic when the dam was infected during the first 30 days of pregnancy. Immunity against either virus could be established in the nonpregnant gilt and was most effective in preventing intrauterine infections with that virus. However, with as many as 10 enteroviruses (five are known to cause intrauterine infection) it was believed that maintaining a closed breeding herd and introducing new stock into contact with the breeding herd at least 30 days before breeding time might be a safer means of control. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4243029

  13. Relaxed Intensity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Kyle

    2004-01-01

    Relaxed intensity refers to a professional philosophy, demeanor, and way of life. It is the key to being an effective educational leader. To be successful one must be relaxed, which means managing stress efficiently, having fun, and enjoying work. Intensity allows one to get the job done and accomplish certain tasks or goals. Educational leaders…

  14. The Hog Cycle of Law Professors: An Econometric Time Series Analysis of the Entry-Level Job Market in Legal Academia.

    PubMed

    Engel, Christoph; Hamann, Hanjo

    2016-01-01

    The (German) market for law professors fulfils the conditions for a hog cycle: In the short run, supply cannot be extended or limited; future law professors must be hired soon after they first present themselves, or leave the market; demand is inelastic. Using a comprehensive German dataset, we show that the number of market entries today is negatively correlated with the number of market entries eight years ago. This suggests short-sighted behavior of young scholars at the time when they decide to prepare for the market. Using our statistical model, we make out-of-sample predictions for the German academic market in law until 2020. PMID:27467518

  15. The Hog Cycle of Law Professors: An Econometric Time Series Analysis of the Entry-Level Job Market in Legal Academia

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Hanjo

    2016-01-01

    The (German) market for law professors fulfils the conditions for a hog cycle: In the short run, supply cannot be extended or limited; future law professors must be hired soon after they first present themselves, or leave the market; demand is inelastic. Using a comprehensive German dataset, we show that the number of market entries today is negatively correlated with the number of market entries eight years ago. This suggests short-sighted behavior of young scholars at the time when they decide to prepare for the market. Using our statistical model, we make out-of-sample predictions for the German academic market in law until 2020. PMID:27467518

  16. Multidrug-Resistant and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Hog Slaughter and Processing Plant Workers and Their Community in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Frisancho, Jose Augusto; Rinsky, Jessica L.; Resnick, Carol; Carroll, Karen Colleen; Rule, Ana Maria; Ross, Tracy; You, Yaqi; Price, Lance B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of antimicrobials in industrial food-animal production is associated with the presence of antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) among animals and humans. Hog slaughter/processing plants process large numbers of animals from industrial animal operations and are environments conducive to the exchange of bacteria between animals and workers. Objectives: We compared the prevalence of multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) carriage among processing plant workers, their household members, and community residents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of hog slaughter/processing plant workers, their household members, and community residents in North Carolina. Participants responded to a questionnaire and provided a nasal swab. Swabs were tested for S. aureus, and isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and subjected to multilocus sequence typing. Results: The prevalence of S. aureus was 21.6%, 30.2%, and 22.5% among 162 workers, 63 household members, and 111 community residents, respectively. The overall prevalence of MDRSA and MRSA tested by disk diffusion was 6.9% and 4.8%, respectively. The adjusted prevalence of MDRSA among workers was 1.96 times (95% CI: 0.71, 5.45) the prevalence in community residents. The adjusted average number of antimicrobial classes to which S. aureus isolates from workers were resistant was 2.54 times (95% CI: 1.16, 5.56) the number among isolates from community residents. We identified two MDRSA isolates and one MRSA isolate from workers as sequence type 398, a type associated with exposure to livestock. Conclusions: Although the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA was similar in hog slaughter/processing plant workers and their household and community members, S. aureus isolates from workers were resistant to a greater number of antimicrobial classes. These findings may be related to the nontherapeutic use of antimicrobials in food

  17. Wind Farm Recommendation Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to develop a wind farm recommendation for the Executive Council and a list of proposed actions for proceeding with the recommendation. In terms of land use, the INL Land Use Committee unanimously agrees that Site 6 is the preferred location of the alternatives presented for an INL wind farm. However, further studies and resolution to questions raised (stated in this report) by the INL Land Use Committee are needed for the preferred location. Studies include, but are not limited to, wind viability (6 months), bats (2 years), and the visual impact of the wind farm. In addition, cultural resource surveys and consultation (1 month) and the National Environmental Policy Act process (9 to 12 months) need to be completed. Furthermore, there is no documented evidence of developers expressing interest in constructing a small wind farm on INL, nor a specific list of expectations or concessions for which a developer might expect INL to cover the cost. To date, INL assumes the National Environmental Policy Act activities will be paid for by the Department of Energy and INL (the environmental assessment has only received partial funding). However, other concessions also may be expected by developers such as roads, fencing, power line installation, tie-ins to substations, annual maintenance, snow removal, access control, down-time, and remediation. These types of concessions have not been documented, as a request, from a developer and INL has not identified the short and long-term cost liabilities for such concessions should a developer expect INL to cover these costs. INL has not identified a go-no-go funding level or the priority this Wind Farm Project might have with respect to other nuclear-related projects, should the wind farm remain an unfunded mandate. The Land Use Committee recommends Legal be consulted to determine what, if any, liabilities exist with the Wind Farm Project and

  18. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  19. Life cycle assessment of different sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng

    2015-12-01

    The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming systems (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive systems) of sea cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming system were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming system. Yet in the extensive farming system, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming systems, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming system was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming systems. However, the extensive farming system was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming system in the present study.

  20. The profitability of automatic milking on Dutch dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Bijl, R; Kooistra, S R; Hogeveen, H

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have reported on the profitability of automatic milking based on different simulation models, but a data-based study using actual farm data has been lacking. The objective of this study was to analyze the profitability of dairy farms having an automatic milking system (AMS) compared with farms using a conventional milking system (CMS) based on real accounting data. In total, 62 farms (31 using an AMS and 31 using a CMS) were analyzed for the year 2003 in a case control study. Differences between the years 2002 and 2003 also were analyzed by comparing a subgroup of 16 farms with an AMS and 16 farms with a CMS. Matching was based on the time of investment in a milking system (same year), the total milk production per year, and intensity of land use (kg/ha). Results from 2003 showed that the farms with an AMS used, on average, 29% less labor than farms with a CMS. In contrast, farms using a CMS grew faster (37,132 kg of milk quota and 5 dairy cows) than farms with an AMS (-3,756 kg milk quota and 0.5 dairy cows) between 2002 and 2003. Dairy farmers with a CMS had larger (euro7,899) revenues than those with an AMS. However, no difference in the margin on dairy production was detected, partly because of numerically greater (euro6,822) variable costs on CMS farms. Dairy farms were compared financially based on the amount of money that was available for rent, depreciation, interest, labor, and profit (RDILP). The CMS farms had more money (euro15,566) available for RDILP than the AMS farms. This difference was caused by larger fixed costs (excluding labor) for the AMS farms, larger contractor costs (euro6,422), and larger costs for gas, water, and electricity (euro1,549). Differences in costs for contractors and for gas, water, and electricity were statistically significant. When expressed per full-time employee, AMS farms had greater revenues, margins, and gross margins per full-time employee than did CMS farms. This resulted in a substantially greater

  1. ON-FARM ANALYSIS OF PRECISION FARMING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming technologies are becoming increasingly popular. However, few studies have addressed the whole farm and per acre expense of these technologies. A 33-acre farm example is used to establish baseline cost estimates of these technologies. Findings suggest that per acre expense is relati...

  2. Who Becomes Established in Farming!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjoraker, Walter T.; Martinson, Virgil O.

    1971-01-01

    Reports a study of the similarities and differences between individuals presently farming and those who have left farming in Wisconsin. Study is based on Virgil Martinson's 1970 Ph.D. dissertation. (SB)

  3. Broad-scale impacts of salmon farms on temperate macroalgal assemblages on rocky reefs.

    PubMed

    Oh, E S; Edgar, G J; Kirkpatrick, J B; Stuart-Smith, R D; Barrett, N S

    2015-09-15

    Intensive fish culture in open sea pens delivers large amounts of nutrients to coastal environments. Relative to particulate waste impacts, the ecological impacts of dissolved wastes are poorly known despite their potential to substantially affect nutrient-assimilating components of surrounding ecosystems. Broad-scale enrichment effects of salmonid farms on Tasmanian reef communities were assessed by comparing macroalgal cover at four fixed distances from active fish farm leases across 44 sites. Macroalgal assemblages differed significantly between sites immediately adjacent (100m) to fish farms and reference sites at 5km distance, while sites at 400m and 1km exhibited intermediate characteristics. Epiphyte cover varied consistently with fish farm impacts in both sheltered and exposed locations. The green algae Chaetomorpha spp. predominated near fish farms at swell-exposed sites, whereas filamentous green algae showed elevated densities near sheltered farms. Cover of canopy-forming perennial algae appeared unaffected by fish farm impacts. PMID:26169226

  4. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. PMID:20943254

  5. FARM LABOR MARKET DEVELOPMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    PART ONE OF THE REPORT CONSISTED OF AN ANALYSIS OF TRENDS BETWEEN 1960 AND 1961 IN WAGES OF UNITED STATES FARM WORKERS IN MAJOR AREAS USING MEXICAN NATIONALS. THE DATA WERE DERIVED FROM PREVAILING-WAGE REPORTS RECEIVED BY THE BUREAU OF EMPLOYMENT SECURITY FROM AFFILIATED STATE EMPLOYMENT SECURITY AGENCIES. THE SURVEY RATES WERE USED BY THE…

  6. Down on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Dale

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a farm program might assist any camp to offer experiential educational opportunities, improve attitudes toward food/nutrition, expand interpersonal relationships, develop work values and responsibility, teach history of food production/hunger. Details program goals, seasonal agricultural work, staffing, tools/equipment, daily…

  7. Modelling Farm Animal Welfare

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lisa M.; Part, Chérie E.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary In this review paper we discuss the different modeling techniques that have been used in animal welfare research to date. We look at what questions they have been used to answer, the advantages and pitfalls of the methods, and how future research can best use these approaches to answer some of the most important upcoming questions in farm animal welfare. Abstract The use of models in the life sciences has greatly expanded in scope and advanced in technique in recent decades. However, the range, type and complexity of models used in farm animal welfare is comparatively poor, despite the great scope for use of modeling in this field of research. In this paper, we review the different modeling approaches used in farm animal welfare science to date, discussing the types of questions they have been used to answer, the merits and problems associated with the method, and possible future applications of each technique. We find that the most frequently published types of model used in farm animal welfare are conceptual and assessment models; two types of model that are frequently (though not exclusively) based on expert opinion. Simulation, optimization, scenario, and systems modeling approaches are rarer in animal welfare, despite being commonly used in other related fields. Finally, common issues such as a lack of quantitative data to parameterize models, and model selection and validation are discussed throughout the review, with possible solutions and alternative approaches suggested. PMID:26487411

  8. Agriculture Education. Farm Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary agricultural education students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in farm machinery. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) small gas engines, (2) job opportunities, (3) tractors, (4) engines, (5) hydraulics, (6) electrical system, (7) combine…

  9. Farming the Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, William

    1971-01-01

    Florida has initiated a training program in an entirely new dimension--Sea Farming. Presented is a description of the vocational agriculture program designed to teach propagation, cultivation, harvesting, marketing, and conservation practices related to production of oysters, shrimp, scallops, crabs, and fin fishes. (Editor/GB)

  10. Cryptosporidiois in farmed animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The disease, cryptosporidiosis, has been identified in humans and animals in 106 countries and has been attributed to 26 species of Cryptosporidium and several additional genotypes. The specific farmed animals discussed in this chapter include cattle, sheep, goats, water buffaloes, deer, camels, lla...

  11. Farm Education at Stony Kill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parisio, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Describes typical winter farm lessons for students visiting Stony Kill Farm Environmental Education Center located 70 miles north of New York City: butter and corncake making, soil erosion experiments, dissecting and growing seeds. Emphasizes major theme of conservation of farmland from destructive farming practices and careless development. (NEC)

  12. Content Priorities for Farm Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotts, C. Don; Webb, Earl S.

    1974-01-01

    Fifty successful young Texas farmers evaluated agricultural mechanics skills (in the broad areas of farm power and machinery, farm shop, farm electricity, buildings and conveniences, and soil and water management) in terms of their importance. Teachers can use the findings to plan course content relevant to their students' needs. (AJ)

  13. The lack of upstream elements of the Cek1 and Hog1 mediated pathways leads to a synthetic lethal phenotype upon osmotic stress in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Herrero-de-Dios, Carmen; Alonso-Monge, Rebeca; Pla, Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Different signal transduction pathways mediated by MAP kinases have been described in Candida albicans. These pathways sense different stimuli and, therefore, elaborate specific responses. Hog1 was identified as the MAPK that is primarily involved in stress response and virulence, while Cek1 was more specific to cell wall biogenesis, mating and biofilm formation. In the present work, mutants defective in both pathways have been characterized under osmotic stress. Both routes are required for a full response against high osmotic challenge, since mutants defective in both pathways displayed aberrant morphology, cell polarity defects and abnormal chitin deposition, which correlate with loss of viability and appearance of apoptotic markers. These alterations occurred in spite of proper Hog1 and Cek1 phosphorylation and increased intra-cellular glycerol accumulation. The relevance of both routes in virulence is shown as ssk1 msb2 sho1 opy2 mutants are avirulent in a mouse systemic model of infection and display reduced virulence in the Galleria mellonella model. PMID:24905535

  14. Ceramide signalling impinges on Sit4p and Hog1p to promote mitochondrial fission and mitophagy in Isc1p-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor; Medeiros, Tânia C; Vilaça, Rita; Pereira, Andreia T; Chaves, Susana R; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Costa, Vítor

    2015-09-01

    Mitochondria function as the powerhouses of the cell for energy conversion through the oxidative phosphorylation process. Accumulation of dysfunctional mitochondria promotes a bioenergetic crisis and cell death by apoptosis. Yeast cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase type 2, exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and shortened lifespan associated with the accumulation of specific ceramide species and activation of the PP2A-like protein phosphatase Sit4p and of the Hog1p kinase. Here, we show that isc1Δ cells display hyperactivation of mitophagy that is suppressed by downregulating Sit4p, Hog1p or the TORC1-Sch9p pathway. Notably, isc1Δ cells also have high levels of Dnm1p associated with unbalanced mitochondrial fission, leading to mitochondrial fragmentation, and DNM1 deletion suppressed the oxidative stress sensitivity and shortened lifespan of isc1Δ cells. Moreover, Isc1p and Dnm1p physically interact, suggesting a possible regulatory role for Isc1p in mitochondrial dynamics. Overall, our work demonstrates that Isc1p-mediated ceramide signalling regulates mitophagy and mitochondrial dynamics in yeast with impact on mitochondrial function and lifespan. Since ceramides have been implicated in ageing and diseases associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, our findings suggest that therapeutic strategies targeting ceramide signalling may improve mitochondrial function and human healthspan. PMID:26079297

  15. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  16. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  17. 29 CFR 780.142 - Practices on a farm not related to farming operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. 780... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture âsuch Farming Operationsâ-on the Farm § 780.142 Practices on a farm not related to farming operations. Practices performed on a farm in connection...

  18. The role of renewable energy on animal farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csatári, Nándor; Vántus, András

    2015-04-01

    The recent measures in the European Union promote the usage of renewable energies and enhancing the energy efficiency. These measures also effect agriculture, on the one hand by using biofuels mixed into fuel for machinery. Besides biofuels animal farms have opportunities in using renewable energy in several other ways. There are sectors in animal farming, where the energy demand is continuously high in electricity (e.g. forage grinders, mixers, milk coolers, air ventilation systems) or in heating (e.g. stables for poultry or piglets). Beside the energy demand in agricultural sector there are several products and side products suitable for energy production. For example different kinds of organic manures and corn silage could be raw materials for biogas production; plant residues like cereal straw and corn stalk bales could be combusted in boilers. Furthermore solar cells or solar collectors can be mounted on the big roof surfaces of animal farm buildings. Among animal farming sectors, dairy farming in the most energy intensive, and uses the widest variety of energy forms. It is often mentioned as the "heavy industry" of animal farming. In this research 14 dairy farms were examined in Hajdú-Bihar County in the topic of energy demand, renewable energy usage. The questioned farms covers 35% of the dairy cow population in Hajdú-Bihar County. The questions covered the general attributes of the farms and the details of the (existing or planned) renewable energy application. In terms of economic analysis saving, the investment return time and the employment effect was examined. The results show wide variety of applied renewable energy application. Fifty percent of farms uses at least one kind of renewable energy. Two biogas plants, 6 boilers for solid biomass, 2 solar cells. Regarding employment effect biogas plants created some full time workplaces, biomass boilers also needs some work hours to maintain, but none of the farms applied more labour. Besides renewable

  19. Farm Work-Related Asthma Among US Primary Farm Operators

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; White, Gretchen E.; Rodman, Chad; Schleiff, Patricia L.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of current asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm among primary farm operators. The 2011 Farm and Ranch Safety Survey data were used to produce estimates and prevalence odds ratios. An estimated 5.1% of farm operators had asthma. Of these, 15.4% had farm work-related asthma. Among operators with farm work-related asthma, 54.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 41.8%–68.2%) had an asthma attack in the prior 12 months and 33.3% (95% CI: 21.2%–45.4%) had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work. Of those who had an asthma attack that occurred while doing farm work, 65.0% associated their asthma attack with plant/tree materials. This study provides updated information on asthma and the proportion of current asthma that is related to work on the farm and identifies certain groups of farm operators that might benefit from workplace asthma prevention intervention. PMID:25635741

  20. Transgenic Farm Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Morse B.; Eastridge, Janet S.; Paroczay, Ernest W.

    Conventional science to improve muscle and meat parameters has involved breeding strategies, such as selection of dominant traits or selection of preferred traits by cross breeding, and the use of endogenous and exogenous hormones. Improvements in the quality of food products that enter the market have largely been the result of postharvest intervention strategies. Biotechnology is a more extreme scientific method that offers the potential to improve the quality, yield, and safety of food products by direct genetic manipulation. In the December 13, 2007 issue of the Southeast Farm Press, an article by Roy Roberson pointed out that biotechnology is driving most segments of U.S. farm growth. He indicated that nationwide, the agriculture industry is booming and much of that growth is the result of biotechnology advancements.

  1. Wind tunnel investigation on wind turbine wakes and wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iungo, G. V.; Coëffé, J.; Porté-Agel, F.

    2012-04-01

    The interaction between atmospheric boundary layer and wind farms leads to flow modifications, which need to be deeply characterized in order to relate them to wind farm performance. The wake flow produced from a wind farm is the result of a strong interaction between multiple turbine wakes, so that the wind farm configuration turns out to be one of the dominant features to enhance power production. For the present work a wind tunnel investigation was carried out with hot-wire anemometry and velocity measurements performed with multi-hole pressure probes. The tested wind farms consist of miniature three-bladed wind turbine models. Preliminarily, the wake flow generated from a single wind turbine is surveyed, which is characterized by a strong velocity defect lying in proximity of the wind turbine hub height. The wake gradually recovers by moving downstream; the characteristics of the incoming boundary layer and wind turbulence intensity can strongly affect the wake recovery, and thus performance of following wind turbines. An increased turbulence level is typically detected downstream of each wind turbine for heights comparable to the wind turbine blade top-tip. These wake flow fluctuations produce increased fatigue loads on the following wind turbines within a wind farm, which could represent a significant hazard for real wind turbines. Dynamics of vorticity structures present in wind turbine wakes are also investigated; particular attention is paid to the downstream evolution of the tip helicoidal vortices and to oscillations of the hub vortex. The effect of wind farm layout on power production is deeply investigated. Particular emphasis is placed on studying how the flow adjusts as it moves inside the wind farm and can affect the power production. Aligned and staggered wind farm configurations are analysed, also with varying separation distances in the streamwise and spanwise directions. The present experimental results are being used to test and guide the

  2. Software for batch farms

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Bird; Bryan Hess; Andy Kowalski

    2000-02-01

    Over the past few years, LSF has become a standard for job management on batch farms. However, there are many instances where it cannot be deployed for a variety of reasons. In large farms the cost may be prohibitive for the set of features actually used; small university groups who wish to clone the farms and software of larger laboratories often have constraints which preclude the use of LSF. This paper discusses a generic interface developed at Jefferson Lab to provide a set of common services to the user, while using any one of a variety of underlying batch management software products. Initially the system provides an interface to LSF and an alternative--Portable Batch System (PBS) developed by NASA and freely available in source form. It is straightforward to extend this to other systems. Such a generic interface allows users to move from one location to another and run their jobs with no modification, and by extension provides a framework for a ''global'' batch system where jobs submitted at one site may be transparently executed at another. The interface also provides additional features not found in the underlying batch software. Being written in Java, the client can be easily installed anywhere and allows for authenticated remote job submission and manipulation, including a web interface. This paper will also discuss the problem of keeping a large batch farm occupied with work without waiting for slow tape access. The use of file caching, pre-staging of files from tape and the interconnection with the batch system will be discussed. As well as automated techniques, the provision of appropriate information to the user to allow optimization should not be overlooked.

  3. Wind farm electrical system

    DOEpatents

    Erdman, William L.; Lettenmaier, Terry M.

    2006-07-04

    An approach to wind farm design using variable speed wind turbines with low pulse number electrical output. The output of multiple wind turbines are aggregated to create a high pulse number electrical output at a point of common coupling with a utility grid network. Power quality at each individual wind turbine falls short of utility standards, but the aggregated output at the point of common coupling is within acceptable tolerances for utility power quality. The approach for aggregating low pulse number electrical output from multiple wind turbines relies upon a pad mounted transformer at each wind turbine that performs phase multiplication on the output of each wind turbine. Phase multiplication converts a modified square wave from the wind turbine into a 6 pulse output. Phase shifting of the 6 pulse output from each wind turbine allows the aggregated output of multiple wind turbines to be a 24 pulse approximation of a sine wave. Additional filtering and VAR control is embedded within the wind farm to take advantage of the wind farm's electrical impedence characteristics to further enhance power quality at the point of common coupling.

  4. Integrating Farm Production and Natural Resource Management in Tasmania, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotching, W. E.; Sherriff, L.; Kilpatrick, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the social learning from a project aimed to increase the knowledge and capacity of a group of farmers in Tasmania, Australia, to reduce the impacts of intensive agriculture on soil health and waterways, and to optimise the efficient use of on-farm inputs. The plan-do-check-review cycle adopted in this project required the…

  5. Development by injection in Simulium damnosum s.l. of two Onchocerca species from the wart hog to infective larvae resembling type D larvae (Duke, 1967).

    PubMed

    Wahl, G; Bain, O

    1995-03-01

    Four wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus) examined in the Sudan savanna of North-Cameroon were all found infected with two types of skin microfilariae. One was O. ramachandrini Bain, Wahl and Renz, 1993, the adult worms of which live in the subcutaneous tissues of the feet. The other, smaller type belongs to a new Onchocerca species, the adult worms of which were not yet found. O. ramachandrini-microfilariae were evenly distributed across the whole body surface, those of Onchocerca sp. were concentrated on the back. The two species of microfilariae were isolated from an infected hide separated under the dissecting microscope and injected into the thorax of pupae-hatched S. squamosum and S. damnosum s.slr. females. Both filariae developed in both flies at high rates (33-47% of injected microfilariae) and without pathological forms to infective larvae L3). Both L3-species had a caudal tip, were long, slender and very motile and had a conspicuous glandular oesophagus. L3 from O. ramachandrini-microfilariae had a long glandular oesophagus (55% of total L3 length), a round head and measured an average of 955 microns long and 19.2 microns wide. L3 from the other microfilaria-species were shorter (845 microns, P < 0.001) and thinner (16.7 microns, P < 0.001) and had a shorter glandular oesophagus (36%, P < 0.001), a shorter tail (P < 0.01) and a conical head. Both L3-species, by their caudal tip, their long and slender silhouette, their great motility and their conspicuous glandular oesophagus resemble non-O. volvulus filarial L3 known, since many years, to occur in "wild" S. damnosum s.l. in Cameroon (Type D larvae, Duke, 1967) and in Liberia (Agamofilaria Type VI, Voelker and Garms, 1972). During our study, L3 such larvae were found in 12 wild S. damnosum s.l. from two geographically different areas of North Cameroon and all identified as O. ramachandrini. The excellent development of the two Onchocerca species from the wart hog in S. damnosum s.l. after artificial

  6. Involvement of Wives in Farm Tasks as Related to Characteristics of the Farm, the Family and Work Off the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkening, Eugene A.; Ahrens, Nancy

    In an attempt to determine the basis of the farm wife's involvement in farm tasks, hypotheses regarding farm size and type, family cycle and wife's age, off-farm work of husband or wife, and family educational levels were tested in a 1978 random questionnaire survey of 532 Wisconsin farm families. As expected, wives were more involved with farm…

  7. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  8. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FARM... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to...

  9. TANK FARM ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    TIFFT, S.R.

    2003-06-26

    Through regulations, permitting or binding negotiations, Regulators establish requirements, limits, permit conditions and Notice of Construction (NOC) conditions with which the Office of River Protection (ORP) and the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) must comply. Operating Specifications are technical limits which are set on a process to prevent injury to personnel, or damage to the facility or environment, The main purpose of this document is to provide specification limits and recovery actions for the TFC Environmental Surveillance Program at the Hanford Site. Specification limits are given for monitoring frequencies and permissible variation of readings from an established baseline or previous reading. The requirements in this document are driven by environmental considerations and data analysis issues, rather than facility design or personnel safety issues. This document is applicable to all single-shell tank (SST) and double-shell tank (DST) waste tanks, and the associated catch tanks and receiver tanks, and transfer systems. This Tank Farm Environmental Specifications Document (ESD) implements environmental-regulatory limits on the configuration and operation of the Hanford Tank Farms facility that have been established by Regulators. This ESD contains specific field operational limits and recovery actions for compliance with airborne effluent regulations and agreements, liquid effluents regulations and agreements, and environmental tank system requirements. The scope of this ESD is limited to conditions that have direct impact on Operations/Projects or that Operations Projects have direct impact upon. This document does not supercede or replace any Department of Energy (DOE) Orders, regulatory permits, notices of construction, or Regulatory agency agreements binding on the ORP or the TFC. Refer to the appropriate regulation, permit, or Notice of Construction for an inclusive listing of requirements.

  10. Investigation of the impacts of clearcutting, feral hogs, and white-tailed deer on the native vegetative resources of the Congaree Swamp National Monument (revised). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, L.E.; Barry, J.E.

    1992-07-27

    Vegetation surveys, large mammal exclosures, and acorn collections were used to study the effects of past cuttings, feral hogs, and deer on the continued presence of large, majestic oaks on the monument. Few oaks other than laurel oak remain in the harvested areas of the western half of the monument which are dominated by green ash and sweetgum. This species composition is very similar to that of the predisturbance condition, sweetgum-green ash-laurel oak, bottomland forest type. The scattered, remaining large oaks (cherrybark, Shumard, water and willow oak) have failed to reproduce adequately under the conditions created by the harvest practices. Lack of acorn production and seedling establishment rather than large mammal predation of oaks appear to be the primary factors in the decline of oaks in the disturbed areas.

  11. Farm-Size Structure and Off-Farm Income and Employment Generation in the North Central Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heady, Earl O.; Sonka, Steven T.

    The relationship between size of farm and the welfare of farm and nonfarm society was examined in terms of total income in the farm sector, the number and size of farms, income per farm, secondary income generation, and consumer food costs using four alternative farm structures: large farm (gross farm sales of at least $40,000); medium farm (gross…

  12. Mitochondria Influence CDR1 Efflux Pump Activity, Hog1-Mediated Oxidative Stress Pathway, Iron Homeostasis, and Ergosterol Levels in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Edwina; Roman, Elvira; Claypool, Steven; Manzoor, Nikhat; Pla, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction in Candida albicans is known to be associated with drug susceptibility, cell wall integrity, phospholipid homeostasis, and virulence. In this study, we deleted CaFZO1, a key component required during biogenesis of functional mitochondria. Cells with FZO1 deleted displayed fragmented mitochondria, mitochondrial genome loss, and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and were rendered sensitive to azoles and peroxide. In order to understand the cellular response to dysfunctional mitochondria, genome-wide expression profiling of fzo1Δ/Δ cells was performed. Our results show that the increased susceptibility to azoles was likely due to reduced efflux activity of CDR efflux pumps, caused by the missorting of Cdr1p into the vacuole. In addition, fzo1Δ/Δ cells showed upregulation of genes involved in iron assimilation, in iron-sufficient conditions, characteristic of iron-starved cells. One of the consequent effects was downregulation of genes of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway with a commensurate decrease in cellular ergosterol levels. We therefore connect deregulated iron metabolism to ergosterol biosynthesis pathway in response to dysfunctional mitochondria. Impaired activation of the Hog1 pathway in the mutant was the basis for increased susceptibility to peroxide and increase in reactive oxygen species, indicating the importance of functional mitochondria in controlling Hog1-mediated oxidative stress response. Mitochondrial phospholipid levels were also altered as indicated by an increase in phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine and decrease in phosphatidylcholine in fzo1Δ/Δ cells. Collectively, these findings reinforce the connection between functional mitochondria and azole tolerance, oxidant-mediated stress, and iron homeostasis in C. albicans. PMID:23979757

  13. Persistence of livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina over 14 days

    PubMed Central

    Nadimpalli, Maya; Rinsky, Jessica L; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Stewart, Jill; Larsen, Jesper; Nachman, Keeve E; Love, Dave C; Pierce, Elizabeth; Pisanic, Nora; Strelitz, Jean; Harduar-Morano, Laurel; Heaney, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the persistence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and multidrug-resistant S. aureus over 14 days of follow-up among industrial hog operation workers in North Carolina. Methods Workers anticipating at least 24 h away from work were enrolled June–August 2012. Participants self-collected a nasal swab and completed a study journal on the evening of day 1, and each morning and evening on days 2–7 and 14 of the study. S. aureus isolated from nasal swabs were assessed for antibiotic susceptibility, spa type and absence of the scn gene. Livestock association was defined by absence of scn. Results Twenty-two workers provided 327 samples. S. aureus carriage end points did not change with time away from work (mean 49 h; range >0–96 h). Ten workers were persistent and six were intermittent carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Six workers were persistent and three intermittent carriers of livestock-associated multidrug-resistant S. aureus. One worker persistently carried livestock-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Six workers were non-carriers of livestock-associated S. aureus. Eighty-two per cent of livestock-associated S. aureus demonstrated resistance to tetracycline. A majority of livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (n=169) were CC398 (68%) while 31% were CC9. No CC398 and one CC9 isolate was detected among scn-positive isolates. Conclusions Nasal carriage of livestock-associated S. aureus, multidrug-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus can persist among industrial hog operation workers over a 14-day period, which included up to 96 h away from work. PMID:25200855

  14. A novel Ras GTPase (Ras3) regulates conidiation, multi-stress tolerance and virulence by acting upstream of Hog1 signaling pathway in Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi; Wang, Ding-Yi; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2015-09-01

    Two Ras ATPases (Ras1 and Ras2) are well known to regulate antagonistically or cooperatively various cellular events in many fungi. Here we show the significance of a novel Ras homolog (Ras3) for Beauveria bassiana. Ras3 possesses five domains and two GTP/GDP switches typical for Ras family and was proven to localize to plasma membrane despite the position change of a membrane-targeting cysteine in C-terminal CAAX motif. Deletion of ras3 altered temporal transcription pattern of ras1 instead of ras2. Compared with wild-type, Δras3 grew significantly faster in a rich medium but slower in some minimal media, and produced far fewer conidia with impaired quality, which was evident with slower germination, attenuated virulence, reduced thermotolerance and decreased UV-B resistance. Moreover, Δras3 was much more sensitive to the oxidative stress of menadione than of H2O2 and to the stress of high osmolarity than of cell wall perturbation during growth. The high sensitivity of Δras3 to menadione was concurrent with reductions in both gene transcripts and total activity of superoxide dismutases. Intriguingly, the high osmosensitivity was concurrent with not only reduced transcripts of a critical transcription factor (Msn2) and most signaling proteins in the high-osmolarity-glycerol pathway of Δras3 but nearly undetectable phosphorylation signal of Hog1 hallmarking the pathway. All the changes were restored by ras3 complementation. Taken together, Ras3 is involved in the Hog1 pathway required for osmoregulation and hence can positively regulate conidiation, germination, multi-stress tolerance and virulence linked to the biological control potential of the filamentous insect pathogen. PMID:26162967

  15. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Farm production rose 6 percent in 1985 due to record high yields in corn, soybeans, cotton, and several other crops. While United States consumption increased slightly, exports of farm products fell 23 percent in value and 19 percent in volume. Net cash income increased 12 percent due to increased output, lower cash expenses, and unusually high…

  16. Farm Women, Farming Systems, and Agricultural Structure: Suggestions for Scholarship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flora, Cornelia Butler

    1981-01-01

    Suggests research agenda to analyze the class struggle occurring with farm women. Views the household as the unit of analysis, both internally from a farming-systems perspective and externally as responding to shifts in policy and technology. Available from: Rural Sociological Society, 325 Morgan Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37916.…

  17. Whole Farm Nutrient Balance Calculator for New York Dairy Farms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soberon, Melanie A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Rasmussen, Caroline N.; Czymmek, Karl J.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient loss and accumulation as well as associated environmental degradation have been a concern for animal agriculture for many decades. Federal and New York (NY) regulations apply to Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and a comprehensive nutrient management plan (CNMP) is required for regulated farms. The whole farm nutrient mass balance…

  18. In Uzbekistan, Is It Farm Management or FARM "Management?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, James S.; Luery, Andrea

    A broad spectrum of stakeholders in Uzbekistan were interviewed to identify areas in which Winrock International's Farmer-to-Farmer program volunteers could be targeted to help Uzbeks complete the transition to privatized farms. The interviews revealed that Uzbeks have a much broader conception of the "farm" than do people in Western countries and…

  19. Assessing the Sulfide Footprint of Mussel Farms with Sediment Profile Imagery: A New Zealand Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Growing numbers and increased stocking of marine mussel farms make reliable techniques for environmental effect assessment a priority. Previously, we showed how the color intensity of soft sediment could be used to estimate its acid volatile sulfide (AVS) content, a product of the anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter deposits. We then proposed to include assessments of the AVS farm footprint in marine farm monitoring, in particular, to investigate temporal changes in the extent of the seafloor area of elevated sediment AVS content. Such assessment requires accurate detection of the AVS footprint boundary. Here, we demonstrate how to detect this boundary with analyses of sediment color intensity. We analyzed 182 sediment profile images taken along three transects leading from approximately 50 m inside to 200 m outside a long-line mussel farm in New Zealand and found that the mean sediment color intensity inside the farm boundary was almost one third lower than that of the sediment distant from the farm. Segmented regression analysis of the combined color intensity data revealed a breakpoint in the trend of increasing grey values with increasing distance from the farm at 56 ± 13 m (± 95% confidence interval of the breakpoint) outside the mussel farm. Statistical analyses indicated that the extent of the color intensity footprint was a function of water column depth, as was shown visually using mapping methods; organic particles disperse further in a deeper seawater column. We conclude that for soft coastal sediments, our sampling and data analysis techniques may provide a rapid and reliable supplement to existing benthic surveys that assess environmental effects of mussel farms. PMID:26083351

  20. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  1. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  2. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  3. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  4. 29 CFR 780.156 - Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm... Section 3(f) § 780.156 Transportation of farm products from the fields or farm. Transportation of farm products from the fields where they are grown or from the farm to other places may be within the...

  5. Wind Farm Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Curry; Erik Foley; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2007-07-11

    Saint Francis University has assessed the Swallow Farm property located in Shade Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania as a potential wind power development site. Saint Francis worked with McLean Energy Partners to have a 50-meter meteorological tower installed on the property in April 2004 and continues to conduct a meteorological assessment of the site. Results suggest a mean average wind speed at 80 meters of 17 mph with a net capacity factor of 31 - 33%. Approximate electricity generation capacity of the project is 10 megawatts. Also, the University used matching funds provided by the federal government to contract with ABR, Inc. to conduct radar studies of nocturnal migration of birds and bats during the migrations seasons in the Spring and Fall of 2005 with a mean nocturnal flight altitude of 402 meters with less than 5% of targets at altitudes of less than 125 meters. The mean nocturnal passage rate was 166 targets/km/h in the fall and 145 targets/km/h in the spring. Lastly, University faculty and students conducted a nesting bird study May - July 2006. Seventy-three (73) species of birds were observed with 65 determined to be breeding or potentially breeding species; this figure represents approximately 30% of the 214 breeding bird species in Pennsylvania. No officially protected avian species were determined to be nesting at Swallow Farm.

  6. Electrocution Hazards on the Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... by overhead power lines, standby generators, and general operating procedures of electrical systems at the farm work site. Electrocution hazards The ... electricity generated by a farm operation’s emergency power system from entering the ... operating precautions, equipment can come in contact with electrical ...

  7. Food and farm products surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the radiological analyses performed on food and farm samples collected during 1994. The food and farm sampling design addresses the potential influence of Hanford Site releases. Details of the sampling design and radionuclides analyzed are included in this section.

  8. Visit a Farm? Surely Not!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Popular myth has it that visiting a farm can be dangerous, but there are only a few occasions when children have become ill during a school visit to a farm. Simple, sensible precautions, including wearing appropriate clothing, such as trousers and wellington boots (if wet) or sensible shoes, and careful hand-washing, are all that is required. The…

  9. Use of Chemical Pesticides in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Comparative Study on Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Farmers and Farm Workers in Three Farming Systems.

    PubMed

    Negatu, Beyene; Kromhout, Hans; Mekonnen, Yalemtshay; Vermeulen, Roel

    2016-06-01

    Chemical pesticides, regardless of their inherent hazard, are used intensively in the fast changing agricultural sector of Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional pesticide Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) survey among 601 farmers and farm workers (applicators and re-entry workers) in three farming systems [large-scale closed greenhouses (LSGH), large-scale open farms (LSOF), and small-scale irrigated farms (SSIF)]. Main observations were that 85% of workers did not attain any pesticide-related training, 81% were not aware of modern alternatives for chemical pesticides, 10% used a full set of personal protective equipment, and 62% did not usually bath or shower after work. Among applicators pesticide training attendance was highest in LSGH (35%) and was lowest in SSIF (4%). None of the female re-entry farm workers had received pesticide-related training. Personal protective equipment use was twice as high among pesticide applicators as among re-entry workers (13 versus 7%), while none of the small-scale farm workers used personal protection equipment. Stockpiling and burial of empty pesticide containers and discarding empty pesticide containers in farming fields were reported in both LSOF and by 75% of the farm workers in SSIF. Considerable increment in chemical pesticide usage intensity, illegitimate usages of DDT and Endosulfan on food crops and direct import of pesticides without the formal Ethiopian registration process were also indicated. These results point out a general lack of training and knowledge regarding the safe use of pesticides in all farming systems but especially among small-scale farmers. This in combination with the increase in chemical pesticide usage in the past decade likely results in occupational and environmental health risks. Improved KAP that account for institutional difference among various farming systems and enforcement of regulatory measures including the available occupational and environmental proclamations in Ethiopia are

  10. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    PubMed

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  11. Using remote sensing to calculate plant available nitrogen needed by crops on swine factory farm sprayfields in North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christenson, Elizabeth; Serre, Marc

    2015-10-01

    North Carolina (NC) is the second largest producer of hogs in the United States with Duplin county, NC having the densest population of hogs in the world. In NC, liquid swine manure is generally stored in open-air lagoons and sprayed onto sprayfields with sprinkler systems to be used as fertilizer for crops. Swine factory farms, termed concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), are regulated by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) based on nutrient management plans (NMPs) having balanced plant available nitrogen (PAN). The estimated PAN in liquid manure being sprayed must be less than the estimated PAN needed crops during irrigation. Estimates for PAN needed by crops are dependent on crop and soil types. Objectives of this research were to develop a new, time-efficient method to identify PAN needed by crops on Duplin county sprayfields for years 2010-2014. Using remote sensing data instead of NMP data to identify PAN needed by crops allowed calendar year identification of which crops were grown on sprayfields instead of a five-year range of values. Although permitted data have more detailed crop information than remotely sensed data, identification of PAN needed by crops using remotely sensed data is more time efficient, internally consistent, easily publically accessible, and has the ability to identify annual changes in PAN on sprayfields. Once PAN needed by crops is known, remote sensing can be used to quantify PAN at other spatial scales, such as sub-watershed levels, and can be used to inform targeted water quality monitoring of swine CAFOs.

  12. Farm Hall: The Play

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  13. Low MRSA prevalence in horses at farm level

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) belonging to the clonal complex (CC) 398 has become an important pathogen in horses, circulating in equine clinics and causing both colonization and infection. Whether equine MRSA is bound to hospitals or can also circulate in the general horse population is currently unknown. This study, therefore, reports the nasal and perianal MRSA screening of 189 horses on 10 farms in a suspected high prevalence region (East- and West-Flanders, Belgium). Results Only one horse (0.53%) from one farm (10%) tested positive in the nose. It carried a spa type t011-SCCmecV isolate, resistant to β-lactams and tetracycline, which is typical for livestock-associated MRSA CC398. Conclusion In the region tested here, horses on horse farms seem unlikely to substantially contribute to the large animal associated ST398 MRSA reservoir present at intensive animal production units. PMID:23134703

  14. EVALUATION STUDY OF FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM IN NEW YORK STATE. A SIX-PART REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALEXANDER, FRANK D.

    IN 1954 CONGRESS EARMARKED FUNDS FOR A FARM AND HOME MANAGEMENT PROGRAM TO OFFER INTENSIVE ON-THE FARM COUNSELING IN MANAGEMENT AND DECISION MAKING. THIS SIX-PART EVALUATION OF THE PROGRAM AS IT WAS CONDUCTED IN NEW YORK STATE, PRIMARILY WITH DAIRY OPERATORS, WAS DESIGNED TO DETERMINE THE PROGRAM'S EFFECTIVENESS RELATIVE TO LESS INTENSIVE…

  15. CDF II production farm project

    SciTech Connect

    Baranovski, A.; Benjamin, D.; Cooper, G.; Farrington, S.; Genser, K.; Hou, S.; Hsieh, T.; Kotwal, A.; Lipeles, E.; Murat, P.; Norman, M.; /Fermilab /Duke U. /Taiwan, Inst. Phys. /UC, San Diego /Glasgow U. /Frascati

    2006-12-01

    We describe the architecture and discuss our operational experience in running the off-line reconstruction farm of the CDFII experiment. The Linux PC-based farm performs a wide set of tasks,ranging from producing calibrations and primary event reconstruction to large scale ntuple production.The farm control software uses a standard Condor toolkit and the data handling part is based on SAM (Sequential Access via Metadata)software.During its lifetime,the CDFII experiment will integrate a large amount of data (several petabytes)and the data processing chain is one of the key components of the successful physics program of the experiment.

  16. A new analytical model for wind farm power prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niayifar, Amin; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2015-06-01

    In this study, a new analytical approach is presented and validated to predict wind farm power production. The new model is an extension of the recently proposed by Bastankhah and Porté-Agel for a single wake. It assumes a self-similar Gaussian shape of the velocity deficit and satisfies conservation of mass and momentum. To estimate the velocity deficit in the wake, this model needs the local wake growth rate parameter which is calculated based on the local turbulence intensity in the wind farm. The interaction of the wakes is modeled by use of the velocity deficit superposition principle. Finally, the power curve is used to estimate the power production from the wind turbines. The wind farm model is compared to large-eddy simulation (LES) data and measurments of Horns Rev wind farm for a wide range of wind directions. Reasonable agreement between the proposed analytical model, LES data and measurments is obtained. This prediction is also found to be substantially better than the one obtained with a commonly used wind farm wake model.

  17. Farming-Associated Environmental Exposures and Atopic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poole, Jill A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review important farming related environmental factors and host immunologic features with resulting impact on atopic and non-atopic upper and lower respiratory diseases. Data Sources PubMed databases were searched for relevant articles pertaining to farming practices, organic dust exposure, immunology, atopy, rhinitis, asthma, bronchitis and respiratory disease. Study Selections Articles were selected based on relevance to the topic of the review. Results Overall, farming exposures, particularly in children, appears protective against developing IgE-mediated diseases. However, upper and lower respiratory diseases, which tend to be non-allergic marked by enhanced neutrophilic influx, are prevalent in the farming community. These environments are complex and heterogeneous and a large number of environmental factors including dust particles, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria components, peptidoglycans, endotoxins, fungi, gases, pesticides, and allergens are important mediators. Pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptors and nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptors play key roles in the host defense response. An allergy evaluation tailored to the subjects’ environmental history remains important. Therapeutic interventions are limited and attempts to reduce personnel exposure are recommended. Conclusion Upper and lower respiratory adverse health effects, particularly non-IgE mediated, are common to agriculture work and represent a substantial concern for farmers, workers, and their families. Regional and international differences in farming practice in addition to type, timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure are important considerations in the evaluation of symptomatic subjects. PMID:22840248

  18. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-01-01

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation. PMID:26577441

  19. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-11-01

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation.

  20. Impact of Fish Farming on Phosphorus in Reservoir Sediments.

    PubMed

    Jia, Binyang; Tang, Ya; Tian, Liyan; Franz, Leander; Alewell, Christine; Huang, Jen-How

    2015-01-01

    Fish farming has seriously influenced the aquatic environment in Sancha reservoir in SW China since 1985 and has been strongly restricted since 2005. Thus, phosphorus speciation in a sediment core dated between 1945 and 2010 at cm-resolution and in surface sediments from Sancha reservoir may allow us track how fish farming impacts phosphorus dynamics in lake sediments. Fish farming shifts the major binding forms of phosphorus in sediments from organic to residual phosphorus, which mostly originated from fish feed. Sorption to metal oxides and association with organic matters are important mechanisms for phosphorus immobilisation with low fish farming activities, whereas calcium-bound phosphorous had an essential contribution to sediment phosphorus increases under intensive fish framing. Notwithstanding the shifting, the aforementioned phosphorus fractions are usually inert in the lake environment, therefore changing phosphorus mobility little. The use of fish feed and water-purification reagents, the most important additives for fish farming, introduce not only phosphorus but also large amounts of sand-sized minerals such as quartz into the lake, to which phosphorus weakly sorbs. The sand-sized minerals as additional sorbents increase the pool of easily mobilisable phosphorus in sediments, which will slow down the recovery of reservoir water due to its rapid re-mobilisation. PMID:26577441

  1. Modelling pastoral farm systems--scaling from farm to region.

    PubMed

    Vogeler, Iris; Vibart, Ronaldo; Mackay, Alec; Dennis, Samuel; Burggraaf, Vicki; Beautrais, Josef

    2014-06-01

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used to inform and evaluate policy options on the impacts of land use change on regional environmental and economic performance. In this study, the common approach of up-scaling representative farm systems to a regional scale, with a limited input of resource information, was compared with a new approach that links a geospatial land resource information data base (NZLRI, Agribase™) that includes independent estimates of the productive capacity of land parcels, with individual farm-scale simulation (Farmax® Pro and Farmax® Dairy Pro) and nutrient budgeting models (Overseer®). The Southland region of New Zealand, which is currently undergoing enormous land use change, was used as a case study. Model outputs from the new approach showed increased profit of about 75% for the region if the current land area under dairying increases from 16% to 45%, with the shift to dairy constrained to high pasture production classes only. Environmental impacts associated with the change were substantial, with nitrate leaching estimated to increase by 35% and greenhouse gas emissions by 25%. Up-scaling of representative farm systems to the regional scale with limited input of resource information predicted lower potential regional profit and higher N leaching from dairy conversion. The new approach provides a farm scale framework that could easily be extended to include different systems, different levels of farming performance and the use of mitigation technologies. PMID:24657579

  2. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilisers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters of soil aggregates than the conventional farms, while there were no differences on the Austrian farms. Organic farming did not systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also, soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher on organic farms than on conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries and farm, crop, and soil types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil biomass and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  3. An ecosystem approach to assess soil quality in organically and conventionally managed farms in Iceland and Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leeuwen, J. P.; Lehtinen, T.; Lair, G. J.; Bloem, J.; Hemerik, L.; Ragnarsdóttir, K. V.; Gísladóttir, G.; Newton, J. S.; de Ruiter, P. C.

    2014-06-01

    Intensive agricultural production can be an important driver for the loss of long-term soil quality. For this reason, the European Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) network adopted four pairs of agricultural CZO sites that differ in their management: conventional or organic. The CZO sites include two pairs of grassland farms in Iceland and two pairs of arable farms in Austria. Conventional fields differed from the organic fields in the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Soils of these eight farms were analysed in terms of their physical, chemical, and biological properties, including soil aggregate size distribution, soil organic matter contents, abundance of soil microbes and soil fauna, and taxonomic diversity of soil microarthropods. In Icelandic grasslands, organically farmed soils had larger mean weight diameters than the conventional farms, while there were no differences in the Austrian farms. Organic farming did neither systematically influence organic matter contents or composition, nor soil carbon and nitrogen contents. Also soil food web structures, in terms of presence of trophic groups of soil organisms, were highly similar among all farms, indicating a low sensitivity of trophic structure to land use or climate. However, soil organism biomass, especially of bacteria and nematodes, was consistently higher in organic farms than in conventional farms. Within the microarthropods, also taxonomic diversity was systematically higher in the organic farms compared to the conventional farms. This difference was found across countries, farm-, crop- and soil-types. The results do not show systematic differences in physical and chemical properties between organic and conventional farms, but confirm that organic farming can enhance soil organism biomass, and that microarthropod diversity is a sensitive and consistent indicator for land management.

  4. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  5. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... operated as a single farming unit as set forth in § 718.202; or (iii) Because of a change in...

  6. Dairying. People on the Farm. [Revised].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily lives of two dairy farm families, the Schwartzbecks and the Bealls of Maryland. Beginning with early morning milking, the booklet traces the farm families through their daily work and community activities, explaining how a modern dairy farm is run. Although this booklet…

  7. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  8. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  9. Invisible Divide: Farm Workers and Telephone Accessibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieshop, James I.; Delgadillo, Viviana; Flores, Nicolas; Ramirez, Debora

    2003-01-01

    A survey of California farm workers (n=34), former farm workers (n=7), vendors of telephone technology (n=13), and farm camp managers (n=5) revealed a pattern of low access to and availability of telephones and problems in the use of prepaid telephone cards. Results show that farm worker communities are largely forgotten in discussions of the…

  10. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  11. 9 CFR 205.106 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm products. 205.106 Section 205.106... STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Regulations § 205.106 Farm products. The farm products, according to which the master list must be...

  12. 7 CFR 718.201 - Farm constitution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm constitution. 718.201 Section 718.201 Agriculture... Reconstitution of Farms, Allotments, Quotas, and Bases § 718.201 Farm constitution. (a) In order to implement... this section. The constitution and identification of land as a farm for the first time and...

  13. Organic Farming, Gender, and the Labor Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Alan; Mogyorody, Veronika

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explain variations in gender participation in farm production and decision-making through an analysis of organic farm types, sizes, and orientations. Based on both survey and case study data, the analysis shows that female farmers on vegetable farms and mixed livestock/cash crop farms are more likely to be involved in farm…

  14. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency assesses each farming operation...

  15. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency assesses each farming operation...

  16. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103 Farm assessment. (a) The Agency, in...

  17. Space Farm 7 Belvedere Plantation

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space theme maze and NASA exhibits turned a Virginia farm into an out-of-this-world experience for families and visitors at the Belvedere Plantation in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Belvedere Plantat...

  18. Push-pull farming systems.

    PubMed

    Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M; Midega, Charles A O; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2014-04-01

    Farming systems for pest control, based on the stimulo-deterrent diversionary strategy or push-pull system, have become an important target for sustainable intensification of food production. A prominent example is push-pull developed in sub-Saharan Africa using a combination of companion plants delivering semiochemicals, as plant secondary metabolites, for smallholder farming cereal production, initially against lepidopterous stem borers. Opportunities are being developed for other regions and farming ecosystems. New semiochemical tools and delivery systems, including GM, are being incorporated to exploit further opportunities for mainstream arable farming systems. By delivering the push and pull effects as secondary metabolites, for example, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene repelling pests and attracting beneficial insects, problems of high volatility and instability are overcome and compounds are produced when and where required. PMID:24445079

  19. Off-Farm Labour Decision of Canadian Farm Operators: Urbanization Effects and Rural Labour Market Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alasia, Alessandro; Weersink, Alfons; Bollman, Ray D.; Cranfield, John

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors affecting off-farm labour decisions of census-farm operators has significant implications for rural development and farm income support policy. We examine the off-farm labour decisions of Canadian farm operators using micro-level data from the 2001 Census of Agriculture combined with community level data from the 2001…

  20. Alcohol fuel from Ohio farms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Brief descriptions of on-farm ethanol production methods including feedstock preparation, cooking, fermentation, and distillation are presented. Safety conditions are described. Investment in on-farm ethanol production facilities and their potential returns are addressed. The market for ethanol and ethanol blends as well as for by-products is encouraging. Legal aspects for permitting and environmental regulations both for Ohio and federal agencies are discussed. (DMC)

  1. [Behavioral disorders in animals of stock farms].

    PubMed

    Wiepkema, P R

    1985-01-01

    Intensively kept farm animals often show behavioural disturbances; some of these disturbances will cause pain (injurious behaviour), others will reflect pain (limping, colic). Also, the very common stereotypies are associated with pain. These stereotypies are characterized by their constant form and senseless repetitions. Stereotypies of tethered sows would appear to be specifically related with endorphins; they may act as agents promoting the release of endorphins and thereby calming the animal. This tranquilizing and protective function of stereotypies may play a role in veal calves showing abomasal injury. It was found that those calves that displayed most stereotypies had the least abomasal damage. Finally, a model is described, which makes it clear why emotions are essential in the behaviour of man and animals. PMID:4038561

  2. High molecular weight polypeptides (270,000-340,000) from cultured cells are related to hog brain microtubule-associated proteins but copurify with intermediate filaments.

    PubMed Central

    Pytela, R; Wiche, G

    1980-01-01

    High molecular weight polypeptides (HMWPs) of 270,000 to 340,000 were found to be major components of intermediate filaments prepared by Triton X-100 extraction after spreading of rat glioma C6, HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary, and simian virus 40-transformed Chinese hamster lung cells. C6 HMWPs were shown to resemble high molecular weight microtubule-associated proteins from hog brain by four criteria: (i) comigration in electrophoresis on high-resolution sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels, (ii) one-dimensional peptide mapping, (iii) phosphorylation in vitro with [gamma-32P]ATP, and (iv) ability to promote microtubule assembly in vitro. HMWPs were also found to be major components of one-time polymerized C6 microtubule preparations, which contained a sizable amount of intermediate filaments. The predominant part of HMWPs present in these microtubule preparations was found not to copurify with microtubules in cycles of temperature-dependent assembly/disassembly but to remain with the cold-insoluble intermediate filaments. These results provide an explanation for the low yields that have hampered attempts to purify microtubule-associated porteins, in particular HMWPs, from cultured cells in the past. Moreover, they suggest that HMWPs might have a dual role in the cell, serving not only as regulators of microtubule assembly but also as linker components between microtubules and intermediate filaments. Images PMID:6933530

  3. Condition-specific genetic interaction maps reveal crosstalk between the cAMP/PKA and the HOG MAPK pathways in the activation of the general stress response

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Jenia; Sadeh, Amit; Rahat, Ayelet; Aharoni, Amir; Friedman, Nir

    2015-01-01

    Cells must quickly respond and efficiently adapt to environmental changes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has multiple pathways that respond to specific environmental insults, as well as a generic stress response program. The later is regulated by two transcription factors, Msn2 and Msn4, that integrate information from upstream pathways to produce fast, tunable, and robust response to different environmental changes. To understand this integration, we employed a systematic approach to genetically dissect the contribution of various cellular pathways to Msn2/4 regulation under a range of stress and growth conditions. We established a high-throughput liquid handling and automated flow cytometry system and measured GFP levels in 68 single-knockout and 1,566 double-knockout strains that carry an HSP12-GFP allele as a reporter for Msn2/4 activity. Based on the expression of this Msn2/4 reporter in five different conditions, we identified numerous genetic and epistatic interactions between different components in the network upstream to Msn2/4. Our analysis gains new insights into the functional specialization of the RAS paralogs in the repression of stress response and identifies a three-way crosstalk between the Mediator complex, the HOG MAPK pathway, and the cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:26446933

  4. Condition-specific genetic interaction maps reveal crosstalk between the cAMP/PKA and the HOG MAPK pathways in the activation of the general stress response.

    PubMed

    Gutin, Jenia; Sadeh, Amit; Rahat, Ayelet; Aharoni, Amir; Friedman, Nir

    2015-10-01

    Cells must quickly respond and efficiently adapt to environmental changes. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has multiple pathways that respond to specific environmental insults, as well as a generic stress response program. The later is regulated by two transcription factors, Msn2 and Msn4, that integrate information from upstream pathways to produce fast, tunable, and robust response to different environmental changes. To understand this integration, we employed a systematic approach to genetically dissect the contribution of various cellular pathways to Msn2/4 regulation under a range of stress and growth conditions. We established a high-throughput liquid handling and automated flow cytometry system and measured GFP levels in 68 single-knockout and 1,566 double-knockout strains that carry an HSP12-GFP allele as a reporter for Msn2/4 activity. Based on the expression of this Msn2/4 reporter in five different conditions, we identified numerous genetic and epistatic interactions between different components in the network upstream to Msn2/4. Our analysis gains new insights into the functional specialization of the RAS paralogs in the repression of stress response and identifies a three-way crosstalk between the Mediator complex, the HOG MAPK pathway, and the cAMP/PKA pathway. PMID:26446933

  5. Wet- and dry-season steroid hormone profiles and stress reactivity of an insular dwarf snake, the Hog Island boa (Boa constrictor imperator).

    PubMed

    Holding, Matthew L; Frazier, Julius A; Dorr, Scott W; Pollock, Nicholas B; Muelleman, P J; Branske, Amber; Henningsen, Sloane N; Eikenaar, Cas; Escallón, Camilo; Montgomery, Chad E; Moore, Ignacio T; Taylor, Emily N

    2014-01-01

    Field endocrine studies providing new comparisons for inference into the evolutionary and ecological factors shaping organismal physiology are important, often yielding novel physiological insights. Here, we explored factors associated with the sex steroid hormone concentrations and adrenocortical response to capture stress in Hog Island boas (Boa constrictor imperator) in the Cayos Cochinos archipelago of Honduras to generate comparative field hormone data from a tropical reptile and test the island tameness hypothesis. Baseline concentrations of testosterone, corticosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were measured during the wet and dry seasons, and an acute stressor of 1 h in a cloth bag was used to assess the stress response. Plasma steroid concentrations in these snakes were generally low in comparison to other taxa. Higher testosterone concentrations in males and higher estradiol and corticosterone concentrations in females were observed during the wet season compared to the dry season, which may be indicative of mating activities and vitellogenesis during this period. Snakes displayed a 15-fold increase in corticosterone concentrations in response to capture stress, a rise that was not impacted by whether a snake had been captured during previous years. The adrenocortical stress response was greater in males and positively related to body temperature. We suggest that this system merits future inquiries into the physiology and behavior of B. c. imperator, particularly as a model for studying insular impacts on diverse life history characters. PMID:24769701

  6. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  7. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    PubMed Central

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, Heike; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r) genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository) is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1–2 weeks), likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W), tet(Q), and tet(M) in fresh excrements of calves was about 1–2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W) representing a “core TC-resistome” of the farm, and tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes. PMID

  8. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, Heike; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r) genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository) is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks), likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W), tet(Q), and tet(M) in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W) representing a "core TC-resistome" of the farm, and tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26074912

  9. Long-term epidemiological survey of Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) from commercial aquaculture farms.

    PubMed

    Marshall, W L; Sitjà-Bobadilla, A; Brown, H M; MacWilliam, T; Richmond, Z; Lamson, H; Morrison, D B; Afonso, L O B

    2016-08-01

    Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) encysts within myocytes of a variety of fishes. While infected fish appear unharmed, parasite-derived enzymes degrade the flesh post-mortem. In regions of British Columbia (BC), Canada, up to 4-7% of fillets can be affected, thus having economic consequences and impacting the competitiveness of BC's farms. K. thyrsites was monitored in two farms having high (HP) or low (LP) historical infection prevalence. At each farm, 30 fish were sampled monthly for blood and muscle during the first year followed by nine samplings during year two. Prevalence and intensity were measured by PCR and histology of muscle samples. In parallel, fillet tests were used to quantify myoliquefaction. Infections were detected by PCR after 355 and 509 degree days at LP and HP farms, respectively. Prevalence reached 100% at the HP farm by 2265 degree days and declined during the second year, whereas it plateaued near 50% at the LP farm. Infection intensities decreased after 1 year at both farms. Blood was PCR-positive at both farms between 778 and 1113 degree days and again after 2000 degree days. This is the first monitoring project in a production environment and compares data between farms with different prevalence. PMID:26661293

  10. Farm nitrogen balances in six European agricultural landscapes - a method for farming system assessment, emission hotspot identification, and mitigation measure evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Bienkowski, J. F.; Bleeker, A.; Drouet, J. L.; Durand, P.; Dragosits, U.; Frumau, A.; Hutchings, N. J.; Kedziora, A.; Magliulo, V.; Olesen, J. E.; Theobald, M. R.; Maury, O.; Akkal, N.; Cellier, P.

    2012-07-01

    Six agricultural landscapes in Poland (PL), the Netherlands (NL), France (FR), Italy (IT), Scotland (UK) and Denmark (DK) were studied, and a common method was developed for undertaking farm inventories and the derivation of farm nitrogen (N) balances and N surplus from the in total 222 farms and 11 440 ha of farmland. In all landscapes, a large variation in the farm N surplus was found, and thereby a large potential for reductions. The highest average N surpluses were found in the most livestock-intensive landscapes of IT, FR, and NL; on average 202 ± 28, 179 ± 63 and 178 ± 20 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively. However, all landscapes showed hotspots, especially from livestock farms, including a special UK case with landless large-scale poultry farming. So, whereas the average N surplus from the land-based UK farms dominated by extensive sheep grazing was only 31 ± 10 kg N ha-1yr-1, the landscape average was similar to those of PL and DK (122 ± 20 and 146 ± 55 kg N ha-1yr-1, respectively) when landless poultry were included. However, the challenge remains how to account for indirect N surpluses and emissions from such farms with a large export of manure out of the landscape. We conclude that farm N balances are a useful indicator for N losses and the potential for improving N management. Significant correlations to N surplus were found, both with ammonia air concentrations and nitrate levels in soils and groundwater, measured during the landscape data collection campaign from 2007-2009. This indicates that farm N surpluses may be used as an independent dataset for validation of measured and modelled N emissions in agricultural landscapes. However, no significant correlation was found to N measured in surface waters, probably because of the short time horizon of the study. A case study of the development in N surplus from the landscape in DK from 1998-2008 showed a 22 % reduction, related to statistically significant effects (p < 0.01) of measures targeted at

  11. Labor Used on U.S. Farms, 1964-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Walter E., Jr.

    Such factors as type of farm, farm production region, and farm size affect the percentage of farms hiring workers, the number of hours worked by hired workers, the length of the farm workweek, and the hours of labor used per $100 of sales. Labor costs and shortages most directly affected farms that sold $20,000 or more of farm products in 1964 and…

  12. A Review of Children's Literature about Farming and Rural Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Nancy L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews children's books suitable for preschool to secondary students concerning life on a farm, farm animals, various crops, regional differences, farming methods, farm machinery, livestock care, veterinary science, the history of farming, difficulties with farm life, and poetry about farm life. (KS)

  13. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  14. Life cycle assessment of Chinese shrimp farming systems targeted for export and domestic sales.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ling; Diana, James S; Keoleian, Gregory A; Lai, Qiuming

    2011-08-01

    We conducted surveys of six hatcheries and 18 farms for data inputs to complete a cradle-to-farm-gate life cycle assessment (LCA) to evaluate the environmental performance for intensive (for export markets in Chicago) and semi-intensive (for domestic markets in Shanghai) shrimp farming systems in Hainan Province, China. The relative contribution to overall environmental performance of processing and distribution to final markets were also evaluated from a cradle-to-destination-port perspective. Environmental impact categories included global warming, acidification, eutrophication, cumulative energy use, and biotic resource use. Our results indicated that intensive farming had significantly higher environmental impacts per unit production than semi-intensive farming in all impact categories. The grow-out stage contributed between 96.4% and 99.6% of the cradle-to-farm-gate impacts. These impacts were mainly caused by feed production, electricity use, and farm-level effluents. By averaging over intensive (15%) and semi-intensive (85%) farming systems, 1 metric ton (t) live-weight of shrimp production in China required 38.3 ± 4.3 GJ of energy, as well as 40.4 ± 1.7 t of net primary productivity, and generated 23.1 ± 2.6 kg of SO(2) equiv, 36.9 ± 4.3 kg of PO(4) equiv, and 3.1 ± 0.4 t of CO(2) equiv. Processing made a higher contribution to cradle-to-destination-port impacts than distribution of processed shrimp from farm gate to final markets in both supply chains. In 2008, the estimated total electricity consumption, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions from Chinese white-leg shrimp production would be 1.1 billion kW·h, 49 million GJ, and 4 million metric tons, respectively. Improvements suggested for Chinese shrimp aquaculture include changes in feed composition, farm management, electricity-generating sources, and effluent treatment before discharge. Our results can be used to optimize market-oriented shrimp supply chains and promote more

  15. Impacts of Organic Farming on Soil Aggregate Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petticrew, E. L.; Williams, N. D.

    2009-04-01

    Organic farming has expanded rapidly in the UK in recent years, amid increasing concerns for long term environmental and economic sustainability in agricultural systems. Much of the motivation for the shift away from conventional intensive agricultural practices has focused on soil nutrient management. Little attention has been directed toward the relative merits of organic farming for the physical structure of soils, despite aggregate structure and stability being of particular importance to soil erosion potential and sustainable soil quality. In this study, soil samples were collected from four arable sites within a small geographical area, in order to represent (1) an organic farm; (2) a conventional farm that only used artificial fertilizers; (3) a conventional farm that used artificial and cattle slurry fertilizers; and (4) a non-cultivated control site. Samples were analysed for living biomass and total organic content, bulk aggregate size and density distributions, bulk fragmentation fractal dimensions (which represent indices of soil erodibility), aggregate stability under simulated rainfall, and the stability of micro-aggregates that were mobilized in surface runoff generated by simulated rainfall. The relationships between the different soil properties were found to be complex. However, there were some significant differences between the samples, which were related to the different methods (or absence) of agriculture. The non-cultivated soil was determined to have the lowest erodibility and greatest aggregate stability. The conventional soil that was only fertilized by artificial means exhibited the lowest aggregate stability. There were few apparent differences between the organic soil and the conventional soil that received an input of organic fertilizer. The results of the physical analysis reflect the mining and replenishment of organic matter to each soil by the different management practices. This leads to the conclusion that the addition of organic

  16. Commercial crocodile farming in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Dzoma, B M; Sejoe, S; Segwagwe, B V E

    2008-06-01

    A survey-based study was carried out to assess the state of crocodile farming in Botswana. A prepared, structured questionnaire was dispatched to crocodile farmers based on a directory provided by the Fisheries section of the Department of Wildlife and National Parks in the Ministry of Environment, Wildlife and National Parks. The oldest farm was established in 1986. An average of three farms have been in operation since then, all of which obtained their stock from the Okavango and Thamalakane rivers in Botswana. The current stock averages 5,419 animals as follows: breeders 4%, hatchlings 56%, and growers 40%. The average clutch size and average hatchability were 47 eggs/clutch and 67% respectively. Mortality among hatchings and growers averaged 8.3% up to 12 weeks of age. Only one farm encountered some problems with Salmonella and fungal infections of the belly. Raw skins are sold to South Africa as a result of the absence of a tannery. Crocodile farming should be encouraged in Botswana since a good market for crocodile products already exists. PMID:18509947

  17. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  18. Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

  19. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context

    PubMed Central

    Feber, Ruth E.; Johnson, Paul J.; Bell, James R.; Chamberlain, Dan E.; Firbank, Leslie G.; Fuller, Robert J.; Manley, Will; Mathews, Fiona; Norton, Lisa R.; Townsend, Martin; Macdonald, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower

  20. Organic Farming: Biodiversity Impacts Can Depend on Dispersal Characteristics and Landscape Context.

    PubMed

    Feber, Ruth E; Johnson, Paul J; Bell, James R; Chamberlain, Dan E; Firbank, Leslie G; Fuller, Robert J; Manley, Will; Mathews, Fiona; Norton, Lisa R; Townsend, Martin; Macdonald, David W

    2015-01-01

    Organic farming, a low intensity system, may offer benefits for a range of taxa, but what affects the extent of those benefits is imperfectly understood. We explored the effects of organic farming and landscape on the activity density and species density of spiders and carabid beetles, using a large sample of paired organic and conventional farms in the UK. Spider activity density and species density were influenced by both farming system and surrounding landscape. Hunting spiders, which tend to have lower dispersal capabilities, had higher activity density, and more species were captured, on organic compared to conventional farms. There was also evidence for an interaction, as the farming system effect was particularly marked in the cropped area before harvest and was more pronounced in complex landscapes (those with little arable land). There was no evidence for any effect of farming system or landscape on web-building spiders (which include the linyphiids, many of which have high dispersal capabilities). For carabid beetles, the farming system effects were inconsistent. Before harvest, higher activity densities were observed in the crops on organic farms compared with conventional farms. After harvest, no difference was detected in the cropped area, but more carabids were captured on conventional compared to organic boundaries. Carabids were more species-dense in complex landscapes, and farming system did not affect this. There was little evidence that non-cropped habitat differences explained the farming system effects for either spiders or carabid beetles. For spiders, the farming system effects in the cropped area were probably largely attributable to differences in crop management; reduced inputs of pesticides (herbicides and insecticides) and fertilisers are possible influences, and there was some evidence for an effect of non-crop plant species richness on hunting spider activity density. The benefits of organic farming may be greatest for taxa with lower

  1. Farm 2000 and other projects

    SciTech Connect

    Edson, D.V.

    1981-07-20

    Three projects are discussed here: Farm 2000 (a tractorless, energy self-sufficient farm); an energy self-sufficient farm building; and a mobile, three-in-one still, fertilizer spreader and standby generator. The mobile still produces 20 to 25 gallons of 196-proof alcohol per hour, or roughly 50 to 65 gallons per 750 gallons of mash. The diesel powered generator provides electricity for the vacuum pump and for fermentation heat, consuming approximately 2.4 gallons of fuel each hour, and because it can be towed, the by-product can be spread as fertilizer without transferring it to other equipment. This is the invention of Dr. Vladimir Tica, the president of Solar Energy Innovations Corp., Maspeth, NY.

  2. Data Farming and Defense Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, Gary; Meyer, Ted

    2011-01-01

    .Data farm,ing uses simulation modeling, high performance computing, experimental design and analysis to examine questions of interest with large possibility spaces. This methodology allows for the examination of whole landscapes of potential outcomes and provides the capability of executing enough experiments so that outliers might be captured and examined for insights. It can be used to conduct sensitivity studies, to support validation and verification of models, to iteratively optimize outputs using heuristic search and discovery, and as an aid to decision-makers in understanding complex relationships of factors. In this paper we describe efforts at the Naval Postgraduate School in developing these new and emerging tools. We also discuss data farming in the context of application to questions inherent in military decision-making. The particular application we illustrate here is social network modeling to support the countering of improvised explosive devices.

  3. Farm accidents and injuries among farm families and workers. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Cummings, P H

    1991-09-01

    Farm accident facts traditionally have been difficult to collect because of the wide array of farm family and non-family involvement in farming practices. Areas commonly involved in farm related accidents include farm machinery, tractor overturns, farm animals, farm trucks, hand and power tools, household items, chemicals, and garden equipment. Two purposes of this descriptive study were to examine, over a 1 year period, the demographic features and types, severity, and mechanisms of injury among farm families and their workers in a representative county in South Carolina, and to develop a two part mail-out questionnaire for data collection relative to farm work related accidents. The researcher concluded that farm accidents are sparsely researched; that traditional data collection methods are difficult, expensive, and time consuming; and that mail-out questionnaires are not a very effective method of collecting data relative to farm accidents, since farmers proved very reluctant to report accidents. PMID:1888396

  4. Profitability of moderate intensive grazing of diary cows in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G D; Cunningham, L C; Morehart, M J; Parsons, R L

    1998-03-01

    Empirical analysis of the profitability of moderate grazing are presented based on sample dairy farms in Pennsylvania and New York. Net income per cow was higher for dairy farms that employed moderate intensive grazing than for dairy farms that employed extensive grazing. Income appeared to be adequate for family living expenses, but moderate intensive grazing could not be considered a high profit system. Detailed analyses of dairy farms that employed moderate and extensive grazing in northern Pennsylvania indicated that returns to management and owner equity were higher for pasture enterprises than for corn silage or hay enterprises. Positive dairy profits were related to lower feed costs. Milk production was lower on farms that employed moderate grazing than on farms that employed extensive grazing. Logit regression analysis characterized farms that employed moderate intensive grazing as oriented toward dairy rather than toward crop production; these farms had lower culling rates and a greater dependence on milk sales as a share of total sales. The reduced use of fertilizers and chemicals suggests that moderate grazing had environmentally sustainable features. PMID:9565887

  5. To what extent does organic farming rely on nutrient inflows from conventional farming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Benjamin; Nesme, Thomas; David, Christophe; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2013-12-01

    Organic farming is increasingly recognized as a prototype for sustainable agriculture. Its guidelines ban the use of artificial fertilizers. However, organic farms may import nutrients from conventional farming through material exchanges. In this study, we aimed at estimating the magnitude of these flows through the quantification of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium inflows from conventional farming to organic farming. Material inflows and outflows were collected for two cropping years on 63 farms. The farms were located in three French agricultural districts distributed over a gradient of farming activity defined by both the stocking rate and the ratio of the farm area under arable crops. Our results showed that on average, inflows from conventional farming were 23%, 73% and 53% for nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, respectively. These inflows were strongly determined by the farm production systems. However, for farms similar in terms of production systems, the inflows also depended on the local context, such as the proximity of organic livestock farms: the reliance of organic farming on conventional farming was lower in mixed than in specialized districts. These results highlight the necessity to quantify the contribution of nutrient inflows from conventional farming when assessing organic farming and development scenarios.

  6. Defining, assessing and promoting the welfare of farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, F A; Kadri, S

    2014-04-01

    As currently practised, the culture of fish for food potentially raises concerns about the welfare of farmed fish, and this is a topic that has received considerable attention. As vertebrates, fish share a number of features with the birds and mammals that are more commonly farmed, so many welfare principles derived from consideration of these groups may also be applied to fish. However, fish have a long, separate evolutionary history and are also adapted to a very different, aquatic environment. For these reasons, they have a number of special features that are relevant to how welfare is defined, assessed and promoted and these are discussed. The various methods that are available to researchers for identifying and assessing good and bad welfare in fish are considered, including assessment of physical health and physiological, behavioural and genomic status. The subset of practical welfare indicators that can be used on working farms is also reviewed. Various aspects of intensive aquaculture that can potentially compromise fish welfare are outlined, as are some strategies available for mitigating such adverse effects. Finally, the paper ends by looking briefly to the future, identifying likely changes in aquaculture practices and how these might affect the welfare of farmed fish. PMID:25000796

  7. INDUSTRIAL INJURIES OF FARM WORKERS

    PubMed Central

    LaTourette, Donald P.

    1957-01-01

    Most industrial employees receive physical examinations to evaluate their physical fitness in relation to their work. The farm worker is neglected in this matter, in that he is hired for almost any type of work without physical evaluation. As a result, his accident rate is high. His efficiency at his work is low. His time loss from work because of sickness and accident is high, and the employer pays a very high rate of insurance for the patient's care and his own legal protection. Physical fitness cards should be carried by all farm laborers so that they would be put in properly graded jobs. PMID:13460719

  8. Structure and performance of Awassi and Assaf dairy sheep farms in northwestern Spain.

    PubMed

    Milán, M J; Caja, G; González-González, R; Fernández-Pérez, A M; Such, X

    2011-02-01

    devoted to forage production and predominantly with Assaf sheep (30% of the farms); 3) high-yielding farms, with intermediate sized flocks of Assaf sheep and very intensive management (42% of the farms); and, 4) no-land farms predominantly with Assaf sheep (16% of the farms). In conclusion, the dairy sheep farms studied showed more adoption of intensive production systems than traditional farms, which resulted in higher milk and lamb yields. Despite all of them being based on familiar units, as traditional farms, they were highly dependent on external resources and became more vulnerable, faced with future uncertainties of the market. PMID:21257045

  9. Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector. Farm Sector Review, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Research Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This report contains 44 tables and 23 figures, along with narrative summaries, that provide an overall view of the farm sector in the United States in 1986. Some of the findings highlighted in the report are the following: (1) farmers spent less to produce their crops and livestock in 1986; (2) government payments to farmers increased, but prices…

  10. WHOLE-FARM PHOSPHORUS MANAGEMENT ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dairy industry is undergoing rapid change to remain economically viable. Many farms are expanding herd size and increasing the importation of feed. Greater livestock numbers on a fixed land base has increased the risk of soil nutrient buildup and environmental pollution. This paper provides a ...

  11. How to Keep 'em Up On the Farm and Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorenson, Douglas D.

    1987-01-01

    To counter elementary school children's ignorance about farming, a 1981 Agriculture in the Classroom Task Force recommended that states create their own groups and awareness programs. This article describes cooperative efforts between private and public sector organizations in Arizona, Colorado, Georgia, Iowa, Oregon, and Virginia. An address and…

  12. Using hyperspectral data in precision farming applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision farming practices such as variable rate applications of fertilizer and agricultural chemicals require accurate field variability mapping. This chapter investigated the value of hyperspectral remote sensing in providing useful information for five applications of precision farming: (a) Soil...

  13. Geology of the Hog Mountain tonalite and associated lode gold deposits, Northern Alabama Piedmont: Final report for the 1986-1987 project year

    SciTech Connect

    Green, N.L.; Lesher, C.M.

    1988-02-01

    The Hog Mountain tonalite intrudes lower Paleozoic graphitic phyllites of the Wedowee formation and is transgressed by a series of planar, en echelon, bifurcating, auriferous quartz-sulfide veins with well-defined sericite-sulfide alteration envelopes. Least-altered tonalite is white, medium-grained, and weakly to non-foliated. It is characterized by moderately uniform distributions of quartz and oscillatory-normal zoned plagioclase (An/sub 7-41/), with minor amounts of biotite, muscovite, ilmenite, apatite, zircon and corroded garnet; K-feldspar is rare. Least-altered granitoids are peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.15), exhibit significant major- and trace-element variations, are characterized by relatively low REE contents, and have moderately high /delta//sup 18/O (+9.7 to +11.2 %) and uniform /delta/D (-82 to -78 %) values. Biotite log (X/sub Mg//X/sub Fe/)-log(X/sub F//X/sub OH/) relations suggest contamination of an I-type granitic melt by graphitic metapelites. Corroded garnets (Pyr/sub 3/Alm/sub 55/Spess/sub 17/Gross/sub 25/) within the granitoids are chemically-similar to euhedral garnets in adjacent schists and in fine-grained, foliated plagioclase-biotite-muscovite-ilmenite xenoliths, and were probably derived from the metasedimentary host rocks. Equilibration conditions of the xenolith mineral assemblages (465-510/degree/C at ca. 6 kb), calculated using garnet-biotite-muscovite-plagioclase thermobarometry, are similar to inferred metamorphic P-T conditions of underthrusting of Wedowee metasediments to mid-crustal levels during Paleozoic crustal thickening. Observed chemical variations may be modeled by plagioclase/biotite-controlled fractionation of a peraluminous tonalitic melt, accompanied by local cumulus mineral-intercumulus liquid segregation and graphitic metapelite contamination during emplacement. 70 refs., 20 figs.

  14. Application of peroxidase labelled antibody assays for detection of porcine IgG antibodies to hog cholera and bovine viral diarrhea viruses.

    PubMed

    Afshar, A; Dulac, G C; Bouffard, A

    1989-03-01

    Rapid, sensitive peroxidase labelled antibody (PLA) assays using microtiter systems, were developed for detection of hog cholera virus (HCV) and cross-reacting bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) antibodies in pig sera. HCV-infected pig kidney cell line (PK 15) prepared in microtiter plates were fixed and used in PLA assays. After inoculation with test serum, bound antibodies (HCV/BVDV) were reacted with either horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated anti-porcine immunoglobulin (H & L) or biotinylated protein A (BPA) and subsequent HRP labelled avidin (A). Positive reactions were easily visualized under an inverted light microscope as foci of brown colored cells after enzyme degradation of hydrogen peroxidase in the presence of amino-ethylcarbazole (AEC). The PLA assays were superior to the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test in detecting anti-HCV antibodies in porcine sera collected early after inoculation of pigs with a lapinized HCV vaccine. The performances of the PLA, IFA and FA neutralization (FAN) tests in measuring the immune response in the vaccinated pigs were comparable. Cross-reacting anti-BVDV antibody, as measured by a microtiter serum neutralization (MTSN) test, was not demonstrable in vaccinated pigs until they were challenged with a virulent HCV, 13 weeks later. The PLA assays relative to the IFA test detected more reactive samples among porcine field sera collected from HC-free pigs in Canada. Of 795 samples, 24 (3.01%) were reactive in the PLA employing HRP anti-porcine IgG, and 21 (2.6%) in the PLA, using BPA-HRP-A. When 324 of these sera were screened by the IFA test (using HC antigen), only one sample (0.30%) was found reactive.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2541152

  15. Effect of Combined Spaceborne Microwave and Continuous Lightning Measurements on Precipitation Forecasts of the 1998 Ground-Hog Day Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinman, James A.; Chang, Dong-Eon; Morales, Carlos A.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of several newly available sources of meteorological data on mesoscale model forecasts of precipitation produced by the extra-tropical cyclone that struck Florida on February 2, 1998. Precipitation distributions of convective rainfall events were derived from Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and Multi-Channel Passive Microwave Sensor (TMI) microwave radiometric data by means of the Goddard PROFiling (GPROF) algorithm. Continuous lightning distributions were obtained from sferics measurements obtained from a network of VLF radio receivers. Histograms of coincident sferics frequency distributions were matched to those of precipitation to derive bogus convective rainfall rates from the continuously available sferics measurements. SSM/I and TMI microwave data were used to derive Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) distributions. The TMI also provided sea surface temperatures (SSTS) of the Loop Current and Gulf Stream with improved structural detail. A series of experiments assimilated IPW and latent heating from the bogus convective rainfall for six-hours in the MM5 mesoscale forecast model to produce nine-hour forecasts of all rainfall as well as other weather parameters. Although continuously assimilating latent heating only slightly improved the surface pressure distribution forecast, it significantly improved the precipitation forecasts. Correctly locating convective rainfall was found critical for assimilating latent heating in the forecast model, but measurement of the rainfall intensity proved to be less important. The improved SSTs also had a positive impact on rainfall forecasts for this case. Assimilating bogus rainfall in the model produced nine-hour forecasts of radar reflectivity distributions that agreed well with coincident observations from the TRMM spaceborne precipitation radar, ground based radar and spaceborne microwave measurements.

  16. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  17. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  18. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  19. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  20. 7 CFR 1280.606 - Farm Service Agency County Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Service Agency County Committee. 1280.606....606 Farm Service Agency County Committee. Farm Service Agency County Committee, also referred to as... Farm Service Agency County Committee....

  1. The Rapid Adjustment Farm Program's Influence on Other Farms in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simeral, Kenneth D.

    The study investigated the diffusion of innovative farming practices from Rapid Adjustment Farms (RAF) to other farms in southeast Ohio. The RAF program, begun in 1968, introduced new technology and management practices to its participant farmers. After reviewing literature of farming programs' information diffusion, a descriptive survey was made…

  2. Farm-level economic impact of no-till farming in western Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farm survey data from the Fort Cobb Reservoir watershed (FCRW) in southwestern Oklahoma were used to evaluate farm-level economic impacts of no-till farming as compared to conventional tillage and the current mix of tillage practices. The Farm-level Economic Model (FEM), an annual economic simulatio...

  3. ANNUAL FARM LABOR REPORT - 1962.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LENHART, MARGOT WAKEMAN

    THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE FARM PLACEMENT SERVICE WHICH INCLUDED ORGANIZATION, STAFF, OFFICES, ASSOCIATES AND ADVISORS, AND MEETINGS WAS PRESENTED. AT THE STATE LEVEL, THERE WAS A RISE IN OVERALL CROP PRODUCTION AND A DECREASE IN TOTAL CROPLAND HARVEST. AT THE LOCAL LEVEL, URBAN ENCROACHMENT CHANGED THE NATURE OF PRODUCTION IN SOME AREAS AND…

  4. Farming. Canada at Work Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Ann; Drake, Jane

    This book is part of the Canada At Work series that introduces children to the people, machines, work and environmental concerns involved in bringing to market the products from important Canadian natural resources. This volume features a year-round look at two kinds of agriculture in Canada. On the vegetable farm, children find out about spring…

  5. Remote sensing for cotton farming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of remote sensing technologies in agriculture began with the use of aerial photography to identify cotton root rot in the late 1920s. From then on, agricultural remote sensing has developed gradually until the introduction of precision farming technologies in the late 1980s and biotechno...

  6. EMF Responses in Farm Animals

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Larry E. ); R Matthes, JH Bernhardt, and MH Repacholi

    1999-10-19

    Relatively few studies have been performed investigating the effects of EMF exposure on farm animals. Most of those that have been described in the literature are of surveys of animals living in the vicinity of power transmission lines. Even fewer studies have been conducted in large animals under controlled laboratory conditions. Results generally provide little evidence that electric and/or magnetic fields at environmental levels (under transmission lines up to 1000 kV) affect farm animals. There is limited evidence that cows exposed to EMF may exhibit slight changes in length of estrous cycle, although associated hormones (eg. progesterone) appear to be unaffected. The effects of electric fields on development in swine (some increase in birth defects and malformations) exposed to high strength electric fields were not consistent across generations nor supported by comparable rodent studies. Finally, electrical currents and"stray voltages", parameters associated with EMF, are found on some farms above perception levels. These voltages and currents can produce behavioral changes in farm animals and may impact production or health of the animals.

  7. Child Rearing on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam; And Others

    During the second year of a 3-year study involving 112 Iowa farm families, mothers of children aged 4 to 10 years old expressed expectations of independence, responsibility, and hard work from their children during home interviews. The importance of the parent-child relationship together with the lack of sufficient child-rearing research on rural…

  8. Farm Foundation Annual Report, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farm Foundation, Oak Brook, IL.

    The Farm Foundation was established in 1933 as a private agency to help coordinate the work of other public and private groups and agencies to improve agriculture and rural life without taking political positions or supporting specific legislation. An operating rather than a grant-making foundation, the foundation develops national and regional…

  9. The Roots of "Animal Farm".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara E.

    The presentation of the book "Animal Farm" by George Orwell to sophomores at East Orange Catholic High School, New Jersey, as a "political document" is discussed. Through research, panel discussions and voluntary comments, the students studied the book in depth comparing it to the power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky in Soviet Russia.…

  10. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  11. Growing Vegetables. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes farm operations and some activities in the lives of six vegetable farmers throughout the United States. The booklet visits the tomato growing of Carl Schneider and his partners and the lettuce growing farm of Norman Martella, both in California. It then includes brief accounts of…

  12. The Persistence of Family Farming Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, John Fraser

    1987-01-01

    Presents data on the number, value, and distribution of the family farm between 1950 and 1982. Shows changes using five maps and two charts. Concludes that the geographical distribution of family farming areas has remained stable since World War II even though some farming systems have changed dramatically. (JDH)

  13. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  14. Managerial Perception and Success in Farming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, Gilbert Lander

    To improve farm management instruction in vocational agriculture, survey data were secured from 125 young farmers in 35 Ohio counties to determine the relationship between their perception of themselves as entrepreneurs and their success in farming. The respondents represented a range of success in farming, were full-time farmers between the ages…

  15. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  16. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  17. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm products. 205.206 Section 205.206 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Interpretive Opinions § 205.206 Farm products....

  18. 9 CFR 205.206 - Farm products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm products. 205.206 Section 205.206 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CLEAR TITLE-PROTECTION FOR PURCHASERS OF FARM PRODUCTS Interpretive Opinions § 205.206 Farm products....

  19. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  20. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103...

  1. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  2. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  3. 7 CFR 761.103 - Farm assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm assessment. 761.103 Section 761.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION Supervised Credit § 761.103...

  4. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  5. 25 CFR 700.65 - Farm operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Farm operation. 700.65 Section 700.65 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.65 Farm operation. Farm operation means any activity conducted...

  6. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  7. 7 CFR 795.16 - Custom farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Custom farming. 795.16 Section 795.16 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.16 Custom farming. (a) Custom... agricultural chemicals by firms regularly engaged in such businesses shall not be regarded as custom farming....

  8. The Farm Crisis of the 1980s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Fred K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The Midwest, Plains, and Delta are among the regions hit hardest by the current farm crisis. The vulnerability of an area to the financial crisis in farming depends on the financial conditions of its farmers, its dependence on farming--especially on export-sensitive crops--and the strength of its nonfarm economy. (JHZ)

  9. Missouri Small Farm Family Program. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enlow, George; And Others

    Records maintained by rural extension designees on the Missouri Small Farm Family Program, (initiated in 1972 by the cooperative extension service to help low income farm families learn to use available resources to improve their quality of life) provided data re: family characteristics, farm improvement progress, and improvement in the quality of…

  10. Kansas Farm and Ranch Management Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albracht, James, Ed.

    Thirty-four units of instruction are included in this core curriculum in farm management for postsecondary farm and ranch management programs. Units of instruction are divided into twelve instructional areas: (1) Introduction to Financial Management, (2) Farm Business Arrangement, (3) Credit Management, (4) Budgeting, (5) Record Keeping, (6)…

  11. Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasley, Paul

    The 1984 Iowa Farm and Rural Life Poll is summarized in this report. Responses from 1,585 randomly selected Iowa farm families showed that respondents opposed relaxing current state laws limiting foreign investors and non-farm corporations' ownership of farmland; had mixed feelings on absentee ownership, changing banking laws to allow banks to…

  12. Farm Children's Work in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Harriett K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined farm children's work contribution to the household and farming operation, as reported by their mothers (N=263). Results showed that children began working at a very early age, and continued through adolescence. All adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 years helped with farm chores; fewer helped with household chores. (Author)

  13. Assessment and monitoring of nutrient loading in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuyet D; Luong-Van, Jim; Maier, Stefan W; Austin, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    Coastal shrimp farming may lead to the contamination of sediments of surrounding estuarine and marine ecosystems as shrimp farm effluent often contains high levels of pollutants including a range of organic compounds (from uneaten feed, shrimp feces, and living and dead organisms) which can accumulate in the sediments of receiving waterways. The assessment and monitoring of sediment quality in tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent can support environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas since sediment quality often shows essential information on long-term aquatic ecosystem health. Within this context, this paper investigates nutrient loadings in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam, which now have a high concentration of intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farms. Sediment samples taken from inside creek sections directly receiving effluent from concentrated shrimp farms (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC), and few kilometers away from shrimp farms (ASF) as reference sites were collected and analyzed before and after shrimp crops to investigate spatial and temporal variation. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon among IEC, OEC, and ASF sites while the seasonal variation being limited over study times. A sediment nutrient index (SNI) computed from coefficient scores of the factor analysis efficiently summarizes sediment nutrient loads, which are high, albeit quite variable, in canals directly receiving effluents from farms but then decline sharply with distance from shrimp farms. The visualization and monitoring of sediment quality data including SNI on maps can strongly support managers to manage eutrophication at concentrated shrimp farming areas, contributing to sustainable

  14. Yersiniosis in farmed deer.

    PubMed

    Jerrett, I V; Slee, K J; Robertson, B I

    1990-06-01

    Samples from 77 chital (Axis axis), 42 fallow (Dama dama), 26 red (Cervus elaphus), 7 rusa (Cervus timorensis) and 1 sambar deer (Cervus unicolor) were examined. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection was diagnosed as the cause of death in 6 (23%) of the red and 23 (30%) of the chital deer. Yersiniosis was the most common infectious cause of death diagnosed. Affected deer were usually found moribund or dead, often with faecal staining of the perineum. Gross pathology in chital included a fibrinous enterocolitis, enlarged congested mesenteric lymph nodes and multiple pale foci through the liver. Gross changes in red deer were limited to intense congestion of the intestinal mucosa and enlargement and congestion of mesenteric lymph nodes. Microscopic intestinal changes in both species consisted of microabscessation or diffuse suppurative inflammation of the intestinal mucosa with numerous bacterial colonies in the lamina propria. Multifocal suppurative mesenteric lymphadenitis was a common finding. Multifocal suppurative or non-suppurative hepatitis was frequently present in the liver of chital but was uncommon in the red deer. Yersiniosis occurred during the cooler months from June to November, with younger age classes most commonly affected. Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes I, II and III were isolated in the ratio 17:3:0 in the chital deer and 1:1:2 in red deer. The clinical, epidemiological and bacteriological features are similar to those documented previously by New Zealand workers. The increased susceptibility to disease of red deer and chital compared to fallow deer and perhaps other species has not previously been documented. PMID:2222364

  15. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  16. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  18. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  19. 12 CFR 619.9140 - Farm Credit bank(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit...

  20. Empirical Analysis of Farm Credit Risk under the Structure Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The study measures farm credit risk by using farm records collected by Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) during the period 1995-2004. The study addresses the following questions: (1) whether farm's financial position is fully described by the structure model, (2) what are the determinants of farm capital structure under the structure model, (3)…

  1. Performance and mortality of farmed hares.

    PubMed

    Rigo, N; Trocino, A; Poppi, L; Giacomelli, M; Grilli, G; Piccirillo, A

    2015-06-01

    Performance and mortality of hares were evaluated for 2 consecutive years in a large farm in Veneto Region (Northern Italy). On average, fertile reproductive pairs (n=318) gave birth 4.8 times and produced 11.4 live leverets, weaned 8.4 leverets and produced 7.0 growing hares (60 days) every year. Mean mortality was 3.6%, 22.9%, 9.7% and 2.5% in newborn (0 to 2 days of age), suckling (3 to 25 days), growing (26 to 60 days) and sub-adult (61 days until sale) hares, respectively. The main causes of mortality were enteric diseases (75.5%, 75.9% and 12.1% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), followed by respiratory diseases (3.4%, 8.0% and 36.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively), starvation (11.3% and 8.8% in suckling and growing hares, respectively) and trauma (7.1%, 2.3% and 30.2% in suckling, growing and sub-adult hares, respectively). In reproducing hares, mortality was 24.7% and 15.4% in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Respiratory diseases (34.8%) and ulcerative pododermatitis (18.9%) were the most common pathological changes detected in reproducing hares. Farmed hares seem to be affected by diseases resembling those of rabbits reared under intensive conditions. It seems necessary to improve the husbandry of hares to reach satisfactory technical standards and to preserve their health. PMID:25697746

  2. Prevalence and some risk factors associated with trichinellosis in backyard pig farms in Zaria, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Momoh, Halimat Asabe; Bello, Mohammed; Inabo, Helen; Wada, Yusuf; Adole, Enechojo Bernadette; Madaiki, Blessed Dauda; Aregbe, Elizabeth Adenike

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of trichinellosis in backyard-farmed pigs and the risk factors associated with the infection in Zaria, Kaduna State. Serum samples were collected from 120 pigs selected at random from 50 small backyard farms, and the presence of Trichinella spp. antibodies was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Data on farm management practices from the farms were obtained through the use of a structured questionnaire. The overall seroprevalence of Trichinella spp.-specific antibodies was 40 % (48/120) by ELISA. All the extensive farms sampled had at least one Trichinella-positive animal. The age and sex of the animals were not significantly (p>0.05) associated with the infection; however, the management systems, presence of rodents, rodent control, and access to dead pigs showed significant (p<0.05) association with Trichinella spp.-infected pigs on the farm. In conclusion, there was a high prevalence of antibodies to trichinellosis in backyard raised pigs in Zaria, and intensive pig farming with the adoption of proper biosecurity measures is advocated to prevent the transmission and spread of trichinellosis. PMID:23264057

  3. Wind farm power maximization based on a cooperative static game approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jinkyoo; Kwon, Soonduck; Law, Kincho H.

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to improve the cost-effectiveness and production efficiency of wind farms using cooperative control. The key factors in determining the power production and the loading for a wind turbine are the nacelle yaw and blade pitch angles. However, the nacelle and blade angles may adjust the wake direction and intensity in a way that may adversely affect the performance of other wind turbines in the wind farm. Conventional wind-turbine control methods maximize the power production of a single turbine, but can lower the overall wind-farm power efficiency due to wake interference. This paper introduces a cooperative game concept to derive the power production of individual wind turbine so that the total wind-farm power efficiency is optimized. Based on a wake interaction model relating the yaw offset angles and the induction factors of wind turbines to the wind speeds experienced by the wind turbines, an optimization problem is formulated with the objective of maximizing the sum of the power production of a wind farm. A steepest descent algorithm is applied to find the optimal combination of yaw offset angles and the induction factors that increases the total wind farm power production. Numerical simulations show that the cooperative control strategy can increase the power productions in a wind farm.

  4. Farming for Ecosystem Services: An Ecological Approach to Production Agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Philip Robertson, G.; Gross, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Stephen K.; Landis, Douglas A.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Swinton, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    A balanced assessment of ecosystem services provided by agriculture requires a systems-level socioecological understanding of related management practices at local to landscape scales. The results from 25 years of observation and experimentation at the Kellogg Biological Station long-term ecological research site reveal services that could be provided by intensive row-crop ecosystems. In addition to high yields, farms could be readily managed to contribute clean water, biocontrol and other biodiversity benefits, climate stabilization, and long-term soil fertility, thereby helping meet society's need for agriculture that is economically and environmentally sustainable. Midwest farmers—especially those with large farms—appear willing to adopt practices that deliver these services in exchange for payments scaled to management complexity and farmstead benefit. Surveyed citizens appear willing to pay farmers for the delivery of specific services, such as cleaner lakes. A new farming for services paradigm in US agriculture seems feasible and could be environmentally significant. PMID:26955069

  5. Impact of fish farming on the distribution of phosphorus in sediments in the middle Adriatic area.

    PubMed

    Matijević, Slavica; Kuspilić, Grozdan; Kljaković-Gaspić, Zorana; Bogner, Danijela

    2008-03-01

    During the last decade, intensive fish farming developed along the central Croatian coast, creating a need to study and evaluate its potential influence on unaffected sites. We considered phosphorus as an indicator of the influence of fish farming and investigated the distribution of phosphorus forms in sediment from several fish farms and marine areas of different trophic status in the middle Adriatic. Analyses of samples were performed with modified SEDEX techniques. Our results indicated that authigenic apatite phosphorus showed no significant differences among the investigated stations, while organic phosphorus concentrations reflected the trophic status of the station area. Below-cage sediment was characterized by enhanced fish debris phosphorus and low detrital apatite phosphorus concentrations, while sediment from an anthropogenically influenced bay showed the highest values of iron bound phosphorus species. Among the different P fractions, fish debris phosphorus proved to be the most sensitive indicator of the influence of fish farming on marine sediment. PMID:18187162

  6. [Chile's experience with developing abalone (Haliotis spp.) farming: opportunities and challenges].

    PubMed

    Enríquez, R; Villagrán, R

    2008-04-01

    Intensive abalone farming--specifically of the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) and the green (or Japanese) abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)--has expanded rapidly in Chile since the late 1990s, and this article presents an overview of the challenges facing the industry and the factors which favour its development. At present, 100% of Chile's abalone enterprises farm the H. rufescens species, owing to its suitability for full-cycle culture. In the analysis of factors that facilitate the development of abalone farming in Chile, those that stand out include the characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem, existing entrepreneurial and professional skills, decisive government support in co-financing scientific and technological projects, infrastructure and associated services to support these development initiatives and a market where prices have remained stable and demand for abalone products has been steady. The greatest challenges facing intensive abalone farming in Chile are providing a constant supply of macroalgae for abalone feed and developing complementary feed, as well as updating current legislation on intensive abalone farming, strengthening producer associations and establishing health certification. The article discusses examples of the impact that native organisms can have on animals introduced into an aquatic ecosystem and the international transmission of agents such as withering syndrome and sabellid polychaete infestation disease, associated with the movement of abalone seeds and broodstock. The article also emphasises the importance of implementing the recommendations of the World Organisation for Animal Health. PMID:18666482

  7. Pathogens in Dairy Farming: Source Characterization and Groundwater Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwill, E. R.; Watanabe, N.; Li, X.; Hou, L.; Harter, T.; Bergamaschi, B.

    2007-12-01

    Intense animal husbandry is of growing concern as a potential contamination source of enteric pathogens as well as antibiotics. To assess the public health risk from pathogens and their hydrologic pathways, we hypothesize that the animal farm is not a homogeneous diffuse source, but that pathogen loading to the soil and, therefore, to groundwater varies significantly between the various management units of a farm. A dairy farm, for example, may include an area with calf hutches, corrals for heifers of various ages, freestalls and exercise yards for milking cows, separate freestalls for dry cows, a hospital barn, a yard for collection of solid manure, a liquid manure storage lagoon, and fields receiving various amounts of liquid and solid manure. Pathogen shedding and, hence, therapeutic and preventive pharmaceutical treatments vary between these management units. We are implementing a field reconnaissance program to determine the occurrence of three different pathogens ( E. coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter) and one indicator organism ( Enterococcus) at the ground-surface and in shallow groundwater of seven different management units on each of two farms, and in each of four seasons (spring/dry season, summer/irrigation season, fall/dry season, winter/rainy season). Initial results indicate that significant differences exist in the occurrence of these pathogens between management units and between organisms. These differences are weakly reflected in their occurrence in groundwater, despite the similarity of the shallow geologic environment across these sites. Our results indicate the importance of differentiating sources within a dairy farm and the importance of understanding subsurface transport processes for these pathogens.

  8. Diverse and abundant antibiotic resistance genes in Chinese swine farms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong-Guan; Johnson, Timothy A.; Su, Jian-Qiang; Qiao, Min; Guo, Guang-Xia; Stedtfeld, Robert D.; Hashsham, Syed A.; Tiedje, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging contaminants posing a potential worldwide human health risk. Intensive animal husbandry is believed to be a major contributor to the increased environmental burden of ARGs. Despite the volume of antibiotics used in China, little information is available regarding the corresponding ARGs associated with animal farms. We assessed type and concentrations of ARGs at three stages of manure processing to land disposal at three large-scale (10,000 animals per year) commercial swine farms in China. In-feed or therapeutic antibiotics used on these farms include all major classes of antibiotics except vancomycins. High-capacity quantitative PCR arrays detected 149 unique resistance genes among all of the farm samples, the top 63 ARGs being enriched 192-fold (median) up to 28,000-fold (maximum) compared with their respective antibiotic-free manure or soil controls. Antibiotics and heavy metals used as feed supplements were elevated in the manures, suggesting the potential for coselection of resistance traits. The potential for horizontal transfer of ARGs because of transposon-specific ARGs is implicated by the enrichment of transposases—the top six alleles being enriched 189-fold (median) up to 90,000-fold in manure—as well as the high correlation (r2 = 0.96) between ARG and transposase abundance. In addition, abundance of ARGs correlated directly with antibiotic and metal concentrations, indicating their importance in selection of resistance genes. Diverse, abundant, and potentially mobile ARGs in farm samples suggest that unmonitored use of antibiotics and metals is causing the emergence and release of ARGs to the environment. PMID:23401528

  9. Stability analysis of offshore wind farm and marine current farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawon, Mohammad Hasanuzzaman

    Renewable energy has been playing an important role to meet power demand and 'Green Energy' market is getting bigger platform all over the world in the last few years. Due to massive increase in the prices of fossil fuels along with global warming issues, energy harvesting from renewable energy sources has received considerable interest, nowadays, where extensive researches are going on to ensure optimum use of renewable sources. In order to meet the increasing demand of electricity and power, integration of renewable energy is getting highest priorities around the world. Wind is one of the most top growing renewable energy resources and wind power market penetration is expected to reach 3.35 percent by 2013 from its present market of about 240 GW. A wind energy system is the most environmental friendly, cost effective and safe among all renewable energy resources available. Another promising form of renewable energy is ocean energy which covers 70 % of the earth. Ocean energy can be tapped from waves, tides and thermal elements. Offshore Wind farm (OWF) has already become very popular for large scale wind power integration with the onshore grid. Recently, marine current farm (MCF) is also showing good potential to become mainstream energy sources and already successfully commissioned in United Kingdom. However, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) has the stability problem similar to synchronous generator especially during fault location to restore the electromagnetic torque. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) has been known as a useful mean to stabilize fixed speed wind generator system. On the other hand, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) has the capability of coupling the control of active and reactive power and to provide necessary reactive power demand during grid fault conditions. Series dynamic braking resistor (SDBR) can also be employed with DFIG to limit the rotor over current. An integration of wind and tidal energy represents a new

  10. 76 FR 51344 - Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... Rural Housing Service Notice of Funds Availability for Section 514 Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 AGENCY: Rural Housing... Farm Labor Housing Loans and Section 516 Farm Labor Housing Grants for Off-Farm Housing for FY...

  11. Projected integrated farm in Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Dhital, K.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed integrated crop-livestock agro-processing complex to be based at Janakpur, Nepal is described. This project was proposed by the Agricultural Development Bank and is a small effort towards creating a self-sufficient rural community similar to one reported in China. The plan of the farm aims to achieve the integration of several agricultural, aquacultural, solar energy and biogas energy components with complete recycling of waste. These include biogas plants with associated slurry and storage tanks for operating a 3-kW generator, a 3.7-kW pump, providing domestic cooking, as well as energy to operate a fruit-processing plant. Energy for water heating, crop drying and refrigeration will be supplied by solar energy. Fish, livestock, fruits and vegetables will be produced by the farm.

  12. Branchburg Solar Farm and Carport

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, John

    2013-10-23

    To meet the goal of becoming a model of green, clean, and efficient consumer of energy, the Township of Branchburg will install of a 250kw solar farm to provide energy for the Township of Branchburg Municipal Building, a 50kw Solar carport to provide power to the Municipal Annex, purchase 3 plug in hybrid-electric vehicles, and install 3 dual-head charging stations.

  13. Game from Farm to Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Warning ... preparation/game-from-farm-to-table‭ Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Warning ...

  14. The CDF Central Analysis Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T.H.; Neubauer, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Weems, L.; Wurthwein, F.; /UC, San Diego

    2004-01-01

    With Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron well underway, many computing challenges inherent to analyzing large volumes of data produced in particle physics research need to be met. We present the computing model within CDF designed to address the physics needs of the collaboration. Particular emphasis is placed on current development of a large O(1000) processor PC cluster at Fermilab serving as the Central Analysis Farm for CDF. Future plans leading toward distributed computing and GRID within CDF are also discussed.

  15. Interdisciplinary Irrigated Precision Farming Research

    SciTech Connect

    Heermann, D F.; Hoeting, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Sandra ); Duke, H R.; Westfall, D G.; Buchleiter, G W.; Westra, P; Peairs, F B.; Fleming, K

    2001-12-01

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service and Colorado State University are conducting an inter-disciplinary study that focuses on developing a clearer scientific understanding of the causes of yield variability. Two years of data have been collected from two commercial center pivot irrigated fields (72 and 52 ha). Cooperating farmers manage all farming operations for crop production and provide maps of the maise grown on the fields.

  16. Rejection criteria for open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry during continuous atmospheric monitoring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 32,000 interferograms measured during open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP/FT-IR) measurements at dairy and hog farms were evaluated for anomalies. Five types of anomalies could be distinguished: a reduction in the interferogram intensity because of weather-related optical misalignment; an ...

  17. Geothermal eel farm in Slovakia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Thomka, J.; Sarlinova, K.

    1998-12-01

    Turcianske Teplice, a small town in west-central Slovakia, has written records of using thermal waters since 1281. In 1992, an eel raising farm was started on the outskirts of the town and since 1994, it has been operated by the firm of Janex Slovensko. The farm, using a specialized water recirculation system, raises a species of migrating eels (Anguilla anguilla). A 220-meter deep well at 42 C provides 48 gpm to the facility for heating through a plate heat exchanger. This is the maximum flow permitted, so as not to influence the springs and wells at the spa about 1 km away. For this reason, the flow is monitored carefully by the state. A second geothermal well at 52 C and 1,500 meters deep is used only as an observation well. Cold water, which is heated by the geothermal water, is pumped from wells near the Turiec River 1.8 km away at 8 to 12 C, depending upon the season, for use in the various holding or raising tanks. The operation of the farm is described.

  18. Fact Sheet: Soil nutrient levels on grazing farms in the northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil nutrient levels are one indicator of the level of nutrient management on farms. Pastures in the northeastern U.S. have often been classified as low in soil fertility. These reports focused mainly on grazing lands managed at a relatively low intensity. Our objective was to gain some insight into...

  19. Farming without a Recipe: Wisconsin Graziers and New Directions for Agricultural Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Alexandra; Bell, Michael M.; Gratton, Claudio; Jackson, Randall

    2011-01-01

    From 2005 through 2008, we undertook a participatory research project involving graziers from 8 farms in Southern Wisconsin, all of whom practice management intensive grazing. We used semi-structured interviews and participant observation during research and field days to investigate graziers' engagement with university research. Grazing farms…

  20. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the

  1. Wildlife-friendly farming benefits rare birds, bees and plants.

    PubMed

    Pywell, Richard F; Heard, Matthew S; Bradbury, Richard B; Hinsley, Shelley; Nowakowski, Marek; Walker, Kevin J; Bullock, James M

    2012-10-23

    Agricultural intensification is a leading cause of global biodiversity loss, especially for threatened and near-threatened species. One widely implemented response is 'wildlife-friendly farming', involving the close integration of conservation and extensive farming practices within agricultural landscapes. However, the putative benefits from this controversial policy are currently either unknown or thought unlikely to extend to rare and declining species. Here, we show that new, evidence-based approaches to habitat creation on intensively managed farmland in England can achieve large increases in plant, bee and bird species. In particular, we found that habitat enhancement methods designed to provide the requirements of sensitive target biota consistently increased the richness and abundance of both rare and common species, with 10-fold to greater than 100-fold more rare species per sample area than generalized conventional conservation measures. Furthermore, targeting landscapes of high species richness amplified beneficial effects on the least mobile taxa: plants and bees. Our results provide the first unequivocal support for a national wildlife-friendly farming policy and suggest that this approach should be implemented much more extensively to address global biodiversity loss. However, to be effective, these conservation measures must be evidence-based, and developed using sound knowledge of the ecological requirements of key species. PMID:22675140

  2. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  3. Application of x-ray techniques in precision farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Selcuk; Inanc, Feyzi; Gray, Joseph N.; Colvin, Thomas S.

    2000-05-01

    The precision farming is a relatively new concept basing farming upon quantitative determination of various parameters in the farming practices. One of these parameters is accurate measurement of grain flow rates on real time basis. Although there are various techniques already available for this purpose, x-rays provide a very competitive alternative to the current state of art. In this work, the use of low energy bremsstrahlung x-ray, up to 30 keV, densitometry is demonstrated for grain flow rate measurements. Mass flow rates for corn are related to measured x-ray intensity in gray scale units with a 0.99 correlation coefficient for flow rates ranging from 2 kg/s to 6 kg/s. Higher flow rate values can be measured by using slightly more energetic x-rays or a higher tube current. Measurements were done in real time at a 30 Hz sampling rate. Flow rate measurements are independent of grain moisture due to a negligible change in the x-ray attenuation coefficients at typical moisture content values from 15% to 25%. Grain flow profile changes do not affect measurement accuracy. X-rays easily capture variations in the corn stream. Due to the low energy of the x-ray photons, biological shielding can easily be accomplished with 2 mm thick lead foil or 5 mm of steel.

  4. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  5. Energy Economics of Farm Biogas in Cold Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, Pragasen; Grimberg, Stefan; Powers, Susan E

    2012-10-24

    Anaerobic digestion of farm and dairy waste has been shown to be capital intensive. One way to improve digester economics is to co-digest high-energy substrates together with the dairy manure. Cheese whey for example represents a high-energy substrate that is generated during cheese manufacture. There are currently no quantitative tools available that predict performance of co-digestion farm systems. The goal of this project was to develop a mathematical tool that would (1) predict the impact of co-digestion and (2) determine the best use of the generated biogas for a cheese manufacturing plant. Two models were developed that separately could be used to meet both goals of the project. Given current pricing structures of the most economical use of the generated biogas at the cheese manufacturing plant was as a replacement of fuel oil to generate heat. The developed digester model accurately predicted the performance of 26 farm digesters operating in the North Eastern U.S.

  6. The Fermilab computing farms in 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, S.

    1998-02-15

    The farms in 1997 went through a variety of changes. First, the farms expansion, begun in 1996, was completed. This boosted the computing capacity to something like 20,000 MIPS (where a MIP is a unit defined by running a program, TINY, on the machine and comparing the machine performance to a VAX 11/780). In SpecInt92, it would probably rate close to 40,000. The use of the farms was not all that large. The fixed target experiments were not generally in full production in 1997, but spent time tuning up code. Other users processed on the farms, but tended to come and go and not saturate the resource. Some of the old farms were retired, saving the lab money on maintenance and saving the farms support staff effort.

  7. Horses, Hogs, Halfbacks and Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karel, Leon

    1972-01-01

    A federal grant to the Missouri State Committee for the Humanities began a program aimed at emphasizing the human quality of existence, the beliefs and values by which man lends meaning to his daily existence. It has grown, through the county extension offices, to statewide proportions, providing curriculum guides, model programs, and improving…

  8. Occurrence of Eimeria species parasites on small-scale commercial chicken farms in Africa and indication of economic profitability.

    PubMed

    Fornace, Kimberly M; Clark, Emily L; Macdonald, Sarah E; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  9. Occurrence of Eimeria Species Parasites on Small-Scale Commercial Chicken Farms in Africa and Indication of Economic Profitability

    PubMed Central

    Fornace, Kimberly M.; Clark, Emily L.; Macdonald, Sarah E.; Namangala, Boniface; Karimuribo, Esron; Awuni, Joseph A.; Thieme, Olaf; Blake, Damer P.; Rushton, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Small-scale commercial poultry production is emerging as an important form of livestock production in Africa, providing sources of income and animal protein to many poor households, yet the occurrence and impact of coccidiosis on this relatively new production system remains unknown. The primary objective of this study was to examine Eimeria parasite occurrence on small-scale commercial poultry farms in Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. Additionally, farm economic viability was measured by calculating the farm gross margin and enterprise budget. Using these economic measures as global assessments of farm productivity, encompassing the diversity present in regional husbandry systems with a measure of fundamental local relevance, we investigated the detection of specific Eimeria species as indicators of farm profitability. Faecal samples and data on production parameters were collected from small-scale (less than 2,000 birds per batch) intensive broiler and layer farms in peri-urban Ghana, Tanzania and Zambia. All seven Eimeria species recognised to infect the chicken were detected in each country. Furthermore, two of the three genetic variants (operational taxonomic units) identified previously in Australia have been described outside of Australia for the first time. Detection of the most pathogenic Eimeria species associated with decreased farm profitability and may be considered as an indicator of likely farm performance. While a causal link remains to be demonstrated, the presence of highly pathogenic enteric parasites may pose a threat to profitable, sustainable small-scale poultry enterprises in Africa. PMID:24391923

  10. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-10-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  11. FARM : an automated malware analysis environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Lloyd, Levi; Vanderveen, Keith B.; Chiang, Ken

    2008-08-01

    We present the forensic analysis repository for malware (FARM), a system for automating malware analysis. FARM leverages existing dynamic and static analysis tools and is designed in a modular fashion to provide future extensibility. We present our motivations for designing the system and give an overview of the system architecture. We also present several common scenarios that detail uses for FARM as well as illustrate how automated malware analysis saves time. Finally, we discuss future development of this tool.

  12. Our 31,000 Largest Farms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolitch, Radoje

    Between 1959 and 1964, the number of farms with annual product sales of over $100,000 rose from 19,979 to 31,401, increasing this group's share of the market from 16 to 24 percent. During the same period, the 408 farms reaching the $1 million mark with a 4 percent share of the market increased to 919 farms with 7 percent of the market. This report…

  13. Farm, land, and soil nitrogen budgets for agriculture in Europe calculated with CAPRI.

    PubMed

    Leip, Adrian; Britz, Wolfgang; Weiss, Franz; de Vries, Wim

    2011-11-01

    We calculated farm, land, and soil N-budgets for countries in Europe and the EU27 as a whole using the agro-economic model CAPRI. For EU27, N-surplus is 55 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in a soil budget and 65 kg N(2)O-N ha(-1) yr(-1) and 67 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) in land and farm budgets, respectively. NUE is 31% for the farm budget, 60% for the land budget and 63% for the soil budget. NS values are mainly related to the excretion (farm budget) and application (soil and land budget) of manure per hectare of total agricultural land. On the other hand, NUE is best explained by the specialization of the agricultural system toward animal production (farm NUE) or the share of imported feedstuff (soil NUE). Total N input, intensive farming, and the specialization to animal production are found to be the main drivers for a high NS and low NUE. PMID:21420769

  14. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  15. How can farming intensification affect the environmental impact of milk production?

    PubMed

    Bava, L; Sandrucci, A; Zucali, M; Guerci, M; Tamburini, A

    2014-07-01

    The intensification process of the livestock sector has been characterized in recent decades by increasing output of product per hectare, increasing stocking rate, including more concentrated feed in the diet, and improving the genetic merit of the breeds. In dairy farming, the effects of intensification on the environmental impact of milk production are not completely clarified. The aim of the current study was to assess the environmental impacts of dairy production by a life cycle approach and to identify relations between farming intensity and environmental performances expressed on milk and land units. A group of 28 dairy farms located in northern Italy was involved in the study; data collected during personal interviews of farmers were analyzed to estimate emissions (global warming potential, acidification, and eutrophication potentials) and nonrenewable source consumption (energy and land use). The environmental impacts of milk production obtained from the life cycle assessment were similar to those of other recent studies and showed high variability among the farms. From a cluster analysis, 3 groups of farms were identified, characterized by different levels of production intensity. Clusters of farms showed similar environmental performances on product basis, despite important differences in terms of intensification level, management, and structural characteristics. Our study pointed out that, from a product perspective, the most environmentally friendly way to produce milk is not clearly identifiable. However, the principal component analysis showed that some characteristics related to farming intensification, such as milk production per cow, dairy efficiency, and stocking density, were negatively related to the impacts per kilogram of product, suggesting a role of these factors in the mitigation strategy of environmental burden of milk production on a global scale. Considering the environmental burden on a local perspective, the impacts per hectare were

  16. Interviews with widows following fatal farming incidents.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, A; Brandt, V

    2001-05-01

    Farm families have been identified traditionally with a strong family bond resulting from both living and working together. When a farming fatality occurs, surviving family members are left to deal with not only the tragedy of losing a loved one, but also the loss of a coworker. Although every family experiencing a loss will deal with bereavement issues, farm families are faced with additional challenges that differentiate them from other family situations. A qualitative research methodology was employed to understand the complex mix of challenges facing farm families after the death of a family member. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with farming widows in Kentucky to explore the stresses and challenges related to the farm business, family relationships, and the mental health of the individual members. Becoming the primary decision maker for the farm and household was a difficult role for the widows. Economic issues were an underlying consideration in many aspects of the experiences and changes they encountered. The need to make economic decisions almost immediately while continuing the necessary chores to maintain crops and livestock was very stressful and left little time for bereavement. Often the support from family, friends, and neighbors went beyond emotional comforting to providing help with farm chores and guidance on financial decisions. In developing resources for farm families in similar circumstances, it is important to understand how intertwined their lives are with their environment and the economics of the business. PMID:11465387

  17. Among farm variation in heifer BW gains.

    PubMed

    Bond, G B; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Chapinal, N; Pajor, E A; Weary, D M

    2015-11-01

    BW of replacement heifers is rarely measured on commercial farms, making it difficult to evaluate the success of management practices related to calf growth. Our aims were to describe variability among commercial farms in Holstein heifer BW, determine how BW differences varied with management and propose a method of estimating calf growth based upon single measurement. Heart girth circumference was used to estimate BW of 576 heifers 48 to 70 weeks of age on 33 different farms (on average 11 ± 6 heifers/farm) in British Columbia, Canada. Regression analysis showed a linear relationship of BW with age (BW (kg)=116+5 × age (weeks)). Residuals from this regression were averaged across heifers within each farm to identify farms where heifers were heavier or lighter than would be predicted on the basis of their age; farm average residuals ranged from -54 to 72 kg. Farms with heifers showing the highest residual BW also had the highest rates of gain for pre-weaned calves. These results indicate that farms able to rear faster growing calves before weaning were also rearing faster growing heifers at breeding, and suggest that management of milk-fed calves is a particularly important component of replacement heifer management. PMID:26477529

  18. Energy integrated farm system technical summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Breckenridge, R.P.; Price, D.R.; Sherwood, R.K.; Thompson, W.N.

    1987-03-01

    The Energy Integrated Farm System program was established by the Department of Energy in 1980 in response to the hardship imposed on US farmers by high fuel costs and unreliable fuel supplies. The program investigated the feasibility of integrating energy conservation practices with on-farm energy production to reduce farm energy consumption and make farms more energy self-sufficient. Seven farms located in various geographical regions in the US and Puerto Rico participated in the program. Each of these farms developed an energy integrated farm system project that used a unique combination of energy production and energy conservation methods to supply energy to the farm and reduce the farm's dependence on energy produced from nonrenewable sources such as coal and oil. Methods used at these projects included conservation tillage, solar heating, waste heat recovery, methane digestion, electricity production from biogas, alcohol fuel production, fluidized-bed combustion of crop wastes, and computer-aided conservation irrigation. This report is a summary of the seven technical manuals prepared at the conclusion of the projects. It presents highlights and results, provides an overview of successes and problems, and lists recommendations.

  19. Hearing loss among high school farm students.

    PubMed Central

    Broste, S K; Hansen, D A; Strand, R L; Stueland, D T

    1989-01-01

    To study the prevalence of hearing loss among teen-aged farm children in central Wisconsin, audiometric threshold testing of 872 vocational agriculture students was carried out over a three-year period. The results indicate an increased prevalence of hearing loss among students actively involved in farm work, as compared to their peers not involved in farm work. Findings also suggest that use of hearing protection may reduce the risk of hearing loss among students who work on the farm, although few students report the use of such devices. These data also suggest that the hearing loss often observed in adult farmers may begin in childhood. PMID:2784948

  20. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  1. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  2. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  3. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  4. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  5. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  6. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  7. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  8. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  10. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  11. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  12. 12 CFR 600.2 - Farm Credit Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Administration. 600.2 Section 600.2 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.2 Farm Credit Administration. (a) Background. The Farm Credit...

  13. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  14. 12 CFR 614.4356 - Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. 614.4356 Section 614.4356 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending and Leasing Limits § 614.4356 Farm Credit Leasing Services Corporation. The Farm...

  15. 38 CFR 21.298 - Selecting a farm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Selecting a farm. 21.298... Course Approval and Facility Selection § 21.298 Selecting a farm. (a) Control of the farm—farm operator. A farm selected for farm cooperative training must be under the control of the veteran by...

  16. 12 CFR 600.1 - The Farm Credit Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Farm Credit Act. 600.1 Section 600.1 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS Farm Credit Administration § 600.1 The Farm Credit Act. The Farm Credit Act of 1971, Public Law...

  17. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  18. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  19. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  20. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  1. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  3. 12 CFR 619.9145 - Farm Credit Bank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit Bank. 619.9145 Section 619.9145 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9145 Farm Credit Bank. The term Farm Credit Bank refers to a bank resulting from the mandatory merger of the Federal...

  4. 29 CFR 780.157 - Other transportation incident to farming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other transportation incident to farming. 780.157 Section... transportation incident to farming. (a) Transportation by a farmer or on a farm as an incident to or in conjunction with the farming operations of the farmer or of that farm is within the scope of agriculture...

  5. Crop Farm Employee. Agricultural Cooperative Training. Vocational Agriculture. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Chester; And Others

    Designed for students enrolled in the Vocational Agricultural Cooperative Part-Time Training Program, this course of study contains 13 units for crop farm employees. Units include (examples of unit topics in parentheses): introduction (opportunities in farming, farming as a science, and farming in the United States), farm records (keeping farm…

  6. 12 CFR 619.9146 - Farm Credit institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Farm Credit institutions. 619.9146 Section 619.9146 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9146 Farm Credit institutions. Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit institutions refers to all...

  7. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  8. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  9. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  10. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 50 CFR 14.23 - Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Exportation at Designated Ports § 14.23 Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs. Live farm-raised fish and farm-raised fish eggs meet the definition of “bred in captivity” as stated in 50 CFR 17.3. Except... eggs. 14.23 Section 14.23 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  12. Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

    SciTech Connect

    ADAMS, M.R.

    1999-02-23

    A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment.

  13. CPS and the Fermilab farms

    SciTech Connect

    Fausey, M.R.

    1992-06-01

    Cooperative Processes Software (CPS) is a parallel programming toolkit developed at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. It is the most recent product in an evolution of systems aimed at finding a cost-effective solution to the enormous computing requirements in experimental high energy physics. Parallel programs written with CPS are large-grained, which means that the parallelism occurs at the subroutine level, rather than at the traditional single line of code level. This fits the requirements of high energy physics applications, such as event reconstruction, or detector simulations, quite well. It also satisfies the requirements of applications in many other fields. One example is in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of computational chemistry, the process of drug design may be accelerated with this approach. CPS programs run as a collection of processes distributed over many computers. CPS currently supports a mixture of heterogeneous UNIX-based workstations which communicate over networks with TCP/IR CPS is most suited for jobs with relatively low I/O requirements compared to CPU. The CPS toolkit supports message passing remote subroutine calls, process synchronization, bulk data transfers, and a mechanism called process queues, by which one process can find another which has reached a particular state. The CPS software supports both batch processing and computer center operations. The system is currently running in production mode on two farms of processors at Fermilab. One farm consists of approximately 90 IBM RS/6000 model 320 workstations, and the other has 85 Silicon Graphics 4D/35 workstations. This paper first briefly describes the history of parallel processing at Fermilab which lead to the development of CPS. Then the CPS software and the CPS Batch queueing system are described. Finally, the experiences of using CPS in production on the Fermilab processor farms are described.

  14. On-farm energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Nagelvoort, B.C.

    1981-01-01

    Manufacture of biogas by manure fermentation, use of digested solids as bedding material for cows and calves, and the use of liquids containing 85% nutrients present in the digested manure as fertilizer are reported. The digester system provides electricity for the entire farm and milk-bottling facilities, an average of approximately 100 kW/h is being produced at an overall engine-generator efficiency of approximately 25%. From the manure of approximately 800 cows more than 60,000 cu.ft gas is obtained at a retention period of approximately 22 days.

  15. Tank farms essential drawing plan

    SciTech Connect

    Domnoske-Rauch, L.A.

    1998-08-04

    The purpose of this document is to define criteria for selecting Essential Drawings, Support Drawings, and Controlled Print File (CPF) drawings and documents for facilities that are part of East and West Tank Farms. Also, the drawings and documents that meet the criteria are compiled separate listings. The Essential Drawing list and the Support Drawing list establish a priority for updating technical baseline drawings. The CPF drawings, denoted by an asterisk (*), defined the drawings and documents that Operations is required to maintain per the TWRS Administration Manual. The Routing Boards in Buildings 272-WA and 272-AW are not part of the CPF.

  16. Neither "Family" nor "Corporate" Farming: Australian Tomato Growers as Farm Family Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Bill; Burch, David; Lawrence, Geoffrey

    2007-01-01

    For the past two decades there has been much debate about the future of family farming. The basic question on which this debate has turned is whether current pressures on family farm systems should be understood as symptomatic of a terminal condition, in which farmers are replaced progressively by corporate ownership; or whether family farms will…

  17. The Family Farm in California. Final Report of the Small Farm Viability Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of Economic Development, Sacramento. Community Services Administration.

    Most of California's farms are relatively small, family run operations, and their future has been called into question by current agricultural trends. The Small Farm Viability Planning Project was initiated to identify obstacles to small farm economic viability and make recommendations to the state on policies and actions that might reduce these…

  18. Improving environmental management on small-scale farms: perspectives of extension educators and horse farm operators.

    PubMed

    Rebecca, Perry-Hill; Linda, Prokopy

    2015-01-01

    Although the number of small-scale farms is increasing in North America and Europe, few studies have been conducted to better understand environmental management in this sector. We investigate this issue by examining environmental management on horse farms from both the perspective of the "expert" extension educator and horse farm operator. We conducted a Delphi survey and follow-up interviews with extension educators in Indiana and Kentucky. We also conducted interviews and farm assessments with 15 horse farm operators in the two states. Our results suggest a disconnection between the perceptions of extension educators and horse farm operators. Extension educators believed that operators of small horse farms are unfamiliar with conservation practices and their environmental benefits and they found it difficult to target outreach to this audience. In the interviews with horse farm operators, we found that the majority were somewhat familiar with conservation practices like rotational grazing, soil testing, heavy use area protection, and manure composting. It was not common, however, for practices to be implemented to generally recognized standards. The horse farm respondents perceived these practices as interrelated parts of a system of farm management that has developed over time to best deal with the physical features of the property, needs of the horses, and available resources. Because conservation practices must be incorporated into a complex farm management system, traditional models of extension (i.e., diffusion of innovations) may be inappropriate for promoting better environmental management on horse farms. PMID:25267522

  19. Whole-Farm Evaluation of Phosphorus Crystallization as a Dairy Farm BMP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently proven method for precipitating significant phosphorus from dairy lagoons was incorporated to the Integrated Farm System Model. A whole-farm analysis of this BMP, including environmental and economical effects, were evaluated for an organic dairy farm in Washington. The BMP provides a non...

  20. Reading the Farm-Training Agricultural Professionals in Whole Farm Analysis for Sustainable Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory, Ellen; White, Charles; Morris, Thomas; Kiernan, Nancy Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Reading the Farm is a 2- to 3-day professional development program that brings together agricultural service providers from a range of agencies, with various expertise and levels of experience, to explore whole-farm systems and sustainability through in-depth study of two case-study farms. Over 90% of past participants reported that the program…