Science.gov

Sample records for intentional islanding transition

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Islands Playbook (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    The Island Energy Playbook (the Playbook) provides an action-oriented guide to successfully initiating, planning, and completing a transition to an energy system that primarily relies on local resources to eliminate a dependence on one or two imported fuels. It is intended to serve as a readily available framework that any community can adapt to organize its own energy transition effort.

  2. Job, Organizational, and Professional Context Antecedents as Predictors of Intent for Interrole Work Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blau, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year study of 672 medical technologists identified interrole work transitions as intent to leave the organization, intent to leave the profession, and intended retirement age. Job satisfaction had a significant impact on intent to leave. Organizational context influenced intent to leave the organization and professional commitment influenced…

  3. Shape transition and dislocation nucleation in strained epitaxial islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushin, Oleg; Granato, Enzo; Ying, See Chen; Jalkanen, Jari; Ala-Nissila, Tapio

    2004-03-01

    We study numerically the equilibrium shape and dislocation nucleation of strained epitaxial islands with a two-dimensional atomistic model, using interatomic potentials of Lennard-Jones type. Relaxation processes from coherent to incoherent states for different transition paths are studied using a systematic saddle point and transition path search based on the Nudged Elastic Band method. We obtain the phase diagram for island shapes, as a function of island size and lattice misfit with the substrate, as well the energy barrier for first order shape transitions. The minimum energy barrier and transition path for dislocation nucleation is also obtained for different island shapes. It is found that dislocations can nucleate spontaneously at the edges of the adsorbate-substrate interface above a critical size.

  4. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  5. A Robust Load Shedding Strategy for Microgrid Islanding Transition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guodong; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    A microgrid is a group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources. It can operate in either gridconnected mode to exchange energy with the main grid or run autonomously as an island in emergency mode. However, the transition of microgrid from grid-connected mode to islanded mode is usually associated with excessive load (or generation), which should be shed (or spilled). Under this condition, this paper proposes an robust load shedding strategy for microgrid islanding transition, which takes into account the uncertainties of renewable generation in the microgrid and guarantees the balance between load and generation after islanding. A robust optimization model is formulated to minimize the total operation cost, including fuel cost and penalty for load shedding. The proposed robust load shedding strategy works as a backup plan and updates at a prescribed interval. It assures a feasible operating point after islanding given the uncertainty of renewable generation. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on a simulated microgrid consisting of a wind turbine, a PV panel, a battery, two distributed generators (DGs), a critical load and a interruptible load. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm.

  6. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Grenada (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Grenada - a small island nation consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands in the southeastern Caribbean Sea - three of which are inhabited: Grenada, Carriacou, and Petite Martinique.

  7. Phase-field crystal modeling of shape transition of strained islands in heteroepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Jing; Du, XiuJuan

    2012-11-01

    The phase-field crystal (PFC) model is employed to study the shape transition of strained islands in heteroepitaxy on vicinal substrates. The influences of both substrate vicinal angles β and the lattice mismatch ζ are discussed. The increase of substrate vicinal angles is found to be capable of significantly changing the surface nanostructures of epitaxial films. The surface morphology of films undergoes a series of transitions that include Stranski-Krastonov (SK) islands, the couple growth of islands and the step flow as well as the formation of step bunching. In addition, the larger ζ indicates an increased strained island density after coarsening, and results in the incoherent growth of strained islands with the creation of misfit dislocations. Coarsening, coalescence and faceting of strained islands are also observed. Some facets in the shape transition of strained islands are found to be stable and can be determined by β and crystal symmetry of the film.

  8. Are pregnancy intentions associated with transitions into and out of marriage?

    PubMed Central

    Maddow-Zimet, Isaac; Lindberg, Laura; Kost, Kathryn; Lincoln, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Beyond associations with health outcomes, pregnancy intentions may be associated with social outcomes, including marital transitions. METHODS Linked data from the 2004-2008 Oklahoma Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey and The Oklahoma Toddler Survey (TOTS) from 2006-2010 were used to examine a four category measure of women’s pregnancy intentions (intended, mistimed <2 years, mistimed >=2 years, unwanted) and changes in marital status between conception, birth and age two. Analyses were stratified by marital status at conception (married, N=3,617; unmarried, N=2,123). Propensity score methods were used to adjust for confounding factors, and logistic regressions were used to estimate the association between pregnancy intention and marital formation and dissolution at birth and child’s age two. RESULTS Intention status was associated with mothers’ marital transitions by child’s age two, both in analyses unadjusted and adjusted for confounding background characteristics. In adjusted models, among women married at conception, those with a birth resulting from an unwanted pregnancy were more likely (OR=2.2) than those with an intended pregnancy to transition out of marriage by the time their child was age two. Among women unmarried at conception, those with an unwanted pregnancy were less likely (OR=.4) than those with an intended pregnancy to marry before the child was age two. Births resulting from mistimed pregnancies were not significantly associated with marital transitions. CONCLUSIONS Women with a child resulting from an unwanted pregnancy are less likely to marry, and less likely to stay married, than women with an intended birth. Future assessments of the consequences of unintended childbearing should distinguish between mistimed and unwanted births. PMID:26929138

  9. Determinants of Visitor Pro-Environmental Intentions on Two Small Greek Islands: Is Ecotourism Possible at Coastal Protected Areas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass `seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors.

  10. Determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions on two small Greek islands: is ecotourism possible at coastal protected areas?

    PubMed

    Kafyri, Andriani; Hovardas, Tasos; Poirazidis, Konstantinos

    2012-07-01

    A relatively under-researched question is whether there is a possibility of influencing environmentally aware tourists regarding ecotourism at destinations that continue to develop under a pattern of mass 'seaside' tourism. Our objective was to assess the pro-environmental intentions of visitors at two small Greek islands, which are within a Natura 2000 site, specifically Paxoi and Antipaxoi. Intentions involved willingness to receive information about the protected area, willingness to accept pro-environmental limitations on recreational experience, and willingness-to-pay a conditional environmental conservation value added tax. In addition, we aimed to identify determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions among visitor and visit characteristics, visitor satisfaction, and self-reported environmental knowledge, as well as anticipated outcomes of tourism development and suggestions for protected area management. We randomly collected 324 usable questionnaires during the summer season; 242 (74.69 %) by Greek visitors and 82 (25.31 %) by foreign visitors. Visitor satisfaction was quite high; however, visitors reported low levels of environmental knowledge. Our findings showed that the unique characteristics of the destination were not salient among visitors and that there is a lack of effective outreach campaigns, interpretation, and on-site environmental education programs. However, our study revealed high levels of visitor pro-environmental intentions that might support the promotion of ecotourism on the two islands. We provide recommendations based on determinants of visitor pro-environmental intentions, which might assist towards advancing visitor participation in environmental education projects, environmentally responsible behavior among visitors, and financial contribution to environmental conservation by visitors. PMID:22538319

  11. 75 FR 45008 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Light Rail Transit Line in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Proposed Light... Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Woodward Avenue Light Rail Transit (LRT) project in Detroit... selected Woodward Avenue as the Locally Preferred Alternative (LPA) with Light Rail Transit as...

  12. 78 FR 38796 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Increased Transit Service to King of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Increased Transit... (NOI) to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and Section 4(f) Evaluation. SUMMARY: The FTA and... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and Section 4(f) Evaluation for increased transit service to King...

  13. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - U.S. Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) - St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix. The Virgin Islands archipelago makes up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles and the western island group of the Leeward Islands, forming the border between the Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea.

  14. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - British Virgin Islands (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the British Virgin Islands (BVI), one of three sets of the Virgin Island territories in an archipelago making up the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles.

  15. 78 FR 70318 - Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice of Intent To...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ..., Louisiana, in a October 22, 2013, Federal Register notice (78 FR 62648). That notice complied with our CCP... Fish and Wildlife Service Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge; West Feliciana Parish, Louisiana; Notice... Act (NEPA) documents for Cat Island National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). We provided this notice...

  16. The Island-To Transition during Growth of Metal Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffers, George William, Jr.

    The formation of percolating Pb films thermally evaporated onto SiO_2 substrates has been experimentally studied using electron microscopy. Pb does not wet SiO_2 so that compact, three-dimensional islands are formed during the initial stages of film growth. As these islands grow in size they eventually touch their neighbors and coalesce due to surface diffusion. Islands smaller than a critical radius, R _{c}, fully coalesce and form a single island with a compact shape. However, islands larger than this critical radius undergo a partial coalescence to form an elongated island. This crossover to partial coalescence produces a network of connected metal structures which increase in size until the percolation threshold is crossed. The main topics studied in this work are: (1) the film's area coverage at the percolation threshold, rm p_{c}, is often quite high (p_{c} _sp{~}{>} 80%) and (2) the factors controlling the size at which the crossover from full to partial coalescence occurs. The high values of p_{c} result from the combination of wiping during coalescence and the coalescence crossover which cause the larger droplets to effectively repel one another. The coalescence crossover is described by a Kinetic Freezing Model in which the crossover is due to a competition between the time for two touching islands to coalesce and the time for one of the islands to grow in size, due to continuing deposition, and make contact with a neighboring island. The predictions of this model are tested and some of the absent features are discussed. Computer simulations of the profile decay of a corrugated crystalline surface due to surface diffusion are also investigated. A fast Monte Carlo algorithm is used to solve a (1 + 1)D system at low temperature. The results are significantly different than those predicted by the high-temperature continuum model.

  17. Shape transition of endotaxial islands growth from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhi-Peng; Tok, Engsoon; Foo, Yonglim

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • All Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} islands will grow into Ge(0 0 1) substrate at temperatures from 350 to 675 °C. • Shape transition occurred from kinetically constrained to equilibrium regime. • All endotaxial islands can be clarified into two types. • The mechanisms of endotaxial growth and shape transition have been rationalized. - Abstract: A comprehensive study of Fe grown on Ge(0 0 1) substrates has been conducted at elevated temperatures, ranging from 350 to 675 °C. All iron germinide islands, with the same Fe{sub 13}Ge{sub 8} phase, grow into the Ge substrate with the same epitaxial relationship. Shape transition occurs from small square islands (low temperatures), to elongated orthogonal islands or orthogonal nanowires (intermediate temperatures), and then finally to large square orthogonal islands (high temperatures). According to both transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations, all islands can be defined as either type-I or type-II. Type-I islands usually form at kinetically constrained growth regimes, like truncated pyramids. Type-II islands usually appear at equilibrium growth regimes forming a dome-like shape. Based on a simple semi-quantitative model, type-II islands have a lower total energy per volume than type-I, which is considered as the dominant mechanism for this type of shape transition. Moreover, this study not only elucidates details of endotaxial growth in the Fe–Ge system, but also suggests the possibility of controlled fabrication of temperature-dependent nanostructures, especially in materials with dissimilar crystal structures.

  18. Alloy Composition Dependent Order-Disorder Transition on Stranski-Krastanov Island Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, T.; Savage, D. E.; Sullivan, J. S.; Lagally, M. G.

    2000-03-01

    Self-assembled, three-dimensional, SiGe islands bounded by 105 facets are readily formed on the Si(001) surface by a modified Stranski-Krastanov (SK) growth mode. Previous work has shown an order-disorder transition on Si 105 [1] surfaces. More recent work has confirmed the transition on clean Si 105 at 575°C and shown that the transition temperature increases to 625°C for surfaces terminated with a monolayer of Ge[2]. This is the same temperature regime in which SK islands are commonly grown. Using in-situ RHEED, we have discovered a similar reversible, order-disorder transition on the 105 facets of three-dimensional pyramidal SiGe quantum dots grown on Si(001) by chemical vapor deposition. By the same technique, we have investigated the composition-dependent transition temperature of the island facets. Concurrently, between 525°C and 625°C, island bases transform from anisotropic to square, and buried islands transform from pyramids to truncated pyramids with (001) faceted tops. We will combine these effects into a cohesive picture of island morphology as a function of temperature and alloy composition. * Research supported by NSF-MRSEC. 1 B.Z. Olshanetsky and V.I. Mashanov, Surf. Sci., 111, 414 (1981). 2. J. S. Sullivan, P. Sutter, M. G. Lagally, to be published.

  19. Frictional transition from superlubric islands to pinned monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pierno, Matteo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo; Paolicelli, Guido; di Bona, Alessandro; Valeri, Sergio; Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio

    2015-08-01

    The inertial sliding of physisorbed submonolayer islands on crystal surfaces contains unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity and on the mechanisms of its disappearance. Here, in a joint quartz crystal microbalance and molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111), we show how superlubricity emerges in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory also predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized commensurate immobile monolayer. This scenario is fully supported by the quartz crystal microbalance data, which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena will be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces. PMID:26006001

  20. Control of Steam-Turbine Regulators at Transition to an Island State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi

    2009-01-01

    The simple operating algorithm is presented for steam turbine regulators of type Simadin (Siemens) at emergency switching-off of the generator from system together with some, unknown in advance, load. The given situation is known as "a transition to an island state (regime)". Keeping of turbine speed and preservation of its rating value at a generator blackout when its own needs will be load only, is an easy problem. When the generator remains in its island it is necessary to solve "on-line" two additional problems: to reveal a situation "island" and to estimate the island load for translating a regulator on the new task and providing dynamic stability of transition. The algorithm was tried and entered successfully into practice on Varna TPP, CEZ GROUP (Prague), in 2008.

  1. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Turks & Caicos (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile presents a snapshot of the electricity generation and reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Turks and Caicos - a British overseas territory consisting of two groups of islands located southeast of the Bahamas. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - St. Lucia (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to Saint Lucia, one of six Caribbean countries that make up the Windward Islands - the southern arc of the Lesser Antilles chain - at the eastern end of the Caribbean Sea. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative, Island Energy Snapshot - Bahamas (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-02-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the electricity generation or reduction technologies, including solar hot water heating, available to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas - a country consisting of more than 700 islands, cays, and islets - of which only 30 are actually inhabited. Heating and transportation fuels are not addressed.

  4. Groundwater Dynamics of Saline Transition Zones in Small Islands and Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, I.; Falkland, T.

    2008-12-01

    Many small island countries which rely on freshwater lenses for their water supply face increasing challenges in supplying their populations with adequate quantities of potable freshwater. Estimating sustainable extraction rates requires accurate estimation of the impact of both natural and anthropogenic factors on The dynamics and characteristics of saline transition zones between fresh groundwater lenses floating over seawater in coral atolls and small limestone islands are governed by recharge and discharge events, the distribution of hydraulic conductivity in the aquifer materials, evaporation and transpiration from lenses, prolonged droughts, groundwater abstraction and the tidal forcing of the groundwater system. In this paper we compare measured profiles of salinity over up to 30 years in Tarawa and Kiritimati Atolls, Republic of Kiribati and the raised limestone island of Tongatapu, Kingdom of Tonga, with predictions. Anomalous profiles at the island edge suggest hydrodynamic instability in the discharge zone which intrigued the late Robin Wooding.

  5. Improved brightness of 380 nm GaN light emitting diodes through intentional delay of the nucleation island coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koleske, D. D.; Fischer, A. J.; Allerman, A. A.; Mitchell, C. C.; Cross, K. C.; Kurtz, S. R.; Figiel, J. J.; Fullmer, K. W.; Breiland, W. G.

    2002-09-01

    Ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been grown using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy, while monitoring the 550 nm reflected light intensity. During nucleation of GaN on sapphire, the transition from three-dimensional (3D) grain growth to two-dimensional (2D) coalesced growth was intentionally delayed in time by lowering the NH3 flow during the initial high temperature growth. Initially, when the reflectance signal is near zero, the GaN film is rough and composed of partly coalesced 3D grains. Eventually, the reflected light intensity recovers as the 2D morphology evolves. For 380 nm LEDs grown on 3D nucleation layers, we observe increased light output. For LEDs fabricated on GaN films with a longer recovery time an output power of 1.3 mW at 20 mA current was achieved.

  6. 77 FR 43903 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-01-03/pdf/2010-33065.pdf . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Improvements to the North Red and Purple Lines, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, U.S... Impact Statement (EIS) for the North Red and Purple Line Modernization (RPM) Project in Cook...

  7. 75 FR 3956 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... system in Los Angeles County. The proposed project would provide a continuation of the Metro Gold Line... transportation and land use plans. Phase 2 would expand upon the Gold Line Eastside Extension investment and... provide the study area with improved fixed-guideway east-west transit service from the Metro Gold...

  8. 76 FR 207 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Proposed Transit Improvements to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... Improvements to the North Red and Purple Lines, Cook County, IL AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration, U.S... Authority (CTA) intend to prepare a Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement (Tier 1 EIS) for the North Red and... North Red and Purple lines up to a state of good repair from the track structure immediately north...

  9. 75 FR 13131 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Sale of Plum Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... northeast tip of Orient Point, Long Island, New York. DHS, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of..., New York and an ancillary support facility at Orient Point, New York. The US Department of Homeland... Point, New York which includes buildings, utilities, and ferry docking facilities. Statutory...

  10. Comprehensive transit plan for the Virgin Islands. Technical report. Final report, September 1987-July 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.F.; Schwenk, J.C.; Levinson, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    The report contains a description of the elements and recommendations of a transportation study of the islands of St. Thomas, St. Croix, and St. John in the U.S. Virgin Island archipelago. St. Thomas transit recommendations included the purchase of new buses, the construction of new maintenance facilities, a substantial increase in service levels, and an open competition for management and operation of the service. For St. Croix, a subsidized taxivan service was recommended on a trial basis on three routes; highway recommendations included an increase in roadway capacity along the Charlotte Amalie waterfront and reconstruction of critical intersections. Traffic engineering improvements, and the implementation of a paid on-street parking program were recommended for St. Thomas. Reconstruction of major intersections, several turning movement enhancements, construction of the long-proposed Christiansted bypass, the expression of off-street parking lots in Christiansted, and on-street parking management changes were recommended for St. Croix. The study endorsed current Department of Public Works plans to rehabilitate sections of major roadways on St. John. Of an institutional nature, it was recommended that a new governmental instrumentality be created to oversee mass transportation (including ferries), parking, and taxi services. Several possible sources of added revenue were discussed as potential means of providing the funding for the needed improvements.

  11. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Saint Martin/Sint Maarten

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the northeast Caribbean island Saint Martin. The island is divided between two nations, France in the north (Saint-Martin) and the Netherlands in the south (Sint Maarten).

  12. Transitional directions from Early Miocene Lavas at Samothraki Island, N. Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondopoulou, Despina; Valet, Jean-Pierre; Zananiri, Irene; Voidomatis, Philippos

    2014-05-01

    . The presence of low paleointensities combined with intermediate directions suggest that they recorded a transitional field state. Interestingly, similar directions were obtained in miocene volcanics from the nearby island of Lemnos as well as from the mainland Thrace area. A further study of these formations will hopefully improve our knowledge of the field behavior in Early Miocene.

  13. 78 FR 49600 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Virginia Beach Transit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ...The Federal Transit Administration (FTA) and Hampton Roads Transit (HRT) are planning to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Virginia Beach Transit Extension Study (VBTES). The VBTES will examine extending transit service from the eastern terminus of Norfolk's existing Light Rail Transit (LRT) system, ``The Tide,'' at Newtown Road to the Virginia Beach Oceanfront either......

  14. Shape transition in nano-pits after solid-phase etching of SiO{sub 2} by Si islands

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, F.; Curiotto, S.; Cheynis, F.; Müller, P.; Saito, Y.; Pierre-Louis, O.

    2015-05-11

    We study the nano-pits formed during the etching of a SiO{sub 2} film by reactive Si islands at T≈1000 °C. Combining low energy electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, and an analytic model based on reaction and diffusion at the solid interface, we show that the shape of the nanopits depend on the ratio R/x{sub s} with R the Si island radius and x{sub s} the oxygen diffusion-length at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. For small R/x{sub s}, nanopits exhibit a single-well V-shape, while a double-well W-shape is found for larger R/x{sub s}. The analysis of the transition reveals that x{sub s}∼60 nm at T≈1000 °C.

  15. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Puerto Rico (Fact Sheet); NREL(National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico - a U.S. territory located about 60 miles east of the Dominican Republic and directly west of the U.S. Virgin Islands.

  16. Spontaneous transition of core radial electric field driven by magnetic islands in the H-1NF heliac

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S. T. A.; Blackwell, B. D.; Howard, J.; Harris, J. H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental observation of spontaneous transition of the core radial electric field to a large positive value (E(r) similar to 5 kV m(-1)), with a strong electric-field shear (similar to 700 kV m(-2)) in a low temperature (T(e) similar to 10 eV) radio frequency generated argon plasma in the H-1NF heliac stellarator. The transition, which seems to be driven by a spontaneous excitation of m = 2 magnetic islands near the core, is associated with a localized increase in the plasma density and excitation of coherent low frequency (similar to 3 kHz) oscillations possibly due to unstable E(r) shear driven modes. Evidence suggests development of the core electron-root scenario, which previously has been observed only at high temperature electron cyclotron heated plasmas.

  17. Shape transitions and island nucleation for Si/Ge molecular beam epitaxy on stripe-patterned Si (001) substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sanduijav, B.; Chen, G.; Springholz, G.; Matei, D.

    2009-09-15

    Si and Ge growth on the stripe patterned Si (001) substrates is studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. During Si buffer growth, the stripe morphology rapidly evolves from multifaceted ''U'' to ''V''-shaped forms. This involves successive transitions between different low energy (11n) side facets, where n continuously decreases from n=3 to 20. Ge growth on such stripes induces the formation of a pronounced side wall ripple structure when the Ge thickness exceeds three monolayers. This ripple structure consists of alternating (105) microfacets oriented perpendicularly to the stripes. Depending of the side wall geometry, Ge nanoislands subsequently nucleate either on the side walls or at the bottom of grooves. The latter only occurs for ''V''-shaped stripes, where the side wall ripples extend all the way from the top to the bottom of the grooves, allowing efficient downward mass transport. For multifaceted ''U'' stripes, the side wall ripples are interrupted by steeper side wall segments such that mounds and subsequently, pyramids and domes grow on the side walls instead of at the bottom of the grooves. The island shapes strongly depend on their position on the pattern topography, which also affects the critical coverage for island nucleation as well as for the transition from pyramids to domes. The mechanisms for nucleation at different positions are clarified by detailed analysis and the role of kinetic as well as energetic factors identified.

  18. Causal Networks or Causal Islands? The Representation of Mechanisms and the Transitivity of Causal Judgment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge--an interconnected causal "network," where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms--causal "islands"--such that events in different…

  19. Workforce Development for Communities in Crisis and Transition: A Case Study of the Windward Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, L. Alfons

    The Windward Islands (Dominica, Grenada, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines) have taken several approaches to educate the work force and prepare for the technology-driven society of the future. These approaches include government initiatives, such as the governments' commitment to primary education and more recently to secondary…

  20. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Antigua and Barbuda; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Antigua and Barbuda, an independent nation in the Leeward Islands in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua and Barbuda’s utility rates are approximately $0.37 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which is above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Trinidad and Tobago; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-05-20

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island nation located off the coast of Venezuela. Trinidad and Tobago’s electricity rates are some of the lowest in the Caribbean at approximately $0.04 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), well below the regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  2. Transition from superlubrically sliding islands to pinned monolayer, demonstrated in Xe/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, Roberto; Vanossi, Andrea; Tosatti, Erio; Trieste Nanofriction Team

    A molecular dynamics simulation case study of Xe on Cu(111) reveals unexpected information on the exceptionally smooth sliding state associated with incommensurate superlubricity which is argued to emerge in the large size limit of naturally incommensurate Xe islands. As coverage approaches a full monolayer, theory predicts an abrupt adhesion-driven two-dimensional density compression on the order of several per cent, implying a hysteretic jump from superlubric free islands to a pressurized sqrt()x sqrt()commensurate (and pinned, and therefore immobile) monolayer. These results match with recent quartz crystal microbalance data which show remarkably large slip times with increasing submonolayer coverage, signalling superlubricity, followed by a dramatic drop to zero for the dense commensurate monolayer. Careful analysis of this variety of island sliding phenomena should be essential in future applications of friction at crystal/adsorbate interfaces. Matching experimental work by M. Pierno, L. Bruschi, G. Mistura, G. Paolicelli, A. di Bona, S. Valeri. Supported by ERC Advanced Grant N. 320796 - MODPHYSFRICT.

  3. Exploring HIV-testing intentions in young Asian/Pacific Islander (API) women as it relates to acculturation, theory of gender and power (TGP), and the AIDS risk reduction model (ARRM).

    PubMed

    Salud, Margaret C; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Natto, Zuhair S; Montgomery, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    While HIV rates are low for Asian/Pacific Islanders (APIs), they have been increasing, especially for API women in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 299 young API women (18-24 years old) in the Inland Empire region of Southern California to better understand their intention for HIV testing and their perceptions about HIV/AIDS. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, bivariate exploration for model building and multivariate analyses to determine variables associated with HIV-testing intentions. Results suggest that more lifetime sexual partners, greater perceived gender susceptibility, higher HIV/AIDS knowledge, sexually active, more positive attitudes about HIV testing and higher self-perceptions/experiences related to risk contribute to stronger intentions for HIV testing in young API women. Findings from this study will contribute to the limited literature on HIV/AIDS in API women and provide information that can be used for developing and implementing culturally appropriate programs that encourage HIV prevention and testing in this population. PMID:24111859

  4. High-pressure melting experiments on garnet clinopyroxenite and the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in ocean-island basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshav, Shantanu; Gudfinnsson, Gudmundur H.; Sen, Gautam; Fei, Yingwei

    2004-07-01

    -pressure melting experiments in the CMAS system at 2.0-3.0 GPa indicates that the alkalic to tholeiitic transition in our experiments can be explained by a rapid expansion of the eclogite "surface" from the tholeiitic part to well into the alkalic part of the basalt tetrahedron in natural systems. Importantly, the partial melting trends of 77SL-582 are transverse to those seen in ocean-island basalts. In addition, although the alkalic to tholeiitic basalt transition observed in ocean-island basalts is well reproduced in our experiments, there is very little overlap between the partial melts of 77SL-582 and ocean-island basalts. It appears that most of the major-element systematics of the ocean-island basalts considered here can be explained by combined contributions of melts from anhydrous and carbonated lherzolite [Geophys. Res. Lett. 24 (1997) 2837; G.H. Gudfinnsson, D.C. Presnall, Continuous gradations among primary kimberlitic, carbonatitic, melilititic, and komatiitic melts in equilibrium with garnet lherzolite at 3-8 GPa, Proc. 8th Int. Kimber. Conf. Extended abstracts.] at high pressures with possible contributions from melts from garnet clinopyroxenite of bulk composition similar to 77SL-582.

  5. Transition of Mount Etna lavas from a mantle-plume to an island-arc magmatic source.

    PubMed

    Schiano, P; Clocchiatti, R; Ottolini, L; Busà, T

    2001-08-30

    Mount Etna lies near the boundary between two regions that exhibit significantly different types of volcanism. To the north, volcanism in the Aeolian island arc is thought to be related to subduction of the Ionian lithosphere. On Sicily itself, however, no chemical or seismological evidence of subduction-related volcanism exists, and so it is thought that the volcanism-including that on Mount Etna itself-stems from the upwelling of mantle material, associated with various surface tectonic processes. But the paucity of geological evidence regarding the primary composition of magma from Mount Etna means that its source characteristics remain controversial. Here we characterize the trace-element composition of a series of lavas emitted by Mount Etna over the past 500 kyr and preserved as melt inclusions inside olivine phenocrysts. We show that the compositional change in primary magmas from Mount Etna reflects a progressive transition from a predominantly mantle-plume source to one with a greater contribution from island-arc (subduction-related) basalts. We suggest that this is associated with southward migration of the Ionian slab, which is becoming juxtaposed with a mantle plume beneath Sicily. This implies that the volcanism of Mount Etna has become more calc-alkaline, and hence more explosive, during its evolution. PMID:11528476

  6. The Hetu'u Global Network: Using the rare June 5th/6th Transit of Venus to Bring Astronomy to the Remote Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faherty, Jacqueline; Rodriguez, D.

    2013-01-01

    There are rare times in astronomy when a celestial event, visible in broad daylight, can be used to measure a fundamental parameter and inspire a globe full of school age students. The June 5th/6th transit of Venus was one such event. In celebration, nine astronomy postdocs from the Chilean mainland traveled to Easter Island to lead a series of astronomy outreach activities over three days, culminating in a transit-viewing event. Our team dubbed "Equipo Hetu'u" or "Team Star" in the Rapa Nui (Easter Island native) language spent two days giving astronomy talks and doing hands-on demonstrations at the Museo Antropologico P. Sebastian Englert. In the final day-and-a-half leading up to the transit, we visited the science classes in the majority of the schools on the island, in order to spread the message about the once-in-a-lifetime transit event, highlighting how we planned on using it to measure the distance to the Sun. We estimate over 25% 1500 people) of this remote island participated in one or more of our organized activities. Our experience with this project is an excellent lesson on how to organize, lead, and fully execute a major outreach endeavor that inspires hundreds with minimal resources (save the spectacular event provided by the cosmos).

  7. Transitions to Adult Care for Rhode Island Youth with Special Healthcare Needs.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Suzanne; Terry, Christopher; Neukirch, Jodie; Garneau, Deborah; Golding, Deb; Brown, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The transitioning of youth from pediatric to adult care systems is often fraught with discontinuity, miscommunication and gaps in care. This is most significant for youth with special health care needs. A panel discussion on transitioning youth to adult care systems that was part of a learning collaborative held by The RI Care Transformation Collaborative (CTC) is presented here, illustrated by a pertinent case of a youth with type 1 diabetes. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-08.asp, free with no login]. PMID:27472770

  8. 76 FR 55501 - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Transitional Worker Classification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... labor force. Such workers outnumber U.S. citizens and other local residents in most industries central... classification (CW classification) intended to be effective for the duration of the transition period. See 74 FR... Federal Register reopening and extending the public comment period for an additional 30 days. See 74...

  9. Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiras, F. G.; Arbones, B.; Montero, M. F.; Barton, E. D.; Arístegui, J.

    2016-05-01

    Photophysiological variability and its influence on primary production were studied in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal transition zone. The region showed strong mesoscale activity, in which upwelling filaments and island eddies interacted to cause significant vertical displacements of the deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM). Oligotrophic stations both in the open ocean and within anticyclonic eddies were characterised by low values of integrated chlorophyll (33 ± 4 mg chl a m- 2) and dominance of pico- and nanophytoplankton, while stations associated with filaments and cyclonic eddies showed moderate chl a values (50 ± 17 mg m- 2). Shelf stations affected by upwelling exhibited the highest chl a (112 ± 36 mg m- 2) with microphytoplankton dominance. Photosynthetic variables in the three groups of stations showed similar depth gradients, with maximum photosynthetic rates (PmB) decreasing with depth and maximum quantum yields (ϕm) increasing with depth. However, the increase with depth of ϕm was not so evident in shelf waters where nutrients were not depleted at the surface. Primary production (PP) displayed a coast-ocean gradient similar to that of chl a, with highest values (2.5 ± 1.2 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the eutrophic shelf stations and lowest (0.36 ± 0.11 g C m- 2 d- 1) at the oligotrophic stations. Nevertheless, integrated PP at the oligotrophic stations was not related to integrated chl a concentration but was positively (r = 0.95) correlated to carbon fixation at the DCM and negatively (r = - 0.85) correlated to the depth of the DCM, suggesting that light, and not phytoplankton biomass, was the main factor controlling PP in oligotrophic environments. It is concluded that downward displacements of the DCM, either by convergence fronts or downwelling at the core of anticyclones can significantly reduce PP in the oligotrophic ocean.

  10. 75 FR 51098 - Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Register on August 14, 2007 (72 FR 45444), announcing our intent to complete a CCP/EA and inviting public... Fish and Wildlife Service Protection Island and San Juan Islands National Wildlife Refuges, Jefferson, Island, San Juan, Skagit, and Whatcom Counties, WA AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  11. In situ x-ray scattering study on the evolution of Ge island morphology and relaxation for low growth rate: Advanced transition to superdomes

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.-I.; Holy, V.

    2009-07-15

    The kinetics of the growth of Ge superdomes and their facets on Si(001) surfaces are analyzed as a function of deposited Ge thickness for different growth temperatures and at a low growth rate by in situ grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering in combination with in situ grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction. At a low growth rate, intermixing is found to be enhanced and superdomes are formed already at lower coverages than previously reported. In addition, we observe that at the dome-to-superdome transition, a large amount of material is transferred into dislocated islands, either by dome coalescence or by anomalous coarsening. Once dislocated islands are formed, island coalescence is a rare event and introduction of dislocations is preferred. The superdome growth is thus stabilized by the insertion of dislocations during growth.

  12. Causal networks or causal islands? The representation of mechanisms and the transitivity of causal judgment

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Samuel G. B.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of mechanisms is critical for causal reasoning. We contrasted two possible organizations of causal knowledge—an interconnected causal network, where events are causally connected without any boundaries delineating discrete mechanisms; or a set of disparate mechanisms—causal islands—such that events in different mechanisms are not thought to be related even when they belong to the same causal chain. To distinguish these possibilities, we used causal transitivity—the inference given A causes B and B causes C that A causes C. Specifically, causal chains schematized as one chunk or mechanism in semantic memory (e.g., exercising, becoming thirsty, drinking water) led to transitive causal judgments. On the other hand, chains schematized as multiple chunks (e.g., having sex, becoming pregnant, becoming nauseous) led to intransitive judgments despite strong intermediate links (Experiments 1–3). Normative accounts of causal intransitivity could not explain these intransitive judgments (Experiments 4–5). PMID:25556901

  13. Shared Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2007-01-01

    We argue for the importance of processes of shared intentionality in children's early cognitive development. We look briefly at four important social-cognitive skills and how they are transformed by shared intentionality. In each case, we look first at a kind of individualistic version of the skill--as exemplified most clearly in the behavior of…

  14. Chilled margin fragmentation as a trigger for transition from Strombolian to phreatomagmatic explosive activity at Cova de Paul Crater, Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R. W.; Day, S. J.

    2013-07-01

    Sudden transitions from effusive or mildly explosive eruptions to violent phreatomagmatic explosive activity can occur at high-elevation vents on oceanic island volcanoes. Here, we describe near-vent deposits around the large Cova de Paul crater on Santo Antao, Cape Verde Islands, which provide insights into the transition from Strombolian magmatic to violently explosive phreatomagmatic activity during one such eruption. The Strombolian deposits change from welded spatter to bedded clinkery scoria to angular blocky scoria, and contain a distinct population of strongly banded, low-vesicularity angular sub-glassy clasts with strongly prolate vesicles. These sub-glassy clasts also form a discrete layer of larger blocks at the transition to the overlying phreatomagmatic deposits. They are compositionally identical to the Strombolian scoria and are interpreted to be fragments of flow-banded chilled margins from the walls of the eruptive conduit. The layer of large sub-glassy blocks records disintegration and expulsion of the chilled margins at the transition to phreatomagmatic activity. We interpret the sequence from spatter through clinkery scoria to blocky scoria as recording an increase in groundwater inflow into the conduit from pressurised aquifers, but at coolant input ratios below those required for explosions. The shattering of the chilled margins to produce the bed of large sub-glassy blocks appears to have allowed a much greater water flow into the conduit, leading to the phreatomagmatic explosive phase of the eruption.

  15. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), a commonwealth in political union with the United States that is located in the northern Pacific Ocean. CNMI’s electricity rates for residential customers range from $0.19 to $0.33 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  16. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue on transitions for individuals with disabilities contains nine papers discussing transition programs and issues. "Transition Issues for the 1990s," by Michael J. Ward and William D. Halloran, discusses self-determination, school responsibility for transition, continued educational engagement of at-risk students, and service…

  17. Timing of the Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream retreat and the deglaciation of northern James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the last glacial-interglacial transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nývlt, Daniel; Braucher, Régis; Engel, Zbyněk; Mlčoch, Bedřich

    2014-09-01

    The Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream located in Prince Gustav Channel, drained the northeastern portion of the Antarctic Peninsula Ice Sheet during the last glacial maximum. Here we present a chronology of its retreat based on in situ produced cosmogenic 10Be from erratic boulders at Cape Lachman, northern James Ross Island. Schmidt hammer testing was adopted to assess the weathering state of erratic boulders in order to better interpret excess cosmogenic 10Be from cumulative periods of pre-exposure or earlier release from the glacier. The weighted mean exposure age of five boulders based on Schmidt hammer data is 12.9 ± 1.2 ka representing the beginning of the deglaciation of lower-lying areas (< 60 m a.s.l.) of the northern James Ross Island, when Northern Prince Gustav Ice Stream split from the remaining James Ross Island ice cover. This age represents the minimum age of the transition from grounded ice stream to floating ice shelf in the middle continental shelf areas of the northern Prince Gustav Channel. The remaining ice cover located at higher elevations of northern James Ross Island retreated during the early Holocene due to gradual decay of terrestrial ice and increase of equilibrium line altitude. Schmidt hammer R-values are inversely correlated with 10Be exposure ages and could be used as a proxy for exposure history of individual granite boulders in this region and favour the hypothesis of earlier release of boulders with excessive 10Be concentrations from glacier directly at this site. These data provide evidences for an earlier deglaciation of northern James Ross Island when compared with other recently presented cosmogenic nuclide based deglaciation chronologies, but this timing coincides with rapid increase of atmospheric temperature in this marginal part of Antarctica.

  18. Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, David; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Includes four articles: "Career Aspirations" (Field); "Making the Transition to a New Curriculum" (Baker, Householder); "How about a 'Work to School' Transition?" (Glasberg); and "Technological Improvisation: Bringing CNC to Woodworking" (Charles, McDuffie). (SK)

  19. Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sandy, Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This "feature issue" focuses on transition from school to adult life for persons with disabilities. Included are "success stories," brief program descriptions, and a list of resources. Individual articles include the following titles and authors: "Transition: An Energizing Concept" (Paul Bates); "Transition Issues for the 1990s" (William Halloran…

  20. Socioeconomic Status and Asian American and Pacific Islander Students' Transition to College: A Structural Equation Modeling Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Museus, Samuel D.; Vue, Rican

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine socioeconomic differences in the interpersonal factors that influence college access among Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs). Data on 1,460 AAPIs from the Education Longitudinal Study (ELS: 02/06) were analyzed using structural equation modeling techniques. Findings suggest that parental…

  1. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Palau; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Palau, an independent island nation geographically located in the Micronesia region. Palau’s residential electricity rates are approximately $0.28 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), more than twice the average U.S. residential rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.

  2. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Barbados; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Barbados, an independent nation in the Lesser Antilles island chain in the eastern Caribbean. Barbados’ electricity rates are approximately $0.28 per kilowatt-hour (kWh), below the Caribbean regional average of $0.33/kWh.

  3. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Haiti; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Haiti, an independent nation that occupies the western portion of the island of Hispaniola in the northern Caribbean Sea. Haiti’s utility rates are roughly $0.35 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the Caribbean regional average of $0.33 USD/kWh.

  4. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall be ineligible to receive any contract...

  5. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  6. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  7. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  8. 49 CFR 661.18 - Intentional violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Intentional violations. 661.18 Section 661.18 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BUY AMERICA REQUIREMENTS § 661.18 Intentional violations. A person shall...

  9. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Belize; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Belize, a Central American country bordering Mexico to the north, Guatemala to the west and south, and the Caribbean Sea to the east. Although not an island nation, Belize is included in this energy snapshot series because it is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), an alliance of 15 Caribbean nations in the region.

  10. Energy Transition Initiative: Island Energy Snapshot - Guam; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This profile provides a snapshot of the energy landscape of Guam, an island territory of the United States located in the western Pacific Ocean. Guam’s electricity rates for residential customers start at $0.21 U.S. dollars (USD) per kilowatt-hour (kWh), above the average U.S. rate of $0.13 USD/kWh.1,2 Like

  11. Intent Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    1995-01-01

    We have been investigating the implications of using abstractions based on intent rather than the aggregation and information-hiding abstractions commonly used in software en- gineering: Cognitive psychologists have shown that intent abstraction is consistent with human problem-solving processes. We believe that new types of specifications and designs based on this concept can assist in understanding and specifying requirements, capturing the most important design rationale information in an efficient and economical way, and supporting the process of identifying and analyzing required changes to minimize the introduction of errors. The goal of hierarchical abstraction is to allow both top-down and bottom-up reasoning about a complex system. In computer science, we have made much use of (1) part-whole abstractions where each level of a hierarchy represents an aggregation of the components at a lower level and of (2) information-hiding abstractions where each level contains the same conceptual information but hides some details about the concepts, that is, each level is a refinement of the information at a higher level.

  12. A Re-Interpretation of the ‘Two-child Norm’ in Post-Transitional Demographic Systems: Fertility Intentions in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan currently has one of the lowest fertility rates in the world, leading to projections of rapid population ageing and decline. In common with other territories in Pacific Asia, policies designed to support childbearing have recently been introduced. Some optimism for the future success of these policies has been drawn from the fact that the ‘ideal’ number of children stated in Taiwanese surveys is over two. In this way, Taiwan appears to fit the ‘two-child norm’ model identified for Europe and North America. Furthermore, this feature has led commentators to state that Taiwan is not in a ‘low fertility trap’–where positive feedback mechanisms emanating from the normalisation of small families, slow economic growth and ageing/declining population mean attempts to increase fertility become ever less likely to succeed. Using a recent national representative survey, and arguing that ‘intentions’ are a more reliable guide to understanding the circumstances of family formation, this paper explores fertility intentions in Taiwan with a special focus on women at parity one and parity two. This will form the first full-length examination of fertility intentions in Taiwan published in English and one of the few studies of Pacific Asia that reports a micro-level analysis. We argue that using intentions should provide a better ‘barometer’ of attitudes towards childbearing in Taiwan, and that through micro-level analysis, we can better identify the predictors of intentions that could, in turn, provide useful clues both for projections as well as shaping policy responses. While we found some evidence for a ‘two-child norm’ among childless women, this could be an unrealistic ideal. This is supported by the fact that a majority of women with one child do not intend to have another. PMID:26291083

  13. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  14. Bridging the Gap between Intentions and Behavior: Implementation Intentions, Action Control, and Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hooft, Edwin A. J.; Born, Marise Ph.; Taris, Toon W.; van der Flier, Henk; Blonk, Roland W. B.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, the antecedents of intentions are better understood than the antecedents of behavior. The current study aimed to improve the understanding of the transition from intentions to behavior. Based on the work of Gollwitzer (1993), Kuhl and Beckmann (1994), and Lay (1986) we proposed a model…

  15. Coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations of HIMU oceanic island basalts from Mangaia, Cook-Austral islands, suggest an Archean source component in the mantle transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Oliver; Arculus, Richard J.; van Westrenen, Wim; Woodhead, Jon D.; Jenner, Frances E.; Nebel-Jacobsen, Yona J.; Wille, Martin; Eggins, Stephen M.

    2013-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that oceanic island basalts (OIB) sample geochemically distinct mantle reservoirs including recycled oceanic crust, the composition, age, and locus of these reservoirs remain uncertain. OIB with highly radiogenic Pb isotope signatures are grouped as HIMU (high-μ, with μ = 238U/204Pb), and exhibit unique Hf-Nd isotopic characteristics, defined as ΔɛHf, deviant from a terrestrial igneous rock array that includes all other OIB types. Here we combine new Hf isotope data with previous Nd-Pb isotope measurements to assess the coupled, time-integrated Hf-Nd-Pb isotope evolution of the most extreme HIMU location (Mangaia, French Polynesia). In comparison with global MORB and other OIB types, Mangaia samples define a unique trend in coupled Hf-Nd-Pb isotope co-variations (expressed in 207Pb/206Pb vs. ΔɛHf). In a model employing subducted, dehydrated oceanic crust, mixing between present-day depleted MORB mantle (DMM) and small proportions (˜5%) of a HIMU mantle endmember can re-produce the Hf-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of global HIMU basalts (sensu stricto; i.e., without EM-1/EM-2/FOZO components). An age range of 3.5 to <2 Ga is required for HIMU endmember(s) that mix with DMM to account for the observed present-day HIMU isotope compositions, suggesting a range of age distributions rather than a single component in the mantle. Our data suggest that mixing of HIMU mantle endmembers and DMM occurs in the mantle transition zone by entrainment in secondary plumes that rise at the edge of the Pacific Large Low Seismic Velocity Zone (LLSVP). These create either pure HIMU (sensu stricto) or HIMU affected by other enriched mantle endmembers (sensu lato). If correct, this requires isolation of parts of the mantle transition zone for >3 Gyr and implies that OIB chemistry can be used to test geodynamic models.

  16. Maintenance of biodiversity on islands.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Ryan A; Fung, Tak; Chimalakonda, Deepthi; O'Dwyer, James P

    2016-04-27

    MacArthur and Wilson's theory of island biogeography predicts that island species richness should increase with island area. This prediction generally holds among large islands, but among small islands species richness often varies independently of island area, producing the so-called 'small-island effect' and an overall biphasic species-area relationship (SAR). Here, we develop a unified theory that explains the biphasic island SAR. Our theory's key postulate is that as island area increases, the total number of immigrants increases faster than niche diversity. A parsimonious mechanistic model approximating these processes reproduces a biphasic SAR and provides excellent fits to 100 archipelago datasets. In the light of our theory, the biphasic island SAR can be interpreted as arising from a transition from a niche-structured regime on small islands to a colonization-extinction balance regime on large islands. The first regime is characteristic of classic deterministic niche theories; the second regime is characteristic of stochastic theories including the theory of island biogeography and neutral theory. The data furthermore confirm our theory's key prediction that the transition between the two SAR regimes should occur at smaller areas, where immigration is stronger (i.e. for taxa that are better dispersers and for archipelagos that are less isolated). PMID:27122558

  17. The Messinian/Early Pliocene transition in Eastern Mediterranean: New palaeoenvironmental data from the Kalamaki section (Zakynthos Island, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drinia, Hara; Antonarakou, Assimina; Tsourou, Theodora; Tzortzaki, Evi; Filippidi, Amalia; Nikolaou, Konstantinos

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the Miocene-Pliocene microfaunal development, and to discuss its palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical significance. The studied section (Kalamaki section) is located in the eastern part of Zakynthos Island (western Greece). Details on lithology and stratigraphy of the section are given in Dermitzakis (1978) and Nikolaou (1986). Planktonic species indicate that sediments span the interval which corresponds to MPL1 Zone (Zanclean, early Pliocene) which is in accordance with the biostratigraphic configuration of Rouchy et al. (1992) and Pierre et al. (2006). The studied interval is characterized by the Sphaeroidinellopsis Acme Zone and the presence of Globorotalia margaritae. The recognized succession of microfossil assemblages serves to interpret the evolution of some palaeoenvironmental factors (waterdepth, salinity and oxygen content), whereas the planktonic foraminiferal zonation allows an age assignment to the events. During the Late Messinian brackish conditions became dominant. The early Pliocene is characterized by a sudden return to well oxygenated, open marine, outer shelf conditions. At the basal part of the record, the high abundance of the 'shallow water component' of the benthic foraminiferal fauna indicates a well-vegetated environment with either normal marine salinity or a tendency to hyposalinity (e.g. Murray, 2006). Open marine conditions are indicated by the diversity of benthic and planktonic foraminifera. The abundance of Lenticulina spp., Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Planulina ariminensis, Pullenia, Gyroidina, and the virtual absence of Cibicidoides dutemplei and other typical shelf-taxa, suggest an upper bathyal waterdepth of 300-400 m (cf. Pujos, 1976; Jorissen, 1988). Partly, the abundance of Cibicidoides pseudoungerianus, Bulimina costata and Uvigerina peregrina reflect fluctuations in oxygen content of the bottom waters. However, extreme conditions were never reached during deposition. The

  18. Rural intentions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Diane J.; Hakes, Jacquie; Bai, Meera; Tolhurst, Helen; Dickinson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To investigate the reasons for family medicine graduates’ career choices. DESIGN Qualitative study using focus groups and one-on-one interviews. SETTING University of Calgary in Alberta. PARTICIPANTS Seventeen male and female second-year family medicine residents, representing a range of ages and areas of origin, enrolled in the 2004 urban and rural south streams of the family medicine residency program at the University of Calgary. METHOD During the final month of training, 2 focus groups were conducted to determine graduating students’ career choices and the reasons for them. After focus-group data were analyzed, a questionnaire was constructed and subsequently administered to participants during face-to-face or telephone interviews. MAIN FINDINGS Most residents initially planned to do urban locums in order to gain experience. In the long term, they planned to open practices in urban areas for lifestyle and family reasons. Many residents from the rural stream had no long-term plans to establish rural practices. Most residents said they felt prepared for practice, but many indicated that an optional third year of paid training, with an emphasis on emergency medicine, obstetrics, and pediatrics, would be desirable. Reasons cited for not practising in rural areas were related to workload, lifestyle issues, family obligations, and perceived lack of medical support in the community. Only 4 female graduates and 1 male graduate intended to practise obstetrics. The main reason residents gave for this was inadequate training in obstetrics during residency. Finances were cited as a secondary reason for many choices, and might in fact be more important than at first apparent. CONCLUSION Despite its intention to recruit family medicine graduates to rural areas and to obstetrics, the University of Calgary residency training program was not successful in recruiting physicians to these areas. The program likely needs to re-examine the effectiveness of

  19. Island based radar and microwave radiometer measurements of stratus cloud parameters during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX)

    SciTech Connect

    Frisch, A.S.; Fairall, C.W.; Snider, J.B.; Lenshow, D.H.; Mayer, S.D.

    1996-04-01

    During the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) in June 1992, simultaneous measurements were made with a vertically pointing cloud sensing radar and a microwave radiometer. The radar measurements are used to estimate stratus cloud drizzle and turbulence parameters. In addition, with the microwave radiometer measurements of reflectivity, we estimated the profiles of cloud liquid water and effective radius. We used radar data for computation of vertical profiles of various drizzle parameters such as droplet concentration, modal radius, and spread. A sample of these results is shown in Figure 1. In addition, in non-drizzle clouds, with the radar and radiometer we can estimate the verticle profiles of stratus cloud parameters such as liquid water concentration and effective radius. This is accomplished by assuming a droplet distribution with droplet number concentration and width constant with height.

  20. Improved astronomical age constraints for the middle Miocene climate transition based on high-resolution stable isotope records from the central Mediterranean Maltese Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourik, Anja A.; Abels, Hemmo A.; Hilgen, Frederik J.; Di Stefano, Agata; Zachariasse, Willem Jan

    2011-03-01

    Marine outcrops of the Globigerina Limestone and Blue Clay formations on the Maltese Islands in the central Mediterranean document the middle Miocene climate transition between ˜15 and 13.5 million years ago. Here high-resolution benthic and planktic oxygen isotope records have been constructed for this enigmatic interval in Cenozoic climate evolution. Detailed biostratigraphic correlations to the astronomically tuned La Vedova section in northern Italy allow revision of the tuning of the Blue Clay Formation, constraining the age of the sediments directly above the formation boundary and hence the Mi-3b oxygen isotope event and Serravallian Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP). Biostratigraphic age control and cyclic patterns in the benthic carbon isotope record further lead to an astronomically-tuned age model for the Upper Member of the Globigerina Limestone Formation. Start of sedimentation of the Upper Globigerina Limestone is dated at ˜14.95 Ma, and the oldest Blue Clay sediments have a revised astronomical age of 13.76 ± 0.02 Ma. Our data indicates that a hiatus between 13.95 and 13.76 Ma cannot be excluded and could have implications for the Serravallian GSSP currently defined in this section. The global middle Miocene cooling is reflected in the benthic oxygen isotope record, showing a ˜0.6‰ increase (Mi-3b) between ˜13.95 and 13.76 Ma. A divergence between the planktic and benthic oxygen and carbon isotope records after 13.76 Ma could point to a decrease in ventilation, possibly related to increased fresh water influx after the climate transition.

  1. Mesopelagic prokaryotic bulk and single-cell heterotrophic activity and community composition in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasol, Josep M.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Vaqué, Dolors; Baltar, Federico; Calleja, Maria Ll.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Arístegui, Javier

    2009-12-01

    Mesopelagic prokaryotic communities have often been assumed to be relatively inactive in comparison to those from epipelagic waters, and therefore unresponsive to the presence of nearby upwelled waters. We have studied the zonal (shelf-ocean), latitudinal, and depth (epipelagic-mesopelagic) variability of microbial assemblages in the NW Africa-Canary Islands coastal-transition zone (CTZ). Vertical profiles of bacterial bulk and single-cell activity through the epi- and mesopelagic waters were combined with point measurements of bacterial respiration, leucine-to-carbon conversion factors and leucine-to-thymidine incorporation ratios. The overall picture that emerges from our study is that prokaryotes in the mesopelagic zone of this area are less abundant than in the epipelagic but have comparable levels of activity. The relationship between prokaryotes and heterotrophic nanoflagellates, their main predators, remains constant throughout the water column, further contradicting the assumption that deep ocean bacterial communities are mostly inactive. Both bulk and single-cell activity showed clear differences between stations, with higher mesopelagic activities closer to the shelf or affected by upwelling features. We also tested whether differences in microbial function between stations could be related to differences in bacterial community structure, and conclude that bacterial communities are very similar at similar depths in the deep ocean, even if the stations present order-of-magnitude differences in bacterial function.

  2. The Transition Between N-S and NE-SW Directed Crustal Shortening in the Central and Northern Puget Lowland: New Thoughts on the Southern Whidbey Island Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocher, T. M.; Blakely, R. J.; Wells, R. E.; Sherrod, B. L.; Ramachandran, K.

    2005-12-01

    We hypothesize that the southern Whidbey Island fault (SWIF) is a NW-SE oriented fold and thrust belt accommodating NE-directed crustal shortening. The SWIF has been considered a dextral strike-slip fault based largely on two interpretations: (1) its northwest orientation in a region believed to be undergoing dominantly N-S compression, and (2) interpretation of industry seismic-reflection data across the SWIF as a flower structure, suggestive of transpressional faulting. Both interpretations require reconsideration based on evidence outlined below. Recent GPS studies (e.g., Miller et al., 2001) have shown that the Puget Lowland is a zone of transition between N-directed compression to the south and NE-SW directed compression (parallel to the plate-convergence vector) to the north. While N-S compression provides an adequate explanation for the E-trending Seattle and Tacoma thrust faults to the south, recent paleoseismic and geophysical studies suggest that NE-SW compression producing NE-directed tectonic wedging (passive roof duplexing) dominates at the SWIF. Evidence for a SW-dipping floor thrust forming the base of the tectonic wedge is provided by gravity and seismic tomography models demonstrating higher structural relief of basement rocks to the south of the SWIF than to its north. Aeromagnetic anomalies, lidar studies, and paleoseismic evidence indicate a broader (about 25 km wide) zone of abundant NE-side-up shallow reverse faults parallel to the SWIF than previously recognized. We interpret these faults as evidence for a zone of NW-oriented, NE-dipping splay faults soling into a shallow (3 to 4 km deep), NE-dipping detachment surface forming the top of the tectonic wedge. We re-examined oil industry seismic-reflection profiles across the SWIF, previously seen as evidence for transpressional faults, and find them more compatible with shallow thrust folds associated with shallow (upper 3 to 4 km) splay faults. In sum, these observations are consistent with a

  3. Intentionality, Representation, and Anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Preester, Helena

    2002-09-01

    Both Brentano and Merleau-Ponty have developed an account of intentionality, which nevertheless differ profoundly in the following respect. According to Brentano, intentionality mainly is a matter of mental presentations. This marks the beginning of phenomenology's difficult relation with the nature of the intentional reference. Merleau-Ponty, on the other hand, has situated intentionality on the level of the body, a turn which has important implications for the nature of intentionality. Intentionality no longer is primarily based on having (re)presentations, but is rooted in the dynamics of the living body. To contrast those approaches enables us to make clear in what way intentionality is studied nowadays. On the one hand, intentionality is conceived of as a matter of formal-syntactical causality in cognitive science, and in particular in classical-computational theory. On the other hand, a interactivist approach offers a more Merleau-Ponty-like point of view, in which autonomy, embodiment and interaction are stressed.

  4. Immiscible Transition from Carbonate-rich to Silicate-rich Melts in Eclogite+CO2 and Genesis of Ocean Island Melilitite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, R.; Stalker, K.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    Derivation of highly silica-undersaturated lavas such as olivine melilitites and melilite nephelinites from the mantle has been attributed to the effects of CO2. However, experimental studies have so far failed to demonstrate equilibrium of melilititic melts with a four-phase peridotite assemblage. Instead, the liquidus mineralogy of these silica-undersaturated magmas at high-pressures appears to be dominated by cpx1. Although, experimental partial melts from natural peridotite+CO2 span a continuum from carbonatite to alkali-basalts2, ocean-island melilitites have distinctly higher TiO2, FeO*, and CaO/(CaO+MgO)3,4 than compositions derived thus far from a carbonated lherzolite source. Partial melting experiments of a nominally anhydrous, natural eclogite with a small amount of added carbonate (SLEC1; 5 wt.% bulk CO2) were performed to investigate the transition between carbonate and silicate melts with increasing temperature. Experiments were conducted in a piston cylinder at 3 GPa from 1050 to 1400 ° C. Garnet and cpx appear in all the experiments and ilmenite is observed from 1075 to ˜1200 ° C. An Fe-bearing calcio-dolomitic melt is present from the solidus (1050-1075 ° C) up to 1375 ° C. Beginning at 1275 ° C, it coexists with a silica-poor silicate melt. Textural criteria indicate only a single CO2-rich silicate melt phase at 1400 ° C, coexisting with garnet and minor cpx. The liquidus temperature is estimated to be ˜1415 ° C from the melt fraction-temperature trend. With increasing temperature, the carbonate melt becomes richer in SiO2 ( ˜2 to 5 wt.%) and Al2O3 ( ˜0.75 to 2.25 wt.%) and poorer in CaO ( ˜30 to 25 wt.% from ˜1200 to 1375 ° C). Compositions of silicate partial melts change systematically with increasing temperature, increasing in SiO2 ( ˜36 to 41 wt.%), Al2O3 ( ˜4.5 to 9.5 wt.%), MgO ( ˜9.5 to 13 wt.%), CaO ( ˜8 to 14 wt.%) and decreasing in TiO2 ( ˜14 to 2.5 wt.%), FeO ( ˜20 to 13 wt.%), Na2O ( ˜3.3 to 1.7 wt.%). A wide

  5. Conduit Wall Failure as a Trigger for Transition From Strombolian to Phreatomagmatic Explosive Activity in the Cova de Paúl Crater Eruption on Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R. W.; Day, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Episodes of hazardous phreatomagmatic explosive activity, including Surtseyan activity, occur within otherwise less dangerous effusive to mildly explosive magmatic eruptions at high-elevation vents on many oceanic island volcanoes. The water driving these explosions is sourced from freshwater aquifers within the volcanic edifices. Understanding volcanic and geophysical precursors to, and mechanisms of, the (frequently abrupt) transitions to explosive activity is required as a basis for effective warning and mitigation of the resulting hazards. Here we describe near-vent deposits around the large Cova de Paúl crater on the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands, which provide some insights into a transition from mild magmatic to violently explosive phreatomagmatic activity in one such eruption. This pre-historic but well-preserved crater formed in a single eruption that produced extensive low-temperature, lithic-rich phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flows and surge deposits; these are interbedded in proximal outcrops with airfall breccia and ash beds containing varying proportions of lithic and juvenile clasts, pointing to a series of climactic explosions within an extended period of milder explosive activity of broadly Surtseyan type. Prior to the transition to phreatomagmatic activity, the eruption had been characterized by mild Strombolian activity that produced scoria and spatter deposits of broadly tephritic composition. The Strombolian deposits contain a distinct population of strongly banded, low-vesicularity angular clasts with strongly prolate vesicles and a notably glassy appearance. These became markedly larger and more abundant just below the transition to the phreatomagmatic deposits. Comparisons of these clasts with the Strombolian scoria suggest that they are fragments of flow-banded chilled margins from the walls of the eruptive conduit. Thermal shattering of these margins to produce the angular glassy clasts may record the onset of groundwater flow

  6. The interplay between goal intentions and implementation intentions.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Webb, Thomas L; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2005-01-01

    Two studies tested whether action control by implementation intentions is sensitive to the activation and strength of participants' underlying goal intentions. In Study 1, participants formed implementation intentions (or did not) and their goal intentions were measured. Findings revealed a significant interaction between implementation intentions and the strength of respective goal intentions. Implementation intentions benefited the rate of goal attainment when participants had strong goal intentions but not when goal intentions were weak. Study 2 activated either a task-relevant or a neutral goal outside of participants' conscious awareness and found that implementation intentions affected performance only when the relevant goal had been activated. These findings indicate that the rate of goal attainment engendered by implementation intentions takes account of the state (strength, activation) of people's superordinate goal intentions. PMID:15574664

  7. An intentional interpretive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Paul

    2004-01-01

    To the extent that the concept of intention has been addressed within behavior analysis, descriptions of intention have been general and have not specifically included important distinctions that differentiate a behavior-analytic approach from vernacular definitions of intention. A fundamental difference between a behavior-analytic approach and most other psychological approaches is that other approaches focus on the necessity of intentions to explain behavior, whereas a behavior-analytic approach is directed at understanding the interplay between behavior and environment. Behavior-analytic interpretations include the relations between the observer's behavior and the environment. From a behavior-analytic perspective, an analysis of the observer's interpretations of an individual's behavior is inherent in the subsequent attribution of intention. The present agenda is to provide a behavior-analytic account of attributing intention that identifies the establishing conditions for speaking of intention. Also addressed is the extent to which we speak of intentions when the observed individual's behavior is contingency shaped or under instructional control. PMID:22478417

  8. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  10. Island Hopping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Gayle

    2009-01-01

    At some institutions, it may feel as though faculty live on one island and advancement staff on another. The islands form part of an archipelago, and they exchange ambassadors and send emissaries occasionally, but interactions are limited. It may even seem as though the two groups speak different languages, deal in different currencies, and abide…

  11. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  12. Thickness of the oceanic crust and the mantle transition zone in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha hot spot estimated from ocean-bottom and ocean-island seismometer receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Jokat, Wilfried; Jegen, Marion; Baba, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    According to classical plume theory, the Tristan da Cunha hotspot is thought to have played a major role in the rifting of the South Atlantic margins and the creation of the aseismic Walvis Ridge by impinging at the base of the continental lithosphere shortly before or during the breakup of the South Atlantic margins. However, Tristan da Cunha is enigmatic as it cannot be clearly identified as a hot spot but may also be classified as a more shallow type of anomaly that may actually have been caused by the opening of the South Atlantic. The equivocal character of Tristan da Cunha is largely due to a lack of geophysical and petrological data in this region. We therefore staged a multi-disciplinary geophysical study of the region by acquiring passive marine electromagnetic and seismic data, and bathymetric data within the framework of the SPP1375 South Atlantic Margin Processes and Links with onshore Evolution (SAMPLE) funded by the German Science foundation. The experiment included two ship expeditions onboard the German R/V MARIA S. MERIAN in 2012 and 2013. In our contribution we will present results on the thickness of the oceanic crust in the vicinity of the Tristan da Cunha archipelago derived from ocean-bottom seismometer data. Using the Ps receiver function method we estimate a thickness of 5 to 7 km for the oceanic crust at 17 ocean-bottom stations surrounding the islands in an area where the ocean floor has an age of approximately 10 to 30 Ma (from west to east). This indicates normal to slightly lowered magmatic activity at the mid-ocean ridge during the crust formation. There seems to be no major contribution of a mantle plume to the melting conditions at the ridge, which should cause the formation of thickened oceanic crust. The magmatic activity at the archipelago and surrounding seamounts seems to have only local effects on the crustal thickness. Furthermore, we imaged the mantle transition zone discontinuities analysing receiver functions at the

  13. 20 CFR 627.901 - Transition period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transition period. 627.901 Section 627.901... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.901 Transition period. The transition period ended June 30, 1993 unless otherwise stated. The intent of the transition period is...

  14. Siberian Islands

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Distinguishing Clouds from Ice over the East Siberian Sea, Russia     View Larger Image ... clouds from snow and ice. The central portion of Russia's East Siberian Sea, including one of the New Siberian Islands, Novaya ...

  15. Island of Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The island of Okinawa, (26.5N, 128.0E) largest of the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. The Ryukyu island group lies south of the main home islands of Japan in an arc towards the Chinese island Republic of Taiwan. As is typical throughout the Japanese home islands, intense urban development can be observed all over the island in this near vertical view.

  16. The Flores Island tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Harry; Imamura, Fumihiko; Synolakis, Costas; Tsuji, Yoshinobu; Liu, Philip; Shi, Shaozhong

    On December 12, 1992, at 5:30 A.M. GMT, an earthquake of magnitude Ms 7.5 struck the eastern region of Flores Island, Indonesia (Figure 1), a volcanic island located just at the transition between the Sunda and Banda Island arc systems. The local newspaper reported that 25-m high tsunamis struck the town of Maumere, causing substantial casualties and property damage. On December 16, television reports broadcast in Japan via satellite reported that 1000 people had been killed in Maumere and twothirds of the population of Babi Island had been swept away by the tsunamis.The current toll of the Flores earthquake is 2080 deaths and 2144 injuries, approximately 50% of which are attributed to the tsunamis. A tsunami survey plan was initiated within 3 days of the earthquake, and a cooperative international survey team was formed with four scientists from Indonesia, nine from Japan, three from the United States, one from the United Kingdom, and one from Korea.

  17. Beyond Good Intentions.

    PubMed

    Feder, Ellen K

    2015-01-01

    Ethical questions in medicine tend to emphasize the intentions of researchers and physicians. Questions concerning harm have more often been addressed in terms of legal culpability. This commentary proposes that normalizing interventions for atypical sex anatomies, both historical and ongoing, be recognized as a kind of medical error, and that attention be focused not simply on prevention, but on repair. PMID:26300145

  18. Barrier island bistability induced by biophysical interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán Vinent, Orencio; Moore, Laura J.

    2015-02-01

    Barrier islands represent about 10% of the world’s coastline, sustain rich ecosystems, host valuable infrastructure and protect mainland coasts from storms. Future climate-change-induced increases in the intensity and frequency of major hurricanes and accelerations in sea-level rise will have a significant impact on barrier islands--leading to increased coastal hazards and flooding--yet our understanding of island response to external drivers remains limited. Here, we find that island response is intrinsically bistable and controlled by previously unrecognized dynamics: the competing, and quantifiable, effects of storm erosion, sea-level rise, and the aeolian and biological processes that enable and drive dune recovery. When the biophysical processes driving dune recovery dominate, islands tend to be high in elevation and vulnerability to storms is minimized. Alternatively, when the effects of storm erosion dominate, islands may become trapped in a perpetual state of low elevation and maximum vulnerability to storms, even under mild storm conditions. When sea-level rise dominates, islands become unstable and face possible disintegration. This quantification of barrier island dynamics is supported by data from the Virginia Barrier Islands, USA and provides a broader context for considering island response to climate change and the likelihood of potentially abrupt transitions in island state.

  19. 78 FR 60850 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... rule to implement the Plan (77 FR 71260). The Plan and the final rule were developed to address the... Intent To Prepare a Recovery Plan for Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... for the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct...

  20. Transitional care coordination in New York City jails: facilitating linkages to care for people with HIV returning home from Rikers Island.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Alison O; Cohen, Louise R; Harriman, Graham; Teixeira, Paul A; Cruzado-Quinones, Jacqueline; Venters, Homer

    2013-10-01

    New York City (NYC) jails are the epicenter of an epidemic that overwhelmingly affects Black and Hispanic men and offer a significant opportunity for public health intervention. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene instituted population based approaches to identify the HIV-infected, initiate discharge planning at jail admission, and facilitate post-release linkages to primary care. Using a caring and supportive 'warm transitions' approach, transitional care services are integral to continuity of care. Since 2010, over three-quarters of known HIV-infected inmates admitted to jails received discharge plans; 74 % of those released were linked to primary care. The EnhanceLink initiative's new Health Liaison, a lynchpin role, facilitated 250 court-led placements in medical alternatives to incarceration. Transitional care coordination programs are critical to facilitate continuity of care for people with chronic health conditions including the HIV-infected returning home from jail and for the public health of the communities to which they return. PMID:23128979

  1. The intentionality bias in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Peyroux, Elodie; Strickland, Brent; Tapiero, Isabelle; Franck, Nicolas

    2014-11-30

    The tendency to over-interpret events of daily life as resulting from voluntary or intentional actions is one of the key aspects of schizophrenia with persecutory delusions. Here, we ask whether this characteristic may emerge from the abnormal activity of a basic cognitive process found in healthy adults and children: the intentionality bias, which refers to the implicit and automatic inclination to interpret human actions as intentional (Rosset, 2008, Cognition 108, 771-780). In our experiment, patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were shown sentences describing human actions in various linguistic contexts, and were asked to indicate whether the action was intentional or not. The results indicated that people with schizophrenia exhibited a striking bias to over attribute intentionality regardless of linguistic context, contrary to healthy controls who did not exhibit such a general intentionality bias. Moreover, this study provides some insight into the cognitive mechanisms underlying this bias: an inability to inhibit the automatic attribution of intentionality. PMID:25042425

  2. Devon Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mars Researchers Rendezvous on Remote Arctic Island   ... equipment and technology that may be deployed during a human mission to Mars. One of the many objectives of the project scientists is to ... Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed by NASA's ...

  3. Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) image of five Hawaiian Islands was acquired by the instrument's vertical- viewing (nadir) camera on June 3, 2000. The image shows the islands of Oahu, Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe. The prevailing Pacific trade winds bring higher levels of rainfall to the eastern slopes of the islands, leading to a greater abundance of vegetation on the windward coasts. The small change in observation angle across the nadir camera's field-of- view causes the right-hand portion of the image to be more affected by Sun glint, making the ocean surface appear brighter. Oahu is the westernmost of the islands seen in this image. Waikiki Beach and the city of Honolulu are located on the southern shore, to the west of Diamond Head caldera. MISR is one of several Earth-observing instruments on the Terra satellite, launched in December 1999. The Terra spacecraft, the flagship of a fleet of satellites dedicated to understanding our global environment, is part of NASA's Earth Sciences Enterprise, a long-term research program dedicated to understanding how human-induced and natural changes affect our world. Image courtesy NASA/GSFC/JPL, MISR Team

  4. Anatahan Island

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    ... Snorkelers around this island are likely to encounter the fish Achilles Tang and the Moorish Idol (Acanthurus achilles and Zanclus ... Terra circles the Earth in the same orbit as Landsat 7, flying at an altitude of about 700 kilometers above the Earth's surface. ...

  5. Turnover intention in new graduate nurses: a multivariate analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beecroft, Pauline C; Dorey, Frederick; Wenten, Madé

    2008-01-01

    recruitment of new graduate nurses, particularly in the United States of America. Historically, new graduate nurses have a high turnover rate within the first year of employment. What this paper adds When new graduate nurses are satisfied with their jobs and pay and feel committed to the organization, the odds of turnover intent decrease. Increased seeking social support to cope with the transition from student to competent Registered Nurse is related to turnover intent. Older graduates (>30) are 4·5 times more likely to have turnover intent if they do not get their ward of choice. PMID:18352963

  6. Streamlined Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-514, 15 October 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows a streamlined island in Marte Vallis, a large outflow channel system that crosses the 180oW meridian between the Elysium and Amazonis regions of Mars. The flow patterns on the floor of Marte Vallis might be the remains of lava flows or mud flows. Marte is the Spanish word for Mars. Most of the largest valleys on the red planet are named for 'Mars' in various languages. This island is located near 21.8oN, 175.3oW. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  7. Classifying Pacific islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, Patrick D.; Kumar, Lalit; Eliot, Ian; McLean, Roger F.

    2016-12-01

    An earth-science-based classification of islands within the Pacific Basin resulted from the preparation of a database describing the location, area, and type of 1779 islands, where island type is determined as a function of the prevailing lithology and maximum elevation of each island, with an island defined as a discrete landmass composed of a contiguous land area ≥1 ha (0.01 km2) above mean high-water level. Reefs lacking islands and short-lived (<20 years) transient islands are not included. The principal aim of the classification is to assess the spatial diversity of the geologic and geomorphic attributes of Pacific islands. It is intended to be valid at a regional scale and based on two attributes: five types of lithology (volcanic, limestone, composite, continental, surficial) and a distinction between high and low islands. These attributes yielded eight island types: volcanic high and low islands; limestone high and low islands; composite high and low islands; reef (including all unconsolidated) islands; and continental islands. Most common are reef islands (36 %) and volcanic high islands (31 %), whereas the least common are composite low islands (1 %). Continental islands, 18 of the 1779 islands examined, are not included in maps showing the distribution of island attributes and types. Rationale for the spatial distributions of the various island attributes is drawn from the available literature and canvassed in the text. With exception of the few continental islands, the distribution of island types is broadly interpretable from the proximity of island-forming processes. It is anticipated the classification will become the basis for more focused investigation of spatial variability of the climate and ocean setting as well as the biological attributes of Pacific islands. It may also be used in spatial assessments of second-order phenomena associated with the islands, such as their vulnerability to various disasters, coastal erosion, or ocean pollution as

  8. Marital Intentions and the Stability of First Cohabitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzzo, Karen Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    Using Cycle 6 of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this article documents the extent to which cohabitors begin their union with intentions to marry (indicated by either being engaged or having definite plans to marry) and how this is related to subsequent cohabitation transitions, building on earlier literature examining expectations.…

  9. Lattice-Boltzmann Simulation of Coalescence-Driven Island Coarsening

    SciTech Connect

    Hakan Basagaoglu; Christopher T. Green; Paul Meakin; Benjamin J. McCoy

    2004-10-01

    A two-dimensional lattice-Boltzmann model (LBM) with fluid-fluid interactions was used to simulate first-order phase separation in a thin fluid film. The intermediate asymptotic time dependence of the mean island size, island number concentration, and polydispersity were determined and compared with the predictions of the distribution-kinetics model. The comparison revealed that the combined effects of growth, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening control the phase transition process in the LBM simulations. However, the overall process is dominated by coalescence, which is independent of island mass. As the phase transition advances, the mean island size increases, the number of islands decrease, and the polydispersity approaches unity, which conforms to the predictions of the distribution-kinetics model. The effects of the domain size on the intermediate asymptotic island size distribution, scaling form of the island size distribution, and the crossover to the long-term asymptotic behavior were elucidated. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Repeated magmatism at 34 Ma and 23-20 Ma producing high magnesian adakitic andesites and transitional basalts on southern Okushiri Island, NE Japan arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Makoto; Shuto, Kenji; Nohara-Imanaka, Rikako; Takazawa, Eiichi; Osanai, Yasuhito; Nakano, Nobuhiko

    2014-09-01

    The southern part of Okushiri Island in the present-day back-arc margin of the NE Japan arc is one of the rare convergent plate boundaries where similar magma types (high-magnesian adakitic andesite (HMAA) and high-TiO2 basalt (HTB)) have been erupted concurrently at more than one time. Oligocene HMAA can be divided into two types: HMAA-I is characterized by high Sr/Y and low Y, and HMAA-II by relatively low Sr/Y and high Y. HMAA-I is primitive in terms of MgO (8.5 wt.%), Mg# (67), Ni (232 ppm) and Cr (613 ppm) contents, and the most Mg-rich olivine phenocrysts plot within the mantle olivine array in terms of Fo and NiO. The similar Cr versus Ni relations of types I and II HMAA indicate some interaction of slab-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite, whereas Ni contents are higher than those of most boninites derived by partial melting of mantle peridotite at a given Cr content. Types I and II HMAA have more enriched Sr and Nd isotopic compositions than N-MORB. The petrography and geochemistry of these rocks, combined with published results on the genesis of high-magnesian andesite (HMA) indicate that types I and II HMAA could be produced by interaction of slab (N-MORB and sediment)-derived adakitic melts with mantle peridotite. The comagmatism of HMAA and HTB is ascribed to the following model. A cool, less hydrous, adakite magma (spherical diapir) would rise from the subducting slab (Pacific Plate) and become more hydrous as a result of its interaction with overlying hydrous peridotite. This hydrated adakitic diapir further ascends and is heated on entering the overlying mantle wedge. Subsequently, the temperature and H2O gradients in the ascending adakitic diapir and surrounding mantle peridotite would have been established. The HTB magma segregated from the surrounding mantle peridotite region (high temperature and low H2O content) at a depth of 60 km or more, whereas the adakitic diapir (low temperature and high H2O content) continued to rise, with its

  11. 76 FR 35467 - Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island National Seashore...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... National Park Service Deer and Vegetation Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Fire Island... Intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan, Fire...) for a Deer and Vegetation Management Plan at Fire Island National Seashore, New York. The purpose...

  12. Intention Seekers: Conspiracist Ideation and Biased Attributions of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  13. Intention seekers: conspiracist ideation and biased attributions of intentionality.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Robert; French, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Conspiracist beliefs are widespread and potentially hazardous. A growing body of research suggests that cognitive biases may play a role in endorsement of conspiracy theories. The current research examines the novel hypothesis that individuals who are biased towards inferring intentional explanations for ambiguous actions are more likely to endorse conspiracy theories, which portray events as the exclusive product of intentional agency. Study 1 replicated a previously observed relationship between conspiracist ideation and individual differences in anthropomorphisation. Studies 2 and 3 report a relationship between conspiracism and inferences of intentionality for imagined ambiguous events. Additionally, Study 3 again found conspiracist ideation to be predicted by individual differences in anthropomorphism. Contrary to expectations, however, the relationship was not mediated by the intentionality bias. The findings are discussed in terms of a domain-general intentionality bias making conspiracy theories appear particularly plausible. Alternative explanations are suggested for the association between conspiracism and anthropomorphism. PMID:25970175

  14. Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    1988-06-01

    The Solomon Islands, which form an archipelago in the Southwest Pacific about 1900 km northeast of Australia, are described. Included are brief descriptions about such points as geography, people, history, type of government, political conditions, economy, and foreign relations. In 1987 the population was 301,180 (49% under age 14); the annual growth rate was 3.67%. The infant mortality rate is 46/1000; the life expectancy, 54 years. Health conditions in the Solomons generally are adequate, and the country does not suffer from serious endemic diseases other than malaria, in both the vivax and falsiparum strains. Hospitals and pharmacies are limited to population centers and missions. PMID:12177986

  15. Children's Understanding of Drivers' Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foot, Hugh C.; Thomson, James A.; Tolmie, Andrew K.; Whelan, Kirstie M.; Morrison, Sheila; Sarvary, Penelope

    2006-01-01

    To become more skilled as pedestrians, children need to acquire a view of the traffic environment as one in which road users are active agents with different intentions and objectives. This paper describes a simulation study designed to explore children's understanding of drivers' intentions. It also investigated the effect of training children's…

  16. Island Formation: Constructing a Coral Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Heather; Edd, Amelia

    2009-01-01

    The process of coral island formation is often difficult for middle school students to comprehend. Coral island formation is a dynamic process, and students should have the opportunity to experience this process in a synergistic context. The authors provide instructional guidelines for constructing a coral island. Students play an interactive role…

  17. Factors Affecting Hurricane Evacuation Intentions.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Jeffrey K; Bostrom, Ann; Morss, Rebecca E; Demuth, Julie L; Lazrus, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Protective actions for hurricane threats are a function of the environmental and information context; individual and household characteristics, including cultural worldviews, past hurricane experiences, and risk perceptions; and motivations and barriers to actions. Using survey data from the Miami-Dade and Houston-Galveston areas, we regress individuals' stated evacuation intentions on these factors in two information conditions: (1) seeing a forecast that a hurricane will hit one's area, and (2) receiving an evacuation order. In both information conditions having an evacuation plan, wanting to keep one's family safe, and viewing one's home as vulnerable to wind damage predict increased evacuation intentions. Some predictors of evacuation intentions differ between locations; for example, Florida respondents with more egalitarian worldviews are more likely to evacuate under both information conditions, and Florida respondents with more individualist worldviews are less likely to evacuate under an evacuation order, but worldview was not significantly associated with evacuation intention for Texas respondents. Differences by information condition also emerge, including: (1) evacuation intentions decrease with age in the evacuation order condition but increase with age in the saw forecast condition, and (2) evacuation intention in the evacuation order condition increases among those who rely on public sources of information on hurricane threats, whereas in the saw forecast condition evacuation intention increases among those who rely on personal sources. Results reinforce the value of focusing hurricane information efforts on evacuation plans and residential vulnerability and suggest avenues for future research on how hurricane contexts shape decision making. PMID:26299597

  18. Intentional systems: Review of neurodynamics, modeling, and robotics implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozma, Robert

    2008-03-01

    We present an intentional neurodynamic theory for higher cognition and intelligence. This theory provides a unifying framework for integrating symbolic and subsymbolic methods as complementary aspects of human intelligence. Top-down symbolic approaches benefit from the vast experience with logical reasoning and with high-level knowledge processing in humans. Connectionist methods use bottom-up approach to generate intelligent behavior by mimicking subsymbolic aspects of the operation of brains and nervous systems. Neurophysiological correlates of intentionality and cognition include sequences of oscillatory patterns of mesoscopic neural activity. Oscillatory patterns are viewed as intermittent representations of generalized symbol systems, with which brains compute. These dynamical symbols are not rigid but flexible. They disappear soon after they emerged through spatio-temporal phase transitions. Intentional neurodynamics provides a solution to the notoriously difficult symbol grounding problem. Some examples of implementations of the corresponding dynamic principles are described in this review.

  19. Counterfactual Thinking Facilitates Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Smallman, Rachel; Roese, Neal J.

    2009-01-01

    People often ponder what might have been, and these counterfactual inferences have been linked to behavior regulation. Counterfactuals may enhance performance by either a content-specific pathway (via shift in behavioral intentions) and/or a content-neutral pathway (via mindsets or motivation). Three experiments provided new specification of the content-specific pathway. A sequential priming paradigm revealed that counterfactual judgments facilitated RTs to complete behavioral intention judgments relative to control judgments and to a no-judgment baseline (Experiment 1). This facilitation effect was found only for intention judgments that matched the information content of the counterfactual (Experiment 2) and only for intention judgments as opposed to a different judgment that nevertheless focused on the same information content (Experiment 3). These findings clarify the content-specific pathway by which counterfactuals influence behavior. PMID:20161221

  20. Evil intent and design responsibility.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Bart

    2004-04-01

    Mass casualty attacks in recent years have demonstrated the need to include "evil intent" as a design consideration. Three recent actual or potential weapons of mass destruction (WMD) attacks did not involve nuclear bombs or other devices designed as weapons, but rather benign objects used with evil intent. Just as unplanned events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, and user misuse have been codified into design requirements based on the likelihood and potential impact of the event, "evil intent" has to become part of the design process for buildings, vehicles, equipment, and other items. The endstate should be reasonable additions to existing codes and standards such that it is clear what is and is not designed for. In the absence of specific design guidance, professionals with appropriate expertise can assess potential for "evil intent" and provide recommendations to design out or warn against this potential harm to public safety, particularly when codified requirements are not present. PMID:15152856

  1. Design intent tool: User guide

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan; Abell, Daniel; Bell, Geoffrey; Faludi, Jeremy; Greenberg, Steve; Hitchcock, Rob; Piette, Mary Ann; Sartor, Dalei; Stum, Karl

    2002-08-23

    This database tool provides a structured approach to recording design decisions that impact a facility's design intent in areas such as energy efficiency.Owners and de signers alike can plan, monitor and verify that a facility's design intent is being met during each stage of the design process. Additionally, the Tool gives commissioning agents, facility operators and future owners and renovators an understanding of how the building and its subsystems are intended to operate, and thus track and benchmark performance.

  2. Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This pair of MISR images of the Pine Island Glacier in western Antarctica was acquired on December 12, 2000 during Terra orbit 5246. At left is a conventional, true-color image from the downward-looking (nadir) camera. The false-color image at right is a composite of red band data taken by the MISR forward 60-degree, nadir, and aftward 60-degree cameras, displayed in red, green, and blue colors, respectively. Color variations in the left (true-color) image highlight spectral differences. In the multi-angle composite, on the other hand, color variations act as a proxy for differences in the angular reflectance properties of the scene. In this representation, clouds show up as light purple. Blue to orange gradations on the surface indicate a transition in ice texture from smooth to rough. For example, the bright orange 'carrot-like' features are rough crevasses on the glacier's tongue. In the conventional nadir view, the blue ice labeled 'rough crevasses' and 'smooth blue ice' exhibit similar coloration, but the multi-angle composite reveals their different textures, with the smoother ice appearing dark purple instead of orange. This could be an indicator of different mechanisms by which this ice is exposed. The multi-angle view also reveals subtle roughness variations on the frozen sea ice between the glacier and the open water in Pine Island Bay.

    To the left of the 'icebergs' label are chunks of floating ice. Additionally, smaller icebergs embedded in the frozen sea ice are visible below and to the right of the label. These small icebergs are associated with dark streaks. Analysis of the illumination geometry suggests that these streaks are surface features, not shadows. Wind-driven motion and thinning of the sea ice in the vicinity of the icebergs is one possible explanation.

    Recently, Robert Bindschadler, a glaciologist at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center discovered in Landsat 7 imagery a newly-formed crack traversing the Pine Island Glacier. This crack

  3. Hawaiian Island Archipelago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The entire Hawaiian Island Archipelago (21.5N, 158.0W) is seen in this single view. The islands are a favorite international resort and tourist attraction drawing visitors from all over the world to enjoy the tropical climate, year round beaches and lush island flora. Being volcanic in origin, the islands' offer a rugged landscape and on the big island of Hawaii, there is still an occasional volcanic eruption of lava flows and steam vents.

  4. Decoding Intention at Sensorimotor Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Salvaris, Mathew; Haggard, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a ‘holy grail’ of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered. PMID:24523855

  5. Neural substrates underlying intentional empathy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Yang, Xuedong; Wang, Xiaoying; Northoff, Georg; Han, Shihui

    2012-01-01

    Although empathic responses to stimuli with emotional contents may occur automatically, humans are capable to intentionally empathize with other individuals. Intentional empathy for others is even possible when they do not show emotional expressions. However, little is known about the neuronal mechanisms of this intentionally controlled empathic process. To investigate the neuronal substrates underlying intentional empathy, we scanned 20 healthy Chinese subjects, using fMRI, when they tried to feel inside the emotional states of neutral or angry faces of familiar (Asian) and unfamiliar (Caucasian) models. Skin color evaluation of the same stimuli served as a control task. Compared to a baseline condition, the empathy task revealed a network of established empathy regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral inferior frontal cortex and bilateral anterior insula. The contrast of intentional empathy vs skin color evaluation, however, revealed three regions: the bilateral inferior frontal cortex, whose hemodynamic responses were independent of perceived emotion and familiarity and the right-middle temporal gyrus, whose activity was modulated by emotion but not by familiarity. These findings extend our understanding of the role of the inferior frontal cortex and the middle temporal gyrus in empathy by demonstrating their involvement in intentional empathy. PMID:21511824

  6. Multiclass Real-Time Intent Recognition of a Powered Lower Limb Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Varol, Huseyin Atakan; Sup, Frank; Goldfarb, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a control architecture and intent recognition approach for the real-time supervisory control of a powered lower limb prosthesis. The approach infers user intent to stand, sit, or walk, by recognizing patterns in prosthesis sensor data in real-time, without the need for instrumentation of the sound-side leg. Specifically, the intent recognizer utilizes time-based features extracted from frames of prosthesis signals, which are subsequently reduced to a lower dimensionality (for computational efficiency). These data are initially used to train intent models, which classify the patterns as standing, sitting, or walking. The trained models are subsequently used to infer the user’s intent in real-time. In addition to describing the generalized control approach, this paper describes the implementation of this approach on a single unilateral transfemoral amputee subject, and demonstrates via experiments the effectiveness of the approach. In the real-time supervisory control experiments, the intent recognizer identified all 90 activity mode transitions, switching the underlying middle level controllers without any perceivable delay by the user. The intent recognizer also identified six activity mode transitions, which were not intended by the user. Due to the intentional overlapping functionality of the middle level controllers, the incorrect classifications neither caused problems in functionality, nor were perceived by the user. PMID:19846361

  7. Intentional Schools: Living in the Moment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bockern, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Schools with good intentions are not the same as schools being intentional. Sometimes the best intentions--a result of valuing efficiency, standard procedure (tradition), obedience, or the latest educational fad--create unintended consequences that are not necessarily in the best interest of children. Intentional schools develop a culture of…

  8. Family medicine residents’ practice intentions

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Lawrence E.M.; Fowler, Nancy; Kwan, Matthew Y.W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess residents’ practice intentions since the introduction of the College of Family Physicians of Canada’s Triple C curriculum, which focuses on graduating family physicians who will provide comprehensive care within traditional and newer models of family practice. Design A survey based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour was administered on 2 occasions. Setting McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont. Participants Residents (n = 135) who were enrolled in the Department of Family Medicine Postgraduate Residency Program at McMaster University in July 2012 and July 2013; 54 of the 60 first-year residents who completed the survey in 2012 completed it again in 2013. Main outcome measures The survey was modeled so as to measure the respondents’ intentions to practise with a comprehensive scope; determine the degree to which their attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control about comprehensive practice influence those intentions; and investigate how these relationships change as residents progress through the curriculum. The survey also queried the respondents about their intentions with respect to particular medical services that underpin comprehensive practice. Results The responses indicate that the factors modeled by the theory of planned behaviour survey account for 60% of the variance in the residents’ intentions to adopt a comprehensive scope of practice upon graduation, that there is room for curricular improvement with respect to encouraging residents to practise comprehensive care, and that targeting subjective norms about comprehensive practice might have the greatest influence on improving resident intentions. Conclusion The theory of planned behaviour presents an effective approach to assessing curricular effects on resident practice intentions while also providing meaningful information for guiding further program evaluation efforts in the Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University. PMID:26889508

  9. 75 FR 40759 - Initiation of Review of Management Plan/Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... regulations that became effective December 29, 1999 (64 FR 63262). NOAA anticipates completion of the revised.../Regulations of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary; Intent To Prepare Draft...) has initiated a review of the Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary (HIHWNMS...

  10. Electron acceleration via magnetic island coalescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, I.; Yumura, T.; Tanaka, K. G.; Fujimoto, M.

    2009-06-01

    Electron acceleration via fast magnetic island coalescence that happens as quick magnetic reconnection triggering (QMRT) proceeds has been studied. We have carried out a three-dimensional full kinetic simulation of the Harris current sheet with a large enough simulation run for two magnetic islands coalescence. Due to the strong inductive electric field associated with the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability and the magnetic island coalescence process observed in the non-linear stage of the collisionless tearing mode, electrons are significantly accelerated at around the neutral sheet and the subsequent X-line. The accelerated meandering electrons generated by the non-linear evolution of the lower-hybrid-drift instability are resulted in QMRT, and QMRT leads to fast magnetic island coalescence. As a whole, the reconnection triggering and its transition to large-scale structure work as an effective electron accelerator.

  11. Beyond human intentions and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Elsa; Frum, Chris; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco; Wang, Yi-Wen; Lewis, James W.; Cacioppo, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Although significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neural basis of action observation and intention understanding in the last few decades by studies demonstrating the involvement of a specific brain network (action observation network; AON), these have been largely based on experimental studies in which people have been considered as strictly isolated entities. However, we, as social species, spend much more of our time performing actions interacting with others. Research shows that a person's position along the continuum of perceived social isolation/bonding to others is associated with a variety of physical and mental health effects. Thus, there is a crucial need to better understand the neural basis of intention understanding performed in interpersonal and emotional contexts. To address this issue, we performed a meta-analysis using of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies over the past decade that examined brain and cortical network processing associated with understanding the intention of others actions vs. those associated with passionate love for others. Both overlapping and distinct cortical and subcortical regions were identified for intention and love, respectively. These findings provide scientists and clinicians with a set of brain regions that can be targeted for future neuroscientific studies on intention understanding, and help develop neurocognitive models of pair-bonding. PMID:23543838

  12. Morality, Intentionality, and Intergroup Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Killen, Melanie; Rizzo, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Morality is at the core of what it means to be social. Moral judgments require the recognition of intentionality, that is, an attribution of the target’s intentions towards another. Most research on the origins of morality has focused on intragroup morality, which involves applying morality to individuals in one’s own group. Yet, increasingly, there has been new evidence that beginning early in development, children are able to apply moral concepts to members of an outgroup as well, and that this ability appears to be complex. The challenges associated with applying moral judgments to members of outgroups includes understanding group dynamics, the intentions of others who are different from the self, and having the capacity to challenge stereotypic expectations of others who are different from the ingroup. Research with children provides a window into the complexities of moral judgment and raises new questions, which are ripe for investigations into the evolutionary basis of morality. PMID:25717199

  13. Comparison of Secondary Islands in Collisional Reconnection to Hall Reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, L. S.; Cassak, P. A.

    2010-07-02

    Large-scale resistive Hall-magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the transition from Sweet-Parker (collisional) to Hall (collisionless) magnetic reconnection are presented; the first to separate secondary islands from collisionless effects. Three main results are described. There exists a regime with secondary islands but without collisionless effects, and the reconnection rate is faster than Sweet-Parker, but significantly slower than Hall reconnection. This implies that secondary islands do not cause the fastest reconnection rates. The onset of Hall reconnection ejects secondary islands from the vicinity of the X line, implying that energy is released more rapidly during Hall reconnection. Coronal applications are discussed.

  14. Barrier Island Hazard Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkey, Orrin H.; Neal, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes efforts to evaluate and map the susceptibility of barrier islands to damage from storms, erosion, rising sea levels and other natural phenomena. Presented are criteria for assessing the safety and hazard potential of island developments. (WB)

  15. Some Comments on the Distinction Between Intention and Intentionality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The topic of intention has recently received attention from behavior analysts (Hineline, 2003; Neuman, 2004). From a behavior-analytic perspective, it is important to identify the circumstances in which people utter such terms, and to identify the potential circumstances that maintain such utterances. It follows that from a behavior-analytic…

  16. Falkland Islands, UK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Falkland Islands (52.0S, 58.5W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-109-043 to analyze the unique properties of each film type. Seldom seen cloud free, the Falkland Islands lie off the southern coast of Argentina. The cold Falklands Ocean Current keeps the islands chilly, ideal for sheep herding and fishing, the two main industries. Colonies of seals and penguins also thrive on the islands.

  17. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  18. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Suicide and Mass Urban Transit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Alan L., Ed.

    1991-01-01

    Presents case consultation in which consultants respond to issues of urban planning for mass transit (subway) system and how to maximize prevention of intentional injury within subway stations. Also asks what type of research study should be used and what type of data collected once system is operating. Case is discussed by Morton M. Silverman and…

  20. Models of College Persistence Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Donald W.

    2010-01-01

    While withdrawal from higher education may be the result of many reasons both within and beyond the control of the student or the institution, the intent of not returning to higher education indicates the acceptance of a permanent disassociation with the pursuit of the higher education endeavor. It is of paramount importance in understanding the…

  1. Entrepreneurial Intention as Developmental Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obschonka, Martin; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva

    2010-01-01

    What predicts adults' entrepreneurial intentions? Utilizing a cross-sectional sample of 496 German scientists, we investigated a path model for the effects of entrepreneurial personality (Big Five profile), control beliefs, and recalled early entrepreneurial competence in adolescence (early inventions, leadership, commercial activities) on two…

  2. Infants Infer Intentions from Prosody

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakkalou, Elena; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine infants' ability to discern intentions from lexical and prosodic cues. Two groups of 14-18-month-olds participated in these studies. In both studies, infants watched an adult perform a sequence of two-step actions on novel toys that produced an end-result. In the first study actions were marked intentionally…

  3. 77 FR 11086 - Revised Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Brunswick...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... Notice of Intent (NOI) publication. This notice is a revision of an August 26, 2003, NOI (68 FR 51257) to... alternatives to reduce coastal storm damages from beach erosion in the towns of Holden Beach, Oak Island, and..., Eighty-ninth Congress. 3. Project Purpose. The project purpose is reduction of damages from beach...

  4. Predictable evolution toward flightlessness in volant island birds.

    PubMed

    Wright, Natalie A; Steadman, David W; Witt, Christopher C

    2016-04-26

    Birds are prolific colonists of islands, where they readily evolve distinct forms. Identifying predictable, directional patterns of evolutionary change in island birds, however, has proved challenging. The "island rule" predicts that island species evolve toward intermediate sizes, but its general applicability to birds is questionable. However, convergent evolution has clearly occurred in the island bird lineages that have undergone transitions to secondary flightlessness, a process involving drastic reduction of the flight muscles and enlargement of the hindlimbs. Here, we investigated whether volant island bird populations tend to change shape in a way that converges subtly on the flightless form. We found that island bird species have evolved smaller flight muscles than their continental relatives. Furthermore, in 366 populations of Caribbean and Pacific birds, smaller flight muscles and longer legs evolved in response to increasing insularity and, strikingly, the scarcity of avian and mammalian predators. On smaller islands with fewer predators, birds exhibited shifts in investment from forelimbs to hindlimbs that were qualitatively similar to anatomical rearrangements observed in flightless birds. These findings suggest that island bird populations tend to evolve on a trajectory toward flightlessness, even if most remain volant. This pattern was consistent across nine families and four orders that vary in lifestyle, foraging behavior, flight style, and body size. These predictable shifts in avian morphology may reduce the physical capacity for escape via flight and diminish the potential for small-island taxa to diversify via dispersal. PMID:27071105

  5. Control of paleoshorelines by trench forebulge uplift, Loyalty Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, William R.

    2013-07-01

    Unlike most tropical Pacific islands, which lie along island arcs or hotspot chains, the Loyalty Islands between New Caledonia and Vanuatu owe their existence and morphology to the uplift of pre-existing atolls on the flexural forebulge of the New Hebrides Trench. The configuration and topography of each island is a function of distance from the crest of the uplifted forebulge. Both Maré and Lifou are fully emergent paleoatolls upon which ancient barrier reefs form highstanding annular ridges that enclose interior plateaus representing paleolagoon floors, whereas the partially emergent Ouvea paleoatoll rim flanks a drowned remnant lagoon. Emergent paleoshoreline features exposed by island uplift include paleoreef flats constructed as ancient fringing reefs built to past low tide levels and emergent tidal notches incised at past high tide levels. Present paleoshoreline elevations record uplift rates of the islands since last-interglacial and mid-Holocene highstands in global and regional sea levels, respectively, and paleoreef stratigraphy reflects net Quaternary island emergence. The empirical uplift rates vary in harmony with theoretical uplift rates inferred from the different positions of the islands in transit across the trench forebulge at the trench subduction rate. The Loyalty Islands provide a case study of island environments controlled primarily by neotectonics.

  6. Generalized model of island biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kessler, David A; Shnerb, Nadav M

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical. PMID:25974525

  7. Generalized model of island biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, David A.; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2015-04-01

    The dynamics of a local community of competing species with weak immigration from a static regional pool is studied. Implementing the generalized competitive Lotka-Volterra model with demographic noise, a rich dynamics with four qualitatively distinct phases is unfolded. When the overall interspecies competition is weak, the island species recapitulate the mainland species. For higher values of the competition parameter, the system still admits an equilibrium community, but now some of the mainland species are absent on the island. Further increase in competition leads to an intermittent "disordered" phase, where the dynamics is controlled by invadable combinations of species and the turnover rate is governed by the migration. Finally, the strong competition phase is glasslike, dominated by uninvadable states and noise-induced transitions. Our model contains, as a special case, the celebrated neutral island theories of Wilson-MacArthur and Hubbell. Moreover, we show that slight deviations from perfect neutrality may lead to each of the phases, as the Hubbell point appears to be quadracritical.

  8. Career Intentions of Australian Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mäkelä, Kasper; Whipp, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Australian physical education (PE) teachers' career intentions and factors influencing their intentions. A sample (N = 234) of Western Australian PE teachers responded to a questionnaire determining PE teachers' work and the primary motivators for intention to leave the profession. Half (51.3%) of the…

  9. Automatic Intention Recognition in Conversation Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    A fundamental assumption of many theories of conversation is that comprehension of a speaker's utterance involves recognition of the speaker's intention in producing that remark. However, the nature of intention recognition is not clear. One approach is to conceptualize a speaker's intention in terms of speech acts [Searle, J. (1969). "Speech…

  10. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island.

    PubMed

    Sarnat, Eli M; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi; Evan P Economo

    2013-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago's ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity. PMID:23653494

  11. Checklist of the ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) of the Solomon Islands and a new survey of Makira Island

    PubMed Central

    Sarnat, Eli M.; Blanchard, Benjamin; Guénard, Benoit; John Fasi;  Evan P. Economo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The intent of this paper is to facilitate future research of the Solomon Islands ant fauna by providing the first comprehensively researched species inventory in over 75 years. The species list presented here includes the names of all ant species recorded from the islands that are available in the literature together with specimen records from several museum collections and new records from our 2008 Makira field expedition. All the names of described species presented are valid in accordance with the most recent Formicidae classification. In total, the checklist is composed of 237 species and subspecies (including 30 morphospecies) in 59 genera representing nine subfamilies. We report that the recent field expedition added 67 new species records to Makira and 28 new species records to the Solomon Islands. Our research recovered species occurrence records for 32 individual islands and five island groups. The five islands with the highest number of recorded species are: Makira (142 spp.), Guadalcanal (107 spp.), Malaita (70 spp.), Santa Isabel (68 spp.), and Rennell (66 spp.). Based on our results, we discuss the taxonomic composition of the archipelago’s ant fauna, which islands are most in need of additional sampling, and the importance of establishing biodiversity baselines before environmental threats such as the invasive ant Wasmannia auropunctata cause irrevocable harm to the native biodiversity. PMID:23653494

  12. Intention Concepts and Brain-Machine Interfacing

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes-Elker, Franziska; Iljina, Olga; Apostolides, John Kyle; Kraemer, Felicitas; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Aertsen, Ad; Ball, Tonio

    2012-01-01

    Intentions, including their temporal properties and semantic content, are receiving increased attention, and neuroscientific studies in humans vary with respect to the topography of intention-related neural responses. This may reflect the fact that the kind of intentions investigated in one study may not be exactly the same kind investigated in the other. Fine-grained intention taxonomies developed in the philosophy of mind may be useful to identify the neural correlates of well-defined types of intentions, as well as to disentangle them from other related mental states, such as mere urges to perform an action. Intention-related neural signals may be exploited by brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) that are currently being developed to restore speech and motor control in paralyzed patients. Such BMI devices record the brain activity of the agent, interpret (“decode”) the agent’s intended action, and send the corresponding execution command to an artificial effector system, e.g., a computer cursor or a robotic arm. In the present paper, we evaluate the potential of intention concepts from philosophy of mind to improve the performance and safety of BMIs based on higher-order, intention-related control signals. To this end, we address the distinction between future-, present-directed, and motor intentions, as well as the organization of intentions in time, specifically to what extent it is sequential or hierarchical. This has consequences as to whether these different types of intentions can be expected to occur simultaneously or not. We further illustrate how it may be useful or even necessary to distinguish types of intentions exposited in philosophy, including yes- vs. no-intentions and oblique vs. direct intentions, to accurately decode the agent’s intentions from neural signals in practical BMI applications. PMID:23162504

  13. Decoding intention: A neuroergonomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; Tipper, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Decoding the intentions of other people based on non-linguistic cues such as their body movement is a major requirement of many jobs. Whether it is maintaining security at an airport or negotiating with locals in a foreign country, there is a need to augment maximize the effectiveness of training or real-time performance in this decoding process. This review considers the potential utility of neuroergonomic solutions, and in particular, of electroencephalographic (EEG) methods for augmenting action understanding. Focus is given to body movements and hand-object interactions, where there is a rapid growth in relevant science. The interpretation of EEG-based signals is reinforced by a consideration of functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments demonstrating underlying brain mechanisms that support goal oriented action. While no EEG method is currently implemented as a practical application for enhancing the understanding of unspoken intentions, there are a number of promising approaches that merit further development. PMID:21651985

  14. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, J.; Poirier, P.; Obrien, M. E.; Gibeson, L.

    1993-05-01

    This document details the feasibility studies conducted for the Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC) project. The short-range limitation arises from the need for low probability of intercept (LPI), low probability of detection (LPD) communication links. The detection of an undecipherable transmission would still provide an enemy with information regarding transmitter location. The technologies being studied are ultraviolet (UV) lamps, UV lasers, infrared (IR) lasers, millimeter waves (MMW), and direct sequence spread spectrum.

  15. Slow motion increases perceived intent.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Eugene M; Burns, Zachary C; Converse, Benjamin A

    2016-08-16

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor's intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in "slow motion." Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  16. Slow motion increases perceived intent

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Eugene M.; Burns, Zachary C.; Converse, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the appropriate punishment for a harmful action, people must often make inferences about the transgressor’s intent. In courtrooms and popular media, such inferences increasingly rely on video evidence, which is often played in “slow motion.” Four experiments (n = 1,610) involving real surveillance footage from a murder or broadcast replays of violent contact in professional football demonstrate that viewing an action in slow motion, compared with regular speed, can cause viewers to perceive an action as more intentional. This slow motion intentionality bias occurred, in part, because slow motion video caused participants to feel like the actor had more time to act, even when they knew how much clock time had actually elapsed. Four additional experiments (n = 2,737) reveal that allowing viewers to see both regular speed and slow motion replay mitigates the bias, but does not eliminate it. We conclude that an empirical understanding of the effect of slow motion on mental state attribution should inform the life-or-death decisions that are currently based on tacit assumptions about the objectivity of human perception. PMID:27482091

  17. Apraxia impairs intentional retrieval of incidentally acquired motor knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dovern, Anna; Fink, Gereon R; Saliger, Jochen; Karbe, Hans; Koch, Iring; Weiss, Peter H

    2011-06-01

    Apraxia caused by left hemispheric stroke typically impairs skilled sequential movements. After stroke, apraxic patients need to reacquire motor skills by motor learning. The current study assessed for the first time incidental motor sequence learning in apraxic patients. Forty-eight human subjects (henceforth called "patients") with left hemispheric stroke affecting the middle cerebral artery territory (18 with apraxia and 30 without apraxia) and 17 age-matched healthy controls were tested on a visuomanual serial reaction time task. Subjects performed four blocks consisting of repetitions of a complex six element sequence containing ambiguous pairwise transitions before a new and unfamiliar sequence was introduced in block 5. Reaction time (RT) disadvantages in this fifth block indicated incidental sequence-specific motor learning. The intentional retrieval of the learned motor knowledge was assessed subsequently with a free recall task. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was performed to investigate for the first time the lesion correlates of deficits in learning and retrieving sequential motor knowledge. Despite generally prolonged RTs, apraxic patients showed sequence-specific motor learning as could be observed in nonapraxic patients and healthy controls. However, apraxic patients showed reduced intentional retrieval of the learned sequence. VLSM revealed that impaired intentional retrieval of motor sequence knowledge resulted from dorsal premotor cortex lesions. Apraxic patients showed a dissociation of preserved incidental motor (sequence) learning and deficient intentional retrieval of this incidentally learned motor knowledge. The data suggest that novel approaches for treating apraxia should focus on incidental motor learning, but that automatic rather than intentional retrieval strategies should be enforced. PMID:21632932

  18. 76 FR 57979 - Intent to Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for a Permit Application for Widening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... Island Pass Channel to facilitate the transition between the two channel segments. The Corps is... Horn Island Pass to the entrance of the Bayou Casotte Harbor) and maintenance of the channel. The... Channel, in the Port of Pascagoula, Jackson County, Mississippi AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers,...

  19. Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  20. 75 FR 81328 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Metro Gold Line Foothill Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Metro Gold Line.... SUMMARY: The Federal Transit Administration (FTA), as the federal lead agency, and the Metro Gold Line... proposed project. The proposed project is an extension of the existing Metro Gold Line light rail...

  1. Thermodynamic model of coherent island formation on vicinal substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xu Sun, Xiao-Hong; Yu, Yanguang; Ren, Xiaomin

    2014-04-28

    A thermodynamic model has been proposed to address the formation of coherent island on the vicinal substrate. The morphological transition from square based island to elongated based one with various substrate misorientations is described. The initial stage of nucleation and growth process of islands in Stranski–Krastanow system is studied by taking into account the elastic deformations and the change of energy in the case of two-dimensional growth mode. The theoretical analysis shows the minimum nucleation barrier of island is on the decrease with increment of substrate misorientation, which means the nucleation of island on vicinal substrate is more favorable than that on flat substrate. By using the fitting data of experimental results done by Persichetti et al., [Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 036104 (2010) and Phys. Rev. B 82, 121309(R) (2010)], we provide a meaningful explanation of the experimental observations.

  2. Network mechanisms of intentional learning

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J.; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M.; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-01-01

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus–response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  3. Network mechanisms of intentional learning.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Adam; Hellyer, Peter J; Parkin, Beth; Hiebert, Nole; MacDonald, Penny; Owen, Adrian M; Leech, Robert; Rowe, James

    2016-02-15

    The ability to learn new tasks rapidly is a prominent characteristic of human behaviour. This ability relies on flexible cognitive systems that adapt in order to encode temporary programs for processing non-automated tasks. Previous functional imaging studies have revealed distinct roles for the lateral frontal cortices (LFCs) and the ventral striatum in intentional learning processes. However, the human LFCs are complex; they house multiple distinct sub-regions, each of which co-activates with a different functional network. It remains unclear how these LFC networks differ in their functions and how they coordinate with each other, and the ventral striatum, to support intentional learning. Here, we apply a suite of fMRI connectivity methods to determine how LFC networks activate and interact at different stages of two novel tasks, in which arbitrary stimulus-response rules are learnt either from explicit instruction or by trial-and-error. We report that the networks activate en masse and in synchrony when novel rules are being learnt from instruction. However, these networks are not homogeneous in their functions; instead, the directed connectivities between them vary asymmetrically across the learning timecourse and they disengage from the task sequentially along a rostro-caudal axis. Furthermore, when negative feedback indicates the need to switch to alternative stimulus-response rules, there is additional input to the LFC networks from the ventral striatum. These results support the hypotheses that LFC networks interact as a hierarchical system during intentional learning and that signals from the ventral striatum have a driving influence on this system when the internal program for processing the task is updated. PMID:26658925

  4. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of coalescence-driven island coarsening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Basagaoglu, H.; Green, C.T.; Meakin, P.; McCoy, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    The first-order phase separation in a thin fluid film was simulated using a two-dimensional lattice-Boltzman model (LBM) with fluid-fluid interactions. The effects of the domain size on the intermediate asymptotic island size distribution were also discussed. It was observed that the overall process is dominated by coalescence which is independent of island mass. The results show that the combined effects of growth, coalescence, and Ostwald ripening control the phase transition process in the LBM simulations.

  5. Marine and Island Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  6. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  7. Pine Island Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Birth of a Large Iceberg in Pine Island Bay, Antarctica     View ... iceberg (42 kilometers x 17 kilometers) broke off Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica (75°S latitude, 102°W longitude) sometime ...

  8. Back to Treasure Island

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriki, Atara

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the Treasure Island problem and some inquiry activities derived from the problem. Trying to find where pirates buried a treasure leads to a surprising answer, multiple solutions, and a discussion of problem solving. The Treasure Island problem is an example of an inquiry activity that can be implemented in…

  9. Island Natural Science School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toronto Board of Education (Ontario).

    Prepared for students in grade six attending the Island Natural Science School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, this booklet offers information and suggests activities in the areas of ecology, conservation, natural resources, and outdoor recreation. Introductory material describes island lore, its formation and significant features, followed by units of…

  10. Basaltic island sand provenance

    SciTech Connect

    Marsaglia, K.M. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

  11. Decoding movement intent of patient with multiple sclerosis for the powered lower extremity exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Huang, He

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to recognize movement intent of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) by decoding neuromuscular control signals fused with mechanical measurements as a method of powered lower extremity exoskeleton control. Surface electromyographic (EMG) signals recorded from the lower extremity muscles, ground reaction forces measured from beneath both feet, and kinematics from both thigh segments of a single MS patient were used to identify three activities (level-ground walking, sitting, and standing). Our study showed that during activity performance clear modulation of muscle activity in the lower extremities was observed for the MS patient, whose Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) was 6. The designed intent recognition algorithm can accurately classify the subject's intended movements with 98.73% accuracy in static states and correctly predict the activity transitions about 100 to 130 ms before the actual transitions were made. These promising results indicate the potential of designed intent recognition interface for volitional control of powered lower extremity exoskeletons. PMID:24110847

  12. A conceptual model of intentional comfort touch.

    PubMed

    Connor, Ann; Howett, Maeve

    2009-06-01

    This article discusses the application and integration of intentional comfort touch as a holistic nursing practice. A review of the literature on touch and its related concepts is included. Although nurses use touch frequently in patient encounters, it is not always used intentionally or deliberately to enhance care. The article compares and contrasts intentional comfort touch with nonintentional or procedural touch. The use of intentional comfort touch in innovative clinical settings with diverse and at-risk populations is described. Based on clinical experiences and the current literature, a conceptual model of intentional comfort touch is proposed. The application of touch is discussed as is the meaning and importance of intentional touch for students, faculty, and patients. PMID:19443699

  13. 75 FR 57056 - Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge and Wallops Island National Wildlife Refuge, Accomack...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), are gathering information to prepare a comprehensive conservation plan (CCP) and associated environmental impact statement (EIS) for Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and Wallops Island NWR. We provide this notice in compliance with our policy to advise other agencies and the public of our intentions to conduct detailed planning on......

  14. 75 FR 2158 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact statement and announcement of public scoping. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  15. 78 FR 50082 - South Farallon Islands Invasive House Mouse Eradication Project; Farallon National Wildlife...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) over a 15-year period (75 FR 5102, February 1, 2010). The wildlife management goal... published a notice of intent (NOI) to prepare an EIS (76 FR 20706, April 13, 2011). We then developed a..., invertebrates, and plants, as well as to enhance ecosystem processes on the islands. The South Farallon...

  16. 75 FR 62415 - Nomans Land Island National Wildlife Refuge, Town of Chilmark, Martha's Vineyard, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... the notice of intent we published in the Federal Register (69 FR 72210) on December 13, 2008. We... of availability in the Federal Register (75 FR 30052) on May 28, 2010. Nomans Land Island is a 628... diverse habitats including intertidal, freshwater wetland, grassland, and shrubland habitats, it serves...

  17. 46 CFR 119.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS MACHINERY INSTALLATION General Provisions § 119.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation...

  18. 46 CFR 120.100 - Intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION General Provisions § 120.100 Intent. This part contains requirements for the design, construction, installation, and operation...

  19. Ober's Island: The Mallard Ober's Island, One of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Ober's Island: The Mallard - Ober's Island, One of the Review Islands on Rainy Lake, bounded on the south by The Hawk Island and on the north by The Crow Island. These islands are located seven miles east of Ranier, Minnesota, three miles west of Voyageur National Park, and one mile south of the international border of the United States of America and Canada. The legal description of Mallard Island is Lot 6, Section 19, T-17-N, R-22-W, Koochiching County, Minnesota, Ranier, Koochiching County, MN

  20. Crystalline islands of semiconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmievskaya, G. I.; Bondareva, A. L.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nucleation in the form of powder in a discharge plasma and the formation of thin film islands on a Si(100) substrate in the course of gas-phase epitaxy are simulated numerically. Models of plasma-like media and nonequilibrium processes accompanying phase transitions of the first kind (such as condensation and crystallization) in the initial fast (fluctuation) stage are described. The nonstationary evolution of nuclei size distribution functions is modeled by solving kinetic equations in partial derivatives and stochastic Ito-Stratonovich analog equations. This makes it possible to refine the formation mechanisms of microcrystalline state polytypes and calculate the nucleation rate and the initial roughness of a SiC coating.

  1. Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statfeld, Jenna L.

    2011-01-01

    Post-school transition is the movement of a child with disabilities from school to activities that occur after the completion of school. This paper provides information about: (1) post-school transition; (2) transition plan; (3) transition services; (4) transition planning; (5) vocational rehabilitation services; (6) services that are available…

  2. Cognitive Constraints and Island Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Philip; Sag, Ivan A.

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based theories of island effects play a central role in generative grammar, yet the graded nature of many syntactic islands has never been properly accounted for. Categorical syntactic accounts of island effects have persisted in spite of a wealth of data suggesting that island effects are not categorical in nature and that…

  3. Soils and vegetation of Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halvorson, William L.; Fenn, Dennis B.; Allardice, William R.

    1988-01-01

    The multifaceted development of an erosion surface on Santa Barbara Island, Channel Islands National Park, California, has led to this study of the relationship between soils and vegetation. A dry Mediterranean climate and past attempts at farming and introductions of alien species have led to vegetative degradation accompanied by both gully and surface erosion. Soil and vegetation analyses show this erosion to be in a location of transition. The soils are Typic Chromoxererts (Vertisol Order) with high clay, salinity, and sodium contents. The vegetation is ecotonal in nature, grading from a principally alien annual grassland with Avena fatua and Atriplex semibaccata to a shrub community dominated by the native Suaeda californica. Management toward revegetation and stabilization of this island ecosystem will be difficult with high clay, saline-sodic soils and disturbed vegetation.

  4. Entrepreneurial Intentions in Developing and Developed Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iakovleva, Tatiana; Kolvereid, Lars; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study proposes to use the Theory of Planned Behaviour to predict entrepreneurial intentions among students in five developing and nine developed countries. The purpose is to investigate whether entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents differ between developing and developed countries, and to test the theory in the two groups of…

  5. Discrepancy between Snack Choice Intentions and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; de Graaf, Cees; Dijksterhuis, Garmt B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate dietary constructs that affect the discrepancy between intentioned and actual snack choice. Design: Participants indicated their intentioned snack choice from a set of 4 snacks (2 healthful, 2 unhealthful). One week later, they actually chose a snack from the same set. Within 1 week after the actual choice, they completed…

  6. Law School Intentions of Undergraduate Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Thomas; Flanagan, David J.; Palmer, Timothy B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence business students' intentions to enroll in law school. Scant research has focused on factors that influence business students' decisions to enroll in law school. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Hypotheses about student intentions are based on Ajzen & Fishbein's (1977) Theory…

  7. Product Characteristics and Internet Shopping Intentions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of electronic commerce and online marketing focuses on an empirical study that investigated differences between Internet shopping intentions for products categorized by cost and tangibility. Highlights include hypotheses; respondent characteristics; results that showed that intentions to shop using the Internet differ by tangibility of…

  8. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  9. 29 CFR 1690.105 - Policy intent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Policy intent. 1690.105 Section 1690.105 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES ON INTERAGENCY COORDINATION OF EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY ISSUANCES General § 1690.105 Policy intent. These procedures...

  10. Students' Behavioural Intentions towards Peers with Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Hilary K.; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lysaght, Rosemary; Burge, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: The objectives of this study were: (i) to compare the behavioural intentions of high school students towards individuals with intellectual disabilities and individuals with physical disabilities and (ii) to explore reasons for these behavioural intentions. Materials and methods: A sample of 319 Grade 9 and Grade 12 students in Ontario,…

  11. Judging the Intentionality of Action-Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Wells, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Assessed use of certain rules for judging intentionality of action-outcomes by children of 3, 7, and 11 years. Intentionality judgments based on matching rather than objective rules were observed more frequently. It was concluded that matching rule emerges first in development and is more essential than various objective rules. (Author/DST)

  12. Authorial Intent in the Composition Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Ian

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the disjunction between, on the one hand, critical theory's critique of the privileging of authorial intent in protocols of textual interpretation, and, on the other hand, continued obeisance to authorial intent in composition textbooks and pedagogy. By unpacking the implications of this disjunction, I show the limitations…

  13. Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series' impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role…

  14. Does Stock Market Performance Influence Retirement Intentions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goda, Gopi Shah; Shoven, John B.; Slavov, Sita Nataraj

    2012-01-01

    Media reports predicted that the stock market decline in October 2008 would cause changes in retirement intentions, due to declines in retirement assets. We use panel data from the Health and Retirement Study to investigate the relationship between stock market performance and retirement intentions during 1998-2008, a period that includes the…

  15. The Simultaneity of Beginning Teachers' Practical Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Teachers use their practical intentions--their in-the-moment goals and concerns--to craft their spontaneous classroom decisions. This research study explored the content of (and relationship between) beginning teachers' practical intentions by asking six student teachers in mathematics to participate in a stimulated recall interview of their…

  16. Belcher Islands, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Belcher Islands are an archipelago in Hudson Bay in Canada, belonging to the territory of Nunavit. The hamlet of Sanikiluaq is on the north coast of Flaherty Island. Over 1500 islands make up the archipelago. The folded sedimentary and volcanic rocks making up the islands are Proterozoic in age between 0.5 and 2.5 billion years old.

    The image mosaic was acquired 18 September 2006, covers an area of 45.7 x 113.3 km, and is located near 56.1 degrees north latitude, 79.4 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  17. Lost island found

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An abandoned ll-by-5-km kidney-shaped chunk of freshwater ice, used as a research station for 25 years, was rediscovered after the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) lost track of the island for 6 months. The recent find may foreshadow another loss, however: The island is drifting through the Greenland Sea and into the North Atlantic where it should melt within several months and d u m p its cargo of oil drums, equipment, and a wrecked plane into the ocean.Known as Fletcher's Ice Island—after Joseph O. Fletcher, a member of the first team of researchers to inhabit the island and a recently retired NOAA climate researcher—the ice chunk has already melted to a third of its original 49 m thickness. A pilot flying over the area to measure annual pollution buildup in the Arctic located the drifting island 242 km from the North Pole near the International Date Line.

  18. The Island Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroder, Peter C.

    1994-01-01

    Proposes the study of islands to develop a method of integrating sustainable development with sound resource management that can be extrapolated to more complex, highly populated continental coastal areas. (MDH)

  19. Small islands adrift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2015-07-01

    With the charismatic former president of the Maldives, Mohamed Nasheed, behind bars on a widely derided terrorism charge, Anna Petherick asks whether small island states can really make themselves heard in Paris.

  20. Island Watershed Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Rod

    2003-01-01

    Describes a 90-minute "Island Watershed" activity to help earth science students understand the concept of the water cycle. Introduces a surface waters unit appropriate for students in grades 7-10. Includes watershed project guidelines. (Author/KHR)

  1. Mind-Wandering With and Without Intention.

    PubMed

    Seli, Paul; Risko, Evan F; Smilek, Daniel; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-08-01

    The past decade has seen a surge of research examining mind-wandering, but most of this research has not considered the potential importance of distinguishing between intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. However, a recent series of papers have demonstrated that mind-wandering reported in empirical investigations frequently occurs with and without intention, and, more crucially, that intentional and unintentional mind-wandering are dissociable. This emerging literature suggests that, to increase clarity in the literature, there is a need to reconsider the bulk of the mind-wandering literature with an eye toward deconvolving these two different cognitive experiences. In this review we highlight recent trends in investigations of the intentionality of mind-wandering, and we outline a novel theoretical framework regarding the mechanisms underlying intentional and unintentional mind-wandering. PMID:27318437

  2. Melville Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Melville Island, just off the coast of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia (11.5S, 131.0E) is a sparsely inhabited tropical island with heavy woodland concentrations. The widespread and prominant smoke plumes were most likely set to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. Soil erosion is almost non- existant as can be seen by the clear and clean river flow. The offshore sediments are coastal current borne deposits from King Sound to the west.

  3. Challenges for Transitioning Science Research to Space Weather Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2013-01-01

    Effectively transitioning science knowledge to useful applications relevant to space weather has become important. The effort to transition scientific knowledge to a useful application is not a research nor is it operations, but an activity that connects two. Successful transitioning must be an intentional effort with a clear goal and measureable outcome. This talk will present proven methodologies that have been demonstrated to be effective, and how in the current environment those can be applied to space weather transition efforts.

  4. Detecting false intent using eye blink measures

    PubMed Central

    Marchak, Frank M.

    2013-01-01

    Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

  5. Mediator of moderators: temporal stability of intention and the intention-behavior relation.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Abraham, Charles

    2003-02-01

    Intention certainty, past behavior, self-schema, anticipated regret, and attitudinal versus normative control all have been found to moderate intention-behavior relations. It is argued that moderation occurs because these variables produce "strong" intentions. Stability of intention over time is a key index of intention strength. Consequently, it was hypothesized that temporal stability of intention would mediate moderation by these other moderators. Participants (N = 185) completed questionnaire measures of theory of planned behavior constructs and moderator variables at two time points and subsequently reported their exercise behavior. Findings showed that all of the moderators, including temporal stability, were associated with significant improvements in consistency between intention and behavior. Temporal stability also mediated the effects of the other moderators, supporting the study hypothesis. PMID:15272948

  6. 76 FR 61947 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing safety zones for Fireworks displays within the Captain of the Port (COTP) Long Island Sound Zone. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during these events. Entry into, transit through, mooring or anchoring within these zones is prohibited unless authorized by the COTP Sector Long Island...

  7. 33 CFR 165.766 - Security Zone: HOVENSA Refinery, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 33 CFR part 160, subpart C. (2) Persons and vessels desiring to transit the Regulated Area may..., St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. 165.766 Section 165.766 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.766 Security Zone: HOVENSA Refinery, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. (a) Regulated area. The...

  8. 33 CFR 165.770 - Security Zone: HOVENSA Refinery, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 160, subpart C. (2) Persons and vessels desiring to transit the Regulated Area may contact..., St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. 165.770 Section 165.770 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.770 Security Zone: HOVENSA Refinery, St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. (a) Regulated area. The...

  9. Transition from ultra-enriched to ultra-depleted primary MORB melts in a single volcanic suite (Macquarie Island, SW Pacific): Implications for mantle source, melting process and plumbing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husen, Anika; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Everard, John L.; Kamenetsky, Maya B.

    2016-07-01

    Compositional diversity of basalts forming the oceanic floor is attributed to a variety of factors such as mantle heterogeneities, melting conditions, mixing of individual melt batches, as well as fractionation and assimilation processes during magma ascent and emplacement. In this study the compositional range and origin of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB) is approached by petrological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of the Miocene Macquarie Island ophiolite, an uplifted part of the Macquarie Ridge at the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. In this study, earlier results on the enriched to ultra-enriched (La/Sm 1.4-7.9), isotopically homogeneous basaltic glasses are complemented by the compositions of olivine-phyric rocks, principal phenocrystic minerals and Cr-spinel hosted melt inclusions. Studied olivine, clinopyroxene and Cr-spinel phenocrysts are among the most primitive known for MORB (85-91 mol% forsterite in olivine, 81-91 Mg# in clinopyroxene, and 66-77 Mg# and 34-60 Cr# in spinel) and represent primary and near-primary compositions of their parental melts. Geochemical characteristics of the liquids parental to clinopyroxene (La/Sm 0.8-6.3) and Cr-spinel (La/Sm 0.4-5) partly overlap with those of the basaltic glasses, but also strongly advocate the role of depleted to ultra-depleted primary melts in the origin of the Macquarie Island porphyritic rocks. The trace element composition of olivine phenocrysts and the systematics of rare-earth elements in glasses, melt inclusions, and clinopyroxene provide evidence for a peridotitic composition of the source mantle. Our data supports the mechanism of fractional "dynamic" melting of a single mantle peridotite producing individual partial melt batches with continuously changing compositions from ultra-enriched towards ultra-depleted. The incipient enriched melt batches, represented by basaltic glasses in this study, may erupt without significant modification, whereas consecutively derived

  10. Shallow submarine volcano group in the early stage of island arc development: Geology and petrology of small islands south off Hahajima main island, the Ogasawara Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Kyoko; Umino, Susumu; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2014-05-01

    Small Islands south off Hahajima, the southernmost of the Ogasawara Archipelago, consist of primitive basalts (<12 wt.% MgO) to dacite erupted during the transitional stage immediately following boninite volcanism on the incipient arc to sustained typical oceanic arc. Strombolian to Hawaiian fissure eruptions occurring on independent volcanic centers for the individual islands under a shallow sea produced magnesian basalt to dacite fall-out tephras, hyaloclastite and a small volume of pillow lava, which were intruded by NE-trending dikes. These volcanic strata are correlated to the upper part (<40 Ma) of the Hahajima main island. Volcanic rock samples have slightly lower FeO*/MgO ratios than the present volcanic front lavas, and are divided into three types with high, medium and low La/Yb ratios. Basalt to dacite of high- and medium-La/Yb types show both tholeiitic (TH) and calc-alkaline (CA) differentiation trends. Low-La/Yb type belongs only to TH basalt. The multiple magma types are coexistence on the each island. TH basalts have phenocrysts of olivine, clinopyroxene and plagioclase, while CA basalts are free from plagioclase phenocrysts.

  11. Magnetite nano-islands on Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nathaniel; Zhang, Qiang; Rosenberg, Richard; Vaknin, David

    X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) of ex-situ iron nano-islands grown on graphene reveals that iron oxidation spontaneously leads to the formation of magnetite nano-particles - i.e, the formation of the inverse spinel Fe3O4. Fe islands have been grown with two different heights (20 and 75 MLs) on epitaxial graphene and we have determined their magnetic behavior both as function of temperature and applied external field. Our XAS and XMCD at an applied magnetic field of B = 5 T show that the thin film (20 MLs) is totally converted to magnetite whereas the thicker film (75 MLs) exhibits magnetite properties but also those of pure metal iron. For both samples, temperature dependence of the XMCD shows clear transitions at ~120 K consistent with the Verwey transition of bulk magnetite. XMCD at low temperatures shows a weak hysteresis and provide the average spin and angular-momentum moments, the dipolar term, and the total moment . In addition, manipulation and comparison of the XMCD data from both samples allows us to extract information about the pure iron nano-islands from the thicker sample. Ames Laboratory is supported by the U.S. DOE, BES, MSE Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358. APS is supported by U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  12. Implementation Intentions and Colorectal Screening

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine M.; Epp, Aaron; James, Aimee; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Geana, Mugur; Born, Wendi; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shellhorn, Jeremy; Hester, Christina M.; LeMaster, Joseph; Buckles, Daniel; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. Purpose To test a theoretically based “implementation intentions” intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/participants Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. Intervention The intervention (conducted in 2009–2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or “implementation intentions” questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012–2013). Results The study population had a mean age of 57 years, and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions–based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that “cutting on cancer” makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and

  13. RTGs on Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dassoulas, John; McNutt, Ralph L.

    2007-01-01

    Transit, the US Navy's Navigation Satellite System was conceived at the Applied Physics Laboratory in 1957 by observing the Doppler shift while tracking Sputnik I. As spacecraft development proceeded there was concern about the ability of batteries to maintain the hermetic seal over a 5-year operational life requirement; therefore, alternate energy sources were investigated. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) concept was pursued and resulted in the launch of SNAP 3s, providing partial power on both Transit 4A and 4B. SNAP 9s provided full power on three Transit 5BNs. All launches occurred in the early 1960s. When the U.S. conducted the high altitude nuclear test from Johnson Island, several spacecraft were lost due to artificial enhancement of charged particles in the Earth's magnetosphere resulting in rapid degradation of solar cell power production. This led to the decision to have both an RTG and Solar cell/battery design for Transit power systems; hence, a new RTG design, with a separable heat source and radiative coupling to the thermoelectric elements, was flown on TRIAD. This pioneering effort provided the impetus for future RTGs on interplanetary spacecraft. This paper describes the origin and purpose of the Transit program and provides details on the five satellites in that program that were powered by the first American RTGs used in space. The rationale and some of the challenges inherent in that use are also described.

  14. Intention estimation in brain-machine interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Joline M.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Kao, Jonathan C.; Chestek, Cynthia A.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-02-01

    Objective. The objective of this work was to quantitatively investigate the mechanisms underlying the performance gains of the recently reported ‘recalibrated feedback intention-trained Kalman Filter’ (ReFIT-KF). Approach. This was accomplished by designing variants of the ReFIT-KF algorithm and evaluating training and online data to understand the neural basis of this improvement. We focused on assessing the contribution of two training set innovations of the ReFIT-KF algorithm: intention estimation and the two-stage training paradigm. Main results. Within the two-stage training paradigm, we found that intention estimation independently increased target acquisition rates by 37% and 59%, respectively, across two monkeys implanted with multiunit intracortical arrays. Intention estimation improved performance by enhancing the tuning properties and the mutual information between the kinematic and neural training data. Furthermore, intention estimation led to fewer shifts in channel tuning between the training set and online control, suggesting that less adaptation was required during online control. Retraining the decoder with online BMI training data also reduced shifts in tuning, suggesting a benefit of training a decoder in the same behavioral context; however, retraining also led to slower online decode velocities. Finally, we demonstrated that one- and two-stage training paradigms performed comparably when intention estimation is applied. Significance. These findings highlight the utility of intention estimation in reducing the need for adaptive strategies and improving the online performance of BMIs, helping to guide future BMI design decisions.

  15. Job Turnover Intentions Among Pharmacy Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the primary reasons why pharmacy faculty intend to remain or leave their current institution and why they left their most recent academic institution, and the relative contribution of various organizational and individual characteristics toward explaining variance in turnover intentions. Methods A survey instrument was e-mailed to pharmacy faculty members asking respondents to indicate up to 5 reasons for their intentions and up to 5 reasons why they left a previous institution. The survey also elicited perceptions on quality of work life in addition to demographic and institutional data, upon which turnover intentions were regressed using a forward-conditional procedure. Organizational commitment as a moderator of turnover intentions was regressed over the remaining variables not acting directly on employer intentions. Results Just over 1 in 5 respondents indicated intentions to leave their current academic institution. Excessive workload, seeking a new challenge, poor salary, and poor relationships with college or school administrators were frequently cited as reasons for leaving. Turnover intentions are influenced directly by department chair support and organizational commitment, which moderates various support and satisfaction variables. Conclusions Pharmacy faculty members’ decision to remain or leave an institution is dependent upon developing a sense of commitment toward the institution. Commitment is facilitated by support from the institution and department chair, in addition to a sense of satisfaction with the teaching environment. PMID:17786250

  16. Children's picture interpretation: Appearance or intention?

    PubMed

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L

    2015-09-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's referent. In 3 experiments, we contrasted an artist's intention with her picture's appearance to investigate children's use of appearance and intentional cues. In Experiment 1, children aged 3-4 and 5-6 years (N = 151) were presented with 4 trials of 3-object arrays (e.g., a pink duck, a blue duck, and a teddy). The experimenter photographed or drew 1 of the objects (e.g., blue duck), however, the subsequent picture depicted the referent in grayscale (black and white condition) or the color of its shape-matched object, for example, a pink duck (color change condition). Children were asked 3 questions regarding the identity of the pictures; responses were guided by intentional cues in the black and white condition, but appearance in the color change condition. Experiment 2 confirmed that appearance responses were not due to the artist's changing knowledge state. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 1 with adult participants. Together, these studies show that children and adults are neither strictly realist nor intentional route followers. They are realists until resemblance cues fail, at which point they defer to intentional cues. PMID:26192043

  17. Bifurcation of magnetic island saturation controlled by plasma viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maget, P.; Février, O.; Lütjens, H.; Luciani, J.-F.; Garbet, X.

    2016-05-01

    Two nonlinear regimes, depending on the magnetic Prandtl number Prm, are identified for the magnetic islands described by resistive MHD equations. The frontier between these two regimes is sharp, and has the characteristics of a phase transition controlled by plasma viscosity. In the low Prm regime, a new form of the so-called flip instability, consisting of a sudden change in the island phase, is identified. Already known in the context of the forcing by external magnetic perturbations and localized current drive, it occurs spontaneously at low Prm. The main characteristics of this new structural instability are described. The low Prm regime is well described by the slab visco-resistive model in the linear phase, and is characterized by both a large saturation of the island and strong nonlinearly driven zonal flows (that do not significantly impact the island dynamics, however), while curvature physics strongly impacts the viscous regime.

  18. Heron Island, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  19. A Locomotion Intent Prediction System Based on Multi-Sensor Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Baojun; Zheng, Enhao; Wang, Qining

    2014-01-01

    Locomotion intent prediction is essential for the control of powered lower-limb prostheses to realize smooth locomotion transitions. In this research, we develop a multi-sensor fusion based locomotion intent prediction system, which can recognize current locomotion mode and detect locomotion transitions in advance. Seven able-bodied subjects were recruited for this research. Signals from two foot pressure insoles and three inertial measurement units (one on the thigh, one on the shank and the other on the foot) are measured. A two-level recognition strategy is used for the recognition with linear discriminate classifier. Six kinds of locomotion modes and ten kinds of locomotion transitions are tested in this study. Recognition accuracy during steady locomotion periods (i.e., no locomotion transitions) is 99.71% ± 0.05% for seven able-bodied subjects. During locomotion transition periods, all the transitions are correctly detected and most of them can be detected before transiting to new locomotion modes. No significant deterioration in recognition performance is observed in the following five hours after the system is trained, and small number of experiment trials are required to train reliable classifiers. PMID:25014097

  20. Ecosystem restoration on the California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halvorson, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Restoration of natural habitat has become increasingly important over the last three decades in the United States, first as mitigation for development (especially in wetlands), and more recently in natural areas. This latter restoration has come about as land managing agencies have seen the need to reverse the impact of past land uses and agencies like the National Park Service have taken on the responsibility for less-than-pristine lands. Restorations have typically been carried out with little prior study and with no follow-up monitoring. On the Channel Islands, the need for restoration is great, but the desire is to base this restoration on sound ecological understanding. By conducting surveys, implementing long-term research and monitoring, and by conducting population and community dynamics research, the necessary data is obtained to arrive at such an understanding. Once management actions have been taken to effect restoration, monitoring is used to determine the success of those actions. The intention is to gain enough of an understanding of the islands' ecosystems that we can manage to restore, not just populations of native plants and animals, but also the processes of a naturally functioning ecosystem. ?? International Scientific Publications, New Delhi.

  1. In situ investigation of the island nucleation of Ge on Si(001) using x-ray scattering methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schuelli, T. U.; Richard, M.-I.; Renaud, G.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Wintersberger, E.; Bauer, G.

    2006-10-02

    The growth of Ge on Si(001) is investigated in situ at 500 and 600 deg. C, combining grazing incidence diffraction, multiple wavelength anomalous diffraction, and small angle scattering. This allows probing simultaneously the island shape, strain state, composition, and the transition from wetting layer to island growth. At 500 deg. C no intermixing occurs. The wetting layer is found to decrease by one atomic layer at the onset of island nucleation. At 600 deg. C interdiffusion plays an important role in strain relaxation leading to a more stable wetting layer. Small angle scattering yields the island morphology and shows the transition from pyramids to multifacetted domes.

  2. Accelerating the College and Career Readiness of Rhode Island's Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Rhode Island is in the process of transitioning to new English language arts and mathematics standards that will better prepare students to be successful in college and their careers. Time, effort, and resources must be dedicated to effective implementation in order to realize the promise of these new common core state standards. This paper…

  3. Intentional Communication: Computationally Easy or Difficult?

    PubMed Central

    van Rooij, Iris; Kwisthout, Johan; Blokpoel, Mark; Szymanik, Jakub; Wareham, Todd; Toni, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Human intentional communication is marked by its flexibility and context sensitivity. Hypothesized brain mechanisms can provide convincing and complete explanations of the human capacity for intentional communication only insofar as they can match the computational power required for displaying that capacity. It is thus of importance for cognitive neuroscience to know how computationally complex intentional communication actually is. Though the subject of considerable debate, the computational complexity of communication remains so far unknown. In this paper we defend the position that the computational complexity of communication is not a constant, as some views of communication seem to hold, but rather a function of situational factors. We present a methodology for studying and characterizing the computational complexity of communication under different situational constraints. We illustrate our methodology for a model of the problems solved by receivers and senders during a communicative exchange. This approach opens the way to a principled identification of putative model parameters that control cognitive processes supporting intentional communication. PMID:21747765

  4. Smoothing of ultrathin silver films by transition metal seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anders, André; Byon, Eungsun; Kim, Dong-Ho; Fukuda, Kentaro; Lim, Sunnie H. N.

    2006-11-01

    The nucleation and coalescence of silver islands on coated glass was investigated by in situ measurements of the sheet resistance. Sub-monolayer amounts of niobium and other transition metals were deposited prior to the deposition of silver. It was found that in some cases, the transition metals lead to coalescence of silver at nominally thinner films with smoother topology. The smoothing or roughening effects by the presence of the transition metal can be explained by kinetically limited transition metal islands growth and oxidation, followed by defect-dominated nucleation of silver.

  5. Geohydrology of Enewetak Atoll islands and reefs

    SciTech Connect

    Buddemeier, R.W.

    1981-05-06

    Extensive tidal studies in island wells and the lagoon at Enewetak Atoll have shown that island ground water dynamics are controlled by a layered aquifer system. The surface aquifer of unconsolidated Holocene material extends to a depth of approximately 15 m, and has a hydraulic conductivity K = 60 m/day. From 15 to 60 m (approximate lagoon depth) the reef structure consists of successive layers of altered Pleistocene materials, with bulk permeability substantially higher than that of the surface aquifer. Because of wave set-up over the windward reef and the limited pass area for outflow at the south end of the atoll, lagoon tides rise in phase with the ocean tides but fall later than the ocean water level. This results in a net lagoon-to-ocean head which can act as the driving force for outflow through the permeable Pleistocene aquifer. This model suggests that fresh water, nutrients or radioactive contaminants found in island ground water or reef interstitial water may be discharged primarily into the ocean rather than the lagoon. Atoll island fresh water resources are controlled by recharge, seawater dilution due to vertical tidal mixing between the surface and deeper aquifers, and by loss due to entrainment by the outflowing water in the deeper aquifers. Estimated lagoon-ot-ocean transit times through the deep aquifer are on the order of a few years, which corresponds well to the freshwater residence time estimates based on inventory and recharge. Islands in close proximity to reef channels have more fresh ground water than others, which is consistent with a locally reduced hydraulic gradient and slower flow through the Pleistocene aquifers.

  6. Long Island Solar Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  7. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  8. Sakhalin Island terrain intelligence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Military Geology Branch

    1943-01-01

    This folio of maps and explanatory tables outlines the principal terrain features of Sakhalin Island. Each map and table is devoted to a specialized set of problems; together they cover the subjects of terrain appreciation, climate, rivers, water supply, construction materials, suitability for roads, suitability for airfields, fuels and other mineral resources, and geology. In most cases, the map of the island is divided into two parts: N. of latitude 50° N., Russian Sakhalin, and south of latitude 50° N., Japanese Sakhalin or Karafuto. These maps and data were compiled by the United States Geological Survey during the period from March to September, 1943.

  9. Changing Physician Behavior With Implementation Intentions: Closing the Gap Between Intentions and Actions.

    PubMed

    Saddawi-Konefka, Daniel; Schumacher, Daniel J; Baker, Keith H; Charnin, Jonathan E; Gollwitzer, Peter M

    2016-09-01

    In medical education, even well-intentioned learners struggle to change their practice. This intention-action gap is a well-described phenomenon. Strong commitment to changing behaviors is important, but by itself it is only a modest predictor of goal attainment.Implementation intentions are an extensively studied strategy from cognitive psychology that have been shown to close the intention-action gap and increase goal attainment across myriad domains. Implementation intentions are "if-then" plans that specify an anticipated future situation and a planned response-"If I encounter situation X, then I will respond with action Y." They differ from simple goals, which specify only a desired behavior or outcome-"I intend to perform action Z." Despite this subtle difference, they have shown substantial effectiveness over goals alone in increasing goal attainment.In this article, the authors first describe implementation intentions, review the substantial body of evidence demonstrating their effectiveness, and explain the underlying psychological mechanisms. They then illustrate the connections between implementation intentions and established learning theory. The final section focuses on forming effective implementation intentions in medical education. The authors provide concrete examples across the continuum of learners (from medical students to attending physicians) and competencies, and make recommendations for when and how to employ implementation intentions. PMID:27008360

  10. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  11. Controlling summer heat islands: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Garbesi, K.; Akbari, H.; Martien, P.

    1989-11-01

    A workshop was held on the energy and pollution implications of summertime urban heat islands and the potential to control them. The presentations, papers, and discussions fell into four broad categories: (1) the potential to conserve energy, reduce atmospheric pollution, and slow global warming by reducing summer heat islands; (2) the use of computer models to understand and simulate the heat island phenomenon; (3) measurements of heat islands; and (4) the design and implementation of heat island mitigation strategies. On the afternoon of the second day of the workshop, the participants divided into three workgroups. Group 1 discussed research needs to better quantify the effect of heat island mitigation on energy use. Group 2 discussed future research on the characterization and modeling of heat islands. And Group 3 discussed the development of a manual that would present to policy makers our current knowledge of techniques to mitigate heat islands and thereby save energy. This Proceedings documents the presentations and outcome of the Workshop.

  12. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  13. Growth mechanism and structure characterizations of GaSb islands grown on Si (1 0 0) substrates by LP-MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, You; Liu, Ren-Jun; Wang, Lian-Kai; Li, Guo-Xing; Zhang, Yuan-Tao; Dong, Xin; Zhang, Bao-Lin

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, the growth mechanism and the morphologies of GaSb islands grown on Si (1 0 0) by low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition have been studied. It was observed the GaSb growth mode transited from SK to VW mode with time, while the islands migrated in VW mode on the surface. As growth time prolonging, the islands were coarsening consistent with the considerations of Ostwald ripening substituting for migration. And it was the similar coalescence process in the various interruption time. The formation of giant islands reduced the surface energy with the island-induced strain fields which drive the islands distribution evenly.

  14. Development of the Work Intention Inventory Short-Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimon, Kim; Zigarmi, Drea

    2015-01-01

    The Work Intention Inventory (WII: Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2012) was designed to assess five measures of work intention. Measuring employee intentions is important to consider when evaluating outcomes associated with employee engagement or work passion as research indicates intentions are strong predictors of behavior. Following…

  15. The maternal aborigine colonization of La Palma (Canary Islands)

    PubMed Central

    Fregel, Rosa; Pestano, Jose; Arnay, Matilde; Cabrera, Vicente M; Larruga, Jose M; González, Ana M

    2009-01-01

    Teeth from 38 aboriginal remains of La Palma (Canary Islands) were analyzed for external and endogenous mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and for diagnostic coding positions. Informative sequences were obtained from 30 individuals (78.9%). The majority of lineages (93%) were from West Eurasian origin, being the rest (7%) from sub-Saharan African ascription. The bulk of the aboriginal haplotypes had exact matches in North Africa (70%). However, the indigenous Canarian sub-type U6b1, also detected in La Palma, has not yet been found in North Africa, the cradle of the U6 expansion. The most abundant H1 clade in La Palma, defined by transition 16260, is also very rare in North Africa. This means that the exact region from which the ancestors of the Canarian aborigines came has not yet been sampled or that they have been replaced by later human migrations. The high gene diversity found in La Palma (95.2±2.3), which is one of the farthest islands from the African continent, is of the same level than the previously found in the central island of Tenerife (92.4±2.8). This is against the supposition that the islands were colonized from the continent by island hopping and posterior isolation. On the other hand, the great similarity found between the aboriginal populations of La Palma and Tenerife is against the idea of an island-by-island independent maritime colonization without secondary contacts. Our data better fit to an island model with frequent migrations between islands. PMID:19337312

  16. Analysis of using EMG and mechanical sensors to enhance intent recognition in powered lower limb prostheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, A. J.; Kuiken, T. A.; Hargrove, L. J.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of electromyography (EMG) data, in combination with a diverse array of mechanical sensors, to locomotion mode intent recognition in transfemoral amputees using powered prostheses. Additionally, we determined the effect of adding time history information using a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) for both the mechanical and EMG sensors. Approach. EMG signals from the residual limbs of amputees have been proposed to enhance pattern recognition-based intent recognition systems for powered lower limb prostheses, but mechanical sensors on the prosthesis—such as inertial measurement units, position and velocity sensors, and load cells—may be just as useful. EMG and mechanical sensor data were collected from 8 transfemoral amputees using a powered knee/ankle prosthesis over basic locomotion modes such as walking, slopes and stairs. An offline study was conducted to determine the benefit of different sensor sets for predicting intent. Main results. EMG information was not as accurate alone as mechanical sensor information (p < 0.05) for any classification strategy. However, EMG in combination with the mechanical sensor data did significantly reduce intent recognition errors (p < 0.05) both for transitions between locomotion modes and steady-state locomotion. The sensor time history (DBN) classifier significantly reduced error rates compared to a linear discriminant classifier for steady-state steps, without increasing the transitional error, for both EMG and mechanical sensors. Combining EMG and mechanical sensor data with sensor time history reduced the average transitional error from 18.4% to 12.2% and the average steady-state error from 3.8% to 1.0% when classifying level-ground walking, ramps, and stairs in eight transfemoral amputee subjects. Significance. These results suggest that a neural interface in combination with time history methods for locomotion mode classification can enhance intent

  17. HEAT ISLAND REDUCTION STRATEGIES GUIDEBOOK

    EPA Science Inventory

    This heat island reduction strategies guidebook provides an overview of urban heat islands and steps communities can take to reduce them. In particular, this guidebook provides background basics and answers the questions: “What is a heat island?” “What are its impacts?" "What ar...

  18. Christmas Island birds returning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Six months after their mass exodus, birds are beginning to return to Christmas Island. Roughly 17 million birds, almost the entire adult bird population, either perished or fled their mid-Pacific atoll home last autumn, leaving behind thousands of nestlings to starve (Eos, April 5, 1983, p. 131). It is believed that the strong El Niño altered the ecology of the surrounding waters and forced the birds to flee. Christmas Island is the world's largest coral atoll.“Ocean and atmosphere scientists are unsure of future directions for the El Niño conditions and cannot now predict what will happen to the birds in the coming months,” said Ralph W. Schreiber, curator of ornithology at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County in California. Heisthe ornithologist who discovered the disappearance. “The recovery of the bird populations depends on the food supply in the waters surrounding the island.” The island's birds feed exclusively on small fish and squid.

  19. Hawaii's Sugar Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association, Aiea, HI.

    A warm and sunny subtropical climate helps make Hawaii an important sugar producer. History records that sugarcane was already present when Captain James Cook discovered the islands in 1778, and that the first successful sugarcane plantation was started in 1835 by Ladd and Company at Koloa. The first recorded export of Hawaiian sugar was in 1837,…

  20. Island Ecology in Bermuda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulff, Barry L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an island ecology course offered by Eastern Connecticut State College providing opportunities for students to study the ecology and natural history of organisms found in a variety of subtropical habitats in Bermuda. Explains student selection criteria, trip preparation, evaluation criteria, daily programs, and habitats studied on the…

  1. Kiritimati, Kiribati (Christmas Island)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pronounced 'Ki-ris-mas,' Kiritimati Island has a large infilled lagoon that gives it the largest land area (125 square miles, 321 square km) of any atoll in the world. Captain Cook named the atoll Christmas Island when he arrived on Christmas Eve in 1777. Used for nuclear testing in the 1950s and 1960s, the island is now valued for its marine and wildlife resources. It is particularly important as a seabird nesting site-with an estimated 6 million birds using or breeding on the island, including several million Sooty Terns. Rainfall on Kiritimati is linked to El Nino patterns, with long droughts experienced between the wetter El Nino years. This image is based on a mosaic of four digital photographs taken on 16 January 2002 from the Space Station Alpha as part of the Crew Earth Observations Project. The underlying data have 10 meter spatial resolution. Coral reefs are one of the areas selected as a scientific theme for this project (see also the recent Earth Observatory article, Mapping the Decline of Coral Reefs. The mosaic, based on images ISS004-ESC-6249 to 6252, was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  3. Magnetic island induced bootstrap current on island dynamics in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Shaing, K.C.; Spong, D.A.

    2006-02-15

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)]. Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter {delta}{sup '} for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  4. Magnetic Island Induced Bootstrap Current on Island Dynamics in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, Donald A; Shaing, K. C.

    2006-02-01

    When a magnetic island is embedded in toroidally symmetric tokamaks, the toroidal symmetry in |B| is broken [K. C. Shaing, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 245003 (2001)] . Here, B is the magnetic field. This broken symmetry induces an additional bootstrap current density in the vicinity of the island. It is illustrated that this island induced bootstrap current density modifies the island evolution equation and imposes a lower limit on the absolute value of the tearing mode stability parameter |{Delta}{prime}| for the island to be unstable. This lower limit depends on the local poloidal plasma beta {beta}{sub p}, the ratio of the plasma pressure to the poloidal magnetic field pressure. If {beta}{sub p} is high enough, the magnetic island is stable. This mechanism provides an alternative route to stabilize the island.

  5. Staying out of trouble: intentions of young male offenders.

    PubMed

    Forste, Renata; Clarke, Lynda; Bahr, Stephen

    2011-05-01

    During the fall of 2005, we interviewed a sample of 103 young men aged 18 to 21 imprisoned at a young offender's prison in England. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, as well as the theory of cognitive transformation, our purpose was to investigate prisoners' reports of their likelihood of reoffending following release from prison. Primary explanatory factors included measures of attitudes, behavioral control, and subjective norms. Attitudes measured inmates' plans of what they would do following release. Behavioral control variables included indicators of life control and self-efficacy. Subjective norms measured the number of peers inmates reported ever being imprisoned. Prison activities and background characteristics were also modeled. The data were analyzed using regression techniques and structural equation modeling. Intentions to stay out of trouble were most strongly associated with self-efficacy and the number of imprisoned friends reported. Intentions were also associated with the specificity of postrelease plans and life control. Offenders' feelings of life control were stronger among those who had more frequent contact with family members and friends while in prison. Employment prior to prison and family relationships were predictive of contacts with family and friends in prison. Specific policies consistent with our findings include encouragement of contact with family members and friends. In addition, interventions that help offenders make specific plans and increase feelings of control and self-efficacy have promise in helping released offenders successfully complete the transition from prison to the community. PMID:20110427

  6. Momentum Trumps Intention: Failed Intentions toward Higher Education of Low-Wage Working Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Francine M.; Ta, Phuong H.

    2015-01-01

    Two longitudinal studies examined the effects of explicit intention, as described in Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior, on preschool teachers' success in enrolling in college. In the first study, 88 low-wage female teachers and teachers' aides who represented 85 child care centers were surveyed about their intentions to pursue college…

  7. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Loy, Laura S; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants' intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  8. Supporting Sustainable Food Consumption: Mental Contrasting with Implementation Intentions (MCII) Aligns Intentions and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Loy, Laura S.; Wieber, Frank; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    With growing awareness that sustainable consumption is important for quality of life on earth, many individuals intend to act more sustainably. In this regard, interest in reducing meat consumption is on the rise. However, people often do not translate intentions into actual behavior change. To address this intention-behavior gap, we tested the self-regulation strategy of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII). Here, people identify and imagine a desired future and current obstacles standing in its way. They address the obstacles with if-then plans specifying when, where, and how to act differently. In a 5-week randomized controlled experimental study, we compared an information + MCII intervention with an information-only control intervention. As hypothesized, only MCII participants’ intention of reducing their meat consumption was predictive of their actual reduction, while no correspondence between intention and behavior change was found for control participants. Participants with a moderate to strong intention to reduce their meat consumption reduced it more in the MCII than in the control condition. Thus, MCII helped to narrow the intention-behavior gap and supported behavior change for those holding moderate and strong respective intentions. PMID:27199840

  9. Reactance and Intentionality Attributions as Determinants of the Intent to File a Grievance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Michael E.; Bowlby, Roger L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental studies were conducted in two unions to examine the effects of perceptual variables--reactance and intentionality attributions--on the intent to seek redress from management action. Based on participants' responses to a series of vignettes, both studies demonstrated that greater threat and dispositional attributions provoked stronger…

  10. The Failure of Deactivating Intentions: Aftereffects of Completed Intentions in the Repeated Prospective Memory Cue Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Moritz; Fischer, Rico; Goschke, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We used a newly developed experimental paradigm to investigate aftereffects of completed intentions on subsequent performance that required the maintenance and execution of new intentions. Participants performed an ongoing number categorization task and an additional prospective memory (PM) task, which required them to respond to PM cues that…