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Sample records for intensive short-term dynamic

  1. The Emergence of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Treatment Resistant Patients: Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Abbass, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) was developed out of the need for relatively short psychodynamic psychotherapeutic treatment approaches to complex and resistant patient populations so common in public health systems. Based on extensive study of video recordings, Habib Davanloo discovered, and other researchers have validated, some important clinical ingredients that align the therapist with healthy aspects of the patient striving for resolution of chronic neurotic disorders and fragile character structure. In the case of character neurotic highly resistant patients, these approaches including "pressure," "clarification," "challenge to defenses," and "head on collision" can be used in a tailored and properly timed way to help the chronically suffering patient to overcome his or her own resistance and access core drivers of these pathologies. In this article the meta-psychological basis of ISTDP is reviewed and illustrated with an extended case vignette. PMID:27200465

  2. Effects of Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy on Depressive Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Major Depression.

    PubMed

    Ajilchi, Bita; Nejati, Vahid; Town, Joel M; Wilson, Ryan; Abbass, Allan

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the efficacy of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) on depressive symptoms and executive functioning in patients with major depression. We examined pretest, posttest, and follow-up depression scores as well as pretest-posttest executive functioning scores between 16 participants receiving ISTDP and 16 allocated to wait-list control. Participants in each group were matched according to age, sex, and educational level. Mixed-models analyses demonstrated significant interaction effects of group and time on depression scores when the group ISTDP was compared with the wait-list control group; participants receiving ISTDP had significantly reduced depression severity both after treatment and at follow-up. Next, a series of hierarchical regression models demonstrated modest improvements on most tests of executive functioning in participants receiving ISTDP. Depressed patients receiving ISTDP show a sustained reduction in depression severity after treatment and after 12-month follow-up and improvements in executive functioning after treatment compared with a wait-list control. PMID:27065106

  3. A Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy Approach for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores the need for university counseling centers (UCCs) to implement brief therapies and describes one such treatment, intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP), as a particularly viable therapeutic approach in this setting. Because ISTDP is not appropriate for all students seeking therapy, a careful assessment of the…

  4. Intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy for severe music performance anxiety: assessment, process, and outcome of psychotherapy with a professional orchestral musician.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Arthey, Stephen; Abbass, Allan

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on the process and outcome of therapy using intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy (ISTDP) with a professional musician who had suffered severe music performance anxiety over the course of his entire 30-year career. In this paper, we describe the nature of the therapy, the case history of the musician, the first assessment and trial therapy session, and the course and successful outcome of therapy. The patient underwent 10 sessions of ISTDP over a period of 4 months. This paper reports on the first 6 sessions, which were most relevant to the understanding and treatment of the patient's severe music performance anxiety. This case study is the first reported application of ISTDP to a professional musician. We believe that this case study provides initial support that moderate to severe performance anxiety, in at least some cases, has its origins in unresolved complex emotions and defences arising from ruptures to early attachment relationships. PMID:24647454

  5. Davanloo’s Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy in a tertiary psychotherapy service: overall effectiveness and association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Town, Joel M.; Abbass, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Background. Intensive Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy (ISTDP), as developed by Habib Davanloo, is an intensive emotion-focused psychodynamic therapy with an explicit focus on handling resistance in treatment. A core assumption in ISTDP is that psychotherapeutic effects are dependent on in-session emotional processing in the form of rise in complex transference feelings that occurs when treatment resistance is challenged. Recent research indicates that an unlocking of the unconscious, a powerful emotional breakthrough achieved at a high rise in complex transference feelings, can potentially enhance ISTDP’s effectiveness. While ISTDP has a growing evidence base, most of the research conducted has used small samples and has tested therapy delivered by expert therapists. The aims of this study were to evaluate the overall effectiveness of ISTDP when delivered in a tertiary psychotherapy service, and to investigate if having an unlocking of the unconscious during therapy predicted enhanced treatment effectiveness. Methods. A total of 412 patients were included in the analyses. The average length of treatment was 10.2 sessions (SD 13.3). Multilevel growth curve modeling was used to evaluate treatment effectiveness and the association between unlocking the unconscious and outcome. A number of control predictors including type of treatment resistance were selected and included in the analyses. Outcome measures were the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) and the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP). About half of the patients in the study were treated by therapists in training and the other half by more experienced therapists. Results. Growth curve analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant within-group effects of ISTDP on both the BSI and the IIP. Effect sizes were large (>0.80). Unlocking the unconscious during therapy was associated with significantly larger treatment outcome. The relationship was further moderated by type of treatment

  6. Efficacy of Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy

    PubMed Central

    BARBER, JACQUES P.

    1994-01-01

    The author outlines the history of brief dynamic psychotherapy, describes some of its characteristics, and addresses methodological requirements for assessing the efficacy of psychotherapy. Review of two major meta-analyses suggests that manual-based brief dynamic psychotherapy by trained therapists is likely to be as effective as other forms of psychotherapy and more effective than no treatment. More studies are needed that 1) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with other forms of treatment for specific psychiatric disorders; 2) use theory-specific measures of outcome in addition to measures of symptoms; and 3) compare brief dynamic psychotherapy with long-term psychotherapy. PMID:22700185

  7. Effects of short-term two weeks low intensity plyometrics combined with dynamic stretching training in improving vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Selvam; Pradhan, Binita

    2014-01-01

    Sport specific training in basketball players should focus on vertical jump height and agility in consistent with demands of the sport. Since plyometrics training improves vertical jump height and agility, it can be useful training strategy to improve the performance of basketball players. A convenience sample of thirty professional basketball players were recruited. Following pre-intervention assessment, interventions using plyometrics training and dynamic stretching protocol was administered on the basketball players. The outcome measures were assessed before the intervention and at the end of first and second week. Statistically significant improvements in vertical jump height (31.68 ± 11.64 to 37.57 ± 16.74; P < 0.012) and agility (16.75 ± 2.49 to 16.51 ± 2.80; P <0.00) were observed between pretest--posttest measures and no changes in muscle girth and isometric muscle strength. The study concludes that short term two weeks plyometrics training combined with dynamic stretching as a useful sport specific training strategy to improve vertical jump height and agility on trained basketball players. PMID:25509962

  8. Emulating short-term synaptic dynamics with memristive devices

    PubMed Central

    Berdan, Radu; Vasilaki, Eleni; Khiat, Ali; Indiveri, Giacomo; Serb, Alexandru; Prodromakis, Themistoklis

    2016-01-01

    Neuromorphic architectures offer great promise for achieving computation capacities beyond conventional Von Neumann machines. The essential elements for achieving this vision are highly scalable synaptic mimics that do not undermine biological fidelity. Here we demonstrate that single solid-state TiO2 memristors can exhibit non-associative plasticity phenomena observed in biological synapses, supported by their metastable memory state transition properties. We show that, contrary to conventional uses of solid-state memory, the existence of rate-limiting volatility is a key feature for capturing short-term synaptic dynamics. We also show how the temporal dynamics of our prototypes can be exploited to implement spatio-temporal computation, demonstrating the memristors full potential for building biophysically realistic neural processing systems. PMID:26725838

  9. Synchronous dynamics in the presence of short-term plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Volo, Matteo; Livi, Roberto; Luccioli, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the occurrence of quasisynchronous events in a random network of excitatory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons equipped with short-term plasticity. The dynamics is analyzed by monitoring both the evolution of global synaptic variables and, on a microscopic ground, the interspike intervals of the individual neurons. We find that quasisynchronous events are the result of a mixture of synchronized and unsynchronized motion, analogously to the emergence of synchronization in the Kuramoto model. In the present context, disorder is due to the random structure of the network and thereby vanishes for a diverging network size N (i.e., in the thermodynamic limit), when statistical fluctuations become negligible. Remarkably, the fraction of asynchronous neurons remains strictly larger than zero for arbitrarily large N. This is due to the presence of a robust homoclinic cycle in the self-generated synchronous dynamics. The nontrivial large-N behavior is confirmed by the anomalous scaling of the maximum Lyapunov exponent, which is strictly positive in a finite network and decreases as N-0.27. Finally, we have checked the robustness of this dynamical phase with respect to the addition of noise, applied to either the reset potential or the leaky current.

  10. Short-Term Dynamical Interactions Among Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Chambers, John E.; DiVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We show that short-term perturbations among massive planets in multiple planet systems can result in radial velocity variations of the central star which differ substantially from velocity variations derived assuming the planets are executing independent Keplerian motions. We discuss two alternate fitting methods which can lead to an improved dynamical description of multiple planet systems. In the first method, the osculating orbital elements are determined via a Levenberg-Marquardt minimization scheme driving an N-body integrator. The second method is an improved analytic model in which orbital elements such as the periods and longitudes of periastron are allowed to vary according to a simple model for resonant interactions between the planets. Both of these methods can potentially determine the true masses for the planets by eliminating the sin(i) degeneracy inherent in fits that assume independent Keplerian motions. As more radial velocity data is accumulated from stars such as GJ876, these methods should allow for unambiguous determination of the planetary masses and relative inclinations.

  11. Floods, landslides and short-term meandering bedrock river dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lague, D.; Bonnet, S.; Davies, T. R.; Davy, P.

    2012-12-01

    Actively incising bedrock meanders are an ubiquitous feature of mountain belts, but the mechanisms leading to their formation and evolution are still poorly understood. As for straight bedrock rivers, we expect the combination of stochastic discharge, sediment supply and river transport capacity to play a key role in the partitioning between vertical and lateral incision. But the sinuous planform geometry yields localized high rates of outer bank incision driving localized hillslope mass wasting processes. The resulting deposits may alter patterns of sedimentation and incision leading to a strongly coupled channel-hillslope system. We aim at better understanding this coupling following two approaches : a detailed quantification of channel response to individual floods and mass-wasting events using Terrestrial Laser Scanner surveys and recent historical data; and the integration of this short-term dynamics at longer-timescales through numerical modelling. In particular, we note that many of these rivers exhibits numerous strath terraces abandoned in their inner bend documenting an evolution which is not purely continuous but rather punctuated by rapid changes in the balance between vertical and lateral erosion. Whether these changes can be tied to specific extreme events (floods, landslides, major earthquakes...) or an intrinsic instability is a key question to better understand bedrock meandering dynamics. It also has potentially important implications for the reconstruction of paleo-extremes from dated terraces or for the management of infrastructures located near actively migrating meandering bedrock rivers. This presentation focuses on the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanner to investigate the spatio-temporal patterns of bank erosion in the Rangitikei river (New-Zealand) over 3 years. The Rangitikei river is incising weakly consolidated mudstone at an average rate of 5 mm/yr since 15 kyr and has developed a very sinuous meandering pattern with several cut

  12. The Integration of Psychotherapy and Intensive Short-Term Residential Care: The Termination Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leichtman, Martin; Leichtman, Maria Luisa

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the variety of ways in which psychotherapy and residential care are integrated in the concluding phase of an intensive short-term treatment program for severely disturbed adolescents. It considers the manner in which decisions are made about termination, approaches to discharge planning, typical issues encountered in the…

  13. Phonological Short-Term Memory, Working Memory and Foreign Language Performance in Intensive Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kormos, Judit; Safar, Anna

    2008-01-01

    In our research we addressed the question what the relationship is between phonological short-term and working memory capacity and performance in an end-of-year reading, writing, listening, speaking and use of English test. The participants of our study were 121 secondary school students aged 15-16 in the first intensive language training year of…

  14. Short-term intensive glycemic control improves vibratory sensation in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yoshihito; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Taniguchi, Ataru; Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Kuroe, Akira; Yasuda, Koichiro; Hosokawa, Masaya; Yamada, Yuichiro; Inagaki, Nobuya; Seino, Yutaka

    2008-04-01

    Strict long-term glycemic control has been reported to prevent or improve diabetic peripheral neuropathy, but the effects of short-term glycemic control have not been clarified in patients with type 2 diabetes. To investigate reversibility of impaired vibratory sensation by short-term glycemic control, we used the TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork methods to measure peripheral neuropathy. Thirty-one type 2 diabetes patients with poor glycemic control (HbA1c: 10.8+/-0.4%, mean+/-S.E.M., range from 7.9% to 16.2%) were administered strict glycemic control. Vibratory sensation before and after short-term glycemic control was evaluated, and the metabolic profile including plasma glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and free fatty acid (FFA) was measured. After 20.0+/-2.1 days of strict glycemic control, vibratory sensation improved significantly in both upper and lower extremities, assessed by TM31 liminometer and C64 tuning fork. Along with the improved glycemic control, lipid metabolism (total cholesterol, triglyceride and FFA) was significantly improved. Thus, short-term intensive glycemic control can improve vibratory sensation, metabolic changes in glucose and lipid metabolism being the factors responsible for improved of peripheral nerve function. PMID:18262304

  15. Intensive video gaming improves encoding speed to visual short-term memory in young male adults.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of action video gaming on central elements of visual attention using Bundesen's (1990) Theory of Visual Attention. To examine the cognitive impact of action video gaming, we tested basic functions of visual attention in 42 young male adults. Participants were divided into three groups depending on the amount of time spent playing action video games: non-players (<2h/month, N=12), casual players (4-8h/month, N=10), and experienced players (>15h/month, N=20). All participants were tested in three tasks which tap central functions of visual attention and short-term memory: a test based on the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), an enumeration test and finally the Attentional Network Test (ANT). The results show that action video gaming does not seem to impact the capacity of visual short-term memory. However, playing action video games does seem to improve the encoding speed of visual information into visual short-term memory and the improvement does seem to depend on the time devoted to gaming. This suggests that intense action video gaming improves basic attentional functioning and that this improvement generalizes into other activities. The implications of these findings for cognitive rehabilitation training are discussed. PMID:23261420

  16. Effects of High Intensity White Noise on Short-Term Memory for Position in a List and Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daee, Safar; Wilding, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Seven experiments are described investigating the effecy of high intensity white noise during the visual presentation of words on a number of short-term memory tasks. Examines results relative to position learning and sequence learning. (Editor/RK)

  17. Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy versus Sertraline in Treatment of Social Phobia

    PubMed Central

    Nader-Mohammadi Moghadam, Mehryar; Atef-Vahid, Mohammad-Kazem; Asgharnejad-Farid, Ali-Asghar; Shabani, Amir; Lavasni, Fahimeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: A few studies on short-term psychodynamic approach have been conducted on social phobia. Objectives: In this study, the effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy on the treatment of social phobia has been compared to the effectiveness of sertraline and waiting list. Materials and Methods: In this randomized-controlled trial study, 13 male students were treated with short-term dynamic psychotherapy (McCullough method) lasting 25 sessions, 11 students received sertraline for 12 weeks, and 14 students, as the waiting list, received no intervention for 8 weeks. Participants completed the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) as primary efficacy variable 4 times, and were rated with Clinical Global Impression scale (CGI) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) as secondary efficacy variables. The data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance and Fisher exact test. Results: ANCOVA showed significant differences between groups based on SPIN scores (F = 23.51, Sig. = 0.001) and Bonferroni test, as post hoc compression, showed means of both short-term dynamic therapy and sertraline therapy groups were significantly different from waiting list mean (STDP-WL: x̅dif = 15.76, Sig. = 0.001), (MED-WL: x̅ = 15.91, Sig. = 0.001). Mean of SPIN scores was not significantly different between short-term dynamic psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy groups. In both treatment groups, means of SPIN scores significantly decreased in posttest, but not in waiting. These results repeated with GAF and CGI scores. Conclusions: The results indicated that short-term dynamic psychotherapy sertraline are effective in decreasing social phobia symptoms and were superior to control group. PMID:26288643

  18. Short-term effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic carbon pools under perennial grass pastures in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management can have important implications on the amounts and long-term stability of soil organic carbon (SOC). We investigated the short-term impacts of grazing intensity and nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on C dynamics into the various SOC pools in rotationally stocked ‘Tifton 85’ bermu...

  19. Behavior-dependent short-term assembly dynamics in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Shigeyoshi; Amarasingham, Asohan; Harrison, Matthew T; Buzsáki, György

    2008-07-01

    Although short-term plasticity is believed to play a fundamental role in cortical computation, empirical evidence bearing on its role during behavior is scarce. Here we looked for the signature of short-term plasticity in the fine-timescale spiking relationships of a simultaneously recorded population of physiologically identified pyramidal cells and interneurons, in the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat, in a working memory task. On broader timescales, sequentially organized and transiently active neurons reliably differentiated between different trajectories of the rat in the maze. On finer timescales, putative monosynaptic interactions reflected short-term plasticity in their dynamic and predictable modulation across various aspects of the task, beyond a statistical accounting for the effect of the neurons' co-varying firing rates. Seeking potential mechanisms for such effects, we found evidence for both firing pattern-dependent facilitation and depression, as well as for a supralinear effect of presynaptic coincidence on the firing of postsynaptic targets. PMID:18516033

  20. Short-term intensive family therapy for adolescent eating disorders: 30-month outcome.

    PubMed

    Marzola, Enrica; Knatz, Stephanie; Murray, Stuart B; Rockwell, Roxanne; Boutelle, Kerri; Eisler, Ivan; Kaye, Walter H

    2015-05-01

    Family therapy approaches have generated impressive empirical evidence in the treatment of adolescent eating disorders (EDs). However, the paucity of specialist treatment providers limits treatment uptake; therefore, our group developed the intensive family therapy (IFT)-a 5-day treatment based on the principles of family-based therapy for EDs. We retrospectively examined the long-term efficacy of IFT in both single-family (S-IFT) and multi-family (M-IFT) settings evaluating 74 eating disordered adolescents who underwent IFT at the University of California, San Diego, between 2006 and 2013. Full remission was defined as normal weight (≥ 95% of expected for sex, age, and height), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) global score within 1 SD of norms, and absence of binge-purging behaviours. Partial remission was defined as weight ≥ 85% of expected or ≥ 95% but with elevated EDE-Q global score and presence of binge-purging symptoms (<1/week). Over a mean follow-up period of 30 months, 87.8% of participants achieved either full (60.8%) or partial remission (27%), while 12.2% reported a poor outcome, with both S-IFT and M-IFT showing comparable outcomes. Short-term, intensive treatments may be cost-effective and clinically useful where access to regular specialist treatment is limited. PMID:25783849

  1. Autonomic Function Predicts Fitness Response to Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Kiviniemi, A M; Tulppo, M P; Eskelinen, J J; Savolainen, A M; Kapanen, J; Heinonen, I H A; Hautala, A J; Hannukainen, J C; Kalliokoski, K K

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that baseline cardiac autonomic function and its acute response to all-out interval exercise explains individual fitness responses to high-intensity interval training (HIT). Healthy middle-aged sedentary men performed HIT (n=12, 4-6×30 s of all-out cycling efforts with 4-min recovery) or aerobic training (AET, n=9, 40-60 min at 60% of peak workload in exercise test [Loadpeak]), comprising 6 sessions within 2 weeks. Low (LF) and high frequency (HF) power of R-R interval oscillation were analyzed from data recorded at supine and standing position (5+5 min) every morning during the intervention. A significant training effect (p< 0.001), without a training*group interaction, was observed in Loadpeak and peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Pre-training supine LF/HF ratio, an estimate of sympathovagal balance, correlated with training outcome in Loadpeak (Spearman's rho [rs]=-0.74, p=0.006) and VO2peak (rs=- 0.59, p=0.042) in the HIT but not the AET group. Also, the mean change in the standing LF/HF ratio in the morning after an acute HIT exercise during the 1(st) week of intervention correlated with training response in Loadpeak (rs=- 0.68, p=0.014) and VO2peak (rs=-0.60, p=0.039) with HIT but not with AET. In conclusion, pre-training cardiac sympathovagal balance and its initial alterations in response to acute HIT exercise were related to fitness responses to short-term HIT. PMID:26140689

  2. Enhancing Short-Term Recovery After High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    PubMed

    Al-Nawaiseh, Ali M; Pritchett, Robert C; Bishop, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the effects of antioxidant vitamins, ibuprofen, cold water submersion, and whey protein administered simultaneously on short-term recovery. Competitive athletes (n = 22) performed the protocol in 2 occasions (treatment and control) separated by 15 days in counterbalanced crossover design. Each occasion consisted of morning and afternoon sessions (AM and PM). In each session, participants performed 2 bouts of high-intensity anaerobic cycling separated by 30 minutes of rest. Each bout consisted of 3 Wingate tests (3 × 30-second Wingate tests) with 3 minutes of active recovery in between. Power output, rated perceived exertion (RPE), and pain scores were averaged and compared between the 2 sessions (AM vs. PM) and between the treatment vs. control (4 bouts). Creatine kinase (CK) levels were also measured 24 hours after the AM bout. Power output, CK, muscle soreness, and RPE were measured as recovery indices. Creatine kinase increased (p < 0.001) in both treatment and control 24 hours after the AM session. Performance results in the PM session for treatment/control were 832.5 ± 198.7/813.3 ± 187.6 W for peak power (PP), and 497.85 ± 120.7/486.1 ± 115 W for mean power (MP). Treatment was effective in maintaining MP (p = 0.034) in the PM sessions, but there was no significant effect of treatment on PP (p = 0.193), CK (p = 0.08), pain (p = 0.12), or RPE (p = 0.45). Treatment was helpful in protecting performance, but this was apparently not due to reduced muscle soreness or damage. PMID:26815173

  3. Exploiting short-term memory in soft body dynamics as a computational resource

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, K.; Li, T.; Hauser, H.; Pfeifer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Soft materials are not only highly deformable, but they also possess rich and diverse body dynamics. Soft body dynamics exhibit a variety of properties, including nonlinearity, elasticity and potentially infinitely many degrees of freedom. Here, we demonstrate that such soft body dynamics can be employed to conduct certain types of computation. Using body dynamics generated from a soft silicone arm, we show that they can be exploited to emulate functions that require memory and to embed robust closed-loop control into the arm. Our results suggest that soft body dynamics have a short-term memory and can serve as a computational resource. This finding paves the way towards exploiting passive body dynamics for control of a large class of underactuated systems. PMID:25185579

  4. Annual dynamics of North Sea bacterioplankton: seasonal variability superimposes short-term variation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Judith; Wichels, Antje; Teeling, Hanno; Chafee, Meghan; Scharfe, Mirco; Gerdts, Gunnar

    2015-09-01

    The dynamics of coastal marine microbial communities are driven by seasonally changing abiotic and biotic factors as well as by rapidly occurring short-term changes such as river fresh water influxes or phytoplankton blooms. We examined the variability of the free-living bacterioplankton at Helgoland Roads (German Bight, North Sea) over a period of one year with high temporal and taxonomic resolution to reveal variation patterns and main influencing factors. 16S rRNA gene tag sequencing of the bacterioplankton community hints at annual recurrence and resilience of few main taxa belonging to Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, Acidimicrobiia and Thermoplasmata. Multiple regression analyses with various environmental factors revealed changes in water current patterns and resulting phytoplankton blooms as the main driving factors for short-term variation and temperature as the overlying factor for seasonal variation. Comparison of bacterioplankton successions during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms revealed the same dominating Flavobacteriia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but shifts in Roseobacter related OTUs (Alphaproteobacteria) and SAR92 clade members (Gammaproteobacteria). Network analysis suggests that during spring and summer phytoplankton blooms temperature-dependent guilds are formed. In conclusion, our data imply that short-term bacterioplankton successions in response to phytoplankton blooms are indirectly affected by temperature, which is a major niche-defining factor in the German Bight. PMID:26298013

  5. Predicting long-term and short-term tidal flat morphodynamics using a dynamic equilibrium theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhan; Wang, Zheng Bing; Zitman, Tjerk J.; Stive, Marcel J. F.; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic equilibrium theory is a fruitful concept, which we use to systematically explain the tidal flat morphodynamic response to tidal currents, wind waves, sediment supply, and other sedimentological drivers. This theory stems from a simple analytical model that derives the tide- or wave-dominated tidal flat morphology by assuming that morphological equilibrium is associated with uniform bed shear stress distribution. Many studies based on observation and process-based modeling tend to agree with this analytical model. However, a uniform bed shear stress rarely exists on actual or modeled tidal flats, and the analytical model cannot handle the spatially and temporally varying bed shear stress. In the present study, we develop a model based on the dynamic equilibrium theory and its core assumption. Different from the static analytical model, our model explicitly accounts for the spatiotemporal bed shear stress variations for tidal flat dynamic prediction. To test our model and the embedded theory, we apply the model for both long-term and short-term morphological predictions. The long-term modeling is evaluated qualitatively against previous process-based modeling. The short-term modeling is evaluated quantitatively against high-resolution bed-level monitoring data obtained from a tidal flat in Netherlands. The model results show good performances in both qualitative and quantitative tests, indicating the validity of the dynamic equilibrium theory. Thus, this model provides a valuable tool to enhance our understanding of the tidal flat morphodynamics and to apply the dynamic equilibrium theory for realistic morphological predictions.

  6. Short-term dynamical evolution of grand-design spirals in barred galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Junichi

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the short-term dynamical evolution of stellar grand-design spiral arms in barred spiral galaxiesusing a three-dimensional (3D) N-body/hydrodynamic simulation. Similar to previous numerical simulations of unbarred, multiple-arm spirals, we find that grand-design spiral arms in barred galaxies are not stationary, but rather dynamic. This means that the amplitudes, pitch angles, and rotational frequencies of the spiral arms are not constant, but change within a few hundred million years (i.e. the typical rotational period of a galaxy). We also find that the clear grand-design spirals in barred galaxies appear only when the spirals connect with the ends of the bar. Furthermore, we find that the short-term behaviour of spiral arms in the outer regions (R > 1.5-2 bar radius) can be explained by the swing amplification theory and that the effects of the bar are not negligible in the inner regions (R < 1.5-2 bar radius). These results suggest that although grand-design spiral arms in barred galaxies are affected by the stellar bar, the grand-design spiral arms essentially originate not as bar-driven stationary density waves, but rather as self-excited dynamic patterns. We imply that a rigidly rotating grand-design spiral could not be a reasonable dynamical model for investigating gas flows and cloud formation even in barred spiral galaxies.

  7. Rich spectrum of neural field dynamics in the presence of short-term synaptic depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Lam, Kin; Fung, C. C. Alan; Wong, K. Y. Michael; Wu, Si

    2015-09-01

    In continuous attractor neural networks (CANNs), spatially continuous information such as orientation, head direction, and spatial location is represented by Gaussian-like tuning curves that can be displaced continuously in the space of the preferred stimuli of the neurons. We investigate how short-term synaptic depression (STD) can reshape the intrinsic dynamics of the CANN model and its responses to a single static input. In particular, CANNs with STD can support various complex firing patterns and chaotic behaviors. These chaotic behaviors have the potential to encode various stimuli in the neuronal system.

  8. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (P<0.05). The relative increases were 4.1 ± 3.6 and 4.0 ± 3.7 W·kg−1 for Ppeak and Pmean respectively. These findings demonstrated the beneficial effect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  9. A dynamic marker of very short-term heartbeat under pathological states via network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Feng-Zhen; Wang, Jun; Wu, Xiao-Chuan; Yan, Fang-Rong

    2014-09-01

    We developed a novel network to probe pathological states with the aid of heartbeat time series, by regarding each vector in the embedding phase space as one node of the network and using a permutation-based measure to determine links between nodes. The entropy of the degree distribution (E_{{DD}}) of the network shows a general and significant reduction under pathological conditions, even when there are only ultra short-term heartbeats (\\approx 50\\text{ beats}) available. The reduction of E_{{DD}} is possibly a dynamic marker of cardiac disorders. Our results reveal that a comparatively strong “memory” should usually exist in the healthy cardiovascular system whereas it dramatically declines when a cardiac disease is arising. The proposed method shows great promise in screening cardiac diseases and monitoring dynamic changes of the autonomic nervous system. Besides, as a universal method for analyzing the time series, the proposed approach seems to be promising also for other research disciplines.

  10. Short Term Gains, Long Term Pains: How Cues About State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    PubMed Central

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore human learning in a dynamic decision-making task which places short- and long-term rewards in conflict. Our goal in these studies was to evaluate how people’s mental representation of a task affects their ability to discover an optimal decision strategy. We find that perceptual cues that readily align with the underlying state of the task environment help people overcome the impulsive appeal of short-term rewards. Our experimental manipulations, predictions, and analyses are motivated by current work in reinforcement learning which details how learners value delayed outcomes in sequential tasks and the importance that “state” identification plays in effective learning. PMID:19427635

  11. Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Roberson, Daniel W

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used drug in the world, commonly ingested in coffee, tea, soda, and energy drinks. Its ability to enhance muscular work has been apparent since the early 1900s. Caffeine typically increases endurance performance; however, efficacy of caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise is equivocal, which may be explained by discrepancies in exercise protocols, dosing, and subjects' training status and habitual caffeine intake found across studies. The primary aim of this review is to critically examine studies that have tested caffeine's ability to augment performance during exercise dependent on nonoxidative metabolism such as sprinting, team sports, and resistance training. A review of the literature revealed 29 studies that measured alterations in short-term performance after caffeine ingestion. Each study was critically analyzed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. The mean PEDro score was 7.76 +/- 0.87. Eleven of 17 studies revealed significant improvements in team sports exercise and power-based sports with caffeine ingestion, yet these effects were more common in elite athletes who do not regularly ingest caffeine. Six of 11 studies revealed significant benefits of caffeine for resistance training. Some studies show decreased performance with caffeine ingestion when repeated bouts are completed. The exact mechanism explaining the ergogenic effect of caffeine for short-term exercise is unknown. PMID:19924012

  12. Combined mid- and short-term optimization of multireservoir systems via dynamic programming with function approximators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacin-Busolin, Andrea; Wörman, Anders; Zmijewski, Nicholas

    2013-04-01

    A main challenge for the planning and management of water resources is the development of strategies for regulation of multireservoir systems under a complex stochastic environment. The sequential decision problem involving the release of water from multiple reservoirs depends on the stochastic variability of the hydrologic inflows over a spectrum of time scales. An important distinction is made between short-term and mid-term planning: the first is associated with regulation on the hourly scale within the one-week time horizon, whilst the second is associated with the weekly scale within the one-year horizon. Although a variety of optimization methods have been suggested, the achievement of a global optimum in the operation of large-scale systems is hindered by their high dimensional state space and by the stochastic nature of the hydrologic inflows. In this work, operational plans for multireservoir systems are derived via an approximate dynamic programming approach using a policy iteration algorithm. The algorithm is based on an off-line learning process in which policies are evaluated for a number of stochastic inflow scenarios by constructing approximations of their value functions, and the resulting value functions are used iteratively to design new, improved policies. In the mid-term planning phase, inflow scenarios are generated with a periodic autoregressive model that is calibrated against historical inflow data, and the policy iteration algorithm leads to a cyclostationary operating policy. In the short-term planning phase, the mid-term value function is used to calculate the value of a policy at the end of the short-term operating horizon, and synthetic inflow scenarios are generated by perturbing streamflow forecasts with Gaussian noise, following Zhao et al. (Water Resour. Res., 48, W01540, 2012). The variance of the noise is assumed to increase linearly over time and converges to the local variance of the historical time series. A case study is

  13. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-11-22

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  14. Laboratory and Field-Based Evaluation of Short-Term Effort with Maximal Intensity in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874

  15. Effect of Short-Term, High-Intensity Exercise on Anaerobic Threshold in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.

    This study investigated the effects of a six-week, high-intensity cycling program on anaerobic threshold (AT) in ten women. Subjects trained four days a week using high-intensity interval-type cycle exercises. Workouts included six 4-minute intervals cycling at 85 percent maximal oxygen uptake (VO sub 2 max), separated by 3-minute intervals of…

  16. Processes driving short-term temporal dynamics of small mammal distribution in human-disturbed environments.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Julie; Pothier, David; Fortin, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    As the impact of anthropogenic activities intensifies worldwide, an increasing proportion of landscape is converted to early successional stages every year. To understand and anticipate the global effects of the human footprint on wildlife, assessing short-term changes in animal populations in response to disturbance events is becoming increasingly important. We used isodar habitat selection theory to reveal the consequences of timber harvesting on the ecological processes that control the distribution dynamics of a small mammal, the red-backed vole (Myodes gapperi). The abundance of voles was estimated in pairs of cut and uncut forest stands, prior to logging and up to 2 years afterwards. A week after logging, voles did not display any preference between cut and uncut stands, and a non-significant isodar indicated that their distribution was not driven by density-dependent habitat selection. One month after harvesting, however, juvenile abundance increased in cut stands, whereas the highest proportions of reproductive females were observed in uncut stands. This distribution pattern appears to result from interference competition, with juveniles moving into cuts where there was weaker competition with adults. In fact, the emergence of source-sink dynamics between uncut and cut stands, driven by interference competition, could explain why the abundance of red-backed voles became lower in cut (the sink) than uncut (the source) stands 1-2 years after logging. Our study demonstrates that the influences of density-dependent habitat selection and interference competition in shaping animal distribution can vary frequently, and for several months, following anthropogenic disturbance. PMID:27003700

  17. Factors That Predict Short-term Intensive Care Unit Mortality in Patients With Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    BAHIRWANI, RANJEETA; GHABRIL, MARWAN; FORDE, KIMBERLY A.; CHATRATH, HEMANT; WOLF, KAREN M.; URIBE, LINDSAY; REDDY, K. RAJENDER; FUCHS, BARRY; CHALASANI, NAGA

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Despite advances in critical care medicine, the mortality rate is high among critically ill patients with cirrhosis. We aimed to identify factors that predict early (7 d) mortality among patients with cirrhosis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to develop a risk-stratification model. METHODS We collected data from patients with cirrhosis admitted to the ICU at Indiana University (IU–ICU) from December 1, 2006, through December 31, 2009 (n = 185), or at the University of Pennsylvania (Penn–ICU) from May 1, 2005, through December 31, 2010 (n = 206). Factors associated with mortality within 7 days of admission (7-d mortality) were determined by logistic regression analyses. A model was constructed based on the predictive parameters available on the first day of ICU admission in the IU–ICU cohort and then validated in the Penn–ICU cohort. RESULTS Median Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores at ICU admission were 25 in the IU–ICU cohort (interquartile range, 23–34) and 32 in the Penn–ICU cohort (interquartile range, 26–41); corresponding 7-day mortalities were 28.3% and 53.6%, respectively. MELD score (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.2) and mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% CI, 2.3–14.1) were associated independently with 7-day mortality in the IU–ICU. A model based on these 2 variables separated IU–ICU patients into low-, medium-, and high-risk groups; these groups had 7-day mortalities of 9%, 27%, and 74%, respectively (concordance index, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72– 0.87; P < 10−8). The model was applied to the Penn–ICU cohort; the low-, medium-, and high-risk groups had 7-day mortalities of 33%, 56%, and 71%, respectively (concordance index, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.59–0.74; P < 10−4). CONCLUSIONS A model based on MELD score and mechanical ventilation on day 1 can stratify risk of early mortality in patients with cirrhosis admitted to the ICU. More studies are needed to

  18. Effect of herbage depletion on short-term foraging dynamics and diet quality of steers grazing wheat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two complementary experiments were completed to assess short-term foraging dynamics, diet quality, and ruminal degradation kinetics of herbage consumed by steers with 3 level of herbage depletion. Experiment (Exp.) 1 was a behavioral study in which 3 ruminally cannulated steers were allocated to gra...

  19. Short-term low-intensity blood flow restricted interval training improves both aerobic fitness and muscle strength.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, M F M; Caputo, F; Corvino, R B; Denadai, B S

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to analyze and compare the effects of four different interval-training protocols on aerobic fitness and muscle strength. Thirty-seven subjects (23.8 ± 4 years; 171.7 ± 9.5 cm; 70 ± 11 kg) were assigned to one of four groups: low-intensity interval training with (BFR, n = 10) or without (LOW, n = 7) blood flow restriction, high-intensity interval training (HIT, n = 10), and combined HIT and BFR (BFR + HIT, n = 10, every session performed 50% as BFR and 50% as HIT). Before and after 4 weeks training (3 days a week), the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max ), maximal power output (Pmax ), onset blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and muscle strength were measured for all subjects. All training groups were able to improve OBLA (BFR, 16%; HIT, 25%; HIT + BFR, 22%; LOW, 6%), with no difference between groups. However, VO2max and Pmax improved only for BFR (6%, 12%), HIT (9%, 15%) and HIT + BFR (6%, 11%), with no difference between groups. Muscle strength gains were only observed after BFR training (11%). This study demonstrates the advantage of short-term low-intensity interval BFR training as the single mode of training able to simultaneously improve aerobic fitness and muscular strength. PMID:26369387

  20. Short term outcome of posterior dynamic stabilization system in degenerative lumbar diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Chao; Chen, Ziqiang; Bai, Yushu; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background: Decompression and fusion is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for the treatment of degenerative lumbar diseases, however, many disadvantages have been reported in several studies, recently like donor site pain, pseudoarthrosis, nonunion, screw loosening, instrumentation failure, infection, adjacent segment disease (ASDis) and degeneration. Dynamic neutralization system (Dynesys) avoids many of these disadvantages. This system is made up of pedicle screws, polyethylene terephthalate cords, and polycarbonate urethane spacers to stabilize the functional spinal unit and preserve the adjacent motion after surgeries. This was a retrospective cohort study to compare the effect of Dynesys for treating degenerative lumbar diseases with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) based on short term followup. Materials and Methods: Seventy five consecutive patients of lumbar degenerative disease operated between October 2010 and November 2012 were studied with a minimum followup of 2 years. Patients were divided into two groups according to the different surgeries. 30 patients underwent decompression and implantation of Dynesys in two levels (n = 29) or three levels (n = 1) and 45 patients underwent PLIF in two levels (n = 39) or three levels (n = 6). Clinical and radiographic outcomes between two groups were reviewed. Results: Thirty patients (male:17, female:13) with a mean age of 55.96 ± 7.68 years were included in Dynesys group and the PLIF group included 45 patients (male:21, female:24) with a mean age of 54.69 ± 3.26 years. The average followup in Dynesys group and PLIF group was 2.22 ± 0.43 year (range 2-3.5 year) and 2.17 ± 0.76 year (range 2-3 year), respectively. Dynesys group showed a shorter operation time (141.06 ± 11.36 min vs. 176.98 ± 6.72 min, P < 0.001) and less intraoperative blood loss (386.76 ± 19.44 ml vs. 430.11 ± 24.72 ml, P < 0.001). For Dynesys group, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain improved from 6.87 ± 0

  1. The importance of the short-term leaching dynamics of wood preservatives.

    PubMed

    Hingston, J A; Moore, J; Bacon, A; Lester, J N; Murphy, R J; Collins, C D

    2002-05-01

    The potential environmental impacts from the use of treated timber in aquatic areas is under scrutiny as a result of environmental legislation and reports of the deleterious environmental effects around treated structures. In this study leaching experiments of up to 3 weeks duration were conducted on two species of chromated copper arsenate treated timber, dried for different periods of time. Increased drying time significantly reduced leaching of Cr and As. The addition of a synthetic humic acid increased leaching of Cu and As, but reduced leaching of Cr. Putative risk assessments conducted using short-term copper leaching data suggested protocol design may influence decisions made regarding the environmental acceptability of such preservatives. PMID:11996127

  2. Short term prediction of dynamic hydra precipitation activity using a microwave radiometer over Eastern Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S.

    2015-12-01

    First ever study of the feasibility of ground based radiometric study to predict a very short term based rain precipitation study has been conducted in eastern Himalaya, Darjeeling (27.01°N, 88.15°E, 2200 masl). Short term prediction or nowcasting relates to forecasting convective precipitation for time periods less than a few hours to avoid its effect on agriculture, aviation and lifestyle. Theoretical models involving radiometric predictions are not well understood and lack in temporal and spatial resolution. In this study specific utilization of a microwave Radiometer (Radiometrics Corporation, USA) for online monitoring of precipitable rainfall activity has been observed repeatability of data has been established. Previous few studies have shown the increase of water vapour and corresponding Brightness Temperature, but in mountain climatic conditions over Darjeeling, due to presence of fog 90 % of the year, water vapour monitoring related predictions can lead to false alarms. The measurement of blackbody emission noise in the bands of 23.8 GHz and 31.4 GHz, using a quadratic regression retrieval algorithm is converted to atmospheric parameters like integrated water vapour and liquid water content. It has been found in our study that the liquid water shows significant activity prior to precipitation events even for mild and stratiform rainfall. The alarm can be generated well 20 mins before the commencement of actual rain events even in the upper atmosphere of 6 Kms, measured by a rain radar also operating in 24 Ghz microwave band. Although few rain events were found and reported which do not respond in the microwave liquid water channel. Efforts to identify such rain events and their possible explanation is going on and shall be reported in near future. Such studies are important to predict flash flooding in the Himalayas. Darjeeling owing to its geographical conditions experiences mild to very heavy rain. Such studies help improve aspects of Himalayas as

  3. Short-term dynamics of indoor and outdoor endotoxin exposure: Case of Santiago, Chile, 2012.

    PubMed

    Barraza, Francisco; Jorquera, Héctor; Heyer, Johanna; Palma, Wilfredo; Edwards, Ana María; Muñoz, Marcelo; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Montoya, Lupita D

    2016-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor endotoxin in PM2.5 was measured for the very first time in Santiago, Chile, in spring 2012. Average endotoxin concentrations were 0.099 and 0.094 [EU/m(3)] for indoor (N=44) and outdoor (N=41) samples, respectively; the indoor-outdoor correlation (log-transformed concentrations) was low: R=-0.06, 95% CI: (-0.35 to 0.24), likely owing to outdoor spatial variability. A linear regression model explained 68% of variability in outdoor endotoxins, using as predictors elemental carbon (a proxy of traffic emissions), chlorine (a tracer of marine air masses reaching the city) and relative humidity (a modulator of surface emissions of dust, vegetation and garbage debris). In this study, for the first time a potential source contribution function (PSCF) was applied to outdoor endotoxin measurements. Wind trajectory analysis identified upwind agricultural sources as contributors to the short-term, outdoor endotoxin variability. Our results confirm an association between combustion particles from traffic and outdoor endotoxin concentrations. For indoor endotoxins, a predictive model was developed but it only explained 44% of endotoxin variability; the significant predictors were tracers of indoor PM2.5 dust (Si, Ca), number of external windows and number of hours with internal doors open. Results suggest that short-term indoor endotoxin variability may be driven by household dust/garbage production and handling. This would explain the modest predictive performance of published models that use answers to household surveys as predictors. One feasible alternative is to increase the sampling period so that household features would arise as significant predictors of long-term airborne endotoxin levels. PMID:27065310

  4. Medial superior olivary neurons receive surprisingly few excitatory and inhibitory inputs with balanced strength and short-term dynamics.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Kiri; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2010-12-15

    Neurons in the medial superior olive (MSO) process microsecond interaural time differences, the major cue for localizing low-frequency sounds, by comparing the relative arrival time of binaural, glutamatergic excitatory inputs. This coincidence detection mechanism is additionally shaped by highly specialized glycinergic inhibition. Traditionally, it is assumed that the binaural inputs are conveyed by many independent fibers, but such an anatomical arrangement may decrease temporal precision. Short-term depression on the other hand might enhance temporal fidelity during ongoing activity. For the first time we show that binaural coincidence detection in MSO neurons may require surprisingly few but strong inputs, challenging long-held assumptions about mammalian coincidence detection. This study exclusively uses adult gerbils for in vitro electrophysiology, single-cell electroporation and immunohistochemistry to characterize the size and short-term plasticity of inputs to the MSO. We find that the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to the MSO are well balanced both in strength and short-term dynamics, redefining this fastest of all mammalian coincidence detector circuits. PMID:21159981

  5. Dynamical downscaling of short-term climate fluctuations: On the benefits of precipitation assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, Ana M. B.; Roads, John O.

    2009-06-01

    Regional downscaling has proven useful in adding details to the global solution. However, the parameterized physical processes can systematically deviate the large-scale features in the regional solution. To demonstrate the precipitation assimilation beneficial impact on the dynamical downscaling, a regional spectral model driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/Department of Energy Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project II (NCEP/DOE AMIP-II) Reanalysis was used to downscale the large-scale features over most of North America. The North American Regional Reanalysis provided the 3-hourly precipitation rates that the regional model employed to simulate two opposite extreme climate events: the upper Mississippi River Basin 1988 drought and 1993 floods. In addition to these two cases, the 1990 summer anomalous precipitation over the same area was also investigated. Precipitation assimilation positively influences the dynamical downscaling of these extreme climate events. The regional model when assimilating precipitation was particularly successful in reproducing the observed precipitation patterns over the central United States, where the large-scale circulation affects the precipitation variability. Particularly for the flood year, the intensity and location of the subtropical upper-level westerly jet and its associated transverse circulations were noticeably improved in the regional simulations, where the heavy precipitation core was found. This also suggests that the cumulus convection scheme, in this case the Relaxed Arakawa-Schubert parameterization scheme, can cause the large-scale features to drift during the regional simulation, and precipitation assimilation reduces this departure from the global solution. These changes in the upper-level winds were also followed by better characterization of the drought of 1988 as well as the 1990 summer heavy precipitation simulation, in comparison to regional control simulations, where precipitation

  6. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the deterministic Tsodyks–Markram model leads to unpredictable network dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Jesus M.; Desroches, Mathieu; Rodrigues, Serafim; Veltz, Romain; Muñoz, Miguel A.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity strongly affects the neural dynamics of cortical networks. The Tsodyks and Markram (TM) model for short-term synaptic plasticity accurately accounts for a wide range of physiological responses at different types of cortical synapses. Here, we report a route to chaotic behavior via a Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation that dynamically organizes some of the responses in the TM model. In particular, the presence of such a homoclinic bifurcation strongly affects the shape of the trajectories in the phase space and induces highly irregular transient dynamics; indeed, in the vicinity of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation, the number of population spikes and their precise timing are unpredictable and highly sensitive to the initial conditions. Such an irregular deterministic dynamics has its counterpart in stochastic/network versions of the TM model: The existence of the Shilnikov homoclinic bifurcation generates complex and irregular spiking patterns and—acting as a sort of springboard—facilitates transitions between the down-state and unstable periodic orbits. The interplay between the (deterministic) homoclinic bifurcation and stochastic effects may give rise to some of the complex dynamics observed in neural systems. PMID:24062464

  7. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons

    PubMed Central

    Toutounji, Hazem; Pasemann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with 18 degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot. PMID:24904403

  8. Behavior control in the sensorimotor loop with short-term synaptic dynamics induced by self-regulating neurons.

    PubMed

    Toutounji, Hazem; Pasemann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The behavior and skills of living systems depend on the distributed control provided by specialized and highly recurrent neural networks. Learning and memory in these systems is mediated by a set of adaptation mechanisms, known collectively as neuronal plasticity. Translating principles of recurrent neural control and plasticity to artificial agents has seen major strides, but is usually hampered by the complex interactions between the agent's body and its environment. One of the important standing issues is for the agent to support multiple stable states of behavior, so that its behavioral repertoire matches the requirements imposed by these interactions. The agent also must have the capacity to switch between these states in time scales that are comparable to those by which sensory stimulation varies. Achieving this requires a mechanism of short-term memory that allows the neurocontroller to keep track of the recent history of its input, which finds its biological counterpart in short-term synaptic plasticity. This issue is approached here by deriving synaptic dynamics in recurrent neural networks. Neurons are introduced as self-regulating units with a rich repertoire of dynamics. They exhibit homeostatic properties for certain parameter domains, which result in a set of stable states and the required short-term memory. They can also operate as oscillators, which allow them to surpass the level of activity imposed by their homeostatic operation conditions. Neural systems endowed with the derived synaptic dynamics can be utilized for the neural behavior control of autonomous mobile agents. The resulting behavior depends also on the underlying network structure, which is either engineered or developed by evolutionary techniques. The effectiveness of these self-regulating units is demonstrated by controlling locomotion of a hexapod with 18 degrees of freedom, and obstacle-avoidance of a wheel-driven robot. PMID:24904403

  9. Temporal resilience and dynamics of anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities to short-term changes in methane partial pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klasek, S.; Tiantian, Y.; Torres, M. E.; Colwell, F. S.; Wang, F.; Liang, L.

    2015-12-01

    Marine sediments produce tens to hundreds of teragrams of methane annually, which is released from the seabed at thousands of cold seeps distributed globally along continental margins. Around 80-90% of this methane is consumed in shallower sediment layers before reaching the hydrosphere, in a microbially-mediated process known as anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) However, cold seeps appear to exhibit temporal variation in gas flux intensity, and AOM filter efficiency at cold seeps generally decreases with fluid flow rate. To our knowledge, the degree to which temporal heterogeneity in subsurface methane flux stimulates AOM community growth and adaptation to increased methane concentrations has not been investigated. Static high-pressure bioreactors were used to incubate sulfate-methane transition zone (SMTZ) and methanogenic zone sediments underlying a Mediterranean mud volcano gas flare under in situ temperature and pressure at 8 MPa methane. Sulfide production rates of 0.4 μmol/cm3/day in both sediment regimes after 4 months of incubation suggested the resilience of the marine subsurface methane filter may extend well below the SMTZ (40 cm). Similar incubations of SMTZ samples from below a gas flare off Svalbard at saturating (3.8 MPa) and 0.2 MPa methane are being sampled after 1 week, 4 weeks, and 4 months; sulfide production rates of 8-18 nmol/cm3/day were first observed after 4 weeks of incubation. Sediment samples at all specified time points for both sets of incubations were collected for nucleic acid extraction and cell fixation. Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are expected dominant taxa in enriched and non-enriched communities. 16S rDNA community analysis is expected to reveal additional microbial players involved in the short-term adaptation to higher methane partial pressures in the marine subsurface. Increased AOM community activity (RNA/DNA ratio) and copy numbers of methane cycling transcripts (mcr

  10. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-01-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2′-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  11. Effects of treadmill exercise-intensity on short-term memory in the rats born of the lipopolysaccharide-exposed maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijeong; Sung, Yun-Hee; Seo, Jin-Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Lee, Choong-Yeol; Chung, Yong-Rak

    2015-12-01

    Maternal infection is an important factor causing neonatal brain injury and later developmental disability. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise intensity on short-term memory, hippocampal neurogenesis, and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) in the rats born of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-exposed maternal rats. The rats were divided into six groups: control group, mild-intensity exercise group, moderate-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed group, maternal LPS-exposed and mild-intensity exercise group, maternal LPS-exposed and moderate-intensity exercise group. The rats in the exercise groups were forced to run on a treadmill for 30 min 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The exercise load consisted of running at the speed of 8 m/min for the mild-intensity exercise groups and 14 m/min for moderate-intensity exercise groups. The latency in the step-down avoidance task was deter-mined for the short-term memory. Immunohistochemistry for 5-bro-mo-2'-deoxyuridine was performed to determine hippocampal cell proliferation and neurogenesis. Western blot analysis was performed for the detection of BDNF and TrkB expression. In the present study, tread-mill exercise improved short-term memory deteriorated by maternal LPS exposure. Treadmill exercise increased cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. Treadmill exercise increased BDNF and TrkB expression in the hippocampus of the rats born of the LPS-exposed maternal rats. These effects of treadmill exercise were similarly appeared at both mild-intensity and moderate-intensity. PMID:26730379

  12. Proteome Dynamics and Physiological Responses to Short-Term Salt Stress in Brassica napus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    He, Yongjun; Guan, Rongzhan; Chu, Pu; Jiang, Haidong

    2015-01-01

    Salt stress limits plant growth and crop productivity and is an increasing threat to agriculture worldwide. In this study, proteomic and physiological responses of Brassica napus leaves under salt stress were investigated. Seedlings under salt treatment showed growth inhibition and photosynthesis reduction. A comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h was conducted. Forty-four protein spots were differentially accumulated upon NaCl treatment and 42 of them were identified, including several novel salt-responsive proteins. To determine the functional roles of these proteins in salt adaptation, their dynamic changes in abundance were analyzed. The results suggested that the up-accumulated proteins, which were associated with protein metabolism, damage repair and defense response, might contribute to the alleviation of the deleterious effect of salt stress on chlorophyll biosynthesis, photosynthesis, energy synthesis and respiration in Brassica napus leaves. This study will lead to a better understanding of the molecular basis of salt stress adaptation in Brassica napus and provides a basis for genetic engineering of plants with improved salt tolerance in the future. PMID:26691228

  13. The relation between short-term emotion dynamics and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Marlies; Van Den Noortgate, Wim; Kuppens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Not only how good or bad people feel on average, but also how their feelings fluctuate across time is crucial for psychological health. The last 2 decades have witnessed a surge in research linking various patterns of short-term emotional change to adaptive or maladaptive psychological functioning, often with conflicting results. A meta-analysis was performed to identify consistent relationships between patterns of short-term emotion dynamics-including patterns reflecting emotional variability (measured in terms of within-person standard deviation of emotions across time), emotional instability (measured in terms of the magnitude of consecutive emotional changes), and emotional inertia of emotions over time (measured in terms of autocorrelation)-and relatively stable indicators of psychological well-being or psychopathology. We determined how such relationships are moderated by the type of emotional change, type of psychological well-being or psychopathology involved, valence of the emotion, and methodological factors. A total of 793 effect sizes were identified from 79 articles (N = 11,381) and were subjected to a 3-level meta-analysis. The results confirmed that overall, low psychological well-being co-occurs with more variable (overall ρ̂ = -.178), unstable (overall ρ̂ = -.205), but also more inert (overall ρ̂ = -.151) emotions. These effect sizes were stronger when involving negative compared with positive emotions. Moreover, the results provided evidence for consistency across different types of psychological well-being and psychopathology in their relation with these dynamical patterns, although specificity was also observed. The findings demonstrate that psychological flourishing is characterized by specific patterns of emotional fluctuations across time, and provide insight into what constitutes optimal and suboptimal emotional functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25822133

  14. Lost and found: Short-term dynamics of the flora on 100 small islands in the White Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipunov, Alexey; Volkova, Polina; Abramova, Liudmila; Borisova, Polina

    2013-10-01

    The aim was to uncover factors that influence short-term (decade) flora dynamics and species richness of northern marine islets characterized by poor flora and weak anthropogenic pressure. The study used presence-absence data of vascular plant species on 100 small uprising islets of the Kandalaksha Gulf of White Sea (Northern Karelia, Russia). We investigated the influence of islands' attributes on species richness and rates of flora dynamics. Two island types were analyzed separately: younger, stone-like and older, islet-like (which generally are larger and have higher diversity of habitats). Sampled islands were studied via classical biogeographical per island approach and metapopulation per species approach. Stone-like islands had noticeably poorer flora with higher rates of immigration and extinction when compared to those of islet-like islands. The species number for islet-like islands correlated positively with number of habitats, abundance of different habitat types and island area. Species richness of stone-like islands correlated positively only with number of habitat types. Plant species associated with birds, crowberry thickets and coastal rocks were the most stable, and the species of disturbed habitats were significantly less stable. Floristic changes that have occurred have been caused by the massive establishment of new species rather than the extinction of pre-existing taxa. Thus, most of these islands are still in the colonization (assortative) stage. While we found no relationship between island area and species number for stone-like islands, this relationship was seen on islet-like islands.

  15. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E; Bourne, Jessica E; Voth, Elizabeth; Little, Jonathan P

    2015-09-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P < 0.001) and lowered plasma fructosamine (P < 0.05). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4) expression was reduced on lymphocytes and monocytes after both HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05) and on neutrophils after MICT (P < 0.01). TLR2 on lymphocytes was reduced after HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05). Plasma inflammatory cytokines were unchanged after training in both groups, but MICT led to a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05, 5.9 ± 1.0 vs. 5.6 ± 1.0 mmol/l, pre vs. post). Ten days of either HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  16. Short-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training reduce leukocyte TLR4 in inactive adults at elevated risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily; Durrer, Cody; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Jung, Mary E.; Bourne, Jessica E.; Voth, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can have anti-inflammatory effects in obesity, but the optimal type and intensity of exercise are not clear. This study compared short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in terms of improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, markers of inflammation, and glucose control in previously inactive adults at elevated risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Thirty-nine inactive, overweight/obese adults (32 women) were randomly assigned to 10 sessions over 2 wk of progressive HIIT (n = 20, four to ten 1-min sessions at ∼90% peak heart rate, 1-min rest periods) or MICT (n = 19, 20-50 min at ∼65% peak heart rate). Before and 3 days after training, participants performed a peak O2 uptake test, and fasting blood samples were obtained. Both HIIT (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 1.9 ± 0.4 l/min, pre vs. post) and MICT (1.8 ± 0.5 vs. 1.9 ± 0.5 l/min, pre vs. post) improved peak O2 uptake (P < 0.001) and lowered plasma fructosamine (P < 0.05). Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 (TLR4) expression was reduced on lymphocytes and monocytes after both HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05) and on neutrophils after MICT (P < 0.01). TLR2 on lymphocytes was reduced after HIIT and MICT (P < 0.05). Plasma inflammatory cytokines were unchanged after training in both groups, but MICT led to a reduction in fasting plasma glucose (P < 0.05, 5.9 ± 1.0 vs. 5.6 ± 1.0 mmol/l, pre vs. post). Ten days of either HIIT or MICT can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and glucose control and lead to reductions in TLR2 and TLR4 expression. MICT, which involved a longer duration of exercise, may be superior for reducing fasting glucose. PMID:26139217

  17. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  18. Short-term Variability in Outpatient Pain Intensity Scores in a National Sample of Older Veterans with Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Dobscha, Steven K.; Morasco, Benjamin J.; Kovas, Anne E.; Peters, Dawn M.; Hart, Kyle; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) uses the 11-point pain numeric rating scale (NRS) to gather pain intensity information from veterans at outpatient appointments. Yet, little is known about how NRS scores may vary over time within individuals; NRS variability may have important ramifications for treatment planning. Our main objective was to describe variability in NRS scores within a one-month timeframe, as obtained during routine outpatient care in older patients with chronic pain treated in VA hospitals. A secondary objective was to explore for patient characteristics associated with within-month NRS score variability. Design Retrospective cohort study. Subjects National sample of veterans 65 years or older seen in VA in 2010 who had multiple elevated NRS scores indicating chronic pain. Methods VA datasets were used to identify the sample and demographic and clinical variables including NRS scores. For the main analysis, we identified subjects with 2 or more NRS scores obtained in each of 2 or more months in a 12 month period; we examined ranges in NRS scores across the first 2 qualifying months. Results Among 4,336 individuals in the main analysis cohort, the mean and median of the average NRS score range across the two months were 2.7 and 2.5, respectively. In multivariable models, main significant predictors of within-month NRS score variability were baseline pain intensity, overall medical comorbidity, and being divorced/separated. Conclusions The majority of patients in the sample had clinically meaningful variation in pain scores within a given month. This finding highlights the need for clinicians and their patients to consider multiple NRS scores when making chronic pain treatment decisions. PMID:25545398

  19. Monitoring of cadmium influence on ultra short-term growth dynamics of plants using a highly sensitive interferometric technique, SIT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Kokge T. K. M.; Kadono, Hirofumi

    2015-08-01

    Cadmium(Cd) is an environmental contaminant heavy metal having high toxicity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of Cd on growth dynamics of plants in the order of sub-nanometers, using a novel optical interference technique, named as Statistical Interferometry Technique(SIT). In this study, a special attention is paid to the short-term growth fluctuation in measurements of the in-plane displacement of the leaf. In the experiments, Chinese chives(Allium Tuberosum) were used as samples, and the growth and its nanometric growth fluctuations were measured for Cd exposure. This nanometric fluctuation that was found in our previous study, is an intrinsic property of the plant and is referred to as nanometric intrinsic fluctuations(NIF). The effect of Cd on plant growth fluctuation, i.e., NIF of growth rate was observed for three days continuously by exposing their roots to four CdCl2 concentrations 0, 0.001, 0.01, and 0.1mM. The standard deviation(SD) of NIF of healthy leaf was 4.0nm/mm sec, and it reduced to 3.1nm/mm sec and 1.8nm/mm sec after 6 hours and 54 hours after exposing to 0.1mM Cd, respectively. For smaller concentration of 0.01mM, less reduction in SD of NIF was confirmed compared to those for 0.1mM. In addition, under 0.001mM, a significant recovery could be observed after a rapid reduction in the first 6 hours. The results imply that NIF can be a measure for heavy metal stress and is sensitive enough to detect the influence of smaller amount of Cd(from 0.001mM to 0.1mM) on plants in a very early stage.

  20. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  1. Short-Term Gains, Long-Term Pains: How Cues about State Aid Learning in Dynamic Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gureckis, Todd M.; Love, Bradley C.

    2009-01-01

    Successful investors seeking returns, animals foraging for food, and pilots controlling aircraft all must take into account how their current decisions will impact their future standing. One challenge facing decision makers is that options that appear attractive in the short-term may not turn out best in the long run. In this paper, we explore…

  2. A model of order-selectivity based on dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition produced by short-term synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Goudar, Vishwa

    2014-01-01

    Determining the order of sensory events separated by a few hundred milliseconds is critical to many forms of sensory processing, including vocalization and speech discrimination. Although many experimental studies have recorded from auditory order-sensitive and order-selective neurons, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that universal properties of cortical synapses—short-term synaptic plasticity of excitatory and inhibitory synapses—are well suited for the generation of order-selective neural responses. Using computational models of canonical disynaptic circuits, we show that the dynamic changes in the balance of excitation and inhibition imposed by short-term plasticity lead to the generation of order-selective responses. Parametric analyses predict that among the forms of short-term plasticity expressed at excitatory-to-excitatory, excitatory-to-inhibitory, and inhibitory-to-excitatory synapses, the single most important contributor to order-selectivity is the paired-pulse depression of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs). A topographic model of the auditory cortex that incorporates short-term plasticity accounts for both context-dependent suppression and enhancement in response to paired tones. Together these results provide a framework to account for an important computational problem based on ubiquitous synaptic properties that did not yet have a clearly established computational function. Additionally, these studies suggest that disynaptic circuits represent a fundamental computational unit that is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information. PMID:25339707

  3. Dynamics of the human linear vestibulo-ocular reflex at medium frequency and modification by short-term training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelhamer, M.; Roberts, D. C.; Zee, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We study here the effect of a short-term training paradigm on the gain and phase of the human translational VOR (the linear VOR: LVOR). Subjects were exposed to lateral sinusoidal translations on a sled, at 0.5 Hz, 0.3 g peak acceleration. With subjects tracking a remembered target at 1.2 m, the LVOR (slow-phase) under these conditions typically has a phase lead or lag, and a gain that falls short of compensatory. To induce short-term adaptation (training), we presented an earth-fixed visual scene at 1.2 m during sinusoidal translation (x 1 viewing) for 20 minutes, so as to drive the LVOR toward compensatory phase and gain. We examined both the slow-phase and the saccadic responses to these stimuli. Testing after training showed changes in slow-component gain and phase which were mostly but not always in the compensatory direction. These changes were more consistent in naive subjects than in subjects who had previous LVOR experience. Changes in gain were seen with step as well as sinusoidal test stimuli; gain changes were not correlated with vergence changes. There was a strong correlation between gain changes and phase changes across subjects. Fast phases (catch-up saccades) formed a large component of the LVOR under our testing conditions (approximately 30% of the changes in gain but not in phase due to training.

  4. Short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  5. Predictors of sustained drug-free diabetes remission over 48 weeks following short-term intensive insulin therapy in early type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Caroline K; Zinman, Bernard; Choi, Haysook; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Objective In early type 2 diabetes (T2DM), short-term intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for 2–4 weeks can decrease insulin resistance, reduce glucagonemia, improve β-cell function, and even induce a remission of diabetes that can last up to 1 year in some patients. However, little is known about the predictors of such a sustained remission. Methods We evaluated data from the placebo arm of a double-blind randomized controlled trial in which patients with early T2DM (≤7 years duration) underwent 4 weeks of IIT (basal detemir, bolus aspart), followed by placebo therapy for 48 weeks (n=25). Participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test every 12 weeks, enabling serial assessment of insulin sensitivity, α-cell response, and β-cell function. Diabetes remission was defined as A1c<6.5% on no medication for T2DM. Results At 48 weeks post-IIT, 56% of the participants remained in remission. Comparison of remitters to non-remitters revealed no differences in waist, body mass index, insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index), or glucagon profile, either at baseline or over 48 weeks. Compared to non-remitters, the remission group had lower baseline A1c (p=0.006) and better baseline β-cell function (Insulin Secretion-Sensitivity Index-2) (p=0.01) that was then sustained across 48 weeks post-IIT (p=0.006). On logistic regression analyses, however, shorter duration of diabetes supplanted baseline A1c (p=0.24) and β-cell function (p=0.19) as an independent predictor of remission (p=0.04). In particular, diabetes duration <2 years predicted persistence of remission (p=0.006). Conclusions The key determinant of the likelihood of inducing sustained drug-free diabetes remission with short-term IIT is early intervention, particularly within the first 2 years after diagnosis. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT01270789; Post-results. PMID:27547422

  6. Impact of Short-Term Acidification on Nitrification and Nitrifying Bacterial Community Dynamics in Soilless Cultivation Media

    PubMed Central

    Levkovitch, Irit; Negreanu, Yael; Dowd, Scot; Frenk, Sammy; Silber, Avner

    2012-01-01

    Soilless medium-based horticulture systems are highly prevalent due to their capacity to optimize growth of high-cash crops. However, these systems are highly dynamic and more sensitive to physiochemical and pH perturbations than traditional soil-based systems, especially during nitrification associated with ammonia-based fertilization. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nitrification-generated acidification on ammonia oxidation rates and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in soilless growth media. To achieve this goal, perlite soilless growth medium from a commercial bell pepper greenhouse was incubated with ammonium in bench-scale microcosm experiments. Initial quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing archaea, and therefore, research focused on this group. Ammonia oxidation rates were highest between 0 and 9 days, when pH values dropped from 7.4 to 4.9. Pyrosequencing of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing amoA gene fragments indicated that r-strategist-like Nitrosomonas was the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterial genus during this period, seemingly due to the high ammonium concentration and optimal growth conditions in the soilless media. Reduction of pH to levels below 4.8 resulted in a significant decrease in both ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with increased relative abundance of the r-strategist-like Nitrosospira. Nitrite oxidizers (Nitrospira and Nitrobacter) were on the whole more abundant and less sensitive to acidification than ammonia oxidizers. This study demonstrates that nitrification and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in high-N-load intensive soilless growth media may be significantly different from those in in-terra agricultural systems. PMID:22773643

  7. Impact of short-term acidification on nitrification and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in soilless cultivation media.

    PubMed

    Cytryn, Eddie; Levkovitch, Irit; Negreanu, Yael; Dowd, Scot; Frenk, Sammy; Silber, Avner

    2012-09-01

    Soilless medium-based horticulture systems are highly prevalent due to their capacity to optimize growth of high-cash crops. However, these systems are highly dynamic and more sensitive to physiochemical and pH perturbations than traditional soil-based systems, especially during nitrification associated with ammonia-based fertilization. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of nitrification-generated acidification on ammonia oxidation rates and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in soilless growth media. To achieve this goal, perlite soilless growth medium from a commercial bell pepper greenhouse was incubated with ammonium in bench-scale microcosm experiments. Initial quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that betaproteobacterial ammonia oxidizers were significantly more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing archaea, and therefore, research focused on this group. Ammonia oxidation rates were highest between 0 and 9 days, when pH values dropped from 7.4 to 4.9. Pyrosequencing of betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing amoA gene fragments indicated that r-strategist-like Nitrosomonas was the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacterial genus during this period, seemingly due to the high ammonium concentration and optimal growth conditions in the soilless media. Reduction of pH to levels below 4.8 resulted in a significant decrease in both ammonia oxidation rates and the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, with increased relative abundance of the r-strategist-like Nitrosospira. Nitrite oxidizers (Nitrospira and Nitrobacter) were on the whole more abundant and less sensitive to acidification than ammonia oxidizers. This study demonstrates that nitrification and nitrifying bacterial community dynamics in high-N-load intensive soilless growth media may be significantly different from those in in-terra agricultural systems. PMID:22773643

  8. Quantification of the ice-cored moraines' short-term dynamics in the high-Arctic glaciers Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewertowski, Marek W.; Tomczyk, Aleksandra M.

    2015-04-01

    Extensive ice-cored moraine complexes are common elements, marking the last advance of many Svalbard glaciers. Sediment gravity flows are among the most dynamic processes, transforming these landforms. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. We monitored several active sites on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near Petuniabukta at the northern end of Billefjorden in Spitsbergen. The surveys indicate high dynamic rates of landforms' transformation. The mean annual volume loss of sediments and dead-ice for the most active parts of the moraines was up to 1.8 m a- 1. However, most of the transformation occurred during summer, with the short-term values of mean elevation changes as high as - 104 mm day- 1. In comparison, the dynamics of the other (i.e. non-active) parts of the ice-cored moraines were much lower, namely, the mean annual lowering (attributed mainly to dead-ice downwasting) was up to 0.3 m a-1, whereas lowering during summer was up to 8 mm day- 1. Our results indicate that in the case of the studied glaciers, backwasting was much more effective than downwasting in terms of landscape transformation in the glacier forelands. However, despite the high activity of localised mass movement processes, the overall short-term dynamics of ice-cored moraines for the studied glaciers were relatively low. We suggest that as long as debris cover is sufficiently thick (thicker than the permafrost's active layer depths), the mass movement activity would occur only under specific topographic conditions and/or due to occurrence of external meltwater sources and slope undercutting. In other areas, ice-cored moraines remain a stable landsystem component in a yearly to decadal time-scale.

  9. The influence of training and maturity status on girls' responses to short-term, high-intensity upper- and lower-body exercise.

    PubMed

    McNarry, Melitta A; Welsman, Joanne R; Jones, Andrew M

    2011-06-01

    A maturational threshold has been suggested to be present in young peoples' responses to exercise, with significant influences of training status evidenced only above this threshold. The presence of such a threshold has not been investigated for short-term, high-intensity exercise. To address this, we investigated the relationship between swim-training status and maturity on the power output, pulmonary gas exchange, and metabolic responses to an upper- and lower-body Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Girls at 3 stages of maturity participated:, prepubertal (Pre: 8 trained (T), 10 untrained (UT)), pubertal (Pub: 9 T, 15 UT), and postpubertal (Post: 8 T, 10 UT). At all maturity stages, T exhibited higher peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) during upper-body exercise (PP: Pre, T, 163 ± 20 vs. UT, 124 ± 29; Pub, T, 230 ± 42 vs. UT, 173 ± 41; Post, T, 245 ± 41 vs. UT, 190 ± 40 W; MP: Pre, T, 130 ± 23 vs. UT, 85 ± 26; Pub, T, 184 ± 37 vs. UT, 123 ± 38; Post, T, 200 ± 30 vs. UT, 150 ± 15 W; all p < 0.05) but not lower-body exercise, whilst the fatigue index was significantly lower in T for both exercise modalities. Irrespective of maturity, the oxidative contribution, calculated by the area under the oxygen uptake response profile, was not influenced by training status. No interaction was evident between training status and maturity, with similar magnitudes of difference between T and UT at all 3 maturity stages. These results suggest that there is no maturational threshold which must be surpassed for significant influences of training status to be manifest in the "anaerobic" exercise performance of young girls. PMID:21574781

  10. Dynamical Behavior of Discrete Bubble and Heat Transfer of Nucleate Pool Boiling in Short-Term Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jian-Fu

    2012-07-01

    Boiling in microgravity is an increasing significant subject of investigation. Motivation for the study comes not only from many potential space applications due to its high efficiency to transfer high heat flux with liquid-vapor phase change, but also from powerful platform of microgravity to reveal the mechanism of heat transfer underneath the phenomenon of boiling. In the present paper, the growth of a discrete bubble during nucleate pool boiling and heat transfer in short-term microgravity is studied experimentally utilizing the drop tower Beijing. A P-doped N-type square silicon chip with the dimensions of 10x10x0.5 mm ^{3} was used as the heater. Two 0.25-mm diameters copper wires for power supply was soldered to the side surfaces of the chip at the opposite ends. The normal resistant of the chip is 75 Ω. The chip was heated by using Joule effect. A D.C. power supply of constant current was used to input energy to the heater element. A 0.12-mm diameter, T-type thermocouple adhered on the centre of the backside of the chip was used for the measurement of wall temperature, while two other T-type thermocouples were used for the bulk liquid temperature. FC-72 was used as working fluid. The concentration of air was determined by using Henry law as 0.0046 moles gas/mole liquid. The pressure and the bulk liquid temperature in the boiling chamber were nominally 102.0 kPa and 12.0 °C, respectively. The shapes of the bubbles were recorded using a high speed camera at a speed of 250 fps with a shutter speed of 1/2000 s. Based on the image manipulation, the effective diameter of the discrete bubble is obtained. The experiments were conducted utilizing the drop tower Beijing, which can provide a short-term microgravity condition. The residual gravity of 10 ^{-2 ... -3} g _{0} can be maintained throughout the short duration of 3.6 s. To avoid the influence of natural convection in normal gravity environment, the heating switched on at the release of the drop capsule

  11. Microbial dynamics in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor granules in response to short-term changes in substrate feed

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacik, William P.; Scholten, Johannes C.; Culley, David E.; Hickey, Robert; Zhang, Weiwen; Brockman, Fred J.

    2010-08-01

    The complexity and diversity of the microbial communities in biogranules from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) bioreactor were determined in response to short-term changes in substrate feeds. The reactor was fed simulated brewery wastewater (SBWW) (70% ethanol, 15% acetate, 15% propionate) for 1.5 months (phase 1), acetate / sulfate for 2 months (phase 2), acetate-alone for 3 months (phase 3), and then a return to SBWW for 2 months (phase 4). Performance of the reactor remained relatively stable throughout the experiment as shown by COD removal and gas production. 16S rDNA, methanogen-associated mcrA and sulfate reducer-associated dsrAB genes were PCR amplified, then cloned and sequenced. Sequence analysis of 16S clone libraries showed a relatively simple community composed mainly of the methanogenic Archaea (Methanobacterium and Methanosaeta), members of the Green Non-Sulfur (Chloroflexi) group of Bacteria, followed by fewer numbers of Syntrophobacter, Spirochaeta, Acidobacteria and Cytophaga-related Bacterial sequences. Methanogen-related mcrA clone libraries were dominated throughout by Methanobacter and Methanospirillum related sequences. Although not numerous enough to be detected in our 16S rDNA libraries, sulfate reducers were detected in dsrAB clone libraries, with sequences related to Desulfovibrio and Desulfomonile. Community diversity levels (Shannon-Weiner index) generally decreased for all libraries in response to a change from SBWW to acetate-alone feed. But there was a large transitory increase noted in 16S diversity at the two-month sampling on acetate-alone, entirely related to an increase in Bacterial diversity. Upon return to SBWW conditions in phase 4, all diversity measures returned to near phase 1 levels.

  12. Increased 1,5-Anhydroglucitol Predicts Glycemic Remission in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Short-Term Intensive Insulin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liehua; Wan, Xuesi; Liu, Juan; Huang, Zhimin; Cao, Xiaopei

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Short-term intensive insulin therapy has been shown to induce long-term glycemic remission in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. However, predictors of remission are still uncertain. This study was conducted to evaluate whether changes of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5AG) and fructosamine (FA) could be a predictor of remission. Subjects and Methods Newly diagnosed drug-naive patients with type 2 diabetes (n=64) were enrolled. After baseline assessments, continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) was administered in all patients until euglycemia was achieved and maintained for another 2 weeks. Patients were subsequently followed monthly for 3 months. 1,5AG and FA were measured before and after therapy and at 1-month follow-up. Results After CSII, A1C and FA decreased from baseline, whereas 1,5AG increased. 1,5AG was higher at 1-month follow-up (11.5±4.1 vs. 6.7±2.8 mg/L, P<0.001), whereas FA was lower (273.1±56.1 vs. 316.2±39.3 μmol/L, P=0.021) in the remission group. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that 1,5AG at 1-month follow-up rather than FA was an independent predictor of remission after adjusting for other confounders (odds ratio 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15–2.12, P=0.004). The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was 0.85 (95% CI 0.75–0.96, P<0.001). The optimal cutoff point for 1,5AG at 1-month follow-up was 8.9 mg/L (specificity, 83.3%; sensitivity, 78.6%). Conclusions Improvement of 1,5AG predicts maintenance of glycemic remission after intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. PMID:22731793

  13. The Effects of Short-Term Ski Trainings on Dynamic Balance Performance and Vertical Jump in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camliguney, Asiye Filiz

    2013-01-01

    Skiing is a sport where balance and strength are critical and which can be practiced actively especially from early years to old age. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of a 5-day training of skiing skills on dynamic balance performance and development of vertical jump strength in adolescents. Sixteen adolescent volunteers who do…

  14. The Effects of Hearing Aid Compression Parameters on the Short-Term Dynamic Range of Continuous Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henning, Rebecca L. Warner; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and quantitatively model the independent and interactive effects of compression ratio, number of compression channels, and release time on the dynamic range of continuous speech. Method: A CD of the Rainbow Passage (J. E. Bernthal & N. W. Bankson, 1993) was used. The hearing aid was a…

  15. Does a short-term increase in testosterone affect the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression? - An approach using an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study hormonal effects on behavior.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Villavicencio, Camila P; Apfelbeck, Beate

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we describe an approach based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope to study short-term effects of hormones on behavior. The control of territorial aggression has been traditionally linked to testosterone. Males of some vertebrate species show an increase in testosterone during territorial interactions and implantation studies suggest that such an increase in testosterone enhances the intensity and persistence of aggression. Here, we tested whether a short-term maximum release of testosterone - based on an individual's hormonal reactive scope - affects the intensity or persistence of territorial aggression in male black redstarts, a bird species in which testosterone does not increase during territorial encounters. An injection with gonadotropin-releasing-hormone (GnRH) induced a physiological peak in plasma testosterone that was specific for each individual (=individual reactive scope). However, such short-term surges in an individual's testosterone concentration did not affect the intensity or persistence of aggression. In conclusion, this study demonstrated (1) that a species that naturally does not increase testosterone during male-male encounters would not benefit from such an increase in terms of being more aggressive, (2) that behavioral studies using GnRH-injections represent a promising approach to study species differences in androgen responsiveness, and (3) that injections of releasing or tropic hormones in general may be a suitable approach to study short-term influences of hormones on behavior. These injections effectively mimic the potential short-term changes in hormones that can occur in the real life of individuals and enable us to study the effects of hormonal changes on behavior or other traits within an ecological and evolutionary framework. PMID:26122036

  16. Kinematic and dynamic processes for the control of pointing movements in humans revealed by short-term exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Papaxanthis, C; Pozzo, T; McIntyre, J

    2005-01-01

    The generation of accurate motor commands requires implicit knowledge of both limb and environmental dynamics. The action of gravity on moving limb segments must be taken into account within the motor command, and may affect the limb trajectory chosen to accomplish a given motor task. Exactly how the CNS deals with these gravitoinertial forces remains an open question. Does the CNS measure gravitational forces directly, or are they accommodated in the motor plan by way of internal models of physical laws? In this study five male subjects participated. We measured kinematic and dynamic parameters of upward and downward arm movements executed at two different speeds, in both normal Earth gravity and in the weightless conditions of parabolic flight. Exposure to microgravity affected velocity profiles for both directions and speeds. The shape of velocity profiles (the ratio of maximum to mean velocity) and movement duration both showed transient perturbations initially in microgravity, but returned to normal gravity values with practice in 0 x g. Differences in relative time to peak velocity between upward versus downward movements, persisted for all trial performed in weightlessness. These differences in kinematic profiles and in the torque profiles used to produce them, diminished, however, with practice in 0 x g. These findings lead to the conclusion that the CNS explicitly represents gravitational and inertial forces in the internal models used to generate and execute arm movements. Furthermore, the results suggest that the CNS adapts motor plans to novel environments on different time scales; dynamics adapt first to reproduce standard kinematics, and then kinematics patterns are adapted to optimize dynamics. PMID:16125854

  17. Short-term forecasting of life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias based on symbolic dynamics and finite-time growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessel, Niels; Ziehmann, Christine; Kurths, Jürgen; Meyerfeldt, Udo; Schirdewan, Alexander; Voss, Andreas

    2000-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation (VT-VF) as fatal cardiac arrhythmias are the main factors triggering sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study is to find early signs of sustained VT-VF in patients with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). These devices are able to safeguard patients by returning their hearts to a normal rhythm via strong defibrillatory shocks; additionally, they store the 1000 beat-to-beat intervals immediately before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia. We study these 1000 beat-to-beat intervals of 17 chronic heart failure ICD patients before the onset of a life-threatening arrhythmia and at a control time, i.e., without a VT-VF event. To characterize these rather short data sets, we calculate heart rate variability parameters from the time and frequency domain, from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates. We find that neither the time nor the frequency domain parameters show significant differences between the VT-VF and the control time series. However, two parameters from symbolic dynamics as well as the finite-time growth rates discriminate significantly both groups. These findings could be of importance in algorithms for next generation ICD's to improve the diagnostics and therapy of VT-VF.

  18. Short-term withdrawal from developmental exposure to cocaine activates the glucocorticoid receptor and alters spine dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caffino, Lucia; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Malpighi, Chiara; Racagni, Giorgio; Fumagalli, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Although glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) contribute to the action of cocaine, their role following developmental exposure to the psychostimulant is still unknown. To address this issue, we exposed adolescent male rats to cocaine (20mg/kg/day) from post-natal day (PND) 28 to PND 42 and sacrificed them at PND 45 or 90. We studied the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a brain region that is still developing during adolescence. In PND 45 rats we found enhanced GR transcription and translation as well as increased trafficking toward the nucleus of the receptor, with no alteration in plasma corticosterone levels. We also showed reduced expression of the GR co-chaperone FKBP51, that normally keeps the receptor in the cytoplasm, and increased expression of Src1, which cooperates in the activation of GR transcriptional activity, revealing that short withdrawal alters the finely tuned mechanisms regulating GR action. Since activation of GRs regulate dendritic spine morphology, we next investigated spine dynamics in cocaine-withdrawn rats. We found that PSD95, cofilin and F-actin, molecules regulating spine actin network, are reduced in the mPFC of PND 45 rats suggesting reduced spine density, confirmed by confocal imaging. Further, formation of filopodia, i.e. the inactive spines, is enhanced suggesting the formation of non-functional spines. Of note, no changes were found in molecules related to GR machinery or spine dynamics following long-term abstinence, i.e. in adult rats (PND 90). These findings demonstrate that short withdrawal promotes plastic changes in the developing brain via the dysregulation of the GR system and alterations in the spine network. PMID:26004981

  19. Pronounced short-term temporal dynamics of methane fluxes during the snowmelt period at a boreal peatland in NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazovic, M.; Kutzbach, L.; Schreiber, P.; Wille, C.; Wilmking, M.

    2009-04-01

    Peatlands are one of the major natural sources of methane (CH4), but the quantification of efflux is uncertain especially during winter, fall and the highly dynamic spring thaw period. Here we report unexpected diurnal variations in methane fluxes as measured using the eddy correlation technique lasting several days during the snow thawing period at a boreal peatland in NW Russia. The beginning of snowmelt in 2008 was characterized by moderate CH4 fluxes of ~0.5-1.8 mg m-2 h-1. However, we found unexpected pattern in CH4 fluxes from 21.04-3.05.2008 when fluxes showed strong diurnal variability apparently controlled by changes in the surface temperature. Hourly CH4 fluxes were ~0.5 mg m-2 h-1 during night and reached as much as ~5 mg m-2 h-1 during midday. An empirical model based on linear reduced major axis regression was used to gap-fill the time series with surface temperature as a predictor. There was a lag of one hour between the diurnal maxima of surface temperature and CH4 flux, respectively. The fluxes started to decrease earlier than the surface temperature reached its maximum. The most likely explanation is that thawing and refreezing of an ice layer at the wet peatland micro-sites due to oscillating surface temperatures above 0 ˚ C during the days and below 0 ˚ C during the nights, which was observed during this period of the year, led to a pronounced diurnal variability of the resistance for gas diffusion from the soil and open water bodies to the atmosphere. Apparently, physical factors influencing the gas transport processes have a stronger effect on CH4 efflux than microbiological ones during the spring whereas the control of CH4 efflux is dominated by biological processes during the vegetation period. The evidence of strong temporal variation on an hourly time scale is important when estimates of cold season fluxes are made to quantify seasonal or annual CH4 emissions, especially when static chambers are applied under climatic conditions

  20. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D∗, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively). IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  1. Value of intravoxel incoherent motion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI for predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Yu, Xiaoping; Hu, Yin; Li, Feiping; Xiang, Wang; Wang, Lanlan; Wang, Hui; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Zhongping; Zeng, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the value of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (IVIM-DWI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) in predicting the early and short-term responses to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).Forty-three NPC patients underwent IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI at baseline (pretreatment) and after the first cycle of induction chemotherapy (posttreatment). Based on whether locoregional lesions were identified, patients were divided into the residual and nonresidual groups at the end of CRT and into the good-responder and poor-responder groups 6 months after the end of CRT. The pretreatment and posttreatment IVIM-DWI parameters (ADC, D, D*, and f) and DCE-MRI parameters (K, Kep, and Ve) values and their percentage changes (Δ%) were compared between the residual and nonresidual groups and between the good-responder and poor-responder groups.None of perfusion-related parametric values derived from either DCE-MRI or IVIM-DWI showed significant differences either between the residual and nonresidual groups or between the good-responder and poor-responder groups. The nonresidual group exhibited lower pre-ADC, lower pre-D, and higher Δ%D values than did the residual group (all P <0.05). The good-responder group had lower pre-D and pre-ADC values than did the poor-responder group (both P <0.05). Based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, pre-D had the highest area under the curve in predicting both the early and short-term responses to CRT for NPC patients (0.817 and 0.854, respectively).IVIM-DWI is more valuable than DCE-MRI in predicting the early and short-term response to CRT for NPC, and furthermore diffusion-related IVIM-DWI parameters (pre-ADC, pre-D, and Δ%D) are more powerful than perfusion-related parameters derived from both IVIM-DWI and DCE-MRI. PMID:27583847

  2. Effects of short-term mechanical hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow and dynamic cerebral autoregulation in critically ill patients with sepsis.

    PubMed

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2016-05-01

    In sepsis, higher PaCO2 levels are associated with impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA), which may expose the brain to hypo- and hyperperfusion during acute fluctuations in blood pressure. We hypothesised that short-term mechanical hyperventilation would dCA in critically ill patients with sepsis. Seven mechanically ventilated septic patients were included. We assessed dCA before and after 30 min of mechanical hyperventilation. Transfer function analysis of spontaneous oscillations in transcranial Doppler-based middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) and invasive mean arterial blood pressure was used to assess dCA. Mechanical enhance hyperventilation reduced the median PaCO2 from 5.3 (IQR, 5.0-6.5) to 4.7 (IQR, 4.2-5.1) kPa (p < 0.05). This was associated with a reduction in the median MCAv from 57 (IQR, 33-68) to 32 (IQR, 21-40) cm sec(-1) (p < 0.05). Apart from a small increase in gain in the low frequency range (2.32 [IQR 1.80-2.41] vs. 2.59 (2.40-4.64) cm mmHg(-1) sec(-1); p < 0.05), this was not associated with any enhancement in dCA. In conclusion, cerebral CO2 vasoreactivity was found to be preserved in septic patients; nevertheless, and in contrast to our working hypothesis, short-term mechanical hyperventilation did not enhance dCA. PMID:26935607

  3. Speciation and Long- and Short-term Molecular-level Dynamics of Soil Organic Sulfur Studied by X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    D Solomon; J Lehmann; K Knoth de Zarruk; J Dathe; J Kinyangi; B Liang; S Machado

    2011-12-31

    We investigated speciation, oxidative state changes, and long- and short-term molecular-level dynamics of organic S after 365 d of aerobic incubation with and without the addition of sugarcane residue using XANES spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected from the upper 15 cm of undisturbed grasslands since 1880, from undisturbed grasslands since 1931, and from cultivated fields since 1880 in the western United States. We found three distinct groups of organosulfur compounds in these grassland-derived soils: (i) strongly reduced (S{sup 0} to S{sup 1+}) organic S that encompasses thiols, monosulfides, disulfides, polysulfides, and thiophenes; (ii) organic S in intermediate oxidation (S{sup 2+} to S{sup 5+}) states, which include sulfoxides and sulfonates; and (iii) strongly oxidized (S{sup 6+}) organic S, which comprises ester-SO{sub 4}-S. The first two groups represent S directly linked to C and accounted for 80% of the total organic S detected by XANES from the undisturbed soils. Aerobic incubation without the addition of sugarcane residue led to a 21% decline in organanosulfur compounds directly linked to C and to up to an 82% increase inorganic S directly bonded to O. Among the C-bonded S compounds, low-valence thiols, sulfides, thiophenic S, and intermediate-valence sulfoxide S seem to be highly susceptible to microbial attack and may represent the most reactive components of organic S pool in these grassland soils. Sulfonate S exhibited a much lower short-term reactivity. The incorporation of sugarcane residue resulted in an increase in organosulfur compounds directly bonded to C at the early stage of incubation. However, similar to soils incubated without residue addition, the proportion of organic S directly linked to C continued to decline with increasing duration of aerobic incubation, whereas the proportion of organic S directly bonded to O showed a steady rise.

  4. Spanish: Familiarization and Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbelaez, Vicente; And Others

    The State Department's Foreign Service Institute short-term, intensive course in Spanish language and culture for government employees going to work in Spanish-speaking countries contains an introductory section and 38 lessons and 10 related audio cassettes intended as the basis for a ten-week program with an instructor. The lessons cover these…

  5. Characteristic behavior of short-term dynamics in reorientation for Gay-Berne particles near the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2006-11-28

    A specific transition behavior was found in the tumbling motion near the nematic-isotropic phase boundary using molecular dynamics simulations of the Gay-Berne mesogenic model under isobaric conditions at a reduced pressure P* of 2.0. The relaxation time for the motion obtained from the second-rank orientational time correlation function and the rotational diffusion coefficient showed a clear jump at the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature. Regardless of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time, the change in the rotational diffusion coefficient evaluated from the orientational order parameters and the relaxation time agreed qualitatively with that of real mesogens. The rotational viscosity coefficients gamma(1) and gamma(2) were obtained from the simulation data for the relaxation time for the short-term dynamics and for the rotational diffusion coefficients. gamma(1) was proportional to (2), where is the second-rank orientational parameter. Furthermore, the rotational behavior of the model was compared with that of the Debye approximation in the isotropic phase. PMID:17144735

  6. Characteristic behavior of short-term dynamics in reorientation for Gay-Berne particles near the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Katsuhiko

    2006-11-01

    A specific transition behavior was found in the tumbling motion near the nematic-isotropic phase boundary using molecular dynamics simulations of the Gay-Berne mesogenic model under isobaric conditions at a reduced pressure P* of 2.0. The relaxation time for the motion obtained from the second-rank orientational time correlation function and the rotational diffusion coefficient showed a clear jump at the nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature. Regardless of the temperature dependence of the relaxation time, the change in the rotational diffusion coefficient evaluated from the orientational order parameters and the relaxation time agreed qualitatively with that of real mesogens. The rotational viscosity coefficients γ1 and γ2 were obtained from the simulation data for the relaxation time for the short-term dynamics and for the rotational diffusion coefficients. γ1 was proportional to ⟨P2⟩2, where ⟨P2⟩ is the second-rank orientational parameter. Furthermore, the rotational behavior of the model was compared with that of the Debye approximation in the isotropic phase.

  7. G-Protein/β-Arrestin-Linked Fluctuating Network of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors for Predicting Drug Efficacy and Bias Using Short-Term Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Osamu; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Yamada, Atsushi; Okazaki, Susumu; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and bias of signal transduction induced by a drug at a target protein are closely associated with the benefits and side effects of the drug. In particular, partial agonist activity and G-protein/β-arrestin-biased agonist activity for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the family with the most target proteins of launched drugs, are key issues in drug discovery. However, designing GPCR drugs with appropriate efficacy and bias is challenging because the dynamic mechanism of signal transduction induced by ligand—receptor interactions is complicated. Here, we identified the G-protein/β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network, which initiates large-scale conformational changes, using sub-microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) with a diverse collection of ligands and correlation analysis of their G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. The G-protein-linked fluctuating network extends from the ligand-binding site to the G-protein-binding site through the connector region, and the β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network consists of the NPxxY motif and adjacent regions. We confirmed that the averaged values of fluctuation in the fluctuating network detected are good quantitative indexes for explaining G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. These results indicate that short-term MD simulation is a practical method to predict the efficacy and bias of any compound for GPCRs. PMID:27187591

  8. G-Protein/β-Arrestin-Linked Fluctuating Network of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors for Predicting Drug Efficacy and Bias Using Short-Term Molecular Dynamics Simulation.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Osamu; Fujimoto, Kazushi; Yamada, Atsushi; Okazaki, Susumu; Yamazaki, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy and bias of signal transduction induced by a drug at a target protein are closely associated with the benefits and side effects of the drug. In particular, partial agonist activity and G-protein/β-arrestin-biased agonist activity for the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the family with the most target proteins of launched drugs, are key issues in drug discovery. However, designing GPCR drugs with appropriate efficacy and bias is challenging because the dynamic mechanism of signal transduction induced by ligand-receptor interactions is complicated. Here, we identified the G-protein/β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network, which initiates large-scale conformational changes, using sub-microsecond molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) with a diverse collection of ligands and correlation analysis of their G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. The G-protein-linked fluctuating network extends from the ligand-binding site to the G-protein-binding site through the connector region, and the β-arrestin-linked fluctuating network consists of the NPxxY motif and adjacent regions. We confirmed that the averaged values of fluctuation in the fluctuating network detected are good quantitative indexes for explaining G protein/β-arrestin efficacy. These results indicate that short-term MD simulation is a practical method to predict the efficacy and bias of any compound for GPCRs. PMID:27187591

  9. Impact of meso-net observations on short-term prediction of intense weather systems during PRWONAM: Part I—On wind variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Kusuma G.; Ramakrishna, G.; Narendra Reddy, N.

    2011-06-01

    Short-term prediction of wind variations as a function of height using the PSU/NCAR MM5 model with an optimum horizontal resolution of 3 km, and assimilation of meso-network measurements of PRWONAM, has been carried out for the southern peninsular region of India. The studies were made within the framework of the PRWONAM programme. The observed wind data used here are from the MST radar at Gadanki and GP Sondes at a few locations (SHAR, Bangalore, Gadanki, Chennai, Arakkonam, Cochin) in the peninsular region. During the southwest monsoon season, the wind fields showed coherent pattern in the vertical unlike during the spring season. Comparisons in wind variations between predictions and observations for Gadanki revealed an average bias of 3.84 m s-1 in the predicted mean wind above 8 km during the spring season, with 75% (63%) of instantaneous predictions falling in ±5 m s-1 error bounds with (without) bias correction. The percentage within these limits below 8 km altitude is 90%.

  10. Evaluation of the short-term effects of antimicrobial stewardship in the intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital in China.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dapeng; Wang, Qiushi; Jiang, Cuihua; Tian, Cui; Li, Huaqing; Ji, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic abuse can lead to antibiotic resistance, which is a severe problem in China. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term effects of antimicrobial stewardship strategies, including formulary restriction, preauthorization, perioperative quinolone restriction, and control of total antibiotic consumption in the ICU at a tertiary hospital in China. After implementation of antimicrobial stewardship, the total antibiotic consumption in the ICU significantly decreased. The defined daily doses (DDDs) per 100 patient-days decreased from 197.65 to 143.41; however, the consumption of cephalosporins increased from 53.65 to 63.17 DDDs. Significant improvements in resistance to amikacin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, and piperacillin in Enterobacteriaceae and resistance to ceftazidime, imipenem, and meropenem in non-fermenting Gram-negative rods were observed. In addition, the initial use of no antibiotics or of a single antibiotic significantly increased (P<0.001) and the use of two antibiotics in combination significantly decreased (P<0.001). Our results demonstrate that implementation of antimicrobial stewardship in a short period in the ICU dramatically reduced antibiotic consumption and significantly improved antibiotic resistance, which leads to more reasonable antibiotic selections by ICU physicians. PMID:25000225

  11. A method for a short-term forecast of the absorbed dose accumulation dynamics on the international space station based on radiation monitoring system data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lishnevskii, A. E.; Benghin, V. V.

    2014-12-01

    Many papers are devoted to the prediction of radiation conditions on board of a spacecraft (Pichkhadze et al., 2004; Khamidullina et al., 2008; 2012), and a number of software systems for corresponding calculations have been developed: the US information system CREME96 (https://creme.isde.vander-bilt.edu/); European SPENVIS (http://www.spenvis.oma.be/intro.php); Russian SEREIS (Kuznetsov et al., 2001; Model' kosmosa, 2007) and COSRAD (http://cosrad.sinp.msu.ru/manual.html; Kuznetsov et al., 2011) based on the models of the radiation environment in near-Earth space (Bashkirov et al., 1998; Nymmik, 2004; Model' kosmosa, 2007; Kuznetsov et al., 2011). In this paper we propose a simple calculation algorithm of short-term (for a few days) forecasting of dynamics of the radiation dose on the International Space Station (ISS) in radiation environment undisturbed by solar proton events. This algorithm does not use radiation environment models and detailed ballistic calculations, while it uses data of the onboard radiation monitoring system (RMS) and empirical relations, obtained for ISS orbital motion.

  12. Diverse Short-Term Dynamics of Inhibitory Synapses Converging on Striatal Projection Neurons: Differential Changes in a Rodent Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Barroso-Flores, Janet; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Lopez-Huerta, Violeta Gisselle; Galarraga, Elvira; Bargas, José

    2015-01-01

    Most neurons in the striatum are projection neurons (SPNs) which make synapses with each other within distances of approximately 100 µm. About 5% of striatal neurons are GABAergic interneurons whose axons expand hundreds of microns. Short-term synaptic plasticity (STSP) between fast-spiking (FS) interneurons and SPNs and between SPNs has been described with electrophysiological and optogenetic techniques. It is difficult to obtain pair recordings from some classes of interneurons and due to limitations of actual techniques, no other types of STSP have been described on SPNs. Diverse STSPs may reflect differences in presynaptic release machineries. Therefore, we focused the present work on answering two questions: Are there different identifiable classes of STSP between GABAergic synapses on SPNs? And, if so, are synapses exhibiting different classes of STSP differentially affected by dopamine depletion? Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings on SPNs revealed three classes of STSPs: depressing, facilitating, and biphasic (facilitating-depressing), in response to stimulation trains at 20 Hz, in a constant ionic environment. We then used the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent model of Parkinson's disease to show that synapses with different STSPs are differentially affected by dopamine depletion. We propose a general model of STSP that fits all the dynamics found in our recordings. PMID:26167304

  13. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  14. The Relationship between Intensity and Breadth of After-School Program Participation and Academic Achievement: Evidence from a Short-Term Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Ken; Diffily, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    We explored the extent to which intensity and breadth of participation in an after-school program (ASP) predicted academic achievement, as measured by changes in grades and attendance. The sample comprised 719 2nd-grade through 8th-grade Boys and Girls Clubs of Greater Dallas members during the 2009-2010 academic year. With respect to intensity,…

  15. Short-term temporal variation in sporulation dynamics of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and physico-chemical edaphic properties of wheat rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Vipin; Meghvansi, M.K.; Siddiqui, Sazada

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the pattern of short-term temporal variation in the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and physico-chemical edaphic properties of some wheat growing areas of the Bundelkhand region, Central India. Rhizospheric soil samples were collected every month from December 2007 to May 2008 from four wheat growing sites around Jhansi (Bundelkhand region). AM fungal root colonization, sporulation and physico-chemical edaphic properties during this period were determined and compared to evaluate the dynamics of response of wheat towards the AMF along crop maturation. Maximum AMF root colonization recorded was 54.3% indicating that AMF, particularly in low phosphorus (P) soils, can be important even in case of less responsive crop like wheat. In the two out of four sites studied, the AMF spore density increased with the increase in soil temperature. Absence of this type of pattern in remaining two sites indicated that site-specific environmental and agricultural conditions may affect the degree of wheat response to AMF. It also suggested that AMF communities inhabiting agroecosystems may exhibit considerable temporal sporulation patterns. The maximum AMF colonization was observed during February–March 2008, whereas maximum AMF sporulation was noticed during March–April 2008. Statistically significant negative correlation of AMF spore density with pH, organic carbon (OC) and available P was observed in the one of the sites studied. Overall assessment of the data indicated that season and location significantly affected the interaction of AM fungi with winter wheat necessitating the further need to understand the ecology of AMF populations with reference to specific host species under different micro-climatic conditions of Bundelkhand region. PMID:23961131

  16. [Short-term occupational disability].

    PubMed

    Bebensee, H; Conrad, P; Hein, R

    1994-01-01

    The present political discussion about absenteeism in industry and introduction of days of absence in case of sickness emphasises the amount of short-term sickness cases. More or less openly the misuse of continued salary payment via "unauthorized" working inability is discussed: this is often connected with the increased absenteeism on Mondays and Fridays. From the point of view of the Legal Health Insurances this thesis of misuse is investigated in an analysis of cases of short-term work disability. PMID:8148587

  17. The effect of motivational lung age feedback on short-term quit rates in smokers seeking intensive group treatment: a randomized controlled pilot study*

    PubMed Central

    Foulds, Jonathan; Veldheer, Susan; Hrabovsky, Shari; Yingst, Jessica; Sciamanna, Chris; Chen, Gang; Maccani, Jennifer Z. J.; Berg, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Background A brief “Lung Age” feedback intervention has shown promise for personalizing the health impact of smoking and promoting cessation in unselected smokers. Now that many healthcare organizations provide face-to-face cessation services, it is reasonable to ask whether such motivational feedback of lung function tests might improve treatment compliance and cessation rates in smokers wanting to quit. This study assessed effects of baseline motivational spirometry-based “Lung Age” feedback on treatment compliance and tobacco abstinence at 28-day follow-up. Methods This randomized controlled pilot study took place in Penn State University-affiliated outpatient medical practices. Participants were 225 adult smokers (≥ 5 cigarettes/day) willing to attend tobacco dependence treatment. At assessment lung function (FEV-1) and exhaled carbon-monoxide (CO) were assessed. The Intervention group (n=120) were randomly allocated to receive motivational “Lung Age” feedback estimated by FEV-1 and on exhaled CO; Control group (n=105) received minimal feedback. Participants were offered 6 weekly group smoking cessation sessions and nicotine patches and followed-up 28 days after target quit date. The primary outcome measure was self-reported 7-day tobacco abstinence, confirmed by CO<10ppm at 28-day follow-up. Results Quit rates were similar at follow-up (Intervention 50.8%; Control 52.4%; p=0.65) after controlling for abstinence predictors. Group attendance and patch use were similar. Among those attending follow-up (n=164, 73%), a greater proportion of the Intervention group had improved lung function (67% v. 46%; p=0.0083). Conclusions Baseline Lung Age feedback did not improve quit rates or compliance at 28-day follow-up in smokers seeking intensive treatment. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01980485). PMID:26051163

  18. Short-term effects of high-intensity laser therapy, manual therapy, and Kinesio taping in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pekyavas, Nihan Ozunlu; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-08-01

    Subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) is a major contributing factor of shoulder pain; and treatment approaches (Kinesio® taping [KT], Exercise [EX], manual therapy [MT], and high-intensity laser therapy [HILT]) have been developed to treat the pain. The key objective of this study was to compare the effects of KT, MT, and HILT on the pain, the range of motion (ROM), and the functioning in patients with SAIS. Seventy patients with SAIS were randomly divided into four groups based on the treatment(s) each group received [EX (n = 15), KT + EX (n = 20), MT + KT + EX (n = 16), and MT + KT + HILT + EX (n = 19)]. All the patients were assessed before and at the end of the treatment (15th day). The main outcome assessments included the evaluation of severity of pain by visual analogue scale (VAS) and shoulder flexion, abduction, and external rotation ROM measurements by a universal goniometry. Shoulder pain and disability index (SPADI) was used to measure pain and disability associated with shoulder pathology. Statistically significant differences were found in the treatment results of all parameters in MT + KT + EX and HILT + MT + KT + EX groups (p < 0.05). When the means of ROM and SPADI results of three groups were compared, statistically significant differences were found between all the groups (p < 0.05). These differences were significant especially between the groups MT + KT + EX and KT + EX (p < 0.05) and HILT + MT + KT + EX and KT + EX (p < 0.05). HILT and MT were found to be more effective in minimizing pain and disability and increasing ROM in patients with SAIS. Further studies with follow-up periods are required to determine the advantages of these treatments conclusively. PMID:27220527

  19. Differential responses of short-term soil respiration dynamics to the experimental addition of nitrogen and water in the temperate semi-arid steppe of Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yuchun; Liu, Xinchao; Dong, Yunshe; Peng, Qin; He, Yating; Sun, Liangjie; Jia, Junqiang; Cao, Congcong

    2014-04-01

    We examined the effects of simulated rainfall and increasing N supply of different levels on CO2 pulse emission from typical Inner Mongolian steppe soil using the static opaque chamber technique, respectively in a dry June and a rainy August. The treatments included NH4NO3 additions at rates of 0, 5, 10, and 20 g N/(m(2)·year) with or without water. Immediately after the experimental simulated rainfall events, the CO2 effluxes in the watering plots without N addition (WCK) increased greatly and reached the maximum value at 2 hr. However, the efflux level reverted to the background level within 48 hr. The cumulative CO2 effluxes in the soil rang ed from 5.60 to 6.49 g C/m(2) over 48 hr after a single water application, thus showing an increase of approximately 148.64% and 48.36% in the effluxes during both observation periods. By contrast, the addition of different N levels without water addition did not result in a significant change in soil respiration in the short term. Two-way ANOVA showed that the effects of the interaction between water and N addition were insignificant in short-term soil CO2 effluxes in the soil. The cumulative soil CO2 fluxes of different treatments over 48 hr accounted for approximately 5.34% to 6.91% and 2.36% to 2.93% of annual C emission in both experimental periods. These results stress the need for improving the sampling frequency after rainfall in future studies to ensure more accurate evaluation of the grassland C emission contribution. PMID:25079414

  20. Rorschach changes in long-term and short-term psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I B; Exner, J E

    1991-06-01

    Over a period of several years, repeat Rorschach testing was done with two groups of patients receiving outpatient psychotherapy, a long-term group (n = 88) engaged in intensive, dynamically oriented psychotherapy and a short-term group (n = 88) involved in behavioral or gestalt therapy. Rorschach protocols were obtained at the beginning of the treatment and on three subsequent occasions, 1 year, 2 1/2 years, and 4 years later, when most of the long-term and all of the short-term patients had completed their therapy. The findings demonstrate generally beneficial effects of psychotherapy, greater change in long-term than in short-term therapy, and the validity of the Rorschach for measuring these effects and changes. PMID:1907657

  1. Comparison of very short-term load forecasting techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, K.; Kwan, C.; Lewis, F.L.; Subbarayan, S.; Shoults, R.R.; Manry, M.T.; Naccarino, J.

    1996-05-01

    Three practical techniques--Fuzzy Logic (FL), Neural Networks (NN), and Auto-regressive model (AR)--for very short-term load forecasting have been proposed and discussed in this paper. Their performances are evaluated through a simulation study. The preliminary study shows that it is feasible to design a simple, satisfactory dynamic forecaster to predict the very short-term load trends on-line. FL and NN can be good candidates for this application.

  2. Insect biological control accelerates leaf litter decomposition and alters short-term nutrient dynamics in a Tamarix-invaded riparian ecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insect herbivory can strongly influence ecosystem nutrient dynamics, yet the indirect effects of herbivore-altered litter quality on subsequent decomposition remain poorly understood. The northern tamarisk beetle, Diorhabda carinulata, was released across several western states as a biological contr...

  3. Short-term intercultural psychotherapy: ethnographic inquiry.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical practice. Such approaches allow clinicians conducting short-term intercultural treatments to foreground clients' indigenous conceptions of selfhood, mind, relationship, and emotional disturbance, and thus to more fully grasp their internal, interpersonal, and external worlds. This article demonstrates the uses of clinically adapted ethnographic inquiry in three short-term intercultural cases. PMID:14964524

  4. A black box optimization approach to parameter estimation in a model for long/short term variations dynamics of commodity prices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, Alberto; Dellepiane, Umberto; Lucidi, Stefano

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the estimation problem for a model of the commodity prices. This model is a stochastic state space dynamical model and the problem unknowns are the state variables and the system parameters. Data are represented by the commodity spot prices, very seldom time series of Futures contracts are available for free. Both the system joint likelihood function (state variables and parameters) and the system marginal likelihood (the state variables are eliminated) function are addressed.

  5. Short-term dynamics and spatial heterogeneity of CO2 emission from the soils of natural and urban ecosystems in the Central Chernozemic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarzhanov, D. A.; Vasenev, V. I.; Sotnikova, Yu. L.; Tembo, A.; Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.

    2015-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the spatial-temporal trends in the emission of CO2 from soils of different functional zones of the city of Kursk, a dark gray soil of an oak forest, and a typical steppe chernozem has been performed. The averaged CO2 emission from the urban soils is 25% higher than that from the natural soils (32.1 ± 17.8 and 17.8 ± 10.2 g CO2/m2 daily, respectively). The spatial heterogeneity of the CO2 emission is also significantly higher for the urban soils, while variation in temporal dynamics of soil respiration among the studied ecosystems was insignificant.

  6. Short-term dynamics of intertidal microphytobenthic biomass. Mathematical modelling [La dynamique a court terme de la biomasse du microphytobenthos intertidal. Formalisation mathematique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guarini, J.-M.; Gros, P.; Blanchard, G.F.; Bacher, C.

    1999-01-01

    We formulate a deterministic mathematical model to describe the dynamics of the microphytobenthos of intertidal mudflats. It is 'minimal' because it only takes into account the essential processes governing the functioning of the system: the autotrophic production, the active upward and downward migrations of epipelic microalgae, the saturation of the mud surface by a biofilm of diatoms and the global net loss rates of biomass. According to the photic environment of the benthic diatoms inhabiting intertidal mudflats, and to their migration rhythm, the model is composed of two sub-systems of ordinary differential equations; they describe the simultaneous evolution of the biomass 'S' concentrated in the mud surface biofilm - the photic layer - and of the biomass 'F' diluted in the topmost centimetre of the mud - the aphotic layer. Qualitatively, the model solutions agree fairly well with the in situ observed dynamics of the S + F biomass. The study of the mathematical properties of the model, under some simplifying assumptions, shows the convergence of solutions to a stable cyclic equilibrium, whatever the frequencies of the physical synchronizers of the production. The sensitivity analysis reveals the necessity of a better knowledge of the processes of biomass losses, which so far are uncertain, and may further vary in space and time.

  7. Effect of volcano ash additions on nutrient concentrations, bloom dynamics and community metabolism in a short-term experiment in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbauer, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Volcano ash deposition is now considered as an important source of inorganic bioavailable iron which can relieve Fe-limitation in the ocean. As volcano ash also releases PO4, a experiment was performed in the NW Mediterranean Sea to test whether volcano ash deposition can affect nutrient dynamics and bloom development in a P-limited system. In a 54h experiment, it was shown that the development of a phytoplankton bloom was not enhanced or even repressed by ash additions of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas higher ash concentrations (200 mg l-1) induced a phytoplankton bloom as indicated by elevated Chlorophyll-a levels. Concurrently, net community production (NCP) and gross primary production (GPP) were enhanced at T24h at the highest ash additions. The metabolic balance was roughly neutral at low or no ash additions, but shifted towards phototrophy at the highest ash additions. The data on inorganic nutrient development and release estimates from ash material assays suggest relieving of P-limitation concomitant with NO3 and silicate use from ash. The concentration of TEP increased with increasing ash levels. The abundances of the heterotrophic compartment (bacteria, viruses and ciliates) also indicated dose-dependent responses. Our data suggest that heterotrophs won the competition for inorganic nutrients at ash levels of 2 and 20 mg l-1, whereas phytoplankton won at levels of 200 mg l-1. Overall, our experiments point to a strong potential of volcano ash deposition as forcing factor for nutrient dynamics and the activity of microbial plankton in a P-limited system.

  8. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels. PMID:27033038

  9. Short-term energy outlook: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornett, C.; Paxson, D.; Reznek, A. P.; Chu, C.; Sitzer, S.; Gamson, N.; Childress, J. P.; Paul, S.; Weigel, H.; Sutton, S.

    1981-05-01

    Detailed discussions of forecasting methodology and analytical topics concerning short-term energy markets are presented. Major assumptions necessary to make the energy forecasts are also discussed. Supplementary analyses of topics related to short-term energy forecasting are also given. The discussions relate to the forecasts prepared using the short term integrated forecasting system. This set of computer models uses data from various sources to develop energy supply and demand balances. Econmetric models used to predict the demand for petroleum products, natural gas, coal, and electricity are discussed. Price prediction models are also discussed. The role of oil inventories in world oil markets is reviewed. Various relationship between weather patterns and energy consumption are discussed.

  10. Theoretical models of synaptic short term plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Matthias H.

    2013-01-01

    Short term plasticity is a highly abundant form of rapid, activity-dependent modulation of synaptic efficacy. A shared set of mechanisms can cause both depression and enhancement of the postsynaptic response at different synapses, with important consequences for information processing. Mathematical models have been extensively used to study the mechanisms and roles of short term plasticity. This review provides an overview of existing models and their biological basis, and of their main properties. Special attention will be given to slow processes such as calcium channel inactivation and the effect of activation of presynaptic autoreceptors. PMID:23626536

  11. Improving Reproductive Performance: Long and Short Term

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improvements in reproductive performance for beef herds can be classified as short term (current year) or long term (lifetime production) and can be applied to and measured in individual animals or the entire herd. In other species, results show that rearing young animals under caloric restriction ...

  12. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  13. Short-Term Play Therapy for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaduson, Heidi Gerard, Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    Play therapy offers a powerful means of helping children resolve a wide range of psychological difficulties, and many play approaches are ideally suited to short-term work. This book brings together leading play therapists to share their expertise on facilitating children's healing in a shorter time frame. The book provides knowledge and skills…

  14. Short-Term Study Abroad, 2001: IIE's Complete Guide to Summer and Short-Term Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Marie, Ed.

    This guide, formerly called "Vacation Study Abroad," lists short-term educational programs of varying lengths from 1 week to several months. Offerings are for the winter and spring breaks, the summer, and other short-term intervals. Some 60% of these programs are sponsored by U.S. accredited colleges and universities. The guide also offers…

  15. Short-term synaptic plasticity and heterogeneity in neural systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejias, J. F.; Kappen, H. J.; Longtin, A.; Torres, J. J.

    2013-01-01

    We review some recent results on neural dynamics and information processing which arise when considering several biophysical factors of interest, in particular, short-term synaptic plasticity and neural heterogeneity. The inclusion of short-term synaptic plasticity leads to enhanced long-term memory capacities, a higher robustness of memory to noise, and irregularity in the duration of the so-called up cortical states. On the other hand, considering some level of neural heterogeneity in neuron models allows neural systems to optimize information transmission in rate coding and temporal coding, two strategies commonly used by neurons to codify information in many brain areas. In all these studies, analytical approximations can be made to explain the underlying dynamics of these neural systems.

  16. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  17. Binding in short-term visual memory.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Mary E; Treisman, Anne M

    2002-03-01

    The integration of complex information in working memory, and its effect on capacity, shape the limits of conscious cognition. The literature conflicts on whether short-term visual memory represents information as integrated objects. A change-detection paradigm using objects defined by color with location or shape was used to investigate binding in short-term visual memory. Results showed that features from the same dimension compete for capacity, whereas features from different dimensions can be stored in parallel. Binding between these features can occur, but focused attention is required to create and maintain the binding over time, and this integrated format is vulnerable to interference. In the proposed model, working memory capacity is limited both by the independent capacity of simple feature stores and by demands on attention networks that integrate this distributed information into complex but unified thought objects. PMID:11900102

  18. Interference with visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Logie, R H; Zucco, G M; Baddeley, A D

    1990-10-01

    Working memory (Baddeley and Hitch 1974) incorporates the notion of a visuo-spatial sketch pad; a mechanism thought to be specialized for short-term storage of visuo-spatial material. However, the nature and characteristics of this hypothesized mechanism are as yet unclear. Two experiments are reported which examined selective interference in short-term visual memory. Experiment 1 contrasted recognition memory span for visual matrix patterns with that for visually presented letter sequences. These two span tasks were combined with concurrent arithmetic or a concurrent task which involved manipulation of visuo-spatial material. Results suggested that although there was a small, significant disruption by concurrent arithmetic of span for the matrix patterns, there was a substantially larger disruption of the letter span task. The converse was true for the secondary visuo-spatial task. Experiment 2 combined the span tasks with two established tasks developed by Brooks (1967). Span for matrix patterns was disrupted by a visuo-spatial task but not by a secondary verbal task. The converse was true for letter span. These results suggest that the impairment in short-term visual memory resulting from secondary arithmetic reflects a small general processing load, but that the selective interference due to mode of processing is by far the stronger effect. Results are interpreted as being entirely consistent with the notion of a specialized visuo-spatial mechanism in working memory. PMID:2260493

  19. An approach to distribution short-term load forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Gaustad, K.L.

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports on the developments and findings of the Distribution Short-Term Load Forecaster (DSTLF) research activity. The objective of this research is to develop a distribution short-term load forecasting technology consisting of a forecasting method, development methodology, theories necessary to support required technical components, and the hardware and software tools required to perform the forecast The DSTLF consists of four major components: monitored endpoint load forecaster (MELF), nonmonitored endpoint load forecaster (NELF), topological integration forecaster (TIF), and a dynamic tuner. These components interact to provide short-term forecasts at various points in the, distribution system, eg., feeder, line section, and endpoint. This paper discusses the DSTLF methodology and MELF component MELF, based on artificial neural network technology, predicts distribution endpoint loads for an hour, a day, and a week in advance. Predictions are developed using time, calendar, historical load, and weather data. The overall DSTLF architecture and a prototype MELF module for retail endpoints have been developed. Future work will be focused on refining and extending MELF and developing NELF and TIF capabilities.

  20. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  1. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  2. Short Term Exogenic Climate Change Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krahenbuhl, Daniel

    Several short term exogenic forcings affecting Earth's climate are but recently identified. Lunar nutation periodicity has implications for numerical meteorological prediction. Abrupt shifts in solar wind bulk velocity, particle density, and polarity exhibit correlation with terrestrial hemispheric vorticity changes, cyclonic strengthening and the intensification of baroclinic disturbances. Galactic Cosmic ray induced tropospheric ionization modifies cloud microphysics, and modulates the global electric circuit. This dissertation is constructed around three research questions: (1): What are the biweekly declination effects of lunar gravitation upon the troposphere? (2): How do United States severe weather reports correlate with heliospheric current sheet crossings? and (3): How does cloud cover spatially and temporally vary with galactic cosmic rays? Study 1 findings show spatial consistency concerning lunar declination extremes upon Rossby longwaves. Due to the influence of Rossby longwaves on synoptic scale circulation, our results could theoretically extend numerical meteorological forecasting. Study 2 results indicate a preference for violent tornadoes to occur prior to a HCS crossing. Violent tornadoes (EF3+) are 10% more probable to occur near, and 4% less probable immediately after a HCS crossing. The distribution of hail and damaging wind reports do not mirror this pattern. Polarity is critical for the effect. Study 3 results confirm anticorrelation between solar flux and low-level marine-layer cloud cover, but indicate substantial regional variability between cloud cover altitude and GCRs. Ultimately, this dissertation serves to extend short term meteorological forecasting, enhance climatological modeling and through analysis of severe violent weather and heliospheric events, protect property and save lives.

  3. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  4. The Impact of Short-Term, Intensive Antifolate Treatment (with Pyrimethamine and Sulfadoxine) and Antibiotics Followed by Long-Term, Secondary Antifolate Prophylaxis on the Rate of Toxoplasmic Retinochoroiditis Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Piotr K.; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Basiak, Wojciech; Świtaj, Karolina; Żarnowska-Prymek, Hanna; Olszyńska-Krowicka, Maria; Kajfasz, Piotr; Rabczenko, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of intensive antifolate treatment, followed by secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) on the recurrence rate of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (TRC). To investigate whether there are any other factors potentially predisposing for recurrence. Material and Methods A total of 637 medical records of TRC patients, who had been treated in the years 1994–2013 were reviewed. All patients were treated with pyrimethamine /sulfadoxine one 25mg/500mg tablet daily (P/S 25/500mg) for 21 days with a double loading dose for the first two days. From Day 2 the patients also received prednisone at a starting dose of 40mg and spiramycine 3 million IU three times daily, given for 10 days followed by azithromycin 500mg once daily for another 6 days. The analysis of the recurrence rate involved 352 patients who had completed 6-month secondary prophylaxis (P/S one 25 mg/500mg tablet twice a week). Results When secondary antifolate prophylaxis (A-SP) was instituted immediately after the treatment for TRC, the probability of 3-year recurrence–free survival after the first course of A-SP was 90.9%. A recurrence was most likely approximately 3.5 years after the first treatment. A univariate Cox regression model demonstrated that a risk for recurrence was 2.82 times higher (p = 0.02) in patients with retinal scars. In the multivariate analysis, the risk for recurrence was 2.41 higher (p = 0.06). In patients with haemorrhagic lesions the risk for recurrence was lower, aRR = 0.17 (approaching borderline statistical significance p = 0.08). Conclusions With the institution of A-SP of immediately after the intensive treatment for TRC, i.e. when a reactivation was most likely, there was no recurrence during A-SP. Following A-SP the recurrence rates were low and recurrence-free periods tended to be longer. The treatment regimen employed had a beneficial effect on the recurrence interval as it reduced and delayed the highest probability of recurrence. PMID:27542116

  5. Short-term energy outlook quarterly projections. First quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-07

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short- term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets.

  6. Group Processes in Short-Term Group Therapy of Psychotics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opalic, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Presents fundamental principles of short-term psychotherapy in reference to psychotic patients. Emphasizes empirical hermeneutical research into group process within the phenomenological approach. Presents case study of short-term psychotherapy with psychotic patients. Outlines four-stage approach to short-term therapy. (Author/ABL)

  7. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  8. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wulder, M.A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, J.G.; Dwyer, J.; Roy, D.P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record. ?? 2010.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short-term GNSS satellite clock stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griggs, E.; Kursinski, E. R.; Akos, D.

    2015-08-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) clock stability is characterized via the modified Allan deviation using active hydrogen masers as the receiver frequency reference. The high stability of the maser reference allows the GNSS clock contribution to the GNSS carrier phase variance to be determined quite accurately. Satellite clock stability for four different GNSS constellations are presented, highlighting the similarities and differences between the constellations as well as satellite blocks and clock types. Impact on high-rate applications, such as GNSS radio occultation (RO), is assessed through the calculation of the maximum carrier phase error due to clock instability. White phase noise appears to dominate at subsecond time scales. However, while we derived the theoretical contribution of white phase modulation to the modified Allan deviation, our analysis of the GNSS satellite clocks was limited to 1-200 s time scales because of inconsistencies between the subsecond results from the commercial and software-defined receivers. The rubidium frequency standards on board the Global Positioning System (GPS) Block IIF, BeiDou, and Galileo satellites show improved stability results in comparison to previous GPS blocks for time scales relevant to RO. The Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) satellites are the least stable of the GNSS constellations in the short term and will need high-rate corrections to produce RO results comparable to those from the other GNSS constellations.

  11. Short-term Drought Prediction in India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, R.; Mishra, V.

    2014-12-01

    Medium range soil moisture drought forecast helps in decision making in the field of agriculture and water resources management. Part of skills in medium range drought forecast comes from precipitation. Proper evaluation and correction of precipitation forecast may improve drought predictions. Here, we evaluate skills of ensemble mean precipitation forecast from Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS) for medium range drought predictions over India. Climatological mean (CLIM) of historic data (OBS) are used as reference forecast to evaluate GEFS precipitation forecast. Analysis was conducted based on forecast initiated on 1st and 15th dates of each month for lead up to 7-days. Correlation and RMSE were used to estimate skill scores of accumulated GEFS precipitation forecast from lead 1 to 7-days. Volumetric indices based on the 2X2 contingency table were used to check missed and falsely predicted historic volume of daily precipitation from GEFS in different regions and at different thresholds. GEFS showed improvement in correlation of 0.44 over CLIM during the monsoon season and 0.55 during the winter season. Lower RMSE was showed by GEFS than CLIM. Ratio of RMSE in GEFS and CLIM comes out as 0.82 and 0.4 (perfect skill is at zero) during the monsoon and winter season, respectively. We finally used corrected GEFS forecast to derive the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which was used to develop short-term forecast of hydrologic and agricultural (soil moisture) droughts in India.

  12. Seletracetam enhances short term depression in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Meehan, Anna L; Rothman, Steven M; Dubinsky, Janet M

    2015-11-01

    Seletracetam (SEL), an analog of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV), decreases seizure activity in a number of epilepsy models and binds to the synaptic vesicle protein SV2A with a higher affinity than LEV. Experiments were performed to determine if SEL, like LEV, reduces the later EPSPs in long trains of stimuli in a manner dependent upon access to the interior of synaptic vesicles and SV2A binding. When hippocampal slices were incubated in 3-30μM SEL for 3h, but not 30 min, the relative amplitude of the CA1 field excitatory synaptic potentials decreased over the course of a train of high frequency stimuli more than for control slices. This short term depression was frequency and dose dependent and largely disappeared when the spontaneous activity during the loading period was removed by cutting the Schaffer collaterals. The SEL effect was also observed in slices loaded during prolonged stimulation at 1Hz, but not 10Hz. Hippocampal slices loaded with both SEL and FM1-43 to visualize synaptic boutons released the FM1-43 in response to prolonged stimulation much more slowly than control slices during prolonged stimulation. Like LEV, SEL produced a frequency-dependent decrement of synaptic transmission that was dependent upon the drug entering recycling synaptic vesicles and compatible with SV2A binding. Previous observations of SV2A binding affinity correlated with the current effect of SEL and the previously reported effect of LEV on synaptic transmission validate SV2A as an extremely attractive target for future antiepileptic drug development. PMID:26320080

  13. Short-Term Periodicities in Solar Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, R. P.

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of the present communication is to identify the short-term (few tens of months) periodicities of several solar indices (sunspot number, Caii area and K index, Lyman α, 2800 MHz radio emission, coronal green-line index, solar magnetic field). The procedure used was: from the 3-month running means (3m) the 37-month running means (37m) were subtracted, and the factor (3m - 37m) was examined for several parameters. For solar indices, considerable fluctuations were seen during the ± 4 years around sunspot maxima of cycles 18-23, and virtually no fluctuations were seen in the ± 2 years around sunspot minima. The spacings between successive peaks were irregular but common for various solar indices. Assuming that there are stationary periodicities, a spectral analysis was carried out which indicated periodicities of months: 5.1 5.7, 6.2 7.0, 7.6 7.9, 8.9 9.6, 10.4 12.0, 12.8 13.4, 14.5 17.5, 22 25, 28 (QBO), 31 36 (QBO), 41 47 (QTO). The periodicities of 1.3 year (15.6 months) and 1.7 years (20.4 months) often mentioned in the literature were seen neither often nor prominently. Other periodicities occurred more often and more prominently. For the open magnetic flux estimated by Wang, Lean, and Sheeley (2000) and Wang and Sheeley (2002), it was noticed that the variations were radically different at different solar latitudes. The open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes had variations very similar (parallel) to the sunspot cycle, while open flux for > 45∘ solar latitudes had variations anti-parallel to the sunspot cycle. The open fluxes, interplanetary magnetic field and cosmic rays, all showed periodicities similar to those of solar indices. Many peaks (but not all) matched, indicating that the open flux for < 45∘ solar latitudes was at least partially an adequate carrier of the solar characteristics to the interplanetary space and thence for galactic cosmic ray modulation.

  14. Short-term carbon dynamics in a temperate heathland upon six years of exposure to elevated CO2 concentration, drought and warming: Evidence from an in-situ 13CO2 pulse-chase experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambus, P.; Reinsch, S.; Sárossy, Z.; Egsgaard, H.; Jakobsen, I.; Michelsen, A.; Schmidt, I.; Nielsen, P.

    2013-12-01

    An in-situ 13CO2 pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heathland (8 oC MAT, 610 mm MAP) to study the impact on short-term carbon (C) allocation as affected by elevated CO2 concentration (+120 ppm), prolonged summer droughts (ca. -43 mm) and warming (+1 oC). The study was carried out six years after the climate treatments were initiated and took place in the early growing season in May in vegetation dominated by grasses, mainly Deschampsia flexuosa. Newly assimilated C (13C from the pulse-label) was traced into vegetation, soil and soil microorganisms and belowground respiration 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in different microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Climate treatments did not affect microorganism abundance in soil or rhizosphere fractions in terms of total PLFA-C concentration. Elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy), but did not affect the abundance of decomposers (fungi and actinomycetes) in rhizosphere fractions. Drought favored the bacterial community in rhizosphere fractions whereas warming reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). Fastest and highest utilization of recently assimilated C was observed in rhizosphere associated gram-negative bacteria followed by gram-positive bacteria. The utilization of recently assimilated C by the microbial community was faster under elevated CO2 conditions compared to ambient. The 13C assimilation by green plant tissue and translocation to roots was significantly reduced by the extended summer drought. Under elevated CO2 conditions we observed an increased amount of 13C in the litter fraction. The assimilation of 13C by vegetation was not changed when the climate factors were applied in combination. The total amount of

  15. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202). The feature article for this issue is Demand, Supply and Price Outlook for Reformulated Gasoline, 1995.

  16. Short-Term Training--Where the Action Is!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, George R.

    In order to address major permanent changes in the economic structure and workforce of its community, Chemeketa Community College (CCC) in Oregon has made a commitment to initiate as many short-term training programs as its resources permit. Short-term training, which takes less time than regular one-year certificate or two-year associate degree…

  17. Double Dissociations in Visual and Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klauer, Karl Christoph; Zhao, Zengmei

    2004-01-01

    A visual short-term memory task was more strongly disrupted by visual than spatial interference, and a spatial memory task was simultaneously more strongly disrupted by spatial than visual interference. This double dissociation supports a fractionation of visuospatial short-term memory into separate visual and spatial components. In 6 experiments,…

  18. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars coming to the United States for a period of up...

  19. 75 FR 19285 - Short-Term Lending Program (STLP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ...This final rule governs the Short Term Lending Program (STLP), which provides financial assistance in the form of guarantees of short- term revolving lines of credit from Participating Lenders (PLs) to disadvantaged Business Enterprises (DBEs) and other certified small and disadvantaged business (SDBs) in connection with transportation-related contracts at the local, state and federal levels.......

  20. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  1. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  2. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term scholars. 62.21 Section 62.21 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Specific Program Provisions § 62.21 Short-term scholars. (a) Introduction. These regulations govern scholars...

  3. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  4. The dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaounas, Emmanouil; Raveh-Rubin, Shira; Wernli, Heini; Drobinski, Philippe; Bastin, Sophie

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the three-dimensional dynamical structure of intense Mediterranean cyclones. The analysis is based on a composite approach of the 200 most intense cyclones during the period 1989-2008 that have been identified and tracked using the output of a coupled ocean-atmosphere regional simulation with 20 km horizontal grid spacing and 3-hourly output. It is shown that the most intense Mediterranean cyclones have a common baroclinic life cycle with a potential vorticity (PV) streamer associated with an upper-level cyclonic Rossby wave breaking, which precedes cyclogenesis in the region and triggers baroclinic instability. It is argued that this common baroclinic life cycle is due to the strongly horizontally sheared environment in the Mediterranean basin, on the poleward flank of the quasi-persistent subtropical jet. The composite life cycle of the cyclones is further analyzed considering the evolution of key atmospheric elements as potential temperature and PV, as well as the cyclones' thermodynamic profiles and rainfall. It is shown that most intense Mediterranean cyclones are associated with warm conveyor belts and dry air intrusions, similar to those of other strong extratropical cyclones, but of rather small scale. Before cyclones reach their mature stage, the streamer's role is crucial to advect moist and warm air towards the cyclones center. These dynamical characteristics, typical for very intense extratropical cyclones in the main storm track regions, are also valid for these Mediterranean cases that have features that are visually similar to tropical cyclones.

  5. Short-Term PBL Education for Learning Skills of Microcomputer System Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Shunsuke; Shirai, Yuji; Yuji, Jun-Ichiro; Inoue, Isao; Moriuchi, Tsutomu; Isogai, Masashi; Fujimoto, Yoichi

    The national colleges of technology in Kyushu area have offered some short term intensive programs for advanced course students called Summer Lecture every year. In this year, we also offered a Summer Lecture entitled 'Microcomputer System Engineering for Improving Skills of System Development'. In the present paper, some educational materials developed for the lecture and a educational method of PBL are described.

  6. Understanding the Function of Visual Short-Term Memory: Transsaccadic Memory, Object Correspondence, and Gaze Correction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingworth, Andrew; Richard, Ashleigh M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has received intensive study over the past decade, with research focused on VSTM capacity and representational format. Yet, the function of VSTM in human cognition is not well understood. Here, the authors demonstrate that VSTM plays an important role in the control of saccadic eye movements. Intelligent human…

  7. Reconciling long-term cultural diversity and short-term collective social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Valori, Luca; Picciolo, Francesco; Allansdottir, Agnes; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-01-01

    An outstanding open problem is whether collective social phenomena occurring over short timescales can systematically reduce cultural heterogeneity in the long run, and whether offline and online human interactions contribute differently to the process. Theoretical models suggest that short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity are mutually excluding, since they require very different levels of social influence. The latter jointly depends on two factors: the topology of the underlying social network and the overlap between individuals in multidimensional cultural space. However, while the empirical properties of social networks are intensively studied, little is known about the large-scale organization of real societies in cultural space, so that random input specifications are necessarily used in models. Here we use a large dataset to perform a high-dimensional analysis of the scientific beliefs of thousands of Europeans. We find that interopinion correlations determine a nontrivial ultrametric hierarchy of individuals in cultural space. When empirical data are used as inputs in models, ultrametricity has strong and counterintuitive effects. On short timescales, it facilitates a symmetry-breaking phase transition triggering coordinated social behavior. On long timescales, it suppresses cultural convergence by restricting it within disjoint groups. Moreover, ultrametricity implies that these results are surprisingly robust to modifications of the dynamical rules considered. Thus the empirical distribution of individuals in cultural space appears to systematically optimize the coexistence of short-term collective behavior and long-term cultural diversity, which can be realized simultaneously for the same moderate level of mutual influence in a diverse range of online and offline settings. PMID:22232656

  8. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens.

    PubMed

    Mettrop, Ivan S; Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke M; Lamers, Leon P M

    2015-01-01

    In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens ('rich fens'). This includes temporary inundation with surface water from ditches, which may play an important role in counteracting acidification in order to conserve and restore biodiversity. Inundation may result in an increased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) for two reasons: infiltration of base-rich inundation water into peat soils, and microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to test whether short-term (2 weeks) summer inundation is more effective than short-term winter inundation to restore the ANC in the upper 10 cm of non-floating peat soils, and to explain potential differences. Large-scale field experiments were conducted for five years in base-rich fens and Sphagnum-dominated poor fens. Winter inundation did not result in increased porewater ANC, because infiltration was inhibited in the waterlogged peat and evapotranspiration rates were relatively low. Also, low temperatures limit microbial alkalinity generation. In summer, however, when temperature and evapotranspiration rates are higher, inundation resulted in increased porewater Ca and HCO3- concentrations, but only in areas with characteristic rich fen bryophytes. This increase was not only due to stronger infiltration into the soil, but also to higher microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, porewater ANC did not increase in Sphagnum-plots as a result of the ability of Sphagnum spp. to acidify their environment. In both rich and poor fens, flooding-induced P-mobilization remained sufficiently low to safeguard P-limited vegetation. NO3(-) and NH4(+) dynamics showed no considerable changes either. In conclusion, short-term summer inundation

  9. Short-Term Summer Inundation as a Measure to Counteract Acidification in Rich Fens

    PubMed Central

    Mettrop, Ivan S.; Cusell, Casper; Kooijman, Annemieke M.; Lamers, Leon P. M.

    2015-01-01

    In regions with intensive agriculture, water level fluctuation in wetlands has generally become constricted within narrow limits. Water authorities are, however, considering the re-establishment of fluctuating water levels as a management tool in biodiverse, base-rich fens (‘rich fens’). This includes temporary inundation with surface water from ditches, which may play an important role in counteracting acidification in order to conserve and restore biodiversity. Inundation may result in an increased acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) for two reasons: infiltration of base-rich inundation water into peat soils, and microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. The main objectives of this study were to test whether short-term (2 weeks) summer inundation is more effective than short-term winter inundation to restore the ANC in the upper 10 cm of non-floating peat soils, and to explain potential differences. Large-scale field experiments were conducted for five years in base-rich fens and Sphagnum-dominated poor fens. Winter inundation did not result in increased porewater ANC, because infiltration was inhibited in the waterlogged peat and evapotranspiration rates were relatively low. Also, low temperatures limit microbial alkalinity generation. In summer, however, when temperature and evapotranspiration rates are higher, inundation resulted in increased porewater Ca and HCO3- concentrations, but only in areas with characteristic rich fen bryophytes. This increase was not only due to stronger infiltration into the soil, but also to higher microbial alkalinity generation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast, porewater ANC did not increase in Sphagnum-plots as a result of the ability of Sphagnum spp. to acidify their environment. In both rich and poor fens, flooding-induced P-mobilization remained sufficiently low to safeguard P-limited vegetation. NO3- and NH4+ dynamics showed no considerable changes either. In conclusion, short-term summer inundation

  10. Short-term load forecasting using neural network for future smart grid application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennamo, Joseph Anthony, III

    Short-term load forecasting of power system has been a classic problem for a long time. Not merely it has been researched extensively and intensively, but also a variety of forecasting methods has been raised. This thesis outlines some aspects and functions of smart meter. It also presents different policies and current statuses as well as future projects and objectives of SG development in several countries. Then the thesis compares main aspects about latest products of smart meter from different companies. Lastly, three types of prediction models are established in MATLAB to emulate the functions of smart grid in the short-term load forecasting, and then their results are compared and analyzed in terms of accuracy. For this thesis, more variables such as dew point temperature are used in the Neural Network model to achieve more accuracy for better short-term load forecasting results.

  11. Short-Term EEG Spectral Pattern as a Single Event in EEG Phenomenology

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Al. A; Fingelkurts, An. A

    2010-01-01

    Spectral decomposition, to this day, still remains the main analytical paradigm for the analysis of EEG oscillations. However, conventional spectral analysis assesses the mean characteristics of the EEG power spectra averaged out over extended periods of time and/or broad frequency bands, thus resulting in a “static” picture which cannot reflect adequately the underlying neurodynamic. A relatively new promising area in the study of EEG is based on reducing the signal to elementary short-term spectra of various types in accordance with the number of types of EEG stationary segments instead of using averaged power spectrum for the whole EEG. It is suggested that the various perceptual and cognitive operations associated with a mental or behavioural condition constitute a single distinguishable neurophysiological state with a distinct and reliable spectral pattern. In this case, one type of short-term spectral pattern may be considered as a single event in EEG phenomenology. To support this assumption the following issues are considered in detail: (a) the relations between local EEG short-term spectral pattern of particular type and the actual state of the neurons in underlying network and a volume conduction; (b) relationship between morphology of EEG short-term spectral pattern and the state of the underlying neurodynamical system i.e. neuronal assembly; (c) relation of different spectral pattern components to a distinct physiological mechanism; (d) relation of different spectral pattern components to different functional significance; (e) developmental changes of spectral pattern components; (f) heredity of the variance in the individual spectral pattern and its components; (g) intra-individual stability of the sets of EEG short-term spectral patterns and their percent ratio; (h) discrete dynamics of EEG short-term spectral patterns. Functional relevance (consistency) of EEG short-term spectral patterns in accordance with the changes of brain functional state

  12. Roles for short-term synaptic plasticity in behavior.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Eric S; Rose, Gary J

    2002-01-01

    Short-term synaptic plasticity is phylogenetically widespread in ascending sensory systems of vertebrate brains. Such plasticity is found at all levels of sensory processing, including in sensory cortices. The functional roles of this apparently ubiquitous short-term synaptic plasticity, however, are not well understood. Data obtained in midbrain electrosensory neurons of Eigenmannia suggest that this plasticity has at least two roles in sensory processing; enhancing low-pass temporal filtering and generating phase shifts used in processing moving sensory images. Short-term synaptic plasticity may serve similar roles in other sensory modalities, including vision. PMID:14692501

  13. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, Third quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the second quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates.

  14. Auditory Short-Term Memory Behaves Like Visual Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory. PMID:17311472

  15. Operationalizing the assessment and management of violence risk in the short-term.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Michael; Logan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Assessing risk of violence in the short term is crucial for managing and preventing violence, especially in institutions such as psychiatric units and prisons. Despite a lack of consensus on the definition of "short term", a number of recent tools and guidelines have been developed to aid short-term clinical decision-making. Whereas the supporting evidence for the new tools is impressive, limitations remain in terms of the focus on prediction, limited consideration of strengths, and poor integration with formulation and risk management. The Short-Term Assessment of Risk and Treatability (START) is a brief clinical guide for the dynamic assessment of risks, strengths and treatability. It focuses on short-term risks and the characteristics of the individual that, if changed, might lead to an increase or decrease in risk. The START has the potential to operationalize the structured professional judgment (SPJ) approach in order to inform the evaluation of multiple risk domains relevant to everyday psychiatric clinical practice. However, explicit guidance on integrating risk assessment, formulation and management is limited in the START and this paper describes the SPJ approach, reviews recent developments in approaches to risk, and considers how the START can be used to inform SPJ approaches and link risk assessment, formulation, and management. PMID:22753147

  16. Economic efficiency of short-term versus long-term water rights buyouts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the decline of the Ogallala Aquifer, water districts, regional water managers, and state water officers are becoming increasingly interested in conservation policies. This study evaluates both short-term and long-term water rights buyout policies. This research develops dynamic production...

  17. A Short Term Therapy Approach to Processing Trauma: Art Therapy and Bilateral Stimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripp, Tally

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a dynamic, short-term art therapy approach that has been developed for the treatment of trauma related disorders. Using a modified Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) protocol with alternating tactile and auditory bilateral stimulation, associations are rapidly brought to conscious awareness and expressed in…

  18. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  19. Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) Overview

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The Regional Short-Term Energy Model (RSTEM) utilizes estimated econometric relationships for demand, inventories and prices to forecast energy market outcomes across key sectors and selected regions throughout the United States.

  20. UTILITY OF SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR GENETIC TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    By definition, short-term test (STTs) for genetic toxicity detect genotoxic agents, not carcinogens specifically. owever, there is ufficient evidence, based on mechanistic considerations alone, to say that genotoxic agents are potential carcinogens. TTs have high statistical powe...

  1. Encephalopathy and vestibulopathy following short-term hydrocarbon exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, M.J.; Furman, J.; Ryan, C.; Durrant, J.; Kern, E.

    1989-01-01

    Dizziness, headaches, and weakness occurred among three men after short-term hydrocarbon exposure during improper welding procedures in a closed container. Symptoms were related to objective evidence of vestibular and cognitive dysfunction. Symptoms and abnormal test results persisted for 6 to 18 months. Simulation of the accident failed to demonstrate likely exposures except aliphatic hydrocarbons, well within the permissible exposure levels. Short-term exposures to neurotoxins may lead to long-term central nervous system abnormalities.

  2. Short term fluctuations of wind and solar power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anvari, M.; Lohmann, G.; Wächter, M.; Milan, P.; Lorenz, E.; Heinemann, D.; Rahimi Tabar, M. Reza; Peinke, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Wind and solar power are known to be highly influenced by weather events and may ramp up or down abruptly. Such events in the power production influence not only the availability of energy, but also the stability of the entire power grid. By analysing significant amounts of data from several regions around the world with resolutions of seconds to minutes, we provide strong evidence that renewable wind and solar sources exhibit multiple types of variability and nonlinearity in the time scale of seconds and characterise their stochastic properties. In contrast to previous findings, we show that only the jumpy characteristic of renewable sources decreases when increasing the spatial size over which the renewable energies are harvested. Otherwise, the strong non-Gaussian, intermittent behaviour in the cumulative power of the total field survives even for a country-wide distribution of the systems. The strong fluctuating behaviour of renewable wind and solar sources can be well characterised by Kolmogorov-like power spectra and q-exponential probability density functions. Using the estimated potential shape of power time series, we quantify the jumpy or diffusive dynamic of the power. Finally we propose a time delayed feedback technique as a control algorithm to suppress the observed short term non-Gaussian statistics in spatially strong correlated and intermittent renewable sources.

  3. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and interference in short-term memory in a task that rules out the use of rehearsal processes. In this article the authors present a series of studies using a novel paradigm to address this problem directly, by interrogating the operation of decay and interference in short-term memory without rehearsal confounds. The results of these studies indicate that short-term memories are subject to very small decay effects with the mere passage of time but that interference plays a much larger role in their degradation. The authors discuss the implications of these results for existing models of memory decay and interference. PMID:19271849

  4. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  5. Linking Large-scale, Long-term Modeling and Micro-scale, Short-term Process Studies to Assess Climate-driven Changes in Hydrological Dynamics in the Nam Co Basin, Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biskop, S.; Krause, P.; Leiterer, R.; Helmschrot, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Tibetan Plateau, often called the third pole, is considered as one of the most vulnerable regions being affected by global climate change. Since little knowledge is given on the effect of changing monsoon dynamics, temperature increase and increasing glacier melt on the Tibetan hydrology, a project was initiated to study their spatio-temporal impact on the regional water balance. As shown by the remote sensing based analysis of lake extent and lake level changes, the increase of the lake level of the Nam Co (30°N/90°E, 4718 m a.s.l.) in the previous decades indicates that the Nam Co basin (10 800 km2) located in central Tibet is experiencing noticeable changes in the hydrological dynamics. To quantify those changes, the distributed, hydrological model J2000 which was adapted to high-altitude conditions and extended by a glacier and a lake module. Given the limited data availability gridded global and regional climate projections (ECHAM5, CRU, APHRODITE, TRMM) were compared with measured climate data from the Nam Co station and nearby stations and processed as climate input data for the hydrological modeling. Land cover derived from Landsat data, soil information (ISRIC-World Soil Information) and topographic information were overlaid to receive spatial model entities according to the Hydrological Response Units approach. Using field-based data on soil and vegetation patterns and characteristics as well as soil moisture measurements, micro-scale process studies were performed to derive parameters and knowledge for the calibration of the model. With the model spatially distributed estimates of precipitation, potential and actual evapotranspiration from the land surface and the lake itself, glacier and snow melt and runoff generation could be obtained for the period of 1961 in 2010 in monthly and daily time steps. Comparisons with the very rarely available measured hydrological quantities showed a reasonable correlation. For example, observed lake level rise

  6. Role of Satellite Rainfall Information in Improving Understanding of the Dynamical Link Between the Tropics and Extratropics Prospects of Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Sub-Seasonal Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.

    2002-01-01

    The tropics and extratropics are two dynamically distinct regimes. The coupling between these two regimes often defies simple analytical treatment. Progress in understanding of the dynamical interaction between the tropics and extratropics relies on better observational descriptions to guide theoretical development. However, global analyses currently contain significant errors in primary hydrological variables such as precipitation, evaporation, moisture, and clouds, especially in the tropics. Tropical analyses have been shown to be sensitive to parameterized precipitation processes, which are less than perfect, leading to order-one discrepancies between estimates produced by different data assimilation systems. One strategy for improvement is to assimilate rainfall observations to constrain the analysis and reduce uncertainties in variables physically linked to precipitation. At the Data Assimilation Office at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, we have been exploring the use of tropical rain rates derived from the TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) and the Special Sensor Microwave/ Imager (SSM/I) instruments in global data assimilation. Results show that assimilating these data improves not only rainfall and moisture fields but also related climate parameters such as clouds and radiation, as well as the large-scale circulation and short-range forecasts. These studies suggest that assimilation of microwave rainfall observations from space has the potential to significantly improve the quality of 4-D assimilated datasets for climate investigations (Hou et al. 2001). In the next few years, there will be a gradual increase in microwave rain products available from operational and research satellites, culminating to a target constellation of 9 satellites to provide global rain measurements every 3 hours with the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission in 2007. Continued improvements in assimilation methodology, rainfall error estimates, and model

  7. Neural circuit mechanisms of short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Mark

    Memory over time scales of seconds to tens of seconds is thought to be maintained by neural activity that is triggered by a memorized stimulus and persists long after the stimulus is turned off. This presents a challenge to current models of memory-storing mechanisms, because the typical time scales associated with cellular and synaptic dynamics are two orders of magnitude smaller than this. While such long time scales can easily be achieved by bistable processes that toggle like a flip-flop between a baseline and elevated-activity state, many neuronal systems have been observed experimentally to be capable of maintaining a continuum of stable states. For example, in neural integrator networks involved in the accumulation of evidence for decision making and in motor control, individual neurons have been recorded whose activity reflects the mathematical integral of their inputs; in the absence of input, these neurons sustain activity at a level proportional to the running total of their inputs. This represents an analog form of memory whose dynamics can be conceptualized through an energy landscape with a continuum of lowest-energy states. Such continuous attractor landscapes are structurally non-robust, in seeming violation of the relative robustness of biological memory systems. In this talk, I will present and compare different biologically motivated circuit motifs for the accumulation and storage of signals in short-term memory. Challenges to generating robust memory maintenance will be highlighted and potential mechanisms for ameliorating the sensitivity of memory networks to perturbations will be discussed. Funding for this work was provided by NIH R01 MH065034, NSF IIS-1208218, Simons Foundation 324260, and a UC Davis Ophthalmology Research to Prevent Blindness Grant.

  8. The investigation of short-term variations of Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation with the large radio interferometer GMRT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Kota; Misawa, Hiroaki; Bhardwaj, Anil; Tsuchiya, Fuminori; Doi, Akihiro; Kondo, Tetsuro; Morioka, Akira

    The goal of this research is to investigate physical processes of short term variations of Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation (JSR) which is important for revealing the origin of relativistic electrons at Jupiter's Radiation Belt (JRB). JSR has been frequently observed by radio interferometers and single dish radio telescopes to understand characteristics of the spatial distribution and variations inferring dynamics and energetics of the relativistic electrons. Observations with radio interferometers have showed JSR source structure (Dunn et al., 2003, etc), and contributed to modeling of JRB (Garrett et al., 2005, etc). On the other hand, observations of total intensity of JSR with a single dish radio telescope have revealed characteristics of time variable phenomena. The time variations are indispensable parameters giving clues to understand particle source and/or loss processes which characterize the formation of JRB. Recently, Miyoshi et al. (1999) and Bolton et al. (2002) confirmed the existence of short term (days to weeks) variations in JSR. The detection of short term variations makes a great impact on the study on JRB because it has been believed for a long time that the strong internal magnetic field and rapidly rotating magnetosphere of Jupiter protect the JRB region from solar wind variations and magnetospheric disturbances as theoretically suggested by de Pater and Goertz (1994). So far we have made the JSR observations to investigate the short term variations of mainly several hundreds MHz JSR which is emitted by low energy particles (< 10MeV) and has been observed systematically only few times (Miyoshi et al., 1999, Misawa et al., 2005, etc). The latter observation suggested that the short term variation is a general feature at low frequencies. Therefore, it is essential to study its detailed characteristics and the causalities. Theoretically expected physical processes which are responsible for the short term variation are enhanced radial diffusion

  9. Short-term potentiation of breathing in humans.

    PubMed

    Fregosi, R F

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the increase in ventilation induced by hypoxic stimulation of the carotid bodies (CB) persists after cessation of the stimulus in humans. I reasoned that a short-term potentiation (STP) of breathing, sometimes called an "afterdischarge," could be unmasked by combining hypoxia with exercise, because ventilation increases synergistically under these conditions. Seven young healthy men performed mild bicycle exercise (30% peak power) while breathing O2 for 1.5 min ("control" state), and their CB were then stimulated by 1.5 min of hypoxic exercise (10% O2--balance N2). CB stimulation was then terminated by changing the inspirate back to O2 as exercise continued. Inspiratory and expiratory duration (TI and TE) and inspiratory flow and its time integral [tidal volume (VT)] were measured with a pneumotachometer. Inspired minute ventilation (VI) and mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) declined exponentially after the cessation of CB stimulation, with first-order time constants of 28.6 +/- 6.7 and 24.6 +/- 1.6 (SD) s, respectively. The slow decay of VI was due primarily to potentiation of both TI and TE, although the effect on the latter predominated. Additional experiments in six subjects showed that brief intense CB stimulation with four to five breaths of N2 during mild exercise induced STP of similar magnitude to that observed in the hypoxic exercise experiments. Finally, the imposition of hyperoxia during air breathing exercise at a level of respiratory drive similar to that induced by the hypoxic exercise did not change VI significantly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1757326

  10. Short-Term Variability on the Scotian Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenan, B.; Petrie, B.; Harrison, G.; Oakey, N.; Strain, P.

    2002-12-01

    The traditional view of the production cycle on the continental shelf of Nova Scotia features a spring bloom followed by a period of low production and a less intense fall bloom. The annual cycle of primary productivity thus has a large, low frequency component. However, there is increasing evidence that the production cycle has significant variability on shorter time scales. Physical, chemical and biological variability on the Scotian Shelf is examined on a daily to weekly timescale. This is accomplished through the use of a newly developed mooring platform (SeaHorse) that uses surface wave energy to enable the instrument to climb down the mooring wire and then float upwards while sampling the water column. This provides bi-hourly profiles of temperature, salinity, pressure and chlorophyll at one location over month-long periods. Results from the three-week deployment in October 2000 indicate a subsurface chlorophyll maximum below the pycnocline during the first part of the time series. An event occurred in mid-October during which the temperature, salinity and density iso-surfaces rose approximately 25 m. During this event, a small bloom, with peak chlorophyll concentrations of about 2 mg m-3 and duration of several days, began as nutrients were brought into the upper part of the water column by upwelling-favorable winds. SeaWiFS ocean color satellite images were valuable in providing a spatial context for chlorophyll concentrations, however, the lack of temporal resolution due to poor quality images means that this data set provided limited information for short-term chlorophyll variability. Gradient Richardson Numbers were estimated for 2 m vertical bins using SeaHorse CTD data and nearby ADCP current measurements. A trend of decreasing Ri in the ocean mixed layer with increasing surface wind stress is suggested.

  11. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections. Second quarter 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-02

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent projections with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1995 through the fourth quarter of 1996. Values for the first quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the second quarter 1995 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  12. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework

    PubMed Central

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury. PMID:23874280

  13. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26505915

  14. Verbal short-term memory and vocabulary learning in polyglots.

    PubMed

    Papagno, C; Vallar, G

    1995-02-01

    Polyglot and non-polyglot Italian subjects were given tests assessing verbal (phonological) and visuo-spatial short-term and long-term memory, general intelligence, and vocabulary knowledge in their native language. Polyglots had a superior level of performance in verbal short-term memory tasks (auditory digit span and nonword repetition) and in a paired-associate learning test, which assessed the subjects' ability to acquire new (Russian) words. By contrast, the two groups had comparable performance levels in tasks assessing general intelligence, visuo-spatial short-term memory and learning, and paired-associate learning of Italian words. These findings, which are in line with neuropsychological and developmental evidence, as well as with data from normal subjects, suggest a close relationship between the capacity of phonological memory and the acquisition of foreign languages. PMID:7754088

  15. Short-Termed Integrated Forecasting System: 1993 Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and describe its basic properties. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Energy Department (DOE) developed the STIFS model to generate short-term (up to 8 quarters), monthly forecasts of US supplies, demands, imports exports, stocks, and prices of various forms of energy. The models that constitute STIFS generate forecasts for a wide range of possible scenarios, including the following ones done routinely on a quarterly basis: A base (mid) world oil price and medium economic growth. A low world oil price and high economic growth. A high world oil price and low economic growth. This report is written for persons who want to know how short-term energy markets forecasts are produced by EIA. The report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  16. Short-Term Resilience Processes in the Family

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Sunhye; Repetti, Rena L.

    2015-01-01

    The authors review naturalistic studies of short-term processes that appear to promote resilience in children in the context of everyday family life and argue that warm and supportive family interactions foster resilience through their cumulative impact on children’s emotional and physiological stress response systems. In the short-term, these family interactions promote the experience and expression of positive emotion and healthy patterns of diurnal cortisol. Over time, these internal resources – a propensity to experience positive emotion and a well-functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system –enhance a child’s capacity to avoid, or limit, the deleterious effects of adversity. This article highlights naturalistic research methods that are well suited to the study of these short-term resilience processes and points to clinical applications of our conceptual and methodological approach. PMID:26246651

  17. Reconstructing Clusters for Preconditioned Short-term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Tadahiro; Mori, Hiroyuki

    This paper presents a new preconditioned method for short-term load forecasting that focuses on more accurate predicted value. In recent years, the deregulated and competitive power market increases the degree of uncertainty. As a result, more sophisticated short-term load forecasting techniques are required to deal with more complicated load behavior. To alleviate the complexity of load behavior, this paper presents a new preconditioned model. In this paper, clustering results are reconstructed to equalize the number of learning data after clustering with the Kohonen-based neural network. That enhances a short-term load forecasting model at each reconstructed cluster. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of one-step ahead daily maximum load forecasting.

  18. Short-term tocolytics for preterm delivery – current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Haas, David M; Benjamin, Tara; Sawyer, Renata; Quinney, Sara K

    2014-01-01

    Administration of short-term tocolytic agents can prolong pregnancy for women in preterm labor. Prolonging pregnancy has many benefits because it allows for other proven interventions, such as antenatal corticosteroid administration, to be accomplished. This review provides an overview of currently utilized tocolytic agents and the evidence demonstrating their efficacy for prolonging pregnancy by at least 48 hours. General pharmacological principles for the clinician regarding drugs in pregnancy are also briefly discussed. In general, while the choice of the best first-line short-term tocolytic drug is not clear, it is evident that use of these agents has a clear place in current obstetric therapeutics. PMID:24707187

  19. Mechanisms of long and short term immunity to plague.

    PubMed Central

    Wake, A; Morita, H; Wake, M

    1978-01-01

    Long and short term immunity to plague was produced in normal mice by using, respectively, an antibiotic resistant Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Both immunogens were used live. Passive serum transfer experiments, together with assays for the bactericidal activity of macrophages and delayed hypersensitivity tests, showed that the short term immunity was of a humoral nature and the long term immunity was cell mediated. The plague virulence markers of the two immunogens were: Y. pestis VW- F1+ P1+ P+; Y. pseudotuberculosis VW+ F1- P1- P-. The challenge organism was Y. pestis VW+ F1+ P1+ P+. Images Figure 3 PMID:680791

  20. Predicting short-term stock fluctuations by using processing fluency

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Adam L.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Three studies investigated the impact of the psychological principle of fluency (that people tend to prefer easily processed information) on short-term share price movements. In both a laboratory study and two analyses of naturalistic real-world stock market data, fluently named stocks robustly outperformed stocks with disfluent names in the short term. For example, in one study, an initial investment of $1,000 yielded a profit of $112 more after 1 day of trading for a basket of fluently named shares than for a basket of disfluently named shares. These results imply that simple, cognitive approaches to modeling human behavior sometimes outperform more typical, complex alternatives. PMID:16754871

  1. Dynamical calculations for RHEED intensity oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniluk, Andrzej

    2005-03-01

    A practical computing algorithm working in real time has been developed for calculating the reflection high-energy electron diffraction from the molecular beam epitaxy growing surface. The calculations are based on the use of a dynamical diffraction theory in which the electrons are taken to be diffracted by a potential, which is periodic in the dimension perpendicular to the surface. The results of the calculations are presented in the form of rocking curves to illustrate how the diffracted beam intensities depend on the glancing angle of the incident beam. Program summaryTitle of program: RHEED Catalogue identifier:ADUY Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADUY Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested: Pentium-based PC Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested: Windows 9x, XP, NT, Linux Programming language used: Borland C++ Memory required to execute with typical data: more than 1 MB Number of bits in a word: 64 bits Number of processors used: 1 Distribution format:tar.gz Number of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:982 Number of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 126 051 Nature of physical problem: Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is a very useful technique for studying growth and surface analysis of thin epitaxial structures prepared by the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Nowadays, RHEED is used in many laboratories all over the world where researchers deal with the growth of materials by MBE. The RHEED technique can reveal, almost instantaneously, changes either in the coverage of the sample surface by adsorbates or in the surface structure of a thin film. In most cases the interpretation of experimental results is based on the use of dynamical diffraction approaches. Such approaches are said to be quite useful in qualitative and

  2. Astroglial calcium signaling displays short-term plasticity and adjusts synaptic efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Sibille, Jérémie; Zapata, Jonathan; Teillon, Jérémie; Rouach, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are dynamic signaling brain elements able to sense neuronal inputs and to respond by complex calcium signals, which are thought to represent their excitability. Such signaling has been proposed to modulate, or not, neuronal activities ranging from basal synaptic transmission to epileptiform discharges. However, whether calcium signaling in astrocytes exhibits activity-dependent changes and acutely modulates short-term synaptic plasticity is currently unclear. We here show, using dual recordings of astroglial calcium signals and synaptic transmission, that calcium signaling in astrocytes displays, concomitantly to excitatory synapses, short-term plasticity in response to prolonged repetitive and tetanic stimulations of Schaffer collaterals. We also found that acute inhibition of calcium signaling in astrocytes by intracellular calcium chelation rapidly potentiates excitatory synaptic transmission and short-term plasticity of Shaffer collateral CA1 synapses, i.e., paired-pulse facilitation and responses to tetanic and prolonged repetitive stimulation. These data reveal that calcium signaling of astrocytes is plastic and down-regulates basal transmission and short-term plasticity of hippocampal CA1 glutamatergic synapses. PMID:26074766

  3. Visual Motor Short Term Memory in Educationally Subnormal Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugden, D. A.

    1978-01-01

    This investigation attempted to describe the developmental sequence of visual motor short term memory in mentally handicapped boys (mental ages 6, 9, and 12) during conditions of rest and interpolated activity, and to explore their use of spontaneous rehearsal strategies. Results are compared with those for normal boys. (Author/SJL)

  4. Labeling, Rehearsal, and Short-Term Memory in Retarded Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John W.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A short-term memory task was used to explore the effects of verbal labeling and rehearsal on serial-position recall in mildly retarded 9-to 11-year-old children. Results support the view that verbal skills affect recall in mildly retarded children similarly to normal children. (Author/SDH)

  5. Visual Short-Term Memory During Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerzel, Dirk; Ziegler, Nathalie E.

    2005-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) was probed while observers performed smooth pursuit eye movements. Smooth pursuit keeps a moving object stabilized in the fovea. VSTM capacity for position was reduced during smooth pursuit compared with a condition with eye fixation. There was no difference between a condition in which the items were approximately…

  6. Validation of a Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Fish Short-term Reproduction Assay is an in vivo assay conducted with fathead minnows and is designed to detect changes in spawning, gross morphology, histopathology, and specific biochemical endpoints that reflect disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis...

  7. Interference-Based Forgetting in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowsky, Stephan; Geiger, Sonja M.; Oberauer, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This article presents four experiments that tested predictions of SOB (Serial Order in a Box), an interference-based theory of short-term memory. Central to SOB is the concept of novelty-sensitive encoding, which holds that items are encoded to the extent that they differ from already-encoded information. On the additional assumption that…

  8. CONTROLLED, SHORT-TERM DERMAL AND INHALATION EXPOSURE TO CHLOROFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted to determine the uptake by humans of chloroform as a result of controlled short-term dermal and inhalation exposures. The approach used continuous real-time breath analysis to determine exhaled-breath profiles and evaluate chloroform kinetics in the huma...

  9. A DAPHNIA MAGNA SHORT-TERM SURVIVAL AND GROWTH TEST

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the change in acceptable test temperatures for invertebrate toxicity tests from <20oC to 25oC, it is now possible to use Daphnia magna for short-term chronic testing. When cultured at 25oC the dry weight of <24 hr old D. magna ranges from 7 to 15 g depending upon nutrition,...

  10. The Role of Short-Term Memory on Language Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Li-Yuch

    Two studies assessed the impact of short-term memory on English as a Second Language learning. The first involved 20 graduate students at a Taiwanese university, who were randomly divided into treatment and control groups. It investigated differences in the performance of phrase recollection when the information was chunked versus unchunked.…

  11. Valuing Short-Term Study Abroad in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loh, Chung-Ping A.; Steagall, Jeffrey W.; Gallo, Andres; Michelman, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    Short-term study abroad courses often claim to provide a unique experience for students, but it is not clear how the value translates into a dollar amount. The paper uses the contingent valuation method to assess participating students' pre- and post-trip perceived dollar value of their study abroad courses at an AACSB accredited business school.…

  12. Short Term Skill Training. Alternative Approaches. Information Series No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Russell

    Short term skill training programs are those programs, usually one year or less, designed to train, retrain, or upgrade the skills of workers. Such programs provide an opportunity for postsecondary vocational institutions to respond to the human resource needs of their communities. A number of important policy issues are involved in the provision…

  13. Short-Term Memory, Executive Control, and Children's Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Farran, Emily K.; Courbois, Yannick; Lemahieu, Axelle; Mellier, Daniel; Sockeel, Pascal; Blades, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate route-learning ability in 67 children aged 5 to 11 years and to relate route-learning performance to the components of Baddeley's model of working memory. Children carried out tasks that included measures of verbal and visuospatial short-term memory and executive control and also measures of verbal and…

  14. Regularization in Short-Term Memory for Serial Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvinick, Matthew; Bylsma, Lauren M.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that short-term memory for serial order can be influenced by background knowledge concerning regularities of sequential structure. Specifically, it has been shown that recall is superior for sequences that fit well with familiar sequencing constraints. The authors report a corresponding effect pertaining to serial…

  15. Short-term storage of Atlantic sturgeon spermatozoa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is significant interest to restore the Atlantic sturgeon, a species of concern. Biologists are interested in both the short-term storage and cryopreservation of semen to maximize availability of viable spermatozoa whenever a rare ripe female is found and available for spawning. We conducted sh...

  16. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  17. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  18. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  19. 22 CFR 62.21 - Short-term scholars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participate in seminars, workshops, conferences, study tours, professional meetings, or similar types of... shall satisfy the definition of a short-term scholar as set forth in § 62.4. (e) Cross-cultural... shall be exempted from the requirements of providing cross-cultural activities and orientation as...

  20. Short-term energy outlook, Quarterly projections. Third quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-08-04

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the second quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding.

  1. Facilitation and Distraction in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, John William; Kail, Robert V., Jr.

    Children's short-term memory was studied under two experimental conditions: one in which recall was expected to be facilitated because of the provision of a study period, and one in which a distracting task was imposed that was expected to interfere with recall. Forty subjects at each of two age levels, 7 and 11 years, were tested in a…

  2. A Short Term Real Time Study in Syntactic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Maria Eugenia Lamoglia

    Recent research has shown that Brazilian Portuguese is undergoing a change regarding the null subject parameter, evolving from a null subject to a non-null subject language. This paper presents the results of a short term, real time study of speakers of Brazilian Portuguese with low and mid levels of formal education. The study was based on…

  3. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  4. An Evaluation of Short-Term Distributed Online Learning Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bradley; Brooks, David

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of short-term distributed online training events using an adapted version of the compressed evaluation form developed by Wisher and Curnow (1998). Evaluating online distributed training events provides insight into course effectiveness, the contribution of prior knowledge to learning, and…

  5. Improving creativity performance by short-term meditation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One form of meditation intervention, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) has been shown to improve attention, reduce stress and change self-reports of mood. In this paper we examine whether short-term IBMT can improve performance related to creativity and determine the role that mood may play in such improvement. Methods Forty Chinese undergraduates were randomly assigned to short-term IBMT group or a relaxation training (RT) control group. Mood and creativity performance were assessed by the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) questionnaire respectively. Results As predicted, the results indicated that short-term (30 min per day for 7 days) IBMT improved creativity performance on the divergent thinking task, and yielded better emotional regulation than RT. In addition, cross-lagged analysis indicated that both positive and negative affect may influence creativity in IBMT group (not RT group). Conclusions Our results suggested that emotion-related creativity-promoting mechanism may be attributed to short-term meditation. PMID:24645871

  6. Short-Term Effects of Playing Computer Games on Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Celik, Gonca Gul; Avci, Ayse; Seydaoglu, Gulsah; Uzel, Mehtap; Altunbas, Handan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of the present study is to investigate the short-term cognitive effects of computer games in children with different psychiatric disorders and normal controls. Method: One hundred one children are recruited for the study (aged between 9 and 12 years). All participants played a motor-racing game on the computer for 1 hour.…

  7. Exogenous Attention Influences Visual Short-Term Memory in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Oakes, Lisa M.; Luck, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that developing visual attentional mechanisms influence infants' Visual Short-Term Memory (VSTM) in the context of multiple items. Five- and 10-month-old infants (N = 76) received a change detection task in which arrays of three differently colored squares appeared and disappeared. On each trial one square…

  8. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, second quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The forecasts in this issue cover the second quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Changes to macroeconomic measures by the Bureau of Economic Analysis have been incorporated into the STIFS model used.

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook: Quarterly projections. Fourth quarter 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-05

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook). An annual supplement analyzes the performance of previous forecasts, compares recent cases with those of other forecasting services, and discusses current topics related to the short-term energy markets. (See Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement, DOE/EIA-0202.) The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1993 through the fourth quarter of 1994. Values for the third quarter of 1993, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data are EIA data published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications.

  10. Short-Term Reducing Conditions Decreases Soil Aggregation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Upland soils in Midwestern US are often ponded during the spring for days or weeks and may undergo reducing state. Short-term reducing conditions change the chemistry of the soil and that may affect soil aggregation. The objective of this paper was to determine how changes in the redox status of the...

  11. Emotive-reconstruction psychotherapy: a short-term cognitive approach.

    PubMed

    Morrison, J K; Cometa, M S

    1977-04-01

    Emotive-Reconstructive Therapy, a recently developed therapeutic modality deriving from cognitive theory, may be a promising short-term approach to psychopathology. Combining the use of imagery with selective hyperventilation, a therapist induces patients to reexperience past events, and subsequently to radically reconstrue themselves and significant others in a personally satisfying direction. PMID:879383

  12. Relation between Intelligence and Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Ronald L.; Sandberg, Tor

    1977-01-01

    Intelligence and short-term memory correlations in children were measured using probed serial recall of supraspan digit lists. Results showed the predictive power of intelligence to range from a maximum in the case of recall for recency items to practically zero in the case of primacy items. (Author/MV)

  13. Color Cues and Rehearsal in Short-Term Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Ruth A.; Hagen, John W.

    A short term memory task was used to explore the effects of color cues and of a condition that permitted rehearsal as compared to one that did not. Eighty subjects per grade at grades 3, 5, and 7 were tested. A stimulus array consisted of five cards, each of which contained pictures that could be designated as central or incidental. The stimulus…

  14. PROTOCOLS FOR SHORT TERM TOXICITY SCREENING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual contains short-term methods for measuring the toxicity of chemical contaminants in soil, sediment, surface water, and groundwater samples. The algal assay is a chronic test, while all other tests described in the manual are acute tests. The methods are one of several t...

  15. Reaching 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Meng, Y. L.; Wan, J. Y.; Wang, X. M.; Wang, Y. N.; Xiao, L.; Cheng, H. D.; Liu, L.

    2016-06-01

    We present an improvement of short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock after increasing the intensities of clock signals and optimizing the feedback loop of the clock. A short term frequency stability of 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 has been achieved and the limiting factors have been analyzed.

  16. Short-term change detection for UAV video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, Günter; Krüger, Wolfgang

    2012-11-01

    In the last years, there has been an increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for video reconnaissance and surveillance. An important application in this context is change detection in UAV video data. Here we address short-term change detection, in which the time between observations ranges from several minutes to a few hours. We distinguish this task from video motion detection (shorter time scale) and from long-term change detection, based on time series of still images taken between several days, weeks, or even years. Examples for relevant changes we are looking for are recently parked or moved vehicles. As a pre-requisite, a precise image-to-image registration is needed. Images are selected on the basis of the geo-coordinates of the sensor's footprint and with respect to a certain minimal overlap. The automatic imagebased fine-registration adjusts the image pair to a common geometry by using a robust matching approach to handle outliers. The change detection algorithm has to distinguish between relevant and non-relevant changes. Examples for non-relevant changes are stereo disparity at 3D structures of the scene, changed length of shadows, and compression or transmission artifacts. To detect changes in image pairs we analyzed image differencing, local image correlation, and a transformation-based approach (multivariate alteration detection). As input we used color and gradient magnitude images. To cope with local misalignment of image structures we extended the approaches by a local neighborhood search. The algorithms are applied to several examples covering both urban and rural scenes. The local neighborhood search in combination with intensity and gradient magnitude differencing clearly improved the results. Extended image differencing performed better than both the correlation based approach and the multivariate alternation detection. The algorithms are adapted to be used in semi-automatic workflows for the ABUL video exploitation system of Fraunhofer

  17. Seasonal Changes Drive Short-Term Selection for Fitness Traits in the Wheat Pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    Ravigné, Virginie; Sache, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    In a cross-infection experiment, we investigated how seasonal changes can affect adaptation patterns in a Zymoseptoria tritici population. The fitness of isolates sampled on wheat leaves at the beginning and at the end of a field epidemic was assessed under environmental conditions (temperature and host stage) to which the local pathogen population was successively exposed. Isolates of the final population were more aggressive, and showed greater sporulation intensity under winter conditions and a shorter latency period (earlier sporulation) under spring conditions, than isolates of the initial population. These differences, complemented by lower between-genotype variability in the final population, exhibited an adaptation pattern with three striking features: (i) the pathogen responded synchronously to temperature and host stage conditions; (ii) the adaptation concerned two key fitness traits; (iii) adaptation to one trait (greater sporulation intensity) was expressed under winter conditions while, subsequently, adaptation to the other trait (shorter latency period) was expressed under spring conditions. This can be interpreted as the result of short-term selection, driven by abiotic and biotic factors. This case study cannot yet be generalized but suggests that seasonality may play an important role in shaping the variability of fitness traits. These results further raise the question of possible counterselection during the interepidemic period. While we did not find any trade-off between clonal multiplication on leaves during the epidemic period and clonal spore production on debris, we suggest that final populations could be counterselected by an Allee effect, mitigating the potential impact of seasonal selection on long-term dynamics. PMID:26150467

  18. Ordered Short-Term Memory Differs in Signers and Speakers: Implications for Models of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers ([Boutla, M., Supalla, T., Newport, E. L., & Bavelier, D.…

  19. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Arab, Sara; Momen, Abdul; Cheng, Henry S.; Wu, Jun; Afroze, Talat; Li, Ren-Ke; Fish, Jason E.; Bader, Gary D.; Husain, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR). Background Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia. Methods Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI. Results This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function. PMID:26098549

  20. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ...NCUA is amending its general lending rule to enable Federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory payday loans. The amendment permits FCUs to charge a higher interest rate for an STS loan than is permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and fees associated with an......

  1. Short-term hydroelectric generation model. Model documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models.

  2. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  3. Short term UV line profile variation in 59 Cyg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Doazan, V.; Peters, G. J.; Willis, A.; Snow, T. P.; Aitken, D.; Barker, P. K.; Bolton, C. T.; Henrichs, H.; Kitchen, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    The International ultraviolet Explorer high dispersion spectra of 59 Cyg obtained as part of the long term monitoring program have shown that noticeable variation can occur in C 5 and N 5 on timescales 3 hours t24 to 28 hours. In order to begin to resolve whether these changes occur continuously or sporadically, 48 hours were devoted to monitoring this star in January 1982. The January spectra show no short term variation, which may be consistent with sporadic rather than continuous variation.

  4. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, “Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.” The curriculum was developed through solicitation of actual ethical issues experienced by trainees and program leaders; content drafting; and external content review. It was then evaluated from November 1, 2011, through July 1, 2012, by analyzing web usage data and by conducting user surveys. The survey included basic demographic data; prior experience in global health and global health ethics; and assessment of cases within the curriculum. Results The ten case curriculum is freely available at http://ethicsandglobalhealth.org. An average of 238 unique visitors accessed the site each month (standard deviation, 19). Of users who had been abroad before for global health training or service, only 31% reported prior ethics training related to short-term work. Most users (62%) reported accessing the site via personal referral or their training program; however, a significant number (28%) reported finding the site via web search, and 8% discovered it via web links. Users represented different fields: medicine (46%), public health (15%), and nursing (11%) were most common. All cases in the curriculum were evaluated favorably. Conclusions The curriculum is meeting a critical need for an introduction to the ethical issues in short-term global health training. Future work will integrate this curriculum within more comprehensive curricula for global health and evaluate specific knowledge and behavioral effects, including at training sites abroad. PMID:23410089

  5. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  6. Short term creep rupture predictions for tantalum alloy T-111

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J. )

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTGs near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {similar to}2{times}10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs.

  7. Short term creep rupture predictions for Tantalum alloy T-3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge of the short term creep rupture behavior of Tantalum alloy T-111 is necessary to predict device integrity in the heat source section of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG's) at the end of service life, in the event of a fuel fire. High pressures exist in RTG's near the end of service life, these are caused by gas generation resulting from radioactive decay of the nuclear fuel. The internal pressure exerts a significant hoop stress on the T-111 alloy structural containment member. This paper analyses the short term creep behavior (rupture times up to {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup 3} hrs.) of cold worked (CW) T-111 alloy, using the existing data of Stephenson (1967). Corellations for the time to rupture, time to 1% strain and minimum creep rate have been obtained from this data using multivariable linear regression analysis. These results are compared to other short term rupture data for T-111 alloy. Finally, at the stress/temperature levels relevant to the RTG fuel fire scenario near the end of service life, the rupture time correlation for T-111 alloy predicts a rupture time of approximately 100 hrs. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, fourth quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-14

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for printed publication in January, April, July, and October in the Short-Term Energy Outlook. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates on or about the 6th of each interim month, are available on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the fourth quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the fourth quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. 19 tabs.

  9. Does tonality boost short-term memory in congenital amusia?

    PubMed

    Albouy, Philippe; Schulze, Katrin; Caclin, Anne; Tillmann, Barbara

    2013-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. Recent findings have demonstrated that this deficit is linked to an impaired short-term memory for tone sequences. As it has been shown before that non-musicians' implicit knowledge of musical regularities can improve short-term memory for tone information, the present study investigated if this type of implicit knowledge could also influence amusics' short-term memory performance. Congenital amusics and their matched controls, who were non-musicians, had to indicate whether sequences of five tones, presented in pairs, were the same or different; half of the pairs respected musical regularities (tonal sequences) and the other half did not (atonal sequences). As previously reported for non-musician participants, the control participants showed better performance (as measured with d') for tonal sequences than for atonal ones. While this improvement was not observed in amusics, both control and amusic participants showed faster response times for tonal sequences than for atonal sequences. These findings suggest that some implicit processing of tonal structures is potentially preserved in congenital amusia. This observation is encouraging as it strengthens the perspective to exploit implicit knowledge to help reducing pitch perception and memory deficits in amusia. PMID:24041778

  10. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity.

    PubMed

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-07-01

    The digit span is one of the most widely used memory tests in clinical and experimental neuropsychology for reliably measuring short-term memory capacity. In the forward version, sequences of digits of increasing length have to be reproduced in the order in which they are presented, whereas in the backward version items must be reproduced in the reversed order. Here, we assessed whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) increases the memory span for digits of young and midlife adults. Imperceptibly weak electrical currents in the alpha (10 Hz), beta (20 Hz), theta (5 Hz), and gamma (40 Hz) range, as well as a sham stimulation, were delivered over the left posterior parietal cortex, a cortical region thought to sustain maintenance processes in short-term memory through oscillatory brain activity in the beta range. We showed a frequency-specific effect of beta-tACS that robustly increased the forward memory span of young, but not middle-aged, healthy individuals. The effect correlated with age: the younger the subjects, the greater the benefit arising from parietal beta stimulation. Our results provide evidence of a short-term memory capacity improvement in young adults by online frequency-specific tACS application. PMID:27121583

  11. 2-arachidonoylglycerol signaling impairs short-term fear extinction

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, N D; Gunduz-Cinar, O; Halladay, L; Bukalo, O; Holmes, A; Patel, S

    2016-01-01

    Impairments in fear extinction are thought to be central to the psychopathology of posttraumatic stress disorder, and endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling has been strongly implicated in extinction learning. Here we utilized the monoacylglycerol lipase inhibitor JZL184 to selectively augment brain 2-AG levels combined with an auditory cue fear-conditioning paradigm to test the hypothesis that 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling modulates short-term fear extinction learning in mice. We show that systemic JZL184 impairs short-term extinction learning in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner without affecting non-specific freezing behavior or the acquisition of conditioned fear. This effect was also observed in over-conditioned mice environmentally manipulated to re-acquire fear extinction. Cumulatively, the effects of JZL184 appear to be partly due to augmentation of 2-AG signaling in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA), as direct microinfusion of JZL184 into the BLA produced similar results. Moreover, we elucidate a short ~3-day temporal window during which 2-AG augmentation impairs extinction behavior, suggesting a preferential role for 2-AG-mediated eCB signaling in the modulation of short-term behavioral sequelae to acute traumatic stress exposure. PMID:26926885

  12. Performance- and Stimulus-Dependent Oscillations in Monkey Prefrontal Cortex During Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Pipa, Gordon; Städtler, Ellen S.; Rodriguez, Eugenio F.; Waltz, James A.; Muckli, Lars F.; Singer, Wolf; Goebel, Rainer; Munk, Matthias H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14–95 Hz) in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65–95 Hz and 14–50 Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory. PMID:19862343

  13. Performance- and stimulus-dependent oscillations in monkey prefrontal cortex during short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Pipa, Gordon; Städtler, Ellen S; Rodriguez, Eugenio F; Waltz, James A; Muckli, Lars F; Singer, Wolf; Goebel, Rainer; Munk, Matthias H J

    2009-01-01

    Short-term memory requires the coordination of sub-processes like encoding, retention, retrieval and comparison of stored material to subsequent input. Neuronal oscillations have an inherent time structure, can effectively coordinate synaptic integration of large neuron populations and could therefore organize and integrate distributed sub-processes in time and space. We observed field potential oscillations (14-95 Hz) in ventral prefrontal cortex of monkeys performing a visual memory task. Stimulus-selective and performance-dependent oscillations occurred simultaneously at 65-95 Hz and 14-50 Hz, the latter being phase-locked throughout memory maintenance. We propose that prefrontal oscillatory activity may be instrumental for the dynamical integration of local and global neuronal processes underlying short-term memory. PMID:19862343

  14. Tradeoff between short-term and long-term adaptation in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Forster, Robert; Wilke, Claus O

    2005-10-01

    We investigate the competition dynamics of two microbial or viral strains that live in an environment that switches periodically between two states. One of the strains is adapted to the long-term environment, but pays a short-term cost, while the other is adapted to the short-term environment and pays a cost in the long term. We explore the tradeoff between these alternative strategies in extensive numerical simulations and present a simple analytic model that can predict the outcome of these competitions as a function of the mutation rate and the time scale of the environmental changes. Our model is relevant for arboviruses, which alternate between different host species on a regular basis. PMID:16383435

  15. Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Key drivers for EIA's short-term U.S. crude oil production outlook

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    Crude oil production increased by 790,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) between 2011 and 2012, the largest increase in annual output since the beginning of U.S. commercial crude oil production in 1859. The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) expects U.S. crude oil production to continue rising over the next two years represented in the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO).

  16. The short-term temperature response to smoke from oil fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, Douglas L.; Toon, Owen B.

    1991-01-01

    The short-term effect of smoke, similar to that being emitted from the Kuwaiti oil fields, on the ground temperature of the afffected region was investigated using a numerical model of atmospheric dynamics, aerosol microphysics, and radiative transfer similar to that used previosly by Westphal and Toon (1991). Results show that, after one diurnal cycle beneath smoke plumes of moderate visible absorption, ground cooling and ground warming were both possible; the response of the ground temperature and the boundary layer dynamics depended on the surface characteristics, with desert exhibiting the strongest cooling of all the land types used.

  17. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, first quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in February, May, August, and November in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the fourth quarter of 1995, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled into the first quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The cases are produced using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook.

  18. Short-term memory binding deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Parra, Mario A; Abrahams, Sharon; Fabi, Katia; Logie, Robert; Luzzi, Simona; Della Sala, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease impairs long term memories for related events (e.g. faces with names) more than for single events (e.g. list of faces or names). Whether or not this associative or 'binding' deficit is also found in short-term memory has not yet been explored. In two experiments we investigated binding deficits in verbal short-term memory in Alzheimer's disease. Experiment 1: 23 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 23 age and education matched healthy elderly were recruited. Participants studied visual arrays of objects (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), colours (six for healthy elderly and four for Alzheimer's disease patients), unbound objects and colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients in each of the two categories), or objects bound with colours (three for healthy elderly and two for Alzheimer's disease patients). They were then asked to recall the items verbally. The memory of patients with Alzheimer's disease for objects bound with colours was significantly worse than for single or unbound features whereas healthy elderly's memory for bound and unbound features did not differ. Experiment 2: 21 Alzheimer's disease patients and 20 matched healthy elderly were recruited. Memory load was increased for the healthy elderly group to eight items in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features and to four items in the condition assessing memory for the binding of these features. For Alzheimer's disease patients the task remained the same. This manipulation permitted the performance to be equated across groups in the conditions assessing memory for single or unbound features. The impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients in recalling bound objects reported in Experiment 1 was replicated. The binding cost was greater than that observed in the healthy elderly group, who did not differ in their performance for bound and unbound features. Alzheimer's disease grossly impairs the

  19. Short-term energy outlook: Quarterly projections, second quarter 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the second quarter of 1997 through the fourth quarter of 1998. Values for the first quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the second quarter 1997 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS). 34 figs., 19 tabs.

  20. Power system very short-term load prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Trudnowski, D.J.; Johnson, J.M.; Whitney, P.

    1997-02-01

    A fundamental objective of a power-system operating and control scheme is to maintain a match between the system`s overall real-power load and generation. To accurately maintain this match, modern energy management systems require estimates of the future total system load. Several strategies and tools are available for estimating system load. Nearly all of these estimate the future load in 1-hour steps over several hours (or time frames very close to this). While hourly load estimates are very useful for many operation and control decisions, more accurate estimates at closer intervals would also be valuable. This is especially true for emerging Area Generation Control (AGC) strategies such as look-ahead AGC. For these short-term estimation applications, future load estimates out to several minutes at intervals of 1 to 5 minutes are required. The currently emerging operation and control strategies being developed by the BPA are dependent on accurate very short-term load estimates. To meet this need, the BPA commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Montana Tech (an affiliate of the University of Montana) to develop an accurate load prediction algorithm and computer codes that automatically update and can reliably perform in a closed-loop controller for the BPA system. The requirements include accurate load estimation in 5-minute steps out to 2 hours. This report presents the results of this effort and includes: a methodology and algorithms for short-term load prediction that incorporates information from a general hourly forecaster; specific algorithm parameters for implementing the predictor in the BPA system; performance and sensitivity studies of the algorithms on BPA-supplied data; an algorithm for filtering power system load samples as a precursor to inputting into the predictor; and FORTRAN 77 subroutines for implementing the algorithms.

  1. Long-term versus short-term deformation processes at Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, Pietro; Manconi, Andrea; Zeni, Giovanni; Pepe, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Camacho, Antonio; FernáNdez, Jose

    2010-12-01

    Several geophysical investigations have identified that the Tenerife volcanic complex is affected by crustal deformation processes occurring at timescales of millions of years. Recently, space-based geodetic observations have also detected a short-term surface deformation, characterized by a broad subsidence pattern with maximum ground velocities of about 4 mm yr-1. For the purpose of investigating the relationship between these long-term and short-term deformation processes, we performed an advanced fluid dynamic analysis (FDA). We first carried out a standard dimensionless FDA to discriminate the deformation style of Tenerife and found that, at million year timescales, basement flexure mainly controls its long-term structural evolution. Secondly, to highlight the driving forces of the short-term deformation process, we simulated a numerical FDA based on finite element models that include topography as well as vertical and lateral material heterogeneities. Our results show that the recent surface deformation is mainly caused by a progressive sagging of the denser (less viscous) core of the island onto the weaker (but more viscous) lithosphere. Moreover, over periods comparable to the hypothesized age of loading of the oceanic crust beneath Tenerife, this tendency would result in a total flexure of about 3-4 km, which is in agreement with independent estimations based on geophysical analyses. Our study shows that a unitary physical model may explain both the deformation recorded in deep geological structures and the current active ground deformation processes occurring at the Tenerife volcano.

  2. Factors Influencing Short-term Synaptic Plasticity in the Avian Cochlear Nucleus Magnocellularis

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Jason Tait; Quinones, Karla; Otto-Meyer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Defined as reduced neural responses during high rates of activity, synaptic depression is a form of short-term plasticity important for the temporal filtering of sound. In the avian cochlear nucleus magnocellularis (NM), an auditory brainstem structure, mechanisms regulating short-term synaptic depression include pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors. Using varied paired-pulse stimulus intervals, we found that the time course of synaptic depression lasts up to four seconds at late-developing NM synapses. Synaptic depression was largely reliant on exogenous Ca2+-dependent probability of presynaptic neurotransmitter release, and to a lesser extent, on the desensitization of postsynaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-type glutamate receptor (AMPA-R). Interestingly, although extrasynaptic glutamate clearance did not play a significant role in regulating synaptic depression, blocking glutamate clearance at early-developing synapses altered synaptic dynamics, changing responses from depression to facilitation. These results suggest a developmental shift in the relative reliance on pre-, post-, and extrasynaptic factors in regulating short-term synaptic plasticity in NM. PMID:26527054

  3. Ecological interpretation of short-term toxicity results: Development of a population model for Arbacia

    SciTech Connect

    Munns, W.R. Jr.; Nacci, D.E.; Walker, H.A.; Johnston, R.K.

    1994-12-31

    The Arbacia punctulata fertilization and larval development tests are used extensively in regulatory and research programs to evaluate toxicity associated with contaminants in aqueous media. These short-term assays are inexpensive, easy to use, and provide information regarding the effects of environmental contaminants on critical life history stages of the sea urchin. Despite substantial consideration of the precision of assay methods, and a clear understanding of the statistical significance of treatment differences, an appreciation of the ecological significance of treatment effects is lacking. To address this problem, a stage classified population projection model was developed to relate short-term test endpoints to potential effects at the population level. The model was applied to evaluate population-level effects using short-term toxicity data obtained in an estuarine ecological risk assessment conducted for Portsmouth Naval Shipyard, Kittery, Maine. The model also was used to examine which test endpoints provide useful information relative to population growth dynamics. Population modeling approaches can be extremely valuable in extrapolating single species toxicity information to higher level ecological endpoints and for identifying appropriate measurement endpoints during toxicity test development.

  4. Ascending aortic blood flow dynamics following intense exercise.

    PubMed

    Kilgour, R D; Sellers, W R

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and contrast aortic blood flow kinetics during recovery from intense aerobic (maximal oxygen uptake test) and anaerobic (Wingate anaerobic power test) exercise. Fifteen healthy male subjects (VO2max = 56.1 +/- 5.8 mk/kg/min) participated in this study. Beat-to-beat peak aortic blood flow velocity (pkV) and acceleration (pkA) measurements were obtained by placing a 3.0 MHz continuous-wave ultrasonic transducer on the suprasternal notch at rest and during recovery (immediately post-exercise, 2.5 min, and 5.0 min) following the two exercise conditions. Peak velocity and acceleration significantly increased (p less than 0.01) from rest to immediately post-exercise and remained elevated throughout the 5-min recovery period. No differences were observed between the aerobic and anaerobic tests. Stroke distance significantly declined (p less than 0.01) immediately following exercise and progressively rose during the 5-min recovery period. The results indicate that: 1) aortic blood flow kinetics remained elevated during short-term recovery, and 2) intense aerobic and anaerobic exercise exhibit similar post-exercise aortic blood flow kinetics. PMID:2262232

  5. Short-Term Energy Monitoring (STEM): Application of the PSTAR method to a residence in Fredericksburg, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Subbarao, K.; Burch, J.D.; Hancock, C.E.; Lekov, A.; Balcomb, J.D.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes a project to assess the thermal quality of a residential building based on short-term tests during which a small number of data channels are measured. The project is called Short- Term Energy Monitoring (STEM). Analysis of the data provides extrapolation to long-term performance. The test protocol and analysis are based on a unified method for building simulations and short-term testing called Primary and Secondary Terms Analysis and Renormalization (PSTAR). In the PSTAR method, renormalized parameters are introduced for the primary terms such that the renormalized energy balance is best satisfied in the least squares sense; hence, the name PSTAR. The mathematical formulation of PSTAR is detailed in earlier reports. This report describes the short-term tests and data analysis performed using the PSTAR method on a residential building in Fredricksburg, Virginia. The results demonstrate the ability of the PSTAR method to provide a realistically complex thermal model of a building, and determine from short-term tests the statics as well as the dynamics of a building, including solar dynamics. 10 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Short-term prospective spirometric study of new coal miners

    SciTech Connect

    Hankinson, J.L.; Hodous, T.K.

    1982-09-01

    This study examined prospectively a small cohort (N=116) of new coal miners with questionnaires and spirometry. Data collection began just prior to underground employment and extended over a two year period at 6 month intervals to address the question or short-term adverse occupational pulmonary effects and their relationship to outward migration from the industry. A comparison of the initial (unexposed) and six month (exposed) changes in lung function over the work shift was also conducted to detect an acute effect due to dust, which might be related to chronic decline in lung function.

  7. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, second quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections. The details of these projections, as well as monthly updates, are available on the Internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. The paper discusses outlook assumptions; US energy prices; world oil supply and the oil production cutback agreement of March 1998; international oil demand and supply; world oil stocks, capacity, and net trade; US oil demand and supply; US natural gas demand and supply; US coal demand and supply; US electricity demand and supply; US renewable energy demand; and US energy demand and supply sensitivities. 29 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Short-term bioconcentration studies of Np in freshwater biota

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, T.M.; Klopfer, D.C.; Simmons, M.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Short-term laboratory exposures were conducted to determine the potential accumulation of Np in aquatic organisms. Concentration factors were highest in green algae. Daphnia magna, a filter-feeding crustacean, accumulated Np at levels one order of magnitude greater than the amphipod Gammarus sp., an omnivorous substrate feeder. Accumulation of Np in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was highest in carcass (generally greater than 78% of the total body burden) and lowest in fillets. Recommended concentration factors for Np, based on fresh weight, were 300 for green algae, 100 for filter-feeding invertebrates, for nonfilter-feeding invertebrates, 10 for whole fish, and one for fish flesh.

  9. MHz gravitational waves from short-term anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Asuka; Soda, Jiro

    2016-04-01

    We reveal the universality of short-term anisotropic inflation. As a demonstration, we study inflation with an exponential type gauge kinetic function which is ubiquitous in models obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional fundamental theory. It turns out that an anisotropic inflation universally takes place in the later stage of conventional inflation. Remarkably, we find that primordial gravitational waves with a peak amplitude around 10-26~ 10-27 are copiously produced in high-frequency bands 10 MHz~100 MHz. If we could detect such gravitational waves in future, we would be able to probe higher dimensional fundamental theory.

  10. Short-term energy outlook. Volume 2. Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-05-01

    Recent changes in forecasting methodology for nonutility distillate fuel oil demand and for the near-term petroleum forecasts are discussed. The accuracy of previous short-term forecasts of most of the major energy sources published in the last 13 issues of the Outlook is evaluated. Macroeconomic and weather assumptions are included in this evaluation. Energy forecasts for 1983 are compared. Structural change in US petroleum consumption, the use of appropriate weather data in energy demand modeling, and petroleum inventories, imports, and refinery runs are discussed.

  11. Short-term memory load and pronunciation rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweickert, Richard; Hayt, Cathrin

    1988-01-01

    In a test of short-term memory recall, two subjects attempted to recall various lists. For unpracticed subjects, the time it took to read the list is a better predictor of immediate recall than the number of items on the list. For practiced subjects, the two predictors do about equally well. If the items that must be recalled are unfamiliar, it is advantageous to keep the items short to pronounce. On the other hand, if the same items will be encountered over and over again, it is advantageous to make them distinctive, even at the cost of adding to the number of syllables.

  12. Short-term frequency stability of the Rb-87 maser.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tetu, M.; Busca, G.; Vanier, J.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the short-term stability of the Rb-87 maser as a function of the maser power output and the receiver cutoff frequency are reported. The experimental data are compared to theoretical results obtained from an approximate theory. In this theory the transfer function of the maser for thermal noise is derived, and the spectral density of the phase fluctuations is calculated. An analytical expression for the 'Allan variance' is also given. A comparison of the stability of the Rb-87 maser with existing frequency standards shows its superiority for averaging times less than 1 sec.

  13. Short-Term Heart Rate Variability—Influence of Gender and Age in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Heitmann, Andreas; Peters, Annette; Perz, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, short-term heart rate variability (HRV) describing complex variations of beat-to-beat interval series that are mainly controlled by the autonomic nervous system (ANS) has been increasingly analyzed to assess the ANS activity in different diseases and under various conditions. In contrast to long-term HRV analysis, short-term investigations (<30 min) provide a test result almost immediately. Thus, short-term HRV analysis is suitable for ambulatory care, patient monitoring and all those applications where the result is urgently needed. In a previous study, we could show significant variations of 5-min HRV indices according to age in almost all domains (linear and nonlinear) in 1906 healthy subjects from the KORA S4 cohort. Based on the same group of subjects, general gender-related influences on HRV indices are to be determined in this study. Short-term 5-min HRV indices from linear time and frequency domain and from nonlinear methods (compression entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis, traditional and segmented Poincaré plot analysis, irreversibility analysis, symbolic dynamics, correlation and mutual information analysis) were determined from 782 females and 1124 males. First, we examined the gender differences in two age clusters (25–49 years and 50–74 years). Secondly, we investigated the gender-specific development of HRV indices in five age decade categories, namely for ages 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64 and 65–74 years. In this study, significant modifications of the indices according to gender could be obtained, especially in the frequency domain and correlation analyses. Furthermore, there were significant modifications according to age in nearly all of the domains. The gender differences disappeared within the last two age decades and the age dependencies disappeared in the last decade. To summarize gender and age influences need to be considered when performing HRV studies even if these influences only partly differ. PMID

  14. Remote Measurement of Short-term Post-fire Vegetation Regrowth in Sierra Nevadan Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, R.; Dennison, P. E.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Forest ecosystems in the Sierra Nevada are greatly influenced by wildfire disturbance. A study of vegetation regrowth following fire is essential for us to better understand and evaluate the effects of disturbances on ecological processes, such as carbon and nitrogen storage, soil erosion, water quality and forest dynamics. The rate of short-term vegetation recovery, as measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), was explored following fire over multiple years (1999-2006) in Sierra Nevadan forests. The role of both temporal (e.g. variations in multiple years' precipitation) and landscape factors (e.g. altitude, slope, aspect, pre-fire and immediate post-fire vegetation status, and burn severity) were investigated in explaining the short-term vegetation regrowth following fire using remote sensing on the landscape scale. Our results indicate that spatial-temporal variability existed in the short-term post-fire vegetation regrowth. Pre-fire vegetation status, burn severity, immediate post-fire wet season precipitation and elevation were found to play important roles in short-term post-fire vegetation recovery trends. Consistent with a local forest gap model, our results also corroborate that water availability may be the limiting factor for the post-fire vegetation regrowth in the lower elevation of Sierra Nevadan forests. In the future, post-disturbance vegetation regrowth trends and related controlling environmental factors following various forest disturbances (e.g. insect outbreak and forest harvest) other than wildfire can also be studied and compared using the methodology proposed in this study.

  15. SWIFT2: Software for continuous ensemble short-term streamflow forecasting for use in research and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perraud, Jean-Michel; Bennett, James C.; Bridgart, Robert; Robertson, David E.

    2016-04-01

    Research undertaken through the Water Information Research and Development Alliance (WIRADA) has laid the foundations for continuous deterministic and ensemble short-term forecasting services. One output of this research is the software Short-term Water Information Forecasting Tools version 2 (SWIFT2). SWIFT2 is developed for use in research on short term streamflow forecasting techniques as well as operational forecasting services at the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. The variety of uses in research and operations requires a modular software system whose components can be arranged in applications that are fit for each particular purpose, without unnecessary software duplication. SWIFT2 modelling structures consist of sub-areas of hydrologic models, nodes and links with in-stream routing and reservoirs. While this modelling structure is customary, SWIFT2 is built from the ground up for computational and data intensive applications such as ensemble forecasts necessary for the estimation of the uncertainty in forecasts. Support for parallel computation on multiple processors or on a compute cluster is a primary use case. A convention is defined to store large multi-dimensional forecasting data and its metadata using the netCDF library. SWIFT2 is written in modern C++ with state of the art software engineering techniques and practices. A salient technical feature is a well-defined application programming interface (API) to facilitate access from different applications and technologies. SWIFT2 is already seamlessly accessible on Windows and Linux via packages in R, Python, Matlab and .NET languages such as C# and F#. Command line or graphical front-end applications are also feasible. This poster gives an overview of the technology stack, and illustrates the resulting features of SWIFT2 for users. Research and operational uses share the same common core C++ modelling shell for consistency, but augmented by different software modules suitable for each context. The

  16. Direct current induced short-term modulation of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while learning auditory presented nouns

    PubMed Central

    Elmer, Stefan; Burkard, Marcel; Renz, Basil; Meyer, Martin; Jancke, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the contribution of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to the exploration of memory functions. The aim of the present study was to examine the behavioural effects of right or left-hemisphere frontal direct current delivery while committing to memory auditory presented nouns on short-term learning and subsequent long-term retrieval. Methods Twenty subjects, divided into two groups, performed an episodic verbal memory task during anodal, cathodal and sham current application on the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Results Our results imply that only cathodal tDCS elicits behavioural effects on verbal memory performance. In particular, left-sided application of cathodal tDCS impaired short-term verbal learning when compared to the baseline. We did not observe tDCS effects on long-term retrieval. Conclusion Our results imply that the left DLPFC is a crucial area involved in short-term verbal learning mechanisms. However, we found further support that direct current delivery with an intensity of 1.5 mA to the DLPFC during short-term learning does not disrupt longer lasting consolidation processes that are mainly known to be related to mesial temporal lobe areas. In the present study, we have shown that the tDCS technique has the potential to modulate short-term verbal learning mechanism. PMID:19604352

  17. Plant community controls on short-term ecosystem nitrogen retention.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bardgett, Richard D

    2016-05-01

    Retention of nitrogen (N) is a critical ecosystem function, especially in the face of widespread anthropogenic N enrichment; however, our understanding of the mechanisms involved is limited. Here, we tested under glasshouse conditions how plant community attributes, including variations in the dominance, diversity and range of plant functional traits, influence N uptake and retention in temperate grassland. We added a pulse of (15) N to grassland plant communities assembled to represent a range of community-weighted mean plant traits, trait functional diversity and divergence, and species richness, and measured plant and microbial uptake of (15) N, and leaching losses of (15) N, as a short-term test of N retention in the plant-soil system. Root biomass, herb abundance and dominant plant traits were the main determinants of N retention in the plant-soil system: greater root biomass and herb abundance, and lower root tissue density, increased plant (15) N uptake, while higher specific leaf area and root tissue density increased microbial (15) N uptake. Our results provide novel, mechanistic insight into the short-term fate of N in the plant-soil system, and show that dominant plant traits, rather than trait functional diversity, control the fate of added N in the plant-soil system. PMID:26749302

  18. Short-term stability of Borrelia garinii in cerebrospinal fluid.

    PubMed

    Berenová, Dagmar; Krsek, Daniel; Šípková, Lenka; Lukavská, Alena; Malý, Marek; Kurzová, Zuzana; Hořejší, Jan; Kodym, Petr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to find out the optimal conditions for short-term storage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples for direct diagnosis of Lyme disease. A mixture of Borrelia-negative CSFs spiked with a defined amount of cultured Borrelia garinii was used. Borrelia stability was investigated over 7 days at four different temperatures [room temperature (RT), +4, -20 and -70 °C]. Quantitative changes in CSF Borrelia were measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and morphological changes in the spirochetes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These qPCR results were statistically evaluated. We found +4 °C to be an optimal temperature for short-term storage of CSF samples intended for TEM observation. There was no significant difference between the temperatures tested in the average quantity of Borrelia measured by qPCR. On the contrary, electron optical diagnosis of frozen samples and samples stored at RT showed destructive morphological changes and decreased spirochete counts. Our results show that optimal conditions for the pre-analytical phase of investigation of one type of material can differ depending on the diagnostic method employed. PMID:26104540

  19. Robust Short-Term Memory without Synaptic Learning

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel; Marro, J.; Torres, Joaquín J.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term memory in the brain cannot in general be explained the way long-term memory can – as a gradual modification of synaptic weights – since it takes place too quickly. Theories based on some form of cellular bistability, however, do not seem able to account for the fact that noisy neurons can collectively store information in a robust manner. We show how a sufficiently clustered network of simple model neurons can be instantly induced into metastable states capable of retaining information for a short time (a few seconds). The mechanism is robust to different network topologies and kinds of neural model. This could constitute a viable means available to the brain for sensory and/or short-term memory with no need of synaptic learning. Relevant phenomena described by neurobiology and psychology, such as local synchronization of synaptic inputs and power-law statistics of forgetting avalanches, emerge naturally from this mechanism, and we suggest possible experiments to test its viability in more biological settings. PMID:23349664

  20. Short-Term Test Results: Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, J.

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. The Bay Ridge project is comprised of a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). The base scope has been applied to the entire complex, except for one 12-unit building which underwent the DER scope. Findings from the implementation, commissioning, and short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach. Despite being a moderate rehab instead of a gut rehab, the Bay Ridge DER is currently projected to achieve energy savings ≥ 50% compared to pre-retrofit, and the short-term testing supports this estimate.

  1. Statistical approaches to short-term electricity forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellova, Andrea

    The study of the short-term forecasting of electricity demand has played a key role in the economic optimization of the electric energy industry and is essential for power systems planning and operation. In electric energy markets, accurate short-term forecasting of electricity demand is necessary mainly for economic operations. Our focus is directed to the question of electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic. Firstly, we describe the current structure and organization of the Czech, as well as the European, electricity market. Secondly, we provide a complex description of the most powerful external factors influencing electricity consumption. The choice of the most appropriate model is conditioned by these electricity demand determining factors. Thirdly, we build up several types of multivariate forecasting models, both linear and nonlinear. These models are, respectively, linear regression models and artificial neural networks. Finally, we compare the forecasting power of both kinds of models using several statistical accuracy measures. Our results suggest that although the electricity demand forecasting in the Czech Republic is for the considered years rather a nonlinear than a linear problem, for practical purposes simple linear models with nonlinear inputs can be adequate. This is confirmed by the values of the empirical loss function applied to the forecasting results.

  2. Short-term energy outlook, Annual supplement 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-25

    This supplement is published once a year as a complement to the Short- Term Energy Outlook, Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts. Chap. 2 analyzes the response of the US petroleum industry to the recent four Federal environmental rules on motor gasoline. Chap. 3 compares the EIA base or mid case energy projections for 1995 and 1996 (as published in the first quarter 1995 Outlook) with recent projections made by four other major forecasting groups. Chap. 4 evaluates the overall accuracy. Chap. 5 presents the methology used in the Short- Term Integrated Forecasting Model for oxygenate supply/demand balances. Chap. 6 reports theoretical and empirical results from a study of non-transportation energy demand by sector. The empirical analysis involves the short-run energy demand in the residential, commercial, industrial, and electrical utility sectors in US.

  3. Calcium Channels and Short-term Synaptic Plasticity*

    PubMed Central

    Catterall, William A.; Leal, Karina; Nanou, Evanthia

    2013-01-01

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in presynaptic nerve terminals initiate neurotransmitter release in response to depolarization by action potentials from the nerve axon. The strength of synaptic transmission is dependent on the third to fourth power of Ca2+ entry, placing the Ca2+ channels in a unique position for regulation of synaptic strength. Short-term synaptic plasticity regulates the strength of neurotransmission through facilitation and depression on the millisecond time scale and plays a key role in encoding information in the nervous system. CaV2.1 channels are the major source of Ca2+ entry for neurotransmission in the central nervous system. They are tightly regulated by Ca2+, calmodulin, and related Ca2+ sensor proteins, which cause facilitation and inactivation of channel activity. Emerging evidence reviewed here points to this mode of regulation of CaV2.1 channels as a major contributor to short-term synaptic plasticity of neurotransmission and its diversity among synapses. PMID:23400776

  4. Short-term energy outlook. Quarterly projections, third quarter 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares quarterly, short-term energy supply, demand, and price projections for publication in January, April, July, and October in the Outlook. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the third quarter of 1996 through the fourth quarter of 1997. Values for the second quarter of 1996, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations using the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the third quarter 1996 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS database is archived quarterly and is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  5. State space neural networks for short term rainfall-runoff forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Tsung-yi; Wang, Ru-yih

    2004-09-01

    Rainfall-runoff processes are dynamic systems that are better described by a dynamic model. In this paper, a specific dynamic neural network, called state space neural network (SSNN), is modified to perform short term rainfall-runoff forecasts. The lead time is extended to 3 h. To improve the link between the weights of the network and physical concepts that most neural networks lack for, a method of the unit hydrograph representation is proposed to reproduce the unit hydrographs based on the weights of the network. Hence, a transition of rainfall-runoff systems can be observed via the changes of the unit hydrograph hour by hour. Furthermore, a new learning method developed from the interchange of the roles of the network states and the weight matrix is applied to train the SSNN and helps the network to evolve into a time-variant model while forecasting the rainfall-runoff process. A study case has been implemented in Taiwan's Wu-Tu watershed, where the runoff path-lines are short and steep. Forty-seven events from 1966 to 1997 are forecasted via the SSNN, and the results are validated via four criteria. The convergence of the new learning algorithm is shown during the model training process. Performance of the SSNN for short term rainfall-runoff forecasting reveals that the specific dynamic recurrent neural network is appropriate for hydrological forecasts.

  6. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leis, S.A.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Engle, David M.; Fehmi, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  7. Small mammals as indicators of short-term and long-term disturbance in mixed prairie.

    PubMed

    Leis, Sherry A; Leslie, David M; Engle, David M; Fehmi, Jeffrey S

    2008-02-01

    Disturbance by military maneuvers over short and long time scales may have differential effects on grassland communities. We assessed small mammals as indicators of disturbance by military maneuvers in a mixed prairie in southern Oklahoma USA. We examined sites on two soil series, Foard and Lawton, across a gradient of disturbance intensity. A MANOVA showed that abundance of small mammals was associated (p = 0.03) with short-term (cover of vehicle tracks) disturbance but was not associated (p = 0.12) with long-term (loss of soil organic carbon, SOC) disturbance intensity. At the individual species level, Sigmodon hispidus (cotton rat) and Peromyscus maniculatus (deer mouse) occurred across all levels of disturbance and in both soil types. Only P. maniculatus abundance changed (p < 0.01) with short-term disturbance and increased by about one individual per 5% of additional track-cover. Abundance of P. maniculatus also increased (p = 0.04) by about three individuals per 1% increase in soil carbon. Chaetodipus hispidus (hispid pocket mouse) and Reithrodontomys fulvescens (fulvous harvest mouse) only occurred in single soil types limiting their potential as more general indicators. Abundance of P. maniculatus was positively related to shifts in plant species composition and likely reflected changes in vegetation structure (i.e. litter depth) and forage availability resulting from disturbance. Peromyscus maniculatus may be a useful biological indicator of ecosystem change because it responded predictably to both long-term and short-term disturbance and, when coupled with soil, plant, and disturbance history variables, can reveal land condition trends. PMID:17458511

  8. Short-term vegetation response following mechanical control of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) on the Virgin River, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostoja, Steven M.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Dudley, Tom; Lee, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    and species diversity were very low, suggesting that targets of restoring vegetation to pre-invasion conditions were not met. Longer evaluation periods are needed to adequately evaluate how short-term post-treatment patterns translate to long-term patterns of plant community dynamics.

  9. A Short-Term Longitudinal Study of the Relationship between Motivation to Read and Reading Fluency Skill in Second Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Matthew; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Webb, Mi-young

    2009-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study investigated the relationships between students' reading self-concept, goals for reading, and reading fluency skill over the course of the second grade year. Second-grade children (N = 185) were administered the Test of Word Reading Efficiency, the second-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills,…

  10. Modelling of Short Term Interest Rate Based on Fractional Relaxation Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, K.

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we try to model the dynamics of short term interest rate using the fractional nonhomogeneous differential equation with stochastic free term. This type of equation is similar to one which represents the viscoelastic behavior of certain materials from rheologic point of view. As a final result we obtain the closed formula for prices of zero-coupon bonds. They are analogous to those in Vasiček model, where instead of the exponential functions we have the Mittag-Leffler ones.

  11. Short-term Variability of Extinction by Broadband Stellar Photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Musat, I.C.; Ellingson, R.G.

    2005-03-18

    Aerosol optical depth variation over short-term time intervals is determined from broadband observations of stars with a whole sky imager. The main difficulty in such measurements consists of accurately separating the star flux value from the non-stellar diffuse skylight. Using correction method to overcome this difficulty, the monochromatic extinction at the ground due to aerosols is extracted from heterochromatic measurements. A form of closure is achieved by comparison with simultaneous or temporally close measurements with other instruments, and the total error of the method, as a combination of random error of measurements and systematic error of calibration and model, is assessed as being between 2.6 and 3% rms.

  12. The cognitive neuroscience of visual short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Postle, Bradley R

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of the neural bases of visual short-term memory (STM), the ability to mentally retain information over short periods of time, is being reshaped by two important developments: the application of methods from statistical machine learning, often a variant of multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA), to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) data sets; and advances in our understanding of the physiology and functions of neuronal oscillations. One consequence is that many commonly observed physiological "signatures" that have previously been interpreted as directly related to the retention of information in visual STM may require reinterpretation as more general, state-related changes that can accompany cognitive-task performance. Another is important refinements of theoretical models of visual STM. PMID:26516631

  13. Short-term scheduling of reactive power controllers

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yingyi; Liao Csongming

    1995-05-01

    A two-level approach is presented to solve the problem of optimal short-term (one day) scheduling of reactive power controllers in this paper. The entire problem is decomposed into two levels: the master and the slave levels. The master level deals with minimization of the depreciation cost of compensators and EHV transformer taps in order to reduce the control action for compensators and EHV transformer taps while satisfying operating constraints. The slave level treats minimization of capitalized MW losses while satisfying system security constraints. The slave level also treats OLTCs and determines scheduling of the generator voltages. These two levels interact through linear constraints in the iteration process. A practical 265-bus system, namely Taiwan Power System, are used to serve as a sample to show the applicability of the presented approach.

  14. Short-Term Test Results. Multifamily Home Energy Efficiency Retrofit

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, James

    2013-01-01

    Multifamily deep energy retrofits (DERs) represent great potential for energy savings, while also providing valuable insights on research-generated efficiency measures, cost-effectiveness metrics, and risk factor strategies for the multifamily housing industry. This report describes the Bay Ridge project, a base scope retrofit with a goal of achieving 30% savings (relative to pre-retrofit), and a DER scope with a goal of 50% savings (relative to pre-retrofit). Findings from the short-term testing at Bay Ridge include air infiltration reductions of greater than 60% in the DER building; a hybrid heat pump system with a Savings to Investment Ratio (SIR) > 1 (relative to a high efficiency furnace) which also provides the resident with added incentive for energy savings; and duct leakage reductions of > 60% using an aerosolized duct sealing approach.

  15. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, Carolyn S.

    1991-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration = 28, 56, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights.

  16. Risk Quantification for ANN Based Short-Term Load Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwashita, Daisuke; Mori, Hiroyuki

    A new risk assessment method for short-term load forecasting is proposed. The proposed method makes use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to forecast one-step ahead daily maximum loads and evaluate uncertainty of in load forecasting. As ANN the model, the Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is employed to forecast loads due to the good performance. Sufficient realistic pseudo-scenarios are required to carry out quantitative risk analysis. The multivariate normal distribution with the correlation between input variables is used to give more realistic results to ANN. In addition, the method of Moment Matching is used to improve the accuracy of the multivariate normal distribution. The Peak Over Threshold (POT) approach is used to evaluate risk that exceeds the upper bounds of generation capacity. The proposed method is successfully applied to real data of daily maximum load forecasting.

  17. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    U.S. liquid fuels production increased from 7.43 million barrels per day (b/d) in 2008 to 13.75 million b/d in 2015. However, the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) expects liquid fuels production to decline to 12.99 million b/d in 2017, mainly as a result of prolonged low oil prices. The liquid fuels production forecast reflects a 1.24 million b/d decline in crude oil production by 2017 that is partially offset by a 450,000 b/d increase in the production of hydrocarbon gas liquids (HGL)—a group of products including ethane, propane, butane (normal and isobutane), natural gasoline, and refinery olefins. This analysis will discuss the outlook for each of these four HGL streams and related infrastructure projects through 2017.

  18. The effects of short-term hypergravity on Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldanha, Jenifer N.; Pandey, Santosh; Powell-Coffman, Jo Anne

    2016-08-01

    As we seek to recognize the opportunities of advanced aerospace technologies and spaceflight, it is increasingly important to understand the impacts of hypergravity, defined as gravitational forces greater than those present on the earth's surface. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been established as a powerful model to study the effects of altered gravity regimens and has displayed remarkable resilience to space travel. In this study, we investigate the effects of short-term and defined hypergravity exposure on C. elegans motility, brood size, pharyngeal pumping rates, and lifespan. The results from this study advance our understanding of the effects of shorter durations of exposure to increased gravitational forces on C. elegans, and also contribute to the growing body of literature on the impacts of altered gravity regimens on earth's life forms.

  19. Astronomical observation tasks short-term scheduling using PDDS algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    A concept of the ground-based optical astronomical observation efficiency is considered in this paper. We believe that a telescope efficiency can be increased by properly allocating observation tasks with respect to the current environment state and probability to obtain the data with required properties under the current conditions. An online observations scheduling is assumed to be an essential part for raising the efficiency. The short-term online scheduling is treated as the discrete optimisation problems which are stated using several abstraction levels. The optimisation problems are solved using the parallel depth-bounded discrepancy search (PDDS) algorithm by Moisan et al. (2014). Some aspects of the algorithm performance are discussed. The presented algorithm is a core of open-source chelyabinsk C++ library which is planned to be used at 2.5 m telescope of Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Lomonosov Moscow State University.

  20. Benefits of short-term dietary restriction in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Lauren T.; Mitchell, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary or calorie restriction (DR, CR), defined as reduced food intake without malnutrition, imparts many benefits in model organisms. Extended longevity is the most popularized benefit but the least clinically relevant due to the requirement for long-term food restriction. DR also promotes stress resistance and metabolic fitness. Emerging data in experimental models and in humans indicate that these benefits occur rapidly upon initiation of DR, suggesting potential clinical relevance. Here we review data on the ability of short-term DR to induce beneficial effects on clinically relevant endpoints including surgical stress, inflammation, chemotherapy and insulin resistance. The encouraging results obtained in these preclinical and clinical studies, and the general lack of mechanistic understanding, both strongly suggest the need for further research in this emerging area. PMID:23376627

  1. Short-term outcomes after conventional transthoracic esophagectomy

    PubMed Central

    Niwa, Yukiko; Koike, Masahiko; Hattori, Masashi; Iwata, Naoki; Takami, Hideki; Hayashi, Masamichi; Kanda, Mitsuro; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tanaka, Chie; Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Nomoto, Shuji; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In our department, we have attempted to reduce the incidence of complications of conventional esophagectomy. The objective of this retrospective study was to report the short-term outcomes of esophagectomy. We reviewed 138 consecutive patients who had undergone subtotal esophagectomy by combined laparotomy via a 12-cm upper abdominal vertical incision combined with right anterior muscle-sparing thoracotomy from August 2010 to August 2014. Most of the cervical para-esophageal lymph node dissection was completed within the thoracic cavity. We performed three-field dissection in patients with tumors in the upper or middle third of the esophagus with clinical lymph node metastases in the superior mediastinum; the others underwent two-field dissection. We performed neck anastomoses in patients undergoing three-field dissection and thoracic anastomoses in those undergoing two-field dissection. Effective postoperative pain management was achieved with a combination of epidural anesthesia and paravertebral block. Postoperative rehabilitation was instituted for early ambulation and recovery. Enteral nutrition via a duodenal feeding tube was administered from postoperative day 2. Median hospital stay after surgery was 15 days (range, 10–129). Rates for both 30-day and in-hospital mortality were 0%. Morbidity rate for all Clavien–Dindo grades was 41.3%, whereas the morbidity rate for Clavien–Dindo grades III and IV was 7.2%. Anastomotic leakage developed in two patients (1.4%), recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in 11 (8.0%), and pneumonia in nine (6.5%). Good short-term outcomes, especially regarding anastomotic leaks, were achieved by consistent improvements in surgical techniques, optimization of several operative procedures, and appropriate perioperative management. PMID:27018983

  2. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    PubMed

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. PMID:26476140

  3. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2016-06-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ׳working memory' bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive short-term memory (pSTM), is tractable to study in nonhuman primates, whose brain architecture and behavioral repertoire are comparable to our own. This review discusses recent advances in the behavioral and neurophysiological study of auditory memory with a focus on single-unit recordings from macaque monkeys performing delayed-match-to-sample (DMS) tasks. Monkeys appear to employ pSTM to solve these tasks, as evidenced by the impact of interfering stimuli on memory performance. In several regards, pSTM in monkeys resembles pitch memory in humans, and may engage similar neural mechanisms. Neural correlates of DMS performance have been observed throughout the auditory and prefrontal cortex, defining a network of areas supporting auditory STM with parallels to that supporting visual STM. These correlates include persistent neural firing, or a suppression of firing, during the delay period of the memory task, as well as suppression or (less commonly) enhancement of sensory responses when a sound is repeated as a ׳match' stimulus. Auditory STM is supported by a distributed temporo-frontal network in which sensitivity to stimulus history is an intrinsic feature of auditory processing. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. PMID:26541581

  4. Short-Term International Internship Experiences for Future Teachers and Other Child Development Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines outcomes associated with participation in short-term, international internship experiences. Results suggest short-term international internship experiences contribute to rich personal and professional development outcomes. Findings highlight participant challenges associated with initial internship experiences, professional…

  5. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  6. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  7. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  8. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  9. Short-Term Effects of Midseason Coach Turnover on Team Performance in Soccer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balduck, Anne-Line; Buelens, Marc; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2010-01-01

    The present study addressed the issue of short-term performance effects of midseason coach turnover in soccer. The goal of this study was to examine this effect on subsequent short-term team performance. The purposes of this study were to (a) examine whether midseason coach turnover improved results in the short term, and (b) examine how team…

  10. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  11. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  12. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  13. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  14. 22 CFR 71.11 - Short-term full diet program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Short-term full diet program. 71.11 Section 71.... Nationals Incarcerated Abroad § 71.11 Short-term full diet program. (a) Eligibility criteria. A prisoner is considered eligible for the short-term full diet program under the following general criteria: (1)...

  15. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING General § 390.1 What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program? This program...

  16. 34 CFR 664.11 - What is a short-term seminar project?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is a short-term seminar project? 664.11 Section... Projects Does the Secretary Assist Under This Program? § 664.11 What is a short-term seminar project? A short-term seminar project is— (a) Designed to help integrate international studies into an...

  17. 34 CFR 390.1 - What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION REHABILITATION SHORT-TERM TRAINING General § 390.1 What is the Rehabilitation Short-Term Training program? This program...

  18. Probabilistic short-term volcanic hazard in phases of unrest: A case study for tephra fallout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; Sandri, Laura; Macedonio, Giovanni; Marzocchi, Warner

    2014-12-01

    During volcanic crises, volcanologists estimate the impact of possible imminent eruptions usually through deterministic modeling of the effects of one or a few preestablished scenarios. Despite such an approach may bring an important information to the decision makers, the sole use of deterministic scenarios does not allow scientists to properly take into consideration all uncertainties, and it cannot be used to assess quantitatively the risk because the latter unavoidably requires a probabilistic approach. We present a model based on the concept of Bayesian event tree (hereinafter named BET_VH_ST, standing for Bayesian event tree for short-term volcanic hazard), for short-term near-real-time probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis formulated for any potential hazardous phenomenon accompanying an eruption. The specific goal of BET_VH_ST is to produce a quantitative assessment of the probability of exceedance of any potential level of intensity for a given volcanic hazard due to eruptions within restricted time windows (hours to days) in any area surrounding the volcano, accounting for all natural and epistemic uncertainties. BET_VH_ST properly assesses the conditional probability at each level of the event tree accounting for any relevant information derived from the monitoring system, theoretical models, and the past history of the volcano, propagating any relevant epistemic uncertainty underlying these assessments. As an application example of the model, we apply BET_VH_ST to assess short-term volcanic hazard related to tephra loading during Major Emergency Simulation Exercise, a major exercise at Mount Vesuvius that took place from 19 to 23 October 2006, consisting in a blind simulation of Vesuvius reactivation, from the early warning phase up to the final eruption, including the evacuation of a sample of about 2000 people from the area at risk. The results show that BET_VH_ST is able to produce short-term forecasts of the impact of tephra fall during a rapidly

  19. A Simple Tropical Atmosphere Model of Relevance to Short-Term Climate Variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Tianming

    1993-01-01

    The tropical atmosphere model presented here is suitable for modeling both the annual cycle and short-term (monthly to decadal time scale) climate fluctuations in sole response to the thermal forcing from the underlying surface, especially the ocean surface. The present model consists of a well-mixed planetary boundary layer and a free troposphere represented by the gravest baroclinic mode. The model dynamics involves active interactions between the boundary-layer flow driven by the momentum forcing associated with sea surface temperature (SST) gradient and the free tropospheric flow stimulated by diabatic heating that is controlled by the thermal effects of SST. This process is demonstrated to be essential for modeling Pacific basinwide low-level circulations. The convective heating is parameterized by a SST-dependent conditional heating scheme based upon the proposition that the potential convective instability increases with SST in a nonlinear fashion.The present model integrates the virtue of a Gill-type model with that of a Lindzen-Nigam model and is capable of reproducing both the shallow intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) in the boundary layer and the deep South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ) and monsoon troughs in the lower troposphere. The precipitation pattern and intensity, the trade winds and associated subtropical highs, and the near-equatorial trough can also be simulated reasonably well.The thermal contrast between oceans and continents is shown to have a profound influence on the circulation near landmasses. Changes in land surface temperature, however, do not exert significant influence on remote oceanic regions. Both the ITCZ and SPCZ primarily originate from the inhomogeneity of ocean surface thermal conditions. The continents of South and North America contribute to the formation of these oceanic convergence zones through indirect boundary effects that support coastal upwelling changing the SST distribution. The diagnosis of observed surface

  20. Short-term turnover of soil organic matter after tillage proven by Pyrolysis-field ionization MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Sebastian; Jurasinski, Gerald; Leinweber, Peter; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge about the composition and the turnover dynamics of soil organic matter (SOM) is crucial to the fertility of agricultural soils. Even short-term changes of SOM are of fundamental importance. Tillage changes the decomposition and the mineralisation of SOM. By disrupting macroaggregates, tillage induces an increased turnover and hampers the aggregation of SOM. As a consequence, mineralisation of SOM is stimulated which may imply an additional efflux of CO2 and N2O from soil. Pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) has been developed as a key method for SOM research. This powerful analytical tool allows a rapid, global and objective determination of the majority of chemical compound classes and is an appropriate method for the analysis of even small differences of biogeochemical matters. Hence, Py-FIMS may allow for a precise detection of the turnover of SOM and the involved compounds that are affected by tillage in the short-term. Py-FIMS measurements along with the determination of the CO2 and N2O effluxes from soil after tillage at the same site may give new insights into the compounds of SOM which are mineralised and consequently contribute to fundamental processes such as respiration, nitrification and denitrification. We applied Py-FIMS to soil samples from a stagnic Luvisol taken before and after tillage from a harvested maize field in Northern Germany. The samples were taken from two treatments amended with mineral fertiliser (MF) and biogas residues (BR), respectively, and also from an unfertilised control (UC). Tillage was conducted by disc harrowing, followed by mouldboard ploughing up to 30 cm. Simultaneously the soil efflux of CO2 and N2O was measured with a dynamic chamber technique. Before tillage, the mass spectra showed distinct differences in the relative ion intensities: the BR treatment showed much more volatilised matter during pyrolysis indicating an increased amount of SOM. Furthermore, in this treatment, the proportions

  1. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  2. A model for sustainable short-term international medical trips.

    PubMed

    Suchdev, Parminder; Ahrens, Kym; Click, Eleanor; Macklin, Lori; Evangelista, Doris; Graham, Elinor

    2007-01-01

    The health status of many people in developing countries is often dismal compared with the norms in industrialized countries. Increasingly, medical practitioners in the United States and other industrialized countries have become interested in global health issues, an interest that often takes the form of short-term international medical trips. We discuss several ethical issues associated with participation in such trips and use our experiences in developing the Children's Health International Medical Project of Seattle (CHIMPS) to outline and illustrate a set of 7 guiding principles for making these trips. CHIMPS is a resident-run, faculty-supported international medical program founded in 2002 by pediatric residents at the University of Washington in Seattle. Members of CHIMPS work with a rural community in El Salvador to support ongoing public health interventions there and provide sustainable medical care in collaboration with the community and a local nongovernmental organization. The 7 principles developed as a result of this work-mission, collaboration, education, service, teamwork, sustainability, and evaluation-can be used as a model for health practitioners as they develop or select international medical trips. The importance of partnering with the community and working within the existing medical and public health infrastructure is emphasized. Many of the challenges of doing international medical work can be overcome when efforts are guided by a few specific principles, such as those we have outlined. PMID:17660105

  3. Dimension-based attention in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Pilling, Michael; Barrett, Doug J K

    2016-07-01

    We investigated how dimension-based attention influences visual short-term memory (VSTM). This was done through examining the effects of cueing a feature dimension in two perceptual comparison tasks (change detection and sameness detection). In both tasks, a memory array and a test array consisting of a number of colored shapes were presented successively, interleaved by a blank interstimulus interval (ISI). In Experiment 1 (change detection), the critical event was a feature change in one item across the memory and test arrays. In Experiment 2 (sameness detection), the critical event was the absence of a feature change in one item across the two arrays. Auditory cues indicated the feature dimension (color or shape) of the critical event with 80 % validity; the cues were presented either prior to the memory array, during the ISI, or simultaneously with the test array. In Experiment 1, the cue validity influenced sensitivity only when the cue was given at the earliest position; in Experiment 2, the cue validity influenced sensitivity at all three cue positions. We attributed the greater effectiveness of top-down guidance by cues in the sameness detection task to the more active nature of the comparison process required to detect sameness events (Hyun, Woodman, Vogel, Hollingworth, & Luck, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 35; 1140-1160, 2009). PMID:26920437

  4. Short-Term Outcomes and Mortality of Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Cahide; Gürsoy, Tuğba; Ovalı, Fahri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Late preterm infants have increased rates of morbidity and mortality compared to term infants. Determining the risk factors in these infants leads to more comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the morbidity rates such as respiratory system diseases, infections, congenital anomalies, hypoglycemia and hematologic abnormalities and mortality rates in a large group of patients at a referral center. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Medical records of late preterm and term infants who were managed at the referral center were analysed. Results: 41752 births were analysed in 3 years. 71.9% of all births were between 37–42 gestational weeks (i.e. term) and 16.1% were between 34–37 weeks (i.e. late preterm). Compared to term infants, late preterm infants had increased rates of short-term problems. The rate of mortality increased with decreased gestational age. The duration of hospitalization was significantly higher in the smallest late preterm infants. Conclusion: This study demonstrated the need that late preterm infants who have higher risk for morbidity and mortality, compared to term infants require close monitoring. The rate of mortality and hospitalization increased with decreased gestational age.

  5. Differential short-term memorisation for vocal and instrumental rhythms.

    PubMed

    Klyn, Niall A M; Will, Udo; Cheong, Yong-Jeon; Allen, Erin T

    2016-07-01

    This study explores differential processing of vocal and instrumental rhythms in short-term memory with three decision (same/different judgments) and one reproduction experiment. In the first experiment, memory performance declined for delayed versus immediate recall, with accuracy for the two rhythms being affected differently: Musicians performed better than non-musicians on clapstick but not on vocal rhythms, and musicians were better on vocal rhythms in the same than in the different condition. Results for the second experiment showed that concurrent sub-vocal articulation and finger-tapping differentially affected the two rhythms and same/different decisions, but produced no evidence for articulatory loop involvement in delayed decision tasks. In a third experiment, which tested rhythm reproduction, concurrent sub-vocal articulation decreased memory performance, with a stronger deleterious effect on the reproduction of vocal than of clapstick rhythms. This suggests that the articulatory loop may only be involved in delayed reproduction not in decision tasks. The fourth experiment tested whether differences between filled and empty rhythms (continuous vs. discontinuous sounds) can explain the different memorisation of vocal and clapstick rhythms. Though significant differences were found for empty and filled instrumental rhythms, the differences between vocal and clapstick can only be explained by considering additional voice specific features. PMID:26274938

  6. Short-term energy outlook, quarterly projections, first quarter 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from the first quarter of 1998 through the fourth quarter of 1999. Values for the fourth quarter of 1997, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the first quarter 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  7. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively. PMID:25461712

  8. Leukocyte subsets and neutrophil function after short-term spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C. F.; Mehta, S. K.; Kaur, I.; Jones, M. L.; Feeback, D. L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in leukocyte subpopulations and function after spaceflight have been observed but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not well defined. This study investigated the effects of short-term spaceflight (8-15 days) on circulating leukocyte subsets, stress hormones, immunoglobulin levels, and neutrophil function. At landing, a 1.5-fold increase in neutrophils was observed compared with preflight values; lymphocytes were slightly decreased, whereas the results were variable for monocytes. No significant changes were observed in plasma levels of immunoglobulins, cortisol, or adrenocorticotropic hormone. In contrast, urinary epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol were significantly elevated at landing. Band neutrophils were observed in 9 of 16 astronauts. Neutrophil chemotactic assays showed a 10-fold decrease in the optimal dose response after landing. Neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells was increased both before and after spaceflight. At landing, the expression of MAC-1 was significantly decreased while L-selectin was significantly increased. These functional alterations may be of clinical significance on long-duration space missions.

  9. Genotoxicity Assessment of Erythritol by Using Short-term Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young-Shin

    2013-01-01

    Erythritol is a sugar alcohol that is widely used as a natural sugar substitute. Thus, the safety of its usage is very important. In the present study, short-term genotoxicity assays were conducted to evaluate the potential genotoxic effects of erythritol. According to the OECD test guidelines, the maximum test dose was 5,000 μg/plate in bacterial reverse mutation tests, 5,000 μg/ml in cell-based assays, and 5,000 mg/kg for in vivo testing. An Ames test did not reveal any positive results. No clastogenicity was observed in a chromosomal aberration test with CHL cells or an in vitro micronucleus test with L5178Y tk+/− cells. Erythritol induced a marginal increase of DNA damage at two high doses by 24 hr of exposure in a comet assay using L5178Y tk+/− cells. Additionally, in vivo micronucleus tests clearly demonstrated that oral administration of erythritol did not induce micronuclei formation of the bone marrow cells of male ICR mice. Taken together, our results indicate that erythritol is not mutagenic to bacterial cells and does not cause chromosomal damage in mammalian cells either in vitro or in vivo. PMID:24578795

  10. Short-term toxicity of nine industrial chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Komsta, E.; Secours, V.E.; Chu, I.; Morris, R.; Harrison, J.; Baranowski, E.; Villeneuve, D.C. ); Valli, V.E. )

    1989-07-01

    There are a number of industrial chemicals currently used in Canada in sufficiently large quantities that warrant a careful environmental and human health hazard assessment by the regulatory agencies. A review of the existing toxicity data for these chemicals indicated that most of the studies were inadequate due to study design, small group size, inadequate procedures or insufficient parameters being monitored. In order to determine if further studies were warranted it was decided to screen 9 of these chemicals in a short-term study using male and female rats. The chemicals were chosen based on considerations such as quantity, availability of toxicological data, chemical and structural properties and commercial availability. The chemicals selected were: tri(butoxyethyl) phosphate, dimethylol urea, 2-butyne-1,4-diol, triallyl-s-triazine-trione, cyclohexanone oxime, p-toluene sulphonhydrazide, 2-nitroaniline, propargyl alcohol and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole. The assay consisted of a 14-day oral dosing regime followed by a comprehensive evaluation of biochemical, hematological and histophathological changes.

  11. Short-term fluoride release from various aesthetic restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yap, Adrian U J; Tham, S Y; Zhu, L Y; Lee, H K

    2002-01-01

    The short-term fluoride release of a giomer (Reactmer), a compomer (Dyract AP), a conventional glass ionomer cement (Fuji II Cap) and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC) was evaluated and compared. Specimen discs (6 +/-0.2 mm diameter and 1 +/- 0.2 mm thick) were prepared for each material using custom molds. Each disc was placed in 1 ml of deionized for 24 hours at 37 degrees C. After one day, the water was extracted and analyzed. The specimen discs were then re-immersed into another 1 ml of fresh deionized water. The procedure of removing and refilling the water was repeated for 28 days. Sample solutions taken during the first seven days and at days 14, 21 and 28 were introduced into a capillary electrophoresis system using field amplified sample injection (FASI) to determine fluoride release. Data was analyzed using factorial ANOVA/Scheffe's post-hoc test at significance level 0.05. An initial fluoride "burst" effect was observed with glass ionomers. Both compomer and giomer did not show an initial fluoride "burst" effect. With the exception of the compomer, fluoride release at day one was generally significantly greater than at the other time intervals. The glass ionomers released significantly more fluoride than the compomer and giomer at day one. Although fluoride release of the giomer was significantly greater than the other materials at day seven, it became significantly lower at day 28. PMID:12022457

  12. Slave systems in verbal short-term memory

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Waters, Gloria; Howard, David

    2013-01-01

    Background The model of performance in short-term memory (STM) tasks that has been most influential in cognitive neuropsychological work on deficits of STM is the “working memory” model mainly associated with the work of Alan Baddeley and his colleagues. Aim This paper reviews the model. We examine the development of this theory in studies that account for STM performances in normal (non-brain-damaged) individuals, and then review the application of this theory to neuropsychological cases and specifications, modifications, and extensions of the theory that have been suggested on the basis of these cases. Our approach is to identify the major phenomena that have been discussed and to examine selected papers dealing with those phenomena in some detail. Main Contribution The main contribution is a review of the WM model that includes both normative and neuropsychological data. Conclusions We conclude that the WM model has many inconsistencies and empirical inadequacies, and that cognitive neuropsychologists might benefit from considering other models when they attempt to describe and explain patients’ performances on STM tasks. PMID:24347786

  13. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  14. Short-term Aerosol Trends: Reality or Myth?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leptoukh, Gregory; Zubko, Viktor

    2009-01-01

    The main questions addressed in this slide presentation involve short-term trends of MODIS aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over 6 years: (1) Why are the trends different in different regions? (2) How are these trends so high? (3) Why are they "coherent" in many areas? (4) Are these changes in aerosol concentrations real, i.e., are they monotonic changes in emissions? Several views of the Spatial Distribution of AOT from Terra are shown. In conclusion there are several trends: (1) There is a broad spatial inhomogenueity in AOT trends over 6 years of MODIS Terra and Aqua (2) Some of the areas demonstrate clear positive trends related to increase of emission (e.g., Eastern China) (3) Strong trends in some other areas are superficial and might be attributed, in part, to: (3a) Least squares linear trend sensitivity to outliers (need to use more robust linear fitting method) (3b) Spatial and temporal shifts or trends in meteorological conditions, especially in wind patterns responsible for aerosol transport (6) Aerosol trends should be studied together with changes in meteorology patterns as they might closely linked together

  15. Local short-term variability in solar irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Gerald M.; Monahan, Adam H.; Heinemann, Detlev

    2016-05-01

    Characterizing spatiotemporal irradiance variability is important for the successful grid integration of increasing numbers of photovoltaic (PV) power systems. Using 1 Hz data recorded by as many as 99 pyranometers during the HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), we analyze field variability of clear-sky index k* (i.e., irradiance normalized to clear-sky conditions) and sub-minute k* increments (i.e., changes over specified intervals of time) for distances between tens of meters and about 10 km. By means of a simple classification scheme based on k* statistics, we identify overcast, clear, and mixed sky conditions, and demonstrate that the last of these is the most potentially problematic in terms of short-term PV power fluctuations. Under mixed conditions, the probability of relatively strong k* increments of ±0.5 is approximately twice as high compared to increment statistics computed without conditioning by sky type. Additionally, spatial autocorrelation structures of k* increment fields differ considerably between sky types. While the profiles for overcast and clear skies mostly resemble the predictions of a simple model published by , this is not the case for mixed conditions. As a proxy for the smoothing effects of distributed PV, we finally show that spatial averaging mitigates variability in k* less effectively than variability in k* increments, for a spatial sensor density of 2 km-2.

  16. Short Term Memory, Working Memory, and Syntactic Comprehension in Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Caplan, David; Michaud, Jennifer; Hufford, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sixty one people with aphasia were tested on ten tests of short term memory (STM) and for the ability to use syntactic structure to determine the meanings of eleven types of sentences in three tasks – object manipulation, picture matching and picture matching with self-paced listening. Multilevel models showed relationships between measures of the ability to retain and manipulate item and order information in STM and accuracy and RT, and a greater relationship between these STM measures and accuracy and RT for several more complex sentence types in individual tasks. There were no effects of measures of STM that reflect the use of phonological codes or rehearsal on comprehension. There was only one effect of STM measures on self-paced listening times. There were double dissociations between performance on STM and individual comprehension tasks, indicating that normal STM is not necessary to perform normally on these tasks. The results are most easily related to the view that STM plays a facilitatory role in supporting the use of the products of the comprehension process to accomplish operations related to tasks. PMID:23865692

  17. Visual short-term memory load strengthens selective attention.

    PubMed

    Roper, Zachary J J; Vecera, Shaun P

    2014-04-01

    Perceptual load theory accounts for many attentional phenomena; however, its mechanism remains elusive because it invokes underspecified attentional resources. Recent dual-task evidence has revealed that a concurrent visual short-term memory (VSTM) load slows visual search and reduces contrast sensitivity, but it is unknown whether a VSTM load also constricts attention in a canonical perceptual load task. If attentional selection draws upon VSTM resources, then distraction effects-which measure attentional "spill-over"-will be reduced as competition for resources increases. Observers performed a low perceptual load flanker task during the delay period of a VSTM change detection task. We observed a reduction of the flanker effect in the perceptual load task as a function of increasing concurrent VSTM load. These findings were not due to perceptual-level interactions between the physical displays of the two tasks. Our findings suggest that perceptual representations of distractor stimuli compete with the maintenance of visual representations held in memory. We conclude that access to VSTM determines the degree of attentional selectivity; when VSTM is not completely taxed, it is more likely for task-irrelevant items to be consolidated and, consequently, affect responses. The "resources" hypothesized by load theory are at least partly mnemonic in nature, due to the strong correspondence they share with VSTM capacity. PMID:24002967

  18. Role of short-term memory in loudness comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Werner, Birgit

    2003-04-01

    In an earlier study of the auditory discrimination of time-varying noise bursts [Ellermeier and Schrödl, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2596 (2000)], listeners were found to place greater weight on the beginning and end of the sounds than on the middle portion. To investigate whether this outcome is due to primacy and recency effects in short-term memory which tend to be sensitive to manipulations of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), the ISI separating the two noise bursts in a 2IFC task was varied systematically. Six participants performed loudness comparisons on 1-s samples of white noise randomly changing in level every 100 ms. In different blocks of trials, the two noise bursts to be compared were either separated by a 500-ms or a 2-s ISI. COSS analysis [Berg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 1743-1746 (1989)] of the overall loudness judgments revealed elevated weights for the beginning and end of the noises, as in the earlier study. These weighting patterns were largely unaffected by the manipulation of ISI, suggesting that the temporal weights found characterize loudness integration in general, and are not just due to idiosyncrasies of the timing used in the 2IFC procedure.

  19. Grouping and binding in visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Philip T; Cohen, Dale J

    2012-09-01

    Findings of 2 experiments are reported that challenge the current understanding of visual short-term memory (VSTM). In both experiments, a single study display, containing 6 colored shapes, was presented briefly and then probed with a single colored shape. At stake is how VSTM retains a record of different objects that share common features: In the 1st experiment, 2 study items sometimes shared a common feature (either a shape or a color). The data revealed a color sharing effect, in which memory was much better for items that shared a common color than for items that did not. The 2nd experiment showed that the size of the color sharing effect depended on whether a single pair of items shared a common color or whether 2 pairs of items were so defined-memory for all items improved when 2 color groups were presented. In explaining performance, an account is advanced in which items compete for a fixed number of slots, but then memory recall for any given stored item is prone to error. A critical assumption is that items that share a common color are stored together in a slot as a chunk. The evidence provides further support for the idea that principles of perceptual organization may determine the manner in which items are stored in VSTM. PMID:22449133

  20. Airway response to ultra short-term exposure to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Fouke, J.M.; Delemos, R.A.; McFadden, E.R. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    To determine whether acute short-term exposure to oxidant pollutants can cause changes in respiratory mechanics, we gave 0.5 ppm ozone for 5 min to 7 baboons. We measured pulmonary resistance (RL) and obtained dose response curves to methacholine before and after the exposures. This brief insult increased resistance (control RL = 1.53 +/- 0.21 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s; post-ozone RL = 3.53 +/- 0.54 cm H/sub 2/O.L-1 s). On a second occasion, 6 of these animals were restudied before and after the administration of cromolyn sodium. Although this drug had no effect on the measurements of mechanics made in the control period, it significantly reduced the ozone-induced changes in mechanics. The increase in RL was 52% of that produced in the first study. The results demonstrated that the ozone injury with its acute and subacute airway sequelae occurs quite rapidly and after very brief exposure. The time course of the change in mechanics and the effects of cromolyn suggest the hypothesis that surface epithelial cells are disrupted, causing subsequent release of bronchoconstricting agents.

  1. Short-term visual deprivation improves the perception of harmonicity.

    PubMed

    Landry, Simon P; Shiller, Douglas M; Champoux, François

    2013-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that the perception of auditory stimuli involves occipital cortical regions traditionally associated with visual processing, even in the absence of any overt visual component to the task. Analogous behavioral evidence of an interaction between visual and auditory processing during purely auditory tasks comes from studies of short-term visual deprivation on the perception of auditory cues, however, the results of such studies remain equivocal. Although some data have suggested that visual deprivation significantly increases loudness and pitch discrimination and reduces spatial localization inaccuracies, it is still unclear whether such improvement extends to the perception of spectrally complex cues, such as those involved in speech and music perception. We present data demonstrating that a 90-min period of visual deprivation causes a transient improvement in the perception of harmonicity: a spectrally complex cue that plays a key role in music and speech perception. The results provide clear behavioral evidence supporting a role for the visual system in the processing of complex auditory stimuli, even in the absence of any visual component to the task. PMID:23957309

  2. A Single Brief Burst Induces GluR1-Dependent Associative Short-Term Potentiation: A Potential Mechanism for Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Martha A.; Maramara, Lauren A.; Lisman, John

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that short-term memory (STM) is selectively reduced in GluR1 knockout mice. This raises the possibility that a form of synaptic modification dependent on GluR1 might underlie STM. Studies of synaptic plasticity have shown that stimuli too weak to induce long-term potentiation induce short-term potentiation (STP), a phenomenon…

  3. Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavka, Petr; Strouhal, Luděk; Landa, Martin; Neuman, Martin; Kožant, Petr; Muller, Miloslav

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this contribution is to introduce the recently started three year's project named "Variability of Short-term Precipitation and Runoff in Small Czech Drainage Basins and its Influence on Water Resources Management". Its main goal is to elaborate a methodology and online utility for deriving short-term design precipitation series, which could be utilized by a broad community of scientists, state administration as well as design planners. The outcomes of the project will especially be helpful in modelling hydrological or soil erosion problems when designing common measures for promoting water retention or landscape drainage systems in or out of the scope of Landscape consolidation projects. The precipitation scenarios will be derived from 10 years of observed data from point gauging stations and radar data. The analysis is focused on events' return period, rainfall total amount, internal intensity distribution and spatial distribution over the area of Czech Republic. The methodology will account for the choice of the simulation model. Several representatives of practically oriented models will be tested for the output sensitivity to selected precipitation scenario comparing to variability connected with other inputs uncertainty. The variability of the outputs will also be assessed in the context of economic impacts in design of landscape water structures or mitigation measures. The research was supported by the grant QJ1520265 of the Czech Ministry of Agriculture, using data provided by the Czech Hydrometeorological Institute.

  4. Short-term nonmigrating tide variability in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedatella, N. M.; Oberheide, J.; Sutton, E. K.; Liu, H.-L.; Anderson, J. L.; Raeder, K.

    2016-04-01

    The intraseasonal variability of the eastward propagating nonmigrating diurnal tide with zonal wave number 3 (DE3) during 2007 in the mesosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere is investigated using a whole atmosphere model reanalysis and satellite observations. The atmospheric reanalysis is based on implementation of data assimilation in the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) using the Data Assimilation Research Testbed (DART) ensemble Kalman filter. The tidal variability in the WACCM+DART reanalysis is compared to the observed variability in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) based on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics Dynamics satellite Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry (TIMED/SABER) observations, in the ionosphere based on Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) observations, and in the upper thermosphere (˜475 km) based on Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) neutral density observations. To obtain the short-term DE3 variability in the MLT and upper thermosphere, we apply the method of tidal deconvolution to the TIMED/SABER observations and consider the difference in the ascending and descending longitudinal wave number 4 structure in the GRACE observations. The results reveal that tidal amplitude changes of 5-10 K regularly occur on short timescales (˜10-20 days) in the MLT. Similar variability occurs in the WACCM+DART reanalysis and TIMED/SABER observations, demonstrating that the short-term variability can be captured in whole atmosphere models that employ data assimilation and in observations by the technique of tidal deconvolution. The impact of the short-term DE3 variability in the MLT on the ionosphere and thermosphere is also clearly evident in the COSMIC and GRACE observations. Analysis of the troposphere forcing in WACCM+DART and simulations of the Global Scale Wave Model (GSWM) show that the short-term DE3 variability in the MLT is

  5. Parametric and non-parametric modeling of short-term synaptic plasticity. Part I: computational study

    PubMed Central

    Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.; Berger, Theodore W.

    2009-01-01

    Parametric and non-parametric modeling methods are combined to study the short-term plasticity (STP) of synapses in the central nervous system (CNS). The nonlinear dynamics of STP are modeled by means: (1) previously proposed parametric models based on mechanistic hypotheses and/or specific dynamical processes, and (2) non-parametric models (in the form of Volterra kernels) that transforms the presynaptic signals into postsynaptic signals. In order to synergistically use the two approaches, we estimate the Volterra kernels of the parametric models of STP for four types of synapses using synthetic broadband input–output data. Results show that the non-parametric models accurately and efficiently replicate the input–output transformations of the parametric models. Volterra kernels provide a general and quantitative representation of the STP. PMID:18506609

  6. Circuit Motifs for Contrast-Adaptive Differentiation in Early Sensory Systems: The Role of Presynaptic Inhibition and Short-Term Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danke; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J.

    2015-01-01

    In natural signals, such as the luminance value across of a visual scene, abrupt changes in intensity value are often more relevant to an organism than intensity values at other positions and times. Thus to reduce redundancy, sensory systems are specialized to detect the times and amplitudes of informative abrupt changes in the input stream rather than coding the intensity values at all times. In theory, a system that responds transiently to fast changes is called a differentiator. In principle, several different neural circuit mechanisms exist that are capable of responding transiently to abrupt input changes. However, it is unclear which circuit would be best suited for early sensory systems, where the dynamic range of the natural input signals can be very wide. We here compare the properties of different simple neural circuit motifs for implementing signal differentiation. We found that a circuit motif based on presynaptic inhibition (PI) is unique in a sense that the vesicle resources in the presynaptic site can be stably maintained over a wide range of stimulus intensities, making PI a biophysically plausible mechanism to implement a differentiator with a very wide dynamical range. Moreover, by additionally considering short-term plasticity (STP), differentiation becomes contrast adaptive in the PI-circuit but not in other potential neural circuit motifs. Numerical simulations show that the behavior of the adaptive PI-circuit is consistent with experimental observations suggesting that adaptive presynaptic inhibition might be a good candidate neural mechanism to achieve differentiation in early sensory systems. PMID:25723493

  7. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-02-04

    the results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  8. SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL PROCESS EVALUATION: SHORT-TERM RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe; Richard McMillan

    2002-03-04

    results of the short-term tests; the long-term test results will be reported in a later document. The short-term test results showed that three of the four reagents tested, dolomite powder, commercial magnesium hydroxide slurry, and byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry, were able to achieve 90% or greater removal of sulfuric acid compared to baseline levels. The molar ratio of alkali to flue gas sulfuric acid content (under baseline conditions) required to achieve 90% sulfuric acid removal was lowest for the byproduct magnesium hydroxide slurry. However, this result may be confounded because this was the only one of the three slurries tested with injection near the top of the furnace across from the pendant superheater platens. Injection at the higher level was demonstrated to be advantageous for this reagent over injection lower in the furnace, where the other slurries were tested.

  9. Assessment of the short-term radiometric stability between Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Taeyoung; Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chander, Gyanesh; Angal, A.

    2009-01-01

    Short-term radiometric stability was evaluated using continuous ETM+ scenes within a single orbit (contact period) and the corresponding MODIS scenes for the four matching solar reflective visible and near-infrared (VNIR) band pairs between the two sensors. The near-simultaneous earth observations were limited by the smaller swath size of ETM+ (183 km) compared to MODIS (2330 km). Two sets of continuous granules for Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ were selected and mosaicked based on pixel geolocation information for noncloudy pixels over the African continent. The matching pixel pairs were resampled from a fine to a coarse pixel resolution, and the at-sensor spectral radiance values for a wide dynamic range of the sensors were compared and analyzed, covering various surface types. The following study focuses on radiometric stability analysis from the VNIR band-pairs of ETM+ and MODIS. The Libya-4 desert target was included in the path of this continuous orbit, which served as a verification point between the short-term and the long-term trending results from previous studies. MODTRAN at-sensor spectral radiance simulation is included for a representative desert surface type to evaluate the consistency of the results.

  10. Effect of pullulan on the short-term and long-term retrogradation of rice starch.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Ren, Fei; Zhang, Zipei; Tong, Qunyi; Rashed, Marwan M A

    2015-01-22

    The effect of pullulan (PUL) on the retrogradation of rice starch (RS) was investigated by means of rapid visco-analyzer (RVA), rotational rheometer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). RVA results showed that addition of pullulan significantly decreased the breakdown and setback values, which meant that the short-term retrogradation of RS was inhibited. The dynamic time sweep of samples also proved the retarding effect of pullulan on the retrogradation of RS. DSC curves showed clearly that pullulan significantly reduced the retrogradation enthalpy of amylopectin, and the kinetics of retrogradation was analyzed using the Avrami model. XRD results showed that recrystallinity of RS was reduced from 11.565% to 8.841% with the addition of pullulan and this was in line with the DSC results. It could be concluded that the addition of pullulan apparently influenced not only the short-term retrogradation of amylose, but also the long-term retrogradation of amylopectin. PMID:25439913

  11. A processing architecture for associative short-term memory in electronic noses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pioggia, G.; Ferro, M.; Di Francesco, F.; DeRossi, D.

    2006-11-01

    Electronic nose (e-nose) architectures usually consist of several modules that process various tasks such as control, data acquisition, data filtering, feature selection and pattern analysis. Heterogeneous techniques derived from chemometrics, neural networks, and fuzzy rules used to implement such tasks may lead to issues concerning module interconnection and cooperation. Moreover, a new learning phase is mandatory once new measurements have been added to the dataset, thus causing changes in the previously derived model. Consequently, if a loss in the previous learning occurs (catastrophic interference), real-time applications of e-noses are limited. To overcome these problems this paper presents an architecture for dynamic and efficient management of multi-transducer data processing techniques and for saving an associative short-term memory of the previously learned model. The architecture implements an artificial model of a hippocampus-based working memory, enabling the system to be ready for real-time applications. Starting from the base models available in the architecture core, dedicated models for neurons, maps and connections were tailored to an artificial olfactory system devoted to analysing olive oil. In order to verify the ability of the processing architecture in associative and short-term memory, a paired-associate learning test was applied. The avoidance of catastrophic interference was observed.

  12. Clinical and no-clinical setting specificities in first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group.

    PubMed

    Drakulić, Aleksandra Mindoljević

    2011-03-01

    Modern history of short-term group psychotherapy dates back to the late 1950-ies. From then to present day, this psychotherapeutic method has been used in various forms, from dynamic-oriented to cognitive behavioural psychotherapies. Although it has always been considered rather controversial, due its cost-effectiveness, it has been capturing more and more popularity. This paper presents the specificities of first session short-term psychotherapy psychodrama group through session work with two examined groups: a group of 20 adult women who suffer from mild or moderate forms of unipolar depression and a group of 20 students of the School of Medicine in Zagreb without any psychiatric symptomatology. The results indicate the high importance of having structure in first psychodrama session, of relating it with the previously thoroughly conducted, initial, clinical, interviews, and of the clarity and focus in terms of determining the goals of therapy, especially in a clinical context. This study also confirmed assumptions regarding the need for different approaches of warming-up in psychodrama, both in the clinical and in non-clinical samples. A psychodrama psychotherapist should have good time managing skills and capability to convert the time available into an opportunity for directly boosting the group energy and work on therapeutic alliance. PMID:21661367

  13. Short-term optimal operation of water systems using ensemble forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raso, L.; Schwanenberg, D.; van de Giesen, N. C.; van Overloop, P. J.

    2014-09-01

    Short-term water system operation can be realized using Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC is a method for operational management of complex dynamic systems. Applied to open water systems, MPC provides integrated, optimal, and proactive management, when forecasts are available. Notwithstanding these properties, if forecast uncertainty is not properly taken into account, the system performance can critically deteriorate. Ensemble forecast is a way to represent short-term forecast uncertainty. An ensemble forecast is a set of possible future trajectories of a meteorological or hydrological system. The growing ensemble forecasts’ availability and accuracy raises the question on how to use them for operational management. The theoretical innovation presented here is the use of ensemble forecasts for optimal operation. Specifically, we introduce a tree based approach. We called the new method Tree-Based Model Predictive Control (TB-MPC). In TB-MPC, a tree is used to set up a Multistage Stochastic Programming, which finds a different optimal strategy for each branch and enhances the adaptivity to forecast uncertainty. Adaptivity reduces the sensitivity to wrong forecasts and improves the operational performance. TB-MPC is applied to the operational management of Salto Grande reservoir, located at the border between Argentina and Uruguay, and compared to other methods.

  14. Human Performance in a Realistic Instrument-Control Task during Short-Term Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Fabian; Kalicinski, Michael; Dalecki, Marc; Bock, Otmar

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the detrimental effects of microgravity on human sensorimotor skills. While that work dealt with simple, laboratory-type skills, we now evaluate the effects of microgravity on a complex, realistic instrument-control skill. Twelve participants controlled a simulated power plant during the short-term microgravity intervals of parabolic flight as well as during level flight. To this end they watched multiple displays, made strategic decisions and used multiple actuators to maximize their virtual earnings from the power plant. We quantified control efficiency as the participants’ net earnings (revenue minus expenses), motor performance as hand kinematics and dynamics, and stress as cortisol level, self-assessed mood and self-assessed workload. We found that compared to normal gravity, control efficiency substantially decreased in microgravity, hand velocity slowed down, and cortisol level and perceived physical strain increased, but other stress and motor scores didn’t change. Furthermore, control efficiency was not correlated with motor and stress scores. From this we conclude that realistic instrument control was degraded in short-term microgravity. This degradation can’t be explained by the motor and/or stress indicators under study, and microgravity affected motor performance differently in our complex, realistic skill than in the simple, laboratory-type skills of earlier studies. PMID:26083473

  15. Short-term landfill methane emissions dependency on wind.

    PubMed

    Delkash, Madjid; Zhou, Bowen; Han, Byunghyun; Chow, Fotini K; Rella, Chris W; Imhoff, Paul T

    2016-09-01

    Short-term (2-10h) variations of whole-landfill methane emissions have been observed in recent field studies using the tracer dilution method for emissions measurement. To investigate the cause of these variations, the tracer dilution method is applied using 1-min emissions measurements at Sandtown Landfill (Delaware, USA) for a 2-h measurement period. An atmospheric dispersion model is developed for this field test site, which is the first application of such modeling to evaluate atmospheric effects on gas plume transport from landfills. The model is used to examine three possible causes of observed temporal emissions variability: temporal variability of surface wind speed affecting whole landfill emissions, spatial variability of emissions due to local wind speed variations, and misaligned tracer gas release and methane emissions locations. At this site, atmospheric modeling indicates that variation in tracer dilution method emissions measurements may be caused by whole-landfill emissions variation with wind speed. Field data collected over the time period of the atmospheric model simulations corroborate this result: methane emissions are correlated with wind speed on the landfill surface with R(2)=0.51 for data 2.5m above ground, or R(2)=0.55 using data 85m above ground, with emissions increasing by up to a factor of 2 for an approximately 30% increase in wind speed. Although the atmospheric modeling and field test are conducted at a single landfill, the results suggest that wind-induced emissions may affect tracer dilution method emissions measurements at other landfills. PMID:26896003

  16. Conceptual short term memory in perception and thought.

    PubMed

    Potter, Mary C

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle - identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material - may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  17. Short-term wind speed predictions with machine learning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, M. A.; Khatibi, R.; FazeliFard, M. H.; Naghipour, L.; Makarynskyy, O.

    2016-02-01

    Hourly wind speed forecasting is presented by a modeling study with possible applications to practical problems including farming wind energy, aircraft safety and airport operations. Modeling techniques employed in this paper for such short-term predictions are based on the machine learning techniques of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic expression programming (GEP). Recorded values of wind speed were used, which comprised 8 years of collected data at the Kersey site, Colorado, USA. The January data over the first 7 years (2005-2011) were used for model training; and the January data for 2012 were used for model testing. A number of model structures were investigated for the validation of the robustness of these two techniques. The prediction results were compared with those of a multiple linear regression (MLR) method and with the Persistence method developed for the data. The model performances were evaluated using the correlation coefficient, root mean square error, Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and Akaike information criterion. The results indicate that forecasting wind speed is feasible using past records of wind speed alone, but the maximum lead time for the data was found to be 14 h. The results show that different techniques would lead to different results, where the choice between them is not easy. Thus, decision making has to be informed of these modeling results and decisions should be arrived at on the basis of an understanding of inherent uncertainties. The results show that both GEP and ANN are equally credible selections and even MLR should not be dismissed, as it has its uses.

  18. Frailty as a predictor of short-term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Tiago; Paúl, Constança; Gobbens, Robbert J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare how different frailty measures (Frailty Phenotype/FP, Groningen Frailty Indicator/GFI and Tilburg Frailty Indicator/TFI) predict short-term adverse outcomes. Secondarily, adopting a multidimensional approach to frailty (integral conceptual model–TFI), this study aims to compare how physical, psychological and social frailty predict the outcomes. A longitudinal study was carried out with 95 community-dwelling elderly. Participants were assessed at baseline for frailty, determinants of frailty, and adverse outcomes (healthcare utilization, quality of life, disability in basic and instrumental activities of daily living/ADL and IADL). Ten months later the outcomes were assessed again. Frailty was associated with specific healthcare utilization indicators: the FP with a greater utilization of informal care; GFI with an increased contact with healthcare professionals; and TFI with a higher amount of contacts with a general practitioner. After controlling for the effect of life-course determinants, comorbidity and adverse outcome at baseline, GFI predicted IADL disability and TFI predicted quality of life. The effect of the FP on the outcomes was not significant, when compared with the other measures. However, when comparing TFI’s domains, the physical domain was the most significant predictor of the outcomes, even explaining part of the variance of ADL disability. Frailty at baseline was associated with adverse outcomes at follow-up. However, the relationship of each frailty measure (FP, GFI and TFI) with the outcomes was different. In spite of the role of psychological frailty, TFI’s physical domain was the determinant factor for predicting disability and most of the quality of life. PMID:26246968

  19. Conceptual Short Term Memory in Perception and Thought

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual short term memory (CSTM) is a theoretical construct that provides one answer to the question of how perceptual and conceptual processes are related. CSTM is a mental buffer and processor in which current perceptual stimuli and their associated concepts from long term memory (LTM) are represented briefly, allowing meaningful patterns or structures to be identified (Potter, 1993, 1999, 2009). CSTM is different from and complementary to other proposed forms of working memory: it is engaged extremely rapidly, has a large but ill-defined capacity, is largely unconscious, and is the basis for the unreflective understanding that is characteristic of everyday experience. The key idea behind CSTM is that most cognitive processing occurs without review or rehearsal of material in standard working memory and with little or no conscious reasoning. When one perceives a meaningful stimulus such as a word, picture, or object, it is rapidly identified at a conceptual level and in turn activates associated information from LTM. New links among concurrently active concepts are formed in CSTM, shaped by parsing mechanisms of language or grouping principles in scene perception and by higher-level knowledge and current goals. The resulting structure represents the gist of a picture or the meaning of a sentence, and it is this structure that we are conscious of and that can be maintained in standard working memory and consolidated into LTM. Momentarily activated information that is not incorporated into such structures either never becomes conscious or is rapidly forgotten. This whole cycle – identification of perceptual stimuli, memory recruitment, structuring, consolidation in LTM, and forgetting of non-structured material – may occur in less than 1 s when viewing a pictured scene or reading a sentence. The evidence for such a process is reviewed and its implications for the relation of perception and cognition are discussed. PMID:22557984

  20. Finding Short-Term Variability in Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonin, Samuel; Barott, W. C.; Catanach, T.

    2012-05-01

    The Allen Telescope Array (ATA) performed 53 observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers between July 2010 and January 2011 in an effort to identify short-timescale variability. With the notable exception of Weisberg et al. (2005), few analyses have been performed analyzing variability in masers on timescales of minutes or less. This work is aimed both at providing additional data (including refined positions) on the catalog of observed sources as well as identifying the prevalence and cause of short-term phenomena. Observations utilized both the ATA correlator (for mapping) and beamformer (for recording voltage time series). A combination of Fast-Fourier Transforms and Continuous Wavelet Transforms are applied to channelized power series waterfalls) in this investigation. Wavelet analysis can be thought of as a generalization of Fourier analysis that allows us to examine non-stationary characteristics of the spectra. The survey included both short (10 minute), long (60 minute), and follow-up observations on candidate targets. Analysis so far has identified three variable sources out of 43 distinct objects that were observed. These objects exhibit significant variation on the order of several minutes, are consistent in follow-up observations, and we have ruled out instrumental variation. Future and ongoing work includes identifying the source of this variation as intrinsic to the source or a property of the ISM. Shorter time-scales will be investigated using a combination of techniques, including total power variation, pulse searching (in an attempt to find pulsars), and phase-shift demodulation techniques. The case for SETI analysis of these data is given, for example, by Cordes (1993), who suggested that extraterrestrial intelligences could use masers to amplify interstellar signals.This project was funded by the National Science Foundation Grant AST0852095. [1] Weisberg J. M. et al. (2005) Science, 309, 5731. [2] Cordes J. M. (1993) Astron. Soc. Pacific Conf. Series

  1. Short Term Effects of Cocoa Consumption on Blood Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Alleyne, T; Alleyne, A; Arrindell, D; Balleram, N; Cozier, D; Haywood, R; Humphrey, C; Pran, L; Rampersad, K; Reyes, D; Bahall, S; Holder, R; Ignacio, D

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension, defined as diastolic pressure ≥ 90 mmHg and systolic pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among black populations globally. Several studies have shown that prolonged consumption of cocoa or cocoa containing products leads to decreased blood pressure (BP) in hypertensives. In this study, we investigated the flavonoid content of the top selling cocoa/cocoa based products in Trinidad and Tobago and attempted to determine if consumption of cocoa had any immediate impact on blood pressure levels. The flavonoid content of three 100% cocoa powder products and four cocoa-based formulas was measured using a modified Folin-Ciocalteu procedure. The brand with the highest flavonoid content, 372 gallic acid equivalents, was selected to evaluate the short-term impact of cocoa consumption on blood pressure. Thirty-six participants comprising nineteen hypertensives and seventeen persons with normal blood pressure had their blood pressure recorded on three separate days using ambulatory blood pressure monitors; the blood pressure was recorded every half hour for eight hours. On the first day, the participants received no intervention but on the second and third days, they received either the intervention (5 g cocoa in 125 ml water) or a placebo, in any order. Statistical analysis conducted using t-test statistic and a 95% confidence interval revealed that whether participants regularly took antihypertensive medication or not, a single intervention of cocoa induced decreases in both the diastolic and systolic BPs that were significant (p = 0.0001). Mean decreases of between 8 mmHg and 18 mmHg were observed. PMID:25429467

  2. Is Earthquake Prediction Possible from Short-Term Foreshocks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Avlonitis, Markos; Di Fiore, Boris; Minadakis, George

    2015-04-01

    Foreshocks preceding mainshocks in the short-term, ranging from minutes to a few months prior the mainshock, have been known from several decades ago. Understanding the generation mechanisms of foreshocks was supported by seismicity observations and statistics, laboratory experiments, theoretical considerations and simulation results. However, important issues remain open. For example, (1) How foreshocks are defined? (2) Why only some mainshocks are preceded by foreshocks but others do not? (2) Is the mainshock size dependent on some attributes of the foreshock sequence? (3) Is that possible to discriminate foreshocks from other seismicity styles (e.g. swarms, aftershocks)? To approach possible replies to these issues we reviewed about 400 papers, reports, books and other documents referring to foreshocks as well as to relevant laboratory experiments. We found that different foreshock definitions are used by different authors. We found also that the ratio of mainshocks preceded by foreshocks increases with the increase of monitoring capabilities and that foreshock activity is dependent on source mechanical properties and favoured by material heterogeneity. Also, the mainshock size does not depend on the largest foreshock size but rather by the foreshock area. Seismicity statistics may account for an effective discrimination of foreshocks from other seismicity styles since during foreshock activities the seismicity rate increases with the inverse of time and, at the same, the b-value of the G-R relationship as a rule drops significantly. Our literature survey showed that only the last years the seismicity catalogs organized in some well monitored areas are adequately complete to search for foreshock activities. Therefore, we investigated for a set of "good foreshock examples" covering a wide range of mainshock magnitudes from 4.5 to 9 in Japan (Tohoku 2011), S. California, Italy (including L' Aquila 2009) and Greece. The good examples used indicate that foreshocks

  3. Short term impact risk assessment for asteroids 2011 AG5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bancelin, D.; Pravec, P.; Nolan, M.

    2013-04-01

    Among the potentially hazardous asteroids (PHAs) in orbit around the Earth, some of them can become a real threat. The most famous PHA presently known is asteroid (99942) Apophis which briefly presented an unusually high impact probability (up to 2.3 %) for a collision with the Earth in 2029. It remains the only asteroid to have reached level 4 of the Torino Scale. Even if Apophis is not a threat anymore, other PHAs are still monitored and now, only one asteroid is scaled to 1 with the highest impact probability. Asteroid 2011 AG5 has 1 chance over 500 to hit the Earth on 2040. This asteroid is challenging because it will remain of faint magnitude around 23.0 until its close encounter with the Earth in February 2023. It will come close to the Earth by 0.012 AU. Intensive ground-based (optical and mainly radar measurements) will be performed. Before this date, optical measurements would be possible (provided that large telescopes are used) and orbital refinement could be performed in order to improve the orbital uncertainty of this asteroid. Nevertheless, no physical data can be derived before 2023 and therefore, the influence of non gravitational forces, mainly Yarkovsky effect, can not be precisely determined. This non gravitational effect produces a secular drift da/dt (positive or negative) of the semi-major axis due to the anisotropic re-emission of the incident solar radiation. We propose here a dynamical study of the asteroid 2011 AG5. We discuss first the location of primary and secondary keyholes in the target plane of 2023 as well as the quantification of the impact probability. Secondary keyholes are due to two consecutive close encounters, the second usually happening near a keyhole or a resonant return. Then, we will address how those quantities evolve with future dedicated ground-based measurements. In a second part, we will discuss non gravitational perturbations through Yarkovsky effect. Assuming that this asteroid is a C or S-type, we can

  4. Short term aerobic exercise alters the reinforcing value of food in inactive adults.

    PubMed

    Panek, Leah M; Jones, Kelly R; Temple, Jennifer L

    2014-10-01

    Motivation to eat, or the reinforcing value of food, may be influenced by a number of factors, including physical activity. The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that short-term moderate-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise would alter the reinforcing value of high (HED) and low (LED) energy density foods in inactive adults. The reinforcing value of LED and HED food was measured at baseline and again after two weeks of aerobic exercise. In Experiment 1, 41 participants were randomized to a no exercise condition or aerobic exercise for 3 days per week for two weeks. In Experiment 2, 76 participants were randomized to one of four aerobic exercise frequencies, 0, 1, 3, or 5 days per week for two weeks. In both experiments, exercise reduced the reinforcing value of HED food compared to baseline and to non-exercise controls. In Experiment 2, the 5 day group also showed a significant increase in the reinforcing value of LED food compared to baseline and other exercise frequencies. Liking of HED and LED foods and consumption of HED food were not affected by exercise treatment. Finally, in Experiment 2, the 5 day group reported consuming more energy outside of the laboratory than the other groups. Taken together, these data suggest, in inactive individuals, motivation to obtain HED and LED foods can be altered with a short-term moderate-vigorous intensity exercise intervention. Further research is needed to understand the cognitive and physiological processes involved in food choices paired with exercise. PMID:24996592

  5. Short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate short-term respiratory outcomes in late preterm infants (LPI) compared with those of term infants (TI). Methods A retrospective study conducted in a single third level Italian centre (2005–2009) to analyse the incidence and risk factors of composite respiratory morbidity (CRM), the need for adjunctive therapies (surfactant therapy, inhaled nitric oxide, pleural drainage), the highest level of respiratory support (mechanical ventilation – MV, nasal continuous positive airway pressure – N-CPAP, nasal oxygen) and the duration of pressure support (hours in N-CPAP and/or MV). Results During the study period 14,515 infants were delivered. There were 856 (5.9%) LPI and 12,948 (89.2%) TI. CRM affected 105 LPI (12.4%), and 121 TI (0.9%), with an overall rate of 1.6%. Eighty-four LPI (9.8%) and 73 TI (0.56%) received respiratory support, of which 13 LPI (1.5%) and 16 TI (0.12%) were ventilated. The adjusted OR for developing CRM significantly increased from 3.3 (95% CI 2.0-5.5) at 37 weeks to 40.8 (95% CI 19.7-84.9%) at 34 weeks. The adjusted OR for the need of MV significantly increased from 3.4 (95% CI 1.2-10) at 37 weeks to 34.4 (95% CI 6.7-180.6%) at 34 weeks. Median duration of pressure support was significantly higher at 37 weeks (66.6 h vs 40.5 h). Twin pregnancies were related to a higher risk of CRM (OR 4.3, 95% CI 2.6-7.3), but not independent of gestational age (GA). Cesarean section (CS) was associated with higher risk of CRM independently of GA, but the OR was lower in CS with labour (2.2, 95% CI 1.4-3.4 vs 3.0, 95% CI 2.1-4.2). Conclusions In this single third level care study late preterm births, pulmonary diseases and supportive respiratory interventions were lower than previously documented. LPI are at a higher risk of developing pulmonary disease than TI. Infants born from elective cesarean sections, late preterm twins in particular and 37 weekers too might benefit from preventive intervention. PMID:24893787

  6. Tritanium acetabular wedge augments: short-term results

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Camilo; Heller, Snir

    2016-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of acetabular defects in total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents a great challenge to orthopaedic surgeons. Previous studies have reported on the use and outcomes of trabecular metal acetabular augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects. However, no study has been conducted evaluating the short-term results of tritanium acetabular wedge augments for the reconstruction of acetabular defects in THA. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a prospective database at a single institution including primary and revision THA patients from January 2013 to December 2014. Patients were included if they received a tritanium acetabular wedge augment system and had a minimum of 2-year follow-up (average 2.2 years ±0.3, range, 2–2.6 years). Demographic data and outcomes data [Harris Hip Score—HHS and Short Form (SF)-36] was collected. Radiographic data was also collected on THA revision cases (Paprosky classification), developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) cases (Crowe classification), and radiographic follow-up using DeLee and Charnley’s classification system. Results There were 4 revision THA patients, 3 DDH patients, and 1 patient with posttraumatic arthritis. At the latest radiographic follow-up, there were no lucent lines in DeLee and Charnley Zones I, II or III. During the follow-up period, there was no open revision surgery. The SF-36 physical score significantly improved from preoperative measurement (29.6±2.2) to postoperative measurement (52.2±8.7, P=0.003), and the SF-36 mental score also significantly improved from preoperative assessment (34.5±4.5) to postoperative assessment (52.2±7.5, P=0.003). Total HHS scores also significantly improved postoperatively (P=0.02), with significant improvements in both the pain score (P=0.01) and function score (P=0.02). Conclusions Tritanium acetabular wedge augments in this short follow-up case series exhibit high clinical outcome scores, no radiographic lucency, and no

  7. Long and short term variations of the polar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takumi

    We present long-term and short-term variations of the polar wind in the mid-altitude (2000- 9000) km polar ionosphere from Akebono (EXOS-D) suprathermal ion mass spectrometer (SMS) observations. In particular, we will discuss a dominant process for the thermal ion acceleration to cause a variation of the ion outflow flux in such a time scale. The polar wind is a thermal ion outflow driven by the ambipolar electric field as a result of plasma pressure gradient along the geomagnetic field under typical ionospheric condition. Therefore, the polar wind velocity largely depends on a vertical density profile of thermal plasma in the high-latitude polar ionosphere. In general, the thermal plasma density profile is strongly influenced by the magnitude of EUV energy input from the Sun. The Akebono observations show a weak correlation between the H+ and O+ polar wind velocity profile and the solar F10.7 index in the time scale of several to ten days, and it is suggestive of such a causal relationship. It is also found in the Akebono observations that the polar wind velocity variation has a component corresponding to a daily variation of the geomagnetic activity. In the present analysis, the velocity profile is defined by two parameters; 1) the lowest altitude where the polar wind acceleration is identified, 2) velocity variation ratio with respect to the altitude. Our analysis indicates that the magnitude of F10.7 and the geomagnetic activity are influential in determining the polar wind velocity profile. The solar-activity dependence and seasonal variation of the polar wind velocity profiles are also investigated by the data from the Akebono. These observations spanned a solar cycle, and covered a wide range of altitudes and invariant latitudes and a variety of geomagnetic activity conditions. At low (high) altitudes below (above) 4000 km, the increase of the averaged H+ and O+ ion velocities with altitude was larger (smaller) at solar minimum than at solar maximum. For

  8. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short-term

  9. Short-term appetite and energy intake following imposed exercise in 9- to 10-year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Moore, Melanie S; Dodd, Caroline J; Welsman, Joanne R; Armstrong, Neil

    2004-10-01

    Short-term effects of different intensities of exercise-induced energy expenditure on energy intake and hunger were compared in 19 girls (10.0 +/- 0.6 years) in three conditions: sedentary, low-intensity exercise and high-intensity exercise. The exercise conditions involved cycling at 50 and 75% of peak oxygen uptake, respectively, but were designed to evoke approximately 1.50 MJ of total expenditure, as estimated from continuously monitored heart rate. A maintenance breakfast of controlled energy intake was provided and ad libitum energy intake was measured at lunch and dinner. Differences in energy intake relative to expenditure, between 09:30 and 17:00, were calculated by subtracting energy expenditure from energy intake (energy difference). Hunger, fullness and prospective consumption were rated before and after meals and exercise sessions. Lunch energy intake was significantly less after low-intensity exercise than after high-intensity exercise. Energy expenditure was greater in the exercise conditions than when sedentary and the energy difference was more positive in the sedentary condition than in each of the exercise conditions. At mid-afternoon, rated prospective consumption was less after the high-intensity exercise. The imposition of energy expenditure through exercise of either low or high intensity resulted in no detectable increase in energy intake in the short term. PMID:15458799

  10. Environmental control of short-term variation in the plankton community of inner Tokyo Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakane, Toru; Nakaka, Kisaburo; Bouman, Heather; Platt, Trevor

    2008-07-01

    Water temperature, salinity, nutrient concentrations and the composition of the plankton community were recorded at three stations in inner Tokyo Bay over a period of 328 days (from June 8, 1995 to April 30, 1996) with a nominal sampling frequency of once per day. Inspection of the results revealed that the data could be divided into two blocs as an aid to analysis: the period from June to October was characterized by the development of stratification of temperature and salinity (stratification period), and November to March was characterized by uniform temperature and salinity in the water column due to vertical mixing (mixing period). Oxygen-depleted water forms in the bottom layer during the stratification period, but vertical mixing of the water column, due to changing wind and rainfall conditions caused by passing weather fronts, results in the breakdown of the oxygen-depleted water mass. Nutrient loads are high in the surface water due to the freshwater supply, but occasional pulses of primary production cause a depletion of phosphate in the surface water, suggesting that the phosphorus becomes a limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth in this period. Several short-term peaks of plankton abundance (blooms) occurred as responses to temporal changes in water quality from June to November, with consequent species succession. Significant fluctuations in the densities of the diatom Skeletonema costatum and several species of ciliates corresponded to the daily changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the coastal environment. During the mixing period, when water temperature and solar radiation decreased, there were no short-term variations in water quality and although nutrient concentrations gradually increased from November to February, primary production remained low. This study shows that the short-term dynamics of the phytoplankton community are closely coupled to fluctuations in environmental forcing, and that the degree of coupling is

  11. Fuzzy State Transition and Kalman Filter Applied in Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Ming-jun, Deng; Shi-ru, Qu

    2015-01-01

    Traffic flow is widely recognized as an important parameter for road traffic state forecasting. Fuzzy state transform and Kalman filter (KF) have been applied in this field separately. But the studies show that the former method has good performance on the trend forecasting of traffic state variation but always involves several numerical errors. The latter model is good at numerical forecasting but is deficient in the expression of time hysteretically. This paper proposed an approach that combining fuzzy state transform and KF forecasting model. In considering the advantage of the two models, a weight combination model is proposed. The minimum of the sum forecasting error squared is regarded as a goal in optimizing the combined weight dynamically. Real detection data are used to test the efficiency. Results indicate that the method has a good performance in terms of short-term traffic forecasting. PMID:26779258

  12. Fuzzy State Transition and Kalman Filter Applied in Short-Term Traffic Flow Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Deng, Ming-jun; Qu, Shi-ru

    2015-01-01

    Traffic flow is widely recognized as an important parameter for road traffic state forecasting. Fuzzy state transform and Kalman filter (KF) have been applied in this field separately. But the studies show that the former method has good performance on the trend forecasting of traffic state variation but always involves several numerical errors. The latter model is good at numerical forecasting but is deficient in the expression of time hysteretically. This paper proposed an approach that combining fuzzy state transform and KF forecasting model. In considering the advantage of the two models, a weight combination model is proposed. The minimum of the sum forecasting error squared is regarded as a goal in optimizing the combined weight dynamically. Real detection data are used to test the efficiency. Results indicate that the method has a good performance in terms of short-term traffic forecasting. PMID:26779258

  13. Short-term effects of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons on sea-surface microlayer phytoneuston

    SciTech Connect

    Riznyk, R.Z.; Hardy, J.T.; Pearson, W.; Jabs, L.

    1987-06-01

    The Puget Sound area, in the state of Washington, is characterized by an increasing population reflected by the growth of Seattle and Tacoma and their respective industrial-based economies. Previous work on the sea-surface microlayer of Puget Sound has shown that contaminant metals and organics are present at some sites at concentrations from 10 to more than 1000 times greater than in underlying sea water. Since the sea-surface microlayer may contain an inordinately high concentration of PAHs relative to the water column, the authors decided to investigated the short-term effect of these hydrophobic contaminants on phytoneuston community dynamics under controlled in situ conditions during this summer season when bloom conditions can prevail in areas of Puget Sound.

  14. Neural correlates of auditory short-term memory in rostral superior temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Auditory short-term memory (STM) in the monkey is less robust than visual STM and may depend on a retained sensory trace, which is likely to reside in the higher-order cortical areas of the auditory ventral stream. Results We recorded from the rostral superior temporal cortex as monkeys performed serial auditory delayed-match-to-sample (DMS). A subset of neurons exhibited modulations of their firing rate during the delay between sounds, during the sensory response, or both. This distributed subpopulation carried a predominantly sensory signal modulated by the mnemonic context of the stimulus. Excitatory and suppressive effects on match responses were dissociable in their timing, and in their resistance to sounds intervening between the sample and match. Conclusions Like the monkeys’ behavioral performance, these neuronal effects differ from those reported in the same species during visual DMS, suggesting different neural mechanisms for retaining dynamic sounds and static images in STM. PMID:25456448

  15. Short-Term Plasticity and Long-Term Potentiation in Magnetic Tunnel Junctions: Towards Volatile Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik

    2016-02-01

    Synaptic memory is considered to be the main element responsible for learning and cognition in humans. Although traditionally nonvolatile long-term plasticity changes are implemented in nanoelectronic synapses for neuromorphic applications, recent studies in neuroscience reveal that biological synapses undergo metastable volatile strengthening followed by a long-term strengthening provided that the frequency of the input stimulus is sufficiently high. Such "memory strengthening" and "memory decay" functionalities can potentially lead to adaptive neuromorphic architectures. In this paper, we demonstrate the close resemblance of the magnetization dynamics of a magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) to short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation observed in biological synapses. We illustrate that, in addition to the magnitude and duration of the input stimulus, the frequency of the stimulus plays a critical role in determining long-term potentiation of the MTJ. Such MTJ synaptic memory arrays can be utilized to create compact, ultrafast, and low-power intelligent neural systems.

  16. Short-term Ensemble Flood Forecasting Experiments in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collischonn, Walter; Meller, Adalberto; Fan, Fernando; Moreira, Demerval; Dias, Pedro; Buarque, Diogo; Bravo, Juan

    2013-04-01

    Flood Forecasting and issuing early warnings to communities under risk can help reduce the impacts of those events. However, to be effective, warnings should be given several hours in advance. The best solution to extend the lead time is possibly the use of rainfall-runoff models with input given by rainfall and streamflow observations and by forecasts of future precipitation derived from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. Recent studies showed that probabilistic or ensemble flood forecasts produced using ensemble precipitation forecasts as input data outperform deterministic flood forecasts in several cases in Europe and the United States, and ensemble flood forecasting systems are increasingly becoming operational in these regions. In Brazil, on the other hand, operational flood warning systems are rare, and often based on simplified river routing or linear transfer function models. However, a large number of global and regional meteorological models is operationally run covering most of the country, and forecasts of those models are available for recent years. We used this available data to conduct experiments of short term ensemble flood forecasting in the Paraopeba River basin (12 thousand km2), located in Southeastern Brazil. Streamflow forecasts were produced using the MGB-IPH hydrological model, using a simple empirical state updating method and using an ensemble of precipitation forecasts generated by several models, with different initial conditions and parameterizations, from several weather forecasting centers. A single deterministic streamflow forecast, based on a quantitative precipitation forecast derived from the optimal combination of several outputs of NWP models was used as a reference to assess the performance of the ensemble streamflow forecasts. Flood forecasts experiments were performed for three rainy seasons (austral summer) between 2008-2011. The results for predictions of dichotomous events, which mean exceeding or not flood

  17. EVALUATING SHORT-TERM CLIMATE VARIABILITY IN THE LATE HOLOCENE OF THE NORTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph H. Hartman

    1999-09-01

    This literature study investigated methods and areas to deduce climate change and climate patterns, looking for short-term cycle phenomena and the means to interpret them. Many groups are actively engaged in intensive climate-related research. Ongoing research might be (overly) simplified into three categories: (1) historic data on weather that can be used for trend analysis and modeling; (2) detailed geological, biological (subfossil), and analytical (geochemical, radiocarbon, etc.) studies covering the last 10,000 years (about since last glaciation); and (3) geological, paleontological, and analytical (geochemical, radiometric, etc.) studies over millions of years. Of importance is our ultimate ability to join these various lines of inquiry into an effective means of interpretation. At this point, the process of integration is fraught with methodological troubles and misconceptions about what each group can contribute. This project has met its goals to the extent that it provided an opportunity to study resource materials and consider options for future effort toward the goal of understanding the natural climate variation that has shaped our current civilization. A further outcome of this project is a proposed methodology based on ''climate sections'' that provides spatial and temporal correlation within a region. The method would integrate cultural and climate data to establish the climate history of a region with increasing accuracy with progressive study and scientific advancement (e. g., better integration of regional and global models). The goal of this project is to better understand natural climatic variations in the recent past (last 5000 years). The information generated by this work is intended to provide better context within which to examine global climate change. The ongoing project will help to establish a basis upon which to interpret late Holocene short-term climate variability as evidenced in various studies in the northern Great Plains, northern

  18. Effects of short-term altitude training and tapering on left ventricular morphology in elite swimmers.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, M J; Smith, D J; Malley, L; Norris, S R; Smith, E R

    1998-05-01

    Short or long-term athletic training has been associated with left ventricular (LV) morphological adaptations, including increases in wall thickness, cavity dimension and estimated LV mass. A limitation of previous studies assessing the 'athlete heart' was that exercise training was performed at sea level. Since the 1968 Olympic summer games a popular method of maximizing athletic performance has been to use altitude training (AT) as a means of improving sea level performance. However, the effects of short term AT and taper training on LV morphology have not been well studied. Based on this limitation, the effects of three weeks of intense AT (1848 m) or low level control training (CT) (1050 m) followed by two weeks of taper training were investigated in 15 elite swimmers between 16 and 21 years of age. Short term AT or CT training followed by two weeks of taper training was not associated with alterations in LV diastolic cavity dimension (AT pre 53.3 +/- 2.8 mm versus post 52.6 +/- 4.3 mm; CT pre 52.9 +/- 3.7 mm versus post 51.2 +/- 4.0 mm), ventricular septal wall thickness (AT pre 9.6 +/- 1.0 mm versus post 9.4 +/- 1.1 mm; CT pre 8.4 +/- 1.2 mm versus post 8.6 +/- 1.1 mm), estimated LV mass (AT pre 186.4 +/- 45.8 g versus post 190.0 +/- 48.2 g; CT pre 159.1 +/- 35.8 g versus post 160.1 +/- 40.8 g) or fractional shortening (AT pre 36.8 +/- 3.5% versus post 34.8 +/- 2.7%; CT pre 32.6 +/- 5.0% versus post 32.8 +/- 4.7%). However, a main time effect, independent of training intervention, was observed for posterior wall thickness (pre 8.7 +/- 1.4 mm versus post 9.3 +/- 1.1 mm, P < 0.05). Therefore, with the exception of posterior wall thickness, short term AT followed by two weeks of taper training appears not to be associated with alterations in LV morphology or systolic function. PMID:9627523

  19. Distribution of Short-Term and Lifetime Predicted Risks of Cardiovascular Diseases in Peruvian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Quispe, Renato; Bazo-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Burroughs Peña, Melissa S; Poterico, Julio A; Gilman, Robert H; Checkley, William; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Huffman, Mark D; Miranda, J Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Background Short-term risk assessment tools for prediction of cardiovascular disease events are widely recommended in clinical practice and are used largely for single time-point estimations; however, persons with low predicted short-term risk may have higher risks across longer time horizons. Methods and Results We estimated short-term and lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in a pooled population from 2 studies of Peruvian populations. Short-term risk was estimated using the atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease Pooled Cohort Risk Equations. Lifetime risk was evaluated using the algorithm derived from the Framingham Heart Study cohort. Using previously published thresholds, participants were classified into 3 categories: low short-term and low lifetime risk, low short-term and high lifetime risk, and high short-term predicted risk. We also compared the distribution of these risk profiles across educational level, wealth index, and place of residence. We included 2844 participants (50% men, mean age 55.9 years [SD 10.2 years]) in the analysis. Approximately 1 of every 3 participants (34% [95% CI 33 to 36]) had a high short-term estimated cardiovascular disease risk. Among those with a low short-term predicted risk, more than half (54% [95% CI 52 to 56]) had a high lifetime predicted risk. Short-term and lifetime predicted risks were higher for participants with lower versus higher wealth indexes and educational levels and for those living in urban versus rural areas (P<0.01). These results were consistent by sex. Conclusions These findings highlight potential shortcomings of using short-term risk tools for primary prevention strategies because a substantial proportion of Peruvian adults were classified as low short-term risk but high lifetime risk. Vulnerable adults, such as those from low socioeconomic status and those living in urban areas, may need greater attention regarding cardiovascular preventive strategies. PMID:26254303

  20. Short-term peripheral nerve stimulation ameliorates axonal dysfunction after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Kiernan, Matthew C.; Macefield, Vaughan G.; Lee, Bonne B.; Lin, Cindy S.-Y.

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that peripheral motor axons deteriorate following spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondary axonal dysfunction can exacerbate muscle atrophy, contribute to peripheral neuropathies and neuropathic pain, and lead to further functional impairment. In an attempt to ameliorate the adverse downstream effects that developed following SCI, we investigated the effects of a short-term peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) program on motor axonal excitability in 22 SCI patients. Axonal excitability studies were undertaken in the median and common peroneal nerves (CPN) bilaterally before and after a 6-wk unilateral PNS program. PNS was delivered percutaneously over the median nerve at the wrist and CPN around the fibular head, and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior was recorded. Stimulus intensity was above motor threshold, and pulses (450 μs) were delivered at 100 Hz with a 2-s on/off cycle for 30 min 5 days/wk. SCI patients had consistently high thresholds with a reduced CMAP consistent with axonal loss; in some patients the peripheral nerves were completely inexcitable. Nerve excitability studies revealed profound changes in membrane potential, with a “fanned-in” appearance in threshold electrotonus, consistent with membrane depolarization, and significantly reduced superexcitability during the recovery cycle. These membrane dysfunctions were ameliorated after 6 wk of PNS, which produced a significant hyperpolarizing effect. The contralateral, nonstimulated nerves remained depolarized. Short-term PNS reversed axonal dysfunction following SCI, may provide an opportunity to prevent chronic changes in axonal and muscular function, and may improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:25787956

  1. Growth Hormone Protects the Intestine Preserving Radiotherapy Efficacy on Tumors: A Short-Term Study

    PubMed Central

    Caz, Victor; Elvira, Marcos; Tabernero, Maria; Grande, Antonio G.; Lopez-Plaza, Bricia; de Miguel, Enrique; Largo, Carlota; Santamaria, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of radiotherapy on tumors is hampered by its devastating adverse effects on healthy tissue, particularly that of the gastrointestinal tract. These effects cause acute symptoms that are so disruptive to patients that they can lead to interruption of the radiotherapy program. These adverse effects could limit the intensity of radiation received by the patient, resulting in a sublethal dose to the tumor, thus increasing the risk of tumor resistance. The lack of an effective treatment to protect the bowel during radiation therapy to allow higher radiation doses that are lethal to the tumor has become a barrier to implementing effective therapy. In this study, we present a comparative analysis of both intestinal and tumor tissue in regard to the efficacy and the preventive impact of a short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment in tumor-bearing rats as a protective agent during radiotherapy. Our data show that the exogenous administration of GH improved intestinal recovery after radiation treatment while preserving the therapeutic effect against the tumor. GH significantly increased proliferation in the irradiated intestine but not in the irradiated tumors, as assessed by Positron Emission Tomography and the proliferative markers Ki67, cyclin D3, and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen. This proliferative effect was consistent with a significant increase in irradiated intestinal villi and crypt length. Furthermore, GH significantly decreased caspase-3 activity in the intestine, whereas GH did not produce this effect in the irradiated tumors. In conclusion, short-term GH treatment protects the bowel, inducing proliferation while reducing apoptosis in healthy intestinal tissue and preserving radiotherapy efficacy on tumors. PMID:26670463

  2. Stress responses to short-term intensified and reduced training in competitive weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Storey, A G; Birch, N P; Fan, V; Smith, H K

    2016-01-01

    We sought to identify and evaluate the tolerance to, and consequences of, short-term variations in training load in competitive weightlifters. Seven international-level lifters performed 1 week of initial training followed by 2 weeks of intensified (INT: +100%, 36.5 ± 11.3 × 10(3)  kg/week) and 1 week of subsequently reduced (RED: -25%) training within their annual program. After INT, but not RED, 90 min of weightlifting increased mRNA levels of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 4 (CCL4), chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 4 (CXCR4) and cellular stress-associated DNA-damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by 40-240%. Resting- and weightlifting-induced changes in plasma protein carbonyls, indicative of oxidative stress, but not pro-inflammatory CCL4 concentrations differed between INT and RED. Symptoms of stress (Daily Analysis of Life Demands of Athletes questionnaire) were reported as worse than normal more frequently during INT and RED than initial training. Global (negative) mood state increased during INT and declined during RED. Maximal snatch (-4.3 ± 3.7%) and vertical jump (-7.2 ± 6.5%), but not clean and jerk, were reduced after INT and restored after RED. Chemokine signaling may thus be part of the stress response to intense weightlifting and short-term reductions in training load support recovery from periodic INT training in weightlifters. PMID:25640639

  3. Short-term peripheral nerve stimulation ameliorates axonal dysfunction after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael; Kiernan, Matthew C; Macefield, Vaughan G; Lee, Bonne B; Lin, Cindy S-Y

    2015-05-01

    There is accumulating evidence that peripheral motor axons deteriorate following spinal cord injury (SCI). Secondary axonal dysfunction can exacerbate muscle atrophy, contribute to peripheral neuropathies and neuropathic pain, and lead to further functional impairment. In an attempt to ameliorate the adverse downstream effects that developed following SCI, we investigated the effects of a short-term peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) program on motor axonal excitability in 22 SCI patients. Axonal excitability studies were undertaken in the median and common peroneal nerves (CPN) bilaterally before and after a 6-wk unilateral PNS program. PNS was delivered percutaneously over the median nerve at the wrist and CPN around the fibular head, and the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) from the abductor pollicis brevis and tibialis anterior was recorded. Stimulus intensity was above motor threshold, and pulses (450 μs) were delivered at 100 Hz with a 2-s on/off cycle for 30 min 5 days/wk. SCI patients had consistently high thresholds with a reduced CMAP consistent with axonal loss; in some patients the peripheral nerves were completely inexcitable. Nerve excitability studies revealed profound changes in membrane potential, with a "fanned-in" appearance in threshold electrotonus, consistent with membrane depolarization, and significantly reduced superexcitability during the recovery cycle. These membrane dysfunctions were ameliorated after 6 wk of PNS, which produced a significant hyperpolarizing effect. The contralateral, nonstimulated nerves remained depolarized. Short-term PNS reversed axonal dysfunction following SCI, may provide an opportunity to prevent chronic changes in axonal and muscular function, and may improve rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:25787956

  4. Electron Dynamics in Intense Laser Fields: A Bohmian Mechanics Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jooya, Hossein Z.; Telnov, Dmitry A.; Chu, Shih-I.

    2016-05-01

    We study the electron quantum dynamics of atomic hydrogen under intense near infrared laser fields by means of the De Broglie-Bohm's framework of Bohmian mechanics. This method is used to study the mechanism of the multiple plateau generation and the cut-off extension, as the main characteristic features of high order harmonic generation spectrum. Electron multiple recollision dynamics under intense mid-infrared laser fields is also investigated. In this case, the resulting patterns in the high-order harmonic generation and the above-threshold ionization spectra are analyzed by comprehensive picture provided by Bohmian mechanics. The time evolution of individual trajectories is closely studied to address some of the major structural features of the photoelectron angular distributions. This work is partially supported by DOE.

  5. Nonlinear dynamics of optical absorption of intense beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, D.; van Oosten, C. L.; Warner, M.

    2008-07-01

    On traversing materials with absorbing dyes, weak optical beams decay exponentially (a Beer profile), while intense beams develop in time a profile that is spatially linear until at great depth it becomes spatially exponential. This anomalous, deep penetration, due to photobleaching of surface layers, is important for heavy dye loading and intense beams, for instance in photo-actuation. We address the problem of the evolution in time from initial Beer’s Law to a finally deeply-penetrating optical profile in dyes. Our largely analytic solution of the coupled, nonlinear, partial differential equations governing the spatiotemporal decay of the Poynting flux and the nonlinear population dynamics of the photo-active molecules under intense irradiation has application to optomechanical devices.

  6. Short-term vs. long-term heart rate variability in ischemic cardiomyopathy risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Schroeder, Rico; Vallverdú, Montserrat; Schulz, Steffen; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Vázquez, Rafael; Bayés de Luna, Antoni; Caminal, Pere

    2013-01-01

    In industrialized countries with aging populations, heart failure affects 0.3–2% of the general population. The investigation of 24 h-ECG recordings revealed the potential of nonlinear indices of heart rate variability (HRV) for enhanced risk stratification in patients with ischemic heart failure (IHF). However, long-term analyses are time-consuming, expensive, and delay the initial diagnosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether 30 min short-term HRV analysis is sufficient for comparable risk stratification in IHF in comparison to 24 h-HRV analysis. From 256 IHF patients [221 at low risk (IHFLR) and 35 at high risk (IHFHR)] (a) 24 h beat-to-beat time series (b) the first 30 min segment (c) the 30 min most stationary day segment and (d) the 30 min most stationary night segment were investigated. We calculated linear (time and frequency domain) and nonlinear HRV analysis indices. Optimal parameter sets for risk stratification in IHF were determined for 24 h and for each 30 min segment by applying discriminant analysis on significant clinical and non-clinical indices. Long- and short-term HRV indices from frequency domain and particularly from nonlinear dynamics revealed high univariate significances (p < 0.01) discriminating between IHFLR and IHFHR. For multivariate risk stratification, optimal mixed parameter sets consisting of 5 indices (clinical and nonlinear) achieved 80.4% AUC (area under the curve of receiver operating characteristics) from 24 h HRV analysis, 84.3% AUC from first 30 min, 82.2 % AUC from daytime 30 min and 81.7% AUC from nighttime 30 min. The optimal parameter set obtained from the first 30 min showed nearly the same classification power when compared to the optimal 24 h-parameter set. As results from stationary daytime and nighttime, 30 min segments indicate that short-term analyses of 30 min may provide at least a comparable risk stratification power in IHF in comparison to a 24 h analysis period. PMID:24379785

  7. Attosecond Dynamics of Electron Wave Packets in Intense Laser Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varjú, K.; Johnsson, P.; Mauritsson, J.; López-Martens, R.; Gustafsson, E.; Remetter, T.; L'huillier, A.

    The continuous progress in the performances of light sources as well as detection techniques allows us to investigate and control the states of matter in even finer details. Light sources, ranging from the infrared (IR) to the extreme ultraviolet (XUV), are becoming increasingly coherent, intense, well characterized, and controlled. The shortest available light pulses are now significantly shorter than 1 fs [1]-[4], thus offering unique promise for studies of ultrafast electron dynamics.

  8. Assessing Short-Term Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems by a Hierarchical Intelligent System.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wang, Dianhui; Yang, Hongming; Wong, Kit Po

    2016-08-01

    In the smart grid paradigm, growing integration of large-scale intermittent renewable energies has introduced significant uncertainties to the operations of an electric power system. This makes real-time dynamic security assessment (DSA) a necessity to enable enhanced situational-awareness against the risk of blackouts. Conventional DSA methods are mainly based on the time-domain simulation, which are insufficiently fast and knowledge-poor. In recent years, the intelligent system (IS) strategy has been identified as a promising approach to facilitate real-time DSA. While previous works mainly concentrate on the rotor angle stability, this paper focuses on another yet increasingly important dynamic insecurity phenomenon-the short-term voltage instability, which involves fast and complex load dynamics. The problem is modeled as a classification subproblem for transient voltage collapse and a prediction subproblem for unacceptable dynamic voltage deviation. A hierarchical IS is developed to address the two subproblems sequentially. The IS is based on ensemble learning of random-weights neural networks and is implemented in an offline training, a real-time application, and an online updating pattern. The simulation results on the New England 39-bus system verify its superiority in both learning speed and accuracy over some state-of-the-art learning algorithms. PMID:26441430

  9. Rotational Properties of the Haumea Family Members and Candidates: Short-term Variability.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirouin, Audrey; Sheppard, Scott S.; Noll, Keith S.; Moskovitz, Nicholas A.; Ortiz, Jose Luis; Doressoundiram, Alain

    2016-06-01

    Haumea is one of the most interesting and intriguing trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). It is a large, bright, fast rotator, and its spectrum indicates nearly pure water ice on the surface. It has at least two satellites and a dynamically related family of more than 10 TNOs with very similar proper orbital parameters and similar surface properties. The Haumean family is the only one currently known in the trans-Neptunian belt. Various models have been proposed, but the formation of the family remains poorly understood. In this work, we have investigated the rotational properties of the family members and unconfirmed family candidates with short-term variability studies, and report the most complete review to date. We present results based on five years of observations and report the short-term variability of five family members and seven candidates. The mean rotational periods, from Maxwellian fits to the frequency distributions, are 6.27 ± 1.19 hr for the confirmed family members, 6.44 ± 1.16 hr for the candidates, and 7.65 ± 0.54 hr for other TNOs (without relation to the family). According to our study, there is a possibility that Haumea family members rotate faster than other TNOs; however, the sample of family members is still too limited for a secure conclusion. We also highlight the fast rotation of 2002 GH32. This object has a 0.36 ± 0.02 mag amplitude lightcurve and a rotational period of about 3.98 hr. Assuming 2002 GH32 is a triaxial object in hydrostatic equilibrium, we derive a lower limit to the density of 2.56 g cm‑3. This density is similar to Haumea’s and much more dense than other small TNO densities.

  10. Strain-specific parallel evolution drives short-term diversification during Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Kerensa E; Hui, Janice G K; Woo, Jerry K K; Luk, Alison W S; Webb, Jeremy S; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Rice, Scott A; Thomas, Torsten

    2014-04-01

    Generation of genetic diversity is a prerequisite for bacterial evolution and adaptation. Short-term diversification and selection within populations is, however, largely uncharacterised, as existing studies typically focus on fixed substitutions. Here, we use whole-genome deep-sequencing to capture the spectrum of mutations arising during biofilm development for two Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach identified single nucleotide variants with frequencies from 0.5% to 98.0% and showed that the clinical strain 18A exhibits greater genetic diversification than the type strain PA01, despite its lower per base mutation rate. Mutations were found to be strain specific: the mucoid strain 18A experienced mutations in alginate production genes and a c-di-GMP regulator gene; while PA01 acquired mutations in PilT and PilY1, possibly in response to a rapid expansion of a lytic Pf4 bacteriophage, which may use type IV pili for infection. The Pf4 population diversified with an evolutionary rate of 2.43 × 10(-3) substitutions per site per day, which is comparable to single-stranded RNA viruses. Extensive within-strain parallel evolution, often involving identical nucleotides, was also observed indicating that mutation supply is not limiting, which was contrasted by an almost complete lack of noncoding and synonymous mutations. Taken together, these results suggest that the majority of the P. aeruginosa genome is constrained by negative selection, with strong positive selection acting on an accessory subset of genes that facilitate adaptation to the biofilm lifecycle. Long-term bacterial evolution is known to proceed via few, nonsynonymous, positively selected mutations, and here we show that similar dynamics govern short-term, within-population bacterial diversification. PMID:24706926

  11. Short-Term Precipitation Occurrence Prediction for Strong Convective Weather Using FY2-G Satellite Data: a Case Study of Shenzhen, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kai; Liu, Jun; Guo, Shanxin; Chen, Jinsong; Liu, Ping; Qian, Jing; Chen, Huijuan; Sun, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Short-term precipitation commonly occurs in south part of China, which brings intensive precipitation in local region for very short time. Massive water would cause the intensive flood inside of city when precipitation amount beyond the capacity of city drainage system. Thousands people's life could be influenced by those short-term disasters and the higher city managements are required to facing these challenges. How to predict the occurrence of heavy precipitation accurately is one of the worthwhile scientific questions in meteorology. According to recent studies, the accuracy of short-term precipitation prediction based on numerical simulation model still remains low reliability, in some area where lack of local observations, the accuracy may be as low as 10%. The methodology for short term precipitation occurrence prediction still remains a challenge. In this paper, a machine learning method based on SVM was presented to predict short-term precipitation occurrence by using FY2-G satellite imagery and ground in situ observation data. The results were validated by traditional TS score which commonly used in evaluation of weather prediction. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm can present overall accuracy up to 90% for one-hour to six-hour forecast. The result implies the prediction accuracy could be improved by using machine learning method combining with satellite image. This prediction model can be further used to evaluated to predicted other characteristics of weather in Shenzhen in future.

  12. Short-term strategic treatment in traumatic conversion reactions.

    PubMed

    Daie, N; Witztum, E

    1991-07-01

    The therapists applied the strategic approach in four cases that demonstrate a variety of traumatic and conversion reactions. The therapists accepted the definition of the problem as presented by the patients or their families at the overt level, and were able to treat the conversion symptoms. At the latent level, however, there were additional system-focused goals. In the first stage, the therapists strove to understand the inner world and cultural background of their patients, their dynamics and the circumstances surrounding the event that led to the conversion reaction, or the traumatic significance of the event when it was a posttraumatic conversion. It was then possible to develop a strategy for treatment and to decide which treatment techniques were appropriate. The therapists created situations that encouraged change and pushed the patients to abandon the symptom. This therapy model is composed of behavioral and paradoxical techniques based on the understanding of the dynamic material and cultural content. PMID:1951786

  13. Short-Term Memory of Children with Mental Retardation: Structural Defects or Control Deficits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katims, David S.

    The short-term memory of 24 retarded and 24 nonretarded individuals, aged 10 to 14, under conditions of restricted cognitive strategy use was investigated. An attempt was made to determine whether short-term memory difficulties of persons with mental retardation are caused by deficits in voluntary cognitive strategies, such as the organization and…

  14. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  15. 14 CFR § 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. § 1214.809 Section § 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated...

  16. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  17. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  18. 14 CFR 1214.809 - Short-term call-up and accelerated launch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Short-term call-up and accelerated launch. 1214.809 Section 1214.809 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT Reimbursement for Spacelab Services § 1214.809 Short-term call-up and accelerated launch....

  19. Cash Management and Short-Term Investments for Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haag, Leonard H.

    Effective cash management and short-term investing are discussed in this "how to" guide designed to benefit most institutions of higher education. The following premises are examined: proper compensation for effective cash management is not an expense but an investment; effective cash management and short-term investment programs do not depend on…

  20. The Role of Short Term Synaptic Plasticity in Temporal Coding of Neuronal Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi

    2008-01-01

    Short term synaptic plasticity is a phenomenon which is commonly found in the central nervous system. It could contribute to functions of signal processing namely, temporal integration and coincidence detection by modulating the input synaptic strength. This dissertation has two parts. First, we study the effects of short term synaptic plasticity…

  1. Phonological Short-Term and Working Memory in Bilinguals' Native and Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine bilinguals' phonological short-term and working memory performance in their native/first (L1) and second (L2) languages. Korean-English bilinguals were tested in both Korean (L1) and English (L2). Short-term memory (STM) was measured via a nonword repetition task, where participants repeated…

  2. ROLE OF SHORT-TERM TESTS IN EVALUATING HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term bioassays such as the Ames test are used to assess genotoxicity and potential carcinogenicity of specific drinking water contaminants as well as concentrated samples of drinking water. he authors discuss the development, limitations, and interpretation of short-term te...

  3. Effect of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs on Students' Cultural Adaptability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapp, Susan C.

    2012-01-01

    The number of U.S. students studying abroad has been growing, particularly those participating in short-term trips. However, literature on the effect of these short-term trips is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess quantitatively the effect on bachelor students' cross-cultural adaptability using a pre-post design. Significant changes…

  4. Focusing on Short-Term Achievement Gains Fails to Produce Long-Term Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grissmer, David W.; Ober, David R.; Beekman, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The short-term emphasis engendered by No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has focused research predominantly on unraveling the complexities and uncertainties in assessing short-term results, rather than developing methods and assessing results over the longer term. In this paper we focus on estimating long-term gains and address questions important to…

  5. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  6. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Nelson

    2008-01-01

    In the recent literature there has been considerable confusion about the three types of memory: long-term, short-term, and working memory. This chapter strives to reduce that confusion and makes up-to-date assessments of these types of memory. Long- and short-term memory could differ in two fundamental ways, with only short-term memory demonstrating (1) temporal decay and (2) chunk capacity limits. Both properties of short-term memory are still controversial but the current literature is rather encouraging regarding the existence of both decay and capacity limits. Working memory has been conceived and defined in three different, slightly discrepant ways: as short-term memory applied to cognitive tasks, as a multi-component system that holds and manipulates information in short-term memory, and as the use of attention to manage short-term memory. Regardless of the definition, there are some measures of memory in the short term that seem routine and do not correlate well with cognitive aptitudes and other measures (those usually identified with the term “working memory”) that seem more attention demanding and do correlate well with these aptitudes. The evidence is evaluated and placed within a theoretical framework depicted in Fig. 1. PMID:18394484

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT: SHORT-TERM TESTS FOR CARCINOGENS, MUTAGENS AND OTHER GENOTOXIC AGENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Short-term tests have been developed to serve as rapid and relatively inexpensive predictors of a chemical's potential to cause chronic effects. These tests employ bacteria, yeast, plants, insects, isolated mammalian cells and whole animals. Short-term tests can detecta chemical'...

  8. A Short-Term Study Abroad Program for School Counseling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Teddi; Caldwell, Charmaine; Geltner, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Well planned, short-term study abroad programs can benefit school counseling students through exposure to new and different cultural experiences. Students gain knowledge and skills that will help them serve the diverse cultural groups found in public school settings. The objective of the short-term study abroad program described in this article…

  9. Poor Phonemic Discrimination Does Not Underlie Poor Verbal Short-Term Memory in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purser, Harry R. M.; Jarrold, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome tend to have a marked impairment of verbal short-term memory. The chief aim of this study was to investigate whether phonemic discrimination contributes to this deficit. The secondary aim was to investigate whether phonological representations are degraded in verbal short-term memory in people with Down syndrome…

  10. The Development of Short-Term and Incidental Memory: A Cross-cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    1974-01-01

    Subjects from urban and rural Yucatan were tested on a short-term and incidental memory task. Urban subjects were in school, whereas most rural subjects were not. Results indicated that formal schooling is an important factor in the development of mnemonic skills in short-term memory. (ST)

  11. Short-Term Volunteer Teachers in Rural China: Challenges and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Huiquan; Shang, Xinyuan

    2011-01-01

    The brain-drain caused by imbalanced economic development has produced a lack of qualified teachers in rural China. Short-term volunteer teaching has emerged as a response. Despite the popularity of such programs, little systematic data have been gathered regarding their strengths and weaknesses. A short-term volunteer teaching program was…

  12. Exploring Developmental Differences in Visual Short-Term Memory and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Su Yin; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Although visuospatial short-term memory tasks have been found to engage more executive resources than do their phonological counterparts, it remains unclear whether this is due to intrinsic differences between the tasks or differences in participants' experience with them. The authors found 11-year-olds' performances on both visual short-term and…

  13. Community in a Hurry: Social Contracts and Social Covenants in Short-Term ESL Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Rob A.

    2009-01-01

    Like many adult ESL instructors, the author has felt firsthand the challenges of creating community in short-term courses. Through his experience, he has noticed that in order to successfully build community in short-term ESL courses, teachers need to lay a foundation for social contracts and social covenants from the first day of the course and…

  14. 25 CFR 20.504 - What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? 20.504 Section 20.504 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN... Be Used § 20.504 What short-term homemaker services can Child Assistance pay for? You, the...

  15. 32 CFR 552.39 - Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers. 552.39 Section 552.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.39 Acquisition of short-term leases by local...

  16. 32 CFR 552.39 - Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Acquisition of short-term leases by local commanding officers. 552.39 Section 552.39 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF... Acquisition of Real Estate and Interest Therein § 552.39 Acquisition of short-term leases by local...

  17. When Worlds Collide: Evaluating the Impact of Short-Term Study Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Deirdre Colby

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether and how short-term study abroad programs transform college students' perspectives. The study examined attitudes about host country and international outlook, as well as intellectual, social and personal understandings. Short-term programs were defined as programs of less than a semester or a…

  18. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  19. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  20. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Grants by Random Selection Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de... any of the included services) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer... the leased spectrum is transferred to the spectrum lessee for the duration of the spectrum...

  1. 47 CFR 1.9035 - Short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... PROCEDURE Spectrum Leasing General Policies and Procedures § 1.9035 Short-term de facto transfer leasing...) and a spectrum lessee may enter into a short-term de facto transfer leasing arrangement in which the licensee retains de jure control of the license while de facto control of the leased spectrum...

  2. Short-term studies underestimate 30-generation changes in a butterfly metapopulation.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Chris D; Wilson, Robert J; Lewis, Owen T

    2002-01-01

    Most studies of rare and endangered species are based on work carried out within one generation, or over one to a few generations of the study organism. We report the results of a study that spans 30 generations (years) of the entire natural range of a butterfly race that is endemic to 35 km(2) of north Wales, UK. Short-term studies (surveys in single years and dynamics over 4 years) of this system led to the prediction that the regional distribution would be quite stable, and that colonization and extinction dynamics would be relatively unimportant. However, a longer-term study revealed unexpectedly high levels of population turnover (local extinction and colonization), affecting 18 out of the 20 patches that were occupied at any time during the period. Modelling the system (using the 'incidence function model' (IFM) for metapopulations) also showed higher levels of colonization and extinction with increasing duration of the study. The longer-term dynamics observed in this system can be compared, at a metapopulation level, with the increased levels of variation observed with increasing time that have been observed in single populations. Long-term changes may arise from local changes in the environment that make individual patches more or less suitable for the butterfly, or from unusual colonization or extinction events that take metapopulations into alternative states. One implication is that metapopulation and population viability analyses based on studies that cover only a few animal or plant generations may underestimate extinction threats. PMID:11916471

  3. Short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position using active breathing control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Koshani, Rojano . E-mail: rkashani@umich.edu; Balter, James M.; Hayman, James A.; Henning, George T.; Herk, Marcel van

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the short-term and long-term reproducibility of lung tumor position for scans acquired using an active breathing control (ABC) device. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with lung cancer were scanned over three sessions during the course of treatment. For each session, two scans were acquired at deep inhale, and one scan each at half of deep inhale and at exhale. Long-term reproducibility was evaluated by comparing the same breathing state scans from two sessions, with setup variation removed by skeletal alignment. Tumor alignment was based on intensity matching of a small volume around the tumor. For short-term reproducibility, the two inhale volumes from the same session were compared. Results: For the short-term reproducibility, the mean and the standard deviation (SD) of the displacement of the center of tumor were 0.0 (1.5) mm in anteroposterior (AP), 0.3 (1.4) mm in superior/inferior (SI), and 0.2 (0.7) mm in right/left (RL) directions. For long-term reproducibility, the mean (SD) were -1.3 (3.1) mm AP, -0.5 (3.8) mm SI, and 0.3 (1.6) mm RL for inhale and -0.2 (2.8) mm AP, 0.2 (2.1) mm SI, and -0.7 (1.1) mm RL for exhale. Conclusion: The ABC device demonstrates very good short-term and long-term reproducibility. Increased long-term variability in position, primarily in the SI and AP directions, indicates the role of tumor-directed localization in combination with breath-held immobilization.

  4. Short term high density systemic therapy for metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tormey, D C; Kline, J C; Palta, M; Davis, T E; Love, R R; Carbone, P P

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with metastatic breast carcinoma were induced with a complex systemic therapy regimen in an attempt to ascertain if a complete remission rate greater than 50% could be obtained with intensive drug exposure. The durability of the remissions was observed by discontinuing therapy after 3 cycles in complete remission or after 6 cycles of treatment, whichever was longer. In 13 patients consolidation radiation therapy to the pre-treatment sites of disease was administered after discontinuing systemic therapy. Each 28 day cycle of the drug regimen consisted of pulses of adriamycin, vincristine, dibromodulcitol, prednisone, methotrexate with leukovorin rescue, hexamethylmelamine, bleomycin (discontinued after entry #17), fluoxymesterone, and tamoxifen. Eighteen of the 23 patients achieved complete remissions (78%) and 3 had partial remissions. The median times to treatment failure and survival were, respectively, 12.3 and 19.4 mos. The times for complete remission patients were, respectively, 13.5 and 23.9 mos. Consolidation radiotherapy at greater than or equal to 40 Gy to drug induced pre-study sites of complete remission was associated with first relapses at pre-study sites in 5/30 (17%) instances, compared to 21/35 (60%) in sites not receiving radiotherapy. Side-effects were commensurate with the intensity of the treatment program and are detailed in the text. Although the achievement of a high complete remission rate is promising, the failure to extend their duration beyond that of historical data suggests that additional conceptual and therapeutic approaches need to be explored. PMID:2410072

  5. Geomorphic change detection using repetitive topographic surveys and DEMs of Differences: Implementation for short-term transformation of the ice-cored moraines in the Petuniabukta, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek

    2015-04-01

    The exposed glacial forelands are supposed to be intensively transformed by geomorphological processes due to the paraglacial adjustment of the topography. To recognize how high is the activity of such processes, we monitored the transformation rates of ice-cored moraines on the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, both of which are located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden. The main objectives were to: (1) analyse the spatial and temporal aspects of debris flow activity in cm-scale, (2) quantify the short-term (seasonal and intra-seasonal) rate of volume changes, (3) compare transformations of the ice-cored moraine surfaces due to active geomorphic processes (including dead-ice backwasting and debris mass movements) with transformations caused by dead-ice downwasting only. The short-term (yearly and weekly) dynamics of mass-wasting processes were studied in a cm-scale using repetitive topographic scanning. In total, four different locations were scanned, containing seven active debris flows or other mass wasting processes, and including non-active surfaces. Sites were chosen to ensure representation from different parts of the end moraine, different types of dominant processes (debris flows, debris falls, etc.) as well as different types of morphology (exposed ice cliffs, steep debris slope, gentle debris flows lobes, etc.). Altogether, the total scanned area was about 14,200 m2, of which 5,500 m2 were transformed by the active mass movement processes. Ten measurement sessions were carried out: three in summer of 2012, three in summer of 2013, and four in summer of 2014, which allowed for assessing the seasonal (annual) and intra-seasonal (weekly) variations. The results of the surveys in the form of cloud points were used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) with cell size 0.05 m. Subtracting DEMs from subsequent time periods created DEMs of Differences - DoDs, which enabled us to investigate the volume of and

  6. Short-Term Price Prediction and the Selection of Indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka-Yamawaki, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Awaji, K.

    Although the prediction of the future price is known to be hard due to the strong randomness inherent in the price fluctuation, intra-day price movements are expected to be predicted by reading out the patterns observed in tick-wise price motions. Our first task on this line of thought is to identify the set of effective variables suitable for studying the problem. We have first constructed a price prediction generator that computes the best prediction by reading the data tick by tick. We report in this article the effect of the adaptive choice of the best combination of technical indicators out of ten popular indicators, and also the result of using a set of novel dimensionless dynamical indicators constructed from the local values of derivatives and the second derivatives of the price times series. We have obtained a good performance of nearly 70 percent of correctly predicted direction of motion at 10 ticks ahead of the prediction time by means of adaptive choice of the technical indicators, and even better performance in the second attempt of using the two dimensionless dynamical indicators.

  7. Internal dynamics of intense twin beams and their coherence

    PubMed Central

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intense twin beams in pump-depleted parametric down-conversion is studied. A generalized parametric approximation is suggested to solve the quantum model. Its comparison with a semiclassical model valid for larger twin-beam intensities confirms its applicability. The experimentally observed maxima in the spectral and spatial intensity auto- and cross- correlation functions depending on pump power are explained in terms of different speeds of the (back-) flow of energy between the individual down-converted modes and the corresponding pump modes. This effect is also responsible for the gradual replacement of the initial exponential growth of the down-converted fields by the linear one. Furthermore, it forms a minimum in the curve giving the effective number of twin-beam modes. These effects manifest a tight relation between the twin-beam coherence and its internal structure, as clearly visible in the model. Multiple maxima in the intensity correlation functions originating in the oscillations of energy flow between the pump and down-converted modes are theoretically predicted. PMID:26924749

  8. Internal dynamics of intense twin beams and their coherence.

    PubMed

    Peřina, Jan; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, Alessia; Bondani, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of intense twin beams in pump-depleted parametric down-conversion is studied. A generalized parametric approximation is suggested to solve the quantum model. Its comparison with a semiclassical model valid for larger twin-beam intensities confirms its applicability. The experimentally observed maxima in the spectral and spatial intensity auto- and cross- correlation functions depending on pump power are explained in terms of different speeds of the (back-) flow of energy between the individual down-converted modes and the corresponding pump modes. This effect is also responsible for the gradual replacement of the initial exponential growth of the down-converted fields by the linear one. Furthermore, it forms a minimum in the curve giving the effective number of twin-beam modes. These effects manifest a tight relation between the twin-beam coherence and its internal structure, as clearly visible in the model. Multiple maxima in the intensity correlation functions originating in the oscillations of energy flow between the pump and down-converted modes are theoretically predicted. PMID:26924749

  9. Studying flash floods in a small watershed by analyzing short term stream response data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, M. Z.; Jacobsen, N.

    2013-12-01

    The study was conducted from early May through late July of 2013 in a small suburban watershed, called the Dry Run Creek, in northeast Iowa. Flooding is considered one of the largest hazards in the United States, causing economic damage in billions of dollars. Investigations across the country have documented dramatic changes in river discharge over the past decades due to an increase in rainfall events. Consequently, many areas in the U.S. have been experiencing flash flood occurrences. The objectives of this study were three folds; (1) delineate avenues of high surface runoff in the watershed during the wet season, (2) conduct flash flood analysis of a selected site during a high intensity rain event, and (3) calculate short term flood recurrence probabilities at the above site. Water levels, turbidity, and total suspended sediment data were collected from 10 sites in the watershed once a week for 10 weeks. In addition, water quality parameters and terrain characteristics were analyzed to determine topographic control on sediment and nutrient flux during rain events. Short term prediction of flood frequency was done by calculating Recurrence Interval (RI) by using the equation T = (n+1)/M, where T is recurrence interval, n is the number of records, and M is the ranked position of the flow on the record. On May 29, 2.58 inches of rain fell on the watershed from 4:30 to 8 p.m. causing the water level at the selected site to rise from 1.99 ft at 4:15 p.m. to 9.38 ft at 8:45 p.m. The event produced a severe flash flood condition in the creek by releasing discharge that is 562% higher than the average flow rate at the site for that time of the season. The water level eventually exceeded the bankfull stage. Avenues of high runoff coincided with the areas characterized by low infiltration rates due to paved surfaces. Upland slopes showed greater control on flash floods compared to channel widths. Recurrence probability of flash floods at a given site was found to be

  10. Neuroticism and conscientiousness respectively constrain and facilitate short-term plasticity within the working memory neural network.

    PubMed

    Dima, Danai; Friston, Karl J; Stephan, Klaas E; Frangou, Sophia

    2015-10-01

    Individual differences in cognitive efficiency, particularly in relation to working memory (WM), have been associated both with personality dimensions that reflect enduring regularities in brain configuration, and with short-term neural plasticity, that reflects task-related changes in brain connectivity. To elucidate the relationship of these two divergent mechanisms, we tested the hypothesis that personality dimensions, which reflect enduring aspects of brain configuration, inform about the neurobiological framework within which short-term, task-related plasticity, as measured by effective connectivity, can be facilitated or constrained. As WM consistently engages the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC), parietal (PAR), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we specified a WM network model with bidirectional, ipsilateral, and contralateral connections between these regions from a functional magnetic resonance imaging dataset obtained from 40 healthy adults while performing the 3-back WM task. Task-related effective connectivity changes within this network were estimated using Dynamic Causal Modelling. Personality was evaluated along the major dimensions of Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness to Experience, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Only two dimensions were relevant to task-dependent effective connectivity. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness respectively constrained and facilitated neuroplastic responses within the WM network. These results suggest individual differences in cognitive efficiency arise from the interplay between enduring and short-term plasticity in brain configuration. PMID:26189566

  11. Adaptation of short-term plasticity parameters via error-driven learning may explain the correlation between activity-dependent synaptic properties, connectivity motifs and target specificity

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Umberto; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical connectivity among neurons has been experimentally found to be largely non-random across brain areas. This means that certain connectivity motifs occur at a higher frequency than would be expected by chance. Of particular interest, short-term synaptic plasticity properties were found to colocalize with specific motifs: an over-expression of bidirectional motifs has been found in neuronal pairs where short-term facilitation dominates synaptic transmission among the neurons, whereas an over-expression of unidirectional motifs has been observed in neuronal pairs where short-term depression dominates. In previous work we found that, given a network with fixed short-term properties, the interaction between short- and long-term plasticity of synaptic transmission is sufficient for the emergence of specific motifs. Here, we introduce an error-driven learning mechanism for short-term plasticity that may explain how such observed correspondences develop from randomly initialized dynamic synapses. By allowing synapses to change their properties, neurons are able to adapt their own activity depending on an error signal. This results in more rich dynamics and also, provided that the learning mechanism is target-specific, leads to specialized groups of synapses projecting onto functionally different targets, qualitatively replicating the experimental results of Wang and collaborators. PMID:25688203

  12. Short-term plasticity of the human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Pantev, C; Wollbrink, A; Roberts, L E; Engelien, A; Lütkenhöner, B

    1999-09-18

    Magnetoencephalographic measurements (MEG) were used to examine the effect on the human auditory cortex of removing specific frequencies from the acoustic environment. Subjects listened for 3 h on three consecutive days to music "notched" by removal of a narrow frequency band centered on 1 kHz. Immediately after listening to the notched music, the neural representation for a 1-kHz test stimulus centered on the notch was found to be significantly diminished compared to the neural representation for a 0.5-kHz control stimulus centered one octave below the region of notching. The diminished neural representation for 1 kHz reversed to baseline between the successive listening sessions. These results suggest that rapid changes can occur in the tuning of neurons in the adult human auditory cortex following manipulation of the acoustic environment. A dynamic form of neural plasticity may underlie the phenomenon observed here. PMID:10526109

  13. A conceptual model for short-term inpatient group psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kibel, H D

    1981-01-01

    The author reviews the history of the literature on inpatient group psychotherapy. Key observations of early workers--the central role of the group leader, the experiential benefits of the group, and the relationship to the milieu--have not resulted in wide application of this form of therapy because of limitations of previous conceptual models. The model presented draws on concepts of general systems and object relations theory. General systems theory explains how the small therapy group symbolically reflects the dynamic process of the psychiatric unit. Object relations theory provides a unique understanding of the central regulatory function of the therapist and the beneficial effects of the group. The author provides clinical illustrations of these points. PMID:7446787

  14. ELECTRON COUD DYNAMICS IN HIGH-INTENSITY RINGS.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG, L.; WEI, J.

    2005-05-16

    Electron cloud due to beam-induced multipacting is one of the main concerns for the high intensity. Electrons generated and accumulated inside the beam pipe form an ''electron cloud'' that interacts with the circulating charged particle beam. With sizeable amount of electrons, this interaction can cause beam instability, beam loss and emittance growth. At the same time, the vacuum pressure will rise due to electron desorption. This talk intends to provide an overview of the mechanism and dynamics of the typical electron multipacting in various magnetic fields and mitigation measures with different beams.

  15. Long- and short-term triggering and modulation of mud volcano eruptions by earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Rudolph, Maxwell L.; Manga, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Earthquakes can trigger the eruption of mud. We use eruptions in Azerbaijan, Italy, Romania, Japan, Andaman Islands, Pakistan, Taiwan, Indonesia, and California to probe the nature of stress changes that induce new eruptions and modulate ongoing eruptions. Dynamic stresses produced by earthquakes are usually inferred to be the dominant triggering mechanism; however static stress changes acting on the feeder systems of mud volcanoes may also play a role. In Azerbaijan, eruptions within 2-10 fault lengths from the epicenter are favored in the year following earthquakes where the static stress changes cause compression of the mud source and unclamp feeder dikes. In Romania, Taiwan, and some Italian sites, increased activity is also favored where the static stress changes act to unclamp feeder dikes, but responses occur within days. The eruption in the Andaman Islands, and those of the Niikappu mud volcanoes, Japan are better correlated with amplitude of dynamic stresses produced by seismic waves. Similarly, a new island that emerged off the coast of Pakistan in 2013 was likely triggered by dynamic stresses, enhanced by directivity. At the southern end of the Salton Sea, California earthquakes increase the gas flux at small mud volcanoes. Responses are best correlated with dynamic stresses. The comparison of responses in these nine settings indicates that dynamic stresses are most often correlated with triggering, although permanent stress changes as small as, and possibly smaller than, 0.1 bar may be sufficient to also influence eruptions. Unclamping stresses with magnitude similar to Earth tides (0.01 bar) persist over time and may play a role in triggering delayed responses. Unclamping stresses may be important contributors to short-term triggering only if they exceed 0.1-1 bar.

  16. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystal Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.

  17. Accessing defect dynamics using intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Persaud, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Guo, H.; Hosemann, P.; Lidia, S.; Minor, A. M.; Seidl, P. A.; Schenkel, T.

    2015-06-18

    Gaining in-situ access to relaxation dynamics of radiation induced defects will lead to a better understanding of materials and is important for the verification of theoretical models and simulations. We show preliminary results from experiments at the new Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory that will enable in-situ access to defect dynamics through pump-probe experiments. Here, the unique capabilities of the NDCX-II accelerator to generate intense, nanosecond pulsed ion beams are utilized. Preliminary data of channeling experiments using lithium and potassium ions and silicon membranes are shown. We compare these data to simulation results using Crystalmore » Trim. Furthermore, we discuss the improvements to the accelerator to higher performance levels and the new diagnostics tools that are being incorporated.« less

  18. Heart rate dynamics preceding hemorrhage in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Moss, Travis J; Clark, Matthew T; Lake, Douglas E; Moorman, J Randall; Calland, J Forrest

    2015-01-01

    Occult hemorrhage in surgical/trauma intensive care unit (STICU) patients is common and may lead to circulatory collapse. Continuous electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring may allow for early identification and treatment, and could improve outcomes. We studied 4,259 consecutive admissions to the STICU at the University of Virginia Health System. We collected ECG waveform data captured by bedside monitors and calculated linear and non-linear measures of the RR interbeat intervals. We tested the hypothesis that a transfusion requirement of 3 or more PRBC transfusions in a 24 hour period is preceded by dynamical changes in these heart rate measures and performed logistic regression modeling. We identified 308 hemorrhage events. A multivariate model including heart rate, standard deviation of the RR intervals, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local dynamics density had a C-statistic of 0.62. Earlier detection of hemorrhage might improve outcomes by allowing earlier resuscitation in STICU patients. PMID:26342251

  19. Dynamics of intense laser propagation in underdense plasma: Polarization dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, D. K.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.; Davies, J. R.; Sarri, G.

    2012-07-15

    We present a comprehensive numerical study of the dynamics of an intense laser pulse as it propagates through an underdense plasma in two and three dimensions. By varying the background plasma density and the polarization of the laser beam, significant differences are found in terms of energy transport and dissipation, in agreement with recently reported experimental results. Below the threshold for relativistic self-focusing, the plasma and laser dynamics are observed to be substantially insensitive to the initial laser polarization, since laser transport is dominated by ponderomotive effects. Above this threshold, relativistic effects become important, and laser energy is dissipated either by plasma heating (p-polarization) or by trapping of electromagnetic energy into plasma cavities (s-polarization) or by a combination of both (circular polarization). Besides the fundamental interest of this study, the results presented are relevant to applications such as plasma-based accelerators, x-ray lasers, and fast-ignition inertial confinement fusion.

  20. Short-term biomarkers of cigarette smoke condensate tumor promoting potential in mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Hanausek, Margaret; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Zoltaszek, Robert; Swauger, James E; Mosberg, Arnold T; Slaga, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that cigarette smoke condensates (CSCs) possessing significantly different tumorigenic potentials according to a standardized 30-week mouse skin tumor-promotion protocol could likewise be discriminated utilizing short-term indices of sustained hyperplasia and/or inflammation (G. M. Curtin et al., 2004, Toxicol. Sci. 81, 14-25). The current study employed a truncated initiation-promotion protocol to further evaluate CSC-induced hyperplasia, examining issues related to time course of induction, existence of a threshold and suitable dynamic range for detectable responses, and reversibility. Condensate application (9-36 mg "tar"/200-microl application, thrice-weekly for 3-15 weeks) induced treatment-related increases for epidermal thickness, proliferative index as assessed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) expression. Interestingly, observed increases for interfollicular BrdU labeling and ODC expression were partially reversed but still elevated upon cessation of promotion, while increases within the perifollicular epidermis remained elevated at a level similar to that observed during CSC application. In particular, assessments based on perifollicular ODC expression would appear to provide a greater opportunity for test article discrimination based on a rapid time to induction, a low threshold and expanded dynamic range of responses, and the potential to account for irreversible changes. These findings are particularly intriguing based on reports suggesting that ODC expression may be necessary for tumor promotion and that mouse skin tumors originate primarily within the perifollicular epidermis. PMID:16207943

  1. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to the expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.

  2. Short-term Time Step Convergence in a Climate Model

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wan, Hui; Rasch, Philip J.; Taylor, Mark; Jablonowski, Christiane

    2015-02-11

    A testing procedure is designed to assess the convergence property of a global climate model with respect to time step size, based on evaluation of the root-mean-square temperature difference at the end of very short (1 h) simulations with time step sizes ranging from 1 s to 1800 s. A set of validation tests conducted without sub-grid scale parameterizations confirmed that the method was able to correctly assess the convergence rate of the dynamical core under various configurations. The testing procedure was then applied to the full model, and revealed a slow convergence of order 0.4 in contrast to themore » expected first-order convergence. Sensitivity experiments showed without ambiguity that the time stepping errors in the model were dominated by those from the stratiform cloud parameterizations, in particular the cloud microphysics. This provides a clear guidance for future work on the design of more accurate numerical methods for time stepping and process coupling in the model.« less

  3. Range of acceptable stimulus intensities: an estimator of dynamic range for intensive perceptual continua.

    PubMed

    Teghtsoonian, R; Teghtsoonian, M

    1997-07-01

    The dynamic range (DR) of a sensory system is the span (usually given in log units) from the lowest to highest intensities over which a continuously graded response is evoked, and may be a distinctive feature of each such system. Teghtsoonian (1971) proposed that, although DR varies widely over sensory systems, its subjective size (SDR) is invariant. Assuming the psychophysical power law, the exponent for any continuum is given by the ratio of subjective span to DR, both quantities expressed logarithmically. Thus, exponents are inversely related to the DR and many be interpreted as indexes of it. Because DR can be difficult or even dangerous to measure directly, we sought to define a smaller range representing some fixed proportion of DR that could be used in its place to test the hypothesis of an invariant subjective range. Observations manipulated the intensities of five target continua to produce the broadest range they found acceptable and reasonably comfortable, a range of acceptable stimulus intensities (RASIN). Combined with an assumed constant SDR (derived from previous research), RASINs accurately predicted exponents obtained by magnitude production from the same observers on the five continua, as well as exponents reported in the literature. PMID:9259639

  4. Short-term hot hardness characteristics of rolling-element steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, J. L.; Dietrich, M. W.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Short-term hot hardness studies were performed with five vacuum-melted steels at temperatures from 294 to 887 K (70 to 1140 F). Based upon a minimum Rockwell C hardness of 58, the temperature limitation on all materials studied was dependent on the initial room temperature hardness and the tempering temperature of each material. For the same room temperature hardness, the short-term hot hardness characteristics were identical and independent of material composition. An equation was developed to predict the short-term hardness at temperature as a function of initial room temperature hardness for AISI 52100, as well as the high-speed tool steels.

  5. Dissociation dynamics of diatomic molecules in intense fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia

    We study the dynamics of diatomic molecules (dimers) in intense IR and XUV laser fields theoretically and compare the results with measured data in collaboration with different experimental groups worldwide. The first three chapters of the thesis cover the introduction and the background on solving time-independent and time-dependent Schrodinger equation. The numerical results in this thesis are presented in four chapters, three of which are focused on diatomic molecules in IR fields. The last one concentrates on diatomic molecules in XUV pulses. The study of nuclear dynamics of H2 or D2 molecules in IR pulses is given in Chapter 4. First, we investigate the optimal laser parameters for observing field-induced bond softening and bond hardening in D2+. Next, the nuclear dynamics of H2 + molecular ions in intense laser fields are investigated by analyzing their fragment kinetic-energy release (KER) spectra as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Lastly, the electron localization is studied for long circularly polarized laser pulses. Chapter 5 covers the dissociation dynamics of O2+ in an IR laser field. The fragment KER spectra are analyzed as a function of the pump-probe delay τ Within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, we calculate ab-initio adiabatic potential-energy curves and their electric dipole couplings, using the quantum chemistry code GAMESS. In Chapter 6, the dissociation dynamics of the noble gas dimer ions He 2+, Ne2+, Ar2 +, Kr2+, and Xe2 + is investigated in ultrashort pump and probe laser pulses of different wavelengths. We observe a striking "delay gap" in the pump-probe-delay-dependent KER spectrum only if the probe-pulse wavelength exceeds the pump-pulse wavelength. Comparing pump-probe-pulse-delay dependent KER spectra for different noble gas dimer cations, we quantitatively discuss quantum-mechanical versus classical aspects of the nuclear vibrational motion as a function of the nuclear mass. Chapter 7 focuses on diatomic molecules in XUV

  6. Attention Problems, Phonological Short-Term Memory, and Visuospatial Short-Term Memory: Differential Effects on Near- and Long-Term Scholastic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Dustin E.; Rapport, Mark D.; Kofler, Michael J.; Scanlan, Sean W.; Raiker, Joseph S.; Altro, Thomas A.; Bolden, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined individual differences in children's phonological and visuospatial short-term memory as potential mediators of the relationship among attention problems and near- and long-term scholastic achievement. Nested structural equation models revealed that teacher-reported attention problems were associated negatively with…

  7. Relations between Vocabulary Development and Verbal Short-Term Memory: The Relative Importance of Short-Term Memory for Serial Order and Item Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majerus, Steve; Poncelet, Martine; Greffe, Christelle; Van der Linden, Martial

    2006-01-01

    Although many studies have shown an association between verbal short-term memory (STM) and vocabulary development, the precise nature of this association is not yet clear. The current study reexamined this relation in 4- to 6-year-olds by designing verbal STM tasks that maximized memory for either item or serial order information. Although…

  8. Techniques for constraining short term eruptive processes at Kilauea's Overlook Vent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.; Garbeil, H.; Horton, K. A.; Kern, C.; Oppenheimer, C.; Orr, T. R.; Patrick, M. R.; Poland, M. P.; Thelen, W. A.; Werner, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The activity within Kilauea's summit eruptive vent has provided ongoing opportunities to study lava lake dynamics, especially since the active lava surface became persistently visible in early 2010. Patrick et al. attributed 20-30 m lava rise/fall cycles to accumulation and release of gas beneath a shallow crust (2010), and Nadeau et al. (2010) reported rapid SO2 release during two of these rise/fall cycles. Since that time, the summit eruptive vent has widened incrementally from about 70 to more than 160 meters in diameter, and this expanding geometry has been accompanied overall changes in pond dynamics. Recently, pond activity has been temporally dominated by relatively constant magmatic convection with active and persistent gas release. This predominant mode of activity, especially during the past year, has been punctuated by short, (minutes-to-hours-long) more passive periods of little spattering, with decreased magmatic circulation, that usually end in brief, turbulent upset of the lava lake followed by a return to steadier active convection and gas release. In addition to thermal and conventional webcams and seismic monitoring, an array of upward-looking UV spectrometers (Horton et al., 2012) and an SO2 camera system (Kern et al., session V043) are now tracking changes in Kilauea summit degassing, and inferentially, changes in pond activity, by continuously recording SO2 gas release rates during daylight hours. The continuous SO2 emission rate data combined with continuous camera, seismic, and gravity measurements, all support a hypothesis that the dominant process controlling short term behavior of the lava lake surface is shallow--occurring within a kilometer of less of the active free surface. SO2 exsolution occurs predominately at shallow depths (hundreds of meters or less) and would reasonably produce a low-density, bubble-dominated fluid. Observationally, upset of the lava lake surface is accompanied by rapid and coincident increases in SO2 emissions

  9. Short Term Soil Respiration Response to Fire in a Semi-arid Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozin, A. G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Intermountain West (USA), fire is an important driver of carbon cycling in the environment. Increasing frequency and severity of fires, either through management actions or wildfires, is expected with changing climates in the Western United States. When burning is used as a management tool, it may be beneficial and control the growth of nuisance vegetation, promote the regeneration of grasses and forage species, and reduce hazardous fuel loads to minimize the risk of future wildfires. However, high intensity wildfires often have a negative effect, resulting in a loss of carbon storage and a shift of vegetation communities. This delays recovery of the ecosystem for years or decades and alters the historic fire regime. A 2000 acre prescribed burn in the Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory provided the opportunity to quantify pre and post-burn soil carbon stores and soil carbon losses by heterotrophic respiration. Pre and post-burn soil samples were collected for physical and biogeochemical characterization to quantify substrate availability and possible limitations for heterotrophic respiration. CO2 fluxes were continuously monitored in situ before and immediately after the fire to understand the short-term response of soil respiration to varying burn severities.

  10. Predictors of short-term treatment outcomes among California's Proposition 36 participants.

    PubMed

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Teruya, Cheryl; Huang, David; Anglin, M Douglas

    2007-05-01

    California's voter-initiated Proposition 36 offers non-violent drug offenders community-based treatment as an alternative to incarceration or probation without treatment. This article reports short-term treatment outcomes subsequent to this major shift in drug policy. Data are from 1104 individuals randomly selected from all Proposition 36 participants assessed for treatment in five California counties during 2004. The overall study sample was 30% female, 51% white, 18% Black, 24% Hispanic, and 7% other racial/ethnic groups. The mean+/-SD age was 37+/-10 years. Counties varied considerably in participant characteristics, treatment service intensity, treatment duration, urine testing, and employment and recidivism outcomes, but not in drug use at 3-month follow-up. Controlling for county, logistic regression analysis showed that drug abstinence was predicted by gender (female), employment at baseline (full or part-time), residential (vs. outpatient) stay, low psychiatric severity, frequent urine testing by treatment facility, and more days in treatment. Recidivism was predicted only by shorter treatment duration. Employment predictors included age (younger), gender (male), baseline employment, and lower psychiatric severity. The study findings support drug testing to monitor abstinence and highlight the need to address employment and psychiatric problems among Proposition 36 participants. PMID:17689324

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: First Applications and Short Term Outcomes in Our Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Ince, Ilker; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Dogan, Nazim; Colak, Abdurrahim; Sevimli, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the first applications and short term outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in our clinic, which is a new technology for the patients with high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2012, twenty five patients (16 males, 9 females; mean age 74.04±8.86 years) diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, who were at high risk for surgery (EuroSCORE II: 5.58±4.20) and underwent TAVI in our clinic, were evaluated. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, anaesthetic management, complications during pre- and post-operative periods and the mortality rate in the first 30 days and six months were recorded. Results: Edwards SAPIEN Valve prostheses were implanted by transfemoral approach (percutaneously in 10 patients and surgically in 15 patients) in all patients. The TAVI procedure was performed under general anaesthesia. The success rate of the TAVI procedure was 100%. Three patients had limited dissection of the femoral artery; however, intervention was not needed due to good distal perfusion rate. Permanent pacemaker was implanted to four patients because of long-term atrioventricular blockage. After the procedure, all patients were transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and all patients were extubated in the ICU. The mean mechanical ventilation duration (minutes) was 166.20±39.32, the mean critical care unit stay (day) was 5.64±2.99 and the mean hospital stay (day) was 11.92±5.54. Acute renal failure was observed in one patient and stroke was observed in two patients on the first postoperative day. The mortality rate in the first 30 days and 6 months was found to be 4% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a great option for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for SAVR. In our institute, procedural success and short term outcomes for patients

  12. EFFECT OF SHORT-TERM HEAT ACCLIMATION TRAINING ON KINETICS OF LACTATE REMOVAL FOLLOWING MAXIMAL EXERCISE

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, T.D.; Powell, J.B.; Kang, H-K.; Roberge, R.J.; Coca, A.; Kim, J-H.

    2016-01-01

    AIM Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body’s ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. METHODS Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (PRE- and POST-HA) separated by 5 days of HA. Each day of HA consisted of two 45 minute periods of cycling at ~50% VO2max separated by a 15min rest period in an environmental chamber (Tdb 45°C, RH 20%). In PRE-/POST-HA trials, venous blood was collected during 60 minutes of recovery to determine LA concentrations and removal kinetics (A2: amplitude and y2: velocity constant) using bi-exponential curve fitting. RESULTS Physiological adaptation to heat was significantly developed during HA, as evidenced by end-exercise Tre (DAY 1 vs. 5) (38.89±0.56 vs. 38.66±0.44 °C), Tsk (38.07±.51 vs. 37.66±.48 °C), HR (175.0±9.9 vs. 165.0±18.5 beats·min−1), and sweat rate (1.24 ±.26 vs. 1.47 ±.27 L·min−1) (p<.05). However, there was no significant difference in either LA concentrations (LA0min: 8.78±1.08 vs. 8.69±1.23; LApeak: 10.97±1.77 vs. 10.95±1.46; and La60min; 2.88±.82 vs. 2.96±.93 mmol·L−1) or removal kinetics (A2: −13.05±7.05 vs −15.59±7.90 mmol.L−1 and y2: .02±.01 vs .03±.01 min−1). CONCLUSION The present study concluded that, while effective in inducing thermo-physiological adaptations to heat stress, short-term HA does not improve the body’s ability to remove LA following maximal exercise. Therefore, athletes and workers seeking faster LA recovery from intense physical activity may not benefit from short-term HA. PMID:25286892

  13. Short-term forecasting of aftershock sequences, microseismicity and swarms inside the Corinth Gulf continental rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segou, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    /06/1995, M6.4), the second covers the period between September 2006-May 2007, characterized for its intense microseismicity, and the third is related with the May 2013 swarm. The conclusions support that (1) geology based CRS models are preferred over optimally oriented planes (2) CRS models are consistent forecasters (60-70%) of transient seismicity, having in most cases comparable performance with ETAS models (3) microseismicity and swarms are not triggered by static stress changes of preceding local events with magnitude M greater than 4.5 and (4) the generic ETAS model can efficiently describe the recent swarm episode. The findings of this study have a number of important implications for future short-term forecasting and time-dependent hazard within Corinth Gulf.

  14. A large-sample investigation of statistical procedures for radar-based short-term quantitative precipitation forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, M.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2000-12-01

    We present the results of an extensive evaluation of radar-based quantitative precipitation forecasting techniques. Using a large data set of radar observations from the Tulsa, Oklahoma, WSR-88D radar we evaluate several techniques, including persistence, advection, and neural-network-based schemes. The scope of our study is limited to very-short-term forecast lead-times of up to three hours. We consider several spatial resolutions ranging from 4×4 km2 to 32×32 km2. Performance of the schemes is evaluated using several popular criteria that include correlation coefficient, multiplicative bias, and probability of detection. We discuss the effects of average storm intensity and rainfall intensity integration on the predictability limits. The most significant conclusions from the study are: (1) advection is the most important physical process that impacts useful predictions; (2) larger and more intense storms are easier to forecast; and (3) both spatial and temporal integration significantly extends the predictability limits.

  15. Gummed-up memory: chewing gum impairs short-term recall.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Michail D; Hughes, Robert W; Jones, Dylan M

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that short-term memory is generally improved by chewing gum. However, we report the first studies to show that chewing gum impairs short-term memory for both item order and item identity. Experiment 1 showed that chewing gum reduces serial recall of letter lists. Experiment 2 indicated that chewing does not simply disrupt vocal-articulatory planning required for order retention: Chewing equally impairs a matched task that required retention of list item identity. Experiment 3 demonstrated that manual tapping produces a similar pattern of impairment to that of chewing gum. These results clearly qualify the assertion that chewing gum improves short-term memory. They also pose a problem for short-term memory theories asserting that forgetting is based on domain-specific interference given that chewing does not interfere with verbal memory any more than tapping. It is suggested that tapping and chewing reduce the general capacity to process sequences. PMID:22150606

  16. COMPARATIVE POTENCY OF COMPLEX MIXTURES: USE OF SHORT-TERM GENETIC BIOASSAYS IN CANCER RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary problem regarding the introduction of new energy sources is whether they will alter the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and potential human cancer risk from combustion emissions. New risk assessment methodologies utilizing data from short-term bioassays, therefore, are ...

  17. Short-term feed deprivation alters immune status of surface mucosa in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-term feed deprivation (or fasting) is a common occurrence in aquacultured fish species whether due to season, production strategies, or disease. In channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) fasting impacts susceptibility to several bacterial pathogens including Flavobacterium columnare, the causat...

  18. Short-term effects of air temperature on plasma metabolite concentrations in patients undergoing cardiac cattheterization.

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have shown associations between air temperature and cardiovascular health outcomes. Metabolic dysregulation might also play a role in the development of cardiovascular disease.OBJECTIVES: To investigate short-term temperature effects on metabol...

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE GENOTOXICITY OF HAZARDOUS INDUSTRIAL WASTES AND EFFLUENTS USING SHORT-TERM BIOASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter demonstrates that short-term bioassays can reliably and expeditiously measure the genotoxic potential of hazardous industrial wastes and effluents. etrochemical wastes have been studied in detail, especially discharges from chemical manufacturing plants and textile a...

  20. A Master Equation Approach to Modeling Short-term Behaviors of the Stock Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Conan; Yang, Xiaoxiang; Mazilu, Irina

    2015-03-01

    Short term fluctuations in stock prices are highly random, due to the multitude of external factors acting on the price determination process. While long-term economic factors such as inflation and revenue growth rate affect short-term price fluctuation, it is difficult to obtain the complete set of information and uncertainties associated with a given period of time. Instead, we propose a simpler short-term model based on only prior price averages and extrema. In this paper, we take a master equation under the random walk hypothesis and fit parameters based on AAPL stock price data over the past ten years. We report results for small system sizes and for the short term average price. These results may lead to a general closed-form solution to this particular master equation.

  1. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  2. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Petroleum Product Prices Module

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The petroleum products price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide U.S. average wholesale and retail price forecasts for motor gasoline, diesel fuel, heating oil, and jet fuel.

  3. An Approach toward the Development of a Functional Encoding Model of Short Term Memory during Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herndon, Mary Anne

    1978-01-01

    In a model of the functioning of short term memory, the encoding of information for subsequent storage in long term memory is simulated. In the encoding process, semantically equivalent paragraphs are detected for recombination into a macro information unit. (HOD)

  4. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Heating Oil Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential heating oil price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  5. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Regional Residential Propane Price Model

    EIA Publications

    2009-01-01

    The regional residential propane price module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide residential retail price forecasts for the 4 Census regions: Northeast, South, Midwest, and West.

  6. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Motor Gasoline Consumption Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    The motor gasoline consumption module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of total U.S. consumption of motor gasolien based on estimates of vehicle miles traveled and average vehicle fuel economy.

  7. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  8. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  9. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  10. 41 CFR 101-39.203 - Obtaining motor vehicles for short-term use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.2-GSA Interagency Fleet Management... Fleet Management System (IFMS). Short-term use vehicles may be provided through Military...

  11. Modeling the action-potential-sensitive nonlinear-optical response of myelinated nerve fibers and short-term memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2011-11-01

    The Goldman-Albus treatment of the action-potential dynamics is combined with a phenomenological description of molecular hyperpolarizabilities into a closed-form model of the action-potential-sensitive second-harmonic response of myelinated nerve fibers with nodes of Ranvier. This response is shown to be sensitive to nerve demyelination, thus enabling an optical diagnosis of various demyelinating diseases, including multiple sclerosis. The model is applied to examine the nonlinear-optical response of a three-neuron reverberating circuit—the basic element of short-term memory.

  12. Renovating? Take a look at the new short-term paths to financing.

    PubMed

    Kluger, M

    1984-02-01

    A hospital's renovation project can be financed through a diversity of financing techniques. Although the traditional vehicle for hospital capital financing is long-term, fixed-rate debt, there are a growing number of short-term financing alternatives that can provide greater flexibility and generate debt service savings. The author describes some of the new short-term financing techniques, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of short- versus long-term financing. PMID:10264903

  13. Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Stimulates Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats Following Global Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Oumei; Li, Rong; Zhao, Lei; Yu, Lijuan; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jia; Chen, Beibei; Yang, Junqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation (SD) plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR). Methods One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d. Results The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects. Conclusions Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process. PMID:26039740

  14. CF6-6D engine short-term performance deterioration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, W. H.; Paas, J. E.; Smith, J. J.; Wulf, R. H.

    1980-01-01

    Studies conducted as part of the NASA-Lewis CF6 jet engine diagnostics program are summarized. An 82-engine sample of DC-10-10 aircraft engine checkout data that were gathered to define the extent and magnitude of CF6-6D short term performance deterioration were analyzed. These data are substantiated by the performance testing and analytical teardown of CF6-6D short term deterioration engine serial number (ESN) 451507.

  15. Short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; de Vries, Emmely M; van Nierop, F Samuel; Klümpen, Heinz-Josef; Soeters, Maarten R; Boelen, Anita; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2015-06-01

    Experimental studies indicate that short-term fasting alters drug metabolism. However, the effects of short-term fasting on drug metabolism in humans need further investigation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of short-term fasting (36 h) on P450-mediated drug metabolism. In a randomized crossover study design, nine healthy subjects ingested a cocktail consisting of five P450-specific probe drugs [caffeine (CYP1A2), S-warfarin (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), metoprolol (CYP2D6), and midazolam (CYP3A4)] on two occasions (control study after an overnight fast and after 36 h of fasting). Blood samples were drawn for pharmacokinetic analysis using nonlinear mixed effects modeling. In addition, we studied in Wistar rats the effects of short-term fasting on hepatic mRNA expression of P450 isoforms corresponding with the five studied P450 enzymes in humans. In the healthy subjects, short-term fasting increased oral caffeine clearance by 20% (P = 0.03) and decreased oral S-warfarin clearance by 25% (P < 0.001). In rats, short-term fasting increased mRNA expression of the orthologs of human CYP1A2, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 (P < 0.05), and decreased the mRNA expression of the ortholog of CYP2C9 (P < 0.001) compared with the postabsorptive state. These results demonstrate that short-term fasting alters cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in a nonuniform pattern. Therefore, short-term fasting is another factor affecting cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in humans. PMID:25795462

  16. Vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory: computational and neural bases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, P; MacWhinney, B

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we explore the hypothesis that human vocabulary acquisition processes and verbal short-term memory abilities utilize a common cognitive and neural system. We begin by reviewing behavioral evidence for a shared set of processes. Next, we examine what the computational bases of such a shared system might be and how vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory might be related in mechanistic terms. We examine existing computational models of vocabulary acquisition and of verbal short-term memory, concluding that they fail to adequately relate these two domains. We then propose an alternative model which accounts not only for the relationship between word learning and verbal short-term memory, but also for a wide range of phenomena in verbal short-term memory. Furthermore, this new account provides a clear statement of the relationship between the proposed system and mechanisms of language processing more generally. We then consider possible neural substrates for this cognitive system. We begin by reviewing what is known of the neural substrates of speech processing and outline a conceptual framework within which a variety of seemingly contradictory neurophysiological and neuropsychological findings can be accommodated. The linkage of the shared system for vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to neural areas specifically involved in speech processing lends further support to our functional-level identification of the mechanisms of vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory with those of language processing. The present work thus relates vocabulary acquisition and verbal short-term memory to each other and to speech processing, at a cognitive, computational, and neural level. PMID:9299067

  17. Integrated remote sensing and wavelet analyses for screening short-term teleconnection patterns in northeast America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullon, Lee; Chang, Ni-Bin; Jeffrey Yang, Y.; Weiss, Jason

    2013-08-01

    Global sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies have an inherent effect on vegetation dynamics and precipitation processes throughout the continental United States (U.S.). SST variations have been correlated with precipitation patterns via ocean-atmospheric interactions known as climate teleconnections. Prior research has demonstrated that understanding excitation mechanisms of the teleconnection patterns can be instrumental for climate prediction across a wide region at sub-continental scales, yet these studies tend to have large uncertainties in estimates by assuming linearity when examining teleconnection signals. The co-existence of non-stationary and nonlinear signals embedded in SST anomalies makes the identification of the teleconnection patterns difficult at the local scale. This study explores the short-term (10-year) frequencies (i.e., interannual and seasonal ) embedded in the non-stationary teleconnection signals between SST at the North Atlantic and North Pacific oceans and the responses of terrestrial greenness and precipitation along multiple pristine sites in northeast U.S., including (1) White Mountain National Forest - Pemigewasset Wilderness, (2) Green Mountain National Forest - Lye Brook Wilderness, and (3) Adirondack State Park - Siamese Ponds Wilderness. Each site was selected to avoid anthropogenic influences that may otherwise mask climate teleconnection signals. Lagged pixel-wise linear teleconnection analysis based on remote sensing satellite images across anomalous global SST datasets found significant correlation regions between SST and these terrestrial sites. With the aid of wavelet analyses including continuous wavelet transform, cross-wavelet analysis, and wavelet coherency analysis, nonlinear and non-stationary signals exhibit salient covariations at biennial and triennial frequencies between terrestrial responses and SST anomalies across oceanic regions in agreement with the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and North Atlantic

  18. Short-term synaptic plasticity across topographic maps in the electrosensory system.

    PubMed

    Mileva, G R; Kozak, I J; Lewis, J E

    2016-03-24

    The early pathways underlying the active electric sense of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus involve three parallel processing streams. An array of tuberous electroreceptors distributed over the skin provides inputs to the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL), forming the basis for three topographic maps: LS (lateral segment), CLS (centrolateral segment), and CMS (centromedial segment). In addition, each map receives topographically preserved inputs from a direct feedback pathway. How this feedback contributes to the distinct spatiotemporal filtering properties of ELL pyramidal neurons across maps is not clear. We used an in vitro approach to characterize short-term plasticity (STP) in the direct feedback synapses onto pyramidal neurons in each map. Our findings indicated that the dynamics of STP varied across maps in a manner that was consistent with the temporal filtering properties of pyramidal neurons in vivo. Using a modeling approach, we found that the STP of direct feedback synapses in CMS was best described by a simple facilitation-depression model. On the other hand, STP in LS was best described by synaptic facilitation with a use-dependent recovery rate. These results suggest that differential regulation of overlapping STP processes in feedback pathways can contribute to the functional specialization of topographic sensory maps. PMID:26791523

  19. Short-term monitoring of aridland lichen cover and biomass using photography and fatty acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Johnson, N.C.; Belnap, J.; Koch, G.W.

    2008-01-01

    Biological soil crust (BSC) communities (composed of lichens, bryophytes, and cyanobacteria) may be more dynamic on short-time scales than previously thought, requiring new and informative short-term monitoring techniques. We used repeat digital photography and image analysis, which revealed a change in area of a dominant BSC lichen, Collema tenax. The data generated correlated well with gross photosynthesis (r=0.57) and carotenoid content (r=0.53), two variables that would be expected to be positively related to lichen area. We also extracted fatty acids from lichen samples and identified useful phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) indicators for the Collema mycobiont (20:1, 15:0, 23:0), and the Collema photobiont (18:3??3). The 18:3??3 correlated well with chlorophyll a (r=0.66), a more traditional proxy for cyanobacterial biomass. We also compared total PLFA as a proxy for total Collema biomass with our photographically generated areal change data, and found them to be moderately correlated (r=0.44). Areal change proved to be responsive on short-time scales, while fatty acid techniques were information-rich, providing data on biomass of lichens, and both photo- and mycobionts separately, in addition to the physiological status of the mycobiont. Both techniques should be refined and tested in field situations. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantifying complexity of financial short-term time series by composite multiscale entropy measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun

    2015-05-01

    It is significant to study the complexity of financial time series since the financial market is a complex evolved dynamic system. Multiscale entropy is a prevailing method used to quantify the complexity of a time series. Due to its less reliability of entropy estimation for short-term time series at large time scales, a modification method, the composite multiscale entropy, is applied to the financial market. To qualify its effectiveness, its applications in the synthetic white noise and 1 / f noise with different data lengths are reproduced first in the present paper. Then it is introduced for the first time to make a reliability test with two Chinese stock indices. After conducting on short-time return series, the CMSE method shows the advantages in reducing deviations of entropy estimation and demonstrates more stable and reliable results when compared with the conventional MSE algorithm. Finally, the composite multiscale entropy of six important stock indices from the world financial markets is investigated, and some useful and interesting empirical results are obtained.

  1. Short-term effects of fluoride and strontium on bone formation and resorption in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Marie, P J; Hott, M

    1986-06-01

    The early effects of sodium fluoride (0.80 mg/kg/d) and strontium chloride (0.27%) given alone, or in combination in drinking water, on bone metabolism were examined in the mouse using dynamic histomorphometric methods. Four weeks of oral strontium supplementation increased the osteoid surface and reduced the number of acid phosphatase-stained osteoclasts. However the trabecular calcified bone volume was not augmented. By contrast, short-term treatment with fluoride produced a rapid stimulatory effect on bone formation at a dose that did not affect the bone mineralization rate. Four weeks of fluoride supplementation induced a rapid 21.1% increase in the osteoblastic surface and a 26.3% stimulation of the bone matrix apposition rate evaluated by the double tritiated proline labelling method, which resulted in a 29% increase in the amount of osteoid. This rapid stimulation of the bone formation rate without detectable change in osteoclastic bone resorption led to a 12% increase in the trabecular calcified bone density. This study shows that fluoride and strontium produce distinct early effects on bone formation and resorption in the mouse and that fluoride exerts a rapid stimulatory effect on the bone matrix synthesis rate through an augmentation of the number of bone-forming cells. PMID:3713515

  2. Short-term plasticity and long-term potentiation mimicked in single inorganic synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-08-01

    Memory is believed to occur in the human brain as a result of two types of synaptic plasticity: short-term plasticity (STP) and long-term potentiation (LTP; refs , , , ). In neuromorphic engineering, emulation of known neural behaviour has proven to be difficult to implement in software because of the highly complex interconnected nature of thought processes. Here we report the discovery of a Ag2S inorganic synapse, which emulates the synaptic functions of both STP and LTP characteristics through the use of input pulse repetition time. The structure known as an atomic switch, operating at critical voltages, stores information as STP with a spontaneous decay of conductance level in response to intermittent input stimuli, whereas frequent stimulation results in a transition to LTP. The Ag2S inorganic synapse has interesting characteristics with analogies to an individual biological synapse, and achieves dynamic memorization in a single device without the need of external preprogramming. A psychological model related to the process of memorizing and forgetting is also demonstrated using the inorganic synapses. Our Ag2S element indicates a breakthrough in mimicking synaptic behaviour essential for the further creation of artificial neural systems that emulate characteristics of human memory.

  3. Development of an adaptive online fuzzy arbitrator for forecasting short-term natural gas usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Richard James, Jr.

    2001-07-01

    The focus of the work is on the development and utilization of a self-assembling Fuzzy logic controller for the purpose of improving short term natural gas load forecasts generated by artificial neural networks (ANN) and linear regression (LR) models. The approach is to form a matrix of dynamic post processors (DPP), composed of ARMAX models, which use load estimates generated by ANNs and LRs as inputs. The problem is to then determine the performance of each DPP under different operating conditions, and to generate a final load estimate using a Fuzzy logic controller. The contributions of this research are as follows. First, as part of a residuals analysis, prefiltering and nonlinear transforms are explored for the purpose of increasing the correlation of environmental input factors with gas load, while decreasing multicollinearity. This has the effect of reducing the covariance of model parameters and increasing forecast confidence. The result of this analysis will be used to develop ARMAX models to postfilter the ANN and LR forecast model estimates. The gas operating regions will be characterized by an adaptive clustering algorithm that will partition operating conditions into distinct patterns with unique consumption characteristics. Finally, an adaptive online Fuzzy controller identifies the characteristics of each DPP under different operating conditions, and generates a weighted average of the DPP estimators to produce the final gas load estimate.

  4. Filtering of short-term fluctuations of the dynamo field through the electrically conducting mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jault, D.; Schaeffer, N.

    2014-12-01

    Any information on the lowermost mantle conductivity obtained from the study of magnetic signals emanating from the core would help to constrain scenarios concerning the formation of the core and of the deep mantle or about ongoing chemical reactions at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). In addition, it is of interest to understand how short-term fluctuations of the dynamo field are eliminated through the electrically conducting mantle before searching for high-frequency waves or attempting to assimilate magnetic field data in dynamic models of the core.The classical approach has consisted in prescribing the magnetic field at the CMB.Then, the respective parts played by spherically symmetric conducting layers in the transformation of the core signal can be determined as a function of the distance to the core surface. An immediate observation is that conductivity of mantle rocks just above the CMB, where the field is prescribed, has negligible influence.In this classical framework, writing the transfer function Γ(ω) as a truncated power series in the pulsation ω severely overestimates the screening of high frequency signals by the mantle.However, the appropriate approach to the problem consists in coupling magnetic field solutions in the core and in the mantle. We rely on dynamo simulations to determine anew the respective role of the different conducting layers of the solid mantle in the transformation of the dynamo field.

  5. Ensemble Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous Artificial Neural Networks for Short-Term Wind Speed and Power Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Men, Zhongxian; Yee, Eugene; Lien, Fue-Sang; Yang, Zhiling; Liu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Short-term wind speed and wind power forecasts (for a 72 h period) are obtained using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (ANN) methodology which incorporates either numerical weather prediction or high-resolution computational fluid dynamics wind field information as an exogenous input. An ensemble approach is used to combine the predictions from many candidate ANNs in order to provide improved forecasts for wind speed and power, along with the associated uncertainties in these forecasts. More specifically, the ensemble ANN is used to quantify the uncertainties arising from the network weight initialization and from the unknown structure of the ANN. All members forming the ensemble of neural networks were trained using an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results of the proposed methodology are validated using wind speed and wind power data obtained from an operational wind farm located in Northern China. The assessment demonstrates that this methodology for wind speed and power forecasting generally provides an improvement in predictive skills when compared to the practice of using an "optimal" weight vector from a single ANN while providing additional information in the form of prediction uncertainty bounds. PMID:27382627

  6. Hybrid computational strategy for structural damage detection with short-term monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, P. H.; Law, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    The scenario of damage detection of a structure without permanent structural health monitoring system is explored. Dynamic responses are collected from different measurement setups and excitations in different regions of a structure. All the measured data are analyzed together in the proposed strategy with consideration of the different excitations. Local damages in terms of physical structural parameters are evaluated from the direct analysis using the Pattern Search method with a hybrid parallel computing strategy using CPU and GPU instead of the usual inverse analysis. The objective function is the difference between the measured and calculated responses from an updated finite element model of the structure. The proposed approach is illustrated with a plane frame structure with different tests and measurements in three regions. The effect of the size of the Generating Matrix of the Pattern Search method is also investigated and discussed. There is noted and improved computation efficiency when a large Generating Matrix with 2000 columns is used. The simulations illustrate the feasibility of using a few sensors for the damage detection of a large-scale structure with short-term monitoring data.

  7. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cl− plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl− is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl− diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl− changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl− dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl− diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl− extrusion altered Cl− diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl− diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl− diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed. PMID:26987404

  8. Daily/Hourly Hydrosystem Operation : How the Columbia River System Responds to Short-Term Needs.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1994-02-01

    The System Operation Review, being conducted by the Bonneville Power Administration, the US Army Corps of Engineers, and the US Bureau of Reclamation, is analyzing current and potential future operations of the Columbia River System. One goal of the System Operations Review is to develop a new System Operation Strategy. The strategy will be designed to balance the many regionally and nationally important uses of the Columbia River system. Short-term operations address the dynamics that affect the Northwest hydro system and its multiple uses. Demands for electrical power and natural streamflows change constantly and thus are not precisely predictable. Other uses of the hydro system have constantly changing needs, too, many of which can interfere with other uses. Project operators must address various river needs, physical limitations, weather, and streamflow conditions while maintaining the stability of the electric system and keeping your lights on. It takes staffing around the clock to manage the hour-to-hour changes that occur and the challenges that face project operators all the time.

  9. Spines slow down dendritic chloride diffusion and affect short-term ionic plasticity of GABAergic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, Namrata; Tønnesen, Jan; Vlachos, Andreas; Kuner, Thomas; Deller, Thomas; Nägerl, U. Valentin; Santamaria, Fidel; Jedlicka, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Cl‑ plays a crucial role in neuronal function and synaptic inhibition. However, the impact of neuronal morphology on the diffusion and redistribution of intracellular Cl‑ is not well understood. The role of spines in Cl‑ diffusion along dendritic trees has not been addressed so far. Because measuring fast and spatially restricted Cl‑ changes within dendrites is not yet technically possible, we used computational approaches to predict the effects of spines on Cl‑ dynamics in morphologically complex dendrites. In all morphologies tested, including dendrites imaged by super-resolution STED microscopy in live brain tissue, spines slowed down longitudinal Cl‑ diffusion along dendrites. This effect was robust and could be observed in both deterministic as well as stochastic simulations. Cl‑ extrusion altered Cl‑ diffusion to a much lesser extent than the presence of spines. The spine-dependent slowing of Cl‑ diffusion affected the amount and spatial spread of changes in the GABA reversal potential thereby altering homosynaptic as well as heterosynaptic short-term ionic plasticity at GABAergic synapses in dendrites. Altogether, our results suggest a fundamental role of dendritic spines in shaping Cl‑ diffusion, which could be of relevance in the context of pathological conditions where spine densities and neural excitability are perturbed.

  10. Ensemble Nonlinear Autoregressive Exogenous Artificial Neural Networks for Short-Term Wind Speed and Power Forecasting

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Fue-Sang; Yang, Zhiling; Liu, Yongqian

    2014-01-01

    Short-term wind speed and wind power forecasts (for a 72 h period) are obtained using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (ANN) methodology which incorporates either numerical weather prediction or high-resolution computational fluid dynamics wind field information as an exogenous input. An ensemble approach is used to combine the predictions from many candidate ANNs in order to provide improved forecasts for wind speed and power, along with the associated uncertainties in these forecasts. More specifically, the ensemble ANN is used to quantify the uncertainties arising from the network weight initialization and from the unknown structure of the ANN. All members forming the ensemble of neural networks were trained using an efficient particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results of the proposed methodology are validated using wind speed and wind power data obtained from an operational wind farm located in Northern China. The assessment demonstrates that this methodology for wind speed and power forecasting generally provides an improvement in predictive skills when compared to the practice of using an “optimal” weight vector from a single ANN while providing additional information in the form of prediction uncertainty bounds. PMID:27382627

  11. Structure and Function of Methanogens along a Short-Term Restoration Chronosequence in the Florida Everglades▿

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jason M.; Castro, Hector; Ogram, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The removal of plants and soil to bedrock to eradicate exotic invasive plants within the Hole-in-the-Donut (HID) region, part of the Everglades National Park (Florida), presented a unique opportunity to study the redevelopment of soil and the associated microbial communities in the context of short-term primary succession and ecosystem restoration. The goal of this study was to identify relationships between soil redevelopment and activity and composition of methanogenic assemblages in HID soils. Methane production potentials indicated a general decline in methanogenic activity with restoration age. Microcosm incubations strongly suggested hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis as the most favorable pathway for methane formation in HID soils from all sites. Culture-independent techniques targeting methyl coenzyme M reductase genes (mcrA) were used to assess the dynamics of methanogenic assemblages. Clone libraries were dominated by sequences related to hydrogenotrophic methanogens of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanococcales and suggested a general decline in the relative abundance of Methanobacteriales mcrA with time since restoration. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis indicated methanogenic assemblages remain relatively stable between wet and dry seasons. Interestingly, analysis of soils across the restoration chronosequence indicated a shift in Methanobacteriales populations with restoration age, suggesting genotypic shifts due to site-specific factors. PMID:17449688

  12. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  13. Effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration on thermoregulation and temperate exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Neal, R A; Corbett, J; Massey, H C; Tipton, M J

    2016-08-01

    We examined the effect of short-term heat acclimation with permissive dehydration (STHADe) on heat acclimation (HA) and cycling performance in a temperate environment. Ten trained male cyclists [mean (SD) maximal oxygen uptake: 63.3(4.0) mL/kg/min; peak power output (PPO): 385(40) W; training: 10 (3) h/week] underwent a STHADe program consisting of 5 days of exercise (maximum 90 min/day) in a hot environment (40 °C, 50% RH) to elicit isothermic heat strain [rectal temperature 38.64(0.27) °C]. Participants abstained from fluids during, and 30 min after, HA sessions. Pre- and post-STHADe HA was evaluated during euhydrated fixed-intensity exercise (60 min) in hot conditions; the effect of STHADe on thermoregulation was also examined under temperate conditions (20 min fixed-intensity exercise; 22 °C, 60% RH). Temperate cycling performance was assessed by a graded exercise test (GXT) and 20-km time trial (TT). STHADe reduced thermal and cardiovascular strain in hot and temperate environments. Lactate threshold [Δ = 16 (17) W] and GXT PPO [Δ = 6 (7) W] were improved following STHADe (P < 0.05), but TT performance was not affected (P > 0.05), although there was a trend for a higher mean power (P = 0.06). In conclusion, STHADE can reduce thermal and cardiovascular strain under hot and temperate conditions and there is some evidence of ergogenic potential for temperate exercise, but longer HA regimens may be necessary for this to meaningfully influence performance. PMID:26220213

  14. Evaluating short-term and working memory in older adults: French normative data.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Nathalie; Roulin, Jean-Luc; Vallet, Fanny; Beaudoin, Marine; Agrigoroaei, Stefan; Paignon, Adeline; Dantzer, Cécile; Desrichard, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Short-term and working memory (WM) capacities are subject to change with ageing, both in normal older adults and in patients with degenerative or non-degenerative neurological disease. Few normative data are available for comparisons of short-term and WM capacities in the verbal, spatial and visual domains. To provide researchers and clinicians with a set of standardised tasks that assess short-term and WM using verbal and visuospatial materials, and to present normative data for that set of tasks. The present study compiled normative French data for three short-term memory tasks (verbal, visual and spatial simple span tasks) and two WM tasks (verbal and spatial complex span tasks) obtained from 445 healthy older adults aged between 55 and 85 years. Our data reveal main effects of age, education level and gender on older adults' short-term and WM performances. Equation-based normalisation can therefore be used to take these factors into account. The results provide a set of cut-off scores for five standardised tasks that can be used to determine the presence of short-term or WM impairment in older adults. PMID:22533476

  15. Correlation between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure fluctuation in glaucoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Naoki; Abe, Shinya; Miyakoshi, Mari; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated correlations between short-term and long-term intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations. Methods We examined 50 eyes of glaucoma patients who were followed for >2 years. We measured short-term IOP fluctuation using a Triggerfish® contact lens sensor (CLS). The short-term IOP fluctuation (mVeq) was defined as the difference between the maximum value and the minimum value measured during the 24-hour course with CLS. The long-term IOP fluctuation was defined by four parameters: 1) the mean IOP (mmHg) determined during follow-up; 2) the IOP difference, which was defined as the difference between the maximum IOP and the minimum IOP; 3) the standard deviation of IOP; and 4) the peak IOP, which was defined as the maximum IOP. Correlations between these parameters and the short-term IOP fluctuation were examined. Results The mean follow-up period was 5.4 years. The average IOP was 15.0±4.0 mmHg. The range of short-term IOP fluctuation identified with CLS was significantly correlated with all the four long-term IOP fluctuation parameters. Conclusion Short-term IOP fluctuations were found to be associated with long-term IOP fluctuations. Examination of 24-hour IOP fluctuations with the CLS might be useful for predicting the long-term IOP fluctuation.

  16. Dynamic workflow model for complex activity in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bricon-Souf, N; Renard, J M; Beuscart, R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperation is very important in Medical care, especially in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where the difficulties increase which is due to the urgency of the work. Workflow systems are considered as well adapted to modelize productive work in business process. We aim at introducing this approach in the Health Care domain. We have proposed a conversation-based Workflow in order to modelize the therapeutics plan in the ICU [1]. But in such a complex field, the flexibility of the workflow system is essential for the system to be usable. In this paper, we focus on the main points used to increase the dynamicity. We report on affecting roles, highlighting information, and controlling the system We propose some solutions and describe our prototype in the ICU. PMID:10384452

  17. Examining the Causes and Consequences of Short-Term Behavioral Change during the Middle Stone Age at Sibudu, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Conard, Nicholas J.; Will, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Sibudu in KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa) with its rich and high-resolution archaeological sequence provides an ideal case study to examine the causes and consequences of short-term variation in the behavior of modern humans during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). We present the results from a technological analysis of 11 stratified lithic assemblages which overlie the Howiesons Poort deposits and all date to ~58 ka. Based on technological and typological attributes, we conducted inter-assemblage comparisons to characterize the nature and tempo of cultural change in successive occupations. This work identified considerable short-term variation with clear temporal trends throughout the sequence, demonstrating that knappers at Sibudu varied their technology over short time spans. The lithic assemblages can be grouped into three cohesive units which differ from each other in the procurement of raw materials, the frequency in the methods of core reduction, the kind of blanks produced, and in the nature of tools the inhabitants of Sibudu made and used. These groups of assemblages represent different strategies of lithic technology, which build upon each other in a gradual, cumulative manner. We also identify a clear pattern of development toward what we have previously defined as the Sibudan cultural taxonomic unit. Contextualizing these results on larger geographical scales shows that the later phase of the MSA during MIS 3 in KwaZulu-Natal and southern Africa is one of dynamic cultural change rather than of stasis or stagnation as has at times been claimed. In combination with environmental, subsistence and contextual information, our high-resolution data on lithic technology suggest that short-term behavioral variability at Sibudu can be best explained by changes in technological organization and socio-economic dynamics instead of environmental forcing. PMID:26098694

  18. Critical periods of susceptibility to short-term energy challenge during pregnancy: Impact on fertility and offspring development.

    PubMed

    Kauffman, Alexander S; Bojkowska, Karolina; Rissman, Emilie F

    2010-01-12

    In female mammals, reproduction is tightly regulated by energy status and food availability. Although acute energetic challenges inhibit female reproductive behavior and gonadotropin secretion, less attention has been given to the effects of short-term energetic challenge on pregnancy and gestation. Furthermore, species differences in pregnancy physiology necessitate more detailed analyses of specific pregnancy models. Here, we studied musk shrews, which display induced ovulation and obligate delayed implantation, and whose reproductive physiology is tightly linked to metabolic status. We tested whether acute energetic challenges of varied degrees given at specific pregnancy stages (including before and after delayed implantation) have different effects on gestational outcome and offspring postnatal development. We found that 48 h of either 40% or 50% food restriction, which reduced body weight and strongly inhibited sexual behavior, had minimal effects on pregnancy success and litter dynamics when administered early in gestation (pre-implantation). However, <30% of females experiencing short-term food restriction later in gestation successfully gave birth (versus > or =70% of ad-libitum fed controls), and the pups of these food-restricted females exhibited a 30% slower postnatal growth trajectory. Interestingly, although pregnancy success and litter dynamics were unaffected by food restriction before implantation, gestation length was increased by metabolic challenges experienced at this time, indicating that energy status may regulate the timing of implantation. We conclude that 1) there are critical periods of pregnancy, particularly after implantation, when short-term, mild energetic challenges have significant impacts on fertility and offspring postnatal development, and 2) delayed implantation may have evolved, in part, as a buffering mechanism to prevent pregnancy failure during impaired energy balance in early gestation. PMID:19891981

  19. Dynamic workflow model for complex activity in intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Bricon-Souf, N; Renard, J M; Beuscart, R

    1999-01-01

    Co-operation is very important in Medical care, especially in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where the difficulties increase which is due to the urgency of the work. Workflow systems are considered as well adapted to modelize productive work in business process. We aim at introducing this approach in the Health Care domain. We have proposed a conversation-based workflow in order to modelize the therapeutics plan in the ICU [1]. But in such a complex field, the flexibility of the workflow system is essential for the system to be usable. We have concentrated on three main points usually proposed in the workflow models, suffering from a lack of dynamicity: static links between roles and actors, global notification of information changes, lack of human control on the system. In this paper, we focus on the main points used to increase the dynamicity. We report on affecting roles, highlighting information, and controlling the system. We propose some solutions and describe our prototype in the ICU. PMID:10193884

  20. Charging dynamics of metal clusters in intense laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döppner, T.; Teuber, S.; Schumacher, M.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Meiwes-Broer, K. H.

    2000-09-01

    Clusters of heavy metal atoms in strong femtosecond laser-light fields undergo multi-ionization with the loss of hundreds of electrons. The cross section largely exceeds that of corresponding isolated atoms, which leads in the case of PbN to a complete ionization of the 4f shell with a light intensity of 1.2×1015 W/cm2. Experimental investigations on Pb and Pt clusters with variable pulse widths and, for the first time, with the pump&probe technique give insight into the dynamics of the coupling of electromagnetic radiation into the clusters. Both approaches support the picture according to which, after an initial charging, the clusters expand due to Coulomb forces. This expansion is accompanied by a reduction of the electron density and at the same time by an increase of the optical sensitivity. Once the plasmon energy of the diluted nanoplasma approaches the photon energy, the charging efficiency increases significantly. The experimental observations are confirmed by random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations of the optical response, including molecular-dynamics simulations of the expanding systems.

  1. The effect of visual similarity on short-term memory for spatial location: implications for the capacity of visual short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Walker, P; Hitch, G J; Duroe, S

    1993-08-01

    Evidence from the recency effect suggests that visual short-term memory is limited to preserving information about a single pattern. Three experiments explored the capacity of visual short-term memory using a task which involved presenting a series of patterns in a random spatio-temporal sequence and probing memory for the spatial location of one of them. Experiment 1 used sequences of quasi-random block patterns which were either visually similar or dissimilar. Serial position curves showed a single-item recency effect. However, there was also a deleterious effect of visual similarity for the earlier patterns, indicating that visual short-term memory was supporting their retention. Experiment 2 showed that performance was unaffected by articulatory suppression, confirming that phonological coding is not an important factor in the localisation task. Experiment 3 switched to letter stimuli and, because of the known tendency for this type of stimulus to be phonologically recoded, required articulatory suppression. Letters were shown in a customised form in sequences which were either visually similar or visually dissimilar. The results replicated experiment 1 in showing restricted recency combined with an effect of visual similarity extending across earlier list items. When the same letters were shown in standard form, the recency effect remained but the similarity effect disappeared, ruling out possible interpretations in terms of semantic as well as phonological coding. It is concluded that the recency effect gives a misleading indication of the capacity of visual short-term memory. The visual similarity effect suggests that it is capable of supporting the retention of several patterns. PMID:8213213

  2. Short-term forecast of the carbon monoxide concentration over the Moscow megacity region by COSMO-ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kislov, Alexander; Revokatova, Anastasia; Surkova, Galina; Rivin, Gdaliy

    2016-04-01

    Introduction. Atmospheric pollution in the cities is constantly increasing. It makes air pollution forecast extremely important for modern meteorology. Short-range spatial detailed forecast of air pollutants distribution should be done as a part of weather forecast. A short-term forecast of city 'chemical weather' requires real daily data on pollutant emissions. For the operational daily forecast of pollutant concentrations, long-term emissions averages are usually used, which may differ significantly from real emissions on the particular day, especially in big cities. Methodology. The method of calculation of pollutant emissions is described for the short-term forecast. An on-line coupled chemical transport model, COSMO-ART (https://www.imk-tro.kit.edu/english/3509.php), was applied for the Moscow megasity region, Russia. Because it is impossible to have real daily emissions values, the method of emission estimation on the basis of measurements of the concentrations of air pollutants is proposed. The method is based on the assumption that the pollutant concentrations reflect the intensity of emissions sources. The proposed method allows the hourly measurements of air pollutant concentrations to be transformed into emissions values as fast as the measurements can be done. Results. This method is described and its application is shown for carbon monoxide (one of the most dangerous pollutant). Around 90% of CO in Moscow is emitted by traffic. Conclusions. Verification of the COSMO-ART results demonstrates that the calculated emissions gave better results compared with the results from mean emission values (TNO emissions dataset) that were used previously. This approach provides the possibility of running an operational short-term pollutant concentration forecast with more detailed spatial structure.

  3. Switched-capacitor realization of presynaptic short-term-plasticity and stop-learning synapses in 28 nm CMOS

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Marko; Partzsch, Johannes; Mayr, Christian G.; Hänzsche, Stefan; Scholze, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Ellguth, Georg; Schüffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic dynamics, such as long- and short-term plasticity, play an important role in the complexity and biological realism achievable when running neural networks on a neuromorphic IC. For example, they endow the IC with an ability to adapt and learn from its environment. In order to achieve the millisecond to second time constants required for these synaptic dynamics, analog subthreshold circuits are usually employed. However, due to process variation and leakage problems, it is almost impossible to port these types of circuits to modern sub-100nm technologies. In contrast, we present a neuromorphic system in a 28 nm CMOS process that employs switched capacitor (SC) circuits to implement 128 short term plasticity presynapses as well as 8192 stop-learning synapses. The neuromorphic system consumes an area of 0.36 mm2 and runs at a power consumption of 1.9 mW. The circuit makes use of a technique for minimizing leakage effects allowing for real-time operation with time constants up to several seconds. Since we rely on SC techniques for all calculations, the system is composed of only generic mixed-signal building blocks. These generic building blocks make the system easy to port between technologies and the large digital circuit part inherent in an SC system benefits fully from technology scaling. PMID:25698914

  4. Switched-capacitor realization of presynaptic short-term-plasticity and stop-learning synapses in 28 nm CMOS.

    PubMed

    Noack, Marko; Partzsch, Johannes; Mayr, Christian G; Hänzsche, Stefan; Scholze, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Ellguth, Georg; Schüffny, Rene

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic dynamics, such as long- and short-term plasticity, play an important role in the complexity and biological realism achievable when running neural networks on a neuromorphic IC. For example, they endow the IC with an ability to adapt and learn from its environment. In order to achieve the millisecond to second time constants required for these synaptic dynamics, analog subthreshold circuits are usually employed. However, due to process variation and leakage problems, it is almost impossible to port these types of circuits to modern sub-100nm technologies. In contrast, we present a neuromorphic system in a 28 nm CMOS process that employs switched capacitor (SC) circuits to implement 128 short term plasticity presynapses as well as 8192 stop-learning synapses. The neuromorphic system consumes an area of 0.36 mm(2) and runs at a power consumption of 1.9 mW. The circuit makes use of a technique for minimizing leakage effects allowing for real-time operation with time constants up to several seconds. Since we rely on SC techniques for all calculations, the system is composed of only generic mixed-signal building blocks. These generic building blocks make the system easy to port between technologies and the large digital circuit part inherent in an SC system benefits fully from technology scaling. PMID:25698914

  5. Impact of anemia on short-term survival in severe COPD exacerbations: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ergan, Begum; Ergün, Recai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anemia is reported to be an independent predictor of hospitalizations and survival in COPD. However, little is known of its impact on short-term survival during severe COPD exacerbations. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether the presence of anemia increases the risk of death in acute respiratory failure due to severe COPD exacerbations. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with COPD exacerbation who were admitted to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute respiratory failure and required either invasive or noninvasive ventilation (NIV) were analyzed. Results A total of 106 patients (78.3% male; median age 71 years) were included in the study; of them 22 (20.8%) needed invasive ventilation immediately and 84 (79.2%) were treated with NIV. NIV failure was observed in 38 patients. Anemia was present in 50% of patients, and 39 patients (36.8%) died during hospital stay. When compared to nonanemic patients, hospital mortality was significantly higher in the anemic group (20.8% vs 52.8%, respectively; P=0.001). Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that presence of anemia and NIV failure were independent predictors of hospital mortality with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 3.99 ([1.39–11.40]; P=0.010) and 2.56 ([1.60–4.09]; P<0.001), respectively. Anemia was not associated with long-term survival in this cohort. Conclusion Anemia may be a risk factor for hospital death in severe COPD exacerbations requiring mechanical ventilatory support. PMID:27536089

  6. The effects of short-term increases in turbidity on sandflat microphytobenthic productivity and nutrient fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Daniel R.; Pilditch, Conrad A.; Lohrer, Andrew M.; Thrush, Simon F.

    2014-09-01

    Turbidity is a major limiting factor of benthic primary production and nutrient uptake on estuarine intertidal sandflats. Estuaries exhibit a wide range of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs), however, few studies have quantified the effects of increasing SSC on ecosystem functioning. Here, we report on an in situ experiment examining the effects of short-term increases in SSC on intertidal sandflat benthic primary production and nutrient fluxes. Fine sediments (< 63 μm) were added to sunlit and darkened benthic chambers (0.25 m2) at concentrations ranging from 16 to 157 mg L- 1 and kept in suspension for a 4-5 h incubation period. In addition to solute fluxes we also measured sediment chlorophyll-a content and physical properties as covariables. In sunlit chambers, we observed a three-fold reduction in net primary production (NPP) with increasing SSC (NPP, R2 = 0.36, p = 0.01) and stronger reductions when NPP was standardised by sediment chlorophyll-a content (i.e., photosynthetic efficiency, NPPchl-a, R2 = 0.62, p < 0.01). Concurrent with reductions in photosynthetic efficiency, there was a four-fold increase in nutrient efflux from the sediment to the water column (NH4+, R2 = 0.44, p < 0.01). SSC had no effect on solute fluxes in darkened chambers. NPP was correlated with SSC and light intensity, whilst NH4+ efflux was solely correlated to SSC. The results of this study imply that increased exposure to SSC associated with the tidal exchange of sediments from far-field sources may severely impair benthic primary productivity and increase the flux of inorganic nutrients from benthic to pelagic systems.

  7. Short Term Variation in Oxygen Emission from Io: A First Census of "Departure Events"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenthaler, J. P.; Marconi, M. L.; Oliversen, R. J.; Peterson, C. A.; Woodward, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The [OI] 6300 Å flux from Io has been measured spectroscopically during 12 Jovian oppositions since 1990. During each opposition, Io has been observed on 8-45 nights, for a total of 235 nights. A total of more than 3500 spectra have been recorded. Using ~1000 of these observations, Oliversen et al. (2001) showed that the [OI] intensity is related to the instantaneous electron density at Io's position in the Io plasma torus (IPT). This is, in general, a double-peaked distribution with peaks in the vicinity of the IPT centrifugal equator plane crossings. Oliversen et al. used a semi-empirical model of the IPT, recently improved by Smyth, Peterson, & Marconi (2011), to help reach this conclusion. In addition to the smoothly varying [OI] signal, predicted by the Smyth et al. model, the [OI] data also show statistically significant positive perturbations, or "departure events." In this work we analyze the shortest timescale "departure events," which occur at the sampling period of the data (~20 minutes). These can be spotted in the data in a model-independent way using simple statistical techniques. Using the Oliversen et al. (2001) subset of ~1000 points, we find the system III distribution of the short-term "departure events" is fairly uniform, with an excess near system III = 130 ~ 160 degrees. The peak of the torus plasma density happens to occur in this system III longitude range (e.g., Brown 1995, Steffl et al. 2004ab, 2006, 2008). We will discuss various processes which might give rise to this apparent correlation.

  8. Association between Early Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Symptoms and Current Verbal and Visuo-Spatial Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Chiang, Huey-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in short-term memory are common in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but their current ADHD symptoms cannot well predict their short-term performance. Taking a developmental perspective, we wanted to clarify the association between ADHD symptoms at early childhood and short-term memory in late childhood and…

  9. GF-GC Theory of Human Cognition: Differentiation of Short-Term Auditory and Visual Memory Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGhee, Ron; Lieberman, Lewis

    1994-01-01

    Study sought to determine whether separate short-term auditory and visual memory factors would emerge given a sufficient number of markers in a factor matrix. A principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed. Short-term visual and short-term auditory memory factors emerged as expected. (RJM)

  10. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture...

  11. 25 CFR 26.30 - Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Does the Job Training Program provide part-time training or short-term training? 26.30 Section 26.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Program provide part-time training or short-term training? Yes, part-time and short-term training...

  12. Perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work: a qualitative study in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Green, Tyler; Green, Heidi; Scandlyn, Jean; Kestler, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background Each year medical providers from wealthy countries participate in short-term medical volunteer work in resource-poor countries. Various authors have raised concern that such work has the potential to be harmful to recipient communities; however, the social science and medical literature contains little research into the perceptions of short-term medical volunteer work from the perspective of members of recipient communities. This exploratory study examines the perception of short-term medical volunteer work in Guatemala among groups of actors affected by or participating in these programs. Methods The researchers conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 72 individuals, including Guatemalan healthcare providers and health authorities, foreign medical providers, non-medical personnel working on health projects, and Guatemalan parents of children treated by a short-term volunteer group. Detailed notes and summaries of these interviews were uploaded, coded and annotated using Atlas.ti (Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin) to identify recurrent themes from the interviews. Results Informants commonly identified a need for increased access to medical services in Guatemala, and many believed that short-term medical volunteers are in a position to offer improved access to medical care in the communities where they serve. Informants most frequently cited appropriate patient selection and attention to payment systems as the best means to avoid creating dependence on foreign aid. The most frequent suggestion to improve short-term medical volunteer work was coordination with and respect for local Guatemalan healthcare providers and their communities, as insufficient understanding of the country's existing healthcare resources and needs may result in perceived harm to the recipient community. Conclusion The perceived impact of short-term medical volunteer projects in Guatemala is highly variable and dependent upon the individual project. In this

  13. Short-Term Desensitization of Muscarinic K+ Current in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Shingo; Inanobe, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) rapidly increases cardiac K+ currents (IKACh) by activating muscarinic K+ (KACh) channels followed by a gradual amplitude decrease within seconds. This phenomenon is called short-term desensitization and its precise mechanism and physiological role are still unclear. We constructed a mathematical model for IKACh to examine the conditions required to reconstitute short-term desensitization. Two conditions were crucial: two distinct muscarinic receptors (m2Rs) with different affinities for ACh, which conferred an IKACh response over a wide range of ACh concentrations, and two distinct KACh channels with different affinities for the G-protein βγ subunits, which contributed to reconstitution of the temporal behavior of IKACh. Under these conditions, the model quantitatively reproduced several unique properties of short-term desensitization observed in myocytes: 1), the peak and quasi-steady states with 0.01–100 μM [ACh]; 2), effects of ACh preperfusion; and 3), recovery from short-term desensitization. In the presence of 10 μM ACh, the IKACh model conferred recurring spontaneous firing after asystole of 8.9 s and 10.7 s for the Demir and Kurata sinoatrial node models, respectively. Therefore, two different populations of KACh channels and m2Rs may participate in short-term desensitization of IKACh in native myocytes, and may be responsible for vagal escape at nodal cells. PMID:24048003

  14. Forecasting the Short-Term Passenger Flow on High-Speed Railway with Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mei-Quan; Li, Xia-Miao; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Fu, Yan-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Short-term passenger flow forecasting is an important component of transportation systems. The forecasting result can be applied to support transportation system operation and management such as operation planning and revenue management. In this paper, a divide-and-conquer method based on neural network and origin-destination (OD) matrix estimation is developed to forecast the short-term passenger flow in high-speed railway system. There are three steps in the forecasting method. Firstly, the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station are obtained from historical passenger flow data, which are OD matrices in this paper. Secondly, short-term passenger flow forecasting of the numbers of passengers who arrive at each station or depart from each station based on neural network is realized. At last, the OD matrices in short-term time are obtained with an OD matrix estimation method. The experimental results indicate that the proposed divide-and-conquer method performs well in forecasting the short-term passenger flow on high-speed railway. PMID:25544838

  15. Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Short-Term Food Intake and Weight Loss12

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. PMID:25979503

  16. Differential effects of ecstasy on short-term and working memory: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nulsen, Claire E; Fox, Allison M; Hammond, Geoffrey R

    2010-03-01

    Quantitative analysis of studies examining the effect of ecstasy on short-term and working memory in the verbal and visuo-spatial domain was undertaken. Thirty verbal short-term memory, 22 verbal working memory, 12 visuospatial short-term memory and 9 visuospatial working memory studies met inclusion criteria. Ecstasy users performed significantly worse in all memory domains, both in studies using drug-naïve controls and studies using polydrug controls. These results are consistent with previous meta-analytic findings that ecstasy use is associated with impaired short-term memory function. Lifetime ecstasy consumption predicted effect size in working memory but not in short-term memory. The current meta-analysis adds to the literature by showing that ecstasy use in humans is also associated with impaired working memory, and that this impairment is related to total lifetime ecstasy consumption. These findings highlight the long-term, cumulative behavioral consequences associated with ecstasy use in humans. PMID:20157852

  17. Combining normobaric hypoxia with short-term resistance training has no additive beneficial effect on muscular performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jen-Yu; Kuo, Tai-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Lin; Dong, Xiang-Yi; Tung, Kang

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term resistance training combined with systemic hypoxia on muscular performance and body composition. Eighteen resistance-untrained men (21.3 ± 2.0 years, 172.7 ± 5.5 cm, 67.3 ± 9.7 kg) were matched and assigned to 2 experimental groups: performing 6 weeks of squat exercise training under normobaric hypoxia (H, FiO2 = 15%) or normoxia (N). In both groups, subjects performed 3 weekly sessions (a total of 18 sessions) of 3 sets of back squat at 10-repetition maximum with 2 minutes of rest between sets. Dynamic, isometric, and isokinetic leg strength and body composition were measured under normoxia before and after resistance training. Squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) improved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) after resistance training in both H and N groups (88.9 ± 16.9 to 109.4 ± 17.0 kg and 90.0 ± 12.2 to 105.6 ± 13.3 kg, respectively). However, there were no changes in maximal isometric and isokinetic leg strength, lean body mass, and fat mass after the resistance training in both groups. In addition, no significant differences were observed between H and N groups in squat 1RM, maximal isometric and isokinetic leg strength, and body composition. The major findings of this study suggest that short-term resistance training performed under normobaric hypoxia has no additive beneficial effect on muscular performance and body composition. In practical terms, our data suggest that the use of systemic hypoxia during short-term resistance training is not a viable method to further enhance muscular performance and body composition in previously resistance-untrained men. PMID:24149753

  18. Aerobic and anaerobic performance before and after a short-term body mass reduction program in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Sartorio, A; Narici, M V; Fumagalli, E; Faglia, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2001-02-01

    The cardiovascular response to an aerobic cycloergometer exercise test (ACET, 15 min at 60 W, 60 rpm) and the maximally attainable muscle power output, assessed by a stair climbing test (SCT), were evaluated in 60 obese patients (41 females and 19 males; age: 18-68 yr; body mass index, BMI: 40.8+/-4.8 kg/m2) before and after a 3-week body mass reduction (BMR) program, entailing integrated energy-restricted diet (1200-1500 kcal/day), low-grade aerobic exercise conditioning and individual and/or group psychological therapy. The daily conditioning protocol (5 days/week) consisted of: 1) 30 min of indoor jogging and dynamic aerobic standing and floor exercises performed with arms and legs, under the guidance of a therapist; 2) 30 min of cycloergometer exercise at 60 W; and/or 3) 4-km outdoor leisure walking on flat terrain. Three weeks of BMR program induced a significant weight loss (-4.5 %; p<0.001), a reduction of systolic (-11+/-14 mmHg, -7.3%,p<0.001) and diastolic (-7+/-9 mmHg, -7.3%,p<0.001) resting arterial blood pressure, as well as a reduction of heart rate at rest (-18.6%,p<0.001), during ACET (-11.3%,p<0.001) and 5 min thereafter (-14.8%,p<0.001). The subjective rating of perceived exertion in terms of breathlessness and general fatigue during ACET, scored on a 0-100 visual analogic scale, was significantly reduced (p<0.001) after BMR program. A 11.2% decrease in SCT time (p<0.001) was also observed, corresponding to a 9.6% increase (p<0.001) in average muscle power (W) and 14.6% increase (p<0.001) in specific muscle power (W.kg(-1)). In conclusion, a combination of energy restricted diet, low intensity aerobic exercise and psychological counselling appears to significantly improve both aerobic and anaerobic performance in morbidly obese subjects. Different factors (ie, reduction of body mass, shift in the balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic activity, a weight-loss dependent shift toward a more favourable region of the muscle power

  19. Short-term incubation studies on degradation of biochar in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, Giacomo; Wirth, Stephan; Geßler, Arthur; Kern, Jürgen; Mumme, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Biochar is considered a stable, recalcitrant substance, which holds potential to store carbon in soils for prolonged time and therefore would provide a long-term carbon sink. Furthermore, biochar is discussed to enhance soil fertility and plant productivity, and may improve water and nutrient holding capacity. However, mineralisation to CO2 may occur, as for any soil organic carbon pool, depending on char composition, soil properties and environmental conditions. Therefore, it is important to gain insight into the stability of its carbon structure and the dynamics of decay processes in soil. The evaluation of biochar stability in soil is complicated by the impact of external factors thus as soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient status and moreover by extended decay timescales. To overcome these difficulties, we performed dynamic incubation experiments under laboratory conditions, using a multi-channel, automated infra-red gas analysis system at 20°C for up to 10 days to detect CO2 emission over time. Our aim was to compare the decay dynamics of different biochar preparations added to soil, i.e. HTC-char and pyrochar from maize silage with and without biological post-processing (anaerobic digestion), as compared to unmodified maize straw. Digestate from a maize silage-fed anaerobic biogas reactor was also tested. As a result, the addition of charred or digested materials to soil resulted in much lower CO2 emission rates as compared to the unmodified maize straw, proving stability of biochar carbon compounds. Pyrochar showed to be the most stable of all substrates added, as the CO2 emission was hardly distinguishable from that of the control soil. Soil enriched with HTC-char emitted significantly more CO2 compared to soil enriched with pyrochar, but the post-processing was effective in reducing the emissions. Furthermore, HTC-char showed a two-step decay kinetics, which cannot apparently be explained with a simple double-pool model. In conclusion, the short-term

  20. The Effect of Short-Term Musical Training on Speech Perception in Noise.

    PubMed

    Jain, Chandni; Mohamed, Hijas; Kumar, Ajith U

    2015-01-21

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of short-term musical training on speech perception in noise. In the present study speech perception in noise was measured pre- and post- short-term musical training. The musical training involved auditory perceptual training for raga identification of two Carnatic ragas. The training was given for eight sessions. A total of 18 normal hearing adults in the age range of 18-25 years participated in the study wherein group 1 consisted of ten individuals who underwent musical training and group 2 consisted of eight individuals who did not undergo any training. Results revealed that post training, speech perception in noise improved significantly in group 1, whereas group 2 did not show any changes in speech perception scores. Thus, short-term musical training shows an enhancement of speech perception in the presence of noise. However, generalization and long-term maintenance of these benefits needs to be evaluated. PMID:26557359