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1

Habitat fragmentation and the stability of predator-prey interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical models1-3, field observations4,5, and laboratory studies6 all suggest that habitat patchiness (or 'fragmentation') profoundly affects species interactions. One especially widely cited idea is that patchiness stabilizes predator-prey dynamics7,8. I performed the first test of this idea in a natural community by experimentally manipulating the degree of patchiness in goldenrod fields that were the setting for a predator-prey interaction between

P. Kareiva

1987-01-01

2

Putting predators back into behavioral predator–prey interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study of behavioral predator–prey interactions, predators have been treated as abstract sources of risk to which prey respond, rather than participants in a larger behavioral interaction. When predators are put back into the picture by allowing them to respond strategically to prey behavior, expectations about prey behavior can change. Something as simple as allowing predators to move in

Steven L. Lima

2002-01-01

3

Predator-prey interactions and changing environments: who benefits?  

PubMed

While aquatic environments have long been thought to be more moderate environments than their terrestrial cousins, environmental data demonstrate that for some systems this is not so. Numerous important environmental parameters can fluctuate dramatically, notably dissolved oxygen, turbidity and temperature. The roles of dissolved oxygen and turbidity on predator-prey interactions have been discussed in detail elsewhere within this issue and will be considered only briefly here. Here, we will focus primarily on the role of temperature and its potential impact upon predator-prey interactions. Two key properties are of particular note. For temperate aquatic ecosystems, all piscine and invertebrate piscivores and their prey are ectothermic. They will therefore be subject to energetic demands that are significantly affected by environmental temperature. Furthermore, the physical properties of water, particularly its high thermal conductivity, mean that thermal microenvironments will not exist so that fine-scale habitat movements will not be an option for dealing with changing water temperature in lentic environments. Unfortunately, there has been little experimental analysis of the role of temperature on such predator-prey interactions, so we will instead focus on theoretical work, indicating that potential implications associated with thermal change are unlikely to be straightforward and may present a greater threat to predators than to their prey. Specifically, we demonstrate that changes in the thermal environment can result in a net benefit to cold-adapted species through the mechanism of predator-prey interactions. PMID:17472922

Abrahams, Mark V; Mangel, Marc; Hedges, Kevin

2007-11-29

4

Enhancing species distribution modeling by characterizing predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Niche theory is a well-established concept integrating a diverse array of environmental variables and multispecies interactions used to describe species geographic distribution. It is now customary to employ species distribution models (SDMs) that use environmental variables in conjunction with species location information to characterize species' niches and map their geographic ranges. The challenge remains, however, to account for the biotic interactions of species with other community members on which they depend. We show here how to connect species spatial distribution and their dependence with other species by modeling spatially explicit predator-prey interactions, which we call a trophic interaction distribution model (TIDM). To develop the principles, we capitalized on data from Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) reintroduced into Colorado. Spatial location information for lynx obtained from telemetry was used in conjunction with environmental data to construct an SDM. The spatial locations of lynx-snowshoe hare encounters obtained from snow-tracking in conjunction with environmental data were used to construct a TIDM. The environmental conditions associated with lynx locations and lynx-hare encounters identified through both SDM and TIDM revealed an initial transient phase in habitat use that settled into a steady state. Nevertheless, despite the potential for the SDM to broadly encompass all lynx hunting and nonhunting spatial locations, the spatial extents of the SDM and TIDM differed; about 40% of important lynx-snowshoe hare locations identified in the TIDM were not identified in the lynx-only SDM. Our results encourage greater effort to quantify spatial locations of trophic interactions among species in a community and the associated environmental conditions when attempting to construct models aimed at projecting current and future species geographic distributions. PMID:24640545

Trainor, Anne M; Schmitz, Oswald J; Ivan, Jacob S; Shenk, Tanya M

2014-01-01

5

Predator-Prey Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to develop the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions and a two-populaton version of Eulers Method for solving a system of differential equations.

Smith, David

2001-01-22

6

Predator-Prey Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using Maple, Mathmatica, or MatLab, learner should be able to develop and explore the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions as a prototypical first-order system of differential equations.

Smith, David

2001-01-30

7

Complex predator-prey interactions and predator intimidation among crayfish, piscivorous fish, and small benthic fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey interactions were studied among a small prey fish (the johnny darter Etheostoma nigrum) and two predators (crayfish Orconectes rusticus and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieui) with complementary foraging behaviors. When only smallmouth bass were present, darters reduced activity to 6% of control rates and spent most of the time hiding under tile shelters. When only crayfish were present, darter activity

Frank J. Rahel; Roy A. Stein

1988-01-01

8

Local genetic adaptation generates latitude-specific effects of warming on predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming. PMID:23504827

De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

2013-03-01

9

The role of turbidity as a constraint on predator-prey interactions in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the world's most productive aquatic ecosystems usually contain turbid water. Paradoxically, many fish species that\\u000a live in these habitats are also those that often rely on vision to detect their predators and their prey. For these fish,\\u000a turbidity will reduce the distance at which predator-prey interactions occur, and there should be a reduction in the opportunity\\u000a for behavioural

Mark V. Abrahams; Michael G. Kattenfeld

1997-01-01

10

Signalling displays during predator–prey interactions in a Puerto Rican anole, Anolis cristatellus  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined conspicuous signalling displays in the context of predator–prey interactions. To determine in which context Puerto Rican crested anoles,Anolis cristatellusperform conspicuous signals, we exposed wild lizards to a model of a natural snake predator. The lizards gave six behavioural responses to the model: immobility, predator inspection, flight, lateral face-off, dewlapping and push-ups. They displayed significantly more push-ups and push-up

MANUEL LEAL; JAVIER A. RODRIuGUEZ-ROBLES

1997-01-01

11

Predator-Prey Interaction between Largemouth Bass and Bluegills as Influenced by Simulated, Submersed Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the literature suggest that predatory success declines as habitat complexity increases. To explain this phenomenon, we studied the predator-prey interaction between largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegills Lepomis macrochirus in four laboratory pools (2.4-3.0 m diameter, 0.7 m deep), each with a different density (0, 50, 250, 1,000 stems\\/m e) of artificial plant stems. Behavior was quantified for

JACQUELINE F. SAVINO; ROY A. STEIN

1982-01-01

12

Predator-Prey Interactions between Shell-Boring Beetle Larvae and Rock-Dwelling Land Snails  

PubMed Central

Drilus beetle larvae (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are specialized predators of land snails. Here, we describe various aspects of the predator-prey interactions between multiple Drilus species attacking multiple Albinaria (Gastropoda: Clausiliidae) species in Greece. We observe that Drilus species may be facultative or obligate Albinaria-specialists. We map geographically varying predation rates in Crete, where on average 24% of empty shells carry fatal Drilus bore holes. We also provide first-hand observations and video-footage of prey entry and exit strategies of the Drilus larvae, and evaluate the potential mutual evolutionary impacts. We find limited evidence for an effect of shell features and snail behavioral traits on inter- and intra-specifically differing predation rates. We also find that Drilus predators adjust their predation behavior based on specific shell traits of the prey. In conclusion, we suggest that, with these baseline data, this interesting predator-prey system will be available for further, detailed more evolutionary ecology studies.

Castillo Cajas, Ruth F.; van Moorsel, Coline H. M.; Kundrata, Robin; Welter-Schultes, Francisco W.; Giokas, Sinos; Schilthuizen, Menno

2014-01-01

13

Evolution of predator-prey interactions in ancient lakes: implications for coevolution in marine environments  

SciTech Connect

Highly generalized predator-prey interrelationships are a hallmark of most lacustrine ecosystems where accommodation to the physical environment plays the major role in determining organismal distributions. Since the vast majority of lakes are ephemeral on a geological and evolutionary times scale, dispersal, rather than organism interaction, appears to be the dominant selective theme in lacustrine species evolution. In a few, very long lasting lakes, notably modern Lakes Tanganyika (Africa) and Baikal (USSR) and ancient lakes of the Brazilian Rift (Cretaceous) and Snake River Plain (Tertiary), invertebrates and fish occur which demonstrate the development of intense biological accommodation in coevolving predator-prey interactions. Shell crushing experiments on 2 endemic Tanganyikan gastropods, Lavigeria nassa and Spekia zonata show them to be comparable to warm temperature marine species in terms of grow load strength: 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than confamilial cosmopolitan species from more ephemeral lakes in the same region of Africa. Shell repair is commonly observed in these and other Tanganyikan endemic snails although it is exceedingly rare inmost other lakes. The study of these early stages of evolutionary processes and rates in coevolving predator-prey systems in isolated lacustrine microcosms has important implications for those paleontologists concerned with marine invertebrates. It may shed considerable light on the interpretation of such events as the marine Mesozoic Revolution.

Cohen, A.

1985-01-01

14

Genetic variation, predator-prey interactions and food web structure  

PubMed Central

Food webs are networks of species that feed on each other. The role that within-population phenotypic and genetic variation plays in food web structure is largely unknown. Here, I show via simulation how variation in two key traits, growth rates and phenology, by influencing the variability of body sizes present through time, can potentially affect several structural parameters in the direction of enhancing food web persistence: increased connectance, decreased interaction strengths, increased variation among interaction strengths and increased degree of omnivory. I discuss other relevant traits whose variation could affect the structure of food webs, such as morphological and additional life-history traits, as well as animal personalities. Furthermore, trait variation could also contribute to the stability of food web modules through metacommunity dynamics. I propose future research to help establish a link between within-population variation and food web structure. If appropriately established, such a link could have important consequences for biological conservation, as it would imply that preserving (functional) genetic variation within populations could ensure the preservation of entire communities.

Moya-Larano, Jordi

2011-01-01

15

Predator-Prey Models  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by Lang Moore and David Smith for the Connected Curriculum Project, this module develops and explores the Lotka-Volterra model for predator-prey interactions as a prototypical first-order system of differential equations. This is part of a larger collection of modules hosted by Duke University.

Moore, Lang; Smith, David

2010-05-28

16

Acoustic mimicry in a predator-prey interaction.  

PubMed

Mimicry of visual warning signals is one of the keystone concepts in evolutionary biology and has received substantial research attention. By comparison, acoustic mimicry has never been rigorously tested. Visualizing bat-moth interactions with high-speed, infrared videography, we provide empirical evidence for acoustic mimicry in the ultrasonic warning sounds that tiger moths produce in response to echolocating bats. Two species of sound-producing tiger moths were offered successively to naïve, free-flying red and big brown bats. Noctuid and pyralid moth controls were also offered each night. All bats quickly learned to avoid the noxious tiger moths first offered to them, associating the warning sounds with bad taste. They then avoided the second sound-producing species regardless of whether it was chemically protected or not, verifying both Müllerian and Batesian mimicry in the acoustic modality. A subset of the red bats subsequently discovered the palatability of the Batesian mimic, demonstrating the powerful selective force these predators exert on mimetic resemblance. Given these results and the widespread presence of tiger moth species and other sound-producing insects that respond with ultrasonic clicks to bat attack, acoustic mimicry complexes are likely common components of the acoustic landscape. PMID:17517637

Barber, Jesse R; Conner, William E

2007-05-29

17

Reciprocal Behavioral Plasticity and Behavioral Types during Predator-Prey Interactions  

PubMed Central

How predators and prey interact has important consequences for population dynamics and community stability. Here we explored how predator-prey interactions are simultaneously affected by reciprocal behavioral plasticity (i.e., plasticity in prey defenses countered by plasticity in predator offenses and vice versa) and consistent individual behavioral variation (i.e., behavioral types) within both predator and prey populations. We assessed the behavior of a predator species (northern pike) and a prey species (three-spined stickleback) during one-on-one encounters. We also measured additional behavioral and morphological traits in each species. Using structural equation modeling, we found that reciprocal behavioral plasticity as well as predator and prey behavioral types influenced how individuals behaved during an interaction. Thus, the progression and ultimate outcome of predator-prey interactions depend on both the dynamic behavioral feedback occurring during the encounter and the underlying behavioral type of each participant. We also examined whether predator behavioral type is underlain by differences in metabolism and organ size. We provide some of the first evidence that behavioral type is related to resting metabolic rate and size of a sensory organ (the eyes). Understanding the extent to which reciprocal behavioral plasticity and intraspecific behavioral variation influence the outcome of species interactions could provide insight into the maintenance of behavioral variation as well as community dynamics.

McGhee, Katie E.; Pintor, Lauren M.; Bell, Alison M.

2014-01-01

18

Thermal acclimation of interactions: differential responses to temperature change alter predator-prey relationship  

PubMed Central

Different species respond differently to environmental change so that species interactions cannot be predicted from single-species performance curves. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific difference in the capacity for thermal acclimation modulates predator–prey interactions. Acclimation of locomotor performance in a predator (Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata) was qualitatively different to that of its prey (eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki). Warm (25°C) acclimated bass made more attacks than cold (15°C) acclimated fish regardless of acute test temperatures (10–30°C), and greater frequency of attacks was associated with increased prey capture success. However, the number of attacks declined at the highest test temperature (30°C). Interestingly, escape speeds of mosquitofish during predation trials were greater than burst speeds measured in a swimming arena, whereas attack speeds of bass were lower than burst speeds. As a result, escape speeds of mosquitofish were greater at warm temperatures (25°C and 30°C) than attack speeds of bass. The decline in the number of attacks and the increase in escape speed of prey means that predation pressure decreases at high temperatures. We show that differential thermal responses affect species interactions even at temperatures that are within thermal tolerance ranges. This thermal sensitivity of predator–prey interactions can be a mechanism by which global warming affects ecological communities.

Grigaltchik, Veronica S.; Ward, Ashley J. W.; Seebacher, Frank

2012-01-01

19

Thermal acclimation of interactions: differential responses to temperature change alter predator-prey relationship.  

PubMed

Different species respond differently to environmental change so that species interactions cannot be predicted from single-species performance curves. We tested the hypothesis that interspecific difference in the capacity for thermal acclimation modulates predator-prey interactions. Acclimation of locomotor performance in a predator (Australian bass, Macquaria novemaculeata) was qualitatively different to that of its prey (eastern mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki). Warm (25°C) acclimated bass made more attacks than cold (15°C) acclimated fish regardless of acute test temperatures (10-30°C), and greater frequency of attacks was associated with increased prey capture success. However, the number of attacks declined at the highest test temperature (30°C). Interestingly, escape speeds of mosquitofish during predation trials were greater than burst speeds measured in a swimming arena, whereas attack speeds of bass were lower than burst speeds. As a result, escape speeds of mosquitofish were greater at warm temperatures (25°C and 30°C) than attack speeds of bass. The decline in the number of attacks and the increase in escape speed of prey means that predation pressure decreases at high temperatures. We show that differential thermal responses affect species interactions even at temperatures that are within thermal tolerance ranges. This thermal sensitivity of predator-prey interactions can be a mechanism by which global warming affects ecological communities. PMID:22859598

Grigaltchik, Veronica S; Ward, Ashley J W; Seebacher, Frank

2012-10-01

20

Predator prey interactions of Procambarus clarkii with aquatic macroinvertebrates in single and multiple prey systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the interspecific interactions of Procambarus clarkii with other aquatic macroinvertebrates will help to unveil the mechanisms and processes underlying biological invasiveness. The purpose of this study was to investigate predator-prey interactions of two ontogenic phases of P. clarkii with native and exotic species of aquatic macroinvertebrates at a single and multiple prey level. We performed laboratory experiments to determine the consumption and the behavioral responses of Chironomus riparius, Physa acuta and Corbicula fluminea to P. clarkii. The presence of P. clarkii significantly affected the abundance of C. riparius and P. acuta, but not of C. fluminea whether prey species were provided singly or simultaneously. The consumption of C. riparius by P. clarkii was higher than P. acuta for both crayfish sizes and situations (single/multiple prey systems) and C. fluminea was never consumed. Physa acuta was the only species that exhibited an anti-predator behavior to P. clarkii. Our results show that P. clarkii can have strong consumptive and trait effects on aquatic macroinvertebrate prey at a single and multiple prey level, resulting in differential impacts on different prey species. This study clarifies some aspects of the predator-prey interactions between P. clarkii and native as well as other exotic macroinvertebrate species that have invaded freshwater biocenosis worldwide.

Correia, Alexandra Marçal; Bandeira, Nuno; Anastácio, Pedro Manuel

2005-11-01

21

Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms: an introduction.  

PubMed

Environmental constraints in aquatic habitats have become topics of concern to both the scientific community and the public at large. In particular, coastal and freshwater habitats are subject to dramatic variability in various environmental factors, as a result of both natural and anthropogenic processes. The protection and sustainable management of all aquatic habitats requires greater understanding of how environmental constraints influence aquatic organisms. Locomotion and predator-prey interactions are intimately linked and fundamental to the survival of mobile aquatic organisms. This paper summarizes the main points from the review and research articles which comprise the theme issue 'Environmental constraints upon locomotion and predator-prey interactions in aquatic organisms'. The articles explore how natural and anthropogenic factors can constrain these two fundamental activities in a diverse range of organisms from phytoplankton to marine mammals. Some major environmental constraints derive from the intrinsic properties of the fluid and are mechanical in nature, such as viscosity and flow regime. Other constraints derive from direct effects of factors, such as temperature, oxygen content of the water or turbidity, upon the mechanisms underlying the performance of locomotion and predator-prey interactions. The effect of these factors on performance at the tissue and organ level is reflected in constraints upon performance of the whole organism. All these constraints can influence behaviour. Ultimately, they can have an impact on ecological performance. One issue that requires particular attention is how factors such as temperature and oxygen can exert different constraints on the physiology and behaviour of different taxa and the ecological implications of this. Given the multiplicity of constraints, the complexity of their interactions, and the variety of biological levels at which they can act, there is a clear need for integration between the fields of physiology, biomechanics, behaviour, ecology, biological modelling and evolution in both laboratory and field studies. For studies on animals in their natural environment, further technological advances are required to allow investigation of how the prevailing physico-chemical conditions influence basic physiological processes and behaviour. PMID:17472928

Domenici, P; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

2007-11-29

22

Do Predators Always Win? Starfish versus Limpets: A Hands-On Activity Examining Predator-Prey Interactions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article we propose a hands-on experimental activity about predator-prey interactions that can be performed both in a research laboratory and in the classroom. The activity, which engages students in a real scientific experiment, can be explored not only to improve students' understanding about the diversity of anti-predator behaviors but…

Faria, Claudia; Boaventura, Diana; Galvao, Cecilia; Chagas, Isabel

2011-01-01

23

Analysis of aerosol, cloud and precipitation interaction behavior using predator-prey model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction as a complex system can be explained in a predator-prey model. Aerosol conducts as a modulator in cloud predation by precipitation which serves as predator. The coupled dynamical equations of the model are solved using time-delay finite difference method. It is qualitatively gained that [1]aerosol concentration change (N0) will affect formation of cloud droplets concentration (Nd) which is needed to yield precipitation (R), [2] precipitation rate will cause the cloud depth (H) decreased, vice versa, precipitation rate reduction will cause the cloud depth (H) stand longer. Validity test to this model is done by comparing the model calculation results with those obtained from field observation.

Sulistyowati, Rita; Musafar K., L. Muhammad; Srigutomo, Wahyu; Kurniadi, Rizal

2014-03-01

24

Finite-Difference Schemes for Reaction–Diffusion Equations Modeling Predator–Prey Interactions in M ATLAB  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two finite-difference algorithms for studying the dynamics of spatially extended predator–prey interactions with\\u000a the Holling type II functional response and logistic growth of the prey. The algorithms are stable and convergent provided\\u000a the time step is below a (non-restrictive) critical value. This is advantageous as it is well-known that the dynamics of approximations\\u000a of differential equations (DEs) can

Marcus R. Garvie

2007-01-01

25

Predator-Prey Simulation Exercises for the Classroom  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustrations of predator-prey interactions looking at different prey distributions, structural complexity of the environment, prey's reproductive rate,and both predator-prey reproduction in a complex environment.

James Waddell (University of Maine at Orono;)

2009-08-26

26

Clay Caterpillar Whodunit: A Customizable Method for Studying Predator-Prey Interactions in the Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predator-prey dynamics are an important concept in ecology, often serving as an introduction to the field of community ecology. However, these dynamics are difficult for students to observe directly. We describe a methodology that employs model caterpillars made of clay to estimate rates of predator attack on a prey species. This approach can be…

Curtis, Rachel; Klemens, Jeffrey A.; Agosta, Salvatore J.; Bartlow, Andrew W.; Wood, Steve; Carlson, Jason A.; Stratford, Jeffrey A.; Steele, Michael A.

2013-01-01

27

Spatial ecology of predator-prey interactions: corridors and patch shape influence seed predation.  

SciTech Connect

J.L. Orrock, B.J. Danielson, M.J. Burns, and D.J. Levey. 2003. Spatial ecology of predator-prey interactions: corridors and patch shape influence seed predation. Ecology, 84(10):2589-2599. Abstract: Corridors that connect patches of disjunct habitat may be promising tools for mediating the negative impacts of habitat fragmentation, but little is known about how corridors affect ecological interactions. In eight 12-ha experimental landscapes, we examined how corridors affect the impact of invertebrate, rodent, and avian seed predators on pokeweed, Phytolacca americana. Over 13 months in 2000 and 2001, we quantified the effects of patch shape, connectivity, and predator type on the number of seeds germinating in the field (germinants), seed removal, and the viability of remaining seeds. Corridors did not affect the number of P. americana germinants in experimental exclosures or the viability of seeds remaining in exclosures. However, corridors affected the removal of seeds in a predator-specific manner: invertebrates removed more seeds in unconnected patches, whereas rodents removed more seeds in connected patches. Seed removal by birds was similar in connected and unconnected patches. Total seed removal by all seed predators was not affected by corridors, because invertebrates removed more seeds where rodents removed fewer seeds, and vice versa. Overall, seed predation signi®cantly reduced the number and viability of remaining seeds, and reduced the number of germinants in 2000 but not in 2001. The abundance of naturally occurring P. americana plants in our experimental patches in 2000 decreased with increasing seed removal from exclosures but was not related to viability or germinants in 2000, suggesting that seed removal may shape the distribution and abundance of this species. Complementary patterns of seed removal by rodents and invertebrates suggest that corridors alter the effects of these predator taxa by changing the relative amounts of edge and core (nonedge) habitats in a patch. Because invertebrates and rodents do not completely overlap in the seeds they consume, corridors may change predation pressure on seeds that are primarily consumed by one predator type, with potential consequences for the composition of plant and seed predator communities.

J. L . Orrock; B. J. Danielson; M. J. Burns; D. J. Levey

2003-02-03

28

Revisiting the classics: considering nonconsumptive effects in textbook examples of predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Predator effects on prey dynamics are conventionally studied by measuring changes in prey abundance attributed to consumption by predators. We revisit four classic examples of predator-prey systems often cited in textbooks and incorporate subsequent studies of nonconsumptive effects of predators (NCE), defined as changes in prey traits (e.g., behavior, growth, development) measured on an ecological time scale. Our review revealed that NCE were integral to explaining lynx-hare population dynamics in boreal forests, cascading effects of top predators in Wisconsin lakes, and cascading effects of killer whales and sea otters on kelp forests in nearshore marine habitats. The relative roles of consumption and NCE of wolves on moose and consequent indirect effects on plant communities of Isle Royale depended on climate oscillations. Nonconsumptive effects have not been explicitly tested to explain the link between planktonic alewives and the size structure of the zooplankton, nor have they been invoked to attribute keystone predator status in intertidal communities or elsewhere. We argue that both consumption and intimidation contribute to the total effects of keystone predators, and that characteristics of keystone consumers may differ from those of predators having predominantly NCE. Nonconsumptive effects are often considered as an afterthought to explain observations inconsistent with consumption-based theory. Consequently, NCE with the same sign as consumptive effects may be overlooked, even though they can affect the magnitude, rate, or scale of a prey response to predation and can have important management or conservation implications. Nonconsumptive effects may underlie other classic paradigms in ecology, such as delayed density dependence and predator-mediated prey coexistence. Revisiting classic studies enriches our understanding of predator-prey dynamics and provides compelling rationale for ramping up efforts to consider how NCE affect traditional predator-prey models based on consumption, and to compare the relative magnitude of consumptive and NCE of predators. PMID:18831163

Peckarsky, Barbara L; Abrams, Peter A; Bolnick, Daniel I; Dill, Lawrence M; Grabowski, Jonathan H; Luttbeg, Barney; Orrock, John L; Peacor, Scott D; Preisser, Evan L; Schmitz, Oswald J; Trussell, Geoffrey C

2008-09-01

29

Effects of aroclor 1254 and No. 2 fuel oil, singly and in combination, on predator-prey interactions in coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of No. 2 fuel oil on predator-prey interactions of coho salmon were examined. Since aquatic organisms under natural conditions are simultaneously exposed to more than one toxicant, the effects of fuel oil plus polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also evaluated. Experimental fish were either injected with a single intraperitoneal dose of 150 g\\/kg Aroclor 1254, exposed to fuel oil

Leroy C. Folmar; Harold O. Hodgins

1982-01-01

30

Influence of density dependence on predator-prey seabird interactions at large spatio-temporal scales  

PubMed Central

Theoretical investigations of competitive dynamics have noted that numbers of predator and prey influence each other. However, few empirical studies have demonstrated how a life-history trait of the prey (such as fecundity) can be affected simultaneously by its own density and the density of predators. For instance, density dependence can reduce fecundity with increasing number of prey, while inverse density dependence or Allee effects may occur especially when the prey is a social organism. Here we analysed an intraguild predator–prey system of two seabird species at a large spatio-temporal scale. As expected, we found that fecundity of prey was negatively affected by predator density. Nevertheless, fecundity of prey also increased nonlinearly with its own density and strikingly with the prey–predator ratio. Small groups of prey were probably not able to defend their nests especially against large number of predators. At the highest prey densities (i.e. when anti-predator strategies should be most efficient), prey fecundity also lowered, suggesting the appearance of density dependence mediated by food competition. Allee effects and density dependence occurred across a broad range of population sizes of both the prey and the predator at several local populations facing different ecological environments.

Oro, Daniel; Martinez-Abrain, Alejandro; Paracuellos, Mariano; Nevado, Juan Carlos; Genovart, Meritxell

2005-01-01

31

Coevolution can reverse predator-prey cycles.  

PubMed

A hallmark of Lotka-Volterra models, and other ecological models of predator-prey interactions, is that in predator-prey cycles, peaks in prey abundance precede peaks in predator abundance. Such models typically assume that species life history traits are fixed over ecologically relevant time scales. However, the coevolution of predator and prey traits has been shown to alter the community dynamics of natural systems, leading to novel dynamics including antiphase and cryptic cycles. Here, using an eco-coevolutionary model, we show that predator-prey coevolution can also drive population cycles where the opposite of canonical Lotka-Volterra oscillations occurs: predator peaks precede prey peaks. These reversed cycles arise when selection favors extreme phenotypes, predator offense is costly, and prey defense is effective against low-offense predators. We present multiple datasets from phage-cholera, mink-muskrat, and gyrfalcon-rock ptarmigan systems that exhibit reversed-peak ordering. Our results suggest that such cycles are a potential signature of predator-prey coevolution and reveal unique ways in which predator-prey coevolution can shape, and possibly reverse, community dynamics. PMID:24799689

Cortez, Michael H; Weitz, Joshua S

2014-05-20

32

a Numerical Study on Predator Prey Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic spatial models are becoming a popular tool for understand the ecological and evolution of ecosystem problems. We consider the predator prey interactions in term of stochastic representation of this Lotka-Volterra model and explore the use of stochastic processes to extinction behavior of the interacting populations. Here, we present simulation of stochastic processes of continuous time Lotka-Volterra model. Euler method has been used to solve the predator prey system. The trajectory spiral graph has been plotted based on obtained solution to show the population cycle of predator as a function of time.

Laham, Mohamed Faris; Krishnarajah, Isthrinayagy; Jumaat, Abdul Kadir

33

Bottom-up meets top-down: leaf litter inputs influence predator-prey interactions in wetlands.  

PubMed

While the common conceptual role of resource subsidies is one of bottom-up nutrient and energy supply, inputs can also alter the structural complexity of environments. This can further impact resource flow by providing refuge for prey and decreasing predation rates. However, the direct influence of different organic subsidies on predator-prey dynamics is rarely examined. In forested wetlands, leaf litter inputs are a dominant energy and nutrient resource and they can also increase benthic surface cover and decrease water clarity, which may provide refugia for prey and subsequently reduce predation rates. In outdoor mesocosms, we investigated how inputs of leaf litter that alter benthic surface cover and water clarity influence the mortality and growth of gray treefrog tadpoles (Hyla versicolor) in the presence of free-swimming adult newts (Notophthalmus viridiscens), which are visual predators. To manipulate surface cover, we added either oak (Quercus spp.) or red pine (Pinus resinosa) litter and crossed these treatments with three levels of red maple (Acer rubrum) litter leachate to manipulate water clarity. In contrast to our predictions, benthic surface cover had no effect on tadpole survival while darkening the water caused lower survival. In addition, individual tadpole mass was lowest in the high maple leachate treatments, suggesting an interaction between bottom-up effects of leaf litter and top-down effects of predation risk that altered mortality and growth of tadpoles. Our results indicate that realistic changes in forest tree composition, which cause concomitant changes in litter inputs to wetlands, can substantially alter community interactions. PMID:23386045

Stoler, Aaron B; Relyea, Rick A

2013-09-01

34

SCARED TO DEATH? THE EFFECTS OF INTIMIDATION AND CONSUMPTION IN PREDATOR–PREY INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predation is a central feature of ecological communities. Most theoretical and empirical studies of predation focus on the consequences of predators consuming their prey. Predators reduce prey population densities through direct consumption (a density- mediated interaction, DMI), a process that may indirectly affect the prey's resources, com- petitors, and other predators. However, predators can also affect prey population density by

Evan L. Preisser; Daniel I. Bolnick; Michael F. Benard

2005-01-01

35

An ecological regime shift resulting from disrupted predator-prey interactions in Holocene Australia.  

PubMed

The mass extinction events during human prehistory are striking examples of ecological regime shifts, the causes of which are still hotly debated. In Australia, human arrival approximately 50 thousand years ago was associated with the continental-scale extinction of numerous marsupial megafauna species and a permanent change in vegetation structure. An alternative stable state persisted until a second regime shift occurred during the late Holocene, when the largest two remaining marsupial carnivores, the thylacine and devil, disappeared from mainland Australia. These extinctions have been widely attributed to the human-assisted invasion of a competing predator, the dingo. In this unusual case, the simultaneous effects of human "intensification" (population growth and technological advances) and climate change (particularly increased ENSO variability) have been largely overlooked. We developed a dynamic model system capable of simulating the complex interactions between the main predators (humans, thylacines, devils, dingoes) and their marsupial prey (macropods), which we coupled with reconstructions of human population growth and climate change for late-Holocene Australia. Because the strength of important interspecific interactions cannot be estimated directly, we used detailed scenario testing and sensitivity analysis to identify robust model outcomes and investigate competing explanations for the Holocene regime shift. This approach identified human intensification as the most probable cause, while also demonstrating the potential importance of synergies with the effects of climate change. Our models indicate that the prehistoric impact of humans on Australian mammals was not limited to the late Pleistocene (i.e., the megafaunal extinctions) but extended into the late Holocene. PMID:24804453

Prowse, Thomas A A; Johnson, Christopher N; Bradshaw, Corey J A; Brook, Barry W

2014-03-01

36

Ultrasonic predator-prey interactions in water-convergent evolution with insects and bats in air?  

PubMed

Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved biosonar systems to navigate and locate and catch prey. Such active sensing allows them to operate in darkness, but with the potential cost of warning prey by the emission of intense ultrasonic signals. At least six orders of nocturnal insects have independently evolved ears sensitive to ultrasound and exhibit evasive maneuvers when exposed to bat calls. Among aquatic prey on the other hand, the ability to detect and avoid ultrasound emitting predators seems to be limited to only one subfamily of Clupeidae: the Alosinae (shad and menhaden). These differences are likely rooted in the different physical properties of air and water where cuticular mechanoreceptors have been adapted to serve as ultrasound sensitive ears, whereas ultrasound detection in water have called for sensory cells mechanically connected to highly specialized gas volumes that can oscillate at high frequencies. In addition, there are most likely differences in the risk of predation between insects and fish from echolocating predators. The selection pressure among insects for evolving ultrasound sensitive ears is high, because essentially all nocturnal predation on flying insects stems from echolocating bats. In the interaction between toothed whales and their prey the selection pressure seems weaker, because toothed whales are by no means the only marine predators placing a selection pressure on their prey to evolve specific means to detect and avoid them. Toothed whales can generate extremely intense sound pressure levels, and it has been suggested that they may use these to debilitate prey. Recent experiments, however, show that neither fish with swim bladders, nor squid are debilitated by such signals. This strongly suggests that the production of high amplitude ultrasonic clicks serve the function of improving the detection range of the toothed whale biosonar system rather than debilitation of prey. PMID:23781206

Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Surlykke, Annemarie; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2013-01-01

37

Ultrasonic predator-prey interactions in water-convergent evolution with insects and bats in air?  

PubMed Central

Toothed whales and bats have independently evolved biosonar systems to navigate and locate and catch prey. Such active sensing allows them to operate in darkness, but with the potential cost of warning prey by the emission of intense ultrasonic signals. At least six orders of nocturnal insects have independently evolved ears sensitive to ultrasound and exhibit evasive maneuvers when exposed to bat calls. Among aquatic prey on the other hand, the ability to detect and avoid ultrasound emitting predators seems to be limited to only one subfamily of Clupeidae: the Alosinae (shad and menhaden). These differences are likely rooted in the different physical properties of air and water where cuticular mechanoreceptors have been adapted to serve as ultrasound sensitive ears, whereas ultrasound detection in water have called for sensory cells mechanically connected to highly specialized gas volumes that can oscillate at high frequencies. In addition, there are most likely differences in the risk of predation between insects and fish from echolocating predators. The selection pressure among insects for evolving ultrasound sensitive ears is high, because essentially all nocturnal predation on flying insects stems from echolocating bats. In the interaction between toothed whales and their prey the selection pressure seems weaker, because toothed whales are by no means the only marine predators placing a selection pressure on their prey to evolve specific means to detect and avoid them. Toothed whales can generate extremely intense sound pressure levels, and it has been suggested that they may use these to debilitate prey. Recent experiments, however, show that neither fish with swim bladders, nor squid are debilitated by such signals. This strongly suggests that the production of high amplitude ultrasonic clicks serve the function of improving the detection range of the toothed whale biosonar system rather than debilitation of prey.

Wilson, Maria; Wahlberg, Magnus; Surlykke, Annemarie; Madsen, Peter Teglberg

2013-01-01

38

Global qualitative analysis of a ratio-dependent predator–prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Ratio-dependent predator–prey models are favored by many animal ecologists recently as more suitable ones for predator–prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves searching process. However, such models are not well studied in the sense that most\\u000a results are local stability related. In this paper, we consider the global behaviors of solutions of a ratio-dependent predator–prey\\u000a systems. Specifically, we shall show that ratio

Yang Kuang; Edoardo Beretta

1998-01-01

39

Global dynamics of a ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Recently, ratio-dependent predator-prey systems have been regarded by some researchers to be more appropriate for predator-prey\\u000a interactions where predation involves serious searching processes. However, such models have set up a challenging issue regarding\\u000a their dynamics near the origin since these models are not well-defined there. In this paper, the qualitative behavior of a\\u000a class of ratio-dependent predator-prey system at

Dongmei Xiao; Shigui Ruan

2001-01-01

40

Chemotactic predator-prey dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discrete chemotactic predator-prey model is proposed in which the prey secrets a diffusing chemical which is sensed by the predator and vice versa. Two dynamical states corresponding to catching and escaping are identified and it is shown that steady hunting is unstable. For the escape process, the predator-prey distance is diffusive for short times but exhibits a transient subdiffusive behavior which scales as a power law t1/3 with time t and ultimately crosses over to diffusion again. This allows us to classify the motility and dynamics of various predatory microbes and phagocytes. In particular, there is a distinct region in the parameter space where they prove to be infallible predators.

Sengupta, Ankush; Kruppa, Tobias; Löwen, Hartmut

2011-03-01

41

Behavioral refuges and predator-prey coexistence.  

PubMed

The effects of a behavioral refuge caused either by the predator optimal foraging or prey adaptive antipredator behavior on the Gause predator-prey model are studied. It is shown that both of these mechanisms promote predator-prey coexistence either at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle. Adaptive prey refuge use leads to hysteresis in prey antipredator behavior which allows predator-prey coexistence along a limit cycle. Similarly, optimal predator foraging leads to sigmoidal functional responses with a potential to stabilize predator-prey population dynamics at an equilibrium, or along a limit cycle. PMID:23291567

K?ivan, Vlastimil

2013-12-21

42

Putting prey and predator into the CO2 equation--qualitative and quantitative effects of ocean acidification on predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Little is known about the impact of ocean acidification on predator-prey dynamics. Herein, we examined the effect of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) on both prey and predator by letting one predatory reef fish interact for 24 h with eight small or large juvenile damselfishes from four congeneric species. Both prey and predator were exposed to control or elevated levels of CO(2). Mortality rate and predator selectivity were compared across CO(2) treatments, prey size and species. Small juveniles of all species sustained greater mortality at high CO(2) levels, while large recruits were not affected. For large prey, the pattern of prey selectivity by predators was reversed under elevated CO(2). Our results demonstrate both quantitative and qualitative consumptive effects of CO(2) on small and larger damselfish recruits respectively, resulting from CO(2)-induced behavioural changes likely mediated by impaired neurological function. This study highlights the complexity of predicting the effects of climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:21936880

Ferrari, Maud C O; McCormick, Mark I; Munday, Philip L; Meekan, Mark G; Dixson, Danielle L; Lonnstedt, Öona; Chivers, Douglas P

2011-11-01

43

Probability of detecting marine predator-prey and species interactions using novel hybrid acoustic transmitter-receiver tags.  

PubMed

Understanding the nature of inter-specific and conspecific interactions in the ocean is challenging because direct observation is usually impossible. The development of dual transmitter/receivers, Vemco Mobile Transceivers (VMT), and satellite-linked (e.g. GPS) tags provides a unique opportunity to better understand between and within species interactions in space and time. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with detecting a tagged animal, particularly under varying field conditions, is vital for making accurate biological inferences when using VMTs. We evaluated the detection efficiency of VMTs deployed on grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, off Sable Island (NS, Canada) in relation to environmental characteristics and seal behaviour using generalized linear models (GLM) to explore both post-processed detection data and summarized raw VMT data. When considering only post-processed detection data, only about half of expected detections were recorded at best even when two VMT-tagged seals were estimated to be within 50-200 m of one another. At a separation of 400 m, only about 15% of expected detections were recorded. In contrast, when incomplete transmissions from the summarized raw data were also considered, the ratio of complete transmission to complete and incomplete transmissions was about 70% for distances ranging from 50-1000 m, with a minimum of around 40% at 600 m and a maximum of about 85% at 50 m. Distance between seals, wind stress, and depth were the most important predictors of detection efficiency. Access to the raw VMT data allowed us to focus on the physical and environmental factors that limit a transceiver's ability to resolve a transmitter's identity. PMID:24892286

Baker, Laurie L; Jonsen, Ian D; Mills Flemming, Joanna E; Lidgard, Damian C; Bowen, William D; Iverson, Sara J; Webber, Dale M

2014-01-01

44

Probability of Detecting Marine Predator-Prey and Species Interactions Using Novel Hybrid Acoustic Transmitter-Receiver Tags  

PubMed Central

Understanding the nature of inter-specific and conspecific interactions in the ocean is challenging because direct observation is usually impossible. The development of dual transmitter/receivers, Vemco Mobile Transceivers (VMT), and satellite-linked (e.g. GPS) tags provides a unique opportunity to better understand between and within species interactions in space and time. Quantifying the uncertainty associated with detecting a tagged animal, particularly under varying field conditions, is vital for making accurate biological inferences when using VMTs. We evaluated the detection efficiency of VMTs deployed on grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, off Sable Island (NS, Canada) in relation to environmental characteristics and seal behaviour using generalized linear models (GLM) to explore both post-processed detection data and summarized raw VMT data. When considering only post-processed detection data, only about half of expected detections were recorded at best even when two VMT-tagged seals were estimated to be within 50–200 m of one another. At a separation of 400 m, only about 15% of expected detections were recorded. In contrast, when incomplete transmissions from the summarized raw data were also considered, the ratio of complete transmission to complete and incomplete transmissions was about 70% for distances ranging from 50–1000 m, with a minimum of around 40% at 600 m and a maximum of about 85% at 50 m. Distance between seals, wind stress, and depth were the most important predictors of detection efficiency. Access to the raw VMT data allowed us to focus on the physical and environmental factors that limit a transceiver’s ability to resolve a transmitter’s identity.

Baker, Laurie L.; Jonsen, Ian D.; Mills Flemming, Joanna E.; Lidgard, Damian C.; Bowen, William D.; Iverson, Sara J.; Webber, Dale M.

2014-01-01

45

Stochastic population oscillations in spatial predator-prey models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions invalidates the classical deterministic Lotka-Volterra picture of neutral population cycles. In contrast, stochastic models yield long-lived, but ultimately decaying erratic population oscillations, which can be understood through a resonant amplification mechanism for density fluctuations. In Monte Carlo simulations of spatial stochastic predator-prey systems, one observes striking complex spatio-temporal structures. These spreading activity fronts induce persistent correlations between predators and prey. In the presence of local particle density restrictions (finite prey carrying capacity), there exists an extinction threshold for the predator population. The accompanying continuous non-equilibrium phase transition is governed by the directed-percolation universality class. We employ field-theoretic methods based on the Doi-Peliti representation of the master equation for stochastic particle interaction models to (i) map the ensuing action in the vicinity of the absorbing state phase transition to Reggeon field theory, and (ii) to quantitatively address fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the population oscillation frequency, damping, and diffusion coefficients in the species coexistence phase. [See Preprint arXiv:1105.4242, and further refs. therein.

Tauber, Uwe C.

2011-10-01

46

Stochastic population oscillations in spatial predator-prey models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well-established that including spatial structure and stochastic noise in models for predator-prey interactions invalidates the classical deterministic Lotka-Volterra picture of neutral population cycles. In contrast, stochastic models yield long-lived, but ultimately decaying erratic population oscillations, which can be understood through a resonant amplification mechanism for density fluctuations. In Monte Carlo simulations of spatial stochastic predator-prey systems, one observes striking complex spatio-temporal structures. These spreading activity fronts induce persistent correlations between predators and prey. In the presence of local particle density restrictions (finite prey carrying capacity), there exists an extinction threshold for the predator population. The accompanying continuous non-equilibrium phase transition is governed by the directed-percolation universality class. We employ field-theoretic methods based on the Doi-Peliti representation of the master equation for stochastic particle interaction models to (i) map the ensuing action in the vicinity of the absorbing state phase transition to Reggeon field theory, and (ii) to quantitatively address fluctuation-induced renormalizations of the population oscillation frequency, damping, and diffusion coefficients in the species coexistence phase.

Täuber, Uwe C.

2011-09-01

47

Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics?  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the impact of prey sexual dimorphism on predator-prey dynamics and the impact of sex-selective harvesting and trophy hunting on long-term stability of exploited populations. Methodology and Principal Findings We review the quantitative evidence for sex-selective predation and study its long-term consequences using several simple predator-prey models. These models can be also interpreted in terms of feedback between harvesting effort and population size of the harvested species under open-access exploitation. Among the 81 predator-prey pairs found in the literature, male bias in predation is 2.3 times as common as female bias. We show that long-term effects of sex-selective predation depend on the interplay of predation bias and prey mating system. Predation on the ‘less limiting’ prey sex can yield a stable predator-prey equilibrium, while predation on the other sex usually destabilizes the dynamics and promotes population collapses. For prey mating systems that we consider, males are less limiting except for polyandry and polyandrogyny, and male-biased predation alone on such prey can stabilize otherwise unstable dynamics. On the contrary, our results suggest that female-biased predation on polygynous, polygynandrous or monogamous prey requires other stabilizing mechanisms to persist. Conclusions and Significance Our modelling results suggest that the observed skew towards male-biased predation might reflect, in addition to sexual selection, the evolutionary history of predator-prey interactions. More focus on these phenomena can yield additional and interesting insights as to which mechanisms maintain the persistence of predator-prey pairs over ecological and evolutionary timescales. Our results can also have implications for long-term sustainability of harvesting and trophy hunting of sexually dimorphic species.

Boukal, David S.; Berec, Ludek; Krivan, Vlastimil

2008-01-01

48

Dynamics of competing predator-prey species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the predator-prey model described by the Lotka-Volterra equations (N.S. Goel et al., Rev. Mod. Phys. 43 (1971) 231). These coupled non-linear differential equations are solved numerically and compared with Monte Carlo simulations. Spectral analysis of the data indicate the presence of a fixed set of frequencies and the absence of power-law behaviour. Features introduced to make the model more realistic, such as age-structures and ageing, are found to have no qualitative effect.

Bradshaw, A. T.; Moseley, L. L.

49

The nature of predation: prey dependent, ratio dependent or neither?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To describe a predator–prey relationship, it is necessary to specify the rate of prey consumption by an average predator. This functional response largely determines dynamic stability, responses to environmental influences and the nature of indirect effects in the food web containing the predator–prey pair. Nevertheless, measurements of functional responses in nature are quite rare. Recently, much work has been devoted

Peter A. Abrams; Lev R. Ginzburg

2000-01-01

50

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation system as a predator-prey problem  

PubMed Central

We show that the aerosol–cloud–precipitation system exhibits characteristics of the predator-prey problem in the field of population dynamics. Both a detailed large eddy simulation of the dynamics and microphysics of a precipitating shallow boundary layer cloud system and a simpler model built upon basic physical principles, reproduce predator-prey behavior with rain acting as the predator and cloud as the prey. The aerosol is shown to modulate the predator-prey response. Steady-state solution to the proposed model shows the known existence of bistability in cloudiness. Three regimes are identified in the time-dependent solutions: (i) the weakly precipitating regime where cloud and rain coexist in a quasi steady state; (ii) the moderately drizzling regime where limit-cycle behavior in the cloud and rain fields is produced; and (iii) the heavily precipitating clouds where collapse of the boundary layer is predicted. The manifestation of predator-prey behavior in the aerosol–cloud–precipitation system is a further example of the self-organizing properties of the system and suggests that exploiting principles of population dynamics may help reduce complex aerosol–cloud–rain interactions to a more tractable problem.

Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham

2011-01-01

51

Aerosol-cloud-precipitation system as a predator-prey problem.  

PubMed

We show that the aerosol-cloud-precipitation system exhibits characteristics of the predator-prey problem in the field of population dynamics. Both a detailed large eddy simulation of the dynamics and microphysics of a precipitating shallow boundary layer cloud system and a simpler model built upon basic physical principles, reproduce predator-prey behavior with rain acting as the predator and cloud as the prey. The aerosol is shown to modulate the predator-prey response. Steady-state solution to the proposed model shows the known existence of bistability in cloudiness. Three regimes are identified in the time-dependent solutions: (i) the weakly precipitating regime where cloud and rain coexist in a quasi steady state; (ii) the moderately drizzling regime where limit-cycle behavior in the cloud and rain fields is produced; and (iii) the heavily precipitating clouds where collapse of the boundary layer is predicted. The manifestation of predator-prey behavior in the aerosol-cloud-precipitation system is a further example of the self-organizing properties of the system and suggests that exploiting principles of population dynamics may help reduce complex aerosol-cloud-rain interactions to a more tractable problem. PMID:21742979

Koren, Ilan; Feingold, Graham

2011-07-26

52

Ecological conditions affect evolutionary trajectory in a predator-prey system.  

PubMed

The arms race of adaptation and counter adaptation in predator-prey interactions is a fascinating evolutionary dynamic with many consequences, including local adaptation and the promotion or maintenance of diversity. Although such antagonistic coevolution is suspected to be widespread in nature, experimental documentation of the process remains scant, and we have little understanding of the impact of ecological conditions. Here, we present evidence of predator-prey coevolution in a long-term experiment involving the predatory bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and the prey Pseudomonas fluorescens, which has three morphs (SM, FS, and WS). Depending on experimentally applied disturbance regimes, the predator-prey system followed two distinct evolutionary trajectories, where the prey evolved to be either super-resistant to predation (SM morph) without counter-adaptation by the predator, or moderately resistant (FS morph), specialized to and coevolving with the predator. Although predation-resistant FS morphs suffer a cost of resistance, the evolution of extreme resistance to predation by the SM morph was apparently unconstrained by other traits (carrying capacity, growth rate). Thus we demonstrate empirically that ecological conditions can shape the evolutionary trajectory of a predator-prey system. PMID:19154363

Gallet, Romain; Tully, Thomas; Evans, Margaret E K

2009-03-01

53

A synthetic Escherichia coli predator-prey ecosystem  

PubMed Central

We have constructed a synthetic ecosystem consisting of two Escherichia coli populations, which communicate bi-directionally through quorum sensing and regulate each other's gene expression and survival via engineered gene circuits. Our synthetic ecosystem resembles canonical predator–prey systems in terms of logic and dynamics. The predator cells kill the prey by inducing expression of a killer protein in the prey, while the prey rescue the predators by eliciting expression of an antidote protein in the predator. Extinction, coexistence and oscillatory dynamics of the predator and prey populations are possible depending on the operating conditions as experimentally validated by long-term culturing of the system in microchemostats. A simple mathematical model is developed to capture these system dynamics. Coherent interplay between experiments and mathematical analysis enables exploration of the dynamics of interacting populations in a predictable manner.

Balagadde, Frederick K; Song, Hao; Ozaki, Jun; Collins, Cynthia H; Barnet, Matthew; Arnold, Frances H; Quake, Stephen R; You, Lingchong

2008-01-01

54

Global Stability for a Class of Predator-Prey Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question of global stability of the positive locally asymp- totically stable equilibrium in a class of predator-prey systems. The Dulac's criterion is applied and Liapunov functions are constructed to establish the global stability.

Sze-bi Hsu; Tzy-wei Huang

1995-01-01

55

Coupled predator-prey oscillations in a chaotic food web.  

PubMed

Coupling of several predator-prey oscillations can generate intriguing patterns of synchronization and chaos. Theory predicts that prey species will fluctuate in phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through generalist predators, whereas they will fluctuate in anti-phase if predator-prey cycles are coupled through competition between prey species. Here, we investigate predator-prey oscillations in a long-term experiment with a marine plankton community. Wavelet analysis of the species fluctuations reveals two predator-prey cycles that fluctuate largely in anti-phase. The phase angles point at strong competition between the phytoplankton species, but relatively little prey overlap among the zooplankton species. This food web architecture is consistent with the size structure of the plankton community, and generates highly dynamic food webs. Continued alternations in species dominance enable coexistence of the prey species through a non-equilibrium 'killing-the-winner' mechanism, as the system shifts back and forth between the two predator-prey cycles in a chaotic fashion. PMID:19845726

Benincà, Elisa; Jöhnk, Klaus D; Heerkloss, Reinhard; Huisman, Jef

2009-12-01

56

Inbreeding depression effects on extinction time in a predator—prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Traditional methods of assessing population viability ignore both genetic—demographic interactions as well as community level dynamics. We address these deficiencies by presenting a model that investigates the effects of predation on a prey population experiencing inbreeding depression. Beginning with a simple Lotka—Volterra predator—prey system, we rewrite prey per capita mortality as a function of inbreeding. Inbreeding varies as a

Laura Hartt; James W. Haefner

1995-01-01

57

Human Activity Helps Prey Win the Predator-Prey Space Race  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predator-prey interactions, including between large mammalian wildlife species, can be represented as a “space race”, where prey try to minimize and predators maximize spatial overlap. Human activity can also influence the distribution of wildlife species. In particular, high-human disturbance can displace large carnivore predators, a trait-mediated direct effect. Predator displacement by humans could then indirectly benefit prey species by reducing

Tyler B. Muhly; Christina Semeniuk; Alessandro Massolo; Laura Hickman; Marco Musiani; Matjaz Perc

2011-01-01

58

Trophic organisation and predator-prey interactions among commercially exploited demersal finfishes in the coastal waters of the southeastern Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trophic interactions in commercially exploited demersal finfishes in the southeastern Arabian Sea of India were studied to understand trophic organization with emphasis on ontogenic diet shifts within the marine food web. In total, the contents of 4716 stomachs were examined from which 78 prey items were identified. Crustaceans and fishes were the major prey groups to most of the fishes. Based on cluster analysis of predator feeding similarities and ontogenic diet shift within each predator, four major trophic guilds and many sub-guilds were identified. The first guild 'detritus feeders' included all size groups of Cynoglossus macrostomus, Pampus argenteus, Leiognathus bindus and Priacanthus hamrur. Guild two, named 'Shrimp feeders', was the largest guild identified and included all size groups of Rhynchobatus djiddensis and Nemipterus mesoprion, medium and large Nemipterus japonicus, P. hamrur and Grammoplites suppositus, small and medium Otolithes cuvieri and small Lactarius lactarius. Guild three, named 'crab and squilla feeders', consisted of few predators. The fourth trophic guild, 'piscivores', was mainly made up of larger size groups of all predators and all size groups of Pseudorhombus arsius and Carcharhinus limbatus. The mean diet breadth and mean trophic level showed strong correlation with ontogenic diet shift. The mean trophic level varied from 2.2 ± 0.1 in large L. bindus to 4.6 ± 0.2 in large Epinephelus diacanthus and the diet breadth from 1.4 ± 0.3 in medium P. argenteus to 8.3 ± 0.2 in medium N. japonicus. Overall, the present study showed that predators in the ecosystem have a strong feeding preference for the sergestid shrimp Acetes indicus, penaeid shrimps, epibenthic crabs and detritus.

Abdurahiman, K. P.; Nayak, T. H.; Zacharia, P. U.; Mohamed, K. S.

2010-05-01

59

Spatiotemporal dynamics of the epidemic transmission in a predator-prey system.  

PubMed

Epidemic transmission is one of the critical density-dependent mechanisms that affect species viability and dynamics. In a predator-prey system, epidemic transmission can strongly affect the success probability of hunting, especially for social animals. Predators, therefore, will suffer from the positive density-dependence, i.e., Allee effect, due to epidemic transmission in the population. The rate of species contacting the epidemic, especially for those endangered or invasive, has largely increased due to the habitat destruction caused by anthropogenic disturbance. Using ordinary differential equations and cellular automata, we here explored the epidemic transmission in a predator-prey system. Results show that a moderate Allee effect will destabilize the dynamics, but it is not true for the extreme Allee effect (weak or strong). The predator-prey dynamics amazingly stabilize by the extreme Allee effect. Predators suffer the most from the epidemic disease at moderate transmission probability. Counter-intuitively, habitat destruction will benefit the control of the epidemic disease. The demographic stochasticity dramatically influences the spatial distribution of the system. The spatial distribution changes from oil-bubble-like (due to local interaction) to aggregated spatially scattered points (due to local interaction and demographic stochasticity). It indicates the possibility of using human disturbance in habitat as a potential epidemic-control method in conservation. PMID:18696164

Su, Min; Hui, Cang; Zhang, Yanyu; Li, Zizhen

2008-11-01

60

Using process algebra to develop predator-prey models of within-host parasite dynamics.  

PubMed

As a first approximation of immune-mediated within-host parasite dynamics we can consider the immune response as a predator, with the parasite as its prey. In the ecological literature of predator-prey interactions there are a number of different functional responses used to describe how a predator reproduces in response to consuming prey. Until recently most of the models of the immune system that have taken a predator-prey approach have used simple mass action dynamics to capture the interaction between the immune response and the parasite. More recently Fenton and Perkins (2010) employed three of the most commonly used prey-dependent functional response terms from the ecological literature. In this paper we make use of a technique from computing science, process algebra, to develop mathematical models. The novelty of the process algebra approach is to allow stochastic models of the population (parasite and immune cells) to be developed from rules of individual cell behaviour. By using this approach in which individual cellular behaviour is captured we have derived a ratio-dependent response similar to that seen in the previous models of immune-mediated parasite dynamics, confirming that, whilst this type of term is controversial in ecological predator-prey models, it is appropriate for models of the immune system. PMID:23499712

McCaig, Chris; Fenton, Andy; Graham, Andrea; Shankland, Carron; Norman, Rachel

2013-07-21

61

Quenched Spatial Disorder in Cyclic Three-Species Predator-Prey Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We employ individual-based Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of quenched spatial disorder in the reaction rates on the co-evolutionary dynamics of cyclic three- species predator-prey models with conserved total particle density. To this end, we numerically explore the oscillatory dynamics of two different variants: (1) the model with symmetric interaction rates near the center of the configuration space, and (2) a strongly asymmetric model version located in one of the three ``corners'' of configuration space. We find that spatial rate variability has only minor effect on the dynamics of generic, not strongly asymmetric systems (variant 1). In stark contrast, spatial disorder can greatly enhance the fitness of both minor species in ``corner'' systems (2). Furthermore, through both mean-field analysis and numerical simulation, we conclude that the evolutionary dynamics of two-species Lotka-Volterra predator- prey models is well approximated by such strongly asymmetric cyclic three-species predator-prey systems. Refs.: Qian He, Mauro Mobilia, and Uwe C. Tauber, Phys. Rev. E 82, 051909 (2010); Qian He and Uwe C.Tauber, in preparation (2011).

He, Qian; Tauber, Uwe C.

2011-10-01

62

Spatiotemporal dynamics of two generic predator-prey models.  

PubMed

We present the analysis of two reaction-diffusion systems modelling predator-prey interactions, where the predator displays the Holling type II functional response, and in the absence of predators, the prey growth is logistic. The local analysis is based on the application of qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations and dynamical systems, while the global well-posedness depends on invariant sets and differential inequalities. The key result is an L(?)-stability estimate, which depends on a polynomial growth condition for the kinetics. The existence of an a priori L(p)-estimate, uniform in time, for all p ? 1, implies L(?)-uniform bounds, given any nonnegative L(?)-initial data. The applicability of the L(?)-estimate to general reaction-diffusion systems is discussed, and how the continuous results can be mimicked in the discrete case, leading to stability estimates for a Galerkin finite-element method with piecewise linear continuous basis functions. In order to verify the biological wave phenomena of solutions, numerical results are presented in two-space dimensions, which have interesting ecological implications as they demonstrate that solutions can be 'trapped' in an invariant region of phase space. PMID:22881204

Garvie, Marcus R; Trenchea, C

2010-11-01

63

Stability and Delays in a Predator-Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sufficient conditions for both local and global stability of the positive equilibrium in a predator-prey system with time delays are obtained by constructing suitable Lyapunov functionals. A remark on the mistake by K. N. Murty and M. A. S. Srinivas (J. Math. Anal. Appl.158,1991, 333–341) is also included.

Xue-zhong He

1996-01-01

64

Persistent predator-prey dynamics revealed by mass extinction.  

PubMed

Predator-prey interactions are thought by many researchers to define both modern ecosystems and past macroevolutionary events. In modern ecosystems, experimental removal or addition of taxa is often used to determine trophic relationships and predator identity. Both characteristics are notoriously difficult to infer in the fossil record, where evidence of predation is usually limited to damage from failed attacks, individual stomach contents, one-sided escalation, or modern analogs. As a result, the role of predation in macroevolution is often dismissed in favor of competition and abiotic factors. Here we show that the end-Devonian Hangenberg event (359 Mya) was a natural experiment in which vertebrate predators were both removed and added to an otherwise stable prey fauna, revealing specific and persistent trophic interactions. Despite apparently favorable environmental conditions, crinoids diversified only after removal of their vertebrate consumers, exhibiting predatory release on a geological time scale. In contrast, later Mississippian (359-318 Mya) camerate crinoids declined precipitously in the face of increasing predation pressure from new durophagous fishes. Camerate failure is linked to the retention of obsolete defenses or "legacy adaptations" that prevented coevolutionary escalation. Our results suggest that major crinoid evolutionary phenomena, including rapid diversification, faunal turnover, and species selection, might be linked to vertebrate predation. Thus, interactions observed in small ecosystems, such as Lotka-Volterra cycles and trophic cascades, could operate at geologic time scales and higher taxonomic ranks. Both trophic knock-on effects and retention of obsolete traits might be common in the aftermath of predator extinction. PMID:21536875

Sallan, Lauren Cole; Kammer, Thomas W; Ausich, William I; Cook, Lewis A

2011-05-17

65

DISPERSAL AND PATTERN-FORMATION IN A DISCRETE-TIME PREDATOR-PREY MODEL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the dispersal-driven instabilities that arise in a\\u000a discrete-time predator-prey model formulated as a system of\\u000a integrodifference equations. Integrodifference equations contain two\\u000a components: (1) difference equations, which model growth and\\u000a interactions during a sedentary stage, and (2) redistribution kernels,\\u000a which characterize the distribution of dispersal distances that arise\\u000a during a vagile stage. Redistribution kernels have been measured for a

M. G. Neubert; M. Kot; M.A. Lewis

1995-01-01

66

Landscape connectivity and predator–prey population dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landscapes are increasingly fragmented, and conservation programs have started to look at network approaches for maintaining\\u000a populations at a larger scale. We present an agent-based model of predator–prey dynamics where the agents (i.e. the individuals\\u000a of either the predator or prey population) are able to move between different patches in a landscaped network. We then analyze\\u000a population level and coexistence

Jacopo A. Baggio; Kehinde Salau; Marco A. Janssen; Michael L. Schoon; Örjan Bodin

2011-01-01

67

The Influence of Predator–Prey Population Dynamics on the Long-term Evolution of Food Web Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a set of equations to describe the population dynamics of many interacting species in food webs. Predator–prey interactions are nonlinear, and are based on ratio-dependent functional responses. The equations account for competition for resources between members of the same species, and between members of different species. Predators divide their total hunting\\/foraging effort between the available prey species according

BARBARA DROSSEL; PAUL G. HIGGS; ALAN J. MCKANE

2001-01-01

68

Deer Me: A Predator/Prey Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. After collecting the data, the learners plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.

Zoo, Minnesota; Eduweb

2012-01-01

69

A derivation of Holling's type I, II and III functional responses in predator-prey systems.  

PubMed

Predator-prey dynamics is most simply and commonly described by Lotka-Volterra-type ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for continuous population density variables in the limit of large population sizes. One popular extension of these ODEs is the so-called Rosenzweig-MacArthur model in which various interaction rates between the populations have a nonlinear dependence on the prey concentration. Nonlinear 'functional responses' of this type were originally proposed by Holling on the basis of a general argument concerning the allocation of a predator's time between two activities: 'prey searching' and 'prey handling'. Although these functional responses are constructed in terms of the behaviour of an individual predator, they are routinely incorporated at the population level in models that include reproduction and death. In this paper we derive a novel three variable model for the simplest possible mathematical formulation of predator-prey dynamics that allows the interplay between these various processes to take place, on their different characteristic timescales. We study its properties in detail and show how it reduces to Holling's functional responses in special limits. As a result we are able to establish direct links between individual-level and population-level behaviour in the context of these well-known functional responses. PMID:23500600

Dawes, J H P; Souza, M O

2013-06-21

70

Rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities.  

PubMed

Although microevolution has been shown to play an important role in pairwise antagonistic species interactions, its importance in more complex communities has received little attention. Here, we used two Pseudomonas fluorescens prey bacterial strains (SBW25 and F113) and Tetrahymena thermophila protist predator to study how rapid evolution affects the structuring of predator-prey communities. Both bacterial strains coexisted in the absence of predation, and F113 was competitively excluded in the presence of both SBW25 and predator during the 24-day experiment, an initially surprising result given that F113 was originally poorer at growing, but more resistant to predation. However, this can be explained by SBW25 evolving greater antipredatory defence with a lower growth cost than F113. These results show that rapid prey evolution can alter the structure of predator-prey communities, having different effects depending on the initial composition of the evolving community. From a more applied perspective, our results suggest that the effectiveness of biocontrol bacteria, such as F113, could be weaker in communities characterized by intense bacterial competition and protist predation. PMID:24372926

Friman, V-P; Jousset, A; Buckling, A

2014-02-01

71

Influence of edge on predator prey distribution and abundance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I investigated the effect of spatial configuration on distribution and abundance of invertebrate trophic groups by counting soil arthropods under boxes (21 × 9.5 cm) arranged in six different patterns that varied in the amount of edge (137-305 cm). I predicted fewer individuals from the consumer trophic group (Collembola) in box groups with greater amount of edge. This prediction was based on the assumption that predators (mites, ants, spiders, centipedes) select edge during foraging and thereby reduce abundance of the less mobile consumer group under box patterns with greater edge. Consumer abundance (Collembola) was not correlated with amount of edge. Among the predator groups, mite, ant and centipede abundance related to the amount of edge of box groups. However, in contrast to predictions, abundance of these predators was negatively correlated with amount of edge in box patterns. All Collembola predators, with the exception of ants, were less clumped in distribution than Collembola. The results are inconsistent with the view that predators used box edges to predate the less mobile consumer trophic group. Alternative explanations for the spatial patterns other than predator-prey relations include (1) a negative relationship between edge and moisture, (2) a positive relationship between edge and detritus decomposition (i.e. mycelium as food for the consumer group), and (3) a negative relationship between edge and the interstices between adjacent boxes. Landscape patterns likely affect microclimate, food, and predator-prey relations and, therefore, future experimental designs need to control these factors individually to distinguish among alternative hypotheses.

Ferguson, Steven H.

2004-03-01

72

Some Results on Global Stability of a Predator-Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we derive some results to ensure the global stability of a predator-prey system. The results cover most of the models which have been proposed in the ecological literature for predator-prey systems. The first result is very geometric and it is very easy to check from the graph of prey and predator isoclines. The second one is purely

Kuo-Shung Cheng; Sze-Bi Hsu; Song-Sun Lin

1981-01-01

73

Short-term sublethal hypoxia affects a predator-prey system in northern Adriatic transitional waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Predation intensity depends on factors that affect both the predator's ability to locate prey as well as defensive responses by prey to approaching predators. The interactive effects of short-term hypoxia and predation were tested on the survival of two bivalves ( Tapes philippinarum and Musculista senhousia) through laboratory experiments using the crab Carcinus aestuarii as predator. We found M. senhousia to be a focal prey of C. aestuarii but, after non-lethal hypoxia, the crabs' preference for the focal prey was influenced by the presence of the other prey, T. philippinarum. We observed an environmentally-mediated, non-reciprocal indirect interaction between the two prey species, probably caused by differences in specific traits. Identifying the influence of short-term disturbance on predator-prey relationships is critical for predicting the effects of changes in water quality on trophic interactions and food web dynamics in transitional systems.

Munari, Cristina; Mistri, Michele

2012-01-01

74

Predator-prey pursuit-evasion games in structurally complex environments.  

PubMed

Pursuit and evasion behaviors in many predator-prey encounters occur in a geometrically structured environment. The physical structures in the environment impose strong constraints on the perception and behavioral responses of both antagonists. Nevertheless, no experimental or theoretical study has tackled the issue of quantifying the role of the habitat's architecture on the joint trajectories during a predator-prey encounter. In this study, we report the influence of microtopography of forest leaf litter on the pursuit-evasion trajectories of wolf spiders Pardosa sp. attacking the wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris. Fourteen intact leaf litter samples of 1 m × 0.5 m were extracted from an oak-beech forest floor in summer and winter, with later samples having the most recently fallen leaves. Elevation was mapped at a spatial resolution of 0.5 mm using a laser scanner. Litter structuring patterns were identified by height transects and experimental semi-variograms. Detailed analysis of all visible leaf-fragments of one sample enabled us to relate the observed statistical patterns to the underlying geometry of individual elements. Video recording of pursuit-evasion sequences in arenas with flat paper or leaf litter enabled us to estimate attack and fleeing distances as a function of substrate. The compaction index, the length of contiguous flat surfaces, and the experimental variograms showed that the leaf litter was smoother in summer than in winter. Thus, weathering as well as biotic activities compacted and flattened the litter over time. We found good agreement between the size of the structuring unit of leaf litter and the distance over which attack and escape behaviors both were initiated (both ?3 cm). There was a four-fold topographical effect on pursuit-escape sequences; compared with a flat surface, leaf litter (1) greatly reduced the likelihood of launching a pursuit, (2) reduced pursuit and escape distances by half, (3) put prey and predator on par in terms of pursuit and escape distances, and (4) reduced the likelihood of secondary pursuits, after initial escape of the prey, to nearly zero. Thus, geometry of the habitat strongly modulates the rules of pursuit-evasion in predator-prey interactions in the wild. PMID:23720527

Morice, Sylvie; Pincebourde, Sylvain; Darboux, Frédéric; Kaiser, Wilfried; Casas, Jérôme

2013-11-01

75

On the Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in a discrete predator-prey system.  

PubMed

A two-parameter family of discrete models describing a predator-prey interaction is considered, which generalizes a model discussed by Murray, and originally due to Nicholson and Bailey, consisting of two coupled nonlinear difference equations. In contrast to the original case treated by Murray, where the two populations either die out or may display unbounded growth, the general member of this family displays a somewhat wider range of behaviour. In particular, the model has a nontrivial steady state which is stable for a certain range of parameter values, which is explicitly determined, and also undergoes a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation that produces an attracting invariant curve in some areas of the parameter space and a repelling one in others. PMID:22881206

Hone, A N W; Irle, M V; Thurura, G W

2010-11-01

76

Predator-Prey Dynamics Driven by Feedback between Functionally Diverse Trophic Levels  

PubMed Central

Neglecting the naturally existing functional diversity of communities and the resulting potential to respond to altered conditions may strongly reduce the realism and predictive power of ecological models. We therefore propose and study a predator-prey model that describes mutual feedback via species shifts in both predator and prey, using a dynamic trait approach. Species compositions of the two trophic levels were described by mean functional traits—prey edibility and predator food-selectivity—and functional diversities by the variances. Altered edibility triggered shifts in food-selectivity so that consumers continuously respond to the present prey composition, and vice versa. This trait-mediated feedback mechanism resulted in a complex dynamic behavior with ongoing oscillations in the mean trait values, reflecting continuous reorganization of the trophic levels. The feedback was only possible if sufficient functional diversity was present in both trophic levels. Functional diversity was internally maintained on the prey level as no niche existed in our system, which was ideal under any composition of the predator level due to the trade-offs between edibility, growth and carrying capacity. The predators were only subject to one trade-off between food-selectivity and grazing ability and in the absence of immigration, one predator type became abundant, i.e., functional diversity declined to zero. In the lack of functional diversity the system showed the same dynamics as conventional models of predator-prey interactions ignoring the potential for shifts in species composition. This way, our study identified the crucial role of trade-offs and their shape in physiological and ecological traits for preserving diversity.

Wirtz, Kai; Gaedke, Ursula

2011-01-01

77

Foraging and vulnerability traits modify predator-prey body mass allometry: freshwater macroinvertebrates as a case study.  

PubMed

1. Predation is often size selective, but the role of other traits of the prey and predators in their interactions is little known. This hinders our understanding of the causal links between trophic interactions and the structure of animal communities. Better knowledge of trophic traits underlying predator-prey interactions is also needed to improve models attempting to predict food web structure and dynamics from known species traits. 2. We carried out laboratory experiments with common freshwater macroinvertebrate predators (diving beetles, dragonfly and damselfly larvae and water bugs) and their prey to assess how body size and traits related to foraging (microhabitat use, feeding mode and foraging mode) and to prey vulnerability (microhabitat use, activity and escape behaviour) affect predation strength. 3. The underlying predator-prey body mass allometry characterizing mean prey size and total predation pressure was modified by feeding mode of the predators (suctorial or chewing). Suctorial predators fed upon larger prey and had ˜3 times higher mass-specific predation rate than chewing predators of the same size and may thus have stronger effect on prey abundance. 4. Strength of individual trophic links, measured as mortality of the focal prey caused by the focal predator, was determined jointly by the predator and prey body mass and their foraging and vulnerability traits. In addition to the feeding mode, interactions between prey escape behaviour (slow or fast), prey activity (sedentary or active) and predator foraging mode (searching or ambush) strongly affected prey mortality. Searching predators was ineffective in capturing fast-escape prey in comparison with the remaining predator-prey combinations, while ambush predators caused higher mortality than searching predators and the difference was larger in active prey. 5. Our results imply that the inclusion of the commonly available qualitative data on foraging traits of predators and vulnerability traits of prey could substantially increase biological realism of food web descriptions. PMID:23869526

Klecka, Jan; Boukal, David S

2013-09-01

78

Use of Cobra Lily (Darlingtonia californica) & Drosophila for Investigating Predator-Prey Relationships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment that uses the cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica) and fruit flies (Drosophila virilis) to investigate predator-prey relationships in a classroom laboratory. Suggestions for classroom extension of this experimental system are provided. (ZWH)

Pratt, Carl R.

1994-01-01

79

Predator-Prey model for haloes in Saturn's A ring  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

UVIS SOI reflectance spectra show bright 'haloes' around the locations of some of the strongest resonances in Saturn's A ring (Esposito etal 2005). UV spectra constrain the size and composition of the icy ring particles (Bradley etal 2010, 2012). The correspondence of IR, UV spectroscopy, HSP wavelet analysis indicate that we detect the same phenomenon. We investigate the Janus 2:1. 4:3, 5:3, 6:5 and Mimas 5:3 inner Lindblad resonances as well as at the Mimas 5:3 vertical resonance (bending wave location). Models of ring particle regolith evolution (Elliott and Esposito 2010) indicate the deeper regolith is made of older and purer ice. The strong resonances can cause streamline crowding (Lewis and Stewart 2005) which damps the interparticle velocity, allowing temporary clumps to grow, which in turn increase the velocity, eroding the clumps and releasing smaller particles and regolith (see the predator-prey model of Esposito etal 2012). This cyclic behavior, driven by the resonant perturbation from the moon, can yield collision velocities at particular azimuths greater than 1m/sec, sufficient to erode the aggregates (Blum 2006), exposing older, purer materials: In the perturbed region, collisions erode the regolith, removing smaller particles. The released regolith material settles in the less perturbed neighboring regions. Diffusion spreads these ring particles with smaller regolith into a 'halo'. Thus, the radial location of the strongest resonances can be where we find both large aggregates and disrupted fragments, in a balance maintained by the periodic moon forcing. If this stirring exposes older, and purer ice, the velocity threshold for eroding the aggregates can explain why only the strongest Lindblad resonances show haloes. Diffusion can explain the morphology of these haloes, although they are not well-resolved spatially by UVIS.

Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, E. Todd; Colwell, Joshua E.; Madhusudhanan, Prasanna; Sremcevic, Miodrag

2013-04-01

80

Modeling symbiosis by interactions through species carrying capacities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a mathematical model of symbiosis between different species by taking into account the influence of each species on the carrying capacities of the others. The modeled entities can pertain to biological and ecological societies or to social, economic and financial societies. Our model includes three basic types: symbiosis with direct mutual interactions, symbiosis with asymmetric interactions, and symbiosis without direct interactions. In all cases, we provide a complete classification of all admissible dynamical regimes. The proposed model of symbiosis turned out to be very rich, as it exhibits four qualitatively different regimes: convergence to stationary states, unbounded exponential growth, finite-time singularity, and finite-time death or extinction of species.

Yukalov, V. I.; Yukalova, E. P.; Sornette, D.

2012-08-01

81

Flood disturbance and predator-prey effects on regional gradients in species diversity.  

PubMed

The effects of both abiotic factors and biotic interactions among guilds (i.e., inter-guild effects) have been suggested to be important for understanding spatial variation in species diversity; however, compared to the abiotic effects, the processes by which the inter-guild effects are mediated have been little described. Hence, we investigated stream invertebrate assemblages on Hokkaido Island, Japan, and assessed how the processes of determining regional patterns in species diversity differed among guilds (collector-filterers, collector-gatherers/shredders, scrapers, and predators) by taking both inter-guild and abiotic effects into consideration using Bayesian networks. Collector-gatherers/shredders, collector-filterers, and predators exhibited significant regional gradients in taxonomic richness. Gradients in the former two guilds can be generated by variation in flood disturbance regardless of interactions with other guilds. The gradient in predator taxonomic richness was indirectly related to the disturbance and was directly generated by bottom-up effects through their prey (collector-gatherers/shredders and collector-filterers). We found that not only environmental factors, but also inter-guild effects may be essential for forming the regional gradient in predators, unlike those for collector-gatherers/shredders and collector-filterers. The processes underlying the regional variation in taxonomic richness of the three guilds are interpreted in terms of the "more individuals" hypothesis, facilitation, and predator-prey relationships. PMID:24649653

Mori, Terutaka; Saitoh, Takashi

2014-01-01

82

Spatially induced speciation prevents extinction: the evolution of dispersal distance in oscillatory predator-prey models.  

PubMed Central

In a discrete-generation, individual-oriented model of predator-prey interactions that exhibits oscillations, we show that the self-structuring of the populations into spiral waves induces a selection pressure for ever-increasing dispersal distances in both populations. As the dispersal distances increase, the sizes of the spatial patterns increase, until they are too large to fit into the limited space. The patterns are then lost and the predators go extinct. This scenario, is, however, not the only outcome. A second selection pressure induced by the spatial boundary can cause reduction of the dispersal distances. Depending on the relative strengths of the two selection pressures, the predators and prey may speciate to give coexistence between short-dispersing boundary quasi-species and far-dispersing spiral quasi-species. Now, when pattern loss occurs, the predators switch to predating on the boundary prey quasi-species and do not go extinct. Also, if the populations reproduce sexually, local gene flow can inhibit the evolution of increasing dispersal distances, and hence the spatial patterns are not lost. Speciation and coexistence can also occur in the sexually reproducing species.

Savill, N J; Hogeweg, P

1998-01-01

83

Predator-prey interactions, resource depression and patch revisitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Generalist predators may be confronted by different types of prey in different patches: sedentary and conspicuous, cryptic (with or without refugia), conspicuous and nonsocial, or conspicuous and social. I argue that, where encounter rates with prey are of most importance, patch revisitation should be a profitable tactic where prey have short 'recovery' times (conspicuous, nonsocial prey), or where anti-predator response (e.g. shoaling) may increase conspicuousness. Predictions are made for how temporal changes in prey encounter rates should affect revisit schedules and feeding rates for the 4 different prey types.

Erwin, R.M.

1989-01-01

84

A size dependent predator-prey interaction: who pursues whom?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the properties of an (age, size) -structured model for a population of Daphnia that feeds on a dynamical algal food source. The stability of the internal equilibrium is studied in detail and combined\\u000a with numerical studies on the dynamics of the model to obtain insight in the relation between individual behaviour and population\\u000a dynamical phenomena. Particularly the change

A. M. De Roos; J. A. J. Metz; E. Evers; A. Leipoldt

1990-01-01

85

Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator?prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of

Matthew J. Kauffman; Nathan Varley; Douglas W. Smith; Daniel R. Stahler; Daniel R. MacNulty; Mark S. Boyce

2007-01-01

86

Uniqueness of limit cycles in Gause-type models of predator-prey systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the question of uniqueness of limit cycles in predator-prey systems of Gause type. By utilizing several transformations, these systems are reduced to a generalized Lienard system as discussed by Cherkas and Zhilevich and by Zhang. As a consequence, criteria for the uniqueness of limit cycles are derived, which include results of Cheng and is related to

Yang Kuang; H. I. Freedman

1988-01-01

87

Convergence Results in a Well-Known Delayed Predator-Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we provide a detailed and explicit procedure of obtaining some regions of attraction for the positive steady state (assumed to exist) of a well known Lotka–Volterra type predator-prey system with a single discrete delay. Our procedure requires the delay length to be small. A detailed example is presented. The method used here is to construct a proper

Edoardo Beretta; Yang KuangU

1996-01-01

88

Periodicity in a Delayed Ratio-Dependent Predator–Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of a continuation theorem based on Gaines and Mawhin's coincidence degree, easily verifiable criteria are established for the global existence of positive periodic solutions of a delayed ratio-dependent predator–prey system in a periodic environment.

Meng Fan; Ke Wang

2001-01-01

89

The stage-structured predator–prey model and optimal harvesting policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we establish a mathematical model of two species with stage structure and the relation of predator–prey, to obtain the necessary and sufficient condition for the permanence of two species and the extinction of one species or two species. We also obtain the optimal harvesting policy and the threshold of the harvesting for sustainable development.

Xin-an Zhang; Lansun Chen; Avidan U Neumann

2000-01-01

90

A predator-prey system with stage-structure for predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the asymptotoc behavior of a predator-prey model with stage structure. It is found that an orbitally asymptotically stable periodic orbit exists in that model. When time delay due to gestation of predator and time delay from crowding effect of prey are incorporated, we establish the condition for the permanence of populations and sufficient conditions under which positive

Lansun Chen

1997-01-01

91

Periodic solutions of a discrete time nonautonomous ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the help of differential equations with piecewise constant arguments, we first propose a discrete analogue of continuous time ratio-dependent predator-prey system, which is governed by nonautonomous difference equations, modeling the dynamics of the prey and the predator having nonoverlapping generations. Then, easily verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of positive periodic solutions. The approach is based on

Meng Fan; Ke Wang

2002-01-01

92

Cycling of Biogenic Mn-Oxides in a Model Microbial Predator-Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phase distribution and bioavailability of both essential and toxic trace metals can be profoundly impacted by trophic transfer in microbial food webs. A model microbial predator-prey system was used to elucidate the possible transformations of biogenic manganese oxides as they were consumed by protozoan predators along with their bacterial prey. The ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila and the Mn-oxidizing bacterium

Carolyn A. Zeiner; Leonard W. Lion; Michael L. Shuler; William C. Ghirose; Anthony Hay

2006-01-01

93

The geometrical analysis of a predator-prey model with two state impulses.  

PubMed

Using successor functions and Poincaré-Bendixson theorem of impulsive differential equations, the existence of periodical solutions to a predator-prey model with two state impulses is investigated. By stability theorem of periodic solution to impulsive differential equations, the stability conditions of periodic solutions to the system are given. Some simulations are exerted to prove the results. PMID:22561587

Zhao, Lichun; Chen, Lansun; Zhang, Qingling

2012-08-01

94

Parametric Analysis of a Predator–prey System Stabilized by a Top Predator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a complete parametric analysis of a predator–prey system influenced by a top predator. We study ecosystems with abundant nutrient supply for the prey where the prey multiplication can be considered as proportional to its density. The main questions we examine are the following: (1) Can the top predator stabilize such a system at low densities of prey? (2)

Andrew Y. Morozov; Bai-Lian Li

2006-01-01

95

Impacts of foraging facilitation among predators on predator-prey dynamics.  

PubMed

Whereas impacts of predator interference on predator-prey dynamics have received considerable attention, the "inverse" process-foraging facilitation among predators-have not been explored yet. Here we show, via mathematical models, that impacts of foraging facilitation on predator-prey dynamics depend on the way this process is modeled. In particular, foraging facilitation destabilizes predator-prey dynamics when it affects the encounter rate between predators and prey. By contrast, it might have a stabilizing effect if the predator handling time of prey is affected. Foraging facilitation is an Allee effect mechanism among predators and we show that for many parameters, it gives rise to a demographic Allee effect or a critical predator density in need to be crossed for predators to persist. We explore also the effects of predator interference, to make the picture "symmetric" and complete. Predator interference is shown to stabilize predator-prey dynamics once its strength is not too high, and thus corroborates results of others. On the other hand, there is a wide range of model parameters for which predator interference gives rise to three co-occurring co-existence equilibria. Such a multi-equilibrial regime is rather robust as we observe it for all the functional response types we explore. This is a previously unreported phenomenon which we show cannot occur for the Beddington-DeAngelis functional response. An interesting topic for future research thus might be to seek for general conditions on predator functional responses that would produce multiple co-existence equilibria in a predator-prey model. PMID:19697089

Berec, Ludek

2010-01-01

96

Robustness of predator-prey models for confinement regime transitions in fusion plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Energy transport and confinement in tokamak fusion plasmas is usually determined by the coupled nonlinear interactions of small-scale drift turbulence and larger scale coherent nonlinear structures, such as zonal flows, together with free energy sources such as temperature gradients. Zero-dimensional models, designed to embody plausible physical narratives for these interactions, can help to identify the origin of enhanced energy confinement and of transitions between confinement regimes. A prime zero-dimensional paradigm is predator-prey or Lotka-Volterra. Here, we extend a successful three-variable (temperature gradient; microturbulence level; one class of coherent structure) model in this genre [M. A. Malkov and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Plasmas 16, 012504 (2009)], by adding a fourth variable representing a second class of coherent structure. This requires a fourth coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equation. We investigate the degree of invariance of the phenomenology generated by the model of Malkov and Diamond, given this additional physics. We study and compare the long-time behaviour of the three-equation and four-equation systems, their evolution towards the final state, and their attractive fixed points and limit cycles. We explore the sensitivity of paths to attractors. It is found that, for example, an attractive fixed point of the three-equation system can become a limit cycle of the four-equation system. Addressing these questions which we together refer to as 'robustness' for convenience is particularly important for models which, as here, generate sharp transitions in the values of system variables which may replicate some key features of confinement transitions. Our results help to establish the robustness of the zero-dimensional model approach to capturing observed confinement phenomenology in tokamak fusion plasmas.

Zhu, H. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromso (Norway); Dendy, R. O. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2013-04-15

97

Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system.  

PubMed

Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape. PMID:17594424

Kauffman, Matthew J; Varley, Nathan; Smith, Douglas W; Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Boyce, Mark S

2007-08-01

98

Landscape heterogeneity shapes predation in a newly restored predator-prey system  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Because some native ungulates have lived without top predators for generations, it has been uncertain whether runaway predation would occur when predators are newly restored to these systems. We show that landscape features and vegetation, which influence predator detection and capture of prey, shape large-scale patterns of predation in a newly restored predator-prey system. We analysed the spatial distribution of wolf (Canis lupus) predation on elk (Cervus elaphus) on the Northern Range of Yellowstone National Park over 10 consecutive winters. The influence of wolf distribution on kill sites diminished over the course of this study, a result that was likely caused by territorial constraints on wolf distribution. In contrast, landscape factors strongly influenced kill sites, creating distinct hunting grounds and prey refugia. Elk in this newly restored predator-prey system should be able to mediate their risk of predation by movement and habitat selection across a heterogeneous risk landscape. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

Kauffman, M. J.; Varley, N.; Smith, D. W.; Stahler, D. R.; MacNulty, D. R.; Boyce, M. S.

2007-01-01

99

On the relationship between cyclic and hierarchical three-species predator-prey systems and the two-species Lotka-Volterra model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stochastic spatial predator-prey competition models represent paradigmatic systems to understand the emergence of biodiversity and the stability of ecosystems. We aim to clarify the relationship and connections between interacting three-species models and the classic two-species Lotka-Volterra (LV) model that entails predator-prey coexistence with long-lived population oscillations. To this end, we utilize mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulations on two-dimensional square lattices to explore the temporal evolution characteristics of two different interacting three-species predator-prey systems, namely: (1) a cyclic rock-paper-scissors (RPS) model with conserved total particle number but strongly asymmetric reaction rates that lets the system evolve towards one "corner" of configuration space; (2) a hierarchical "food chain" where an additional intermediate species is inserted between the predator and prey in the LV model. For the asymmetric cyclic model variant (1), we demonstrate that the evolutionary properties of both minority species in the (quasi-)steady state of this stochastic spatial three-species "corner" RPS model are well approximated by the two-species LV system, with its emerging characteristic features of localized population clustering, persistent oscillatory dynamics, correlated spatio-temporal patterns, and fitness enhancement through quenched spatial disorder in the predation rates. In contrast, we could not identify any regime where the hierarchical three-species model (2) would reduce to the two-species LV system. In the presence of pair exchange processes, the system remains essentially well-mixed, and we generally find the Monte Carlo simulation results for the spatially extended hierarchical model (2) to be consistent with the predictions from the corresponding mean-field rate equations. If spreading occurs only through nearest-neighbor hopping, small population clusters emerge; yet the requirement of an intermediate species cluster obviously disrupts spatio-temporal correlations between predator and prey, and correspondingly eliminates many of the intriguing fluctuation phenomena that characterize the stochastic spatial LV system.

He, Q.; Täuber, U. C.; Zia, R. K. P.

2012-04-01

100

A Spatial Predator-Prey Approach to Multi-objective Optimization: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel evolutionary approach of approximating the shape of the Pareto-optimal set of multi-objective optimization problems. The evolutionary algorithm (EA) uses the predator-prey model from ecology. The prey are the usual individuals of an EA that represent possible solutions to the optimization task. They are placed at vertices of a graph, remain stationary, re- produce, and are

Marco Laumanns; GiJnter Rudolph; Hans-paul Schwefel

1998-01-01

101

On the Dynamics of Predator–Prey Models with the Beddington–DeAngelis Functional Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of predator–prey models with the Beddington–DeAngelis functional response are analyzed, primarily from the viewpoint of permanence (uniform persistence). The Beddington–DeAngelis functional response is similar to the Holling type 2 functional response but contains an extra term describing mutual interference by predators. Both spatially homogeneous models based on ordinary differential equations and reaction–diffusion models are considered. Criteria for permanence

Robert Stephen Cantrell; Chris Cosner

2001-01-01

102

About deterministic extinction in ratio-dependent predator-prey models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ratio-dependent predator-prey models set up a challenging issue regarding their dynamics near the origin. This is due to the\\u000a fact that such models are undefined at (0, 0). We study the analytical behavior at (0, 0) for a common ratio-dependent model\\u000a and demonstrate that this equilibrium can be either a saddle point or an attractor for certain trajectories. This fact

Christian Jost; Ovide Arino; Roger Arditi

1999-01-01

103

Global Analysis in a Predator-Prey System with Nonmonotonic Functional Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

A predator-prey system with nonmonotonic functionalresponse is considered. Global qualitative and bifurcation analyses are combined to determine the global dynamics of the model. The bifurcation analysis of the model depending on all parameters indicates that it exhibits nu- merous kinds of bifurcation phenomena, including the saddle-node bifurcation, the supercritical and subcriticalHopf bifurcations, and the homocl inic bifurcation. It is shown

Dongmei Xiao; Shigui Ruan

2001-01-01

104

Global analysis of the Michaelis–Menten-type ratio-dependent predator-prey system  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The recent broad interest on ratio-dependent based predator functional response calls for detailed qualitative study on ratio-dependent\\u000a predator-prey differential systems. A first such attempt is documented in the recent work of Kuang and Beretta(1998), where\\u000a Michaelis-Menten-type ratio-dependent model is studied systematically. Their paper, while contains many new and significant\\u000a results, is far from complete in answering the many subtle

Sze-Bi Hsu; Tzy-Wei Hwang; Yang Kuang

2001-01-01

105

The dynamical behaviors of a Lotka–Volterra predator–prey model concerning integrated pest management  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fact integrated pest management, a Lotka–Volterra predator-prey model with impulsive effect at fixed moment is proposed and investigated. We analyze such system from two cases: general case (taking IPM strategy) and special case (only choosing pesticides). In the first case, we show that there exists a globally asymptotically stable pest-eradication periodic solution when the period of impulsive

Bing Liu; Yujuan Zhang; Lansun Chen

2005-01-01

106

The rainbow bridge: Hamiltonian limits and resonance in predator-prey dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?In the presence of seasonal forcing, the intricate topology of non-integrable Hamiltonian predator-prey models is shown to\\u000a exercise profound effects on the dynamics and bifurcation structure of more realistic schemes which do not admit a Hamiltonian\\u000a formulation. The demonstration of this fact is accomplished by writing the more general models as perturbations of a Hamiltonian\\u000a limit, ?, in which are

Aaron A. King; William M. Schaffer

1999-01-01

107

Consequences of behavioral dynamics for the population dynamics of predator-prey systems with switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article explores how different mechanisms governing the rate of change of the predator’s preference alter the dynamics of predator-prey systems in which the predator exhibits positive frequency-dependent predation. The models assume that individuals of the predator species adaptively adjust a trait that determines their relative capture rates of each of two prey species. The resulting switching behavior does not

Peter A. Abrams; Hiroyuki Matsuda

2004-01-01

108

Equilibrium points, stability and numerical solutions of fractional-order predator-prey and rabies models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we are concerned with the fractional-order predator-prey model and the fractional-order rabies model. Existence and uniqueness of solutions are proved. The stability of equilibrium points are studied. Numerical solutions of these models are given. An example is given where the equilibrium point is a centre for the integer order system but locally asymptotically stable for its fractional-order counterpart.

Ahmed, E.; El-Sayed, A. M. A.; El-Saka, H. A. A.

2007-01-01

109

Evolutionary dynamics of predator-prey systems: an ecological perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution takes place in an ecological setting that typically involves interactions with other organisms. To describe such\\u000a evolution, a structure is needed which incorporates the simultaneous evolution of interacting species. Here a formal framework\\u000a for this purpose is suggested, extending from the microscopic interactions between individuals — the immediate cause of natural\\u000a selection, through the mesoscopic population dynamics responsible for

Paul Marrow; Ulf Dieckmann; Richard Law

1996-01-01

110

Body masses, functional responses and predator-prey stability.  

PubMed

The stability of ecological communities depends strongly on quantitative characteristics of population interactions (type-II vs. type-III functional responses) and the distribution of body masses across species. Until now, these two aspects have almost exclusively been treated separately leaving a substantial gap in our general understanding of food webs. We analysed a large data set of arthropod feeding rates and found that all functional-response parameters depend on the body masses of predator and prey. Thus, we propose generalised functional responses which predict gradual shifts from type-II predation of small predators on equally sized prey to type-III functional-responses of large predators on small prey. Models including these generalised functional responses predict population dynamics and persistence only depending on predator and prey body masses, and we show that these predictions are strongly supported by empirical data on forest soil food webs. These results help unravelling systematic relationships between quantitative population interactions and large-scale community patterns. PMID:23819684

Kalinkat, Gregor; Schneider, Florian D; Digel, Christoph; Guill, Christian; Rall, Björn C; Brose, Ulrich

2013-09-01

111

Model of naticid gastropod predator-prey coevolution  

SciTech Connect

Size change over evolutionary time between two interacting species, a predatory naticid gastropod and its bivalve prey, is analyzed. We show that two simultaneous, maximizing algorithms (the predator maximizes energy intake; the prey maximizes reproductive output) result in an endogenous, coevolutionary size increase, to a stable attracting point. In particular, we show that selection for delayed reproduction in a predatorpreay system that is highly size-selective due to the predatory strategy of cost-benefit prey selection, coupled with the relative allometries of cost (prey shell thickness) and benefit (prey biomass) with prey size, and the highly size-dependent probability of successful predation, lead to a coevolutionary size increase for both predator and prey, up to a limit condition dictated by predatory respiration costs. In the absence of predation, the prey species attains a smaller size than in the presence of predation. Addition of the predator results in a delay in the timing of reproduction by the prey, thereby facilitating a size response.

DeAngelis, D.L.; Kitchell, J.A.; Post, W.M.; Travis, C.C.

1982-01-01

112

A solution to the accelerated-predator-satiety Lotka-Volterra predator-prey problem using Boubaker polynomial expansion scheme.  

PubMed

In this study, an analytical method is introduced for the identification of predator-prey populations time-dependent evolution in a Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model which takes into account the concept of accelerated-predator-satiety. Oppositely to most of the predator-prey problem models, the actual model does not suppose that the predation is strictly proportional to the prey density. In reference to some recent experimental results and particularly to the conclusions of May (1973) about predators which are 'never not hungry', an accelerated satiety function is matched with the initial conventional equations. Solutions are plotted and compared to some relevant ones. The obtained trends are in good agreement with many standard Lotka-Volterra solutions except for the asymptotic behaviour. PMID:20109470

Dubey, B; Zhao, T G; Jonsson, M; Rahmanov, H

2010-05-01

113

A predator-prey model with generic birth and death rates for the predator.  

PubMed

We propose and study a predator-prey model in which the predator has a Holling type II functional response and generic per capita birth and death rates. Given that prey consumption provides the energy for predator activity, and that the predator functional response represents the prey consumption rate per predator, we assume that the per capita birth and death rates for the predator are, respectively, increasing and decreasing functions of the predator functional response. These functions are monotonic, but not necessarily strictly monotonic, for all values of the argument. In particular, we allow the possibility that the predator birth rate is zero for all sufficiently small values of the predator functional response, reflecting the idea that a certain level of energy intake is needed before a predator can reproduce. Our analysis reveals that the model exhibits the behaviours typically found in predator-prey models - extinction of the predator population, convergence to a periodic orbit, or convergence to a co-existence fixed point. For a specific example, in which the predator birth and death rates are constant for all sufficiently small or large values of the predator functional response, we corroborate our analysis with numerical simulations. In the unlikely case where these birth and death rates equal the same constant for all sufficiently large values of the predator functional response, the model is capable of structurally unstable behaviour, with a small change in the initial conditions leading to a more pronounced change in the long-term dynamics. PMID:24345496

Terry, Alan J

2014-02-01

114

Scent of Danger: Floc Formation by a Freshwater Bacterium Is Induced by Supernatants from a Predator-Prey Coculture?  

PubMed Central

We investigated predator-prey interactions in a model system consisting of the bacterivorous flagellate Poterioochromonas sp. strain DS and the freshwater bacterium Sphingobium sp. strain Z007. This bacterial strain tends to form a subpopulation of grazing-resistant microscopic flocs, presumably by aggregation. Enhanced formation of such flocs could be demonstrated in static batch culture experiments in the presence of the predator. The ratio of aggregates to single cells reached >0.1 after 120 h of incubation in an oligotrophic growth medium. The inoculation of bacteria into supernatants from cocultures of bacteria and flagellates (grown in oligotrophic or in rich media) also resulted in a substantially higher level of floc formation than that in supernatants from bacterial monocultures only. After separation of supernatants on a C18 cartridge, the aggregate-inducing activity could be assigned to the 50% aqueous methanolic fraction, and further separation of this bioactive fraction could be achieved by high-pressure liquid chromatography. These results strongly suggest the involvement of one or several chemical factors in the induction of floc formation by Sphingobium sp. strain Z007 that are possibly released into the surrounding medium by flagellate grazing.

Blom, Judith F.; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Ammann, Thomas; Pernthaler, Jakob

2010-01-01

115

Complex dynamics in a singular Leslie–Gower predator–prey bioeconomic model with time delay and stochastic fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a class of singular Leslie–Gower predator–prey bioeconomic models with environment fluctuations and time delays is investigated. Local stability analysis of the model reveals that there is a phenomenon of singularity induced bifurcation due to variation of economic interest of harvesting. By choosing the delay as a bifurcation parameter, it is shown that the Hopf bifurcations can occur as the delay crosses some critical values. Then, the effect of a fluctuating environment on the singular stochastic delayed predator–prey bioeconomic model is discussed. Finally numerical simulations demonstrate that the amplitude of oscillation for population is enhanced when compared with the oscillation observed in the deterministic environment.

Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Qingling; Yan, Xing-Gang

2014-06-01

116

Infection in prey population may act as a biological control in ratio-dependent predator prey models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A ratio-dependent predator-prey model with infection in prey population is proposed and analysed. The behaviour of the system near the biological feasible equilibria is observed. The conditions for which no trajectory can reach the origin following any fixed direction or spirally are worked out. We investigate the criteria for which the system will persist. It is observed that the introduction of an infected population in the classical ratio-dependent predator-prey model may act as a biological control to save the population from extinction.

Arino, O.; El abdllaoui, A.; Mikram, J.; Chattopadhyay, J.

2004-05-01

117

Predator-Prey Oscillations During Slow L-H Transitions on DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A DIII-D operating regime which gives rise to an intermediate phase of experimentally-variable length between the L- and H-modes has been explored. There is no evidence that the plasma is ``dithering" between the L- and H-modes. The intermediate phase is characterized by 1-2 kHz oscillations of the D_? light which are terminated only when the neutral injection power is raised sufficiently. Predator-prey type(J.-N. Leboeuf, et al., Phys. Fluids B 5), 2959 (1993). equations, based on a general drift-wave turbulence model, are found to describe frequency and amplitude characteristics of the oscillations. Outer plasma edge studies showed that the oscillations are caused by periodic instability bursts located inside the separatrix. Fast data taken during these bursts have been obtained from a variety of diagnostics, and provide an extremely detailed picture of the bursts.

Colchin, R. J.; Carreras, B. A.; Maingi, R.; Schaffer, M. J.; Carlstrom, T. N.; Brooks, N. H.; Greenfield, C. M.; McKee, G. R.; Rudakov, D. L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Doyle, E. J.; Austin, M. E.

2001-10-01

118

A correct formulation for a spatially implicit predator-prey metacommunity model.  

PubMed

In order to mitigate the problem of increasing model complexity with increasing number of occupation states in spatially implicit metacommunity models, the assumption of independency among species distributions is often required. In the present paper, we show that this approach only works correctly if set relations among patch occupancy states are considered adequately. This is illustrated by means of a well-known, although incorrectly formulated, predator-prey metacommunity model devised by Bascompte and Solé[1]. We demonstrate that this model shows anomalous dynamical behavior caused by inconsistence between the model formulation and its assumptions. In order to formalize our finding we develop a corrected model formulation that accounts for the principles of set theory so that the sum of the system compartments change rate is nulled. Applying this method successfully rules out the occurrence of anomalous dynamical behavior found in the original model. Finally we discuss the implications of our findings for the accuracy of model predictions. PMID:19932123

Dos Santos, F A S; Costa, M I S

2010-02-01

119

Predator-Prey Chemical Warfare Determines the Expression of Biocontrol Genes by Rhizosphere-Associated Pseudomonas fluorescens?  

PubMed Central

Soil bacteria are heavily consumed by protozoan predators, and many bacteria have evolved defense strategies such as the production of toxic exometabolites. However, the production of toxins is energetically costly and therefore is likely to be adjusted according to the predation risk to balance the costs and benefits of predator defense. We investigated the response of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 to a common predator, the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. We monitored the effect of the exposure to predator cues or direct contact with the predators on the expression of the phlA, prnA, hcnA, and pltA genes, which are involved in the synthesis of the toxins, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin, hydrogen cyanide, and pyoluteorin, respectively. Predator chemical cues led to 2.2-, 2.0-, and 1.2-fold increases in prnA, phlA, and hcnA expression, respectively, and to a 25% increase in bacterial toxicity. The upregulation of the tested genes was related to the antiprotozoan toxicity of the corresponding toxins. Pyrrolnitrin and DAPG had the highest toxicity, suggesting that bacteria secrete a predator-specific toxin cocktail. The response of the bacteria was elicited by supernatants of amoeba cultures, indicating that water-soluble chemical compounds were responsible for induction of the bacterial defense response. In contrast, direct contact of bacteria with living amoebae reduced the expression of the four bacterial toxin genes by up to 50%, suggesting that protozoa can repress bacterial toxicity. The results indicate that predator-prey interactions are a determinant of toxin production by rhizosphere P. fluorescens and may have an impact on its biocontrol potential.

Jousset, Alexandre; Rochat, Laurene; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Keel, Christoph

2010-01-01

120

Predator-prey chemical warfare determines the expression of biocontrol genes by rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

Soil bacteria are heavily consumed by protozoan predators, and many bacteria have evolved defense strategies such as the production of toxic exometabolites. However, the production of toxins is energetically costly and therefore is likely to be adjusted according to the predation risk to balance the costs and benefits of predator defense. We investigated the response of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 to a common predator, the free-living amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii. We monitored the effect of the exposure to predator cues or direct contact with the predators on the expression of the phlA, prnA, hcnA, and pltA genes, which are involved in the synthesis of the toxins, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), pyrrolnitrin, hydrogen cyanide, and pyoluteorin, respectively. Predator chemical cues led to 2.2-, 2.0-, and 1.2-fold increases in prnA, phlA, and hcnA expression, respectively, and to a 25% increase in bacterial toxicity. The upregulation of the tested genes was related to the antiprotozoan toxicity of the corresponding toxins. Pyrrolnitrin and DAPG had the highest toxicity, suggesting that bacteria secrete a predator-specific toxin cocktail. The response of the bacteria was elicited by supernatants of amoeba cultures, indicating that water-soluble chemical compounds were responsible for induction of the bacterial defense response. In contrast, direct contact of bacteria with living amoebae reduced the expression of the four bacterial toxin genes by up to 50%, suggesting that protozoa can repress bacterial toxicity. The results indicate that predator-prey interactions are a determinant of toxin production by rhizosphere P. fluorescens and may have an impact on its biocontrol potential. PMID:20525866

Jousset, Alexandre; Rochat, Laurène; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael; Keel, Christoph

2010-08-01

121

A Comparison of the Seasonal Movements of Tiger Sharks and Green Turtles Provides Insight into Their Predator-Prey Relationship  

PubMed Central

During the reproductive season, sea turtles use a restricted area in the vicinity of their nesting beaches, making them vulnerable to predation. At Raine Island (Australia), the highest density green turtle Chelonia mydas rookery in the world, tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier have been observed to feed on green turtles, and it has been suggested that they may specialise on such air-breathing prey. However there is little information with which to examine this hypothesis. We compared the spatial and temporal components of movement behaviour of these two potentially interacting species in order to provide insight into the predator-prey relationship. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that tiger shark movements are more concentrated at Raine Island during the green turtle nesting season than outside the turtle nesting season when turtles are not concentrated at Raine Island. Turtles showed area-restricted search behaviour around Raine Island for ?3–4 months during the nesting period (November–February). This was followed by direct movement (transit) to putative foraging grounds mostly in the Torres Straight where they switched to area-restricted search mode again, and remained resident for the remainder of the deployment (53–304 days). In contrast, tiger sharks displayed high spatial and temporal variation in movement behaviour which was not closely linked to the movement behaviour of green turtles or recognised turtle foraging grounds. On average, tiger sharks were concentrated around Raine Island throughout the year. While information on diet is required to determine whether tiger sharks are turtle specialists our results support the hypothesis that they target this predictable and plentiful prey during turtle nesting season, but they might not focus on this less predictable food source outside the nesting season.

Fitzpatrick, Richard; Thums, Michele; Bell, Ian; Meekan, Mark G.; Stevens, John D.; Barnett, Adam

2012-01-01

122

The Symbiosis Interactome: a computational approach reveals novel components, functional interactions and modules in Sinorhizobium meliloti  

PubMed Central

Background Rhizobium-Legume symbiosis is an attractive biological process that has been studied for decades because of its importance in agriculture. However, this system has undergone extensive study and although many of the major factors underpinning the process have been discovered using traditional methods, much remains to be discovered. Results Here we present an analysis of the 'Symbiosis Interactome' using novel computational methods in order to address the complex dynamic interactions between proteins involved in the symbiosis of the model bacteria Sinorhizobium meliloti with its plant hosts. Our study constitutes the first large-scale analysis attempting to reconstruct this complex biological process, and to identify novel proteins involved in establishing symbiosis. We identified 263 novel proteins potentially associated with the Symbiosis Interactome. The topology of the Symbiosis Interactome was used to guide experimental techniques attempting to validate novel proteins involved in different stages of symbiosis. The contribution of a set of novel proteins was tested analyzing the symbiotic properties of several S. meliloti mutants. We found mutants with altered symbiotic phenotypes suggesting novel proteins that provide key complementary roles for symbiosis. Conclusion Our 'systems-based model' represents a novel framework for studying host-microbe interactions, provides a theoretical basis for further experimental validations, and can also be applied to the study of other complex processes such as diseases.

Rodriguez-Llorente, Ignacio; Caviedes, Miguel A; Dary, Mohammed; Palomares, Antonio J; Canovas, Francisco M; Peregrin-Alvarez, Jose M

2009-01-01

123

A Bayesian estimation of a stochastic predator-prey model of economic fluctuations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop a Bayesian framework for the empirical estimation of the parameters of one of the best known nonlinear models of the business cycle: The Marx-inspired model of a growth cycle introduced by R. M. Goodwin. The model predicts a series of closed cycles representing the dynamics of labor's share and the employment rate in the capitalist economy. The Bayesian framework is used to empirically estimate a modified Goodwin model. The original model is extended in two ways. First, we allow for exogenous periodic variations of the otherwise steady growth rates of the labor force and productivity per worker. Second, we allow for stochastic variations of those parameters. The resultant modified Goodwin model is a stochastic predator-prey model with periodic forcing. The model is then estimated using a newly developed Bayesian estimation method on data sets representing growth cycles in France and Italy during the years 1960-2005. Results show that inference of the parameters of the stochastic Goodwin model can be achieved. The comparison of the dynamics of the Goodwin model with the inferred values of parameters demonstrates quantitative agreement with the growth cycle empirical data.

Dibeh, Ghassan; Luchinsky, Dmitry G.; Luchinskaya, Daria D.; Smelyanskiy, Vadim N.

2007-06-01

124

Shedding light on microbial predator-prey population dynamics using a quantitative bioluminescence assay.  

PubMed

This study assessed the dynamics of predation by Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus HD 100. Predation tests with two different bioluminescent strains of Escherichia coli, one expressing a heat-labile bacterial luciferase and the other a heat-stable form, showed near identical losses from both, indicating that protein expression and stability are not responsible for the "shutting-off" of the prey bioluminescence (BL). Furthermore, it was found that the loss in the prey BL was not proportional with the predator-to-prey ratio (PPR), with significantly greater losses seen as this value was increased. This suggests that other factors also play a role in lowering the prey BL. The loss in BL, however, was very consistent within nine independent experiments to the point that we were able to reliably estimate the predator numbers within only 1 h when present at a PPR of 6 or higher, Using a fluorescent prey, we found that premature lysis of the prey occurs at a significant level and was more prominent as the PPR ratio increased. Based upon the supernatant fluorescent signal, even a relatively low PPR of 10-20 led to approximately 5% of the prey population being prematurely lysed within 1 h, while a PPR of 90 led to nearly 15% lysis. Consequently, we developed a modified Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model that accounted for this lysis and is able to reliably estimate the prey and bdelloplast populations for a wide range of PPRs. PMID:24272279

Im, Hansol; Kim, Dasol; Ghim, Cheol-Min; Mitchell, Robert J

2014-01-01

125

Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl congener distribution in an aquatic predator-prey, host-parasite system.  

PubMed

Biomagnification and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener distribution was examined in a predator-prey, host-parasite system, in which Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) preyed upon sprat (Sprattus sprattus). Eubothrium crassum was an intestinal parasite in salmon that also "preyed upon" sprat, because the parasites gained access to foodstuffs via the host (salmon) gut. Salmon contained significantly higher concentrations of total PCBs compared to both parasites and prey (sprat), but no difference in PCB concentration was found between sprat and E. crassum. Salmon biomagnified several PCB congeners from their diet (sprat), whereas parasites did not, despite the fact that both salmon and their parasites ingested the same prey. Differences in nutrient uptake mechanisms between the host and their parasites, in addition to the lack of a gastrointestinal tract in the cestode, may explain the lack of biomagnification in E. crassum. No difference was found in PCB congener distribution between parasites, salmon, and sprat, and none of the animal types showed a preference for accumulating more or less lipophilic congeners (congeners with a high or low octanol/water partition coefficient [K(ow)]). Biomagnification factors for individual congeners in salmon did not increase with K(ow); rather, they were constant, as shown by a linear relationship for congener concentration in prey and predator. PMID:17521127

Persson, Maria E; Larsson, Per; Stenroth, Patrik

2007-05-01

126

Population-level consequences of heterospecific density-dependent movements in predator-prey systems.  

PubMed

In this paper we elucidate how small-scale movements, such as those associated with searching for food and avoiding predators, affect the stability of predator-prey dynamics. We investigate an individual-based Lotka-Volterra model with density-dependent movement, in which the predator and prey populations live in a very large number of coupled patches. The rates at which individuals leave patches depend on the local densities of heterospecifics, giving rise to one reaction norm for each of the two species. Movement rates are assumed to be much faster than demographics rates. A spatial structure of predators and prey emerges which affects the global population dynamics. We derive a criterion which reveals how demographic stability depends on the relationships between the per capita covariance and densities of predators and prey. Specifically, we establish that a positive relationship with prey density and a negative relationship with predator density tend to be stabilizing. On a more mechanistic level we show how these relationships are linked to the movement reaction norms of predators and prey. Numerical results show that these findings hold both for local and global movements, i.e., both when migration is biased towards neighbouring patches and when all patches are reached with equal probability. PMID:24060621

Sjödin, Henrik; Brännström, Ke; Söderquist, Mårten; Englund, Göran

2014-02-01

127

On the Gause predator-prey model with a refuge: a fresh look at the history.  

PubMed

This article re-analyses a prey-predator model with a refuge introduced by one of the founders of population ecology Gause and his co-workers to explain discrepancies between their observations and predictions of the Lotka-Volterra prey-predator model. They replaced the linear functional response used by Lotka and Volterra by a saturating functional response with a discontinuity at a critical prey density. At concentrations below this critical density prey were effectively in a refuge while at a higher densities they were available to predators. Thus, their functional response was of the Holling type III. They analyzed this model and predicted existence of a limit cycle in predator-prey dynamics. In this article I show that their model is ill posed, because trajectories are not well defined. Using the Filippov method, I define and analyze solutions of the Gause model. I show that depending on parameter values, there are three possibilities: (1) trajectories converge to a limit cycle, as predicted by Gause, (2) trajectories converge to an equilibrium, or (3) the prey population escapes predator control and grows to infinity. PMID:21255587

K?ivan, Vlastimil

2011-04-01

128

Plant strategies of manipulating predatorprey interactions through allelochemicals: Prospects for application in pest control  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the role of allelochemicals in predator-prey interactions it is not sufficient to study the behavioral responses of predator and prey. One should elucidate the origin of the allelochemicals and be aware that it may be located at another trophic level. These aspects are reviewed for predator-prey interactions in general and illustrated in detail for interactions between predatory mites

Marcel Dicke; Maurice W. Sabelis; Junji Takabayashi; Jan Bruin; Maarten A. Posthumus

1990-01-01

129

Global Hopf Bifurcation on Two-Delays Leslie-Gower Predator-Prey System with a Prey Refuge  

PubMed Central

A modified Leslie-Gower predator-prey system with two delays is investigated. By choosing ?1 and ?2 as bifurcation parameters, we show that the Hopf bifurcations occur when time delay crosses some critical values. Moreover, we derive the equation describing the flow on the center manifold; then we give the formula for determining the direction of the Hopf bifurcation and the stability of bifurcating periodic solutions. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the theoretical results and chaotic behaviors are observed. Finally, using a global Hopf bifurcation theorem for functional differential equations, we show the global existence of the periodic solutions.

Liu, Qingsong; Lin, Yiping; Cao, Jingnan

2014-01-01

130

Prey evolution on the time scale of predator-prey dynamics revealed by allele-specific quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Using rotifer–algal microcosms, we tracked rapid evolution resulting from temporally changing natural selection in ecological predator–prey dynamics. We previously demonstrated that predator–prey oscillations in rotifer–algal laboratory microcosms are qualitatively altered by the presence of genetic variation within the prey. In that study, changes in algal gene frequencies were inferred from their effects on population dynamics but not observed directly. Here, we document rapid prey evolution in this system by directly observing changes in Chlorella vulgaris genotype frequencies as the abundances of these algae and their consumer, Brachionus calyciflorus, change through time. We isolated a group of algal clones that we could distinguish by using microsatellite-DNA markers, and developed an allele-specific quantitative PCR technique (AsQ-PCR) to quantify the frequencies of pairs of clones in mixed culture. We showed that two of these genotypes exhibited a fitness tradeoff in which one was more resistant to predation (more digestion-resistant), and the other had faster population growth under limiting nitrogen concentrations. A fully specified mathematical model for the rotifer–algal population and evolutionary dynamics predicted that these two clones would undergo a single oscillation in clonal frequencies followed by asymptotic fixation of the more resistant clone, rather than the recurrent oscillations previously observed with other algal clones. We used AsQ-PCR to confirm this prediction: the superior competitor dominated initially, but as rotifer densities increased, the more predator-resistant clone predominated.

Meyer, Justin R.; Ellner, Stephen P.; Hairston, Nelson G.; Jones, Laura E.; Yoshida, Takehito

2006-01-01

131

A multispecies statistical age-structured model to assess predator-prey balance: application to an intensively managed Lake Michigan pelagic fish community  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a Bayesian model fitting approach, we developed a multispecies statistical catch-at-age model to assess trade-offs between predatory demands and prey productivities, focusing on the Lake Michigan pelagic fish community. We assessed these trade-offs in terms of predation mortalities and productivities of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and functional responses of salmonines. Our predation mortality estimates suggest that salmonine consumption has been a major driver of historical fluctuations in prey abundance, with sharp declines in alewife abundance in the 1980s and 2000s coinciding with estimated increases in predation mortalities. While Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were food limited during periods of low alewife abundance, other salmonines appeared to maintain a (near) maximum per-predator consumption across all observed prey densities, suggesting that feedback mechanisms are unlikely to help maintain a balance between predator consumption and prey productivity in Lake Michigan. This study demonstrates that a multispecies modeling approach that combines stock assessment methods with explicit consideration of predator–prey interactions could provide the basis for tactical decision-making from a broader ecosystem perspective.

Tsehaye, Iyob; Jones, Michael L.; Bence, James R.; Brenden, Travis O.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Warner, David M.

2014-01-01

132

Bifurcations and chaos in a predator–prey model with delay and a laser-diode system with self-sustained pulsations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hopf bifurcations in two models, a predator–prey model with delay terms modeled by “weak generic kernel aexp(?at)” and a laser diode system, are considered. The periodic orbit immediately following the Hopf bifurcation is constructed for each system using the method of multiple scales, and its stability is analyzed. Numerical solutions reveal the existence of stable periodic attractors, attractors at infinity,

S. Krise; S. Roy Choudhury

2003-01-01

133

Delay-induced Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation in a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with nonmonotonic functional response  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work is concerned with the dynamics of a Leslie-Gower predator-prey model with nonmonotonic functional response near the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation point. By analyzing the characteristic equation associated with the nonhyperbolic equilibrium, the critical value of the delay inducing the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation is obtained. In this case, the dynamics near this nonhyperbolic equilibrium can be reduced to the study of the dynamics of the corresponding normal form restricted to the associated two-dimensional center manifold. The bifurcation diagram near the Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation point is drawn according to the obtained normal form. We show that the change of delay can result in heteroclinic orbit, homoclinic orbit and unstable limit cycle.

Jiang, Jiao; Song, Yongli

2014-07-01

134

Bifurcation analysis and dimension reduction of a predator-prey model for the L-H transition  

SciTech Connect

The L-H transition denotes a shift to an improved confinement state of a toroidal plasma in a fusion reactor. A model of the L-H transition is required to simulate the time dependence of tokamak discharges that include the L-H transition. A 3-ODE predator-prey type model of the L-H transition is investigated with bifurcation theory of dynamical systems. The analysis shows that the model contains three types of transitions: an oscillating transition, a sharp transition with hysteresis, and a smooth transition. The model is recognized as a slow-fast system. A reduced 2-ODE model consisting of the full model restricted to the flow on the critical manifold is found to contain all the same dynamics as the full model. This means that all the dynamics in the system is essentially 2-dimensional, and a minimal model of the L-H transition could be a 2-ODE model.

Dam, Magnus; Brøns, Morten [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)] [Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Naulin, Volker [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)] [Association Euratom-DTU, Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Risø Campus, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Xu, Guosheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)] [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

2013-10-15

135

Predator-prey interactions between the larvacean Oikopleura dioica and bacterioplankton in enclosed water columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvacean Oikopleura dioica Fol was fed 3H-labeled natural assemblages of marine bacterioplankton. Grazing rates ranged from 100 ml day-1 individual-1 and were highly dependent onlarvacean body size. These rates were combined with estimates of abundance of O. dioica in large floating enclosures with semi-natural populations (Controlled Ecosystems Populations Experiment, CEPEX) to determine the impact of the larvacean on the

K. R. King; J. T. Hollibaugh; F. Azam

1980-01-01

136

EFFECT OF MIREX ON PREDATOR-PREY INTERACTION IN AN EXPERIMENTAL ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Tests of 14- to 16-days duration were conducted to determine the distribution and sublethal effects of mirex in an experimental estuarine ecosystem. The insecticide was translocated from water at concentrations of 0.011 to 0.13 microgram/liter to sand, plant, and animal component...

137

Evolutionary cycling in predator-prey interactions: population dynamics and the red queen  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the coevolution of phenotypes in a community comprising a population of predators and of prey. It is shown that evolutionary cycling is a likely outcome of the process. The dynamical systems on which this description is based are constructed from microscopic stochastic birth and death events, together with a process of random mutation. Births and deaths are

Ulf Dieckmann; Paul Marrow; Richard Law

1995-01-01

138

The effect of learning and search images on predator–prey interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In dealing with the spatial and temporal variability of prey species, predators may be able to forage optimally if they have\\u000a flexible and rapid behavioral plasticity rather than predetermined responses. For predators that learn to focus attention\\u000a on the cryptic prey type most frequently encountered during recent searching (termed a “search image”), rare prey types may\\u000a be overlooked because of

Yumiko Ishii; Masakazu Shimada

2010-01-01

139

Predator-Prey Oscillations and Zonal Flow-Induced Turbulence Suppression Preceding the L-H Transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the L- to H-mode transition and the density/rotation dependence of the H-mode power threshold is important for the design and predictive modeling of burning plasma experiments. We present here direct experimental evidence of the importance of predator-prey oscillations and turbulence/transport regulation by low frequency zonal flows (ZFs) at the L-H transition. Near the H-mode power threshold, a narrow oscillating flow layer develops at/inside the separatrix in a neutral beam-heated DIII-D plasma. Toroidal and radial correlation of the ExB velocity, as measured by Doppler backscattering (DBS), increase at the transition to this ``dithering'' state. The observed oscillation is consistent with a radially propagating ZF with a frequency much below the expected local GAM frequency. Periodic turbulence suppression due to ZF shearing is first observed when the turbulence decorrelation rate decreases sharply (within 0.1,ms) at the transition to the dithering state and the increasing ZF shearing rate locally surpasses the decorrelation rate. The flow layer then expands radially inwards. The ZF amplitude lags the density fluctuation amplitude by 90^o. The ``final" H-mode transition (sustained turbulence/transport reduction) appears linked to increasing equilibrium flow shear due to the increasing ion pressure gradient. Both features are consistent with the predator-prey model of the L-H transition [1]. The transition dynamics is revealed with high time (<1,s) and spatial resolution (<0.5,cm), combining eight channel and five channel DBS systems, separated 180^o toroidally, with fast profile reflectometry. 3pt [1] E.J. Kim and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185006 (2003).

Schmitz, L.

2011-11-01

140

Predicting prey population dynamics from kill rate, predation rate and predator-prey ratios in three wolf-ungulate systems.  

PubMed

1.?Predation rate (PR) and kill rate are both fundamental statistics for understanding predation. However, relatively little is known about how these statistics relate to one another and how they relate to prey population dynamics. We assess these relationships across three systems where wolf-prey dynamics have been observed for 41 years (Isle Royale), 19 years (Banff) and 12 years (Yellowstone). 2.?To provide context for this empirical assessment, we developed theoretical predictions of the relationship between kill rate and PR under a broad range of predator-prey models including predator-dependent, ratio-dependent and Lotka-Volterra dynamics. 3.?The theoretical predictions indicate that kill rate can be related to PR in a variety of diverse ways (e.g. positive, negative, unrelated) that depend on the nature of predator-prey dynamics (e.g. structure of the functional response). These simulations also suggested that the ratio of predator-to-prey is a good predictor of prey growth rate. That result motivated us to assess the empirical relationship between the ratio and prey growth rate for each of the three study sites. 4.?The empirical relationships indicate that PR is not well predicted by kill rate, but is better predicted by the ratio of predator-to-prey. Kill rate is also a poor predictor of prey growth rate. However, PR and ratio of predator-to-prey each explained significant portions of variation in prey growth rate for two of the three study sites. 5.?Our analyses offer two general insights. First, Isle Royale, Banff and Yellowstone are similar insomuch as they all include wolves preying on large ungulates. However, they also differ in species diversity of predator and prey communities, exploitation by humans and the role of dispersal. Even with the benefit of our analysis, it remains difficult to judge whether to be more impressed by the similarities or differences. This difficulty nicely illustrates a fundamental property of ecological communities. Second, kill rate is the primary statistic for many traditional models of predation. However, our work suggests that kill rate and PR are similarly important for understanding why predation is such a complex process. PMID:21569029

Vucetich, John A; Hebblewhite, Mark; Smith, Douglas W; Peterson, Rolf O

2011-11-01

141

Something old, something new: auxin and strigolactone interact in the ancient mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, formed between more than 80% of land plants and fungi from the phylum Glomeromycota, is an ancient association that is believed to have evolved as plants moved onto land more than 400 mya. Similarly ancient, the plant hormones auxin and strigolactone are thought to have been present in the plant lineage since before the divergence of the bryophytes in the case of auxin and before the colonisation of land in the case of strigolactones. The discovery of auxin in the 1930s predates the discovery of strigolactones as a plant hormone in 2008 by over 70 y. Recent studies in pea suggest that these two signals may interact to regulate mycorrhizal symbiosis. Furthermore, the first quantitative studies are presented that show that low auxin content of the root is correlated with low strigolactone production, an interaction that has implications for how these plant hormones regulate several developmental programs including shoot branching, secondary growth and root development. With recent advances in our understanding of auxin and strigolactone biosynthesis, together with the discovery of the fungal signals that activate the plant host, the stage is set for real breakthroughs in our understanding of the interactions between plant and fungal signals in mycorrhizal symbiosis. PMID:23333973

Foo, Eloise

2013-04-01

142

Faunal communities in seagrass beds: A review of the influence of plant structure and prey characteristics on predator-prey relationships  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared with nearby unvergetated areas, seagrass meadows contain a dense and strikingly rich assemblage of vertebrates\\u000a and invertebrates. Most recent literature has focused on evaluating the role of predation in structuring seagrass faunal communities;\\u000a however, habitat complexity, abundance of food and sediment stability may also be important. This paper summarizes studies\\u000a relating predator-prey relationships to different features of the

Robert J. Orth; Kenneth L. Heck; Jacques van Montfrans

1984-01-01

143

A Predator-Prey Model with a Holling Type I Functional Response Including a Predator Mutual Interference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses.

Seo, Gunog; Deangelis, Donald L.

2011-12-01

144

Food-web structure in relation to environmental gradients and predator-prey ratios in tank-bromeliad ecosystems.  

PubMed

Little is known of how linkage patterns between species change along environmental gradients. The small, spatially discrete food webs inhabiting tank-bromeliads provide an excellent opportunity to analyse patterns of community diversity and food-web topology (connectance, linkage density, nestedness) in relation to key environmental variables (habitat size, detrital resource, incident radiation) and predators:prey ratios. We sampled 365 bromeliads in a wide range of understorey environments in French Guiana and used gut contents of invertebrates to draw the corresponding 365 connectance webs. At the bromeliad scale, habitat size (water volume) determined the number of species that constitute food-web nodes, the proportion of predators, and food-web topology. The number of species as well as the proportion of predators within bromeliads declined from open to forested habitats, where the volume of water collected by bromeliads was generally lower because of rainfall interception by the canopy. A core group of microorganisms and generalist detritivores remained relatively constant across environments. This suggests that (i) a highly-connected core ensures food-web stability and key ecosystem functions across environments, and (ii) larger deviations in food-web structures can be expected following disturbance if detritivores share traits that determine responses to environmental changes. While linkage density and nestedness were lower in bromeliads in the forest than in open areas, experiments are needed to confirm a trend for lower food-web stability in the understorey of primary forests. PMID:23977128

Dézerald, Olivier; Leroy, Céline; Corbara, Bruno; Carrias, Jean-François; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

2013-01-01

145

A predator-prey model with a holling type I functional response including a predator mutual interference  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The most widely used functional response in describing predator-prey relationships is the Holling type II functional response, where per capita predation is a smooth, increasing, and saturating function of prey density. Beddington and DeAngelis modified the Holling type II response to include interference of predators that increases with predator density. Here we introduce a predator-interference term into a Holling type I functional response. We explain the ecological rationale for the response and note that the phase plane configuration of the predator and prey isoclines differs greatly from that of the Beddington-DeAngelis response; for example, in having three possible interior equilibria rather than one. In fact, this new functional response seems to be quite unique. We used analytical and numerical methods to show that the resulting system shows a much richer dynamical behavior than the Beddington-DeAngelis response, or other typically used functional responses. For example, cyclic-fold, saddle-fold, homoclinic saddle connection, and multiple crossing bifurcations can all occur. We then use a smooth approximation to the Holling type I functional response with predator mutual interference to show that these dynamical properties do not result from the lack of smoothness, but rather from subtle differences in the functional responses. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Seo, G.; Deangelis, D. L.

2011-01-01

146

Impairment of O-antigen production confers resistance to grazing in a model amoeba-cyanobacterium predator-prey system  

PubMed Central

The grazing activity of predators on photosynthetic organisms is a major mechanism of mortality and population restructuring in natural environments. Grazing is also one of the primary difficulties in growing cyanobacteria and other microalgae in large, open ponds for the production of biofuels, as contaminants destroy valuable biomass and prevent stable, continuous production of biofuel crops. To address this problem, we have isolated a heterolobosean amoeba, HGG1, that grazes upon unicellular and filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial species. We have established a model predator–prey system using this amoeba and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Application of amoebae to a library of mutants of S. elongatus led to the identification of a grazer-resistant knockout mutant of the wzm ABC O-antigen transporter gene, SynPCC7942_1126. Mutations in three other genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and transport also prevented the expression of O-antigen and conferred resistance to HGG1. Complementation of these rough mutants returned O-antigen expression and susceptibility to amoebae. Rough mutants are easily identifiable by appearance, are capable of autoflocculation, and do not display growth defects under standard laboratory growth conditions, all of which are desired traits for a biofuel production strain. Thus, preventing the production of O-antigen is a pathway for producing resistance to grazing by certain amoebae.

Simkovsky, Ryan; Daniels, Emy F.; Tang, Karen; Huynh, Stacey C.; Golden, Susan S.; Brahamsha, Bianca

2012-01-01

147

[Metabolism and interaction of C and N in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis].  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is the symbiont formed by the host plant and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The transfer and metabolism of C and N in the symbiosis plays an important role in keeping nutrient balance and resource reallocation between the host plant and the fungi. The carbohydrates produced by plant photosynthesis are transferred to the fungi, where they are metabolized as materials and energy used for fungal spore germination, mycelium growth and uptake of nitrogen and other nutrients. At the same time, N is transferred and reallocated from the fungi to the host plant, where the final released ammonium is used for plant growth. Accordingly, we reviewed the current progress in C and N transfer and metabolism in the AM symbiosis, and the crosstalk between them as well as some key issues to elucidate the mechanism of the interaction between C and N transport in the symbiosis, so as to provide the theory foundation for the application of AM in sustainable agriculture and ecosystem. PMID:24984513

Li, Yuan-Jing; Liu, Zhi-Lei; He, Xing-Yuan; Tian, Chun-Jie

2014-03-01

148

The role of zonal flows and predator–prey oscillations in triggering the formation of edge and core transport barriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present direct evidence of low frequency, radially sheared, turbulence-driven flows (zonal flows (ZFs)) triggering edge transport barrier formation preceding the L- to H-mode transition via periodic turbulence suppression in limit-cycle oscillations (LCOs), consistent with predator–prey dynamics. The final transition to edge-localized mode-free H-mode occurs after the equilibrium E × B flow shear increases due to ion pressure profile evolution. ZFs are also observed to initiate formation of an electron internal transport barrier (ITB) at the q = 2 rational surface via local suppression of electron-scale turbulence. Multi-channel Doppler backscattering (DBS) has revealed the radial structure of the ZF-induced shear layer and the E × B shearing rate, ?E×B, in both barrier types. During edge barrier formation, the shearing rate lags the turbulence envelope during the LCO by 90°, transitioning to anti-correlation (180°) when the equilibrium shear dominates the turbulence-driven flow shear due to the increasing edge pressure gradient. The time-dependent flow shear and the turbulence envelope are anti-correlated (180° out of phase) in the electron ITB. LCOs with time-reversed evolution dynamics (transitioning from an equilibrium-flow dominated to a ZF-dominated state) have also been observed during the H–L back-transition and are potentially of interest for controlled ramp-down of the plasma stored energy and pressure (normalized to the poloidal magnetic field) \\beta_{\\theta} =2\\mu_{0} n{( {T_{e} +T_{i}})}/{B_{\\theta}^{2}} in ITER.

Schmitz, L.; Zeng, L.; Rhodes, T. L.; Hillesheim, J. C.; Peebles, W. A.; Groebner, R. J.; Burrell, K. H.; McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Tynan, G. R.; Diamond, P. H.; Boedo, J. A.; Doyle, E. J.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Austin, M. E.; Solomon, W. M.; Wang, G.

2014-07-01

149

Temperature-altered predator-prey dynamics in freshwater ponds in Arctic Greenland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature sets the pace of many biological processes including species interactions. Describing the response of terrestrial and aquatic habitats to climate warming therefore requires studies of cross-trophic level dynamics. I use freshwater pond ecosystems in Arctic Greenland to study how the thermal environment shapes interactions between predators and their prey. This system is of interest because warming trends are notable, freshwaters are responding rapidly and dynamically to changes in temperature, and the biology of freshwaters is intimately linked to the terrestrial environment. My focal species are the Arctic mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae, Aedes nigripes) and its invertebrate predator, a predaceous diving beetle (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Colymbetes dolabratus). Both species develop as larvae in snow-melt ponds in May and June. I used experimental and observational studies to test effects of temperature on larval mosquito growth rates and predation rates by C. dolabratus. Results indicate strong effects of temperature on growth rate and development time but weak effects of temperature on consumption of mosquitoes by their predators. Incorporation of measured temperature response functions into a mosquito demographic model will elucidate how mosquito population dynamics in Arctic Greenland may change with temperature. For example, warming increases growth rate and decreases development time of mosquito larvae, which shortens the time larvae are exposed to predation. Additionally, decreased development time leads to an earlier mosquito emergence, with potential consequences for the health of wildlife. Evaluation of this model will reveal the importance of considering cross-trophic level dynamics when predicting mosquito population response to warming. Future studies will address interesting properties emerging from modeling, such as how shorter development time affects adult size and fitness, and connecting results to terrestrial systems in Arctic Greenland.

Culler, L. E.; Ayres, M.

2011-12-01

150

Host plant quality, spatial heterogeneity, and the stability of mite predator-prey dynamics.  

PubMed

Population dynamics models suggest that both the over-all level of resource productivity and spatial variability in productivity can play important roles in community dynamics. Higher productivity environments are predicted to destabilize consumer-resource dynamics. Conversely, greater heterogeneity in resource productivity is expected to contribute to stability. Yet the importance of these two factors for the dynamics of arthropod communities has been largely overlooked. I manipulated nutrient availability for strawberry plants in a multi-patch experiment, and measured effects of overall plant quality and heterogeneity in plant quality on the stability of interactions between the phytophagous mite Tetranychus urticae and its predator Phytoseiulus persimilis. Plant size, leaf N content and T. urticae population growth increased monotonically with increasing soil nitrogen availability. This gradient in plant quality affected two correlates of mite population stability, population variability over time (i.e., coefficient of variation) and population persistence (i.e., proportion of plant patches colonized). However, the highest level of plant quality did not produce the least stable dynamics, which is inconsistent with the "paradox of enrichment". Heterogeneity in plant productivity had modest effects on stability, with the only significant difference being less variable T. urticae densities in the heterogeneous compared to the corresponding homogeneous treatment. These results are generally congruent with metapopulation theory and other models for spatially segregated populations, which predict that stability should be governed largely by relative movement rates of predators and prey--rather than patch quality. PMID:21053057

Daugherty, Matthew P

2011-04-01

151

A systematic overview of harvesting-induced maturation evolution in predator-prey systems with three different life-history tradeoffs.  

PubMed

There are concerns that anthropogenic harvesting may cause phenotypic adaptive changes in exploited wild populations, in particular maturation at a smaller size and younger age. In this paper, we study the evolutionarily stable size at maturation of prey subjected to size-selective harvesting in a simple predator-prey model, taking into account three recognized life-history costs of early maturation, namely reduced fecundity, reduced growth, and increased mortality. Our analysis shows that harvesting large individuals favors maturation at smaller size compared to the unharvested system, independent of life-history tradeoff and the predator's prey-size preference. In general, however, the evolutionarily stable maturation size can either increase or decrease relative to the unharvested system, depending on the harvesting regime, the life-history tradeoff, and the predator's preferred size of prey. Furthermore, we examine how the predator population size changes in response to adaptive change in size at maturation of the prey. Surprisingly, in some situations, we find that the evolutionarily stable maturation size under harvesting is associated with an increased predator population size. This occurs, in particular, when early maturation trades off with growth rate. In total, we determine the evolutionarily stable size at maturation and associated predator population size for a total of forty-five different combinations of tradeoff, harvest regime, and predated size class. PMID:23151956

Bodin, M; Brännström, A; Dieckmann, U

2012-12-01

152

Effect of delay in a Lotka-Volterra type predator-prey model with a transmissible disease in the predator species.  

PubMed

We consider a system of delay differential equations modeling the predator-prey ecoepidemic dynamics with a transmissible disease in the predator population. The time lag in the delay terms represents the predator gestation period. We analyze essential mathematical features of the proposed model such as local and global stability and in addition study the bifurcations arising in some selected situations. Threshold values for a few parameters determining the feasibility and stability conditions of some equilibria are discovered and similarly a threshold is identified for the disease to die out. The parameter thresholds under which the system admits a Hopf bifurcation are investigated both in the presence of zero and non-zero time lag. Numerical simulations support our theoretical analysis. PMID:21784082

Haque, Mainul; Sarwardi, Sahabuddin; Preston, Simon; Venturino, Ezio

2011-11-01

153

Hydrodynamic patterns from fast-starts in teleost fish and their possible relevance to predator-prey interactions.  

PubMed

Fast-starts are distributed over a wide phylogenetic range of fish and are used for different purposes such as striking at prey or escaping from predators. Here we investigated 42 fast-starts of rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) elicited by a startle stimulus. We investigated the patterns of water movements left behind by the escaping fish and their possible value as a source of information to piscivorous predators that rely on hydrodynamic sensory systems. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements revealed a temporal extension of up to 25.5 min and a spatial extension of up to 1.53 m (extrapolated) for a certain flow structure called jet 1, that is the flow produced by the tail fin. Duration and spatial extension of jet 2, the flow produced by the body, were on average lower, and both jets differed in size. The fish escaped in a mean direction approximately parallel to jet 1, and antiparallel to jet 2, with a range well above 200°. This study quantified the flow patterns generated by escaping fish and, as piscivorous predators would greatly benefit from being able to analyse these flow patterns, provides cues for the behavioural and physiological investigation of hydrodynamic sensory systems. PMID:23180046

Niesterok, Benedikt; Hanke, Wolf

2013-02-01

154

Linking predator-prey interactions with exposure to a trophically transmitted parasite using PCR-based analyses.  

PubMed

Parasite transmission is determined by the rate of contact between a susceptible host and an infective stage and susceptibility to infection given an exposure event. Attempts to measure levels of variation in exposure in natural populations can be especially challenging. The level of exposure to a major class of parasites, trophically transmitted parasites, can be estimated by investigating the host's feeding behaviour. Since the parasites rely on the ingestion of infective intermediate hosts for transmission, the potential for exposure to infection is inherently linked to the definitive host's feeding ecology. Here, we combined epidemiological data and molecular analyses (polymerase chain reaction) of the diet of the definitive host, the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus), to investigate temporal and individual heterogeneities in exposure to infection. Our results show that the consumption of cricket intermediate hosts accounted for much of the variation in infection; mice that had consumed crickets were four times more likely to become infected than animals that tested negative for cricket DNA. In particular, pregnant female hosts were three times more likely to consume crickets, which corresponded to a threefold increase in infection compared with nonpregnant females. Interestingly, males in breeding condition had a higher rate of infection even though breeding males were just as likely to test positive for cricket consumption as nonbreeding males. These results suggest that while heterogeneity in host diet served as a strong predictor of exposure risk, differential susceptibility to infection may also play a key role, particularly among male hosts. By combining PCR analyses with epidemiological data, we revealed temporal variation in exposure through prey consumption and identified potentially important individual heterogeneities in parasite transmission. PMID:23110593

Luong, Lien T; Chapman, Eric G; Harwood, James D; Hudson, Peter J

2013-01-01

155

Are common symbiosis genes required for endophytic rice-rhizobial interactions?  

PubMed

Legume plants are able to establish root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. Recent studies revealed that the root nodule symbiosis has co-opted the signaling pathway that mediates the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis that occurs in most land plants. Despite being unable to induce nodulation, rhizobia have been shown to be able to infect and colonize the roots of non-legumes such as rice. One fascinating question is whether establishment of such associations requires the common symbiosis (Sym) genes that are essential for infection of plant cells by mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia in legumes. Here, we demonstrated that the common Sym genes are not required for endophytic colonization of rice roots by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia. PMID:23838959

Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Hongyan

2013-09-01

156

Are common symbiosis genes required for endophytic rice-rhizobial interactions?  

PubMed Central

Legume plants are able to establish root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, called rhizobia. Recent studies revealed that the root nodule symbiosis has co-opted the signaling pathway that mediates the ancestral mycorrhizal symbiosis that occurs in most land plants. Despite being unable to induce nodulation, rhizobia have been shown to be able to infect and colonize the roots of non-legumes such as rice. One fascinating question is whether establishment of such associations requires the common symbiosis (Sym) genes that are essential for infection of plant cells by mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia in legumes. Here, we demonstrated that the common Sym genes are not required for endophytic colonization of rice roots by nitrogen-fixing rhizobia.

Chen, Caiyan; Zhu, Hongyan

2013-01-01

157

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction.  

SciTech Connect

In his 1960 paper Man-Machine Symbiosis, Licklider predicted that human brains and computing machines will be coupled in a tight partnership that will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today. Today we are on the threshold of resurrecting the vision of symbiosis. While Licklider’s original vision suggested a co-equal relationship, here we discuss an updated vision, neo-symbiosis, in which the human holds a superordinate position in an intelligent human-computer collaborative environment. This paper was originally published as a journal article and is being published as a chapter in an upcoming book series, Advances in Novel Approaches in Cognitive Informatics and Natural Intelligence.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2008-12-01

158

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

Abstract--The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and we observe that the field is now in the process of re-invigorating Licklider’s vision. We briefly assess the state of the technology within the context of contemporary theory and practice, and we describe what we regard as this emerging field of neo-symbiosis. We offer some initial thoughts on requirements to define functionality of neo-symbiotic systems and discuss research challenges associated with their development and evaluation.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2007-01-01

159

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis as originally expressed by J.C.R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago and to argue for the relevance of this vision to the field of cognitive informatics. We describe this vision, place it in some historical context relating to the evolution of human factors research, and observe that the

Douglas Griffith; Frank L. Greitzer

2007-01-01

160

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis expressed by J. C. R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago, when he wrote: The hope is that in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way

Douglas Griffith; Frank L. Greitzer

2008-01-01

161

Teaching Symbiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the meaning of the word "symbiosis" be standardized and that it should be used in a broad sense. Also criticizes the orthodox teaching of general principles in this subject and recommends that priority be given to continuity, intimacy, and associated adaptations, rather than to the harm/benefit relationship. (Author/JN)

Harper, G. H.

1985-01-01

162

The effects of mobility on the one-dimensional four-species cyclic predator-prey model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a one-dimensional lattice composed of four species cyclically dominating each other is very much dependent on the rates of mobility in the system. We realize mobility as the exchange of two particles located at two nearest neighbor sites with some species dependent rate s. Allowing for only one particle per site, the different species interact cyclically, with species dependent consumption rate k, such that k + s <=1. When varying the exchange rates, we see vastly different behavior when compared to the three-species model. The patterns of domain growth and decay still show an overall power law behavior, however the fundamental trend of domain growth does not follow the three-species case. We also look at the space-time diagrams to see precisely how the domains form, grow, and decay.

Konrad, David; Pleimling, Michel

2012-02-01

163

The effects of mobility on the one-dimensional four-species cyclic predator-prey model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of a one-dimensional lattice composed of four species cyclically dominating each other is very much dependent on the rates of mobility in the system. We realize mobility as the exchange of two particles located at two nearest neighbor sites with some species dependent rate s. Allowing for only one particle per site, the different species interact cyclically, with species dependent consumption rate k, such that k + s <=1. When varying the exchange rates, we see vastly different behavior when compared to the three-species model. The patterns of domain growth and decay still show an overall power law behavior, however the fundamental trend of domain growth does not follow the three-species case. We also look at the space-time diagrams to see precisely how the domains form, grow, and decay.

Konrad, David; Pleimling, Michel

2011-10-01

164

Symbiosis: An Evolutionary Innovator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines symbiosis and describes the connection between symbiosis and evolution, how it is described in science textbooks, and genetic variability. Discusses educational policy and science curriculum content. (YDS)

Case, Emily

2003-01-01

165

Ecological aspects of mycorrhizal symbiosis: with special emphasis on the functional diversity of interactions involving the extraradical mycelium.  

PubMed

Different symbiotic mycorrhizal associations between plants and fungi occur, almost ubiquitously, in a wide range of terrestrial ecosystems. Historically, these have mainly been considered within the rather narrow perspective of their effects on the uptake of dissolved mineral nutrients by individual plants. More recent research has placed emphasis on a wider, multifunctional perspective, including the effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plant and microbial communities, and on ecosystem processes. This includes mobilization of N and P from organic polymers, release of nutrients from mineral particles or rock surfaces via weathering, effects on carbon cycling, interactions with myco-heterotrophic plants, mediation of plant responses to stress factors such as drought, soil acidification, toxic metals, and plant pathogens, as well as a range of possible interactions with groups of other soil micro-organisms. Mycorrhizal fungi connect their plant hosts to the heterogeneously distributed nutrients required for their growth, enabling the flow of energy-rich compounds required for nutrient mobilization whilst simultaneously providing conduits for the translocation of mobilized products back to their hosts. In addition to increasing the nutrient absorptive surface area of their host plant root systems, the extraradical mycelium of mycorrhizal fungi provides a direct pathway for translocation of photosynthetically derived carbon to microsites in the soil and a large surface area for interaction with other micro-organisms. The detailed functioning and regulation of these mycorrhizosphere processes is still poorly understood but recent progress is reviewed and potential benefits of improved understanding of mycorrhizosphere interactions are discussed. PMID:18349054

Finlay, Roger D

2008-01-01

166

Neo-Symbiosis: The Next Stage in the Evolution of Human Information Interaction  

SciTech Connect

We re-address the vision of human-computer symbiosis expressed by J. C. R. Licklider nearly a half-century ago, when he wrote: “The hope is that in not too many years, human brains and computing machines will be coupled together very tightly, and that the resulting partnership will think as no human brain has ever thought and process data in a way not approached by the information-handling machines we know today.” (Licklider, 1960). Unfortunately, little progress was made toward this vision over four decades following Licklider’s challenge, despite significant advancements in the fields of human factors and computer science. Licklider’s vision was largely forgotten. However, recent advances in information science and technology, psychology, and neuroscience have rekindled the potential of making the Licklider’s vision a reality. This paper provides a historical context for and updates the vision, and it argues that such a vision is needed as a unifying framework for advancing IS&T.

Griffith, Douglas; Greitzer, Frank L.

2008-03-01

167

Probabilistic patterns of interaction: the effects of link-strength variability on food web structure  

PubMed Central

Patterns of species interactions affect the dynamics of food webs. An important component of species interactions that is rarely considered with respect to food webs is the strengths of interactions, which may affect both structure and dynamics. In natural systems, these strengths are variable, and can be quantified as probability distributions. We examined how variation in strengths of interactions can be described hierarchically, and how this variation impacts the structure of species interactions in predator–prey networks, both of which are important components of ecological food webs. The stable isotope ratios of predator and prey species may be particularly useful for quantifying this variability, and we show how these data can be used to build probabilistic predator–prey networks. Moreover, the distribution of variation in strengths among interactions can be estimated from a limited number of observations. This distribution informs network structure, especially the key role of dietary specialization, which may be useful for predicting structural properties in systems that are difficult to observe. Finally, using three mammalian predator–prey networks (two African and one Canadian) quantified from stable isotope data, we show that exclusion of link-strength variability results in biased estimates of nestedness and modularity within food webs, whereas the inclusion of body size constraints only marginally increases the predictive accuracy of the isotope-based network. We find that modularity is the consequence of strong link-strengths in both African systems, while nestedness is not significantly present in any of the three predator–prey networks.

Yeakel, Justin D.; Guimaraes, Paulo R.; Novak, Mark; Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Koch, Paul L.

2012-01-01

168

Zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions: the case for refining methods, measurements and models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the classic experiments on the interactions between animals and their food supply were performed using laboratory cultures of Daphnia but comparable predator-prey cycles have seldom been recorded in the field. In this paper, we report the results of a field experiment designed to examine the effect of seasonal variations in the supply of edible algae on the population

D. G. George; C. S. Reynolds

1997-01-01

169

THE EFFECT OF SIZE ON THE FAST-START PERFORMANCE OF RAINBOW TROUT SALMO GAIRDNERI, AND A CONSIDERATION OF PISCIVOROUS PREDATOR-PREY INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The fast-start (acceleration) performance of seven groups of rainbow trout from 9-6 to 387 cm total length was measured in response to d.c. electric shock stimuli. Two fast-start kinematic patterns, L- and S-start were observed. In L-starts the body was bent into an L or U shape and a recoil turn normally accompanied acceleration. Free manoeuvre was not possible

P. W. WEBB

170

Development of a novel system for isolating genes involved in predator-prey interactions using host independent derivatives of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is a gram-negative bacterium that preys upon other gram-negative bacteria. Although the life cycle of Bdellovibrio has been extensively investigated, very little is known about the mechanisms involved in predation. RESULTS: Host-Independent (HI) mutants of B. bacteriovorus were isolated from wild-type strain 109J. Predation assays confirmed that the selected HI mutants retained their ability to prey on

Adrian A Medina; Robert M Shanks; Daniel E Kadouri

2008-01-01

171

How Symbiosis Creates Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diversity in habitats on Earth is astounding--whether on land or in the sea--and this is in part due to symbiosis. The lesson described in this article helps students understand how symbiosis affects different organisms through a fun and engaging game where they match hosts and symbionts based on their respective needs. This 45-minute lesson is…

Lord, Joshua

2010-01-01

172

International Symbiosis Society  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The International Symbiosis Society (ISS) "is primarily involved with the promotion of research and education in the growing field of symbiosis. The Society seeks also to build ongoing and useful communication between the many researchers working in the various sub-fields of symbiosis, as well as connect symbiologists to those in other areas of ecology and biological sciences generally." Hosted by Boston University, the ISS website contains information about membership, and the international journal _Symbiosis_. For authors interested in submitting a manuscript to the journal, the site provides brief, downloadable instructions. In addition, the site links to the websites of Society members working in a variety of areas including Bark Beetles/Fungi, Cyanobacterial Symbioses, Lichens, Marine Symbioses, Mycorhizae, and more. Also, be sure to check out the fascinating images in the Symbiosis Gallery! This site is also reviewed in the June 10, 2005 _NSDL Life Sciences Report_.

173

Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Diverse bacterial lineages form beneficial infections with eukaryotic hosts. The origins, evolution, and breakdown of these mutualisms represent important evolutionary transitions. To examine these key events, we synthesize data from diverse interactions between bacteria and eukaryote hosts. Five evolutionary transitions are investigated, including the origins of bacterial associations with eukaryotes, the origins and subsequent stable maintenance of bacterial mutualism with hosts, the capture of beneficial symbionts via the evolution of strict vertical transmission within host lineages, and the evolutionary breakdown of bacterial mutualism. Each of these transitions has occurred many times in the history of bacterial–eukaryote symbiosis. We investigate these evolutionary events across the bacterial domain and also among a focal set of well studied bacterial mutualist lineages. Subsequently, we generate a framework for examining evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis and test hypotheses about the selective, ecological, and genomic forces that shape these events.

Sachs, Joel L.; Skophammer, Ryan G.; Regus, John U.

2011-01-01

174

On the spatial dynamics and oscillatory behavior of a predator-prey model based on cellular automata and local particle swarm optimization.  

PubMed

A two-dimensional lattice model based on Cellular Automata theory and swarm intelligence is used to study the spatial and population dynamics of a theoretical ecosystem. It is found that the social interactions among predators provoke the formation of clusters, and that by increasing the mobility of predators the model enters into an oscillatory behavior. PMID:23927834

Molina, Mario Martínez; Moreno-Armendáriz, Marco A; Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Juan

2013-11-01

175

Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

Rowland, Jane Thomas

1974-01-01

176

Predator-prey relations and competition for food between age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins in the Apostle Island region of Lake Superior  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Slimy sculpins (Cottus cognatus) are an important component of the fish community on reefs and adjacent nursery areas of the Great Lakes and overlap spatially with age-0 lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Important interactions between these fishes are possible during the lake trout's first year of life, which could include predation on each other's eggs and larvae, and competition for food resources. We investigated the diets of age-0 lake trout and slimy sculpins on a lake trout spawning reef (Gull Island Shoal) and adjacent nursery area (near Michigan Island) in the Apostle Island Region of western Lake Superior during June through September from 1988 through 1991. Organisms in stomachs of 511 lake trout and 562 sculpins were identified and counted. Of the 11 major food types found in age-0 lake trout stomachs from both areas, Mysis was the dominant food item (mean volume in stomachs = 68%) and occurred in about 3/4 of the fish analyzed. Copepods, cladocerans, chironomid pupae, fish, and Bythotrephes were also common in the diet (frequency of occurrence > 4%). Diets of lake trout were more diverse on the reef than on the nursery area where Mysis dominated the diet. Slimy sculpins were only found in lake trout greater than 50 mm. Mysis was an important food item of slimy sculpins over the reef but not over the nursery area, where Diporeia was by far the most important taxon. A variety of benthic invertebrates (Asellus, chironomids, benthic copepods, and snails) comprised the bulk of the sculpin diet over the reef. Sculpins also ate lake trout eggs in November. Based on cluster analysis, diets were most similar over the reef where both consumed Mysis, calanoid copepods and chironomid pupae. Diets diverged over the nursery areas where sculpins were strictly benthic feeders and lake trout maintained their planktonic diet. In Lake Superior, where lake trout recruitment through natural reproduction has become well established, the coexistence of the two species appears amicable. However, in other Great Lakes with higher sculpin to lake trout ratios on a reef the coexistence of the two species may be a bottleneck for age-0 lake trout survival beginning with egg deposition and ending when age-0 lake trout move off the reef and the two species no longer compete for a common food resource.

Hudson, Patrick L.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Bronte, Charles R.

1995-01-01

177

Predation: Prey plumage adaptation against falcon attack.  

PubMed

Several plumage types are found in feral pigeons (Columba livia), but one type imparts a clear survival advantage during attacks by the swiftest of all predators--the peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus). Here we use quantitative field observations and experiments to demonstrate both the selective nature of the falcon's choice of prey and the effect of plumage coloration on the survival of feral pigeons. This plumage colour is an independently heritable trait that is likely to be an antipredator adaptation against high-speed attacks in open air space. PMID:15846334

Palleroni, Alberto; Miller, Cory T; Hauser, Marc; Marler, Peter

2005-04-21

178

Survival through Symbiosis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes symbiosis and its significance in the day-to-day lives of plants and animals. Gives specific examples of mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism in the relationships among fungus and plant roots, animals and bacteria, birds and animals, fish, and predator and prey. (MDH)

Abdi, S. Wali

1992-01-01

179

Interactions between cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large carnivore populations are recovering in many protected areas in North America, but the effect of increasing carnivore numbers on existing predator-prey and predator-predator interactions is poorly understood. We studied diet and spatial overlap among cougars (Puma concolor) and gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Banff National Park, Alberta (1993-2004) to evaluate how wolf recovery in the park influenced diet choice

Andrea D. KORTELLO; Thomas E. HURD; Dennis L. MURRAY

2007-01-01

180

The Rhizobium-plant symbiosis.  

PubMed Central

Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium species are able to elicit the formation of unique structures, called nodules, on the roots or stems of the leguminous host. In these nodules, the rhizobia convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia for the plant. To establish this symbiosis, signals are produced early in the interaction between plant and rhizobia and they elicit discrete responses by the two symbiotic partners. First, transcription of the bacterial nodulation (nod) genes is under control of the NodD regulatory protein, which is activated by specific plant signals, flavonoids, present in the root exudates. In return, the nod-encoded enzymes are involved in the synthesis and excretion of specific lipooligosaccharides, which are able to trigger on the host plant the organogenic program leading to the formation of nodules. An overview of the organization, regulation, and function of the nod genes and their participation in the determination of the host specificity is presented.

van Rhijn, P; Vanderleyden, J

1995-01-01

181

Interactions between Asaia, Plasmodium and Anopheles: new insights into mosquito symbiosis and implications in Malaria Symbiotic Control  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria represents one of the most devastating infectious diseases. The lack of an effective vaccine and the emergence of drug resistance make necessary the development of new effective control methods. The recent identification of bacteria of the genus Asaia, associated with larvae and adults of malaria vectors, designates them as suitable candidates for malaria paratransgenic control. To better characterize the interactions between Asaia, Plasmodium and the mosquito immune system we performed an integrated experimental approach. Methods Quantitative PCR analysis of the amount of native Asaia was performed on individual Anopheles stephensi specimens. Mosquito infection was carried out with the strain PbGFPCON and the number of parasites in the midgut was counted by fluorescent microscopy. The colonisation of infected mosquitoes was achieved using GFP or DsRed tagged-Asaia strains. Reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, growth and phagocytosis tests were performed using An. stephensi and Drosophila melanogaster haemocyte cultures and DsRed tagged-Asaia and Escherichia coli strains. Results Using quantitative PCR we have quantified the relative amount of Asaia in infected and uninfected mosquitoes, showing that the parasite does not interfere with bacterial blooming. The correlation curves have confirmed the active replication of Asaia, while at the same time, the intense decrease of the parasite. The ‘in vitro’ immunological studies have shown that Asaia induces the expression of antimicrobial peptides, however, the growth curves in conditioned medium as well as a phagocytosis test, indicated that the bacterium is not an immune-target. Using fluorescent strains of Asaia and Plasmodium we defined their co-localisation in the mosquito midgut and salivary glands. Conclusions We have provided important information about the relationship of Asaia with both Plasmodium and Anopheles. First, physiological changes in the midgut following an infected or uninfected blood meal do not negatively affect the residing Asaia population that seems to benefit from this condition. Second, Asaia can act as an immune-modulator activating antimicrobial peptide expression and seems to be adapted to the host immune response. Last, the co-localization of Asaia and Plasmodium highlights the possibility of reducing vectorial competence using bacterial recombinant strains capable of releasing anti-parasite molecules.

2013-01-01

182

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis enhanced the efficiency of inoculation with two Bradyrhizobium strains and Acacia holosericea growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two strains of Bradyrhizobium sp., Aust 13C and Aust 11C, were dually or singly inoculated with an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Pisolithus albus to assess the interactions between ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and the nodulation process in glasshouse conditions. Sequencing of strains Aust 13C and Aust 11C confirmed their previous placement in the genus Bradyrhizobium. After 4 months’ culture, the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis promoted plant

S. André; A. Galiana; C. Le Roux; Y Prin; M. Neyra; R. Duponnois

2005-01-01

183

Vibrio Fischeri Symbiosis Gene Regulation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goals of this project were to investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling luminescence gene expression of the symbiotic bioluminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri; and to identify and investigate the regulation of other symbiosis functions in this ...

P. V. Dunlap

1989-01-01

184

Symbiosis catalyses niche expansion and diversification  

PubMed Central

Interactions between species are important catalysts of the evolutionary processes that generate the remarkable diversity of life. Symbioses, conspicuous and inherently interesting forms of species interaction, are pervasive throughout the tree of life. However, nearly all studies of the impact of species interactions on diversification have concentrated on competition and predation leaving unclear the importance of symbiotic interaction. Here, I show that, as predicted by evolutionary theories of symbiosis and diversification, multiple origins of a key innovation, symbiosis between gall-inducing insects and fungi, catalysed both expansion in resource use (niche expansion) and diversification. Symbiotic lineages have undergone a more than sevenfold expansion in the range of host-plant taxa they use relative to lineages without such fungal symbionts, as defined by the genetic distance between host plants. Furthermore, symbiotic gall-inducing insects are more than 17 times as diverse as their non-symbiotic relatives. These results demonstrate that the evolution of symbiotic interaction leads to niche expansion, which in turn catalyses diversification.

Joy, Jeffrey B.

2013-01-01

185

Evolving together: the biology of symbiosis, part 1  

PubMed Central

Symbioses, prolonged associations between organisms often widely separated phylogenetically, are more common in biology than we once thought and have been neglected as a phenomenon worthy of study on its own merits. Extending along a dynamic continuum from antagonistic to cooperative and often involving elements of both antagonism and mutualism, symbioses involve pathogens, commensals, and mutualists interacting in myriad ways over the evolutionary history of the involved “partners.” In this first of 2 parts, some remarkable examples of symbiosis will be explored, from the coral-algal symbiosis and nitrogen fixation to the great diversity of dietary specializations enabled by the gastrointestinal microbiota of animals.

2000-01-01

186

Symbiosis, Empathy, Suicidal Behavior, and the Family.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses the theoretical concept of symbiosis, as described by Mahler and her co-workers, and its clinical applications in suicidal situations. Also, the practical implications of the concept of symbiosis for assessment and treatment are discussed (Author)

Richman, Joseph

1978-01-01

187

Auxin influences strigolactones in pea mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Hormone interactions are essential for the control of many developmental processes, including intracellular symbioses. The interaction between auxin and the new plant hormone strigolactone in the regulation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis was examined in one of the few auxin deficient mutants available in a mycorrhizal species, the auxin-deficient bsh mutant of pea (Pisum sativum). Mycorrhizal colonisation with the fungus Glomus intraradices was significantly reduced in the low auxin bsh mutant. The bsh mutant also exhibited a reduction in strigolactone exudation and the expression of a key strigolactone biosynthesis gene (PsCCD8). Strigolactone exudation was also reduced in wild type plants when the auxin content was reduced by stem girdling. Low strigolactone levels appear to be at least partially responsible for the reduced colonisation of the bsh mutant, as application of the synthetic strigolactone GR24 could partially rescue the mycorrhizal phenotype of bsh mutants. Data presented here indicates root auxin content was correlated with strigolactone exudation in both mutant and wild type plants. Mutant studies suggest that auxin may regulate early events in the formation of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis by controlling strigolactone levels, both in the rhizosphere and possibly during early root colonisation. PMID:23219475

Foo, E

2013-03-15

188

Sensory Information and Encounter Rates of Interacting Species  

PubMed Central

Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the power (where is the dimension of the environment) when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

Hein, Andrew M.; McKinley, Scott A.

2013-01-01

189

Amazing Reef: Moviemaker  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this movie-making interactive, learners can make an animated film about life on a coral reef. Learners choose an exciting story, cast colorful characters, and animate the movie themselves. They then add music and titles to complete the movie. Learners can even keep the movie by downloading it to their own computer. Learners can make up to four movies relating to survival, symbiosis, habitat, and predator/prey relationships in the Philippines Tropical Coral Reef.

Aquarium, Shedd; Educational Web Adventures (Eduweb)

2006-01-01

190

Evolution of symbiosis with resource allocation from fecundity to survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbiosis is one of the most fundamental relationships between or among organisms and includes parasitism (which has negative effects on the fitness of the interacting partner), commensalism (no effect), and mutualism (positive effects). The effects of these interactions are usually assumed to influence a single component of a species' fitness, either survival or fecundity, even though in reality the interaction can simultaneously affect both of these components. I used a dual lattice model to investigate the process of evolution of mutualistic symbiosis in the presence of interactive effects on both survival and fecundity. I demonstrate that a positive effect on survival and a negative effect on fecundity are key to the establishment of mutualism. Furthermore, both the parasitic and the mutualistic behaviour must carry large costs for mutualism to evolve. This helps develop a new understanding of symbiosis as a function of resource allocation, in which resources are shifted from fecundity to survival. The simultaneous establishment of mutualism from parasitism never occurs in two species, but can do so in one of the species as long as the partner still behaves parasitically. This suggests that one of the altruistic behaviours in a mutualistic unit consisting of two species must originate as a parasitic behaviour.

Fukui, Shin

2014-05-01

191

Evolution of symbiosis with resource allocation from fecundity to survival.  

PubMed

Symbiosis is one of the most fundamental relationships between or among organisms and includes parasitism (which has negative effects on the fitness of the interacting partner), commensalism (no effect), and mutualism (positive effects). The effects of these interactions are usually assumed to influence a single component of a species' fitness, either survival or fecundity, even though in reality the interaction can simultaneously affect both of these components. I used a dual lattice model to investigate the process of evolution of mutualistic symbiosis in the presence of interactive effects on both survival and fecundity. I demonstrate that a positive effect on survival and a negative effect on fecundity are key to the establishment of mutualism. Furthermore, both the parasitic and the mutualistic behaviour must carry large costs for mutualism to evolve. This helps develop a new understanding of symbiosis as a function of resource allocation, in which resources are shifted from fecundity to survival. The simultaneous establishment of mutualism from parasitism never occurs in two species, but can do so in one of the species as long as the partner still behaves parasitically. This suggests that one of the altruistic behaviours in a mutualistic unit consisting of two species must originate as a parasitic behaviour. PMID:24744057

Fukui, Shin

2014-05-01

192

Evolution of symbiosis with resource allocation from fecundity to survival  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbiosis is one of the most fundamental relationships between or among organisms and includes parasitism (which has negative effects on the fitness of the interacting partner), commensalism (no effect), and mutualism (positive effects). The effects of these interactions are usually assumed to influence a single component of a species' fitness, either survival or fecundity, even though in reality the interaction can simultaneously affect both of these components. I used a dual lattice model to investigate the process of evolution of mutualistic symbiosis in the presence of interactive effects on both survival and fecundity. I demonstrate that a positive effect on survival and a negative effect on fecundity are key to the establishment of mutualism. Furthermore, both the parasitic and the mutualistic behaviour must carry large costs for mutualism to evolve. This helps develop a new understanding of symbiosis as a function of resource allocation, in which resources are shifted from fecundity to survival. The simultaneous establishment of mutualism from parasitism never occurs in two species, but can do so in one of the species as long as the partner still behaves parasitically. This suggests that one of the altruistic behaviours in a mutualistic unit consisting of two species must originate as a parasitic behaviour.

Fukui, Shin

2014-04-01

193

Microalgal symbiosis in biotechnology.  

PubMed

This review provides an analysis of recent published work on interactions between microorganisms, especially the ones involving mainly nutrient exchanges and at least with one microalga species. Examples of microbial partners are given, with a remark to the potential application of cultures of an autotroph and a heterotroph, which grow simultaneously, taking advantage of the complementary metabolisms. These are particularly interesting, either due to economic or sustainable aspects, and some applications have already reached the commercial stage of development. The added advantages of these symbiotic cultures are biomass, lipid, and other products productivity enhancement a better utilization of resources and the reduction or even elimination of process residues (including carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) to conduct an increasingly greener biotechnology. Among the several symbiotic partners referred, the microalgae and yeast cultures are the most used. The interaction between these two microorganisms shows how to enhance the lipid production for biodiesel purposes compared with separated (stand-alone) cultures. PMID:24816618

Santos, Carla A; Reis, Alberto

2014-07-01

194

Cell Biology of Cnidarian-Dinoflagellate Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Summary: The symbiosis between cnidarians (e.g., corals or sea anemones) and intracellular dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium is of immense ecological importance. In particular, this symbiosis promotes the growth and survival of reef corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters; indeed, coral reefs could not exist without this symbiosis. However, our fundamental understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis and of its links to coral calcification remains poor. Here we review what we currently know about the cell biology of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. In doing so, we aim to refocus attention on fundamental cellular aspects that have been somewhat neglected since the early to mid-1980s, when a more ecological approach began to dominate. We review the four major processes that we believe underlie the various phases of establishment and persistence in the cnidarian/coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: (i) recognition and phagocytosis, (ii) regulation of host-symbiont biomass, (iii) metabolic exchange and nutrient trafficking, and (iv) calcification. Where appropriate, we draw upon examples from a range of cnidarian-alga symbioses, including the symbiosis between green Hydra and its intracellular chlorophyte symbiont, which has considerable potential to inform our understanding of the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis. Ultimately, we provide a comprehensive overview of the history of the field, its current status, and where it should be going in the future.

Allemand, Denis; Weis, Virginia M.

2012-01-01

195

Transcriptome analysis of Sinorhizobium meliloti during symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Rhizobia induce the formation on specific legumes of new organs, the root nodules, as a result of an elaborated developmental program involving the two partners. In order to contribute to a more global view of the genetics underlying this plant-microbe symbiosis, we have mined the recently determined Sinorhizobium meliloti genome sequence for genes potentially relevant to symbiosis. We describe

Frederic Ampe; Ernö Kiss; Frédérique Sabourdy; Jacques Batut

2003-01-01

196

Brain-Computer Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The theoretical groundwork of the 1930’s and 1940’s and the technical advance of computers in the following decades provided the basis for dramatic increases in human efficiency. While computers continue to evolve, and we can still expect increasing benefits from their use, the interface between humans and computers has begun to present a serious impediment to full realization of the potential payoff. This article is about the theoretical and practical possibility that direct communication between the brain and the computer can be used to overcome this impediment by improving or augmenting conventional forms of human communication. It is about the opportunity that the limitations of our body’s input and output capacities can be overcome using direct interaction with the brain, and it discusses the assumptions, possible limitations, and implications of a technology that I anticipate will be a major source of pervasive changes in the coming decades.

Schalk, Gerwin

2009-01-01

197

Predator-prey responses in an acarine system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  This study examines the responses of the predatory mite,Phytoseiulus persimilis, to the density and distribution of its prey,Tetranychus urticae. It is divided into three parts. Firstly, the functional responses of protonymph, deutonymph and adult females towards different\\u000a prey stages are displayed. The great majority of the responses are of the type II form, and the variations in the values of

M. H. J. P. Pernando; M. P. Hassell

1980-01-01

198

PERIODIC SOLUTIONS OF A PERIODIC DELAY PREDATOR-PREY SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of a positive periodic solution for (dH(t) dt = r(t)H(t) h 1 H(t (t)) K(t) i (t)H(t)P(t); dP(t) dt = b(t)P(t )+ ( t ) P ( t ) H ( t ( t)) is established, where r, K, , b, are positive periodic continuous functions with period !> 0, and , are periodic continuous functions with period

LI YONGKUN

199

Global stability of Gause-type predator-prey systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present some global stability results obtained from comparison analysis, Bendixson-Dulac criterion or limit cycle stability analysis for the general Gause-type predator-type systems.

Y. Kuang

1990-01-01

200

Predator-prey relationships on Apiaceae at an organic farm.  

PubMed

Orius insidiosus (Say) and O. pumilio (Champion) were confirmed to be sympatric in north central Florida as the major predators of the Florida flower thrips, Frankliniella bispinosa (Morgan), on flowers of Queen Anne's lace, Daucus carota L. and false Queen Anne's lace, Ammi majus L. F. bispinosa was the predominant thrips observed on both flowers but colonized D. carota to a greater extent and earlier in the season than A. majus. Despite differences in the abundance of F. bispinosa on the two plants, neither Orius species showed host plant affinities. Population profiles for the thrips and Orius spp. followed a density dependent response of prey to predator with a large initial prey population followed by a rapid decline as the predator populations increased. The temporal increases in Orius spp. populations during the flowering season suggest that they were based on reproductive activity. As observed in a previous study, O. insidiosus had a larger population than O. pumilio and also had a predominantly male population on the flowers. By examining carcasses of the prey, there appeared to be no sexual preference of the thrips as prey by the Orius spp. as the prey pattern followed the demographics of the thrips sex ratio. Few immatures of either thrips or Orius spp. were observed on D. carota or A. majus, which suggests that oviposition and nymphal development occurred elsewhere. Based on these findings, D. carota and A. majus could serve as a banker plant system for Orius spp. PMID:22732606

Shirk, Paul D; Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Reitz, Stuart R; Thomas, Jean M G; Koenig, Rosalie L; Hay-Roe, Mirian M; Buss, Lyle J

2012-06-01

201

Implementation of Predator-Prey Models for Great Lakes Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) first appeared in Lake Michigan in the late 1940's and has played a dominant role in the lake for over 20 years (Brown 1972). Wells (1970) and others have documented major changes in zooplankton community structure assoc...

S. W. Hewett J. F. Kitchell

1982-01-01

202

The genome of Laccaria bicolor provides insights into mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to understanding the role of ectomycorrhizae in plant development and physiology, allowing the full ecological significance of this symbiosis to be explored. Here we report the genome sequence of the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria bicolor (Fig. 1) and highlight gene sets involved in rhizosphere colonization and symbiosis. This 65-megabase genome assembly contains approximately 20,000 predicted protein-encoding genes and a very large number of transposons and repeated sequences. We detected unexpected genomic features, most notably a battery of effector-type small secreted proteins (SSPs) with unknown function, several of which are only expressed in symbiotic tissues. The most highly expressed SSP accumulates in the proliferating hyphae colonizing the host root. The ectomycorrhizae-specific SSPs probably have a decisive role in the establishment of the symbiosis. The unexpected observation that the genome of L. bicolor lacks carbohydrate-active enzymes involved in degradation of plant cell walls, but maintains the ability to degrade non-plant cell wall polysaccharides, reveals the dual saprotrophic and biotrophic lifestyle of the mycorrhizal fungus that enables it to grow within both soil and living plant roots. The predicted gene inventory of the L. bicolor genome, therefore, points to previously unknown mechanisms of symbiosis operating in biotrophic mycorrhizal fungi. The availability of this genome provides an unparalleled opportunity to develop a deeper understanding of the processes by which symbionts interact with plants within their ecosystem to perform vital functions in the carbon and nitrogen cycles that are fundamental to sustainable plant productivity. PMID:18322534

Martin, F; Aerts, A; Ahrén, D; Brun, A; Danchin, E G J; Duchaussoy, F; Gibon, J; Kohler, A; Lindquist, E; Pereda, V; Salamov, A; Shapiro, H J; Wuyts, J; Blaudez, D; Buée, M; Brokstein, P; Canbäck, B; Cohen, D; Courty, P E; Coutinho, P M; Delaruelle, C; Detter, J C; Deveau, A; DiFazio, S; Duplessis, S; Fraissinet-Tachet, L; Lucic, E; Frey-Klett, P; Fourrey, C; Feussner, I; Gay, G; Grimwood, J; Hoegger, P J; Jain, P; Kilaru, S; Labbé, J; Lin, Y C; Legué, V; Le Tacon, F; Marmeisse, R; Melayah, D; Montanini, B; Muratet, M; Nehls, U; Niculita-Hirzel, H; Oudot-Le Secq, M P; Peter, M; Quesneville, H; Rajashekar, B; Reich, M; Rouhier, N; Schmutz, J; Yin, T; Chalot, M; Henrissat, B; Kües, U; Lucas, S; Van de Peer, Y; Podila, G K; Polle, A; Pukkila, P J; Richardson, P M; Rouzé, P; Sanders, I R; Stajich, J E; Tunlid, A; Tuskan, G; Grigoriev, I V

2008-03-01

203

Elevated temperature and drought interact to reduce parasitoid effectiveness in suppressing hosts.  

PubMed

Climate change affects the abundance, distribution and activity of natural enemies that are important for suppressing herbivore crop pests. Moreover, higher mean temperatures and increased frequency of climatic extremes are expected to induce different responses across trophic levels, potentially disrupting predator-prey interactions. Using field observations, we examined the response of an aphid host-parasitoid system to variation in temperature. Temperature was positively associated with attack rates by parasitoids, but also with a non-significant trend towards increased attack rates by higher-level hyperparasitoids. Elevated hyperparasitism could partly offset any benefit of climate warming to parasitoids, and would suggest that higher trophic levels may hamper predictions of predator-prey interactions. Additionally, the mechanisms affecting host-parasitoid dynamics were examined using controlled laboratory experiments that simulated both temperature increase and drought. Parasitoid fitness and longevity responded differently when exposed to each climatic variable in isolation, compared to the interaction of both variables at once. Although temperature increase or drought tended to positively affect the ability of parasitoids to control aphid populations, these effects were significantly reversed when the drivers were expressed in concert. Additionally, separate warming and drought treatments reduced parasitoid longevity, and although temperature increased parasitoid emergence success and drought increased offspring production, combined temperature and drought produced the lowest parasitoid emergence. The non-additive effects of different climate drivers, combined with differing responses across trophic levels, suggest that predicting future pest outbreaks will be more challenging than previously imagined. PMID:23472147

Romo, Cecilia M; Tylianakis, Jason M

2013-01-01

204

Elevated Temperature and Drought Interact to Reduce Parasitoid Effectiveness in Suppressing Hosts  

PubMed Central

Climate change affects the abundance, distribution and activity of natural enemies that are important for suppressing herbivore crop pests. Moreover, higher mean temperatures and increased frequency of climatic extremes are expected to induce different responses across trophic levels, potentially disrupting predator-prey interactions. Using field observations, we examined the response of an aphid host-parasitoid system to variation in temperature. Temperature was positively associated with attack rates by parasitoids, but also with a non-significant trend towards increased attack rates by higher-level hyperparasitoids. Elevated hyperparasitism could partly offset any benefit of climate warming to parasitoids, and would suggest that higher trophic levels may hamper predictions of predator-prey interactions. Additionally, the mechanisms affecting host-parasitoid dynamics were examined using controlled laboratory experiments that simulated both temperature increase and drought. Parasitoid fitness and longevity responded differently when exposed to each climatic variable in isolation, compared to the interaction of both variables at once. Although temperature increase or drought tended to positively affect the ability of parasitoids to control aphid populations, these effects were significantly reversed when the drivers were expressed in concert. Additionally, separate warming and drought treatments reduced parasitoid longevity, and although temperature increased parasitoid emergence success and drought increased offspring production, combined temperature and drought produced the lowest parasitoid emergence. The non-additive effects of different climate drivers, combined with differing responses across trophic levels, suggest that predicting future pest outbreaks will be more challenging than previously imagined.

Romo, Cecilia M.; Tylianakis, Jason M.

2013-01-01

205

Ammonium Metabolism in the Green Hydra Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Inhibitors of enzymes,of ammonium,assimi- lation were used to test if assimilation of ammonium,in the green,hydra-Chlorella symbiosis,was,due,to host or symbionts. Both methionine sulphoximine (MSX, an in- hibitor of glutamine synthetase, found in both host and symbionts) and azaserine (AZS, an inhibitor of 2-oxoglu- tarate amido transferase, not found in the host) inhibited ammonium,uptake by the intact symbiosis. MSX was taken

P. J. Mcauley

1995-01-01

206

The origin of new qualities in the evolution of interacting dynamical systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principles of the emergence of new qualities are analyzed on the basis of the evolutionary analogies of biological systems and models of interacting systems. It is pointed out that competition does not create new qualities; it only elaborates on and disseminates a certain trait of the system. New qualities are generated by symbiotic interactions: mutualism, cooperation and predator-prey-like ones. Special attention is called to the evolution of the predator-prey-like system, as it evolves into an organized and even anticipatory system: when this system becomes a simple cybernetic regulator, when the predator specializes to process ~1 bit of information; when the system can regulate many parameters and the predator becomes a complex processor of information that controls the activity of the Prey, that is the transformations of matter/energy, when additional memory structures that contain fixed sets of programs emerge (programmed control); and when, finally, a special structure that can model the internal and external world and store information develops, and the whole system becomes an anticipatory system.

Kirvelis, Dobilas

1999-03-01

207

The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions.  

PubMed

The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk. PMID:24089056

Tubay, Jerrold M; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P; Casareto, Beatriz E; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

2013-01-01

208

The paradox of enrichment in phytoplankton by induced competitive interactions  

PubMed Central

The biodiversity loss of phytoplankton with eutrophication has been reported in many aquatic ecosystems, e.g., water pollution and red tides. This phenomenon seems similar, but different from the paradox of enrichment via trophic interactions, e.g., predator-prey systems. We here propose the paradox of enrichment by induced competitive interactions using multiple contact process (a lattice Lotka-Volterra competition model). Simulation results demonstrate how eutrophication invokes more competitions in a competitive ecosystem resulting in the loss of phytoplankton diversity in ecological time. The paradox is enhanced under local interactions, indicating that the limited dispersal of phytoplankton reduces interspecific competition greatly. Thus, the paradox of enrichment appears when eutrophication destroys an ecosystem either by elevated interspecific competition within a trophic level and/or destabilization by trophic interactions. Unless eutrophication due to human activities is ceased, the world's aquatic ecosystems will be at risk.

Tubay, Jerrold M.; Ito, Hiromu; Uehara, Takashi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Morita, Satoru; Togashi, Tatsuya; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Niraula, Mohan P.; Casareto, Beatriz E.; Suzuki, Yoshimi; Yoshimura, Jin

2013-01-01

209

CERBERUS and NSP1 of Lotus japonicus are common symbiosis genes that modulate arbuscular mycorrhiza development.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AMS) and root nodule symbiosis (RNS) are mutualistic plant-microbe interactions that confer nutritional benefits to both partners. Leguminous plants possess a common genetic system for intracellular symbiosis with AM fungi and with rhizobia. Here we show that CERBERUS and NSP1, which respectively encode an E3 ubiquitin ligase and a GRAS transcriptional regulator and which have previously only been implicated in RNS, are involved in AM fungal infection in Lotus japonicus. Hyphal elongation along the longitudinal axis of the root was reduced in the cerberus mutant, giving rise to a lower colonization level. Knockout of NSP1 decreased the frequency of plants colonized by AM fungi or rhizobia. CERBERUS and NSP1 showed different patterns of expression in response to infection with symbiotic microbes. A low constitutive level of CERBERUS expression was observed in the root and an increased level of NSP1 expression was detected in arbuscule-containing cells. Induction of AM marker gene was triggered in both cerberus and nsp1 mutants by infection with symbiotic microbes; however, the mutants showed a weaker induction of marker gene expression than the wild type, mirroring their lower level of colonization. The common symbiosis genes are believed to act in an early signaling pathway for recognition of symbionts and for triggering early symbiotic responses. Our quantitative analysis of symbiotic phenotypes revealed developmental defects of the novel common symbiosis mutants in both symbioses, which demonstrates that common symbiosis mechanisms also contribute to a range of functions at later or different stages of symbiont infection. PMID:23926062

Takeda, Naoya; Tsuzuki, Syusaku; Suzaki, Takuya; Parniske, Martin; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

2013-10-01

210

Plant hormones as signals in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Abstract Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are non-specific symbionts developing mutual and beneficial symbiosis with most terrestrial plants. Because of the obligatory nature of the symbiosis, the presence of the host plant during the onset and proceeding of symbiosis is necessary. However, AM fungal spores are able to germinate in the absence of the host plant. The fungi detect the presence of the host plant through some signal communications. Among the signal molecules, which can affect mycorrhizal symbiosis are plant hormones, which may positively or adversely affect the symbiosis. In this review article, some of the most recent findings regarding the signaling effects of plant hormones, on mycorrhizal fungal symbiosis are reviewed. This may be useful for the production of plants, which are more responsive to mycorrhizal symbiosis under stress. PMID:23113535

Miransari, Mohammad; Abrishamchi, A; Khoshbakht, K; Niknam, V

2014-06-01

211

Rich-and-Poor Model for Human and Nature Interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historical evidence shows collapse of several civilizations in different regions of the world. Jared Diamond presents an account of such societal failures in his 2005 book "Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed." As a precursor to building a complex model for interaction of human and environment, we developed a "thought-experiment" model based on Lotka-Volterra equations for the interaction of two species, known as the Predator-Prey model. We constructed a fairly simple rich-and-poor model that includes only four state variables (or stocks): Rich Population, Poor Population, Nature, and Rich Savings. We observed several scenarios for growth of societies by varying the model's parameter values, including scenarios that resemble the catastrophic fall of ancient civilizations such as the Maya and Anasazi.

Motesharrei, S.; Kalnay, E.; Rivas, J.; Rich-n-Poor

2011-12-01

212

Evidence against Wolbachia symbiosis in Loa loa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The majority of filarial nematode species are host to Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts, although a few including Acanthocheilonema viteae, Onchocerca flexuosa and Setaria equina have been shown to be free of infection. Comparisons of species with and without symbionts can provide important information on the role of Wolbachia symbiosis in the biology of the nematode hosts and the contribution of

Helen F McGarry; Ken Pfarr; Gill Egerton; Achim Hoerauf; Jean-Paul Akue; Peter Enyong; Samuel Wanji; Sabine L Kläger; Albert E Bianco; Nick J Beeching; Mark J Taylor

2003-01-01

213

Symbiosis and the viable system model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to suggest symbiosis could be a metaphor for finding ways to help countries that are challenged to become economically and socially viable. Beer's viable system model (VSM), which also has biological roots could be applied to look for gaps in the conditions for viability and to seek to fill them through collaborative

Allenna Leonard

2007-01-01

214

Cell biology of the chloroplast symbiosis in sacoglossan sea slugs.  

PubMed

Chloroplasts removed from their species of origin may survive for various periods and even photosynthesize in foreign cells. One of the best studied and impressively long, naturally occurring examples of chloroplast persistence, and function inside foreign cells are the algal chloroplasts taken up by specialized cells of certain sacoglossan sea slugs, a phenomenon called chloroplast symbiosis or kleptoplasty. Among sacoglossan species, kleptoplastic associations vary widely in length and function, with some animals immediately digesting chloroplasts, while others maintain functional plastids for over 10 months. Kleptoplasty is a complex process in long-term associations, and research on this topic has focused on a variety of aspects including plastid uptake and digestive physiology of the sea slugs, the longevity and maintenance of symbiotic associations, biochemical interactions between captured algal plastids and slug cells, and the role of horizontal gene transfers between the sea slug and algal food sources. Although the biochemistry underlying chloroplast symbiosis has been extensively examined in only a few slug species, it is obvious that the mechanisms vary from species to species. In this chapter, we examine those mechanisms from early discoveries to the most current research. PMID:22251560

Pierce, Sidney K; Curtis, Nicholas E

2012-01-01

215

Making the Most of Omics for Symbiosis Research  

PubMed Central

Omics, including genomics, proteomics and metabolomics, enable us to explain symbioses in terms of the underlying molecules and their interactions. The central task is to transform molecular catalogs of genes, metabolites etc. into a dynamic understanding of symbiosis function. We review four exemplars of omics studies that achieve this goal, through defined biological questions relating to metabolic integration and regulation of animal-microbial symbioses, the genetic autonomy of bacterial symbionts, and symbiotic protection of animal hosts from pathogens. As omic datasets become increasingly complex, computationally-sophisticated downstream analyses are essential to reveal interactions not evident to visual inspection of the data. We discuss two approaches, phylogenomics and transcriptional clustering, that can divide the primary output of omics studies – long lists of factors – into manageable subsets, and we describe how they have been applied to analyze large datasets and generate testable hypotheses.

Chaston, J.; Douglas, A.E.

2012-01-01

216

Interaction strengths in balanced carbon cycles and the absence of a relation between ecosystem complexity and stability.  

PubMed

The strength of interactions is crucial to the stability of ecological networks. However, the patterns of interaction strengths in mathematical models of ecosystems have not yet been based upon independent observations of balanced material fluxes. Here we analyse two Antarctic ecosystems for which the interaction strengths are obtained: (1) directly, from independently measured material fluxes, (2) for the complete ecosystem and (3) with a close match between species and 'trophic groups'. We analyse the role of recycling, predation and competition and find that ecosystem stability can be estimated by the strengths of the shortest positive and negative predator-prey feedbacks in the network. We show the generality of our explanation with another 21 observed food webs, comparing random-type parameterisations of interaction strengths with empirical ones. Our results show how functional relationships dominate over average-network topology. They make clear that the classic complexity-instability paradox is essentially an artificial interaction-strength result. PMID:24636521

Neutel, Anje-Margriet; Thorne, Michael A S

2014-06-01

217

Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change.  

PubMed

Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts of our findings. Overall, we hope to stimulate and guide future research that links changes in water availability to patterns of species interactions and the dynamics of populations and communities in dryland ecosystems. PMID:22098619

McCluney, Kevin E; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L; González, Angélica L; Hagen, Elizabeth M; Nathaniel Holland, J; Kotler, Burt P; Maestre, Fernando T; Smith, Stanley D; Wolf, Blair O

2012-08-01

218

Shifting species interactions in terrestrial dryland ecosystems under altered water availability and climate change  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Species interactions play key roles in linking the responses of populations, communities, and ecosystems to environmental change. For instance, species interactions are an important determinant of the complexity of changes in trophic biomass with variation in resources. Water resources are a major driver of terrestrial ecology and climate change is expected to greatly alter the distribution of this critical resource. While previous studies have documented strong effects of global environmental change on species interactions in general, responses can vary from region to region. Dryland ecosystems occupy more than one-third of the Earth's land mass, are greatly affected by changes in water availability, and are predicted to be hotspots of climate change. Thus, it is imperative to understand the effects of environmental change on these globally significant ecosystems. Here, we review studies of the responses of population-level plant-plant, plant-herbivore, and predator-prey interactions to changes in water availability in dryland environments in order to develop new hypotheses and predictions to guide future research. To help explain patterns of interaction outcomes, we developed a conceptual model that views interaction outcomes as shifting between (1) competition and facilitation (plant-plant), (2) herbivory, neutralism, or mutualism (plant-herbivore), or (3) neutralism and predation (predator-prey), as water availability crosses physiological, behavioural, or population-density thresholds. We link our conceptual model to hypothetical scenarios of current and future water availability to make testable predictions about the influence of changes in water availability on species interactions. We also examine potential implications of our conceptual model for the relative importance of top-down effects and the linearity of patterns of change in trophic biomass with changes in water availability. Finally, we highlight key research needs and some possible broader impacts of our findings. Overall, we hope to stimulate and guide future research that links changes in water availability to patterns of species interactions and the dynamics of populations and communities in dryland ecosystems.

McCluney, Kevin E.; Belnap, Jayne; Collins, Scott L.; González, Angélica L.; Hagen, Elizabeth M.; Holland, J. Nathaniel; Kotler, Burt P.; Maestre, Fernando T.; Smith, Stanley D.; Wolf, Blair O.

2012-01-01

219

Polyphony in the rhizosphere: presymbiotic communication in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

The Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis is a ubiquitous relationship established in terrestrial ecosystems between the roots of most plants and fungi of the Glomeromycota. AM fungi occur amongst many other inhabitants of the soil, and successful development of AM symbioses relies on a pre-symbiotic signal exchange that allows mutual recognition and reprogramming for the anticipated physical interaction. The nature of some of the signals has been discovered in recent years, providing a first insight into the type of chemical language spoken between the two symbiotic partners. Importantly, these discoveries suggest that the dialogue is complex and that additional factors and corresponding receptors remain to be unveiled. Here, we explore the latest advances in this pre-symbiotic plant-fungal signal exchange and present the resulting current understanding of rhizosphere communication in AM symbioses. PMID:23834765

Nadal, Marina; Paszkowski, Uta

2013-08-01

220

Structural basis for regulation of rhizobial nodulation and symbiosis gene expression by the regulatory protein NolR.  

PubMed

The symbiosis between rhizobial microbes and host plants involves the coordinated expression of multiple genes, which leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. As part of the transcriptional machinery for nodulation and symbiosis across a range of Rhizobium, NolR serves as a global regulatory protein. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structures of NolR in the unliganded form and complexed with two different 22-base pair (bp) double-stranded operator sequences (oligos AT and AA). Structural and biochemical analysis of NolR reveals protein-DNA interactions with an asymmetric operator site and defines a mechanism for conformational switching of a key residue (Gln56) to accommodate variation in target DNA sequences from diverse rhizobial genes for nodulation and symbiosis. This conformational switching alters the energetic contributions to DNA binding without changes in affinity for the target sequence. Two possible models for the role of NolR in the regulation of different nodulation and symbiosis genes are proposed. To our knowledge, these studies provide the first structural insight on the regulation of genes involved in the agriculturally and ecologically important symbiosis of microbes and plants that leads to nodule formation and nitrogen fixation. PMID:24733893

Lee, Soon Goo; Krishnan, Hari B; Jez, Joseph M

2014-04-29

221

Trade-off between seed number and weight: influence of a grass-endophyte symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant fitness is enhanced by resource allocation to seed number (offspring number) or weight (offspring survival). Besides, there is a well known trade-off in resource allocation between both traits. Symbiotic interactions can influence plant resource allocation to reproduction, yet little research has been performed in this direction. We studied the consequences of a grass-fungus symbiosis on the trade-off between seed

P. E. Gundel; L. A. Garibaldi; M. A. Martínez-Ghersa; C. M. Ghersa

222

Transformed soybean ( Glycine max ) roots as a tool for the study of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ri T-DNA transformed roots have been used effectively in studying the interaction between various plant hosts and arbuscular\\u000a mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. We investigated the in vitro monoxenic symbiosis between the AM fungus Glomus intraradices and transformed soybean roots (TSRs). Comparisons were made between TSR system and plants of the same genotype. The extraradical\\u000a fungal structures generated in vitro culture showed

Laura Fernández; Vanesa Silvani; Josefina Bompadre; Mariana Pérgola; Alicia Godeas

2009-01-01

223

Evidence against Wolbachia symbiosis in Loa loa.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: The majority of filarial nematode species are host to Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts, although a few including Acanthocheilonema viteae, Onchocerca flexuosa and Setaria equina have been shown to be free of infection. Comparisons of species with and without symbionts can provide important information on the role of Wolbachia symbiosis in the biology of the nematode hosts and the contribution of the bacteria to the development of disease. Previous studies by electron microscopy and PCR have failed to detect intracellular bacterial infection in Loa loa. Here we use molecular and immunohistological techniques to confirm this finding. METHODS: We have used a combination of PCR amplification of bacterial genes (16S ribosomal DNA [rDNA], ftsZ and Wolbachia surface protein [WSP]) on samples of L. loa adults, third-stage larvae (L3) and microfilariae (mf) and immunohistology on L. loa adults and mf derived from human volunteers to determine the presence or absence of Wolbachia endosymbionts. Samples used in the PCR analysis included 5 adult female worms, 4 adult male worms, 5 mf samples and 2 samples of L3. The quality and purity of nematode DNA was tested by PCR amplification of nematode 5S rDNA and with diagnostic primers from the target species and used to confirm the absence of contamination from Onchocerca sp., Mansonella perstans, M. streptocerca and Wuchereria bancrofti. Immunohistology was carried out by light and electron microscopy on L. loa adults and mf and sections were probed with rabbit antibodies raised to recombinant Brugia malayi Wolbachia WSP. Samples from nematodes known to be infected with Wolbachia (O. volvulus, O. ochengi, Litomosoides sigmodontis and B. malayi) were used as positive controls and A. viteae as a negative control. RESULTS: Single PCR analysis using primer sets for the bacterial genes 16S rDNA, ftsZ, and WSP were negative for all DNA samples from L. loa. Positive PCR reactions were obtained from DNA samples derived from species known to be infected with Wolbachia, which confirmed the suitability of the primers and PCR conditions. The quality and purity of nematode DNA samples was verified by PCR amplification of 5S rDNA and with nematode diagnostic primers. Additional analysis by 'long PCR' failed to produce any further evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis. Immunohistology of L. loa adults and mf confirmed the results of the PCR with no evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis. CONCLUSION: DNA analysis and immunohistology provided no evidence for Wolbachia symbiosis in L. loa. PMID:12816546

McGarry, Helen F; Pfarr, Ken; Egerton, Gill; Hoerauf, Achim; Akue, Jean-Paul; Enyong, Peter; Wanji, Samuel; Kläger, Sabine L; Bianco, Albert E; Beeching, Nick J; Taylor, Mark J

2003-05-01

224

Host-microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gastrointestinal tract and the Lactobacillus reuteri paradigm  

PubMed Central

Vertebrates engage in symbiotic associations with vast and complex microbial communities that colonize their gastrointestinal tracts. Recent advances have provided mechanistic insight into the important contributions of the gut microbiome to vertebrate biology, but questions remain about the evolutionary processes that have shaped symbiotic interactions in the gut and the consequences that arise for both the microbes and the host. Here we discuss the biological principles that underlie microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and the potential of the development of mutualism. We then review phylogenetic and experimental studies on the vertebrate symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri that have provided novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary strategy of a gut microbe and its relationship with the host. We argue that a mechanistic understanding of the microbial symbiosis in the vertebrate gut and its evolution will be important to determine how this relationship can go awry, and it may reveal possibilities by which the gut microbiome can be manipulated to support health.

Walter, Jens; Britton, Robert A.; Roos, Stefan

2011-01-01

225

Oak Root Response to Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Establishment: RNA-Seq Derived Transcript Identification and Expression Profiling.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is essential for the life and health of trees in temperate and boreal forests where it plays a major role in nutrient cycling and in functioning of the forest ecosystem. Trees with ectomycorrhizal root tips are more tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought, and biotic stresses such as root pathogens. Detailed information on these molecular processes is essential for the understanding of symbiotic tissue development in order to optimize the benefits of this natural phenomenon. Next generation sequencing tools allow the analysis of non model ectomycorrhizal plant-fungal interactions that can contribute to find the "symbiosis toolkits" and better define the role of each partner in the mutualistic interaction. By using 454 pyrosequencing we compared ectomycorrhizal cork oak roots with non-symbiotic roots. From the two cDNA libraries sequenced, over 2 million reads were obtained that generated 19552 cork oak root unique transcripts. A total of 2238 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed when ECM roots were compared with non-symbiotic roots. Identification of up- and down-regulated gens in ectomycorrhizal roots lead to a number of insights into the molecular mechanisms governing this important symbiosis. In cork oak roots, ectomycorrhizal colonization resulted in extensive cell wall remodelling, activation of the secretory pathway, alterations in flavonoid biosynthesis, and expression of genes involved in the recognition of fungal effectors. In addition, we identified genes with putative roles in symbiotic processes such as nutrient exchange with the fungal partner, lateral root formation or root hair decay. These findings provide a global overview of the transcriptome of an ectomycorrhizal host root, and constitute a foundation for future studies on the molecular events controlling this important symbiosis. PMID:24859293

Sebastiana, Mónica; Vieira, Bruno; Lino-Neto, Teresa; Monteiro, Filipa; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salomé; Tavares, Rui; Paulo, Octávio S

2014-01-01

226

Oak Root Response to Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis Establishment: RNA-Seq Derived Transcript Identification and Expression Profiling  

PubMed Central

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is essential for the life and health of trees in temperate and boreal forests where it plays a major role in nutrient cycling and in functioning of the forest ecosystem. Trees with ectomycorrhizal root tips are more tolerant to environmental stresses, such as drought, and biotic stresses such as root pathogens. Detailed information on these molecular processes is essential for the understanding of symbiotic tissue development in order to optimize the benefits of this natural phenomenon. Next generation sequencing tools allow the analysis of non model ectomycorrhizal plant-fungal interactions that can contribute to find the “symbiosis toolkits” and better define the role of each partner in the mutualistic interaction. By using 454 pyrosequencing we compared ectomycorrhizal cork oak roots with non-symbiotic roots. From the two cDNA libraries sequenced, over 2 million reads were obtained that generated 19552 cork oak root unique transcripts. A total of 2238 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed when ECM roots were compared with non-symbiotic roots. Identification of up- and down-regulated gens in ectomycorrhizal roots lead to a number of insights into the molecular mechanisms governing this important symbiosis. In cork oak roots, ectomycorrhizal colonization resulted in extensive cell wall remodelling, activation of the secretory pathway, alterations in flavonoid biosynthesis, and expression of genes involved in the recognition of fungal effectors. In addition, we identified genes with putative roles in symbiotic processes such as nutrient exchange with the fungal partner, lateral root formation or root hair decay. These findings provide a global overview of the transcriptome of an ectomycorrhizal host root, and constitute a foundation for future studies on the molecular events controlling this important symbiosis.

Lino-Neto, Teresa; Monteiro, Filipa; Figueiredo, Andreia; Sousa, Lisete; Pais, Maria Salome; Tavares, Rui; Paulo, Octavio S.

2014-01-01

227

Cell wall remodeling in mycorrhizal symbiosis: a way towards biotrophism  

PubMed Central

Cell walls are deeply involved in the molecular talk between partners during plant and microbe interactions, and their role in mycorrhizae, i.e., the widespread symbiotic associations established between plant roots and soil fungi, has been investigated extensively. All mycorrhizal interactions achieve full symbiotic functionality through the development of an extensive contact surface between the plant and fungal cells, where signals and nutrients are exchanged. The exchange of molecules between the fungal and the plant cytoplasm takes place both through their plasma membranes and their cell walls; a functional compartment, known as the symbiotic interface, is thus defined. Among all the symbiotic interfaces, the complex intracellular interface of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis has received a great deal of attention since its first description. Here, in fact, the host plasma membrane invaginates and proliferates around all the developing intracellular fungal structures, and cell wall material is laid down between this membrane and the fungal cell surface. By contrast, in ectomycorrhizae (ECM), where the fungus grows outside and between the root cells, plant and fungal cell walls are always in direct contact and form the interface between the two partners. The organization and composition of cell walls within the interface compartment is a topic that has attracted widespread attention, both in ecto- and endomycorrhizae. The aim of this review is to provide a general overview of the current knowledge on this topic by integrating morphological observations, which have illustrated cell wall features during mycorrhizal interactions, with the current data produced by genomic and transcriptomic approaches.

Balestrini, Raffaella; Bonfante, Paola

2014-01-01

228

Hydrogen peroxide-regulated genes in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiosis.  

PubMed

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), play an important role in signalling in various cellular processes. The involvement of H(2)O(2) in the Medicago truncatula-Sinorhizobium meliloti symbiotic interaction raises questions about its effect on gene expression. A transcriptome analysis was performed on inoculated roots of M. truncatula in which ROS production was inhibited with diphenylene iodonium (DPI). In total, 301 genes potentially regulated by ROS content were identified 2 d after inoculation. These genes included MtSpk1, which encodes a putative protein kinase and is induced by exogenous H(2)O(2) treatment. MtSpk1 gene expression was also induced by nodulation factor treatment. MtSpk1 transcription was observed in infected root hair cells, nodule primordia and the infection zone of mature nodules. Analysis with a fluorescent protein probe specific for H(2)O(2) showed that MtSpk1 expression and H(2)O(2) were similarly distributed in the nodule infection zone. Finally, the establishment of symbiosis was impaired by MtSpk1 downregulation with an artificial micro-RNA. Several genes regulated by H(2)O(2) during the establishment of rhizobial symbiosis were identified. The involvement of MtSpk1 in the establishment of the symbiosis is proposed. PMID:23347006

Andrio, Emilie; Marino, Daniel; Marmeys, Anthony; de Segonzac, Marion Dunoyer; Damiani, Isabelle; Genre, Andrea; Huguet, Stéphanie; Frendo, Pierre; Puppo, Alain; Pauly, Nicolas

2013-04-01

229

Genomic analysis reveals key aspects of prokaryotic symbiosis in the phototrophic consortium "Chlorochromatium aggregatum"  

PubMed Central

Background ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum’ is a phototrophic consortium, a symbiosis that may represent the highest degree of mutual interdependence between two unrelated bacteria not associated with a eukaryotic host. ‘Chlorochromatium aggregatum’ is a motile, barrel-shaped aggregate formed from a single cell of ‘Candidatus Symbiobacter mobilis”, a polarly flagellated, non-pigmented, heterotrophic bacterium, which is surrounded by approximately 15 epibiont cells of Chlorobium chlorochromatii, a non-motile photolithoautotrophic green sulfur bacterium. Results We analyzed the complete genome sequences of both organisms to understand the basis for this symbiosis. Chl. chlorochromatii has acquired relatively few symbiosis-specific genes; most acquired genes are predicted to modify the cell wall or function in cell-cell adhesion. In striking contrast, ‘Ca. S. mobilis’ appears to have undergone massive gene loss, is probably no longer capable of independent growth, and thus may only reproduce when consortia divide. A detailed model for the energetic and metabolic bases of the dependency of ‘Ca. S. mobilis’ on Chl. chlorochromatii is described. Conclusions Genomic analyses suggest that three types of interactions lead to a highly sophisticated relationship between these two organisms. Firstly, extensive metabolic exchange, involving carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur sources as well as vitamins, occurs from the epibiont to the central bacterium. Secondly, ‘Ca. S. mobilis’ can sense and move towards light and sulfide, resources that only directly benefit the epibiont. Thirdly, electron cycling mechanisms, particularly those mediated by quinones and potentially involving shared protonmotive force, could provide an important basis for energy exchange in this and other symbiotic relationships.

2013-01-01

230

Bacterial RuBisCO is required for efficient Bradyrhizobium/Aeschynomene symbiosis.  

PubMed

Rhizobia and legume plants establish symbiotic associations resulting in the formation of organs specialized in nitrogen fixation. In such organs, termed nodules, bacteria differentiate into bacteroids which convert atmospheric nitrogen and supply the plant with organic nitrogen. As a counterpart, bacteroids receive carbon substrates from the plant. This rather simple model of metabolite exchange underlies symbiosis but does not describe the complexity of bacteroids' central metabolism. A previous study using the tropical symbiotic model Aeschynomene indica/photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278 suggested a role of the bacterial Calvin cycle during the symbiotic process. Herein we investigated the role of two RuBisCO gene clusters of Bradyrhizobium sp. ORS278 during symbiosis. Using gene reporter fusion strains, we showed that cbbL1 but not the paralogous cbbL2 is expressed during symbiosis. Congruently, CbbL1 was detected in bacteroids by proteome analysis. The importance of CbbL1 for symbiotic nitrogen fixation was proven by a reverse genetic approach. Interestingly, despite its symbiotic nitrogen fixation defect, the cbbL1 mutant was not affected in nitrogen fixation activity under free living state. This study demonstrates a critical role for bacterial RuBisCO during a rhizobia/legume symbiotic interaction. PMID:21750740

Gourion, Benjamin; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Bonaldi, Katia; Nouwen, Nico; Vorholt, Julia A; Giraud, Eric

2011-01-01

231

Assess suitability of hydroaeroponic culture to establish tripartite symbiosis between different AMF species, beans, and rhizobia  

PubMed Central

Background Like other species of the Phaseoleae tribe, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) has the potential to establish symbiosis with rhizobia and to fix the atmospheric dinitrogen (N2) for its N nutrition. Common bean has also the potential to establish symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) that improves the uptake of low mobile nutrients such as phosphorus, from the soil. Both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses can act synergistically in benefits on plant. Results The tripartite symbiosis of common bean with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was assessed in hydroaeroponic culture with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by comparing the effects of three fungi spp. on growth, nodulation and mycorrhization of the roots under sufficient versus deficient P supplies, after transfer from initial sand culture. Although Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith colonized intensely the roots of common bean in both sand and hydroaeroponic cultures, Gigaspora rosea Nicolson & Schenck only established well under sand culture conditions, and no root-colonization was found with Acaulospora mellea Spain & Schenck under either culture conditions. Interestingly, mycorrhization by Glomus was also obtained by contact with mycorrhized Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.) sw in sand culture under deficient P before transfer into hydroaeroponic culture. The effect of bean genotype on both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbioses with Glomus was subsequently assessed with the common bean recombinant inbreed line 7, 28, 83, 115 and 147, and the cultivar Flamingo. Significant differences among colonization and nodulation of the roots and growth among genotypes were found. Conclusion The hydroaeroponic culture is a valuable tool for further scrutinizing the physiological interactions and nutrient partitioning within the tripartite symbiosis.

Tajini, Fatma; Suriyakup, Porntip; Vailhe, Helene; Jansa, Jan; Drevon, Jean-Jacques

2009-01-01

232

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences strigolactone production under salinity and alleviates salt stress in lettuce plants.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can alleviate salt stress in plants. However the intimate mechanisms involved, as well as the effect of salinity on the production of signalling molecules associated to the host plant-AM fungus interaction remains largely unknown. In the present work, we have investigated the effects of salinity on lettuce plant performance and production of strigolactones, and assessed its influence on mycorrhizal root colonization. Three different salt concentrations were applied to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, and their effects, over time, analyzed. Plant biomass, stomatal conductance, efficiency of photosystem II, as well as ABA content and strigolactone production were assessed. The expression of ABA biosynthesis genes was also analyzed. AM plants showed improved growth rates and a better performance of physiological parameters such as stomatal conductance and efficiency of photosystem II than non-mycorrhizal plants under salt stress since very early stages - 3 weeks - of plant colonization. Moreover, ABA levels were lower in those plants, suggesting that they were less stressed than non-colonized plants. On the other hand, we show that both AM symbiosis and salinity influence strigolactone production, although in a different way in AM and non-AM plants. The results suggest that AM symbiosis alleviates salt stress by altering the hormonal profiles and affecting plant physiology in the host plant. Moreover, a correlation between strigolactone production, ABA content, AM root colonization and salinity level is shown. We propose here that under these unfavourable conditions, plants increase strigolactone production in order to promote symbiosis establishment to cope with salt stress. PMID:23102876

Aroca, Ricardo; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Zamarreño, Angel María; Paz, José Antonio; García-Mina, José María; Pozo, María José; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio

2013-01-01

233

Shared Skeletal Support in a Coral-Hydroid Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Hydroids form symbiotic relationships with a range of invertebrate hosts. Where they live with colonial invertebrates such as corals or bryozoans the hydroids may benefit from the physical support and protection of their host's hard exoskeleton, but how they interact with them is unknown. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the physical interactions between the colonial hydroid Zanclea margaritae and its reef-building coral host Acropora muricata. The hydroid tissues extend below the coral tissue surface sitting in direct contact with the host's skeleton. Although this arrangement provides the hydroid with protective support, it also presents problems of potential interference with the coral's growth processes and exposes the hydroid to overgrowth and smothering. Desmocytes located within the epidermal layer of the hydroid's perisarc-free hydrorhizae fasten it to the coral skeleton. The large apical surface area of the desmocyte and high bifurcation of the distal end within the mesoglea, as well as the clustering of desmocytes suggests that a very strong attachment between the hydroid and the coral skeleton. This is the first study to provide a detailed description of how symbiotic hydroids attach to their host's skeleton, utilising it for physical support. Results suggest that the loss of perisarc, a characteristic commonly associated with symbiosis, allows the hydroid to utilise desmocytes for attachment. The use of these anchoring structures provides a dynamic method of attachment, facilitating detachment from the coral skeleton during extension, thereby avoiding overgrowth and smothering enabling the hydroid to remain within the host colony for prolonged periods of time.

Pantos, Olga; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

2011-01-01

234

WASTE TO VALUE: INCORPORATING INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS FOR SUSTAINABLE INFRASTRUCTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

Technical Challenge: Investigators will examine the role of technology innovations as well as environmental justice (EJ) obligations in initiating and implementing urban-industrial symbiosis in Commerce City (CC), CO. The sustainability challenge invol...

235

The fine line between mutualism and parasitism: complex effects in a cleaning symbiosis demonstrated by multiple field experiments.  

PubMed

Ecological theory and observational evidence suggest that symbiotic interactions such as cleaning symbioses can shift from mutualism to parasitism. However, field experimental evidence documenting these shifts has never been reported for a cleaning symbiosis. Here, we demonstrate shifts in a freshwater cleaning symbiosis in a system involving crayfish and branchiobdellid annelids. Branchiobdellids have been shown to benefit their hosts under some conditions by cleaning material from host crayfish's gill filaments. The system is uniquely suited as an experimental model for symbiosis due to ease of manipulation and ubiquity of the organisms. In three field experiments, we manipulated densities of worms on host crayfish and measured host growth in field enclosures. In all cases, the experiments revealed shifts from mutualism to parasitism: host crayfish growth was highest at intermediate densities of branchiobdellid symbionts, while high symbiont densities led to growth that was lower or not significantly different from 0-worm controls. Growth responses were consistent even though the three experiments involved different crayfish and worm species and were performed at different locations. Results also closely conformed to a previous laboratory experiment using the same system. The mechanism for these shifts appears to be that branchiobdellids switched from cleaning host gills at intermediate densities of worms to consuming host gill tissue at high densities. These outcomes clearly demonstrate shifts along a symbiosis continuum with the maximum benefits to the host at intermediate symbiont densities. At high symbiont densities, benefits to the host disappear, and there is some evidence for a weak parasitism. These are the first field experimental results to demonstrate such shifts in a cleaning symbiosis. PMID:22349861

Brown, Bryan L; Creed, Robert P; Skelton, James; Rollins, Mark A; Farrell, Kaitlin J

2012-09-01

236

Bacterial Communities Associated with the Lichen Symbiosis? †  

PubMed Central

Lichens are commonly described as a mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and “algae” (Chlorophyta or Cyanobacteria); however, they also have internal bacterial communities. Recent research suggests that lichen-associated microbes are an integral component of lichen thalli and that the classical view of this symbiotic relationship should be expanded to include bacteria. However, we still have a limited understanding of the phylogenetic structure of these communities and their variability across lichen species. To address these knowledge gaps, we used bar-coded pyrosequencing to survey the bacterial communities associated with lichens. Bacterial sequences obtained from four lichen species at multiple locations on rock outcrops suggested that each lichen species harbored a distinct community and that all communities were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria. Across all samples, we recovered numerous bacterial phylotypes that were closely related to sequences isolated from lichens in prior investigations, including those from a lichen-associated Rhizobiales lineage (LAR1; putative N2 fixers). LAR1-related phylotypes were relatively abundant and were found in all four lichen species, and many sequences closely related to other known N2 fixers (e.g., Azospirillum, Bradyrhizobium, and Frankia) were recovered. Our findings confirm the presence of highly structured bacterial communities within lichens and provide additional evidence that these bacteria may serve distinct functional roles within lichen symbioses.

Bates, Scott T.; Cropsey, Garrett W. G.; Caporaso, J. Gregory; Knight, Rob; Fierer, Noah

2011-01-01

237

DELLA proteins regulate arbuscule formation in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Most flowering plants are able to form endosymbioses with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. In this mutualistic association, the fungus colonizes the root cortex and establishes elaborately branched hyphae, called arbuscules, within the cortical cells. Arbuscule development requires the cellular reorganization of both symbionts, and the resulting symbiotic interface functions in nutrient exchange. A plant symbiosis signaling pathway controls the development of the symbiosis. Several components of the pathway have been identified, but transcriptional regulators that control downstream pathways for arbuscule formation are still unknown. Here we show that DELLA proteins, which are repressors of gibberellic acid (GA) signaling and function at the nexus of several signaling pathways, are required for arbuscule formation. Arbuscule formation is severely impaired in a Medicago truncatula Mtdella1/Mtdella2 double mutant; GA treatment of wild-type roots phenocopies the della double mutant, and a dominant DELLA protein (della1-?18) enables arbuscule formation in the presence of GA. Ectopic expression of della1-?18 suggests that DELLA activity in the vascular tissue and endodermis is sufficient to enable arbuscule formation in the inner cortical cells. In addition, expression of della1-?18 restores arbuscule formation in the symbiosis signaling pathway mutant cyclops/ipd3, indicating an intersection between DELLA and symbiosis signaling for arbuscule formation. GA signaling also influences arbuscule formation in monocots, and a Green Revolution wheat variety carrying dominant DELLA alleles shows enhanced colonization but a limited growth response to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Floss, Daniela S.; Levy, Julien G.; Levesque-Tremblay, Veronique; Pumplin, Nathan; Harrison, Maria J.

2013-01-01

238

DNA amplification fingerprinting of the Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis.  

PubMed

The Azolla-Anabaena symbiosis has been used for centuries as a nitrogen biofertilizer in rice paddies. Genetic improvement of the symbiosis has been limited by the difficulty in identifying Azolla-Anabaena accessions and Anabaena azollae strains. The recently developed technique of DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) was applied to this problem. DAF uses single, short, oligonucleotide primers of arbitrary sequence to direct amplification of a characteristic set of DNA products by a thermostable DNA polymerase in a thermocycling reaction. The products are separated in polyacrylamide gels and detected by silver staining. DAF could easily distinguish and positively identify accessions of Azolla-Anabaena with DNA extracted from the intact symbiosis. The contribution of prokaryotic Anabaena sequences to the fingerprint of the intact symbiosis, however, ranged from 0 to 77%, depending on the primer sequence. Therefore, DNA extracted from the intact symbiosis would not be suitable for Azolla taxonomy studies. The fingerprints of Anabaena strains isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from different species of Azolla could be easily distinguished, and DAF patterns were used to confirm the maternal pattern of transmission of Anabaena in a sexual hybrid. Template DNA extracted from roots was used to produce fingerprints for Azolla without interference from the microsymbiont. Comparison of the patterns from the parents and a hybrid gave strong evidence confirming sexual hybridization. PMID:8425061

Eskew, D L; Caetano-Anollés, G; Bassam, B J; Gresshoff, P M

1993-01-01

239

Nitrogen fixation in eukaryotes - New models for symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrogen, a component of many bio-molecules, is essential for growth and development of all organisms. Most nitrogen exists in the atmosphere, and utilisation of this source is important as a means of avoiding nitrogen starvation. However, the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via the nitrogenase enzyme complex is restricted to some bacteria. Eukaryotic organisms are only able to obtain fixed nitrogen through their symbiotic interactions with nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes. These symbioses involve a variety of host organisms, including animals, plants, fungi and protists. Results We have compared the morphological, physiological and molecular characteristics of nitrogen fixing symbiotic associations of bacteria and their diverse hosts. Special features of the interaction, e.g. vertical transmission of symbionts, grade of dependency of partners and physiological modifications have been considered in terms of extent of co-evolution and adaptation. Our findings are that, despite many adaptations enabling a beneficial partnership, most symbioses for molecular nitrogen fixation involve facultative interactions. However, some interactions, among them endosymbioses between cyanobacteria and diatoms, show characteristics that reveal a more obligate status of co-evolution. Conclusion Our review emphasises that molecular nitrogen fixation, a driving force for interactions and co-evolution of different species, is a widespread phenomenon involving many different organisms and ecosystems. The diverse grades of symbioses, ranging from loose associations to highly specific intracellular interactions, might themselves reflect the range of potential evolutionary fates for symbiotic partnerships. These include the extreme evolutionary modifications and adaptations that have accompanied the formation of organelles in eukaryotic cells: plastids and mitochondria. However, age and extensive adaptation of plastids and mitochondria complicate the investigation of processes involved in the transition of symbionts to organelles. Extant lineages of symbiotic associations for nitrogen fixation show diverse grades of adaptation and co-evolution, thereby representing different stages of symbiont-host interaction. In particular cyanobacterial associations with protists, like the Rhopalodia gibba-spheroid body symbiosis, could serve as important model systems for the investigation of the complex mechanisms underlying organelle evolution.

Kneip, Christoph; Lockhart, Peter; Voss, Christine; Maier, Uwe-G

2007-01-01

240

Phytoremediation of heavy and transition metals aided by legume-rhizobia symbiosis.  

PubMed

Legumes are important for nitrogen cycling in the environment and agriculture due to the ability of nitrogen fixation by rhizobia. In this review, we introduce an important and potential role of legume-rhizobia symbiosis in aiding phytoremediation of some metal contaminated soils as various legumes have been found to be the dominant plant species in metal contaminated areas. Resistant rhizobia used for phytoremediation could act on metals directly by chelation, precipitation, transformation, biosorption and accumulation. Moreover, the plant growth promoting (PGP) traits of rhizobia including nitrogen fixation, phosphorus solubilization, phytohormone synthesis, siderophore release, and production of ACC deaminase and the volatile compounds of acetoin and 2, 3-butanediol may facilitate legume growth while lessening metal toxicity. The benefits of using legumes inoculated with naturally resistant rhizobia or recombinant rhizobia with enhanced resistance, as well as co-inoculation with other plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are discussed. However, the legume-rhizobia symbiosis appears to be sensitive to metals, and the effect of metal toxicity on the interaction between legumes and rhizobia is not clear. Therefore, to obtain the maximum benefits from legumes assisted by rhizobia for phytoremediation of metals, it is critical to have a good understanding of interactions between PGP traits, the symbiotic plant-rhizobia relationship and metals. PMID:24912209

Hao, X; Taghavi, S; Xie, P; Orbach, M J; Alwathnani, H A; Rensing, C; Wei, G

2014-01-01

241

The winnowing: establishing the squid–vibrio symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most symbiotic associations between animals and microorganisms are horizontally transmitted — the microorganisms are acquired from the environment by each generation of the host. How are exclusive partnerships established in the context of the thousands of other microbial species that are present in the environment? Similar to winnowing during a harvest, the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its

Spencer V. Nyholm; Margaret McFall-Ngai

2004-01-01

242

Transgenerational effects of plant sex and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

In gynodioecious plants, females are predicted to produce more and/or better offspring than hermaphrodites in order to be maintained in the same population. In the field, the roots of both sexes are usually colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Transgenerational effects of mycorrhizal symbiosis are largely unknown, although theoretically expected. We examined the maternal and paternal effects of AM fungal symbiosis and host sex on seed production and posterior seedling performance in Geranium sylvaticum, a gynodioecious plant. We hand-pollinated cloned females and hermaphrodites in symbiosis with AM fungi or in nonmycorrhizal conditions and measured seed number and mass, and seedling survival and growth in a glasshouse experiment. Females produced more seeds than hermaphrodites, but the seeds did not germinate, survive or grow better. Mycorrhizal plants were larger, but did not produce more seeds than nonmycorrhizal plants. Transgenerational parental effects of AM fungi were verified in seedling performance. This is the first study to show transgenerational mycorrhiza-mediated parental effects in a gynodioecious species. Mycorrhizal symbiosis affects plant fitness mainly through female functions with enduring effects on the next generation. PMID:23659431

Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

2013-08-01

243

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis affects functional diversity of rhizosphere fluorescent pseudomonads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary • Here we characterized the effect of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis on the genotypic and functional diversity of soil Pseudomonas fluorescens populations and analysed its possible consequences in terms of plant nutrition, development and health. • Sixty strains of P. fluorescens were isolated from the bulk soil of a forest nursery, the ectomycorrhizosphere and the ectomycorrhizas of the Douglas fir

Pascale Frey-Klett; Michaël Chavatte; Marie-Lise Clausse; Sébastien Courrier; Christine Le Roux; Jos Raaijmakers; Maria Giovanna Martinotti; Jean-Claude Pierrat; Jean Garbaye

2004-01-01

244

Expression of phenazine biosynthetic genes during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis of Glomus intraradices  

PubMed Central

To explore the molecular mechanisms that prevail during the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis involving the genus Glomus, we transcriptionally analysed spores of Glomus intraradices BE3 during early hyphal growth. Among 458 transcripts initially identified as being expressed at presymbiotic stages, 20% of sequences had homology to previously characterized eukaryotic genes, 30% were homologous to fungal coding sequences, and 9% showed homology to previously characterized bacterial genes. Among them, GintPbr1a encodes a homolog to Phenazine Biosynthesis Regulator (Pbr) of Burkholderia cenocepacia, an pleiotropic regulatory protein that activates phenazine production through transcriptional activation of the protein D isochorismatase biosynthetic enzyme phzD (Ramos et al., 2010). Whereas GintPbr1a is expressed during the presymbiotic phase, the G. intraradices BE3 homolog of phzD (BGintphzD) is transcriptionally active at the time of the establishment of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. DNA from isolated bacterial cultures found in spores of G. intraradices BE3 confirmed that both BGintPbr1a and BGintphzD are present in the genome of its potential endosymbionts. Taken together, our results indicate that spores of G. intraradices BE3 express bacterial phenazine biosynthetic genes at the onset of the fungal-plant symbiotic interaction.

Leon-Martinez, Dionicia Gloria; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Olalde-Portugal, Victor

2012-01-01

245

Bacterial Symbiosis Maintenance in the Asexually Reproducing and Regenerating Flatworm Paracatenula galateia  

PubMed Central

Bacteriocytes set the stage for some of the most intimate interactions between animal and bacterial cells. In all bacteriocyte possessing systems studied so far, de novo formation of bacteriocytes occurs only once in the host development, at the time of symbiosis establishment. Here, we present the free-living symbiotic flatworm Paracatenula galateia and its intracellular, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria as a system with previously undescribed strategies of bacteriocyte formation and bacterial symbiont transmission. Using thymidine analogue S-phase labeling and immunohistochemistry, we show that all somatic cells in adult worms – including bacteriocytes – originate exclusively from aposymbiotic stem cells (neoblasts). The continued bacteriocyte formation from aposymbiotic stem cells in adult animals represents a previously undescribed strategy of symbiosis maintenance and makes P. galateia a unique system to study bacteriocyte differentiation and development. We also provide morphological and immunohistochemical evidence that P. galateia reproduces by asexual fragmentation and regeneration (paratomy) and, thereby, vertically transmits numerous symbiont-containing bacteriocytes to its asexual progeny. Our data support the earlier reported hypothesis that the symbiont population is subjected to reduced bottleneck effects. This would justify both the codiversification between Paracatenula hosts and their Candidatus Riegeria symbionts, and the slow evolutionary rates observed for several symbiont genes.

Dirks, Ulrich; Gruber-Vodicka, Harald R.; Leisch, Nikolaus; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Egger, Bernhard; Ladurner, Peter; Ott, Jorg A.

2012-01-01

246

R gene-controlled host specificity in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Leguminous plants can enter into root nodule symbioses with nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria known as rhizobia. An intriguing but still poorly understood property of the symbiosis is its host specificity, which is controlled at multiple levels involving both rhizobial and host genes. It is widely believed that the host specificity is determined by specific recognition of bacterially derived Nod factors by the cognate host receptor(s). Here we describe the positional cloning of two soybean genes Rj2 and Rfg1 that restrict nodulation with specific strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Sinorhizobium fredii, respectively. We show that Rj2 and Rfg1 are allelic genes encoding a member of the Toll-interleukin receptor/nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (TIR-NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) proteins. The involvement of host R genes in the control of genotype-specific infection and nodulation reveals a common recognition mechanism underlying symbiotic and pathogenic host–bacteria interactions and suggests the existence of their cognate avirulence genes derived from rhizobia. This study suggests that establishment of a root nodule symbiosis requires the evasion of plant immune responses triggered by rhizobial effectors.

Yang, Shengming; Tang, Fang; Gao, Muqiang; Krishnan, Hari B.; Zhu, Hongyan

2010-01-01

247

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis.  

PubMed

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant-pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant-insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years. PMID:16321781

Rønsted, Nina; Weiblen, George D; Cook, James M; Salamin, Nicolas; Machado, Carlos A; Savolainen, Vincent

2005-12-22

248

60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Figs (Ficus; ca 750 species) and fig wasps (Agaoninae) are obligate mutualists: all figs are pollinated by agaonines that feed exclusively on figs. This extraordinary symbiosis is the most extreme example of specialization in a plant–pollinator interaction and has fuelled much speculation about co-divergence. The hypothesis that pollinator specialization led to the parallel diversification of fig and pollinator lineages (co-divergence) has so far not been tested due to the lack of robust and comprehensive phylogenetic hypotheses for both partners. We produced and combined the most comprehensive molecular phylogenetic trees to date with fossil data to generate independent age estimates for fig and pollinator lineages, using both non-parametric rate smoothing and penalized likelihood dating methods. Molecular dating of ten pairs of interacting lineages provides an unparalleled example of plant–insect co-divergence over a geological time frame spanning at least 60 million years.

R?nsted, Nina; Weiblen, George D; Cook, James M; Salamin, Nicolas; Machado, Carlos A; Savolainen, Vincent

2005-01-01

249

Host plant quality, spatial heterogeneity, and the stability of mite predator–prey dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population dynamics models suggest that both the over-all level of resource productivity and spatial variability in productivity\\u000a can play important roles in community dynamics. Higher productivity environments are predicted to destabilize consumer–resource\\u000a dynamics. Conversely, greater heterogeneity in resource productivity is expected to contribute to stability. Yet the importance\\u000a of these two factors for the dynamics of arthropod communities has been

Matthew P. Daugherty

2011-01-01

250

A NEW ADAPTIVE SYSTEM APPROACH TO PREDATOR-PREY MODELING. (R830819)  

EPA Science Inventory

The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

251

Predator-prey role reversals, juvenile experience and adult antipredator behaviour  

PubMed Central

Although biologists routinely label animals as predators and prey, the ecological role of individuals is often far from clear. There are many examples of role reversals in predators and prey, where adult prey attack vulnerable young predators. This implies that juvenile prey that escape from predation and become adult can kill juvenile predators. We show that such an exposure of juvenile prey to adult predators results in behavioural changes later in life: after becoming adult, these prey killed juvenile predators at a faster rate than prey that had not been exposed. The attacks were specifically aimed at predators of the species to which they had been exposed. This suggests that prey recognize the species of predator to which they were exposed during their juvenile stage. Our results show that juvenile experience affects adult behaviour after a role reversal.

Choh, Yasuyuki; Ignacio, Maira; Sabelis, Maurice W.; Janssen, Arne

2012-01-01

252

Phytoseiid life-histories, local predator-prey dynamics, and strategies for control of tetranychid mites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous studies have been devoted to estimating the intrinsic rates of increase, rm, of phytoseiid and tetranychid mites. Intrinsic rates of increase may be helpful for biological control purposes, but how exactly is still unclear. In this paper, we show how rms can be used to this end, by using a simple model for the local dynamics of predator and

A. Janssen; M. W. Sabelis

1992-01-01

253

An introduction to repast simphony modeling using a simple predator-prey example.  

SciTech Connect

Repast is a widely used, free, and open-source, agent-based modeling and simulation toolkit. Three Repast platforms are currently available, each of which has the same core features but a different environment for these features. Repast Simphony (Repast S) extends the Repast portfolio by offering a new approach to simulation development and execution. This paper presents a model of wolf-sheep predation as an introductory tutorial and illustration of the modeling capabilities of Repast S. We use a model of wolf-sheep predation to demonstrate the capabilities of the Repast S toolkit and as an introductory tutorial. While the example is not intended to model real phenomenon, the model's complexity is high enough to illustrate how the user may develop multi-agent models. Spatial and temporal patterns emerge in the model consisting of potentially hundreds of instances of three agent types. It is important to note that Repast S and its related tools are still under development. This paper presents the most current information at the time it was written. However, changes may occur before the planned final release.

Tatara, E.; North, M. J.; Howe, T. R.; Collier, N. T.; Vos, J. R.; Decision and Information Sciences; PantaRei Corp.; Univ. of Chicago; Univ. of Illinois

2006-01-01

254

Sedentary snakes and gullible geckos: predator–prey coevolution in nocturnal rock-dwelling reptiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated (1) the importance of chemical cues for predator detection by the nocturnal, rock-dwelling velvet gecko,Oedura lesueurii, and (2) how the lizards’ responses to snake odour may have exerted selection on the foraging behaviours of a nocturnal elapid snake. This snake species (broadheaded snake,Hoplocephalus bungaroides) feeds primarily on velvet geckos, and does so by means of a distinctive foraging

SHARON DOWNES; RICHARD SHINE

1998-01-01

255

Modeling Paleolithic Predator-Prey Dynamics and the Effects of Hunting Pressure on Prey ‘Choice’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working from archaeofaunal trends in the Mediterranean Basin and modern wildlife data, we present a demographic interpretation\\u000a of Paleolithic prey “choice” with the aid of computer simulation modeling. Archaeological indications of expanding dietary\\u000a breadth with the onset of the Upper Paleolithic period associate with increasing exploitation of highly productive small animals\\u000a and smaller ungulate species, despite the higher procurement costs

Mary C. Stiner; Joseph E. Beaver; Natalie D. Munro; Todd A. Surovell

256

Conflict and assessment in a predator–prey system: ground squirrels versus rattlesnakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adult California ground squirrels,Spermophilus beecheyi beecheyi, actively confront and harass northern Pacific rattlesnakes,Crotalus viridis oreganus, which are the principal predator of ground squirrel pups. In this report we examine the roles of risk (snake size) and context (location of encounter and squirrel reproductive category) in rattlesnake assessment by ground squirrels. In interpreting the results, we borrow heavily from the well-developed

RONALD R. SWAISGOOD; DONALD H. OWINGS; MATTHEW P. ROWE

1999-01-01

257

Predator-prey relationships in mummichogs ( Fundulus heteroclitus (L.)): Effects of living in a polluted environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of prey capture ability of mummichogs, Fundulus heteroclitus (L.) from a mercury-polluted tidal creek compared with conspecifics from an uncontaminated environment showed that the latter captured the prey organism Palaemonetes pugio Holthuis at a significantly faster rate and had significantly lower levels of mercury in their brain tissues. Exposure of uncontaminated fish to conditions similar to those of the

Graeme M. Smith; Judith S. Weis

1997-01-01

258

Evolutionary Tradeoff an dE quilibrium in an Aquatic Predator-Prey System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the conventional distinction between ecological (rapid) and evolutionary (slow) timescales, ecological and population models have typically ignored the effects of evolution. Yet the potential for rapid evolutionary change has been recently established and may be critical to understanding how populations persist in changing environments. In this paper we examine the relationship between ecological and evolutionary dynamics, focusing on

LAURA E. JONES; STEPHEN P. ELLNER

2004-01-01

259

Apes finding ants: Predator-prey dynamics in a chimpanzee habitat in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Some chimpanzee populations prey upon army ants, usually with stick tools. However, how their prey's subterranean nesting and nomadic lifestyle influence the apes' harvesting success is still poorly understood. This is particularly true for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes ellioti) at Gashaka/Nigeria, which consume army ants (Dorylus rubellus) with much higher frequency than at other sites. We assessed various harvesting and search options theoretically available to the apes. For this, we reconstructed annual consumption patterns from feces and compared the physical characteristics of exploited ant nests with those that were not targeted. Repeated exploitation of a discovered nest is viable only in the short term, as disturbed colonies soon moved to a new site. Moreover, monitoring previously occupied nest cavities is uneconomical, as ants hardly ever re-used them. Thus, the apes have to detect new nests regularly, although colony density is relatively low (1 colony/1.3 ha). Surprisingly, visual search cues seem to be of limited importance because the probability of a nest being exploited was independent of its conspicuousness (presence of excavated soil piles, concealing leaf-litter or vegetation). However, chimpanzees preferentially targeted nests in forests or at the base of food trees, that is, where the apes spend relatively more time and/or where ant colony density is highest. Taken together, our findings suggest that, instead of employing a search strategy based on visual cues or spatial memory, chimpanzee predation on army ants contains a considerable opportunistic element. PMID:24022711

Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra; Umaru, Buba; Allon, Oliver; Sommer, Volker

2013-12-01

260

Range Expansion Drives Dispersal Evolution In An Equatorial Three-Species Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrent climatic oscillations have produced dramatic changes in species distributions. This process has been proposed to be a major evolutionary force, shaping many life history traits of species, and to govern global patterns of biodiversity at different scales. During range expansions selection may favor the evolution of higher dispersal, and symbiotic interactions may be affected. It has been argued that a weakness of climate fluctuation-driven range dynamics at equatorial latitudes has facilitated the persistence there of more specialized species and interactions. However, how much the biology and ecology of species is changed by range dynamics has seldom been investigated, particularly in equatorial regions. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied a three-species symbiosis endemic to coastal equatorial rainforests in Cameroon, where the impact of range dynamics is supposed to be limited, comprised of two species-specific obligate mutualists –an ant-plant and its protective ant– and a species-specific ant parasite of this mutualism. We combined analyses of within-species genetic diversity and of phenotypic variation in a transect at the southern range limit of this ant-plant system. All three species present congruent genetic signatures of recent gradual southward expansion, a result compatible with available regional paleoclimatic data. As predicted, this expansion has been accompanied by the evolution of more dispersive traits in the two ant species. In contrast, we detected no evidence of change in lifetime reproductive strategy in the tree, nor in its investment in food resources provided to its symbiotic ants. Conclusions/Significance Despite the decreasing investment in protective workers and the increasing investment in dispersing females by both the mutualistic and the parasitic ant species, there was no evidence of destabilization of the symbiosis at the colonization front. To our knowledge, we provide here the first evidence at equatorial latitudes that biological traits associated with dispersal are affected by the range expansion dynamics of a set of interacting species.

Guillot, Sylvain; Gaume, Laurence; McKey, Doyle; Kjellberg, Finn

2009-01-01

261

Root endophyte symbiosis in vitro between the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Tricholoma matsutake and the arbuscular mycorrhizal plant Prunus speciosa.  

PubMed

We previously reported that Tricholoma matsutake and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes that associate with Pinaceae and Fagaceae, respectively, in the Northern Hemisphere, could interact in vitro as a root endophyte of somatic plants of Cedrela odorata (Meliaceae), which naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in South America, to form a characteristic rhizospheric colony or "shiro". We questioned whether this phenomenon could have occurred because of plant-microbe interactions between geographically separated species that never encounter one another in nature. In the present study, we document that these fungi formed root endophyte interactions and shiro within 140 days of inoculation with somatic plants of Prunus speciosa (=Cerasus speciosa, Rosaceae), a wild cherry tree that naturally harbors arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Japan. Compared with C. odorata, infected P. speciosa plants had less mycelial sheath surrounding the exodermis, and the older the roots, especially main roots, the more hyphae penetrated. In addition, a large number of juvenile roots were not associated with hyphae. We concluded that such root endophyte interactions were not events isolated to the interactions between exotic plants and microbes but could occur generally in vitro. Our pure culture system with a somatic plant allowed these fungi to express symbiosis-related phenotypes that varied with the plant host; these traits are innately programmed but suppressed in nature and could be useful in genetic analyses of plant-fungal symbiosis. PMID:24158697

Murata, Hitoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Yokota, Satoru; Maruyama, Tsuyoshi; Endo, Naoki; Yamamoto, Kohei; Ohira, Tatsuro; Neda, Hitoshi

2014-05-01

262

Endomycorrhizal and rhizobial symbiosis: How much do they share?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legume plants enter two important endosymbioses – with soil fungi, forming phosphorus acquiring arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), and with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, leading to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Both symbioses have been studied extensively because these symbioses have great potential for agricultural applications. Although 80% of all living land plants form AM, the nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis with rhizobia is

Geetanjali Manchanda; Neera Garg

2007-01-01

263

The Winnowing: Establishing the Squid-Vibrio Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Nature Reviews Microbiology article examines the symbiosis between the squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminous bacterial symbiont, Vibrio fischeri. Using image-rich illustrations, it depicts the progression of light-organ colonization as a series of steps and discusses the advent of genomic approaches used to study this model system. A subscription is required to access the full-text version of this article.

Nyholm, Spencer V.; Mcfall-Ngai, Margaret; Microbiology, Nature R.

264

Establishment of coral-algal symbiosis requires attraction and selection.  

PubMed

Coral reef ecosystems are based on coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis. During the initiation of symbiosis, majority of corals acquire their own zooxanthellae (specifically from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) from surrounding environments. The mechanisms underlying the initial establishment of symbiosis have attracted much interest, and numerous field and laboratory experiments have been conducted to elucidate this establishment. However, it is still unclear whether the host corals selectively or randomly acquire their symbionts from surrounding environments. To address this issue, we initially compared genetic compositions of Symbiodinium within naturally settled about 2-week-old Acropora coral juveniles (recruits) and those in the adjacent seawater as the potential symbiont source. We then performed infection tests using several types of Symbiodinium culture strains and apo-symbiotic (does not have Symbiodinium cells yet) Acropora coral larvae. Our field observations indicated apparent preference toward specific Symbiodinium genotypes (A1 and D1-4) within the recruits, despite a rich abundance of other Symbiodinium in the environmental population pool. Laboratory experiments were in accordance with this field observation: Symbiodinium strains of type A1 and D1-4 showed higher infection rates for Acropora larvae than other genotype strains, even when supplied at lower cell densities. Subsequent attraction tests revealed that three Symbiodinium strains were attracted toward Acropora larvae, and within them, only A1 and D1-4 strains were acquired by the larvae. Another three strains did not intrinsically approach to the larvae. These findings suggest the initial establishment of corals-Symbiodinium symbiosis is not random, and the infection mechanism appeared to comprise two steps: initial attraction step and subsequent selective uptake by the coral. PMID:24824794

Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Kai, Sayaka; Hayashibara, Takeshi; Koike, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

265

Establishment of Coral-Algal Symbiosis Requires Attraction and Selection  

PubMed Central

Coral reef ecosystems are based on coral–zooxanthellae symbiosis. During the initiation of symbiosis, majority of corals acquire their own zooxanthellae (specifically from the dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium) from surrounding environments. The mechanisms underlying the initial establishment of symbiosis have attracted much interest, and numerous field and laboratory experiments have been conducted to elucidate this establishment. However, it is still unclear whether the host corals selectively or randomly acquire their symbionts from surrounding environments. To address this issue, we initially compared genetic compositions of Symbiodinium within naturally settled about 2-week-old Acropora coral juveniles (recruits) and those in the adjacent seawater as the potential symbiont source. We then performed infection tests using several types of Symbiodinium culture strains and apo-symbiotic (does not have Symbiodinium cells yet) Acropora coral larvae. Our field observations indicated apparent preference toward specific Symbiodinium genotypes (A1 and D1-4) within the recruits, despite a rich abundance of other Symbiodinium in the environmental population pool. Laboratory experiments were in accordance with this field observation: Symbiodinium strains of type A1 and D1-4 showed higher infection rates for Acropora larvae than other genotype strains, even when supplied at lower cell densities. Subsequent attraction tests revealed that three Symbiodinium strains were attracted toward Acropora larvae, and within them, only A1 and D1-4 strains were acquired by the larvae. Another three strains did not intrinsically approach to the larvae. These findings suggest the initial establishment of corals–Symbiodinium symbiosis is not random, and the infection mechanism appeared to comprise two steps: initial attraction step and subsequent selective uptake by the coral.

Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Kai, Sayaka; Hayashibara, Takeshi; Koike, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

266

Expression Islands Clustered on the Symbiosis Island of the Mesorhizobium loti Genome  

PubMed Central

Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that are associated with host legumes. The establishment of rhizobial symbiosis requires signal exchanges between partners in microaerobic environments that result in mutualism for the two partners. We developed a macroarray for Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, a microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, and monitored the transcriptional dynamics of the bacterium during symbiosis, microaerobiosis, and starvation. Global transcriptional profiling demonstrated that the clusters of genes within the symbiosis island (611 kb), a transmissible region distinct from other chromosomal regions, are collectively expressed during symbiosis, whereas genes outside the island are downregulated. This finding implies that the huge symbiosis island functions as clustered expression islands to support symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Interestingly, most transposase genes on the symbiosis island were highly upregulated in bacteroids, as were nif, fix, fdx, and rpoN. The genome region containing the fixNOPQ genes outside the symbiosis island was markedly upregulated as another expression island under both microaerobic and symbiotic conditions. The symbiosis profiling data suggested that there was activation of amino acid metabolism, as well as nif-fix gene expression. In contrast, genes for cell wall synthesis, cell division, DNA replication, and flagella were strongly repressed in differentiated bacteroids. A highly upregulated gene in bacteroids, mlr5932 (encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase), was disrupted and was confirmed to be involved in nodulation enhancement, indicating that disruption of highly expressed genes is a useful strategy for exploring novel gene functions in symbiosis.

Uchiumi, Toshiki; Ohwada, Takuji; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Nukui, Noriyuki; Dawadi, Pramod; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tejima, Kouhei; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Omori, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Makoto; Maekawa, Takaki; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Simomura, Kenshiro; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Sioya, Kouki; Abe, Mikiko; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2004-01-01

267

Expression islands clustered on the symbiosis island of the Mesorhizobium loti genome.  

PubMed

Rhizobia are symbiotic nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria that are associated with host legumes. The establishment of rhizobial symbiosis requires signal exchanges between partners in microaerobic environments that result in mutualism for the two partners. We developed a macroarray for Mesorhizobium loti MAFF303099, a microsymbiont of the model legume Lotus japonicus, and monitored the transcriptional dynamics of the bacterium during symbiosis, microaerobiosis, and starvation. Global transcriptional profiling demonstrated that the clusters of genes within the symbiosis island (611 kb), a transmissible region distinct from other chromosomal regions, are collectively expressed during symbiosis, whereas genes outside the island are downregulated. This finding implies that the huge symbiosis island functions as clustered expression islands to support symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Interestingly, most transposase genes on the symbiosis island were highly upregulated in bacteroids, as were nif, fix, fdx, and rpoN. The genome region containing the fixNOPQ genes outside the symbiosis island was markedly upregulated as another expression island under both microaerobic and symbiotic conditions. The symbiosis profiling data suggested that there was activation of amino acid metabolism, as well as nif-fix gene expression. In contrast, genes for cell wall synthesis, cell division, DNA replication, and flagella were strongly repressed in differentiated bacteroids. A highly upregulated gene in bacteroids, mlr5932 (encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase), was disrupted and was confirmed to be involved in nodulation enhancement, indicating that disruption of highly expressed genes is a useful strategy for exploring novel gene functions in symbiosis. PMID:15060047

Uchiumi, Toshiki; Ohwada, Takuji; Itakura, Manabu; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Nukui, Noriyuki; Dawadi, Pramod; Kaneko, Takakazu; Tabata, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Tejima, Kouhei; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Omori, Hirofumi; Hayashi, Makoto; Maekawa, Takaki; Sriprang, Rutchadaporn; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Simomura, Kenshiro; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Akihiro; Shimoda, Yoshikazu; Sioya, Kouki; Abe, Mikiko; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2004-04-01

268

Repeated loss of coloniality and symbiosis in scleractinian corals  

PubMed Central

The combination of coloniality and symbiosis in Scleractinia is thought to confer competitive advantage over other benthic invertebrates, and it is likely the key factor for the dominance of corals in tropical reefs. However, the extant Scleractinia are evenly split between zooxanthellate and azooxanthellate species. Most azooxanthellate species are solitary and nearly absent from reefs, but have much wider geographic and bathymetric distributions than reef corals. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have repeatedly recovered clades formed by colonial/zooxanthellate and solitary/azooxanthellate taxa, suggesting that coloniality and symbiosis were repeatedly acquired and/or lost throughout the history of the Scleractinia. Using Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction, we found that symbiosis was lost at least three times and coloniality lost at least six times, and at least two instances in which both characters were lost. All of the azooxanthellate lineages originated from ancestors that were reconstructed as symbiotic, corroborating the onshore–offshore diversification trend recorded in marine taxa. Symbiotic sister taxa of two of these descendant lineages are extant in Caribbean reefs but disappeared from the Mediterranean before the end of the Miocene, whereas extant azooxanthellate lineages have trans-Atlantic distributions. Thus, the phyletic link between reef and nonreef communities may have played an important role in the dynamics of extinction and recovery that marks the evolutionary history of scleractinians, and some reef lineages may have escaped local extinction by diversifying into offshore environments. However, this macroevolutionary mechanism offers no hope of mitigating the effects of climate change on coral reefs in the next century.

Barbeitos, Marcos S.; Romano, Sandra L.; Lasker, Howard R.

2010-01-01

269

Emergent properties of interacting populations of spiking neurons.  

PubMed

Dynamic neuronal networks are a key paradigm of increasing importance in brain research, concerned with the functional analysis of biological neuronal networks and, at the same time, with the synthesis of artificial brain-like systems. In this context, neuronal network models serve as mathematical tools to understand the function of brains, but they might as well develop into future tools for enhancing certain functions of our nervous system. Here, we present and discuss our recent achievements in developing multiplicative point processes into a viable mathematical framework for spiking network modeling. The perspective is that the dynamic behavior of these neuronal networks is faithfully reflected by a set of non-linear rate equations, describing all interactions on the population level. These equations are similar in structure to Lotka-Volterra equations, well known by their use in modeling predator-prey relations in population biology, but abundant applications to economic theory have also been described. We present a number of biologically relevant examples for spiking network function, which can be studied with the help of the aforementioned correspondence between spike trains and specific systems of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations. We claim that, enabled by the use of multiplicative point processes, we can make essential contributions to a more thorough understanding of the dynamical properties of interacting neuronal populations. PMID:22207844

Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan

2011-01-01

270

Emergent Properties of Interacting Populations of Spiking Neurons  

PubMed Central

Dynamic neuronal networks are a key paradigm of increasing importance in brain research, concerned with the functional analysis of biological neuronal networks and, at the same time, with the synthesis of artificial brain-like systems. In this context, neuronal network models serve as mathematical tools to understand the function of brains, but they might as well develop into future tools for enhancing certain functions of our nervous system. Here, we present and discuss our recent achievements in developing multiplicative point processes into a viable mathematical framework for spiking network modeling. The perspective is that the dynamic behavior of these neuronal networks is faithfully reflected by a set of non-linear rate equations, describing all interactions on the population level. These equations are similar in structure to Lotka-Volterra equations, well known by their use in modeling predator-prey relations in population biology, but abundant applications to economic theory have also been described. We present a number of biologically relevant examples for spiking network function, which can be studied with the help of the aforementioned correspondence between spike trains and specific systems of non-linear coupled ordinary differential equations. We claim that, enabled by the use of multiplicative point processes, we can make essential contributions to a more thorough understanding of the dynamical properties of interacting neuronal populations.

Cardanobile, Stefano; Rotter, Stefan

2011-01-01

271

Symbiosis between microorganisms from kombucha and kefir: Potential significance to the enhancement of kombucha function.  

PubMed

Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 (G. sp. A4), which had strong ability to produce d-saccharic acid 1, 4 lactone (DSL), was the key functional bacteria isolated from the kombucha preserved. This paper investigated the interaction between G. sp. A4 and ten different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from kefir. The result suggested that the LAB promoted DSL production of G. sp. A4 to different extents, ranging from 4.86% to 86.70%. Symbiosis between G. sp. A4 and LAB was studied. LAB's metabolites, xylitol, and acetic acid, were utilized by G. sp. A4, and it promoted the growth of G. sp. A4 and yield of DSL. Therefore, in developing starter cultures for kombucha fermentation process, a mixed flora of LAB and G. sp. A4 would be the optimal combination. PMID:18810658

Yang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Li, Bo; Luo, Yangchao; Yang, Li; Li, Tao

2010-01-01

272

Functional diversity in coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Symbioses are widespread in nature and occur along a continuum from parasitism to mutualism. Coral–dinoflagellate symbioses are defined as mutualistic because both partners receive benefit from the association via the exchange of nutrients. This successful interaction underpins the growth and formation of coral reefs. The symbiotic dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is genetically diverse containing eight divergent lineages (clades A–H). Corals predominantly associate with clade C Symbiodinium and to a lesser extent with clades A, B, D, F, and G. Variation in the function and interactive physiology of different coral–dinoflagellate assemblages is virtually unexplored but is an important consideration when developing the contextual framework of factors that contribute to coral reef resilience. In this study, we present evidence that clade A Symbiodinium are functionally less beneficial to corals than the dominant clade C Symbiodinium and may represent parasitic rather than mutualistic symbionts. Our hypothesis is supported by (i) a significant correlation between the presence of Symbiodinium clade A and health-compromised coral; (ii) a phylogeny and genetic diversity within Symbiodinium that suggests a different evolutionary trajectory for clade A compared with the other dominant Symbiodinium lineages; and (iii) a significantly lower amount of carbon fixed and released by clade A in the presence of a coral synthetic host factor as compared with the dominant coral symbiont lineage, clade C. Collectively, these data suggest that along the symbiotic continuum the interaction between clade A Symbiodinium and corals may be closer to parasitism than mutualism.

Stat, Michael; Morris, Emily; Gates, Ruth D.

2008-01-01

273

The symbiosis between Rhizobium leguminosarum and Pisum savitum: regulation of the nitrogenase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria of the genus Rhizobium can form a symbiosis with plants of the family Leguminosae. Both bacteria and plant show considerable biochemical and morphological changes in order to develop and carry out the symbiosis. The Rhizobia induce special structures on the legumes, which are called root nodules. In these root nodules, the differentiated bacteria - so-called bacteroids - are localized.

M. A. Appels

1989-01-01

274

Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater  

PubMed Central

To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds.

Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

2013-01-01

275

The nature of the symbiosis between Indo-Pacific anemone fishes and sea anemones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the general heading of symbiosis, defined originally to mean a “living together” of two dissimilar species, exist the sub-categories of mutualism (where both partners benefit), commensalism (where one partner benefits and the other is neutral) and parasitism (where one partner benefits and the other is harmed). The sea anemone-fish (mainly of the genus Amphiprion) symbiosis has generally been considered

R. N. Mariscal

1970-01-01

276

Two putative-aquaporin genes are differentially expressed during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Lotus japonicus  

PubMed Central

Background Arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM) are widespread symbioses that provide great advantages to the plant, improving its nutritional status and allowing the fungus to complete its life cycle. Nevertheless, molecular mechanisms that lead to the development of AM symbiosis are not yet fully deciphered. Here, we have focused on two putative aquaporin genes, LjNIP1 and LjXIP1, which resulted to be upregulated in a transcriptomic analysis performed on mycorrhizal roots of Lotus japonicus. Results A phylogenetic analysis has shown that the two putative aquaporins belong to different functional families: NIPs and XIPs. Transcriptomic experiments have shown the independence of their expression from their nutritional status but also a close correlation with mycorrhizal and rhizobial interaction. Further transcript quantification has revealed a good correlation between the expression of one of them, LjNIP1, and LjPT4, the phosphate transporter which is considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. By using laser microdissection, we have demonstrated that one of the two genes, LjNIP1, is expressed exclusively in arbuscule-containing cells. LjNIP1, in agreement with its putative role as an aquaporin, is capable of transferring water when expressed in yeast protoplasts. Confocal analysis have demonstrated that eGFP-LjNIP1, under its endogenous promoter, accumulates in the inner membrane system of arbusculated cells. Conclusions Overall, the results have shown different functionality and expression specificity of two mycorrhiza-inducible aquaporins in L. japonicus. One of them, LjNIP1 can be considered a novel molecular marker of mycorrhizal status at different developmental stages of the arbuscule. At the same time, LjXIP1 results to be the first XIP family aquaporin to be transcriptionally regulated during symbiosis.

2012-01-01

277

Stars and Symbiosis: MicroRNA- and MicroRNA*-Mediated Transcript Cleavage Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The majority of plants are able to form the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis in association with AM fungi. During symbiosis development, plant cells undergo a complex reprogramming resulting in profound morphological and physiological changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important components of the regulatory network of plant cells. To unravel the impact of miRNAs and miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage on root cell reprogramming during AM symbiosis, we carried out high-throughput (Illumina) sequencing of small RNAs and degradome tags of Medicago truncatula roots. This led to the annotation of 243 novel miRNAs. An increased accumulation of several novel and conserved miRNAs in mycorrhizal roots suggest a role of these miRNAs during AM symbiosis. The degradome analysis led to the identification of 185 root transcripts as mature miRNA and also miRNA*-mediated mRNA cleavage targets. Several of the identified miRNA targets are known to be involved in root symbioses. In summary, the increased accumulation of specific miRNAs and the miRNA-mediated cleavage of symbiosis-relevant genes indicate that miRNAs are an important part of the regulatory network leading to symbiosis development.

Devers, Emanuel A.; Branscheid, Anja; May, Patrick; Krajinski, Franziska

2011-01-01

278

Interactions among phytophagous mites, and introduced and naturally occurring predatory mites, on strawberry in the UK.  

PubMed

In choice test experiments on strawberry leaf disc arenas the phytoseiid mites Neoseiulus californicus and N. cucumeris were more effective than Typhlodromus pyri as predators of the phytophagous mites Tetranychus urticae and Phytonemus pallidus. There were no preferences shown for either prey by any of these predators. In multiple predator leaf disc experiments both Phytoseiulus persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced numbers of T. urticae eggs and active stages; this effect was seen when the two species were present alone or in combination with other predator species. Neoseiulus californicus was less effective at reducing T. urticae numbers, and T. pyri was not effective; no interaction between predator species was detected in these experiments. When T. urticae alone was present as prey on potted plants, P. persimilis and N. californicus were the only phytoseiids to significantly reduce T. urticae numbers. These two predator species provided effective control of T. urticae when P. pallidus was also present; however, none of the predators reduced numbers of P. pallidus. There were no significant negative interactions when different species of predators were present together on these potted plants. In field experiments, releases of both P. persimilis and N. cucumeris significantly reduced T. urticae numbers. However, there was a significant interaction between these predator species, leading to poorer control of T. urticae when both species were released together. These results show the importance of conducting predator/prey feeding tests at different spatial scales. PMID:17713859

Fitzgerald, Jean; Pepper, Nicola; Easterbrook, Mike; Pope, Tom; Solomon, Mike

2007-01-01

279

Bacterial discrimination by Dictyostelid amoebae reveals the complexity of ancient interspecies interactions  

PubMed Central

Background Amoebae and bacteria interact within predator/prey and host/pathogen relationships, but the general response of amoeba to bacteria is not well understood. The amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum feeds on, and is colonized by diverse bacterial species including Gram-positive [Gram(+)] and Gram-negative [Gram(?)] bacteria, two major groups of bacteria that differ in structure and macromolecular composition. Results Transcriptional profiling of D. discoideum revealed sets of genes whose expression is enriched in amoebae interacting with different species of bacteria, including sets that appear specific to amoebae interacting with Gram(+), or with Gram(?) bacteria. In a genetic screen utilizing the growth of mutant amoebae on a variety of bacteria as a phenotypic readout, we identified amoebal genes that are only required for growth on Gram(+) bacteria, including one that encodes the cell surface protein gp130, as well as several genes that are only required for growth on Gram(?) bacteria including one that encodes a putative lysozyme, AlyL. These genes are required for parts of the transcriptional response of wild-type amoebae, and this allowed their classification into potential response pathways. Conclusions We have defined genes that are critical for amoebal survival during feeding on Gram(+), or Gram(?), bacteria which we propose form part of a regulatory network that allows D. discoideum to elicit specific cellular responses to different species of bacteria in order to optimize survival.

Nasser, Waleed; Santhanam, Balaji; Miranda, Edward Roshan; Parikh, Anup; Juneja, Kavina; Rot, Gregor; Dinh, Chris; Chen, Rui; Zupan, Blaz; Shaulsky, Gad; Kuspa, Adam

2014-01-01

280

Why Does Gunnera Do It and Other Angiosperms Don't? An Evolutionary Perspective on the Gunnera – Nostoc Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gunnera–Nostoc symbiosis\\u000a is an enigmatic plant–cyanobacterial symbiosis: the only known angiosperm–cyanobacterial symbiosis.\\u000a We postulate that this symbiosis, together with perhaps all other plant–cyanobacterial symbioses,\\u000a was more important in the geological past and was a response to a unique suite of environmental\\u000a conditions that are uncommon today. Phylogenetic analyses indicate a distinct origin for the evolution\\u000a of the Gunnera–Nostoc symbiosis\\u000a within the angiosperms,

Bruce Osborne; Birgitta Bergman

281

High phosphate reduces host ability to develop arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis without affecting root calcium spiking responses to the fungus.  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis associates soil fungi with the roots of the majority of plants species and represents a major source of soil phosphorus acquisition. Mycorrhizal interactions begin with an exchange of molecular signals between the two partners. A root signaling pathway is recruited, for which the perception of fungal signals triggers oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration. High phosphate availability is known to inhibit the establishment and/or persistence of this symbiosis, thereby favoring the direct, non-symbiotic uptake of phosphorus by the root system. In this study, Medicago truncatula plants were used to investigate the effects of phosphate supply on the early stages of the interaction. When plants were supplied with high phosphate fungal attachment to the roots was drastically reduced. An experimental system was designed to individually study the effects of phosphate supply on the fungus, on the roots, and on root exudates. These experiments revealed that the most important effects of high phosphate supply were on the roots themselves, which became unable to host mycorrhizal fungi even when these had been appropriately stimulated. The ability of the roots to perceive their fungal partner was then investigated by monitoring nuclear calcium spiking in response to fungal signals. This response did not appear to be affected by high phosphate supply. In conclusion, high levels of phosphate predominantly impact the plant host, but apparently not in its ability to perceive the fungal partner. PMID:24194742

Balzergue, Coline; Chabaud, Mireille; Barker, David G; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic F

2013-01-01

282

Contribution of NFP LysM Domains to the Recognition of Nod Factors during the Medicago truncatula/Sinorhizobium meliloti Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The root nodule nitrogen fixing symbiosis between legume plants and soil bacteria called rhizobia is of great agronomical and ecological interest since it provides the plant with fixed atmospheric nitrogen. The establishment of this symbiosis is mediated by the recognition by the host plant of lipo-chitooligosaccharides called Nod Factors (NFs), produced by the rhizobia. This recognition is highly specific, as precise NF structures are required depending on the host plant. Here, we study the importance of different LysM domains of a LysM-Receptor Like Kinase (LysM-RLK) from Medicago truncatula called Nod factor perception (NFP) in the recognition of different substitutions of NFs produced by its symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. These substitutions are a sulphate group at the reducing end, which is essential for host specificity, and a specific acyl chain at the non-reducing end, that is critical for the infection process. The NFP extracellular domain (ECD) contains 3 LysM domains that are predicted to bind NFs. By swapping the whole ECD or individual LysM domains of NFP for those of its orthologous gene from pea, SYM10 (a legume plant that interacts with another strain of rhizobium producing NFs with different substitutions), we showed that NFP is not directly responsible for specific recognition of the sulphate substitution of S. meliloti NFs, but probably interacts with the acyl substitution. Moreover, we have demonstrated the importance of the NFP LysM2 domain for rhizobial infection and we have pinpointed the importance of a single leucine residue of LysM2 in that step of the symbiosis. Together, our data put into new perspective the recognition of NFs in the different steps of symbiosis in M. truncatula, emphasising the probable existence of a missing component for early NF recognition and reinforcing the important role of NFP for NF recognition during rhizobial infection.

Bensmihen, Sandra; de Billy, Francoise; Gough, Clare

2011-01-01

283

Understanding resilience in industrial symbiosis networks: Insights from network analysis.  

PubMed

Industrial symbiotic networks are based on the principles of ecological systems where waste equals food, to develop synergistic networks. For example, industrial symbiosis (IS) at Kalundborg, Denmark, creates an exchange network of waste, water, and energy among companies based on contractual dependency. Since most of the industrial symbiotic networks are based on ad-hoc opportunities rather than strategic planning, gaining insight into disruptive scenarios is pivotal for understanding the balance of resilience and sustainability and developing heuristics for designing resilient IS networks. The present work focuses on understanding resilience as an emergent property of an IS network via a network-based approach with application to the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis (KIS). Results from network metrics and simulated disruptive scenarios reveal Asnaes power plant as the most critical node in the system. We also observe a decrease in the vulnerability of nodes and reduction in single points of failure in the system, suggesting an increase in the overall resilience of the KIS system from 1960 to 2010. Based on our findings, we recommend design strategies, such as increasing diversity, redundancy, and multi-functionality to ensure flexibility and plasticity, to develop resilient and sustainable industrial symbiotic networks. PMID:24768838

Chopra, Shauhrat S; Khanna, Vikas

2014-08-01

284

Shared Metabolic Pathways in a Coevolved Insect-Bacterial Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The symbiotic bacterium Buchnera aphidicola lacks key genes in the biosynthesis of five essential amino acids (EAAs), and yet its animal hosts (aphids) depend on the symbiosis for the synthesis of these EAAs (isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and valine). We tested the hypothesis, derived from genome annotation, that the missing Buchnera reactions are mediated by host enzymes, with the exchange of metabolic intermediates between the partners. The specialized host cells bearing Buchnera were separated into a Buchnera fraction and a Buchnera-free host cell fraction (HF). Addition of HF to isolated Buchnera preparations significantly increased the production of leucine and phenylalanine, and recombinant enzymes mediating the final reactions in branched-chain amino acid and phenylalanine synthesis rescued the production of these EAAs by Buchnera preparations without HF. The likely precursors for the missing proximal reactions in isoleucine and methionine synthesis were identified, and they differed from predictions based on genome annotations: synthesis of 2-oxobutanoate, the aphid-derived precursor of isoleucine synthesis, was stimulated by homoserine and not threonine via threonine dehydratase, and production of the homocysteine precursor of methionine was driven by cystathionine, not cysteine, via reversal of the transsulfuration pathway. The evolution of shared metabolic pathways in this symbiosis can be attributed to host compensation for genomic deterioration in the symbiont, involving changes in host gene expression networks to recruit specific enzymes to the host cell.

Russell, Calum W.; Bouvaine, Sophie; Newell, Peter D.

2013-01-01

285

Aphids evolved novel secreted proteins for symbiosis with bacterial endosymbiont  

PubMed Central

Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphid's life. The expression pattern suggests that recently evolved secretion proteins act within bacteriocytes, perhaps to mediate the symbiosis with beneficial bacterial partners, which is reminiscent of the evolution of novel cysteine-rich secreted proteins of leguminous plants that regulate nitrogen-fixing endosymbionts.

Shigenobu, Shuji; Stern, David L.

2013-01-01

286

A Ubiquitin Ligase of Symbiosis Receptor Kinase Involved in Nodule Organogenesis1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

The symbiosis receptor kinase (SymRK) is required for morphological changes of legume root hairs triggered by rhizobial infection. How protein turnover of SymRK is regulated and how the nodulation factor signals are transduced downstream of SymRK are not known. In this report, a SymRK-interacting E3 ubiquitin ligase (SIE3) was shown to bind and ubiquitinate SymRK. The SIE3-SymRK interaction and the ubiquitination of SymRK were shown to occur in vitro and in planta. SIE3 represents a new class of plant-specific E3 ligases that contain a unique pattern of the conserved CTLH (for C-terminal to LisH), CRA (for CT11-RanBPM), and RING (for Really Interesting New Gene) domains. Expression of SIE3 was detected in all tested tissues of Lotus japonicus plants, and its transcript level in roots was enhanced by rhizobial infection. The SIE3 protein was localized to multiple subcellular locations including the nuclei and plasma membrane, where the SIE3-SymRK interaction took place. Overexpression of SIE3 promoted nodulation in transgenic hairy roots, whereas downregulation of SIE3 transcripts by RNA interference inhibited infection thread development and nodule organogenesis. These results suggest that SIE3 represents a new class of E3 ubiquitin ligase, acts as a regulator of SymRK, and is involved in rhizobial infection and nodulation in L. japonicus.

Yuan, Songli; Zhu, Hui; Gou, Honglan; Fu, Weiwei; Liu, Lijing; Chen, Tao; Ke, Danxia; Kang, Heng; Xie, Qi; Hong, Zonglie; Zhang, Zhongming

2012-01-01

287

Symbiosis as a source of selectable epigenetic variation: taking the heat for the big guy  

PubMed Central

Evolutionary developmental biology is based on the principle that evolution arises from hereditable changes in development. Most of this new work has centred on changes in the regulatory components of the genome. However, recent studies (many of them documented in this volume) have shown that development also includes interactions between the organism and its environment. One area of interest concerns the importance of symbionts for the production of the normal range of phenotypes. Many, if not most, organisms have ‘outsourced’ some of their developmental signals to a set of symbionts that are expected to be acquired during development. Such intimate interactions between species are referred to as codevelopment, the production of a new individual through the coordinated interactions of several genotypically different species. Within the past 2 years, several research programmes have demonstrated that such codevelopmental schemes can be selected. We will focus on symbioses in coral reef cnidarians symbiosis, pea aphids and cactuses, wherein the symbiotic system provides thermotolerance for the composite organism.

Gilbert, Scott F.; McDonald, Emily; Boyle, Nicole; Buttino, Nicholas; Gyi, Lin; Mai, Mark; Prakash, Neelakantan; Robinson, James

2010-01-01

288

Diet of lake trout and burbot in northern Lake Michigan during spring: Evidence of ecological interaction  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used analyses of burbot (Lota lota) and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) diets taken during spring gill-net surveys in northern Lake Michigan in 2006-2008 to investigate the potential for competition and predator-prey interactions between these two species. We also compared our results to historical data from 1932. During 2006-2008, lake trout diet consisted mainly of alewives (Alosa pseudoharengus) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), whereas burbot utilized a much wider prey base including round goby (Neogobius melanostomus), rainbow smelt, alewives, and sculpins. Using the Schoener's diet overlap index, we found a higher potential for interspecific competition in 1932 than in 2006-2008, though diet overlap was not significant in either time period. No evidence of cannibalism by lake trout or lake trout predation on burbot was found in either time period. In 2006-2008, however, lake trout composed 5.4% (by weight) of burbot diet. To determine whether this predation could be having an impact on lake trout rehabilitation efforts in northern Lake Michigan, we developed a bioenergetic-based consumption estimate for burbot on Boulder Reef (a representative reef within the Northern Refuge) and found that burbot alone can consume a considerable proportion of the yearling lake trout stocked annually, depending on burbot density. Overall, we conclude that predation, rather than competition, is the more important ecological interaction between burbot and lake trout, and burbot predation may be contributing to the failed lake trout rehabilitation efforts in Lake Michigan.

Jacobs, Gregory R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Bunnell, David B.; Holuszko, Jeffrey D.

2010-01-01

289

Foraging behavior and prey interactions by a guild of predators on various lifestages of Bemisia tabaci  

PubMed Central

The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is fed on by a wide variety of generalist predators, but there is little information on these predator-prey interactions. A laboratory investigation was conducted to quantify the foraging behavior of the adults of five common whitefly predators presented with a surfeit of whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults. The beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville and Collops vittatus (Say) fed mostly on whitefly eggs, but readily and rapidly preyed on all of the whitefly lifestages. The true bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say) and Orius tristicolor (Say) preyed almost exclusively on adult whiteflies, while Lygus hesperus Knight preyed almost exclusively on nymphs. The true bugs had much longer prey handling times than the beetles and spent much more of their time feeding (35–42%) than the beetles (6–7%). These results indicate that generalist predators vary significantly in their interaction with this host, and that foraging behavior should be considered during development of a predator-based biological control program for B. tabaci. Abbreviation: ELISA enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Hagler, James R.; Jackson, Charles G.; Isaacs, Rufus; Machtley, Scott A.

2004-01-01

290

COMBINED AND INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE AND TOXICANTS ON POPULATIONS AND COMMUNITIES  

PubMed Central

Increased temperature and other environmental effects of global climate change (GCC) have documented impacts on many species (e.g., polar bears, amphibians, coral reefs) as well as on ecosystem processes and species interactions (e.g., the timing of predator–prey interactions). A challenge for ecotoxicologists is to predict how joint effects of climatic stress and toxicants measured at the individual level (e.g., reduced survival and reproduction) will be manifested at the population level (e.g., population growth rate, extinction risk) and community level (e.g., species richness, food-web structure). The authors discuss how population- and community-level responses to toxicants under GCC are likely to be influenced by various ecological mechanisms. Stress due to GCC may reduce the potential for resistance to and recovery from toxicant exposure. Long-term toxicant exposure can result in acquired tolerance to this stressor at the population or community level, but an associated cost of tolerance may be the reduced potential for tolerance to subsequent climatic stress (or vice versa). Moreover, GCC can induce large-scale shifts in community composition, which may affect the vulnerability of communities to other stressors. Ecological modeling based on species traits (representing life-history traits, population vulnerability, sensitivity to toxicants, and sensitivity to climate change) can be a promising approach for predicting combined impacts of GCC and toxicants on populations and communities. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2013;32:49–61. © 2012 SETAC

Moe, S Jannicke; De Schamphelaere, Karel; Clements, William H; Sorensen, Mary T; Van den Brink, Paul J; Liess, Matthias

2013-01-01

291

Foraging behavior and prey interactions by a guild of predators on various lifestages of Bemisia tabaci.  

PubMed

The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is fed on by a wide variety of generalist predators, but there is little information on these predator-prey interactions. A laboratory investigation was conducted to quantify the foraging behavior of the adults of five common whitefly predators presented with a surfeit of whitefly eggs, nymphs, and adults. The beetles, Hippodamia convergens Guerin-Meneville and Collops vittatus (Say) fed mostly on whitefly eggs, but readily and rapidly preyed on all of the whitefly lifestages. The true bugs, Geocoris punctipes (Say) and Orius tristicolor (Say) preyed almost exclusively on adult whiteflies, while Lygus hesperus Knight preyed almost exclusively on nymphs. The true bugs had much longer prey handling times than the beetles and spent much more of their time feeding (35-42%) than the beetles (6-7%). These results indicate that generalist predators vary significantly in their interaction with this host, and that foraging behavior should be considered during development of a predator-based biological control program for B. tabaci. PMID:15861217

Hagler, James R; Jackson, Charles G; Isaacs, Rufus; Machtley, Scott A

2004-01-01

292

Secondary metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 drive complex non-trophic interactions with bacterivorous nematodes.  

PubMed

Non-trophic interactions are increasingly recognised as a key parameter of predator-prey interactions. In soil, predation by bacterivorous nematodes is a major selective pressure shaping soil bacterial communities, and many bacteria have evolved defence mechanisms such as toxicity. In this study, we show that extracellular secondary metabolites produced by the model soil bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 function as a complex defence strategy against bacterivorous nematodes. Using a collection of functional mutants lacking genes for the biosynthesis of one or several extracellular metabolites, we evaluated the impact of bacterial secondary metabolites on the survival and chemotactic behaviour of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Additionally, we followed up the stress status of the nematodes by measuring the activation of the abnormal DAuer Formation (DAF) stress cascade. All studied secondary metabolites contributed to the toxicity of the bacteria, with hydrogen cyanide efficiently repelling the nematodes, and both hydrogen cyanide and 2,4-DAPG functioning as nematicides. Moreover, these metabolites elicited the DAF stress response cascade of C. elegans, showing that they affect nematode physiology already at sublethal concentrations. The results suggest that bacterial secondary metabolites responsible for the suppression of plant pathogens strongly inhibit bacterivorous nematodes and thus likely contribute to the resistance of bacteria against predators in soil. PMID:21360140

Neidig, Nina; Paul, Rüdiger J; Scheu, Stefan; Jousset, Alexandre

2011-05-01

293

Protocol: using virus-induced gene silencing to study the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in Pisum sativum  

PubMed Central

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an alternative reverse genetics tool for silencing of genes in some plants, which are difficult to transform. The pea early-browning virus (PEBV) has been developed as a VIGS vector and used in pea for functional analysis of several genes. However, the available PEBV-VIGS protocols are inadequate for studying genes involved in the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Here we describe a PEBV-VIGS protocol suitable for reverse genetics studies in pea of genes involved in the symbiosis with AMF and show its effectiveness in silencing genes involved in the early and late stages of AMF symbiosis.

2010-01-01

294

Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.  

PubMed

• Climate change (altered CO(2) , warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. • To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. • The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO(2) (91% infected) than with ambient CO(2) (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO(2) decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO(2) reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. • These results suggest that elevated CO(2) , more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered. PMID:21070246

Brosi, Glade B; McCulley, Rebecca L; Bush, Lowell P; Nelson, Jim A; Classen, Aimée T; Norby, Richard J

2011-02-01

295

A native fungal symbiont facilitates the prevalence and development of an invasive pathogen-native vector symbiosis.  

PubMed

Invasive pathogen-insect symbioses have been extensively studied in many different ecological niches. Whether the damage of symbioses in different introduced regions might be influenced by other microorganisms has, however, received little attention. Eight years of field data showed that the varied levels of the nematode and beetle populations and infested trees of the invasive Bursaphelenchus xylophilus--Monochamus alternatus symbiosis were correlated with patterns in the isolation frequencies of ophiostomatoid fungi at six sites, while the laboratory experiments showed that the nematode produced greater numbers of offspring with a female-biased sex ratio and developed faster in the presence of one native symbiotic ophiostomatoid fungus, Sporothrix sp. 1. Diacetone alcohol (DAA) from xylem inoculated with Sporothrix sp. 1 induced B. xylophilus to produce greater numbers of offspring. Its presence also significantly increased the growth and survival rate of M. alternatus, and possibly explains the prevalence of the nematode-vector symbiosis when Sporothrix sp. 1 was dominant in the fungal communities. Studying the means by which multispecies interactions contributed to biogeographical dynamics allowed us to better understand the varied levels of damage caused by biological invasion across the invaded range. PMID:24597227

Zhao, Lilin; Lu, Min; Niu, Hongtao; Fang, Guofei; Zhang, Shuai; Sun, Jianghua

2013-12-01

296

Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis.  

PubMed Central

Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix+ on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix- in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix- on alfalfa. Images

Clover, R H; Kieber, J; Signer, E R

1989-01-01

297

Lipopolysaccharide mutants of Rhizobium meliloti are not defective in symbiosis  

SciTech Connect

Mutants of Rhizobium meliloti selected primarily for bacteriophage resistance fall into 13 groups. Mutants in the four best-characterized groups (class A, lpsB, lpsC, and class D), which map to the rhizobial chromosome, appear to affect lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as judged by the reactivity with monoclonal antibodies and behavior on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels of extracted LPS. Mutations in all 13 groups, in an otherwise wild-type genetic background, are Fix{sup +} on alfalfa. This suggests that LPS does not play a major role in symbiosis. Mutations in lpsB, however, are Fix{sup {minus}} in one particular genetic background, evidently because of the cumulative effect of several independent background mutations. In addition, an auxotrophic mutation evidently equivalent to Escherichia coli carAB is Fix{sup {minus}} on alfalfa.

Clover, R.H.; Kieber, J.; Signer, E.R. (Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (USA))

1989-07-01

298

Nuclear energy and waste management pyroprocess for system symbiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The actinide management has become a key issue in nuclear energy. Recovering and fissioning transuranium elements reduce the long-term proliferation risks and the environmental burden. The better way of waste management will be made by system symbiosis: a combination of light-water reactor and fast reactor and/or accelerator-driven transmutation system should be sought. The new recycling technology should be able to achieve good economy with smaller plants, which can process fuels from different types of reactors on a common technical basis. Ease in handling the higher heat load of transuranium nuclides is also important. Pyroprocesses with the use of molten salts are regarded as the strong candidate for such recycling technology. In JAEA, the first laboratory for the high-temperature chemistry of Am and Cm has been established. The fundamental data will be combined with the computer code for predicting the molten-salts electrolytic processes.

Ogawa, Toru; Minato, Kazuo; Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Nishihara, Kenji

2007-01-01

299

Autophosphorylation of gatekeeper tyrosine by symbiosis receptor kinase.  

PubMed

Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) share their evolutionary origin with animal interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)/Pelle family of soluble kinases and are distinguished by having tyrosine as 'gatekeeper'. This position is adjacent to the hinge region and is hidden in a hydrophobic pocket of the catalytic cleft of protein kinases and is therefore least probable to be a target for any modification. This communication illustrates the accessibility of the gatekeeper site (Y670) towards both autophosphorylation and dephosphorylation in the recombinant cytoplasmic domain of symbiosis receptor kinase from Arachis hypogaea (AhSYMRK). Autophosphorylation on gatekeeper tyrosine was detected prior to extraction but never under in vitro conditions. We hypothesize gatekeeper phosphorylation to be associated with synthesis/maturation of AhSYMRK and this phenomenon may be prevalent among RLKs. PMID:23962520

Samaddar, Sandip; Dutta, Ayan; Sinharoy, Senjuti; Paul, Anindita; Bhattacharya, Avisek; Saha, Sudip; Chien, Ko-yi; Goshe, Michael B; DasGupta, Maitrayee

2013-09-17

300

Aspects of narcissism and symbiosis, or, essential neurosis of twins.  

PubMed

Following a brief introduction I address the relationships of twins from five different perspectives: the Intimate Connection, the Mirror Image and Complementarity, Object- and Self-Representation, Self and Object or Rivalry, and Intersubjective Communication. This approach attempts to understand twin relationships and the individual development of twins in terms of their intense mutual dependence, akin to infantile symbiosis, and in terms of narcissism. In their similarity to each other, twins may choose each other as love objects even as they see themselves in the other. That is, a twin may "love what he himself is" or "someone who was once part of himself." This "type of object-choice … must be termed 'narcissistic'" (Freud, 1914, pp. 90, 88). Such "cathexis of an undifferentiated self-object" is considered to be "primary narcissism" (Burstein, 1977, p. 103). Hoffer (1952) describes primary narcissism as "the lack of all qualities discriminating between self and not-self, inside and outside" (p. 33). PMID:22712590

Kahn, Charlotte

2012-06-01

301

INTERACTIVE OPPONENTS GENERATE INTERESTING GAMES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present experiments on neuro- evolution mechanisms applied to predator\\/prey multi-character computer games. Our test-bed is a computer game where the prey (i.e. player) has to avoid its predators by escaping through an exit without getting killed. By viewing the game from the predators' (i.e. opponents') perspective, we attempt off-line to evolve neural-controlled opponents, whose communication is

Georgios N. Yannakakis; John Hallam

302

Musica ex Machina: Composing 16th-Century Counter point with Genetic Programming and Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

GPmuse is software which explores one connection between computation and creativity using a symbiosis-inspired genetic programming paradigm in which distinct agents collaborate to produce 16th-century counterpoint.

John Polito; Jason M. Daida; Tommaso F. Bersano-Begey

303

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in terms of symbiosis-parasitism continuum.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are forming the most wide-spread mycorrhizal relationships on Earth. Mycorrhiza contributes to phosphorous acquisition, water absorption and resistance to diseases. The fungus promotes the absorption of nutrients and water from soil, meanwhile the host plant offers photosynthetic assimilates in exchange, like carbohydrates, as energy source. The plant benefits from the contribution of symbiotic partner only when nutrients are in low concentrations in soil and the root system would not be able to absorb sufficiently the minerals. When the help of mycorrhizal fungi is not necessarily needed, the host plant is making an economy of energy, suppressing the development of fungi in the internal radicular space. In this moment, the nature of relationship turns from symbiotic to parasitic, triggering a series of defensive reactions from the plant. Also, there were several cases reported when the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi negatively influenced the host plant. For example, in adverse environmental conditions, like very high temperatures, instead of determining a higher plant biomass and flowering, the mycorrhiza reduces the growth of the host plant. We conducted a pot experiment with hydroponic culture to examine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhiza on development of French marigold as a host plant. As experimental variants, the phosphorous content in nutrient medium and temperature varied. Plants were artificially infected with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi using a commercial inoculum containing three fungal species, as following: Glomus intraradices, Glomus etunicatum and Glomus claroideum. Colonization intensity and arbuscular richness were checked using root staining with aniline blue and estimation with the Trouvelot method. To observe the differences between plants from the experimental variants, we examined the number of side shoots, flower buds and fully developed flowers, fresh biomass and total leaf area. Results show that adverse climatic conditions, like temperature shock at the beginning of growing period modified the nature of symbiosis. In this case, the physiological parameters were reduced at colonized plants, while usual, constant growing conditions permitted the normal, efficient and beneficial development of symbiosis. PMID:22702184

Schmidt, B; Ga?par, S; Camen, D; Ciobanu, I; Sum?lan, R

2011-01-01

304

Harnessing mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis for vector and disease control.  

PubMed

Mosquito species, members of the genera Aedes, Anopheles and Culex, are the major vectors of human pathogens including protozoa (Plasmodium sp.), filariae and of a variety of viruses (causing dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile). There is lack of efficient methods and tools to treat many of the diseases caused by these major human pathogens, since no efficient vaccines or drugs are available; even in malaria where insecticide use and drug therapies have reduced incidence, 219 million cases still occurred in 2010. Therefore efforts are currently focused on the control of vector populations. Insecticides alone are insufficient to control mosquito populations since reduced susceptibility and even resistance is being observed more and more frequently. There is also increased concern about the toxic effects of insecticides on non-target (even beneficial) insect populations, on humans and the environment. During recent years, the role of symbionts in the biology, ecology and evolution of insect species has been well-documented and has led to suggestions that they could potentially be used as tools to control pests and therefore diseases. Wolbachia is perhaps the most renowned insect symbiont, mainly due to its ability to manipulate insect reproduction and to interfere with major human pathogens thus providing new avenues for pest control. We herein present recent achievements in the field of mosquito-Wolbachia symbiosis with an emphasis on Aedes albopictus. We also discuss how Wolbachia symbiosis can be harnessed for vector control as well as the potential to combine the sterile insect technique and Wolbachia-based approaches for the enhancement of population suppression programs. PMID:24252486

Bourtzis, Kostas; Dobson, Stephen L; Xi, Zhiyong; Rasgon, Jason L; Calvitti, Maurizio; Moreira, Luciano A; Bossin, Hervé C; Moretti, Riccardo; Baton, Luke Anthony; Hughes, Grant L; Mavingui, Patrick; Gilles, Jeremie R L

2014-04-01

305

Differential Effects of Rare Specific Flavonoids on Compatible and Incompatible Strains in the Myrica gale-Frankia Actinorhizal Symbiosis? †  

PubMed Central

Plant secondary metabolites, and specifically phenolics, play important roles when plants interact with their environment and can act as weapons or positive signals during biotic interactions. One such interaction, the establishment of mutualistic nitrogen-fixing symbioses, typically involves phenolic-based recognition mechanisms between host plants and bacterial symbionts during the early stages of interaction. While these mechanisms are well studied in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis, little is known about the role of plant phenolics in the symbiosis between actinorhizal plants and Frankia genus strains. In this study, the responsiveness of Frankia strains to plant phenolics was correlated with their symbiotic compatibility. We used Myrica gale, a host species with narrow symbiont specificity, and a set of compatible and noncompatible Frankia strains. M. gale fruit exudate phenolics were extracted, and 8 dominant molecules were purified and identified as flavonoids by high-resolution spectroscopic techniques. Total fruit exudates, along with two purified dihydrochalcone molecules, induced modifications of bacterial growth and nitrogen fixation according to the symbiotic specificity of strains, enhancing compatible strains and inhibiting incompatible ones. Candidate genes involved in these effects were identified by a global transcriptomic approach using ACN14a strain whole-genome microarrays. Fruit exudates induced differential expression of 22 genes involved mostly in oxidative stress response and drug resistance, along with the overexpression of a whiB transcriptional regulator. This work provides evidence for the involvement of plant secondary metabolites in determining symbiotic specificity and expands our understanding of the mechanisms, leading to the establishment of actinorhizal symbioses.

Popovici, Jean; Comte, Gilles; Bagnarol, Emilie; Alloisio, Nicole; Fournier, Pascale; Bellvert, Floriant; Bertrand, Cedric; Fernandez, Maria P.

2010-01-01

306

Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in root mineral uptake under CaCO 3 stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effects of increasing CaCO3 concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 mM) on arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis establishment as well as on chicory root growth\\u000a and mineral nutrient uptake in a monoxenic system. Although CaCO3 treatments significantly decreased root growth and altered the symbiosis-related development steps of the AM fungus Rhizophagus irregularis (germination, germination hypha elongation, root colonization rate,

Sonia Labidi; Fayçal Ben Jeddi; Benoit Tisserant; Djouher Debiane; Salah Rezgui; Anne Grandmougin-Ferjani; Anissa Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui

307

Interactions of bullfrog tadpole predators and an insecticide: Predation release and facilitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effect of a contaminant on a community may not be easily predicted, given that complex changes in food resources and predator-prey dynamics may result. The objectives of our study were to determine the interactive effects of the insecticide carbaryl and predators on body size, development, survival, and activity of tadpoles of the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). We conducted the study in cattle tank mesocosm ponds exposed to 0, 3.5, or 7.0 mg/l carbaryl, and no predators or two red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), or crayfish (Orconectes sp.). Carbaryl negatively affected predator survival by eliminating crayfish from all ponds, and by eliminating bluegill sunfish from ponds exposed to the highest concentration of carbaryl; carbaryl exposure did not effect survival of red-spotted newts. Because crayfish were eliminated by carbaryl, bullfrogs were released from predation and survival was near that of predator controls at low concentrations of carbaryl exposure. High concentrations of carbaryl reduced tadpole survival regardless of whether predators survived carbaryl exposure or not. Presence of crayfish and newts reduced tadpole survival, while bluegill sunfish appeared to facilitate bullfrog tadpole survival. Presence of carbaryl stimulated bullfrog tadpole mass and development. Our study demonstrates that the presence of a contaminant stress can alter community regulation by releasing prey from predators that are vulnerable to contaminants in some exposure scenarios.

Boone, M. D.; Semlitsch, R. D.

2003-01-01

308

Carbon availability triggers fungal nitrogen uptake and transport in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, formed between the majority of land plants and ubiquitous soil fungi of the phylum Glomeromycota, is responsible for massive nutrient transfer and global carbon sequestration. AM fungi take up nutrients from the soil and exchange them against photosynthetically fixed carbon (C) from the host. Recent studies have demonstrated that reciprocal reward strategies by plant and fungal partners guarantee a “fair trade” of phosphorus against C between partners [Kiers ET, et al. (2011) Science 333:880–882], but whether a similar reward mechanism also controls nitrogen (N) flux in the AM symbiosis is not known. Using mycorrhizal root organ cultures, we manipulated the C supply to the host and fungus and followed the uptake and transport of N sources in the AM symbiosis, the enzymatic activities of arginase and urease, and fungal gene expression in the extraradical and intraradical mycelium. We found that the C supply of the host plant triggers the uptake and transport of N in the symbiosis, and that the increase in N transport is orchestrated by changes in fungal gene expression. N transport in the symbiosis is stimulated only when the C is delivered by the host across the mycorrhizal interface, not when C is supplied directly to the fungal extraradical mycelium in the form of acetate. These findings support the importance of C flux from the root to the fungus as a key trigger for N uptake and transport and provide insight into the N transport regulation in the AM symbiosis.

Fellbaum, Carl R.; Gachomo, Emma W.; Beesetty, Yugandhar; Choudhari, Sulbha; Strahan, Gary D.; Pfeffer, Philip E.; Kiers, E. Toby; Bucking, Heike

2012-01-01

309

Host-Symbiont Interactions Between a Marine Mussel and Methanotrophic Bacterial Endosymbionts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the discovery and demonstration of the symbiosis between methanotrophic symbionts and a deep-sea mytilid in 1986, our efforts have been directed at determining the interactions between the symbionts and hosts which determine the properties of the as...

C. Fisher J. Childress

1991-01-01

310

RAM1 and RAM2 function and expression during arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and Aphanomyces euteiches colonization.  

PubMed

The establishment of the symbiotic interaction between plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi requires a very tight molecular dialogue. Most of the known plant genes necessary for this process are also required for nodulation in legume plants and only very recently genes specifically required for AM symbiosis have been described. Among them we identified RAM (Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhization)1 and RAM2, a GRAS transcription factor and a GPAT respectively, which are critical for the induction of hyphopodia formation in AM fungi. RAM2 function is also required for appressoria formation by the pathogen Phytophtora palmivora. Here we investigated the activity of RAM1 and RAM2 promoters during mycorrhization and the role of RAM1 and RAM2 during infection by the root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. pRAM1 is activated without cell type specificity before hyphopodia formation, while pRAM2 is specifically active in arbusculated cells providing evidence for a potential function of cutin momomers in the regulation of arbuscule formation. Furthermore, consistent with what we observed with Phytophtora, RAM2 but not RAM 1 is required during Aphanomyces euteiches infection. PMID:24270627

Gobbato, Enrico; Wang, Ertao; Higgins, Gillian; Bano, Syeda Asma; Henry, Christine; Schultze, Michael; Oldroyd, Giles E D

2013-10-01

311

[Symbiosis between the nodule bacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) under salinization conditions].  

PubMed

Two hundred forty-three isolates of alfalfa nodule bacteria (Sinorhizobium meliloti) were obtained from legume nodules and soils sampled in the northern Aral region, experiencing secondary salinization. Isolates obtained from nodules (N isolates) were significantly more salt-tolerant than those from soils (S isolates) when grown in a liquid medium with 3.5% NaCl. It was found that wild species of alfalfa, melilot, and trigonella preferably formed symbioses with salt-tolerant nodule bacteria in both salinized and nonsalinized soils. Only two alfalfa species, Medicago falcata and M. trautvetteri, formed efficient symbioses in soils contrasting in salinity. The formation of efficient symbiosis with alfalfa in the presence of 0.6% NaCl was studied in 36 isolates (N and S) differing in salt tolerance and symbiotic efficiency. Fifteen isolates formed efficient symbioses in the presence of salt. The increase in the dry weight of the plants was 25-68% higher than in the control group. The efficiency of symbiotic interaction under salinization conditions depended on the efficiency of the isolates under standard conditions but did not correlate with the source of nodule bacteria (soil or nodule) or their salt tolerance. The results indicate that nodule bacterium strains forming efficient symbioses under salinization conditions can be found. PMID:16579450

Ibragimova, M V; Rumiantseva, M L; Onishchuk, O P; Belova, V S; Kurchak, O N; Andronov, E E; Dziubenko, N I; Simarov, B V

2006-01-01

312

SymGRASS: a database of sugarcane orthologous genes involved in arbuscular mycorrhiza and root nodule symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Background The rationale for gathering information from plants procuring nitrogen through symbiotic interactions controlled by a common genetic program for a sustainable biofuel production is the high energy demanding application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizers. We curated sequence information publicly available for the biofuel plant sugarcane, performed an analysis of the common SYM pathway known to control symbiosis in other plants, and provide results, sequences and literature links as an online database. Methods Sugarcane sequences and informations were downloaded from the nucEST database, cleaned and trimmed with seqclean, assembled with TGICL plus translating mapping method, and annotated. The annotation is based on BLAST searches against a local formatted plant Uniprot90 generated with CD-HIT for functional assignment, rpsBLAST to CDD database for conserved domain analysis, and BLAST search to sorghum's for Gene Ontology (GO) assignment. Gene expression was normalized according the Unigene standard, presented as ESTs/100 kb. Protein sequences known in the SYM pathway were used as queries to search the SymGRASS sequence database. Additionally, antimicrobial peptides described in the PhytAMP database served as queries to retrieve and generate expression profiles of these defense genes in the libraries compared to the libraries obtained under symbiotic interactions. Results We describe the SymGRASS, a database of sugarcane orthologous genes involved in arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) and root nodule (RN) symbiosis. The database aggregates knowledge about sequences, tissues, organ, developmental stages and experimental conditions, and provides annotation and level of gene expression for sugarcane transcripts and SYM orthologous genes in sugarcane through a web interface. Several candidate genes were found for all nodes in the pathway, and interestingly a set of symbiosis specific genes was found. Conclusions The knowledge integrated in SymGRASS may guide studies on molecular, cellular and physiological mechanisms by which sugarcane controls the establishment and efficiency of endophytic associations. We believe that the candidate sequences for the SYM pathway together with the pool of exclusively expressed tentative consensus (TC) sequences are crucial for the design of molecular studies to unravel the mechanisms controlling the establishment of symbioses in sugarcane, ultimately serving as a basis for the improvement of grass crops.

2013-01-01

313

Iron: an essential micronutrient for the legume-rhizobium symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Legumes, which develop a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, have an increased demand for iron. Iron is required for the synthesis of iron-containing proteins in the host, including the highly abundant leghemoglobin, and in bacteroids for nitrogenase and cytochromes of the electron transport chain. Deficiencies in iron can affect initiation and development of the nodule. Within root cells, iron is chelated with organic acids such as citrate and nicotianamine and distributed to other parts of the plant. Transport to the nitrogen-fixing bacteroids in infected cells of nodules is more complicated. Formation of the symbiosis results in bacteroids internalized within root cortical cells of the legume where they are surrounded by a plant-derived membrane termed the symbiosome membrane (SM). This membrane forms an interface that regulates nutrient supply to the bacteroid. Consequently, iron must cross this membrane before being supplied to the bacteroid. Iron is transported across the SM as both ferric and ferrous iron. However, uptake of Fe(II) by both the symbiosome and bacteroid is faster than Fe(III) uptake. Members of more than one protein family may be responsible for Fe(II) transport across the SM. The only Fe(II) transporter in nodules characterized to date is GmDMT1 (Glycine max divalent metal transporter 1), which is located on the SM in soybean. Like the root plasma membrane, the SM has ferric iron reductase activity. The protein responsible has not been identified but is predicted to reduce ferric iron accumulated in the symbiosome space prior to uptake by the bacteroid. With the recent publication of a number of legume genomes including Medicago truncatula and G. max, a large number of additional candidate transport proteins have been identified. Members of the NRAMP (natural resistance-associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), VIT (vacuolar iron transporter), and ZIP (Zrt-, Irt-like protein) transport families show enhanced expression in nodules and are expected to play a role in the transport of iron and other metals across symbiotic membranes.

Brear, Ella M.; Day, David A.; Smith, Penelope M. C.

2013-01-01

314

Disruption of signaling in a fungal-grass symbiosis leads to pathogenesis.  

PubMed

Symbiotic associations between plants and fungi are a dominant feature of many terrestrial ecosystems, yet relatively little is known about the signaling, and associated transcriptome profiles, that define the symbiotic metabolic state. Using the Epichloë festucae-perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) association as a model symbiotic experimental system, we show an essential role for the fungal stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (sakA) in the establishment and maintenance of this mutualistic interaction. Deletion of sakA switches the fungal interaction with the host from mutualistic to pathogenic. Infected plants exhibit loss of apical dominance, premature senescence, and dramatic changes in development, including the formation of bulb-like structures at the base of tillers that lack anthocyanin pigmentation. A comparison of the transcriptome of wild-type and sakA associations using high-throughput mRNA sequencing reveals dramatic changes in fungal gene expression consistent with the transition from restricted to proliferative growth, including a down-regulation of several clusters of secondary metabolite genes and up-regulation of a large set of genes that encode hydrolytic enzymes and transporters. Analysis of the plant transcriptome reveals up-regulation of host genes involved in pathogen defense and transposon activation as well as dramatic changes in anthocyanin and hormone biosynthetic/responsive gene expression. These results highlight the fine balance between mutualism and antagonism in a plant-fungal interaction and the power of deep mRNA sequencing to identify candidate sets of genes underlying the symbiosis. PMID:20519633

Eaton, Carla J; Cox, Murray P; Ambrose, Barbara; Becker, Matthias; Hesse, Uljana; Schardl, Christopher L; Scott, Barry

2010-08-01

315

From pollen tubes to infection threads: recruitment of Medicago floral pectic genes for symbiosis.  

PubMed

While the biology of nitrogen-fixing root nodules has been extensively studied, little is known about the evolutionary events that predisposed legume plants to form symbiosis with rhizobia. We have studied the presence and the expression of two pectic gene families in Medicago, polygalacturonases (PGs) and pectin methyl esterases (PMEs) during the early steps of the Sinorhizobium meliloti-Medicago interaction and compared them with related pollen-specific genes. First, we have compared the expression of MsPG3, a PG gene specifically expressed during the symbiotic interaction, with the expression of MsPG11, a highly homologous pollen-specific gene, using promoter-gus fusions in transgenic M. truncatula and tobacco plants. These results demonstrated that the symbiotic promoter functions as a pollen-specific promoter in the non-legume host. Second, we have identified the presence of a gene family of at least eight differentially expressed PMEs in Medicago. One subfamily is represented by one symbiotic gene (MtPER) and two pollen-expressed genes (MtPEF1 and MtPEF2) that are clustered in the M. truncatula genome. The promoter-gus studies presented in this work and the homology between plant PGs, together with the analysis of the PME locus structure and MtPER expression studies, suggest that the symbiotic MsPG3 and MtPER could have as ancestors pollen-expressed genes involved in polar tip growth processes during pollen tube elongation. Moreover, they could have been recruited after gene duplication in the symbiotic interaction to facilitate polar tip growth during infection thread formation. PMID:15272876

Rodríguez-Llorente, Ignacio D; Pérez-Hormaeche, Javier; El Mounadi, Kaoutar; Dary, Mohammed; Caviedes, Miguel A; Cosson, Viviane; Kondorosi, Adam; Ratet, Pascal; Palomares, Antonio J

2004-08-01

316

The role of iron uptake in pathogenicity and symbiosis in Photorhabdus luminescens TT01  

PubMed Central

Background Photorhabdus are Gram negative bacteria that are pathogenic to insect larvae whilst also having a mutualistic interaction with nematodes from the family Heterorhabditis. Iron is an essential nutrient and bacteria have different mechanisms for obtaining both the ferrous (Fe2+) and ferric (Fe3+) forms of this metal from their environments. In this study we were interested in analyzing the role of Fe3+ and Fe2+ iron uptake systems in the ability of Photorhabdus to interact with its invertebrate hosts. Results We constructed targeted deletion mutants of exbD, feoABC and yfeABCD in P. luminescens TT01. The exbD mutant was predicted to be crippled in its ability to obtain Fe3+ and we show that this mutant does not grow well in iron-limited media. We also show that this mutant was avirulent to the insect but was unaffected in its symbiotic interaction with Heterorhabditis. Furthermore we show that a mutation in feoABC (encoding a predicted Fe2+ permease) was unaffected in both virulence and symbiosis whilst the divalent cation transporter encoded by yfeABCD is required for virulence in the Tobacco Hornworm, Manduca sexta (Lepidoptera) but not in the Greater Wax Moth, Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera). Moreover the Yfe transporter also appears to have a role during colonization of the IJ stage of the nematode. Conclusion In this study we show that iron uptake (via the TonB complex and the Yfe transporter) is important for the virulence of P. luminescens to insect larvae. Moreover this study also reveals that the Yfe transporter appears to be involved in Mn2+-uptake during growth in the gut lumen of the IJ nematode. Therefore, the Yfe transporter in P. luminescens TT01 is important during colonization of both the insect and nematode and, moreover, the metal ion transported by this pathway is host-dependent.

2010-01-01

317

Live imaging of symbiosis: spatiotemporal infection dynamics of a GFP-labelled Burkholderia symbiont in the bean bug Riptortus pedestris.  

PubMed

Many insects possess endosymbiotic bacteria inside their body, wherein intimate interactions occur between the partners. While recent technological advancements have deepened our understanding of metabolic and evolutionary features of the symbiont genomes, molecular mechanisms underpinning the intimate interactions remain difficult to approach because the insect symbionts are generally uncultivable. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris is associated with the betaproteobacterial Burkholderia symbiont in a posterior region of the midgut, which develops numerous crypts harbouring the symbiont extracellularly. Distinct from other insect symbiotic systems, R. pedestris acquires the Burkholderia symbiont not by vertical transmission but from the environment every generation. By making use of the cultivability and the genetic tractability of the symbiont, we constructed a transgenic Burkholderia strain labelled with green fluorescent protein (GFP), which enabled detailed observation of spatiotemporal dynamics and the colonization process of the symbiont in freshly prepared specimens. The symbiont live imaging revealed that, at the second instar, colonization of the symbiotic midgut M4 region started around 6 h after inoculation (hai). By 24 hai, the symbiont cells appeared in the main tract and also in several crypts of the M4. By 48 hai, most of the crypts were colonized by the symbiont cells. By 72 hai, all the crypts were filled up with the symbiont cells and the symbiont localization pattern continued during the subsequent nymphal development. Quantitative PCR of the symbiont confirmed the infection dynamics quantitatively. These results highlight the stinkbug-Burkholderia gut symbiosis as an unprecedented model for comprehensive understanding of molecular mechanisms underpinning insect symbiosis. PMID:24103110

Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Fukatsu, Takema

2014-03-01

318

Seeing through the lizard’s trick: do avian predators avoid autotomous tails?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Counter-adaptations of predators towards their prey are a far less investigated phenomenon in predator-prey interactions.\\u000a Caudal autotomy is generally considered an effective last-resort mechanism for evading predators. However, in victim-exploiter\\u000a relationships, the efficacy of a strategy will obviously depend on the antagonist’s ability to counter it. In the logic of\\u000a the predator-prey arms race, one would expect predators to develop

Bart Vervust; Hans Van Loy; Raoul Van Damme

2011-01-01

319

Coevolutionary dynamics of adaptive radiation for food-web development  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate how complex food-webs can develop through repeated evolutionary diversification, a predator–prey model was\\u000a analyzed. In the model, each individual has two traits: trait x as a predator and trait y as a prey. These traits constitute a two-dimensional phenotype space, in which the whole group of individuals are represented\\u000a as a phenotype distribution. Predator–prey interactions among the phenotypes

Hiroshi C. Ito; Masakazu Shimada; Takashi Ikegami

2009-01-01

320

The earthworm--Verminephrobacter symbiosis: an emerging experimental system to study extracellular symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Almost all Lumbricid earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) harbor extracellular species-specific bacterial symbionts of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) in their nephridia. The symbionts have a beneficial effect on host reproduction and likely live on their host's waste products. They are vertically transmitted and presumably associated with earthworms already at the origin of Lumbricidae 62–136 million years ago. The Verminephrobacter genomes carry signs of bottleneck-induced genetic drift, such as accelerated evolutionary rates, low codon usage bias, and extensive genome shuffling, which are characteristic of vertically transmitted intracellular symbionts. However, the Verminephrobacter genomes lack AT bias, size reduction, and pseudogenization, which are also common genomic hallmarks of vertically transmitted, intracellular symbionts. We propose that the opportunity for genetic mixing during part of the host—symbiont life cycle is the key to evade drift-induced genome erosion. Furthermore, we suggest the earthworm-Verminephrobacter association as a new experimental system for investigating host-microbe interactions, and especially for understanding genome evolution of vertically transmitted symbionts in the presence of genetic mixing.

Lund, Marie B.; Kjeldsen, Kasper U.; Schramm, Andreas

2014-01-01

321

Paracatenula, an ancient symbiosis between thiotrophic Alphaproteobacteria and catenulid flatworms  

PubMed Central

Harnessing chemosynthetic symbionts is a recurring evolutionary strategy. Eukaryotes from six phyla as well as one archaeon have acquired chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In contrast to this broad host diversity, known bacterial partners apparently belong to two classes of bacteria—the Gamma- and Epsilonproteobacteria. Here, we characterize the intracellular endosymbionts of the mouthless catenulid flatworm genus Paracatenula as chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria. The symbionts of Paracatenula galateia are provisionally classified as “Candidatus Riegeria galateiae” based on 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization together with functional gene and sulfur metabolite evidence. 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis shows that all 16 Paracatenula species examined harbor host species-specific intracellular Candidatus Riegeria bacteria that form a monophyletic group within the order Rhodospirillales. Comparing host and symbiont phylogenies reveals strict cocladogenesis and points to vertical transmission of the symbionts. Between 33% and 50% of the body volume of the various worm species is composed of bacterial symbionts, by far the highest proportion among all known endosymbiotic associations between bacteria and metazoans. This symbiosis, which likely originated more than 500 Mya during the early evolution of flatworms, is the oldest known animal–chemoautotrophic bacteria association. The distant phylogenetic position of the symbionts compared with other mutualistic or parasitic Alphaproteobacteria promises to illuminate the common genetic predispositions that have allowed several members of this class to successfully colonize eukaryote cells.

Gruber-Vodicka, Harald Ronald; Dirks, Ulrich; Leisch, Nikolaus; Stoecker, Kilian; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Heindl, Niels Robert; Horn, Matthias; Lott, Christian; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Ott, Jorg

2011-01-01

322

Microgravity effects on the legume/Rhizobium symbiosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbiotic nitrogen fixation is of critical importance to world agriculture and likely will be a critical part of life support systems developed for prolonged missions in space. Bacteroid formation, an essential step in an effective Dutch White Clover/Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii symbiosis, is induced by succinic acid which is produced by the plant and which is bound and incorporated by the bacterium. Aspirin mimics succinate in its role as a bacteroid inducer and measures of aspirin binding mimiced measurements of succinate binding. In normal gravity (1×g), rhizobium bacteria immediately bound relatively high levels of aspirin (or succinate) in a readily reversible manner. Within a few seconds a portion of this initially bound aspirin became irreversibly bound. In the microgravity environment aboard the NASA 930 aircraft, rhizobia did not display the initial reversible binding of succinate, but did display a similar kinetic pattern of irreversible binding, and ultimately bound 32% more succinate (Acta Astronautica 36:129-133, 1995.) In normal gravity succinate treated cells stop dividing and swell to their maximum size (twice the normal cell volume) within a time equivalent to the time required for two normal cell doublings. Swelling in microgravity was tested in FPA and BPM sample holders aboard the space shuttle (USML-1, and STS-54, 57, and 60.) The behavior of cells in the two sample holders was similar, and swelling behavior of cells in microgravity was identical to behavior in normal gravity.

Urban, James E.

1997-01-01

323

Host-Bacterial Symbiosis in Health and Disease  

PubMed Central

All animals live in symbiosis. Shaped by eons of co-evolution, host-bacterial associations have developed into prosperous relationships creating mechanisms for mutual benefits to both microbe and host. No better example exists in biology than the astounding numbers of bacteria harbored by the lower gastrointestinal tract of mammals. The mammalian gut represents a complex ecosystem consisting of an extraordinary number of resident commensal bacteria existing in homeostasis with the host’s immune system. Most impressive about this relationship may be the concept that the host not only tolerates, but has evolved to require colonization by beneficial microorganisms, known as commensals, for various aspects of immune development and function. The microbiota provides critical signals that promote maturation of immune cells and tissues, leading to protection from infections by pathogens. Gut bacteria also appear to contribute to non-infectious immune disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and autoimmunity. How the microbiota influences host immune responses is an active area of research with important implications for human health. This review synthesizes emerging findings and concepts that describe the mutualism between the microbiota and mammals, specifically emphasizing the role of gut bacteria in shaping an immune response that mediates the balance between health and disease. Unlocking how beneficial bacteria affect the development of the immune system may lead to novel and natural therapies based on harnessing the immunomodulatory properties of the microbiota.

Chow, Janet; Lee, S. Melanie; Shen, Yue; Khosravi, Arya; Mazmanian, Sarkis K.

2011-01-01

324

Commonalities and Differences among Symbiosis Islands of Three Mesorhizobium loti Strains  

PubMed Central

To shed light on the breadth of the host range of Mesorhizobium loti strain NZP2037, we determined the sequence of the NZP2037 symbiosis island and compared it with those of strain MAFF303099 and R7A islands. The determined 533 kb sequence of NZP2037 symbiosis island, on which 504 genes were predicted, implied its integration into a phenylalanine-tRNA gene and subsequent genome rearrangement. Comparative analysis revealed that the core regions of the three symbiosis islands consisted of 165 genes. We also identified several NZP2037-specific genes with putative functions in nodulation-related events, suggesting that these genes contribute to broaden the host range of NZP2037.

Kasai-Maita, Hiroko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Kaneko, Takakazu; Miki, Kumiko; Maruya, Jumpei; Okazaki, Shin; Tabata, Satoshi; Saeki, Kazuhiko; Sato, Shusei

2013-01-01

325

Périgord black truffle genome uncovers evolutionary origins and mechanisms of symbiosis.  

PubMed

The Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum Vittad.) and the Piedmont white truffle dominate today's truffle market. The hypogeous fruiting body of T. melanosporum is a gastronomic delicacy produced by an ectomycorrhizal symbiont endemic to calcareous soils in southern Europe. The worldwide demand for this truffle has fuelled intense efforts at cultivation. Identification of processes that condition and trigger fruit body and symbiosis formation, ultimately leading to efficient crop production, will be facilitated by a thorough analysis of truffle genomic traits. In the ectomycorrhizal Laccaria bicolor, the expansion of gene families may have acted as a 'symbiosis toolbox'. This feature may however reflect evolution of this particular taxon and not a general trait shared by all ectomycorrhizal species. To get a better understanding of the biology and evolution of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis, we report here the sequence of the haploid genome of T. melanosporum, which at approximately 125 megabases is the largest and most complex fungal genome sequenced so far. This expansion results from a proliferation of transposable elements accounting for approximately 58% of the genome. In contrast, this genome only contains approximately 7,500 protein-coding genes with very rare multigene families. It lacks large sets of carbohydrate cleaving enzymes, but a few of them involved in degradation of plant cell walls are induced in symbiotic tissues. The latter feature and the upregulation of genes encoding for lipases and multicopper oxidases suggest that T. melanosporum degrades its host cell walls during colonization. Symbiosis induces an increased expression of carbohydrate and amino acid transporters in both L. bicolor and T. melanosporum, but the comparison of genomic traits in the two ectomycorrhizal fungi showed that genetic predispositions for symbiosis-'the symbiosis toolbox'-evolved along different ways in ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. PMID:20348908

Martin, Francis; Kohler, Annegret; Murat, Claude; Balestrini, Raffaella; Coutinho, Pedro M; Jaillon, Olivier; Montanini, Barbara; Morin, Emmanuelle; Noel, Benjamin; Percudani, Riccardo; Porcel, Bettina; Rubini, Andrea; Amicucci, Antonella; Amselem, Joelle; Anthouard, Véronique; Arcioni, Sergio; Artiguenave, François; Aury, Jean-Marc; Ballario, Paola; Bolchi, Angelo; Brenna, Andrea; Brun, Annick; Buée, Marc; Cantarel, Brandi; Chevalier, Gérard; Couloux, Arnaud; Da Silva, Corinne; Denoeud, France; Duplessis, Sébastien; Ghignone, Stefano; Hilselberger, Benoît; Iotti, Mirco; Marçais, Benoît; Mello, Antonietta; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni; Quesneville, Hadi; Riccioni, Claudia; Ruotolo, Roberta; Splivallo, Richard; Stocchi, Vilberto; Tisserant, Emilie; Viscomi, Arturo Roberto; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Zampieri, Elisa; Henrissat, Bernard; Lebrun, Marc-Henri; Paolocci, Francesco; Bonfante, Paola; Ottonello, Simone; Wincker, Patrick

2010-04-15

326

Synthetic biology approaches to engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals.  

PubMed

Nitrogen is abundant in the earth's atmosphere but, unlike carbon, cannot be directly assimilated by plants. The limitation this places on plant productivity has been circumvented in contemporary agriculture through the production and application of chemical fertilizers. The chemical reduction of nitrogen for this purpose consumes large amounts of energy and the reactive nitrogen released into the environment as a result of fertilizer application leads to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as widespread eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. The environmental impacts are intensified by injudicious use of fertilizers in many parts of the world. Simultaneously, limitations in the production and supply of chemical fertilizers in other regions are leading to low agricultural productivity and malnutrition. Nitrogen can be directly fixed from the atmosphere by some bacteria and Archaea, which possess the enzyme nitrogenase. Some plant species, most notably legumes, have evolved close symbiotic associations with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Engineering cereal crops with the capability to fix their own nitrogen could one day address the problems created by the over- and under-use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture. This could be achieved either by expression of a functional nitrogenase enzyme in the cells of the cereal crop or through transferring the capability to form a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria. While potentially transformative, these biotechnological approaches are challenging; however, with recent advances in synthetic biology they are viable long-term goals. This review discusses the possibility of these biotechnological solutions to the nitrogen problem, focusing on engineering the nitrogen symbiosis in cereals. PMID:24687978

Rogers, Christian; Oldroyd, Giles E D

2014-05-01

327

The Light-Organ Symbiosis of Vibrio fischeri and the Hawaiian squid, Euprymna scolopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This informational web page features the luminescent bacteria that live within the light organs of the bobtailed squid and the Hawaiian squid. The page includes a discussion of how symbionts and host influence each others development, bacterial genes required to successfully colonize the squid, the "venting" microenvironment, evidence for oxidative stress occurring inside the light organ, initiation of symbiosis, and the investigators who study the V. fischeri-E. scolopes symbiosis. It also features color images and links to selected reviews and research publications.

Graf, Joerg; Connecticut, University O.

328

Trophic Interactions Between Two Herbivorous Insects, Galerucella calmariensis and Myzus lythri, Feeding on Purple Loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, and Two Insect Predators, Harmonia axyridis and Chrysoperla carnea  

PubMed Central

The effects of two herbivorous insects, Galerucella calmariensis Duftschmid and Myzus lythri L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), feeding on purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Myrtiflorae: Lythraceae), were measured in the presence of two insect predators, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). A greenhouse cage experiment examined the direct effects of these predators on these herbivores, and indirect effects of predation on aboveground biomass, defoliation, number of leaves, and internode length. Eight treatment combinations with G. calmariensis, M. lythri, H. axyridis and C. carnea were applied to caged L. salicaria. The experiment ended when G. calmariensis adults were observed, 11 to 13 days after release of first instar G. calmariensis. G. calmariensis larvae alone removed significant amounts of leaf tissue and reduced the number of L. salicaria leaves. Predators did not reduce levels of defoliation by G. calmariensis. C. carnea had no effect on G. calmariensis survival, but H. axyridis reduced G. calmariensis survival in the presence of M. lythri. Both predators reduced the survival of M. lythri. This short duration greenhouse study did not demonstrate that predator-prey interactions altered herbivore effects on L. salicaria.

Matos, Bethzayda; Obrycki, John J.

2007-01-01

329

Evolutionary Dynamics of Nitrogen Fixation in the Legume-Rhizobia Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The stabilization of host–symbiont mutualism against the emergence of parasitic individuals is pivotal to the evolution of cooperation. One of the most famous symbioses occurs between legumes and their colonizing rhizobia, in which rhizobia extract nutrients (or benefits) from legume plants while supplying them with nitrogen resources produced by nitrogen fixation (or costs). Natural environments, however, are widely populated by ineffective rhizobia that extract benefits without paying costs and thus proliferate more efficiently than nitrogen-fixing cooperators. How and why this mutualism becomes stabilized and evolutionarily persists has been extensively discussed. To better understand the evolutionary dynamics of this symbiosis system, we construct a simple model based on the continuous snowdrift game with multiple interacting players. We investigate the model using adaptive dynamics and numerical simulations. We find that symbiotic evolution depends on the cost–benefit balance, and that cheaters widely emerge when the cost and benefit are similar in strength. In this scenario, the persistence of the symbiotic system is compatible with the presence of cheaters. This result suggests that the symbiotic relationship is robust to the emergence of cheaters, and may explain the prevalence of cheating rhizobia in nature. In addition, various stabilizing mechanisms, such as partner fidelity feedback, partner choice, and host sanction, can reinforce the symbiotic relationship by affecting the fitness of symbionts in various ways. This result suggests that the symbiotic relationship is cooperatively stabilized by various mechanisms. In addition, mixed nodule populations are thought to encourage cheater emergence, but our model predicts that, in certain situations, cheaters can disappear from such populations. These findings provide a theoretical basis of the evolutionary dynamics of legume–rhizobia symbioses, which is extendable to other single-host, multiple-colonizer systems.

Fujita, Hironori; Aoki, Seishiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

2014-01-01

330

Aspects of the winter predator--prey relationship between sauger and threadfin shad in Watts Bar Reservoir, Tennessee  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study sought to determine the impact of cold-induced mortality and impingement of threadfin shad (Dorsoma petenense) on the food consumption and prey selection of sauger (Stizostedion canadense), and to estimate the ability of sauger to digest meals consumed at low temperatures in winter. Prey selection of sauger was monitored from November 1976 through April 1977. Stomach contents of 536

M. V. McGee; J. S. Griffith; R. B. McLean

1978-01-01

331

To dare or not to dare? Risk management by owls in a predator-prey foraging game.  

PubMed

In a foraging game, predators must catch elusive prey while avoiding injury. Predators manage their hunting success with behavioral tools such as habitat selection, time allocation, and perhaps daring-the willingness to risk injury to increase hunting success. A predator's level of daring should be state dependent: the hungrier it is, the more it should be willing to risk injury to better capture prey. We ask, in a foraging game, will a hungry predator be more willing to risk injury while hunting? We performed an experiment in an outdoor vivarium in which barn owls (Tyto alba) were allowed to hunt Allenby's gerbils (Gerbillus andersoni allenbyi) from a choice of safe and risky patches. Owls were either well fed or hungry, representing the high and low state, respectively. We quantified the owls' patch use behavior. We predicted that hungry owls would be more daring and allocate more time to the risky patches. Owls preferred to hunt in the safe patches. This indicates that owls manage risk of injury by avoiding the risky patches. Hungry owls doubled their attacks on gerbils, but directed the added effort mostly toward the safe patch and the safer, open areas in the risky patch. Thus, owls dared by performing a risky action-the attack maneuver-more times, but only in the safest places-the open areas. We conclude that daring can be used to manage risk of injury and owls implement it strategically, in ways we did not foresee, to minimize risk of injury while maximizing hunting success. PMID:24810326

Embar, Keren; Raveh, Ashael; Burns, Darren; Kotler, Burt P

2014-07-01

332

Iron regulation of gene expression in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybean symbiosis. Progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We wish to address the question of whether iron plays a regulatory role in the Bradyrhizobium japonicum/soybeam symbiosis. Iron may be an important regulatory signal in planta as the bacteria must acquire iron from their plant hosts and iron-containing pr...

M. L. Guerinot

1992-01-01

333

Role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in symbiosis.  

PubMed

Rhizobia require the availability of 20 amino acids for the establishment of effective symbiosis with legumes. Some of these amino acids are synthesized by rhizobium, whereas the remaining are supplied by the host plant. The supply from plant appears to be plant-type specific. Alfalfa provides arginine, cysteine, isoleucine, valine and tryptophan, and cowpea and soybean provide histidine. The production of ornithine and anthranilic acid, the intermediates in the biosynthetic pathways of arginine and tryptophan, respectively, seems to be essential for effective symbiosis of Sinorhizobium meliloti with alfalfa. The expression of ilvC gene of S. meliloti is required for induction of nodules on the roots of alfalfa plants. An undiminished metabolic flow through the rhizobial pathways for the synthesis of purines and pyrimidines and the synthesis of biotin, nicotinic acid, riboflavin and thiamine by rhizobium appear to be requirements for normal symbiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review article on the role of rhizobial biosynthetic pathways of amino acids, nucleotide bases and vitamins in rhizobium-legume symbiosis. The scientific developments of about 35 years in this field have been reviewed. PMID:12597544

Randhawa, Gursham S; Hassani, Raad

2002-07-01

334

Analysis of the Symbiosis of the Logistics Enterprises in Logistics Park under Ecological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using of the symbiotic theory in population ecology, this article describes three symbiosis patterns between logistics enterprises in logistics park, parasitism, commensalism and mutualism. And then it analyzed the economic benefits of symbiotic logistics enterprises in the park by using the logistic model of ecology.

Fang Wei; Wang Lili

2010-01-01

335

A Case Study of Industrial Symbiosis: YunFu Boli Co., Ltd. in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

China is undergoing a rapid industrialization and has been considered as one of the biggest consumers of nature resources. The study of ecosystem development in China is important and has drawn large attention of Chinese government. For example, China's Agenda 21 highlighted the principles and sets the directions for eco-industrial development. Industrial symbiosis, which has emerged as a self-organizing business

Siyu Yang; Chong Yu; Xiuxi Li; Qian Yu

2011-01-01

336

The effect of pseudo-microgravity on the symbiosis of plants and microorganisms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symbiosis of plants and microorganisms is important to conduct agriculture under space environment. However, we have less knowledge on whether this kind of symbiosis can be established under space condition. We examined the functional compounds responsible to symbiosis between rhizobiaum and Lotus japonicus as a model of symbiotic combination. The existence of the substances for their symbiosis, some flavonoids, have already been known from the study of gene expression, but the detail structures have not yet been elucidated. Pseudomicrogravity was generated by the 3D-clinorotation. Twenty flavonoids were found in the extracts of 16 days plants of Lotus japonicus grown under the normal gravity by HPLC. Content of two flavonoids among them was affected by the infection of Mesorhizobium loti to them. It has a possibility that the two flavonoids were key substances for their combination process. The productions of those flavonoids were confirmed also under the pseudo-microgravity. The amount of one flavonoid was increased by both infection of rhizobium and exposure to the normal and pseudo-micro gravity. Chemical species of these flavonoids were identified by LC- ESI/MS and spectroscopic analysis. To show the effects of pseudo-microgravity on the gene expression, enzymic activities related to the functional compounds are evaluated after the rhizobial infection.

Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Maki, Asano; Aoki, Toshio; Tamura, Kenji; Wada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi

337

Ecoefficiency and industrial symbiosis – a counterfactual analysis of a mining community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complex utilization, a production model analogous to those described by industrial symbiosis, was planned at the Russian Kola Science Center in mid-1980. The model integrates the waste streams of mining industries in the Kola Peninsula in such a way that waste from one industrial operator becomes raw material for another. Using a counterfactual method, this article determines the eco-efficiency of

Olli Salmi

2007-01-01

338

Bacterial genes induced within the nodule during the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary During the symbiosis between the bacterium Rhizo- bium meliloti and plants such as alfalfa, the bacteria elicit the formation of nodules on the roots of host plants. The bacteria infect the nodule, enter the cyto- plasm of plant cells and differentiate into a distinct cell type called a bacteroid, which is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. To discover bacterial

Valerie Oke; Sharon R. Long

1999-01-01

339

OBSERVATIONS ON THE SYMBIOSIS OF THE SEA ANEMONE STOICHACTIS AND THE POMACENTRID FISH, AMPHIPRION PERCULA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partnership between certain tropical damselfishes and sea anemones has excited the interest of students of natural history for almost a century. The most significant investigations of the symbiosis have been those of Sluiter (1888), Ver wey (1930) and Gohar (1948), who have given us some knowledge of the ecology and behavioral characteristics of the animals. In 1947 Gudger reviewed

DEMOREST DAVENPORT; KENNETH S. NORRIS

340

Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual Bacterial Symbiosis of Sharpshooters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutualistic intracellular symbiosis between bacteria and insects is a widespread phenomenon that has contributed to the global success of insects. The symbionts, by provisioning nutrients lacking from diets, allow various insects to occupy or dominate ecological niches that might otherwise be unavailable. One such insect is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), which feeds on xylem fluid, a diet exceptionally poor

Dongying Wu; Sean C Daugherty; Susan E Van Aken; Grace H Pai; Kisha L Watkins; Hoda Khouri; Luke J Tallon; Jennifer M Zaborsky; Helen E Dunbar; Phat L Tran; Nancy A Moran; Jonathan A Eisen

2006-01-01

341

Impact of environmental stress on aphid clonal resistance to parasitoids: Role of Hamiltonella defensa bacterial symbiosis in association with a new facultative symbiont of the pea aphid.  

PubMed

Resistance to endoparasitoids in aphids involves complex interactions between insect and microbial players. It is now generally accepted that the facultative bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum is implicated in its resistance to the parasitoid Aphidius ervi. It has also been shown that heat negatively affects pea aphid resistance, suggesting the thermosensitivity of its defensive symbiosis. Here we examined the effects of heat and UV-B on the resistance of A. pisum to A. ervi and we relate its stability under heat stress to different facultative bacterial symbionts hosted by the aphid. For six A. pisum clones harboring four different facultative symbiont associations, the impact of heat and UV-B was measured on their ability to resist A. ervi parasitism under controlled conditions. The results revealed that temperature strongly affected resistance, while UV-B did not. As previously shown, highly resistant A. pisum clones singly infected with H. defensa became more susceptible to parasitism after exposure to heat. Interestingly, clones that were superinfected with H. defensa in association with a newly discovered facultative symbiont, referred to as PAXS (pea aphid X-type symbiont), not only remained highly resistant under heat stress, but also expressed previously unknown, very precocious resistance to A. ervi compared to clones with H. defensa alone. The prevalence of dual symbiosis involving PAXS and H. defensa in local aphid populations suggests its importance in protecting aphid immunity to parasitoids under abiotic stress. PMID:19545573

Guay, Jean-Frédéric; Boudreault, Simon; Michaud, Dominique; Cloutier, Conrad

2009-10-01

342

How does phosphate status influence the development of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis?  

PubMed Central

Most terrestrial plant roots form mutualistic symbiosis with soil-borne arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), a characteristic feature of which is nutrient exchange between the two symbiotic partners. Phosphate (Pi) is the main benefit the host plants acquired from the AMF. It has long been a common realization that high Pi supply could suppress the AMF development. However, the direct molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying this plant directed suppression are lacking. Here we reviewed the recent work providing the evidences that high Pi supply induces transcriptional alteration, leading to the inhibition of AMF development at different stages of AM symbiosis, and gave our view on potential cross-talk among Pi starvation, AM as well as phytohormone signaling.

Gu, Mian; Chen, Aiqun; Dai, Xiaoli; Liu, Wei

2011-01-01

343

Rapid nitrogen transfer in the Sorghum bicolor-Glomus mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  

PubMed Central

We have recently identified two genes coding for ammonium transporters (AMT) in Sorghum bicolor that were induced in roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. To improve our understanding of the dynamics of ammonium transport in this symbiosis, we studied the transfer of soil-ammonium-derived 15N to S. bicolor plants via the Glomus mosseae fungal mycelium in compartmented microcosms. The 15NH4+-containing hyphal compartment was inaccessible to the roots in the plant compartment. 15N label concentrations significantly increased in plant roots and leaves already 48 h after exposure of the AM fungus to the 15NH4+ substrate, attesting an efficient symbiotic N transfer between the symbiotic partners and further highlighting that AM symbiosis represents an important component of plant nitrogen nutrition.

Koegel, Sally; Boller, Thomas; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Wiemken, Andres; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

2013-01-01

344

Rapid nitrogen transfer in the Sorghum bicolor-Glomus mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

We have recently identified two genes coding for ammonium transporters (AMT) in Sorghum bicolor that were induced in roots colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. To improve our understanding of the dynamics of ammonium transport in this symbiosis, we studied the transfer of soil-ammonium-derived (15)N to S. bicolor plants via the Glomus mosseae fungal mycelium in compartmented microcosms. The (15)NH (4+)-containing hyphal compartment was inaccessible to the roots in the plant compartment. (15)N label concentrations significantly increased in plant roots and leaves already 48 h after exposure of the AM fungus to the (15)NH (4+) substrate, attesting an efficient symbiotic N transfer between the symbiotic partners and further highlighting that AM symbiosis represents an important component of plant nitrogen nutrition. PMID:23759552

Koegel, Sally; Boller, Thomas; Lehmann, Moritz F; Wiemken, Andres; Courty, Pierre-Emmanuel

2013-08-01

345

Complete Genome Sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321: Insights into Symbiosis Evolution in Soil Oligotrophs  

PubMed Central

Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 is an oligotrophic bacterium isolated from paddy field soil. Although S23321 is phylogenetically close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, a legume symbiont, it is unable to induce root nodules in siratro, a legume often used for testing Nod factor-dependent nodulation. The genome of S23321 is a single circular chromosome, 7,231,841 bp in length, with an average GC content of 64.3%. The genome contains 6,898 potential protein-encoding genes, one set of rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Comparison of the genome structure between S23321 and USDA110 showed strong colinearity; however, the symbiosis islands present in USDA110 were absent in S23321, whose genome lacked a chaperonin gene cluster (groELS3) for symbiosis regulation found in USDA110. A comparison of sequences around the tRNA-Val gene strongly suggested that S23321 contains an ancestral-type genome that precedes the acquisition of a symbiosis island by horizontal gene transfer. Although S23321 contains a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster, the organization, homology, and phylogeny of the genes in this cluster were more similar to those of photosynthetic bradyrhizobia ORS278 and BTAi1 than to those on the symbiosis island of USDA110. In addition, we found genes encoding a complete photosynthetic system, many ABC transporters for amino acids and oligopeptides, two types (polar and lateral) of flagella, multiple respiratory chains, and a system for lignin monomer catabolism in the S23321 genome. These features suggest that S23321 is able to adapt to a wide range of environments, probably including low-nutrient conditions, with multiple survival strategies in soil and rhizosphere.

Okubo, Takashi; Tsukui, Takahiro; Maita, Hiroko; Okamoto, Shinobu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Saito, Akihiro; Futamata, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Reiko; Shimomura, Yumi; Haruta, Shin; Morimoto, Sho; Wang, Yong; Sakai, Yoriko; Hattori, Masahira; Aizawa, Shin-ichi; Nagashima, Kenji V. P.; Masuda, Sachiko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yamashita, Akifumi; Bao, Zhihua; Hayatsu, Masahito; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Yoshinaga, Ikuo; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Toyota, Koki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Anda, Mizue; Niwa, Rieko; Jung-Hwan, Park; Sameshima-Saito, Reiko; Tokuda, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Syuji; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nakahira-Yanaka, Yuka; Hoshino, Yuko Takada; Hirakawa, Hideki; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Terasawa, Kimihiro; Itakura, Manabu; Sato, Shusei; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Sakakura, Natsuko; Kaminuma, Eli; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2012-01-01

346

Sinorhizobium meliloti requires a cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase for symbiosis with its plant host  

PubMed Central

Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a critical cofactor for animals and protists, yet its biosynthesis is limited to prokaryotes. We previously showed that the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti requires cobalamin to establish a symbiotic relationship with its plant host, Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Here, the specific requirement for cobalamin in the S. meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis was investigated. Of the three known cobalamin-dependent enzymes in S. meliloti, the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (BhbA) does not affect symbiosis whereas disruption of the metH gene encoding the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase causes a significant defect in symbiosis. Expression of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE alleviates this symbiotic defect, indicating that the requirement for methionine synthesis does not reflect a need for the cobalamin-dependent enzyme. To investigate the function of the cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) encoded by nrdJ, S. meliloti was engineered to express an Escherichia coli cobalamin-independent (Class Ia) RNR instead of nrdJ. This strain is severely defective in symbiosis. Electron micrographs show that these cells can penetrate alfalfa nodules but are unable to differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and instead are lysed in the plant cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that these bacteria are largely unable to undergo endoreduplication. These phenotypes may be due to the inactivation of the Class Ia RNR by reactive oxygen species and/or inadequate oxygen availability in the nodule. These results show that the critical role of the cobalamin-dependent RNR for survival of S. meliloti in its plant host can account for the considerable resources that S. meliloti dedicates to cobalamin biosynthesis.

Taga, Michiko E.; Walker, Graham C.

2010-01-01

347

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant symbiosis in a saline-sodic soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonality of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi–plant symbiosis in Lotus glaber Mill. and Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) O.K. and the association with phosphorus (P) plant nutrition were studied in a saline-sodic soil at the four seasons\\u000a during a year. Plant roots of both species were densely colonized by AM fungi (90 and 73%, respectively in L. glaber and S. secundatum) at

Ileana V. García; Rodolfo E. Mendoza

2007-01-01

348

Sinorhizobium meliloti requires a cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase for symbiosis with its plant host.  

PubMed

Vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) is a critical cofactor for animals and protists, yet its biosynthesis is limited to prokaryotes. We previously showed that the symbiotic nitrogen-fixing alphaproteobacterium Sinorhizobium meliloti requires cobalamin to establish a symbiotic relationship with its plant host, Medicago sativa (alfalfa). Here, the specific requirement for cobalamin in the S. meliloti-alfalfa symbiosis was investigated. Of the three known cobalamin-dependent enzymes in S. meliloti, the methylmalonyl CoA mutase (BhbA) does not affect symbiosis, whereas disruption of the metH gene encoding the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase causes a significant defect in symbiosis. Expression of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase MetE alleviates this symbiotic defect, indicating that the requirement for methionine synthesis does not reflect a need for the cobalamin-dependent enzyme. To investigate the function of the cobalamin-dependent ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) encoded by nrdJ, S. meliloti was engineered to express an Escherichia coli cobalamin-independent (class Ia) RNR instead of nrdJ. This strain is severely defective in symbiosis. Electron micrographs show that these cells can penetrate alfalfa nodules but are unable to differentiate into nitrogen-fixing bacteroids and, instead, are lysed in the plant cytoplasm. Flow cytometry analysis indicates that these bacteria are largely unable to undergo endoreduplication. These phenotypes may be due either to the inactivation of the class Ia RNR by reactive oxygen species, inadequate oxygen availability in the nodule, or both. These results show that the critical role of the cobalamin-dependent RNR for survival of S. meliloti in its plant host can account for the considerable resources that S. meliloti dedicates to cobalamin biosynthesis. PMID:20698752

Taga, Michiko E; Walker, Graham C

2010-12-01

349

Musica ex Machina: Composing 16th-Century Counterpoint with Genetic Programming and Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

. GPmuse is software which explores one connection betweencomputation and creativity using a symbiosis-inspired geneticprogramming paradigm in which distinct agents collaborate to produce16th-century counterpoint.1. IntroductionIn a recent popular article on the science of creativity [3], Margaret Boden describestwo well-known computer programs that produce music in the styles of different composers.That a computer can at least appear to be creative suggests

John Polito; Jason M. Daida; Tommaso F. Bersano-begey

1997-01-01

350

Fueled by Symbiosis, Foraminifera have Evolved to be Giant Complex Protists  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a One may wonder in the framework of this book, and in context with the well-balanced chapter by Stambler, why foraminifera\\u000a have been singled out to be the focus of a separate chapter. The answer is simple. Foraminifera are generally less well known,\\u000a and they exemplify the power by which symbiosis can drive evolution of a predisposed and malleable group of

John J. Lee

351

Complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321: insights into symbiosis evolution in soil oligotrophs.  

PubMed

Bradyrhizobium sp. S23321 is an oligotrophic bacterium isolated from paddy field soil. Although S23321 is phylogenetically close to Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110, a legume symbiont, it is unable to induce root nodules in siratro, a legume often used for testing Nod factor-dependent nodulation. The genome of S23321 is a single circular chromosome, 7,231,841 bp in length, with an average GC content of 64.3%. The genome contains 6,898 potential protein-encoding genes, one set of rRNA genes, and 45 tRNA genes. Comparison of the genome structure between S23321 and USDA110 showed strong colinearity; however, the symbiosis islands present in USDA110 were absent in S23321, whose genome lacked a chaperonin gene cluster (groELS3) for symbiosis regulation found in USDA110. A comparison of sequences around the tRNA-Val gene strongly suggested that S23321 contains an ancestral-type genome that precedes the acquisition of a symbiosis island by horizontal gene transfer. Although S23321 contains a nif (nitrogen fixation) gene cluster, the organization, homology, and phylogeny of the genes in this cluster were more similar to those of photosynthetic bradyrhizobia ORS278 and BTAi1 than to those on the symbiosis island of USDA110. In addition, we found genes encoding a complete photosynthetic system, many ABC transporters for amino acids and oligopeptides, two types (polar and lateral) of flagella, multiple respiratory chains, and a system for lignin monomer catabolism in the S23321 genome. These features suggest that S23321 is able to adapt to a wide range of environments, probably including low-nutrient conditions, with multiple survival strategies in soil and rhizosphere. PMID:22452844

Okubo, Takashi; Tsukui, Takahiro; Maita, Hiroko; Okamoto, Shinobu; Oshima, Kenshiro; Fujisawa, Takatomo; Saito, Akihiro; Futamata, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Reiko; Shimomura, Yumi; Haruta, Shin; Morimoto, Sho; Wang, Yong; Sakai, Yoriko; Hattori, Masahira; Aizawa, Shin-Ichi; Nagashima, Kenji V P; Masuda, Sachiko; Hattori, Tsutomu; Yamashita, Akifumi; Bao, Zhihua; Hayatsu, Masahito; Kajiya-Kanegae, Hiromi; Yoshinaga, Ikuo; Sakamoto, Kazunori; Toyota, Koki; Nakao, Mitsuteru; Kohara, Mitsuyo; Anda, Mizue; Niwa, Rieko; Jung-Hwan, Park; Sameshima-Saito, Reiko; Tokuda, Shin-Ichi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Yamamoto, Syuji; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Nakamura, Yasukazu; Nakahira-Yanaka, Yuka; Takada Hoshino, Yuko; Hirakawa, Hideki; Mitsui, Hisayuki; Terasawa, Kimihiro; Itakura, Manabu; Sato, Shusei; Ikeda-Ohtsubo, Wakako; Sakakura, Natsuko; Kaminuma, Eli; Minamisawa, Kiwamu

2012-01-01

352

Physiological and antioxidant responses of Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis to cyanobacterial toxins (Microcystins) exposure.  

PubMed

Toxic cyanobacteria in freshwaters can induce potent harmful effects on growth and development of plants irrigated with contaminated water. In this study, the effect of cyanobacteria extract containing Microcystins (MC) on Medicago sativa-rhizobia symbiosis was investigated in order to explore plants response through biomass production, photosynthetic pigment and antioxidant enzymes analysis: Peroxidase (POD), Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and Catalase (CAT). Alfalfa plants were inoculated with two endosymbiotic rhizobial strains: RhOL1 (MC less sensitive strain) and RhOL3 (MC more sensitive strain), to evaluate the rhizobial contribution on the plant response cultured under cyanobacterial toxins stress. The two rhizobia strains were identified as Ensifer meliloti by sequence analysis of their rrs and atpD genes. The chronic exposure to MC extract showed shoot, root and nodules dry weight decrease, in both symbiosis cultures. The rate of decline in plants inoculated with RhOL3 was higher than that in symbiosis with RhOL1 mainly at 20 ?g L(-1) of MC. Cyanotoxins also reduced photosynthetic pigment content and generated an oxidative stress observed at cellular level. POD, PPO and CAT activities were significantly increased in leaves, roots and nodules of alfalfa plants exposed to MC. These enzyme activities were higher in plants inoculated with RhOL3 especially when alfalfa plants were exposed to 20 ?g L(-1) of MC. The present paper reports new scientific finding related to the behavior of rhizobia-M. sativa associations to MC (Microcystins) for later recommendation concerning the possible use of these symbiosis face to crops exposure to MC contaminated water irrigation. PMID:24125659

El Khalloufi, Fatima; Oufdou, Khalid; Lahrouni, Majida; Faghire, Mustapha; Peix, Alvaro; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha Helena; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

2013-12-15

353

Increased Production of the Exopolysaccharide Succinoglycan Enhances Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 Symbiosis with the Host Plant Medicago truncatula  

PubMed Central

The nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021 produces acidic symbiotic exopolysaccharides that enable it to initiate and maintain infection thread formation on host legume plants. The exopolysaccharide that is most efficient in mediating this process is succinoglycan (exopolysaccharide I [EPSI]), a polysaccharide composed of octasaccharide repeating units of 1 galactose and 7 glucose residues, modified with succinyl, acetyl, and pyruvyl substituents. Previous studies had shown that S. meliloti 1021 mutants that produce increased levels of succinoglycan, such as exoR mutants, are defective in symbiosis with host plants, leading to the hypothesis that high levels of succinoglycan production might be detrimental to symbiotic development. This study demonstrates that increased succinoglycan production itself is not detrimental to symbiotic development and, in fact, enhances the symbiotic productivity of S. meliloti 1021 with the host plant Medicago truncatula cv. Jemalong A17. Increased succinoglycan production was engineered by overexpression of the exoY gene, which encodes the enzyme responsible for the first step in succinoglycan biosynthesis. These results suggest that the level of symbiotic exopolysaccharide produced by a rhizobial species is one of the factors involved in optimizing the interaction with plant hosts.

2012-01-01

354

Symbiont-driven sulfur crystal formation in a thiotrophic symbiosis from deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps.  

PubMed

The siboglinid tubeworm Sclerolinum contortum symbiosis inhabits sulfidic sediments at deep-sea hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico. A single symbiont phylotype in the symbiont-housing organ is inferred from phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (16S rRNA) gene and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The phylotype we studied here, and a previous study from an arctic hydrocarbon seep population, reveal identical 16S rRNA symbiont gene sequences. While sulfide is apparently the energy source for the symbionts (and ultimately the gutless host), both partners also have to cope with its toxicity. This study demonstrates abundant large sulfur crystals restricted to the trophosome area. Based on Raman microspectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, these crystals have the same S8 sulfur configuration as the recently described small sulfur vesicles formed in the symbionts. The crystals reside adjacent to the symbionts in the trophosome. This suggests that their formation is either extra- or intracellular in symbionts. We propose that formation of these crystals provides both energy-storage compounds for the symbionts and serves the symbiosis by removing excess toxic sulfide from host tissues. This symbiont-mediated sulfide detoxification may have been crucial for the establishment of thiotrophic symbiosis and continues to remain an important function of the symbionts. PMID:24992535

Eichinger, Irmgard; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Schmid, Markus; Fisher, Charles R; Bright, Monika

2014-08-01

355

Nitrate regulates rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

Nitrogen-limited conditions are considered to be a prerequisite for legume-rhizobial symbiosis, but the effects of nitrate-rich conditions on symbiotic status remain poorly understood. We addressed this issue by examining rhizobial (Rhizobim tropici) and arbusclar mycorrhizal (Glomus intraradices) symbiosis in Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Negro Jamapa under nitrate pre-incubation and continuous nitrate conditions. Our results indicate that nitrate pre-incubation, independent of the concentration, did not affect nodule development. However, the continuous supply of nitrate at high concentrations impaired nodule maturation and nodule numbers. Low nitrate conditions, in addition to positively regulating nodule number, biomass, and nitrogenase activity, also extended the span of nitrogen-fixing activity. By contrast, for arbuscular mycorrhizae, continuous 10 and 50?mmol/L nitrate increased the percent root length colonization, concomitantly reduced arbuscule size, and enhanced ammonia transport without affecting phosphate transport. Therefore, in this manuscript, we have proposed the importance of nitrate as a positive regulator in promoting both rhizobial and mycorrhizal symbiosis in the common bean. PMID:24387000

Nanjareddy, Kalpana; Blanco, Lourdes; Arthikala, Manoj-Kumar; Affantrange, Xochitl Alvarado; Sánchez, Federico; Lara, Miguel

2014-03-01

356

Multi-gene analysis of Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: a perspective on rarity, symbiosis, and evolution  

PubMed Central

Symbiodinium, a large group of dinoflagellates, live in symbiosis with marine protists, invertebrate metazoans, and free-living in the environment. Symbiodinium are functionally variable and play critical energetic roles in symbiosis. Our knowledge of Symbiodinium has been historically constrained by the limited number of molecular markers available to study evolution in the genus. Here we compare six functional genes, representing three cellular compartments, in the nine known Symbiodinium lineages. Despite striking similarities among the single gene phylogenies from distinct organelles, none were evolutionarily identical. A fully concatenated reconstruction, however, yielded a well-resolved topology identical to the current benchmark nr28S gene. Evolutionary rates differed among cellular compartments and clades, a pattern largely driven by higher rates of evolution in the chloroplast genes of Symbiodinium clades D2 and I. The rapid rates of evolution observed amongst these relatively uncommon Symbiodinium lineages in the functionally critical chloroplast may translate into potential innovation for the symbiosis. The multi-gene analysis highlights the potential power of assessing genome-wide evolutionary patterns using recent advances in sequencing technology and emphasizes the importance of integrating ecological data with more comprehensive sampling of free-living and symbiotic Symbiodinium in assessing the evolutionary adaptation of this enigmatic dinoflagellate.

Putnam, Hollie M.; Gates, Ruth D.

2014-01-01

357

Forests trapped in nitrogen limitation - an ecological market perspective on ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis is omnipresent in boreal forests, where it is assumed to benefit plant growth. However, experiments show inconsistent benefits for plants and volatility of individual partnerships, which calls for a re-evaluation of the presumed role of this symbiosis. We reconcile these inconsistencies by developing a model that demonstrates how mycorrhizal networking and market mechanisms shape the strategies of individual plants and fungi to promote symbiotic stability at the ecosystem level. The model predicts that plants switch abruptly from a mixed strategy with both mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots to a purely mycorrhizal strategy as soil nitrogen availability declines, in agreement with the frequency distribution of ectomycorrhizal colonization intensity across a wide-ranging data set. In line with observations in field-scale isotope labeling experiments, the model explains why ectomycorrhizal symbiosis does not alleviate plant nitrogen limitation. Instead, market mechanisms may generate self-stabilization of the mycorrhizal strategy via nitrogen depletion feedback, even if plant growth is ultimately reduced. We suggest that this feedback mechanism maintains the strong nitrogen limitation ubiquitous in boreal forests. The mechanism may also have the capacity to eliminate or even reverse the expected positive effect of rising CO2 on tree growth in strongly nitrogen-limited boreal forests. PMID:24824576

Franklin, Oskar; Näsholm, Torgny; Högberg, Peter; Högberg, Mona N

2014-07-01

358

Plant nitrogen acquisition and interactions under elevated carbon dioxide: impact of endophytes and mycorrhizae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi interact with plants to form symbiosis in which the fungal partners rely on, and sometimes compete for, carbon (C) sources from their hosts. Changes in photosynthesis in host plants caused by atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment may, therefore, influence those mutualistic interactions, potentially modifying plant nutrient acquisition and interactions with other coexisting plant species. However,

XIN C HEN; M ICHAEL G. B URTON; KENT O. B URKEY

359

Highly diverse and spatially heterogeneous mycorrhizal symbiosis in a rare epiphyte is unrelated to broad biogeographic or environmental features.  

PubMed

Symbiotic interactions are common in nature. In dynamic or degraded environments, the ability to associate with multiple partners (i.e. broad specificity) may enable species to persist through fluctuations in the availability of any particular partner. Understanding how species interactions vary across landscapes is necessary to anticipate direct and indirect consequences of environmental degradation on species conservation. We asked whether mycorrhizal symbiosis by populations of a rare epiphytic orchid (Epidendrum firmum) is related to geographic or environmental heterogeneity. The latter would suggest that interactions are governed by environmental conditions rather than historic isolation of populations and/or mycorrhizal fungi. We used DNA-based methods to identify mycorrhizal fungi from eleven E. firmum populations in Costa Rica. We used molecular and phylogenetic analyses to compare associations. Epidendrum firmum exhibited broad specificity, associating with diverse mycorrhizal fungi, including six Tulasnellaceae molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs), five Sebacinales MOTUs and others. Notably, diverse mycorrhizal symbioses formed in disturbed pasture and roadside habitats. Mycorrhizal fungi exhibited significant similarity within populations (spatial and phylogenetic autocorrelation) and significant differences among populations (phylogenetic community dissimilarity). However, mycorrhizal symbioses were not significantly associated with biogeographic or environmental features. Such unexpected heterogeneity among populations may result from complex combinations of fine-scale environmental factors and macro-evolutionary patterns of change in mycorrhizal specificity. Thus, E. firmum exhibits broad specificity and the potential for opportunistic associations with diverse fungi. We suggest that these characteristics could confer symbiotic assurance when mycorrhizal fungi are stochastically available, which may be crucial in dynamic or disturbed habitats such as tropical forest canopies. PMID:24112555

Kartzinel, Tyler R; Trapnell, Dorset W; Shefferson, Richard P

2013-12-01

360

Control of microbial communities by the macrofauna: a sensitive interaction in the context of extreme summer temperatures?  

PubMed

Climate models predict an increasing frequency of extremely hot summer events in the northern hemisphere for the near future. We hypothesised that microbial grazing by the metazoan macrofauna is an interaction that becomes unbalanced at high temperatures due to the different development of the grazing rates of the metazoans and the growth rates of the microbial community with increasing temperature. In order to test this hypothesis, we performed grazing experiments in which we measured the impact of increasing temperatures on the development of the grazing rates of riverine mussels in relation to the growth rates of a unicellular prey community (a natural heterotrophic flagellate community from a large river). In a first experimental series using Corbicula fluminea as a grazer and under the addition of a carbon source (yeast extract), the increase of the prey's growth rates was considerably stronger than that of the predator's grazing rates when temperatures were increased from 19 to over 25 degrees C. This was also the outcome when the mussels had been acclimatized to warm temperatures. Hereafter, specific experiments with natural river water at temperatures of 25 and 30 degrees C were performed. Again, a strong decrease of the mussels' grazing rates in relation to the flagellate growth rates with increasing temperature occurred for two mussel species (C. fluminea and Dreissena polymorpha). When performing the same experiment using a benthic microbial predator community (biofilms dominated by ciliates) instead of the benthic mussels, an increase of the grazing rates relative to the growth rates with temperature could be observed. Our data suggest that predator-prey interactions (between metazoans and microbes) that are balanced at moderate temperatures could become unbalanced at high temperatures. This could have significant effects on the structure and function of microbial communities in light of the predicted increasing frequency of summer heat waves. PMID:16964501

Viergutz, Carsten; Kathol, Marcel; Norf, Helge; Arndt, Hartmut; Weitere, Markus

2007-02-01

361

Visick Lab: Home of the Vibrio-Euprymna Symbiosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website features general information about the lab of Karen Visick, which studies the genes needed to establish an interaction between the small Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent symbiont, the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. It features links to more information about current research in the Visick lab, lab members and events, and the summer research program and microbiology department at Loyola University.

Visick, Karen; University, Loyola

362

Nod Factor Signal Transduction in the Rhizobium–Legume Symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The symbiotic interaction between Rhizobium bacteria and most legume plants is initiated by the perception of bacterial signal molecules, the nodulation (Nod) factors,\\u000a at the root hairs of the plant. This induces responses both in the root hairs, leading to infection by the bacteria, as well\\u000a as at a distance in the root cortex, leading to nodule organ formation. Molecular

E. Limpens; T. Bisseling

2009-01-01

363

Symbiosis and the social network of higher plants.  

PubMed

In the Internet era, communicating with friends and colleagues via social networks constitutes a significant proportion of our daily activities. Similarly animals and plants also interact with many organisms, some of which are pathogens and do no good for the plant, while others are beneficial symbionts. Almost all plants indulge in developing social networks with microbes, in particular with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and emerging evidence indicates that most employ an ancient and widespread central 'social media' pathway made of signaling molecules within what is called the SYM pathway. Some plants, like legumes, are particularly active recruiters of friends, as they have established very sophisticated and beneficial interactions with nitrogen-fixing bacteria, also via the SYM pathway. Interestingly, many members of the Brassicaceae, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, seem to have removed themselves from this ancestral social network and lost the ability to engage in mutually favorable interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Despite these generalizations, recent studies exploring the root microbiota of A. thaliana have found that in natural conditions, A. thaliana roots are colonized by many different bacterial species and therefore may be using different and probably more recent 'social media' for these interactions. In general, recent advances in the understanding of such molecular machinery required for plant-symbiont associations are being obtained using high throughput genomic profiling strategies including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The crucial mechanistic understanding that such data reveal may provide the infrastructure for future efforts to genetically manipulate crop social networks for our own food and fiber needs. PMID:23246268

Venkateshwaran, Muthusubramanian; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sussman, Michael R; Ané, Jean-Michel

2013-02-01

364

Marine microbial symbiosis heats up: the phylogenetic and functional response of a sponge holobiont to thermal stress  

PubMed Central

Large-scale mortality of marine invertebrates is a major global concern for ocean ecosystems and many sessile, reef-building animals, such as sponges and corals, are experiencing significant declines through temperature-induced disease and bleaching. The health and survival of marine invertebrates is often dependent on intimate symbiotic associations with complex microbial communities, yet we have a very limited understanding of the detailed biology and ecology of both the host and the symbiont community in response to environmental stressors, such as elevated seawater temperatures. Here, we use the ecologically important sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile as a model to explore the changes in symbiosis during the development of temperature-induced necrosis. Expression profiling of the sponge host was examined in conjunction with the phylogenetic and functional structure and the expression profile of the symbiont community. Elevated temperature causes an immediate stress response in both the host and symbiont community, including reduced expression of functions that mediate their partnership. Disruption to nutritional interdependence and molecular interactions during early heat stress further destabilizes the holobiont, ultimately leading to the loss of archetypal sponge symbionts and the introduction of new microorganisms that have functional and expression profiles consistent with a scavenging lifestyle, a lack virulence functions and a high growth rate. Previous models have postulated various mechanisms of mortality and disease in marine invertebrates. Our study suggests that interruption of symbiotic interactions is a major determinant for mortality in marine sessile invertebrates. High symbiont specialization and low functional redundancy, thus make these holobionts extremely vulnerable to environmental perturbations, including climate change.

Fan, Lu; Liu, Michael; Simister, Rachel; Webster, Nicole S; Thomas, Torsten

2013-01-01

365

Screening for differentially expressed genes in Anoectochilus roxburghii (Orchidaceae) during symbiosis with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp.  

PubMed

Mycorrhizal fungi promote the growth and development of plants, including medicinal plants. The mechanisms by which this growth promotion occurs are of theoretical interest and practical importance to agriculture. Here, an endophytic fungus (AR-18) was isolated from roots of the orchid Anoectochilus roxburghii growing in the wild, and identified as Epulorhiza sp. Tissue-cultured seedlings of A. roxburghii were inoculated with AR-18 and co-cultured for 60 d. Endotrophic mycorrhiza formed and the growth of A. roxburghii was markedly promoted by the fungus. To identify genes in A. roxburghii that were differentially expressed during the symbiosis with AR-18, we used the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) method to compare the transcriptomes between seedlings inoculated with the fungus and control seedlings. We amplified 52 DDRT-PCR bands using 15 primer combinations of three anchor primers and five arbitrary primers, and nine bands were re-amplified by double primers. Reverse Northern blot analyses were used to further screen the bands. Five clones were up-regulated in the symbiotic interaction, including genes encoding a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTs; EC 2.4.2.9) and a hypothetical protein. One gene encoding an amino acid transmembrane transporter was down-regulated, and one gene encoding a tRNA-Lys (trnK) and a maturase K (matK) pseudogene were expressed only in the inoculated seedlings. The possible roles of the above genes, especially the UPRTs and matK genes, are discussed in relation to the fungal interaction. This study is the first of its type in A. roxburghii. PMID:22415688

Li, Biao; Tang, Mingjuan; Tang, Kun; Zhao, Lifang; Guo, Shunxing

2012-02-01

366

Involvement of a Soybean ATP-Binding Cassette-Type Transporter in the Secretion of Genistein, a Signal Flavonoid in Legume-Rhizobium Symbiosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legume plants have an ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen into nutrients via symbiosis with soil microbes. As the initial event of the symbiosis, legume plants secrete flavonoids into the rhizosphere to attract rhizobia. Secretion of flavonoids is indispens- able for the establishment of symbiotic nitrogen fixation, but almost nothing is known about the membrane transport mech- anism of flavonoid secretion

Akifumi Sugiyama; Nobukazu Shitan; Kazufumi Yazaki

2008-01-01

367

An insect pathogenic symbiosis between a Caenorhabditis and Serratia  

PubMed Central

We described an association between a strain of the nematode Caenorhabditis briggsae, i.e. KT0001, and the bacteria Serratia sp. SCBI (South African Caenorhabditis briggsae isolate), which was able to kill the insect Galleria (G. mellonella). Here we show that the Serratia sp. SCBI lines the gut of the nematode, similar to the Heterorhabditis-Photorhabdus complex, indicating that the association is possibly internal. We also expand on the relevance of this tripartite, i.e. insect-nematode-bacteria, interaction in the broader evolutionary context and Caenorhabditis natural history.

Morrison, Julie; Cooper, Vaughn; Thomas, W. Kelley

2011-01-01

368

The genus Pseudovibrio contains metabolically versatile bacteria adapted for symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The majority of strains belonging to the genus Pseudovibrio have been isolated from marine invertebrates such as tunicates, corals and particularly sponges, but the physiology of these bacteria is poorly understood. In this study, we analyse for the first time the genomes of two Pseudovibrio strains – FO-BEG1 and JE062. The strain FO-BEG1 is a required symbiont of a cultivated Beggiatoa strain, a sulfide-oxidizing, autotrophic bacterium, which was initially isolated from a coral. Strain JE062 was isolated from a sponge. The presented data show that both strains are generalistic bacteria capable of importing and oxidizing a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds to meet their carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and energy requirements under both, oxic and anoxic conditions. Several physiological traits encoded in the analysed genomes were verified in laboratory experiments with both isolates. Besides the versatile metabolic abilities of both Pseudovibrio strains, our study reveals a number of open reading frames and gene clusters in the genomes that seem to be involved in symbiont–host interactions. Both Pseudovibrio strains have the genomic potential to attach to host cells, interact with the eukaryotic cell machinery, produce secondary metabolites and supply the host with cofactors.

Bondarev, Vladimir; Richter, Michael; Romano, Stefano; Piel, Jorn; Schwedt, Anne; Schulz-Vogt, Heide N

2013-01-01

369

The prominent role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the ant-fungus biomass conversion symbiosis.  

PubMed

Molecular studies have added significantly to understanding of the role of fungi and fungal enzymes in the efficient biomass conversion, which takes place in the fungus garden of leaf-cutting ants. It is now clear that the fungal symbiont expresses the full spectrum of genes for degrading cellulose and other plant cell wall polysaccharides. Since the start of the genomics era, numerous interesting studies have especially focused on evolutionary, molecular, and organismal aspects of the biological and biochemical functions of the symbiosis between leaf-cutting ants (Atta spp. and Acromyrmex spp.) and their fungal symbiont Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Macroscopic observations of the fungus-farming ant colony inherently depict the ants as the leading part of the symbiosis (the myrmicocentric approach, overshadowing the mycocentric aspects). However, at the molecular level, it is fungal enzymes that enable the ants to access the nutrition embedded in recalcitrant plant biomass. Our hypothesis is that the evolutionary events that established fungus-farming practice were predisposed by a fascinating fungal evolution toward increasing attractiveness to ants. This resulted in the ants allowing the fungus to grow in the nests and began to supply plant materials for more fungal growth. Molecular studies also confirm that specialized fungal structures, the gongylidia, with high levels of proteins and rich blend of enzymes, are essential for symbiosis. Harvested and used as ant feed, the gongylidia are the key factor for sustaining the highly complex leaf-cutting ant colony. This microbial upgrade of fresh leaves to protein-enriched animal feed can serve as inspiration for modern biorefinery technology. PMID:24728757

Lange, L; Grell, M N

2014-06-01

370

Metabolic Complementarity and Genomics of the Dual Bacterial Symbiosis of Sharpshooters  

PubMed Central

Mutualistic intracellular symbiosis between bacteria and insects is a widespread phenomenon that has contributed to the global success of insects. The symbionts, by provisioning nutrients lacking from diets, allow various insects to occupy or dominate ecological niches that might otherwise be unavailable. One such insect is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata), which feeds on xylem fluid, a diet exceptionally poor in organic nutrients. Phylogenetic studies based on rRNA have shown two types of bacterial symbionts to be coevolving with sharpshooters: the gamma-proteobacterium Baumannia cicadellinicola and the Bacteroidetes species Sulcia muelleri. We report here the sequencing and analysis of the 686,192–base pair genome of B. cicadellinicola and approximately 150 kilobase pairs of the small genome of S. muelleri, both isolated from H. coagulata. Our study, which to our knowledge is the first genomic analysis of an obligate symbiosis involving multiple partners, suggests striking complementarity in the biosynthetic capabilities of the two symbionts: B. cicadellinicola devotes a substantial portion of its genome to the biosynthesis of vitamins and cofactors required by animals and lacks most amino acid biosynthetic pathways, whereas S. muelleri apparently produces most or all of the essential amino acids needed by its host. This finding, along with other results of our genome analysis, suggests the existence of metabolic codependency among the two unrelated endosymbionts and their insect host. This dual symbiosis provides a model case for studying correlated genome evolution and genome reduction involving multiple organisms in an intimate, obligate mutualistic relationship. In addition, our analysis provides insight for the first time into the differences in symbionts between insects (e.g., aphids) that feed on phloem versus those like H. coagulata that feed on xylem. Finally, the genomes of these two symbionts provide potential targets for controlling plant pathogens such as Xylella fastidiosa, a major agroeconomic problem, for which H. coagulata and other sharpshooters serve as vectors of transmission.

Wu, Dongying; Daugherty, Sean C; Van Aken, Susan E; Pai, Grace H; Watkins, Kisha L; Khouri, Hoda; Tallon, Luke J; Zaborsky, Jennifer M; Dunbar, Helen E; Tran, Phat L; Moran, Nancy A

2006-01-01

371

Polyester synthesis genes associated with stress resistance are involved in an insect-bacterium symbiosis.  

PubMed

Many bacteria accumulate granules of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) within their cells, which confer resistance to nutritional depletion and other environmental stresses. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of the bacterial endocellular storage polymer, PHA, in an insect-bacterium symbiotic association. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a beneficial and specific gut symbiont of the ?-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia, which is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment every generation and easily cultivable and genetically manipulatable. Biochemical and cytological comparisons between symbiotic and cultured Burkholderia detected more PHA granules consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and associated phasin (PhaP) protein in the symbiotic Burkholderia. Among major PHA synthesis genes, phaB and phaC were disrupted by homologous recombination together with the phaP gene, whereby ?phaB, ?phaC, and ?phaP mutants were generated. Both in culture and in symbiosis, accumulation of PHA granules was strongly suppressed in ?phaB and ?phaC, but only moderately in ?phaP. In symbiosis, the host insects infected with ?phaB and ?phaC exhibited significantly lower symbiont densities and smaller body sizes. These deficient phenotypes associated with ?phaB and ?phaC were restored by complementation of the mutants with plasmids encoding a functional phaB/phaC gene. Retention analysis of the plasmids revealed positive selection acting on the functional phaB/phaC in symbiosis. These results indicate that the PHA synthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are required for normal symbiotic association with the Riptortus host. In vitro culturing analyses confirmed vulnerability of the PHA gene mutants to environmental stresses, suggesting that PHA may play a role in resisting stress under symbiotic conditions. PMID:23757494

Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Won, Yeo Jin; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Han, Sang Heum; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Rhee, Young Ha; Park, Ha Young; Kwon, Jeong Yun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Dohmae, Naoshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

2013-06-25

372

Polyester synthesis genes associated with stress resistance are involved in an insect-bacterium symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Many bacteria accumulate granules of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) within their cells, which confer resistance to nutritional depletion and other environmental stresses. Here, we report an unexpected involvement of the bacterial endocellular storage polymer, PHA, in an insect–bacterium symbiotic association. The bean bug Riptortus pedestris harbors a beneficial and specific gut symbiont of the ?-proteobacterial genus Burkholderia, which is orally acquired by host nymphs from the environment every generation and easily cultivable and genetically manipulatable. Biochemical and cytological comparisons between symbiotic and cultured Burkholderia detected more PHA granules consisting of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate and associated phasin (PhaP) protein in the symbiotic Burkholderia. Among major PHA synthesis genes, phaB and phaC were disrupted by homologous recombination together with the phaP gene, whereby ?phaB, ?phaC, and ?phaP mutants were generated. Both in culture and in symbiosis, accumulation of PHA granules was strongly suppressed in ?phaB and ?phaC, but only moderately in ?phaP. In symbiosis, the host insects infected with ?phaB and ?phaC exhibited significantly lower symbiont densities and smaller body sizes. These deficient phenotypes associated with ?phaB and ?phaC were restored by complementation of the mutants with plasmids encoding a functional phaB/phaC gene. Retention analysis of the plasmids revealed positive selection acting on the functional phaB/phaC in symbiosis. These results indicate that the PHA synthesis genes of the Burkholderia symbiont are required for normal symbiotic association with the Riptortus host. In vitro culturing analyses confirmed vulnerability of the PHA gene mutants to environmental stresses, suggesting that PHA may play a role in resisting stress under symbiotic conditions.

Kim, Jiyeun Kate; Won, Yeo Jin; Nikoh, Naruo; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Han, Sang Heum; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Rhee, Young Ha; Park, Ha Young; Kwon, Jeong Yun; Kurokawa, Kenji; Dohmae, Naoshi; Fukatsu, Takema; Lee, Bok Luel

2013-01-01

373

Solar astrophysics - Ghettosis from, or symbiosis with, stellar and galactic astrophysics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the paper is to show how the solar-stellar symbiotic approach has led to the modeling of a star as a concentration of matter and energy. By 'solar-stellar symbiosis' is meant the philosophy of investigation according to which one asks what change in our general understanding of stellar structure and of stellar spectroscopic diagnostics is required to satisfy both the sun and an unusual star when, for example, some feature of an unusual star is discovered. The evolution of stellar models is traced, from walled, thermodynamic-equilibrium models to de-isolated models featuring transition zones and nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium.

Pecker, J.-C.; Thomas, R. N.

1976-01-01

374

Patterns of interaction specificity of fungus-growing termites and Termitomyces symbionts in South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Termites of the subfamily Macrotermitinae live in a mutualistic symbiosis with basidiomycete fungi of the genus Termitomyces. Here, we explored interaction specificity in fungus-growing termites using samples from 101 colonies in South-Africa and Senegal, belonging to eight species divided over three genera. Knowledge of interaction specificity is important to test the hypothesis that inhabitants (symbionts) are taxonomically less diverse

Duur K Aanen; Vera ID Ros; Henrik H de Fine Licht; Jannette Mitchell; Z Wilhelm de Beer; Bernard Slippers; Corinne Rouland-LeFèvre; Jacobus J Boomsma

2007-01-01

375

Genome streamlining and chemical defense in a coral reef symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Secondary metabolites are ubiquitous in bacteria, but by definition, they are thought to be nonessential. Highly toxic secondary metabolites such as patellazoles have been isolated from marine tunicates, where their exceptional potency and abundance implies a role in chemical defense, but their biological source is unknown. Here, we describe the association of the tunicate Lissoclinum patella with a symbiotic ?-proteobacterium, Candidatus Endolissoclinum faulkneri, and present chemical and biological evidence that the bacterium synthesizes patellazoles. We sequenced and assembled the complete Ca. E. faulkneri genome, directly from metagenomic DNA obtained from the tunicate, where it accounted for 0.6% of sequence data. We show that the large patellazoles biosynthetic pathway is maintained, whereas the remainder of the genome is undergoing extensive streamlining to eliminate unneeded genes. The preservation of this pathway in streamlined bacteria demonstrates that secondary metabolism is an essential component of the symbiotic interaction.

Kwan, Jason C.; Donia, Mohamed S.; Han, Andrew W.; Hirose, Euichi; Haygood, Margo G.; Schmidt, Eric W.

2012-01-01

376

Symbiosis insights through metagenomic analysis of a microbialconsortium  

SciTech Connect

Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut, and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulfur-oxidizing and sulfate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model which describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments which it inhabits.

Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman,Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

2006-09-01

377

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

378

Dissection of Symbiosis and Organ Development by Integrated Transcriptome Analysis of Lotus japonicus Mutant and Wild-Type Plants  

PubMed Central

Genetic analyses of plant symbiotic mutants has led to the identification of key genes involved in Rhizobium-legume communication as well as in development and function of nitrogen fixing root nodules. However, the impact of these genes in coordinating the transcriptional programs of nodule development has only been studied in limited and isolated studies. Here, we present an integrated genome-wide analysis of transcriptome landscapes in Lotus japonicus wild-type and symbiotic mutant plants. Encompassing five different organs, five stages of the sequentially developed determinate Lotus root nodules, and eight mutants impaired at different stages of the symbiotic interaction, our data set integrates an unprecedented combination of organ- or tissue-specific profiles with mutant transcript profiles. In total, 38 different conditions sampled under the same well-defined growth regimes were included. This comprehensive analysis unravelled new and unexpected patterns of transcriptional regulation during symbiosis and organ development. Contrary to expectations, none of the previously characterized nodulins were among the 37 genes specifically expressed in nodules. Another surprise was the extensive transcriptional response in whole root compared to the susceptible root zone where the cellular response is most pronounced. A large number of transcripts predicted to encode transcriptional regulators, receptors and proteins involved in signal transduction, as well as many genes with unknown function, were found to be regulated during nodule organogenesis and rhizobial infection. Combining wild type and mutant profiles of these transcripts demonstrates the activation of a complex genetic program that delineates symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The complete data set was organized into an indexed expression directory that is accessible from a resource database, and here we present selected examples of biological questions that can be addressed with this comprehensive and powerful gene expression data set.

H?gslund, Niels; Radutoiu, Simona; Krusell, Lene; Voroshilova, Vera; Hannah, Matthew A.; Goffard, Nicolas; Sanchez, Diego H.; Lippold, Felix; Ott, Thomas; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Liboriussen, Poul; Lohmann, Gitte V.; Schauser, Leif; Weiller, Georg F.; Udvardi, Michael K.; Stougaard, Jens

2009-01-01

379

The population structure of antibiotic-producing bacterial symbionts of Apterostigma dentigerum ants: impacts of coevolution and multipartite symbiosis.  

PubMed

Fungus-growing ants (Attini) are part of a complex symbiosis with Basidiomycetous fungi, which the ants cultivate for food, Ascomycetous fungal pathogens (Escovopsis), which parasitize cultivars, and Actinobacteria, which produce antibiotic compounds that suppress pathogen growth. Earlier studies that have characterized the association between attine ants and their bacterial symbionts have employed broad phylogenetic approaches, with conclusions ranging from a diffuse coevolved mutualism to no specificity being reported. However, the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution proposes that coevolved interactions likely occur at a level above local populations but within species. Moreover, the scale of population subdivision is likely to impact coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we describe the population structure of bacteria associated with the attine Apterostigma dentigerum across Central America using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of six housekeeping genes. The majority (90%) of bacteria that were isolated grouped into a single clade within the genus Pseudonocardia. In contrast to studies that have suggested that Pseudonocardia dispersal is high and therefore unconstrained by ant associations, we found highly structured ([Formula: see text]) and dispersal-limited (i.e., significant isolation by distance; [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]) populations over even a relatively small scale (e.g., within the Panama Canal Zone). Estimates of recombination versus mutation were uncharacteristically low compared with estimates for free-living Actinobacteria (e.g., [Formula: see text] in La Selva, Costa Rica), which suggests that recombination is constrained by association with ant hosts. Furthermore, Pseudonocardia population structure was correlated with that of Escovopsis species ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), supporting the bacteria's role in disease suppression. Overall, the population dynamics of symbiotic Pseudonocardia are more consistent with a specialized mutualistic association than with recently proposed models of low specificity and frequent horizontal acquisition. PMID:23070321

Caldera, Eric J; Currie, Cameron R

2012-11-01

380

The Independent Acquisition of Plant Root Nitrogen-Fixing Symbiosis in Fabids Recruited the Same Genetic Pathway for Nodule Organogenesis  

PubMed Central

Only species belonging to the Fabid clade, limited to four classes and ten families of Angiosperms, are able to form nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses (RNS) with soil bacteria. This concerns plants of the legume family (Fabaceae) and Parasponia (Cannabaceae) associated with the Gram-negative proteobacteria collectively called rhizobia and actinorhizal plants associated with the Gram-positive actinomycetes of the genus Frankia. Calcium and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is a key component of the common signaling pathway leading to both rhizobial and arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses (AM) and plays a central role in cross-signaling between root nodule organogenesis and infection processes. Here, we show that CCaMK is also needed for successful actinorhiza formation and interaction with AM fungi in the actinorhizal tree Casuarina glauca and is also able to restore both nodulation and AM symbioses in a Medicago truncatula ccamk mutant. Besides, we expressed auto-active CgCCaMK lacking the auto-inhibitory/CaM domain in two actinorhizal species: C. glauca (Casuarinaceae), which develops an intracellular infection pathway, and Discaria trinervis (Rhamnaceae) which is characterized by an ancestral intercellular infection mechanism. In both species, we found induction of nodulation independent of Frankia similar to response to the activation of CCaMK in the rhizobia-legume symbiosis and conclude that the regulation of actinorhiza organogenesis is conserved regardless of the infection mode. It has been suggested that rhizobial and actinorhizal symbioses originated from a common ancestor with several independent evolutionary origins. Our findings are consistent with the recruitment of a similar genetic pathway governing rhizobial and Frankia nodule organogenesis.

Svistoonoff, Sergio; Benabdoun, Faiza Meriem; Nambiar-Veetil, Mathish; Imanishi, Leandro; Vaissayre, Virginie; Cesari, Stella; Diagne, Nathalie; Hocher, Valerie; de Billy, Francoise; Bonneau, Jocelyne; Wall, Luis; Ykhlef, Nadia; Rosenberg, Charles; Bogusz, Didier; Franche, Claudine; Gherbi, Hassen

2013-01-01

381

Metabolic analysis of Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 reveals clues of the symbiosis in 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum'.  

PubMed

A symbiotic association occurs in 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum', a phototrophic consortium integrated by two species of phylogenetically distant bacteria composed by the green-sulfur Chlorobium chlorochromatii CaD3 epibiont that surrounds a central ?-proteobacterium. The non-motile chlorobia can perform nitrogen and carbon fixation, using sulfide as electron donors for anoxygenic photosynthesis. The consortium can move due to the flagella present in the central ?-protobacterium. Although Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is never found as free-living bacteria in nature, previous transcriptomic and proteomic studies have revealed that there are differential transcription patterns between the symbiotic and free-living status of Chl. chlorocromatii CaD3 when grown in laboratory conditions. The differences occur mainly in genes encoding the enzymatic reactions involved in nitrogen and amino acid metabolism. We performed a metabolic reconstruction of Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 and an in silico analysis of its amino acid metabolism using an elementary flux modes approach (EFM). Our study suggests that in symbiosis, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is under limited nitrogen conditions where the GS/GOGAT (glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthetase) pathway is actively assimilating ammonia obtained via N2 fixation. In contrast, when free-living, Chl. chlorochromatii CaD3 is in a condition of nitrogen excess and ammonia is assimilated by the alanine dehydrogenase (AlaDH) pathway. We postulate that 'Chlorochromatium aggregatum' originated from a parasitic interaction where the N2 fixation capacity of the chlorobia would be enhanced by injection of 2-oxoglutarate from the ?-proteobacterium via the periplasm. This consortium would have the advantage of motility, which is fundamental to a phototrophic bacterium, and the syntrophy of nitrogen and carbon sources. PMID:24285361

Cerqueda-García, Daniel; Martínez-Castilla, León P; Falcón, Luisa I; Delaye, Luis

2014-05-01

382

Roles of the Structural Symbiosis Polysaccharide (syp) Genes in Host Colonization, Biofilm Formation, and Polysaccharide Biosynthesis in Vibrio fischeri  

PubMed Central

The symbiosis polysaccharide locus, syp, is required for Vibrio fischeri to form a symbiotic association with the squid Euprymna scolopes. It is also required for biofilm formation induced by the unlinked regulator RscS. The syp locus includes 18 genes that can be classified into four groups based on putative function: 4 genes encode putative regulators, 6 encode glycosyltransferases, 2 encode export proteins, and the remaining 6 encode proteins with other functions, including polysaccharide modification. To understand the roles of each of the 14 structural syp genes in colonization and biofilm formation, we generated nonpolar in-frame deletions of each gene. All of the deletion mutants exhibited defects in their ability to colonize juvenile squid, although the impact of the loss of SypB or SypI was modest. Consistent with their requirement for colonization, most of the structural genes were also required for RscS-induced biofilm formation. In particular, the production of wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and the matrix on the colony surface was eliminated or severely decreased in all mutants except for the sypB and sypI mutants; in contrast, only a subset of genes appeared to play a role in attachment to glass. Finally, immunoblotting data suggested that the structural Syp proteins are involved in polysaccharide production and/or export. These results provide important insights into the requirements for the syp genes under different environmental conditions and thus lay the groundwork for a more complete understanding of the matrix produced by V. fischeri to enhance cell-cell interactions and promote symbiotic colonization.

Shibata, Satoshi; Yip, Emily S.; Quirke, Kevin P.; Ondrey, Jakob M.

2012-01-01

383

Exposing the Symbiosis of 3A 1954+319  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Symbiotic X-ray Binaries (SyXB) are a rare class 8 known members) of Low Mass X-ray Binaries (LMXB), in which a compact object accretes material from an evolved M-type giant. The SyXB and accreting pulsar 3A 1954+319 is further exceptional since it has the longest pulse period known for an X-ray binary. It undergoes rapid changes, which we found span a range of 5.0-5.8 hours over the interval 2005-2012 monitored with Swift-BAT, probably an indication of the expected strong interaction with the dense M-giant wind. We present an analysis of a Chandra observation performed on 2010, December 26, and an RXTE observation performed on 2011, January 10-11, both spanning two pulse cycles. The Swift-BAT context shows that during both observations the source was in a state of comparatively stable and low hard X-ray flux (at about 15 mCrab, with a pulse period around 5.6 h and overall slowing down). We discuss the broad band ``baseline'' spectrum and compare it to the two earlier X-ray broad band studies described in the literature. Strong flaring activity on timescales of hundreds to thousands of seconds is observed and studied in the light of a possible accretion shock interpretation.

Pottschmidt, Katja; Marcu, D. M.; Hell, N.; Fuerst, F.; Miškovi?a, I.; Müller, S.; Grinberg, V.; Corbet, R. H.; Wilms, J.

2013-04-01

384

Evolution of symbiosis in the legume genus Aeschynomene.  

PubMed

Legumes in the genus Aeschynomene form nitrogen-fixing root nodules in association with Bradyrhizobium strains. Several aquatic and subaquatic species have the additional capacity to form stem nodules, and some of them can symbiotically interact with specific strains that do not produce the common Nod factors synthesized by all other rhizobia. The question of the emergence and evolution of these nodulation characters has been the subject of recent debate. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 38 different Aeschynomene species. The phylogeny was reconstructed with both the chloroplast DNA trnL intron and the nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS/5.8S region. We also tested 28 Aeschynomene species for their capacity to form root and stem nodules by inoculating different rhizobial strains, including nodABC-containing strains (ORS285, USDA110) and a nodABC-lacking strain (ORS278). Maximum likelihood analyses resolved four distinct phylogenetic groups of Aeschynomene. We found that stem nodulation may have evolved several times in the genus, and that all Aeschynomene species using a Nod-independent symbiotic process clustered in the same clade. The phylogenetic approach suggested that Nod-independent nodulation has evolved once in this genus, and should be considered as a derived character, and this result is discussed with regard to previous experimental studies. PMID:23879229

Chaintreuil, Clémence; Arrighi, Jean-François; Giraud, Eric; Miché, Lucie; Moulin, Lionel; Dreyfus, Bernard; Munive-Hernández, José-Antonio; Villegas-Hernandez, María Del Carmen; Béna, Gilles

2013-12-01

385

Phage loss and the breakdown of a defensive symbiosis in aphids  

PubMed Central

Terrestrial arthropods are often infected with heritable bacterial symbionts, which may themselves be infected by bacteriophages. However, what role, if any, bacteriophages play in the regulation and maintenance of insect–bacteria symbioses is largely unknown. Infection of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum by the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against parasitoid wasps, but only when H. defensa is itself infected by the phage A. pisum secondary endosymbiont (APSE). Here, we use a controlled genetic background and correlation-based assays to show that loss of APSE is associated with up to sevenfold increases in the intra-aphid abundance of H. defensa. APSE loss is also associated with severe deleterious effects on aphid fitness: aphids infected with H. defensa lacking APSE have a significantly delayed onset of reproduction, lower weight at adulthood and half as many total offspring as aphids infected with phage-harbouring H. defensa, indicating that phage loss can rapidly lead to the breakdown of the defensive symbiosis. Our results overall indicate that bacteriophages play critical roles in both aphid defence and the maintenance of heritable symbiosis.

Weldon, S. R.; Strand, M. R.; Oliver, K. M.

2013-01-01

386

Phage loss and the breakdown of a defensive symbiosis in aphids.  

PubMed

Terrestrial arthropods are often infected with heritable bacterial symbionts, which may themselves be infected by bacteriophages. However, what role, if any, bacteriophages play in the regulation and maintenance of insect-bacteria symbioses is largely unknown. Infection of the aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum by the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa confers protection against parasitoid wasps, but only when H. defensa is itself infected by the phage A. pisum secondary endosymbiont (APSE). Here, we use a controlled genetic background and correlation-based assays to show that loss of APSE is associated with up to sevenfold increases in the intra-aphid abundance of H. defensa. APSE loss is also associated with severe deleterious effects on aphid fitness: aphids infected with H. defensa lacking APSE have a significantly delayed onset of reproduction, lower weight at adulthood and half as many total offspring as aphids infected with phage-harbouring H. defensa, indicating that phage loss can rapidly lead to the breakdown of the defensive symbiosis. Our results overall indicate that bacteriophages play critical roles in both aphid defence and the maintenance of heritable symbiosis. PMID:23193123

Weldon, S R; Strand, M R; Oliver, K M

2013-01-22

387

Cleaning symbiosis as an evolutionary game: To cheat or not to cheat?  

PubMed

Cleaning symbiosis is an apparently mutualistic relationship, occurring in diverse taxa, in which cleaners remove ectoparasites from the body of their clients. Here its evolution is explored with a simple game theory model in which both participants play against each other using either honest or cheating strategies. Honest clients pose for cleaners and have their ectoparasites removed, cheating clients eat the cleaners. Honest cleaners eat their clients' ectoparasites, cheating cleaners feed mainly on client tissues. The conditions that favour either strategy are obtained when the game is resolved: (i) the cost of being cleaned by a cheat and the proportion of cheats in the cleaner population determine the relative value of honesty in clients, and (ii) the advantages of being an honest cleaner depend on the relative fitness value of ectoparasites as food versus client tissues. A scenario for the origin of the cleaning symbiosis can also be derived from the model, in which the specialization of both participants need not be simultaneous. The model is based on the relationship between specialized cleaner fish and their client fish on coral reefs, but its conclusions are used in an examination of other cleaning associations. Copyright 1995 Academic Press Limited PMID:9441815

Poulin; Vickery

1995-07-01

388

The Irreversible Loss of a Decomposition Pathway Marks the Single Origin of an Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis  

PubMed Central

Microbial symbioses have evolved repeatedly across the tree of life, but the genetic changes underlying transitions to symbiosis are largely unknown, especially for eukaryotic microbial symbionts. We used the genus Amanita, an iconic group of mushroom-forming fungi engaged in ectomycorrhizal symbioses with plants, to identify both the origins and potential genetic changes maintaining the stability of this mutualism. A multi-gene phylogeny reveals one origin of the symbiosis within Amanita, with a single transition from saprotrophic decomposition of dead organic matter to biotrophic dependence on host plants for carbon. Associated with this transition are the losses of two cellulase genes, each of which plays a critical role in extracellular decomposition of organic matter. However a third gene, which acts at later stages in cellulose decomposition, is retained by many, but not all, ectomycorrhizal species. Experiments confirm that symbiotic Amanita species have lost the ability to grow on complex organic matter and have therefore lost the capacity to live in forest soils without carbon supplied by a host plant. Irreversible losses of decomposition pathways are likely to play key roles in the evolutionary stability of these ubiquitous mutualisms.

Wolfe, Benjamin E.; Tulloss, Rodham E.; Pringle, Anne

2012-01-01

389

Biotinylation of the rhizobial cyclic ?-glucans and succinoglycans crucial for symbiosis with legumes.  

PubMed

The cyclic ?-glucans and succinoglycans produced by rhizobia are required for nodulation during symbiosis with legume hosts. However, only gene deletion analyses have been used to investigate their biological importance. For future studies on the physiological activity of those during symbiosis, biochemical methods need to be developed with separate carbohydrate compounds. Here, we isolated and purified rhizobial cellular carbohydrates using various chromatographic methods. Purified cyclic ?-glucans, cyclosophoraoses, were monofunctionalized with biotin using the following three steps: tosylation, azidation, and amination. The mono-6-amino-cyclosophoraoses were linked with biotinamidohexanoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Succinoglycans and monomers were tagged with biotinamidocaproyl hydrazide at the reducing sugar via reductive amination. The resulting biotinylated rhizobial carbohydrates were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The resulting neoglycoconjugates can be used as solid probes to study putative plant receptors and for non-invasive imaging for in vivo tracing. PMID:24445053

Cho, Eunae; Kwon, Chanho; Lee, Sanghoo; Tahir, Muhammad Nazir; Park, Seyeon; Jung, Seunho

2014-05-01

390

Industrial and urban symbiosis in Japan: analysis of the Eco-Town Program 1997-2006.  

PubMed

Japan's Eco-Town Program spearheaded in Japan the integration of Industrial Symbiosis and Urban Symbiosis, seeking to maximise the economic and environmental benefit from close geographic proximity of industrial and urban areas, through the use of previously discarded commercial, municipal and industrial waste materials in industrial applications. The program established 26 Eco-Towns around Japan. Approximately 1.65 billion USD was invested in 61 innovative recycling projects, with an average government subsidy of 36%. In addition at least 107 other recycling facilities have been constructed without government subsidy. 14 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving industry's productivity, whilst 10 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving environmental amenity. In 16 Eco-Towns the private sector was the most important actor supporting local government in the realisation of the Eco-Town, whilst in 9 Eco-Towns this was civil society. The availability of investment subsidies, the coming into force of ambitious recycling legislation with quantified, product-specific targets, access to the significant technological resources of the private sector, and widespread recognition of the urgency to act on environmental issues, all contributed to the success of the Eco-Town Program. PMID:19101071

Van Berkel, Rene; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Geng, Yong

2009-03-01

391

Sources of variation in dietary requirements in an obligate nutritional symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The nutritional symbiosis between aphids and their obligate symbiont, Buchnera aphidicola, is often characterized as a highly functional partnership in which the symbiont provides the host with essential nutrients. Despite this, some aphid lineages exhibit dietary requirements for nutrients typically synthesized by Buchnera, suggesting that some aspect of the symbiosis is disrupted. To examine this phenomenon in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, populations were assayed using defined artificial diet to determine dietary requirements for essential amino acids (EAAs). Six clones exhibiting dependence on EAAs in their diet were investigated further. In one aphid clone, a mutation in a Buchnera amino acid biosynthesis gene could account for the clone's requirement for dietary arginine. Analysis of aphid F1 hybrids allowed separation of effects of the host and symbiont genomes, and revealed that both affect the requirement for dietary EAAs in the clones tested. Amino acid requirements were minimally affected by secondary symbiont infection. Our results indicate that variation among pea aphids in dependence on dietary amino acids can result from Buchnera mutation as well as variation in the host genotype.

Vogel, Kevin J.; Moran, Nancy A.

2011-01-01

392

Genome of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus provides insight into the oldest plant symbiosis  

PubMed Central

The mutualistic symbiosis involving Glomeromycota, a distinctive phylum of early diverging Fungi, is widely hypothesized to have promoted the evolution of land plants during the middle Paleozoic. These arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) perform vital functions in the phosphorus cycle that are fundamental to sustainable crop plant productivity. The unusual biological features of AMF have long fascinated evolutionary biologists. The coenocytic hyphae host a community of hundreds of nuclei and reproduce clonally through large multinucleated spores. It has been suggested that the AMF maintain a stable assemblage of several different genomes during the life cycle, but this genomic organization has been questioned. Here we introduce the 153-Mb haploid genome of Rhizophagus irregularis and its repertoire of 28,232 genes. The observed low level of genome polymorphism (0.43 SNP per kb) is not consistent with the occurrence of multiple, highly diverged genomes. The expansion of mating-related genes suggests the existence of cryptic sex-related processes. A comparison of gene categories confirms that R. irregularis is close to the Mucoromycotina. The AMF obligate biotrophy is not explained by genome erosion or any related loss of metabolic complexity in central metabolism, but is marked by a lack of genes encoding plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and of genes involved in toxin and thiamine synthesis. A battery of mycorrhiza-induced secreted proteins is expressed in symbiotic tissues. The present comprehensive repertoire of R. irregularis genes provides a basis for future research on symbiosis-related mechanisms in Glomeromycota.

Tisserant, Emilie; Malbreil, Mathilde; Kuo, Alan; Kohler, Annegret; Symeonidi, Aikaterini; Balestrini, Raffaella; Charron, Philippe; Duensing, Nina; Frei dit Frey, Nicolas; Gianinazzi-Pearson, Vivienne; Gilbert, Luz B.; Handa, Yoshihiro; Herr, Joshua R.; Hijri, Mohamed; Koul, Raman; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Krajinski, Franziska; Lammers, Peter J.; Masclaux, Frederic G.; Murat, Claude; Morin, Emmanuelle; Ndikumana, Steve; Pagni, Marco; Petitpierre, Denis; Requena, Natalia; Rosikiewicz, Pawel; Riley, Rohan; Saito, Katsuharu; San Clemente, Helene; Shapiro, Harris; van Tuinen, Diederik; Becard, Guillaume; Bonfante, Paola; Paszkowski, Uta; Shachar-Hill, Yair Y.; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Young, J. Peter W.; Sanders, Ian R.; Henrissat, Bernard; Rensing, Stefan A.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Corradi, Nicolas; Roux, Christophe; Martin, Francis

2013-01-01

393

Uni-directional consumer-resource theory characterizing transitions of interaction outcomes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A resource is considered here to be a biotic population that helps to maintain the population growth of its consumers, whereas a consumer utilizes a resource and in turn decreases its growth rate. Bi-directional consumer-resource (C-R) interactions have been the object of recent theory. In these interactions, each species acts, in some respects, as both a consumer and a resource of the other, which is the basis of many mutualisms. In uni-directional C-R interactions between two species, one acts as a consumer and the other as a material and/or energy resource, while neither acts as both. The relationship between insect pollinator/seed parasites and the host plant is an example of the latter interaction type of C-R, as the insect provides no material resource to the plant (though it provides a pollination service). In this paper we consider a different variation of the uni-directional C-R interaction, in which the resource species has both positive and negative effects on the consumer species, while the consumer has only a negative effect on the resource. A predator-prey system in which the prey is able to kill or consume predator eggs or larvae is an example. Our aim is to demonstrate mechanisms by which interaction outcomes of this system vary with different conditions, and thus to extend the uni-directional C-R theory established by Holland and DeAngelis (2009). By the analysis of a specific two-species system, it is shown that there is no periodic solution of the system, and the parameter (factor) space can be divided into six regions, which correspond to predation/parasitism, amensalism, and competition. The interaction outcomes of the system transition smoothly when the parameters are changed continuously in the six regions and/or initial densities of the species vary in a smooth fashion. Varying a pair of parameters can also result in the transitions. The analysis leads to both conditions under which the species approach their maximal densities, and explanations for phenomena in experiments by Urabe and Sterner (1996). ?? 2011 .

Wang, Y.; DeAngelis, D. L.; Holland, J. N.

2011-01-01

394

The Wolf, the Moose, and the Fir Tree A Case Study of Trophic Interactions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this analysis case, students study predator-prey dynamics in the Isle Royale National Park ecosystem drawing on data and findings from the article “Wolves, Moose, and Tree Rings on Isle Royale” by B.E. McLaren and R.O. Peterson published in 1994 in Science magazine. The case was developed for a sophomore ecology class.  It could also be used in environmental science courses.

Fortier, Gary M.

2002-01-01

395

Plant potassium content modifies the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis on root hydraulic properties in maize plants.  

PubMed

It is well known that the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis helps the host plant to overcome several abiotic stresses including drought. One of the mechanisms for this drought tolerance enhancement is the higher water uptake capacity of the mycorrhizal plants. However, the effects of the AM symbiosis on processes regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant, such as root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression, and protein abundance, are not well defined. Since it is known that K(+) status is modified by AM and that it regulates root hydraulic properties, it has been tested how plant K(+) status could modify the effects of the symbiosis on root hydraulic conductivity and plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance, using maize (Zea mays L.) plants and Glomus intraradices as a model. It was observed that the supply of extra K(+) increased root hydraulic conductivity only in AM plants. Also, the different pattern of plasma membrane aquaporin gene expression and protein abundance between AM and non-AM plants changed with the application of extra K(+). Thus, plant K(+) status could be one of the causes of the different observed effects of the AM symbiosis on root hydraulic properties. The present study also highlights the critical importance of AM fungal aquaporins in regulating root hydraulic properties of the host plant. PMID:22370879

El-Mesbahi, Mohamed Najib; Azcón, Rosario; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Aroca, Ricardo

2012-10-01

396

Madagascar hissing cockroach mite, Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi, prevents fungal infection in its cockroach host: evidence for a mutualistic symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we provide the first evidence that the mite Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi is beneficial to the Madagascar hissing cockroach Gromphadorhina portentosa by participating in a cleaning symbiosis and thus prolonging the life of its host. Gromphadorholaelaps schaeferi is a permanent resident of the cockroach and reduces mould levels by removing the food debris from the cockroach that acts as

Jay A. Yoder; Joshua B. Benoit; Brian Z. Hedges; Andrew J. Jajack; Lawrence W. Zettler

2012-01-01

397

Pollen waste and unrelated traits in a fig–fig wasp symbiosis: a new behaviour suggesting a host shift  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a fig–fig wasp symbiosis, we have discovered that male fig pollinators (Alfonsiella fimbriata Waterston) bite into the dehiscent anthers of Ficus natalensis leprieuri Miq., thus scattering the pollen grains throughout the syconium. Female pollinators are the only ones to transfer pollen to conspecific trees, and collect pollen actively from the anthers only. Thus, this male behaviour appears to be

Georges Michaloud; Nathalie Bossu-Dupriez; Malia Chevolot; Christelle Lasbleiz

2005-01-01

398

Medicago truncatula and Glomus intraradices gene expression in cortical cells harboring arbuscules in the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most vascular flowering plants have the capacity to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The symbiosis develops in the roots where AM fungi colonize the root cortex and form arbuscules within the cortical cells. Arbuscules are enveloped in a novel plant membrane and their establishment requires the coordinated cellular activities of both symbiotic partners. The arbuscule-cortical cell

S Karen Gomez; Hélène Javot; Prasit Deewatthanawong; Ivone Torres-Jerez; Yuhong Tang; Elison B Blancaflor; Michael K Udvardi; Maria J Harrison

2009-01-01

399

Management of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilization to Optimize Anthyllis–Glomus–Rhizobium Symbiosis for Revegetation of Desertified Semiarid Areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthyllis cytisoides L. is a shrub legume used to recover desertified semiarid areas in association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen fixing bacteria. A detailed study of the microsymbionts establishment could allow determining the most appropriate moment for transplanting A. cytisoides from nursery to natural soils. Moreover, it could be possible to improve the functionality of the symbiosis of

Nieves Goicoechea; Silvia Merino; Manuel Sánchez-Díaz

2005-01-01

400

Physiology on a landscape scale: plant-animal interactions.  

PubMed

We explore in this paper how animals can be affected by variation in climate, topography, vegetation characteristics, and body size. We utilize new spatially explicit state-of-the-art models that incorporate principles from heat and mass transfer engineering, physiology, morphology, and behavior that have been modified to provide spatially explicit hypotheses using GIS. We demonstrate how temporal and spatial changes in microclimate resulting from differences in topography and vegetation cover alter animal energetics, and behavior. We explore the impacts of these energetic predictions on elk energetics in burned and unburned stands of conifer in winter in Yellowstone National Park, chuckwalla lizard distribution limits in North America, California Beechey Ground squirrel and Dusky Footed woodrat mass and energy requirements and activity patterns on the landscape, their predator prey interactions with a rattlesnake, Crotalus viridis, and shifts in that food web structure due to topographic and vegetative variation. We illustrate how different scales of data/observation provide different pieces of information that may collectively define the real distributions of a species. We then use sensitivity analyses of energetic models to evaluate hypotheses about the effects of changes in core temperature (fever) global climate (increased air temperature under a global warming scenario) and vegetation cover (deforestation) on winter survival of elk, the geographic distribution of chuckwallas and the activity overlap of predator and prey species within a subset of commonly observed species in a terrestrial food web. Variation in slope and aspect affect the spatial variance in solar radiation incident on the ground, hence ground surface temperature, at the same elevation, same hourly 2 m air temperatures, and wind speeds. We illustrate visually how spatial effects and landscape heterogeneity make statistical descriptions of animal responses problematic, since multiple distributions of their responses to climate, topography, and vegetation on the landscape can yield the same descriptive statistics, especially at high (30 m) resolution. This preliminary analysis suggests that the model has far-reaching implications for hypothesis testing in ecology at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. PMID:21708738

Porter, Warren P; Sabo, John L; Tracy, Christopher R; Reichman, O J; Ramankutty, Navin

2002-07-01

401

Horizontal gene transfer from diverse bacteria to an insect genome enables a tripartite nested mealybug symbiosis.  

PubMed

The smallest reported bacterial genome belongs to Tremblaya princeps, a symbiont of Planococcus citri mealybugs (PCIT). Tremblaya PCIT not only has a 139 kb genome, but possesses its own bacterial endosymbiont, Moranella endobia. Genome and transcriptome sequencing, including genome sequencing from a Tremblaya lineage lacking intracellular bacteria, reveals that the extreme genomic degeneracy of Tremblaya PCIT likely resulted from acquiring Moranella as an endosymbiont. In addition, at least 22 expressed horizontally transferred genes from multiple diverse bacteria to the mealybug genome likely complement missing symbiont genes. However, none of these horizontally transferred genes are from Tremblaya, showing that genome reduction in this symbiont has not been enabled by gene transfer to the host nucleus. Our results thus indicate that the functioning of this three-way symbiosis is dependent on genes from at least six lineages of organisms and reveal a path to intimate endosymbiosis distinct from that followed by organelles. PMID:23791183

Husnik, Filip; Nikoh, Naruo; Koga, Ryuichi; Ross, Laura; Duncan, Rebecca P; Fujie, Manabu; Tanaka, Makiko; Satoh, Nori; Bachtrog, Doris; Wilson, Alex C C; von Dohlen, Carol D; Fukatsu, Takema; McCutcheon, John P

2013-06-20

402

The Lotus japonicus MAMI gene links root development, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and phosphate availability.  

PubMed

The arbuscular mycorrhizal-induced LjMAMI gene is phylogenetically related to GARP transcription factors involved in Pi-starvation responses such as AtPHR1. The gene is strongly upregulated in arbusculated cells from mycorrhizal plants and in root meristems, irrespectively of the fungal presence. A further expression analysis revealed a similar expression pattern for LjPT4, considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. Here we show that the LjPT4 promoter contains two conserved cis-acting elements typically found in Pi-starvation induced Pi transporters. One of these is strongly related to the binding site of AtPHR1, suggesting a direct regulation of LjPT4 by LjMAMI. The expression of both genes in non-mycorrhizal tissues leads to the hypothesis that these symbiosis-inducible genes are also involved in Pi starvation responses in root meristems in an AM-independent manner. PMID:23333966

Volpe, Veronica; Dell'Aglio, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2013-03-01

403

The Lotus japonicus MAMI gene links root development, arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and phosphate availability  

PubMed Central

The arbuscular mycorrhizal-induced LjMAMI gene is phylogenetically related to GARP transcription factors involved in Pi-starvation responses such as AtPHR1. The gene is strongly upregulated in arbusculated cells from mycorrhizal plants and in root meristems, irrespectively of the fungal presence. A further expression analysis revealed a similar expression pattern for LjPT4, considered a marker gene for mycorrhizal functionality. Here we show that the LjPT4 promoter contains two conserved cis-acting elements typically found in Pi-starvation induced Pi transporters. One of these is strongly related to the binding site of AtPHR1, suggesting a direct regulation of LjPT4 by LjMAMI. The expression of both genes in non-mycorrhizal tissues leads to the hypothesis that these symbiosis-inducible genes are also involved in Pi starvation responses in root meristems in an AM-independent manner.

Volpe, Veronica; Dell'Aglio, Elisa; Bonfante, Paola

2013-01-01

404

Mitigation of Cu stress by legume-Rhizobium symbiosis in white lupin and soybean plants.  

PubMed

The effect of Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis on plant growth, toxicological variables and Cu bioaccumulation was studied in white lupin and soybean plants treated with 1.6, 48, 96 and 192 ?M Cu. In both species, those plants grown in the presence of root nodule-forming symbiotic Bradyrhizobium showed less root and shoot growth reduction, plus greater translocation of Cu to the shoot, than those grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. The effective added concentrations of Cu that reduced shoot and root dry weight by 50% (EC50), and the critical toxic concentration that caused a 10% reduction in plant growth (CTC10%), were higher in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, and were in general higher in the roots whether the plants were grown with or without these bacteria. The production of malondialdehyde and total thiols was stimulated by Cu excess in the shoots and roots of white lupin grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium, but mainly in those without the symbionts. In contrast, in soybean, the increases in malondialdehyde and total thiols associated with rising Cu concentration were a little higher (1.2-5.0 and 1.0-1.6 times respectively) in plants grown with symbiotic Bradyrhizobium than without. Finally, the organ most sensitive to Cu excess was generally the shoot, both in white lupin and soybean grown with or without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Further, Bradyrhizobium-legume symbiosis appears to increase the tolerance to Cu excess in both legumes, but mainly in white lupin; plant growth was less reduced and CTC10% and EC50 values increased compared to plants grown without symbiotic Bradyrhizobium. Bradyrhizobium N2 fixation in both legumes would therefore seem to increase the phytoremediation potential of these plants when growing on Cu-contaminated sites. PMID:24580814

Sánchez-Pardo, Beatriz; Zornoza, Pilar

2014-04-01

405

Characterization of soybean ?-expansin genes and their expression responses to symbiosis, nutrient deficiency, and hormone treatment.  

PubMed

Expansins are plant cell wall-loosening proteins encoded by a superfamily of genes including ?-expansin, ?-expansin, expansin-like A, and expansin-like B proteins. They play a variety of biological roles during plant growth and development. Expansin genes have been reported in many plant species, and results primarily from graminaceous members indicate that ?-expansins are more abundant in monocots than in dicots. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] is an important legume crop. This work identified nine ?-expansin gene family members in soybean (GmEXPBs) that were divided into two distinct classes based on phylogeny and gene structure, with divergence between the two groups occurring more in introns than in exons. A total of 887 hormone-responsive and environmental stress-related putative cis-elements from 188 families were found in the 2-kb upstream region of GmEXPBs. Variations in number and type of cis-elements associated with each gene indicate that the function of these genes is differentially regulated by these signals. Expression analysis confirmed that the family members were ubiquitously, yet differentially expressed in soybean. Responsiveness to nutrient deficiency stresses and regulation by auxin (indole-3-acetic acid) and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine) varied among GmEXPBs. In addition, most ?-expansin genes were associated with symbiosis of soybean inoculated with Rhizobium or abuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). Taken together, these results systematically investigate the characteristics of the entire GmEXPB family in soybean and comprise the first report analyzing the relationship of GmEXPBs with rhizobial or AMF symbiosis. This information is a valuable step in the process of understanding the expansin protein functions in soybean and opens avenues for continued researches. PMID:24113821

Li, Xinxin; Zhao, Jing; Walk, Thomas C; Liao, Hong

2014-03-01

406

Evidence of an American Origin for Symbiosis-Related Genes in Rhizobium lusitanum ?  

PubMed Central

Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was used to investigate the diversity of 179 bean isolates recovered from six field sites in the Arcos de Valdevez region of northwestern Portugal. The isolates were divided into 6 groups based on the fingerprint patterns that were obtained. Representatives for each group were selected for sequence analysis of 4 chromosomal DNA regions. Five of the groups were placed within Rhizobium lusitanum, and the other group was placed within R. tropi