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1

Illustrated Plant Identification Keys: An Interactive Tool to Learn Botany  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Interactive Dichotomous Key (IDK) for 390 "taxa" of vascular plants from the Ria de Aveiro, available on a website, was developed to help teach botany to school and universitary students. This multimedia tool includes several links to Descriptive and Illustrated Glossaries. Questionnaires answered by high-school and undergraduate students about…

Silva, Helena; Pinho, Rosa; Lopes, Lisia; Nogueira, Antonio J. A.; Silveira, Paulo

2011-01-01

2

Development and validation of IIKC: an interactive identification key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the Western Palaearctic region  

PubMed Central

Background and methods The appearance of bluetongue virus (BTV) in 2006 within northern Europe exposed a lack of expertise and resources available across this region to enable the accurate morphological identification of species of Culicoides Latreille biting midges, some of which are the major vectors of this pathogen. This work aims to organise extant Culicoides taxonomic knowledge into a database and to produce an interactive identification key for females of Culicoides in the Western Palaearctic (IIKC: Interactive identification key for Culicoides). We then validated IIKC using a trial carried out by six entomologists based in this region with variable degrees of experience in identifying Culicoides. Results The current version of the key includes 98 Culicoides species with 10 morphological variants, 61 descriptors and 837 pictures and schemes. Validation was carried out by six entomologists as a blind trial with two users allocated to three classes of expertise (beginner, intermediate and advanced). Slides were identified using a median of seven steps and seven minutes and user confidence in the identification varied from 60% for failed identifications to a maximum of 80% for successful ones. By user class, the beginner group successfully identified 44.6% of slides, the intermediate 56.8% and the advanced 74.3%. Conclusions Structured as a multi-entry key, IIKC is a powerful database for the morphological identification of female Culicoides from the Western Palaearctic region. First developed for use as an interactive identification key, it was revealed to be a powerful back-up tool for training new taxonomists and to maintain expertise level. The development of tools for arthropod involvement in pathogen transmission will allow clearer insights into the ecology and dynamics of Culicoides and in turn assist in understanding arbovirus epidemiology.

2012-01-01

3

Key for Identification of Mediterranean Coccolithophorida.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A key for the identification of coccolithophoridae is presented. The key's main application will be in the fields of production studies, species succession and alteration of species composition caused by pollutions of various origin. Each species describe...

L. Rampi M. Bernhard

1981-01-01

4

Interactive Identification Using the Internet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Computer-based interactive keyshave several advantages over conventional keys: characters can be used, and their values changed, in any order; a correct identification can be made in spite of errors by the user or in the data; errors which were circumvented by the error-tolerance mechanismcan be located; the user can express uncertaintyby entering morethan one state value, or a range

M. J. Dallwitz; T. A. Paine; E. J. Zurcher

5

Identification of Key Barriers in Workforce Development  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the identification of key barriers in the development of an adequate national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed under a Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration grant. Many barriers exist that prevent the development of an adequate number of propertly trained national security personnel. Some barriers can be eliminated in a short-term manner, whereas others will involve a long-term strategy that takes into account public policy.

None

2008-03-31

6

Species identification key of korean mammal hair.  

PubMed

The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology. PMID:24451929

Lee, Eunok; Choi, Tae-Young; Woo, Donggul; Min, Mi-Sook; Sugita, Shoei; Lee, Hang

2014-06-01

7

Species Identification Key of Korean Mammal Hair  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The hair microstructures of Korean terrestrial mammals from 23 species (22 wild and one domestic) were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to construct a hair identification key. The hairs were examined using the medulla structures and cuticular scales of guard hairs from the dorsal regions of mature adult animals. All cuticular scale structures in the hair of Rodentia, Lagomorpha, Carnivora and Insectivora showed the petal pattern, and those of Artiodactyla and Chiroptera showed the wave pattern and coronal pattern, respectively. Rodentia, Lagomorpha and Carnivora showed multicellular, and Insectivora and Artiodactyla showed unicellular regular, mesh or columnar in the medulla structures, respectively. Chiroptera did not show the medulla structures in their hair. We found that it is possible to distinguish between species and order based on general appearance, medulla structures and cuticular scales. Thus, we constructed a hair identification key with morphological characteristics from each species. This study suggests that hair identification keys could be useful in fields, such as forensic science, food safety and foraging ecology.

LEE, Eunok; CHOI, Tae-Young; WOO, Donggul; MIN, Mi-Sook; SUGITA, Shoei; LEE, Hang

2014-01-01

8

Molecular identification key of the family Streptococcaceae.  

PubMed

The gene order conservation (GOC) between the species of family Streptococcaceae was analysed. The rate of GOC in the strains belonging to the same species is 70% or more. When we compared different species belonging to the same genus, the rate of GOC was 30-47% while it was below 20% when the species were from different genera. A molecular identification key was established for identifying those genera and species within the family Streptococcaceae which have an already known full genome sequence (24 Streptococcus and 2 Lactococcus species). Identical genome parts of the species belonging to the same genus were used for determination of genera. These are the sections surrounding the replication origin dnaA, the sequence from gene phaB to the gene accA, and the sequence of alr acpS secA. Sections around the genes pepX, leuS and rplM were used for identifying the species. The gene order analysis and data in molecular identification key showed that S. uberis and S. parauberis also belong to the same species, and our suggestion for their new names is S. uberis subsp. uberis and S uberis subsp. parauberis. Based on this data, a new definition of bacterial species is proposed: two isolates belong to the same species if the order of the genes in their genomes is almost identical. PMID:24631752

Kanyó, István; Nagy, Dénes

2014-03-01

9

Identification of key licorice constituents which interact with cytochrome P450: evaluation by LC/MS/MS cocktail assay and metabolic profiling.  

PubMed

Licorice has been shown to affect the activities of several cytochrome P450 enzymes. This study aims to identify the key constituents in licorice which may affect these activities. Bioactivity assay was combined with metabolic profiling to identify these compounds in several complex licorice extracts. Firstly, the inhibition potencies of 40 pure licorice compounds were tested using an liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry cocktail method. Significant inhibitors of human P450 isozymes 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4 were then selected for examination of their structural features by molecular docking to determine their molecular interaction with several P450 isozymes. Based on the present in vitro inhibition findings, along with our previous in vivo metabolic studies and the prevalence of individual compounds in licorice extract, we identified several licorice constituents, viz., liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, together with seven isoprenylated flavonoids and arylcoumarins, which could be key components responsible for the herb-drug interaction between cytochrome P450 and licorice. In addition, hydrophilic flavonoid glycosides and saponins may be converted into these P450 inhibitors in vivo. These studies represent a comprehensive examination of the potential effects of licorice components on the metabolic activities of P450 enzymes. PMID:24254844

Qiao, Xue; Ji, Shuai; Yu, Si-Wang; Lin, Xiong-Hao; Jin, Hong-Wei; Duan, Yao-Kai; Zhang, Liang-Ren; Guo, De-An; Ye, Min

2014-01-01

10

Non-interactive Public-Key Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

An identity-based non-interactive public key distribution system is presented that is based on a novel trapdoor one-way function\\u000a allowing a trusted authority to compute the discrete logarithm of a given number modulo a publicly known composite number\\u000a m while this is infeasible for an adversary not knowing the factorization of m. Without interaction with a key distribution center or with

Ueli M. Maurer; Yacov Yacobi

1991-01-01

11

Session 2 summary and key issues identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Identification of specific areas for the technology development; payload/facility requirements; crew safety as the highest priority for the space station; identification of preliminary operational constraints (facilities/experiments requiring specialized equipment and/or procedures, and crew limitations and protective gear requirements); frame of reference of baseline of applicable waste handling experience; use of the workshop as a basis for assessing the current and applicable space station requirements; provision of an educational, and informational forum for government employees, contractors, experimental facility developers, and potential hardware suppliers involved with the Space Station program; and documentation of workshop results and follow-on study issues are examined.

Robey, Judith

1990-01-01

12

A visual identification key utilizing both gestalt and analytic approaches to identification of Carices present in North America (Plantae, Cyperaceae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Images are a critical part of the identification process because they enable direct, immediate and relatively unmediated comparisons between a specimen being identified and one or more reference specimens. The Carices Interactive Visual Identification Key (CIVIK) is a novel tool for identification of North American Carex species, the largest vascular plant genus in North America, and two less numerous closely-related genera, Cymophyllus and Kobresia. CIVIK incorporates 1288 high-resolution tiled image sets that allow users to zoom in to view minute structures that are crucial at times for identification in these genera. Morphological data are derived from the earlier Carex Interactive Identification Key (CIIK) which in turn used data from the Flora of North America treatments. In this new iteration, images can be viewed in a grid or histogram format, allowing multiple representations of data. In both formats the images are fully zoomable.

2013-01-01

13

An interactive key to the Chrysochromulina species (Haptophyta) described in the literature  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Chrysochromulina species. The list of species, originally described as belonging in the genus Chrysochromulina, is given and recent taxonomic changes in species and genera of the order Prymnesiales are provided. We briefly discuss the interest of such a key for the identification of phytoplanktonic species.

Chretiennot-Dinet, Marie-Josephe; Desreumaux, Nicolas; Vignes-Lebbe, Regine

2014-01-01

14

MOSCHweb - a matrix-based interactive key to the genera of the Palaearctic Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera).  

PubMed

We provide a general overview of features and technical specifications of an original interactive key web application for the identification of Palaearctic Tachinidae genera. The full list of terminal taxa included in the key, which is the most updated list of genera currently recorded for the Palaearctic Region, is given. We also briefly discuss the need for dealing with detailed and standardized taxa descriptions as a base to keep matrix-based interactive tools easily updated, by proposing a standardized protocol. PMID:22792031

Cerretti, Pierfilippo; Tschorsnig, Hans-Peter; Lopresti, Massimo; Giovanni, Filippo Di

2012-01-01

15

A novel automated object identification approach using key spectral components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral remote sensing provides solutions to a wide range of commercial, civil, agricultural, atmospheric, security, and defense problems. Technological advances have expanded multispectral (MSI) and hyperspectral (HSI) sensing capabilities from air and space borne sensors. The greater spectral and spatial sensitivity have vastly increased the available content for analysis. The amount of information in the data cubes obtained from today's sensors enable material identification via complex processing techniques. With sufficient sensor resolution, multiple pixels on target are obtained and by exploiting the key spectral features of a material signature among a group of target pixels and associating the features with neighboring pixels, object identification is possible. The authors propose a novel automated approach to object classification with HSI data by focusing on the key components of an HSI signature and the relevant areas of the spectrum (bands) of surrounding pixels to identify an object. The proposed technique may be applied to spectral data from any region of the spectrum to provide object identification. The effort will focus on HSI data from the visible, near-infrared and short-wave infrared to prove the algorithm concept.

Kahler, Bart; Noble, Todd

2013-06-01

16

Prioritizing cancer-related key miRNA-target interactions by integrative genomics  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) can function as oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes by controlling few key targets, which in turn contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer. The identification of cancer-related key miRNA–target interactions remains a challenge. We performed a systematic analysis of known cancer-related key interactions manually curated from published papers based on different aspects including sequence, expression and function. Known cancer-related key interactions show more miRNA binding sites (especially for 8mer binding sites), more reliable binding of miRNA to the target region, higher expression associations and broader functional coverage when compared to non-disease-related interactions. Through integrating these sequence, expression and function features, we proposed a bioinformatics approach termed PCmtI to prioritize cancer-related key interactions. Ten-fold cross-validation of our approach revealed that it can achieve an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 93.9%. Subsequent leave-one-miRNA-out cross-validation also demonstrated the performance of our approach. Using miR-155 as a case, we found that the top ranked interactions can account for most functions of miR-155. In addition, we further demonstrated the power of our approach by 23 recently identified cancer-related key interactions. The approach described here offers a new way for the discovery of novel cancer-related key miRNA–target interactions.

Xiao, Yun; Guan, Jinxia; Ping, Yanyan; Xu, Chaohan; Huang, Teng; Zhao, Hongying; Fan, Huihui; Li, Yiqun; Lv, Yanling; Zhao, Tingting; Dong, Yucui; Ren, Huan; Li, Xia

2012-01-01

17

INTERACTION IS THE KEY TO SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interaction is the key to second language learning. The interactionist view of language learning is that language acquisition is the result of an interaction between the learner's mental abilities and the linguistic environment. The studies of foreigner talk and teacher talk have been conducted in lieu with the role of input and interaction in both the natural and classroom settings.

Rozanna Noraini Albakri

18

Identification keys, the "natural method," and the development of plant identification manuals.  

PubMed

The origins of field guides and other plant identification manuals have been poorly understood until now because little attention has been paid to 18th century botanical identification guides. Identification manuals came to have the format we continue to use today when botanical instructors in post-Revolutionary France combined identification keys (step-wise analyses focusing on distinctions between plants) with the "natural method" (clustering of similar plants, allowing for identification by gestalt) and alphabetical indexes. Botanical works featuring multiple but linked techniques to enable plant identification became very popular in France by the first decade of the 19th century. British botanists, however, continued to use Linnaeus's sexual system almost exclusively for another two decades. Their reluctance to use other methods or systems of classification can be attributed to a culture suspicious of innovation, anti-French sentiment and the association of all things Linnaean with English national pride, fostered in particular by the President of the Linnean Society of London, Sir James Edward Smith. The British aversion to using multiple plant identification technologies in one text also helps explain why it took so long for English botanists to adopt the natural method, even after several Englishmen had tried to introduce it to their country. Historians of ornithology emphasize that the popularity of ornithological guides in the 19th and 20th centuries stems from their illustrations, illustrations made possible by printing technologies that improved illustration quality and reduced costs. Though illustrations are the most obvious features of late 19th century and 20th century guides, the organizational principles that make them functional as identification devices come from techniques developed in botanical works in the 18th century. PMID:19831202

Scharf, Sara T

2009-01-01

19

Pictorial Keys for the Identification of Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Associated With Dengue Virus Transmission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification keys are provided for female adults and fourth stage larvae of the mosquito species likely to transmit dengue viruses in 4 regions of the world. The keys are illustrated with Auto-Montage (copyright) photomicrographs, allowing optimum depth...

L. M. Rueda

2004-01-01

20

Quantum key distribution using transverse spin wave-optical interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a frequency-coded scheme to implement the BB84 quantum key distribution protocol using spin wave (SW)-optical interactions. The interaction of SWs with optical coherent states allows TE<-->TM mode conversion with simultaneous change of frequency and polarization while introducing a phase difference between the two modes. To implement the BB84 protocol, key bits are encoded as relative phases between the TE and TM modes. The proposed scheme offers a higher key rate, due to a modulation frequency as high as 25 GHz, which also relaxes the specifications on the optical filter at the receiver. In addition, SW-optical interactions yield the added security of truly single-sideband modulation.

Kumar, Pradeep; Prabhakar, Anil

2011-02-01

21

Classification and the Dichotomous Key: Tools for Teaching Identification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classification is a vital science-process skill for all students to master. Understanding dichotomous keys as a means of classification enables students to better comprehend large amounts of information and understand how to organize, compare and contrast, and analyze that information. To biology students, mastering the dichotomous key provides an…

Watson, Sandy; Miller, Ted

2009-01-01

22

Using Web-Based Key Character and Classification Instruction for Teaching Undergraduate Students Insect Identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of the study was to determine whether undergraduate students receiving web-based instruction based on traditional, key character, or classification instruction differed in their performance of insect identification tasks. All groups showed a significant improvement in insect identifications on pre- and post-two-dimensional picture specimen quizzes. The study also determined student performance on insect identification tasks was not as good as for family-level identification as compared to broader insect orders and arthropod classification identification tasks. Finally, students erred significantly more by misidentification than misspelling specimen names on prepared specimen quizzes. Results of this study support that short web-based insect identification exercises can improve insect identification performance. Also included is a discussion of how these results can be used in teaching and future research on biological identification.

Golick, Douglas A.; Heng-Moss, Tiffany M.; Steckelberg, Allen L.; Brooks, David. W.; Higley, Leon G.; Fowler, David

2013-08-01

23

Statistical Mechanics Approach to Lock-Key Supramolecular Chemistry Interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the supramolecular chemistry field, intuitive concepts such as molecular complementarity and molecular recognition are used to explain the mechanism of lock-key associations. However, these concepts lack a precise definition, and consequently this mechanism is not well defined and understood. Here we address the physical basis of this mechanism, based on formal statistical mechanics, through Monte Carlo simulation and compare our results with recent experimental data for charged or uncharged lock-key colloids. We find that, given the size range of the molecules involved in these associations, the entropy contribution, driven by the solvent, rules the interaction, over that of the enthalpy. A universal behavior for the uncharged lock-key association is found. Based on our results, we propose a supramolecular chemistry definition.

Odriozola, Gerardo; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

2013-03-01

24

Statistical mechanics approach to lock-key supramolecular chemistry interactions.  

PubMed

In the supramolecular chemistry field, intuitive concepts such as molecular complementarity and molecular recognition are used to explain the mechanism of lock-key associations. However, these concepts lack a precise definition, and consequently this mechanism is not well defined and understood. Here we address the physical basis of this mechanism, based on formal statistical mechanics, through Monte Carlo simulation and compare our results with recent experimental data for charged or uncharged lock-key colloids. We find that, given the size range of the molecules involved in these associations, the entropy contribution, driven by the solvent, rules the interaction, over that of the enthalpy. A universal behavior for the uncharged lock-key association is found. Based on our results, we propose a supramolecular chemistry definition. PMID:23521272

Odriozola, Gerardo; Lozada-Cassou, Marcelo

2013-03-01

25

Revised morphological identification key to the larval anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae) of Sri Lanka  

PubMed Central

Objective To revise morphological identification keys to the anophelines in Sri Lanka. Method Samples were collected from selected entomological sites in different districts in the country. Stage III and IV larvae were identified under a light microscope with an objective (×10) using standard larval keys developed for Sri Lankan anophelines. Key larval characters were recorded for each species based on original observations and previous usage in literature. Results This manuscript describes an illustrated key for the identification of 22 of 23 mosquitoes which are currently recognized as local anopheline species in Sri Lanka, as a guide to workers engaged in malaria surveillance and control in the country. Conclusions Revised morphological keys to the larval of these species may be helpful in easy and accurate identification at the field level.

Gunathilaka, Nayana; Fernando, Thilan; Hapugoda, Menaka; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

2014-01-01

26

A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

Thomas, P. A.

1991-01-01

27

Dichotomous Identification Keys: A Ladder to Higher Order Knowledge about the Human Body  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We tried to enrich teaching human anatomy in high school biology lessons. Students construct dichotomous identification keys to the cells, tissues, organs, or body parts. By doing this, students have achieved higher-order cognitive levels of knowledge because construction of such keys is based on analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Students found…

Sorgo, Andrej

2006-01-01

28

A Dichotomous Key for the Identification of Common British Wild Flower Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues the need for, and provides, a dichotomous single access key for the identification of common British wild flower families. A minimum of technical vocabulary is used while at the same time retaining most of the recent botanical names of families. The key provides a user-friendly opportunity for school pupils to become familiar…

Wood, Piers

2004-01-01

29

Key Binding Interactions for Memantine in the NMDA Receptor  

PubMed Central

Memantine (Namenda) is prescribed as a treatment for moderate to severe Alzheimer’s Disease. Memantine functions by blocking the NMDA receptor, but the key binding interactions between drug and receptor are not fully elucidated. To determine key binding interactions of memantine, we made side-by-side comparisons of IC50 for memantine and amantadine, a structurally related drug, in the GluN1/GluN2B NMDA receptor. We identified hydrophobic binding pockets for the two methyl groups on memantine formed by the residues A645 and A644 on the third transmembrane helices of GluN1 and GluN2B, respectively. Moreover, we found that while adding two methyl groups to amantadine to produce memantine greatly improves affinity, adding a third methyl group to produce the symmetrical trimethylamantadine diminished affinity. Our results provide a better understanding of chemical-scale interactions between memantine and the NMDA channel, which will potentially benefit the development of new drugs for neurodegenerative diseases involving NMDA receptors.

2012-01-01

30

Magnon-Photon interactions for Quantum Key Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose an implementation of quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol using magnon-photon interactions in dielectric waveguides. Starting from the Hamiltonian of spin wave-optical interactions in a symmetric dielectric waveguide, we derive the single-photon transformations that allow us to define two non-orthogonal basis sets, which are isomorphic to polarization basis of single-photon. Implementation of the BB84 and B92 protocols is then straightforward. The principal advantage of our scheme is the higher quantum bit error rate (QBER) (37.5%) compared to polarization-coded scheme (25%) for simple intercept/resend attack. This considerably relaxes the specifications of optical components. Finally, we consider the effect of low conversion efficiency on QBER.

Kumar, P.; Prabhakar, A.

2011-07-01

31

Controlling hydrotreater fouling -- Problem identification is key to cost-effective solutions  

SciTech Connect

There are many variables which can impact fouling in hydrotreater preheat exchangers and reactors. Identification of the fouling mechanisms and the impact of various operating variables on fouling is essential to developing the most cost-effective solution to hydrotreater fouling. This paper addresses the use of deposit analyses and feedstock characterization to help identify the different hydrotreater fouling mechanisms. It also expands on how problem identification is key to solving these problems. Several brief case studies present a problem identification and chemical solution approach to controlling hydrotreater fouling.

Groce, B.C. (Betz Process Chemicals, Inc., Woodlands, TX (United States))

1994-01-01

32

Principles of visual key construction-with a visual identification key to the Fagaceae of the southeastern United States  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Advances in digital imaging have made possible the creation of completely visual keys. By a visual key we mean a key based primarily on images, and that contains a minimal amount of text. Characters in visual keys are visually, not verbally defined. In this paper we create the first primarily visual key to a group of taxa, in this case the Fagaceae of the southeastern USA. We also modify our recently published set of best practices for image use in illustrated keys to make them applicable to visual keys. Methodology Photographs of the Fagaceae were obtained from internet and herbarium databases or were taken specifically for this project. The images were printed and then sorted into hierarchical groups. These hierarchical groups of images were used to create the ‘couplets’ in the key. A reciprocal process of key creation and testing was used to produce the final keys. Principal results Four keys were created, one for each of the parts—leaves, buds, fruits and bark. Species description pages consisting of multiple images were also created for each of the species in the key. Creation and testing of the key resulted in a modified list of best practices for image use visual keys. Conclusions The inclusion of images into paper and electronic keys has greatly increased their ease of use. However, virtually all of these keys are still based upon verbally defined, atomistic characters. The creation of primarily visual keys allows us to overcome the well-known limitations of linguistic-based characters and create keys that are much easier to use, especially for botanical novices.

Kirchoff, Bruce K.; Leggett, Roxanne; Her, Va; Moua, Chue; Morrison, Jessica; Poole, Chamika

2011-01-01

33

Recent analysis of key plasma wall interactions issues for ITER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma wall interaction (PWI) is important for the material choice in ITER and for the plasma scenarios compatible with material constraints. In this paper, different aspects of the PWI are assessed in their importance for the initial wall materials choice: CFC for the strike point tiles, W in the divertor and baffle and Be on the first wall. Further material

Joachim Roth; E. Tsitrone; A. Loarte; Th. Loarer; G. Counsell; R. Neu; V. Philipps; S. Brezinsek; M. Lehnen; P. Coad; Ch. Grisolia; K. Schmid; K. Krieger; A. Kallenbach; B. Lipschultz; R. Doerner; R. Causey; V. Alimov; W. Shu; O. Ogorodnikova; A. Kirschner; G. Federici; A. Kukushkin

2009-01-01

34

Computational modeling identifies key gene regulatory interactions underlying phenobarbital-mediated tumor promotion  

PubMed Central

Gene regulatory interactions underlying the early stages of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis are poorly understood. Here, we have identified key candidate regulators of phenobarbital (PB)-mediated mouse liver tumorigenesis, a well-characterized model of non-genotoxic carcinogenesis, by applying a new computational modeling approach to a comprehensive collection of in vivo gene expression studies. We have combined our previously developed motif activity response analysis (MARA), which models gene expression patterns in terms of computationally predicted transcription factor binding sites with singular value decomposition (SVD) of the inferred motif activities, to disentangle the roles that different transcriptional regulators play in specific biological pathways of tumor promotion. Furthermore, transgenic mouse models enabled us to identify which of these regulatory activities was downstream of constitutive androstane receptor and ?-catenin signaling, both crucial components of PB-mediated liver tumorigenesis. We propose novel roles for E2F and ZFP161 in PB-mediated hepatocyte proliferation and suggest that PB-mediated suppression of ESR1 activity contributes to the development of a tumor-prone environment. Our study shows that combining MARA with SVD allows for automated identification of independent transcription regulatory programs within a complex in vivo tissue environment and provides novel mechanistic insights into PB-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis.

Luisier, Raphaelle; Unterberger, Elif B.; Goodman, Jay I.; Schwarz, Michael; Moggs, Jonathan; Terranova, Remi; van Nimwegen, Erik

2014-01-01

35

Identification and classification of key variables and their role in environmental impact assessment: methodology and software package INTRA.  

PubMed

There is, as yet, no proven methodology to enable, objectively, the identification of key parameters out of a large number one normally encounters during any EIA. As EIA is a costly and time-consuming exercise, it is necessary to separate the man from the boys--so to speak--in order to optimize costs and efforts. In this paper a methodology for distinguishing the more important parameters from the less important ones, developed by us, is described. The methodology aims at identifying and shortlisting the key parameters which ought to be studied in a given EIA situation, thereby helping in reducing time, effort, and cost of EIA. With this methodology a system structure is developed which gives hierarchical pattern of inter-parameter interaction, and reveals several distinguishing features of each parameter. A software package INTRA (INTer-parameter Relationship Analysis) based on this methodology, has been developed. The paper also describes a case study in which INTRA has been used to study the environmental impacts of urbanization of a typical third world town (Roorkee). PMID:11720229

Arya, D S; Abbasi, S A

2001-12-01

36

A Novel Identity-Based Key Issuing Scheme Based on Interacting Neural Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Identity-based public key cryptosystem may perfectly substitute the traditional certificate-based public key system if only\\u000a the efficiency and security of key issuing are satisfied. Recently, interacting neural network has been studied with a novel\\u000a result that the two neural networks can synchronize to a stationary weight space with the identical inputs. So we propose\\u000a a tree parity machine model for

Tieming Chen; Bo Chen; Jiamei Cai

2005-01-01

37

Diptera of forensic importance in the Iberian Peninsula: larval identification key.  

PubMed

A revision of the species and families of sarcosaprophagous flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, Drosophilidae, Phoridae, Piophilidae and Stratiomyidae) suitable for forensic purposes in the Iberian Peninsula is presented. Morphological characteristics that allow the accurate identification of third instars of the species present in the Iberian Peninsula are described and presented in the form of a diagnostic key. For larval Calliphoridae, characteristics such as the spines of the body segments were useful for the genus Calliphora whereas features of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were useful for larvae of Lucilia. Identification of three Chrysominae species present in the Iberian Peninsula is included. For larval Sarcophagidae, characters such as the arrangement and shape of spiracular openings, structures of the anal segment and the cephalopharyngeal skeleton were used for the first time. A new record of Sarcophaga cultellata Pandellé, from a human corpse, is also included as well as recent incursions into the European cadaveric entomofauna such as Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp) and Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus). This work provides useful new information that could be applied to forensic investigations in the Iberian Peninsula and in southern Europe. PMID:20557457

Velásquez, Y; Magaña, C; Martínez-Sánchez, A; Rojo, S

2010-09-01

38

THE IDENTIFICATION AND TESTING OF INTERACTION PATTERNS  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a method for identifying and assessing the significance of interaction patterns among various chemicals and chemical classes of importance to regulatory toxicologists. To this end, efforts were made to assemble and evaluate experimental data on toxicologically...

39

Identification of paxillin domains interacting with ?-catenin.  

PubMed

Barrier-protective agonists induce association of focal adhesions (FA) and adherens junctions (AJ) in endothelial cells. Here we identified specific domains of FA protein paxillin interacting with AJ protein and examined regulation of paxillin domain interactions with ?-catenin by Rac GTPase. Co-expression of paxillin LD-1,2; LD-3,4; LIM-1,2; and LIM-3,4 domains with ?-catenin showed exclusive interaction of LIM-1,2 and LIM-3,4 with ?-catenin, which was enhanced by agonist-induced Rac activation or expression of activated Rac mutant. These results demonstrate a novel function of paxillin LIM domains in targeting ?-catenin in a Rac-dependent manner, which may play a role in Rac-dependent control of FA-AJ interactions and monolayer integrity. PMID:22728435

Dubrovskyi, Oleksii; Tian, Xinyong; Poroyko, Valeriy; Yakubov, Bakhtiyor; Birukova, Anna A; Birukov, Konstantin G

2012-07-30

40

Identification of directed interactions in networks.  

PubMed

Multichannel data collection in the neurosciences is routine and has necessitated the development of methods to identify the direction of interactions among processes. The most widely used approach for detecting these interactions in such data is based on autoregressive models of stochastic processes, although some work has raised the possibility of serious difficulties with this approach. This article demonstrates that these difficulties are present and that they are intrinsic features of the autoregressive method. Here, we introduce a new method taking into account unobserved processes and based on coherence. Two examples of three-process networks are used to demonstrate that although coherence measures are intrinsically non-directional, a particular network configuration will be associated with a particular set of coherences. These coherences may not specify the network uniquely, but in principle will specify all network configurations consistent with their values and will also specify the relationships among the unobserved processes. Moreover, when new information becomes available, the values of the measures of association already in place do not change, but the relationships among the unobserved processes may become further resolved. PMID:21678101

Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R

2011-06-01

41

The Identification of Key Issues in the Development of Sustainable e-Learning and Virtual Campus Initiatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores a number of key issues that have been identified as being important in the identification and evaluation of best practice within the context of e-learning and virtual campuses. The "Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses" (PBP-VC) project is a two year European Commission Education Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency…

Stansfield, Mark; Connolly, Thomas; Cartelli, Antonio; Jimoyiannis, Athanassios; Magalhaes, Hugo; Maillet, Katherine

2009-01-01

42

Comparative proteomic analysis of Lactobacillus plantarum for the identification of key proteins in bile tolerance  

PubMed Central

Background Lactic acid bacteria are commonly marketed as probiotics based on their putative or proven health-promoting effects. These effects are known to be strain specific but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Therefore, unravelling the determinants behind probiotic features is of particular interest since it would help select strains that stand the best chance of success in clinical trials. Bile tolerance is one of the most crucial properties as it determines the ability of bacteria to survive in the small intestine, and consequently their capacity to play their functional role as probiotics. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the natural protein diversity within the Lactobacillus plantarum species with relation to bile tolerance, using comparative proteomics. Results Bile tolerance properties of nine L. plantarum strains were studied in vitro. Three of them presenting different bile tolerance levels were selected for comparative proteomic analysis: L. plantarum 299 V (resistant), L. plantarum LC 804 (intermediate) and L. plantarum LC 56 (sensitive). Qualitative and quantitative differences in proteomes were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), tryptic digestion, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and database search for protein identification. Among the proteins correlated with differences in the 2-DE patterns of the bacterial strains, 15 have previously been reported to be involved in bile tolerance processes. The effect of a bile exposure on these patterns was investigated, which led to the identification of six proteins that may be key in the bile salt response and adaptation in L. plantarum: two glutathione reductases involved in protection against oxidative injury caused by bile salts, a cyclopropane-fatty-acyl-phospholipid synthase implicated in maintenance of cell envelope integrity, a bile salt hydrolase, an ABC transporter and a F0F1-ATP synthase which participate in the active removal of bile-related stress factors. Conclusions These results showed that comparative proteomic analysis can help understand the differential bacterial properties of lactobacilli. In the field of probiotic studies, characteristic proteomic profiles can be identified for individual properties that may serve as bacterial biomarkers for the preliminary selection of strains with the best probiotic potential.

2011-01-01

43

The mosquitoes (Diptera: Culidae) of Seychelles: taxonomy, ecology, vectorial importance, and identification keys  

PubMed Central

Background During recent periods, the islands of the Republic of Seychelles experienced many diseases such as dengue, chikungunya, Bancroft’s filaria and malaria. Mosquitoes transmit the agents that cause these diseases. Published information on mosquitoes in the Seychelles is notably dispersed in the literature. The maximum number of species obtained on a single field survey does not exceed 14 species. Methods We performed a comprehensive bibliographic review using mosquito and Seychelles as the key words, as well as conducted a mosquito field survey for larval and adult stages during the rainy season in December 2008. Sixteen sites were sampled on four granitic islands (Mahé, Praslin, La Digue and Aride) and six sites on coralline atolls in the extreme southwest of the country (Aldabra group). Results We found published references to 21 mosquito species identified at least on one occasion in the Seychelles. Our collections comprised 18 species of mosquitoes, all of them from the subfamily Culicinae; no Anophelinae was found. We also confirm that Aedes seychellensis is a junior synonym of Ae. (Aedimorphus) albocephalus. The first records for Culex antennatus and Cx. sunyaniensis are presented from the country, specifically from Aldabra and Praslin, respectively. Based on a comparison of the taxa occurring on the granitic versus coralline islands, only three species, Ae. albocephalus, Cx. scottii and Cx. simpsoni are shared. Aedes albopictus appeared to exclude largely Ae. aegypti on the granitic islands; however, Ae. aegypti was common on Aldabra, where Ae. albopictus has not been recorded. The notable aggressiveness of mosquitoes towards humans on coralline islands was mainly due to two species, the females of which are difficult to distinguish: Ae. fryeri and Ae. (Aedimorphus) sp. A. The number of mosquito species collected at least once in the Seychelles is now 22, among which five species (Ae. (Adm) sp. A, Cx. stellatus, Uranotaenia browni. Ur. nepenthes and Ur. pandani) and one subspecies (Ae. vigilax vansomerenae) are considered as endemic. Two illustrated identification keys, one for adult females and the other for larval stages, are presented. Conclusions The knowledge of the culicidian fauna in the Seychelles has been notably updated. The number of mosquito species is relatively large with regards to land surface and distances to continental Africa, although the anophelines are totally lacking. The complex natural history of mosquitoes in the Seychelles provides examples of both vicariance- and dispersal-mediated divergences. They present superb examples for theoretical and applied island biology.

2012-01-01

44

A Linnaeus NG TM interactive key to the Lithocolletinae of North-West Europe aimed at accelerating the accumulation of reliable biodiversity data (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract We present an interactive key that is available online through any web browser without the need to install any additional software, making it an easily accessible tool for the larger public. The key can be found at http://identify.naturalis.nl/lithocolletinae. The key includes all 86 North-West European Lithocolletinae, a subfamily of smaller moths (“micro-moths”) that is commonly not treated in field guides. The user can input data on several external morphological character systems in addition to distribution, host plant and even characteristics of the larval feeding traces to reach an identification. We expect that this will enable more people to contribute with reliable observation data on this group of moths and alleviate the workload of taxonomic specialists, allowing them to focus on other new keys or taxonomic work.

Doorenweerd, Camiel; van Haren, Merel M.; Schermer, Maarten; Pieterse, Sander; van Nieukerken, Erik J.

2014-01-01

45

Identification of key peptidoglycan hydrolases for morphogenesis, autolysis, and peptidoglycan composition of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1  

PubMed Central

Background Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly used in industrial fermentation processes. Selected strains are also marketed as probiotics for their health beneficial effects. Although the functional role of peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes is increasingly documented to be important for a range of bacterial processes and host-microbe interactions, little is known about their functional roles in lactobacilli. This knowledge holds important potential for developing more robust strains resistant to autolysis under stress conditions as well as peptidoglycan engineering for a better understanding of the contribution of released muramyl-peptides as probiotic immunomodulators. Results Here, we explored the functional role of the predicted peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH) complement encoded in the genome of L. plantarum by systematic gene deletion. From twelve predicted PGH-encoding genes, nine could be individually inactivated and their corresponding mutant strains were characterized regarding their cell morphology, growth, and autolysis under various conditions. From this analysis, we identified two PGHs, the predicted N-acetylglucosaminidase Acm2 and NplC/P60 D,L-endopeptidase LytA, as key determinants in the morphology of L. plantarum. Acm2 was demonstrated to be required for the ultimate step of cell separation of daughter cells, whereas LytA appeared to be required for cell shape maintenance and cell-wall integrity. We also showed by autolysis experiments that both PGHs are involved in the global autolytic process with a dominant role for Acm2 in all tested conditions, identifying Acm2 as the major autolysin of L. plantarum WCFS1. In addition, Acm2 and the putative N-acetylmuramidase Lys2 were shown to play redundant roles in both cell separation and autolysis under stress conditions. Finally, the analysis of the peptidoglycan composition of Acm2- and LytA-deficient derivatives revealed their potential hydrolytic activities by the disappearance of specific cleavage products. Conclusion In this study, we showed that two PGHs of L. plantarum have a predominant physiological role in a range of growth conditions. We demonstrate that the N-acetylglucosaminidase Acm2 is the major autolysin whereas the D,L-endopeptidase LytA is a key morphogenic determinant. In addition, both PGHs have a direct impact on PG structure by generating a higher diversity of cleavage products that could be of importance for interaction with the innate immune system.

2012-01-01

46

The Identification of Key Issues in the Development of Sustainable e-Learning and Virtual Campus Initiatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores a number of key issues that have been identified as being important in the identification and evaluation of best practice within the context of e-learning and virtual campuses. The 'Promoting Best Practice in Virtual Campuses' (PBP-VC) project is a two year European Commission Education Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA) co-financed project that is aimed at providing

Mark Stansfield; Thomas Connolly; Antonio Cartelli

47

Noncanonical hydrogen bonding in nucleic acids. Benchmark evaluation of key base-phosphate interactions in folded RNA molecules using quantum-chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations.  

PubMed

RNA molecules are stabilized by a wide range of noncanonical interactions that are not present in DNA. Among them, the recently classified base-phosphate (BPh) interactions belong to the most important ones. Twelve percent of nucleotides in the ribosomal crystal structures are involved in BPh interactions. BPh interactions are highly conserved and provide major constraints on RNA sequence evolution. Here we provide assessment of the energetics of BPh interactions using MP2 computations extrapolated to the complete basis set of atomic orbitals and corrected for higher-order electron correlation effects. The reference computations are compared with DFT-D and DFT-D3 approaches, the SAPT method, and the molecular mechanics force field. The computations, besides providing the basic benchmark for the BPh interactions, allow some refinements of the original classification, including identification of some potential doubly bonded BPh patterns. The reference computations are followed by analysis of some larger RNA fragments that consider the context of the BPh interactions. The computations demonstrate the complexity of interaction patterns utilizing the BPh interactions in real RNA structures. The BPh interactions are often involved in intricate interaction networks. We studied BPh interactions of protonated adenine that can contribute to catalysis of hairpin ribozyme, the key BPh interaction in the S-turn motif of the sarcin-ricin loop, which may predetermine the S-turn topology and complex BPh patterns from the glmS riboswitch. Finally, the structural stability of BPh interactions in explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations is assessed. The simulations well preserve key BPh interactions and allow dissection of structurally/functionally important water-meditated BPh bridges, which could not be considered in earlier bioinformatics classification of BPh interactions. PMID:21910417

Zgarbová, Marie; Jure?ka, Petr; Banáš, Pavel; Otyepka, Michal; Sponer, Judit E; Leontis, Neocles B; Zirbel, Craig L; Sponer, Ji?í

2011-10-20

48

Identification of chikungunya virus interacting proteins in mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Identification and characterization of virus host interactions is an essential step for the development of novel antiviral strategies. Very few studies have been targeted towards identification of chikungunya virus (CHIKV) interacting host proteins. In current study, virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization time of flight analysis (MALDI TOF/TOF) were employed for the identification of CHIKV binding proteins in mammalian cells. HSP70 and actin were identified as virus binding proteins in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells, whereas STAT-2 was identified as an additional protein in Vero-E6 cells. Pre-incubation with anti-HSP70 antibody and miRNA silencing of HSP70 significantly reduced the CHIKV production in HEK-293T and Vero-E6 cells at early time points. These results suggest that CHIKV exploits the housekeeping molecules such as actin, HSP70 and STAT-2 to establish infection in the mammalian cells. PMID:24845503

Paingankar, Mandar S; Arankalle, Vidya A

2014-06-01

49

Crystal Structures of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase with Picomolar Inhibitors Reveal Key Interactions for Drug Design  

PubMed Central

X-ray crystal structures at 2.9 Å resolution are reported for complexes of catechol diethers 1 and 2 with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. The results help elucidate the structural origins of the extreme antiviral activity of the compounds. The possibility of halogen bonding between the inhibitors and Pro95 is addressed. Structural analysis reveals key interactions with conserved residues P95 and W229 of importance for design of inhibitors with high potency and favorable resistance profiles.

Frey, Kathleen M.; Bollini, Mariela; Mislak, Andrea C.; Cisneros, Jose A.; Gallardo-Macias, Ricardo; Jorgensen, William L.; Anderson, Karen S.

2012-01-01

50

Constructing Compact Takagi-Sugeno Rule Systems: Identification of Complex Interactions in Epidemiological Data  

PubMed Central

The Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy rule system is a widely used data mining technique, and is of particular use in the identification of non-linear interactions between variables. However the number of rules increases dramatically when applied to high dimensional data sets (the curse of dimensionality). Few robust methods are available to identify important rules while removing redundant ones, and this results in limited applicability in fields such as epidemiology or bioinformatics where the interaction of many variables must be considered. Here, we develop a new parsimonious TS rule system. We propose three statistics: R, L, and ?-values, to rank the importance of each TS rule, and a forward selection procedure to construct a final model. We use our method to predict how key components of childhood deprivation combine to influence educational achievement outcome. We show that a parsimonious TS model can be constructed, based on a small subset of rules, that provides an accurate description of the relationship between deprivation indices and educational outcomes. The selected rules shed light on the synergistic relationships between the variables, and reveal that the effect of targeting specific domains of deprivation is crucially dependent on the state of the other domains. Policy decisions need to incorporate these interactions, and deprivation indices should not be considered in isolation. The TS rule system provides a basis for such decision making, and has wide applicability for the identification of non-linear interactions in complex biomedical data.

Zhou, Shang-Ming; Lyons, Ronan A.; Brophy, Sinead; Gravenor, Mike B.

2012-01-01

51

Identification of key genes and crucial modules associated with coronary artery disease by bioinformatics analysis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to identify key genes associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and to explore the related signaling pathways. Gene expression profiles of 110 CAD and 112 non-CAD, healthy patients [CAD index (CADi) >23 and =0, respectively] were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database (accession: GSE12288). The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in CAD were identified using t-tests, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks for these DEGs were constructed using the Search Tool for the Retrieval of InteractiNg Genes (STRING) database. The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) tool was used to identify potentially enriched biological processes (BP) among the DEGs using Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and to identify the related pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database. In addition, expression-activated subnetworks (crucial modules) of the constructed PPI networks were identified using the jActiveModule plug-in, and their topological properties were analyzed using NetworkAnalyzer, both available from Cytoscape. The patient specimens were classified as grade I, II and III based on CADi values. There were 151 DEGs in grade I, 362 in grade II and 425 in grade III. In the PPI network, the gene GRB2, encoding the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2, was the only common DEG among the three grades. In addition, 10 crucial modules were identified in the PPIs, 4 of which showed significant enrichment for GO BP terms. In the 12 nodes with the highest betweenness centrality, we found two genes, encoding GRB2 and the heat shock 70 kDa protein 8 (HSPA8). Moreover, the chemokine and focal adhesion signaling pathways were selected based on their relative abundance in CAD. The GRB2 and HSPA8 proteins, as well as the chemokine and focal adhension signaling pathways, might therefore be critical for the development of CAD. PMID:24969630

Zhang, Xuemei; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Liu, Huifeng; Zheng, Chunhua; Rao, Kunrui; Fang, Yi; Zhou, Hairong; Xiong, Shenghe

2014-09-01

52

Identification of key residues involved in adrenomedullin binding to the AM1 receptor  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Adrenomedullin (AM) is a peptide hormone whose receptors are members of the class B GPCR family. They comprise a heteromer between the GPCR, the calcitonin receptor-like receptor and one of the receptor activity-modifying proteins 1–3. AM plays a significant role in angiogenesis and its antagonist fragment AM22–52 can inhibit blood vessel and tumour growth. The mechanism by which AM interacts with its receptors is unknown. Experimental Approach We determined the AM22–52 binding epitope for the AM1 receptor extracellular domain using biophysical techniques, heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and alanine scanning. Key Results Chemical shift perturbation experiments located the main binding epitope for AM22–52 at the AM1 receptor to the C-terminal 8 amino acids. Isothermal titration calorimetry of AM22–52 alanine-substituted peptides indicated that Y52, G51 and I47 are essential for AM1 receptor binding and that K46 and P49 and R44 have a smaller role to play. Characterization of these peptides at the full-length AM receptors was assessed in Cos7 cells by cAMP assay. This confirmed the essential role of Y52, G51 and I47 in binding to the AM1 receptor, with their substitution resulting in ?100-fold reduction in antagonist potency compared with AM22–52. R44A, K46A, S48A and P49A AM22–52 decreased antagonist potency by approximately 10-fold. Conclusions and Implications This study localizes the main binding epitope of AM22–52 to its C-terminal amino acids and distinguishes essential residues involved in this binding. This will inform the development of improved AM receptor antagonists.

Watkins, HA; Au, M; Bobby, R; Archbold, JK; Abdul-Manan, N; Moore, JM; Middleditch, MJ; Williams, GM; Brimble, MA; Dingley, AJ; Hay, DL

2013-01-01

53

A Teaching Exercise for the Identification of Bacteria Using An Interactive Computer Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an interactive Fortran computer program which provides an exercise in the identification of bacteria. Provides a way of enhancing a student's approach to systematic bacteriology and numerical identification procedures. (Author/MA)

Bryant, Trevor N.; Smith, John E.

1979-01-01

54

Experimental Methods for Protein Interaction Identification and Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are dozens of methods for the detection of protein-protein interactions but they fall into a few broad categories. Fragment complementation assays such as the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system are based on split proteins that are functionally reconstituted by fusions of interacting proteins. Biophysical methods include structure determination and mass spectrometric (MS) identification of proteins in complexes. Biochemical methods include methods such as far western blotting and peptide arrays. Only the Y2H and protein complex purification combined with MS have been used on a larger scale. Due to the lack of data it is still difficult to compare these methods with respect to their efficiency and error rates. Current data does not favor any particular method and thus multiple experimental approaches are necessary to maximally cover the interactome of any target cell or organism.

Uetz, Peter; Titz, Björn; Cagney, Gerard

55

The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Anderson A, Dewar J, Marshall D, Cummins S, Taylor M, Dawson J, Sparks L. The development of a healthy eating indicator shopping basket tool (HEISB) for use in food access studies-identification of key food items.

56

An Identification Key to Rodent Prey in Owl Pellets from the Northwestern and Southeastern United States: Employing Incisor Size to Distinguish among Genera  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present an identification key to the common rodent prey found in owl pellets from the Northwestern (NW) and Southeastern (SE) United States that is based on differences in incisor size (arc diameter) among genera.

Hager, Stephen B.; Cosentino, Bradley J.

2006-01-01

57

Interactive Effects of Work Group and Organizational Identification on Job Satisfaction and Extra-Role Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Past research has focused on the differential relationships of organizational and work group identification with attitudes and behavior. However, no systematic effort has been undertaken yet to explore interactive effects "between" these foci of identification. We predicted that in cases of positive overlap of identifications (i.e. high work group…

van Dick, Rolf; van Knippenberg, Daan; Kerschreiter, Rudolf; Hertel, Guido; Wieseke, Jan

2008-01-01

58

Identification of novel CBP interacting proteins in embryonic orofacial tissue  

SciTech Connect

cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) plays an important role as a general co-integrator of multiple signaling pathways and interacts with a large number of transcription factors and co-factors, through its numerous protein-binding domains. To identify nuclear factors associated with CBP in developing orofacial tissue, a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library derived from orofacial tissue from gestational day 11 to 13 mouse embryos was conducted. Using the carboxy terminus (amino acid residues 1676-2441) of CBP as bait, several novel proteins that bind CBP were identified, including an Msx-interacting-zinc finger protein, CDC42 interaction protein 4/thyroid hormone receptor interactor 10, SH3-domain GRB2-like 1, CCR4-NOT transcription complex subunit 3, adaptor protein complex AP-1 {beta}1 subunit, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit 1 ({alpha}), and cyclin G-associated kinase. Results of the yeast two-hybrid screen were confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays. The identification of these proteins as novel CBP-binding partners allows exploration of new mechanisms by which CBP regulates and integrates diverse cell signaling pathways.

Yin Xiaolong [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Warner, Dennis R. [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Roberts, Emily A. [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Pisano, M. Michele [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292 (United States); Greene, Robert M. [Department of Molecular, Cellular and Craniofacial Biology, University of Louisville Birth Defects Center, ULSD Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)]. E-mail: greene@louisville.edu

2005-04-15

59

Identification of key residues for protein conformational transition using elastic network model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Proteins usually undergo conformational transitions between structurally disparate states to fulfill their functions. The large-scale allosteric conformational transitions are believed to involve some key residues that mediate the conformational movements between different regions of the protein. In the present work, a thermodynamic method based on the elastic network model is proposed to predict the key residues involved in protein conformational transitions. In our method, the key functional sites are identified as the residues whose perturbations largely influence the free energy difference between the protein states before and after transition. Two proteins, nucleotide binding domain of the heat shock protein 70 and human/rat DNA polymerase ?, are used as case studies to identify the critical residues responsible for their open-closed conformational transitions. The results show that the functionally important residues mainly locate at the following regions for these two proteins: (1) the bridging point at the interface between the subdomains that control the opening and closure of the binding cleft; (2) the hinge region between different subdomains, which mediates the cooperative motions between the corresponding subdomains; and (3) the substrate binding sites. The similarity in the positions of the key residues for these two proteins may indicate a common mechanism in their conformational transitions.

Su, Ji Guo; Jin Xu, Xian; Hua Li, Chun; Chen, Wei Zu; Wang, Cun Xin

2011-11-01

60

A turn-key approach for large-scale identification of complex posttranslational modifications.  

PubMed

The conjugation of complex post-translational modifications (PTMs) such as glycosylation and Small Ubiquitin-like Modification (SUMOylation) to a substrate protein can substantially change the resulting peptide fragmentation pattern compared to its unmodified counterpart, making current database search methods inappropriate for the identification of tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra from such modified peptides. Traditionally it has been difficult to develop new algorithms to identify these atypical peptides because of the lack of a large set of annotated spectra from which to learn the altered fragmentation pattern. Using SUMOylation as an example, we propose a novel approach to generate large MS/MS training data from modified peptides and derive an algorithm that learns properties of PTM-specific fragmentation from such training data. Benchmark tests on data sets of varying complexity show that our method is 80-300% more sensitive than current state-of-the-art approaches. The core concepts of our method are readily applicable to developing algorithms for the identifications of peptides with other complex PTMs. PMID:24437954

Wang, Jian; Anania, Veronica G; Knott, Jeff; Rush, John; Lill, Jennie R; Bourne, Philip E; Bandeira, Nuno

2014-03-01

61

Identification and expression of isoflavone synthase, the key enzyme for biosynthesis of isoflavones in legumes.  

PubMed

Isoflavones have drawn much attention because of their benefits to human health. These compounds, which are produced almost exclusively in legumes, have natural roles in plant defense and root nodulation. Isoflavone synthase catalyzes the first committed step of isoflavone biosynthesis, a branch of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To identify the gene encoding this enzyme, we used a yeast expression assay to screen soybean ESTs encoding cytochrome P450 proteins. We identified two soybean genes encoding isoflavone synthase, and used them to isolate homologous genes from other leguminous species including red clover, white clover, hairy vetch, mung bean, alfalfa, lentil, snow pea, and lupine, as well as from the nonleguminous sugarbeet. We expressed soybean isoflavone synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana, which led to production of the isoflavone genistein in this nonlegume plant. Identification of the isoflavone synthase gene should allow manipulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway for agronomic and nutritional purposes. PMID:10657130

Jung, W; Yu, O; Lau, S M; O'Keefe, D P; Odell, J; Fader, G; McGonigle, B

2000-02-01

62

Helical peptide arrays for lead identification and interaction site mapping.  

PubMed

Libraries composed of linear and cyclic peptides cannot fully represent the higher order structures of most antigenic sites. To map the binding site of ligands or antibodies, a larger part of the three-dimensional space should be sampled. Because parallel synthesis of large arrays of peptides on hydrogels is restricted to relatively small peptides, a simple and robust homodimeric helical system was chosen for antigen presentation. First, it was established in an heterodimeric system that the 26-mer peptide could be synthesized and that the helical coiled-coil peptides interact in the hydrogel in a predictable manner. Next, libraries of homodimeric coiled coils were synthesized into which the epitope was grafted. Using dedicated helical dimeric and trimeric coiled-coil libraries, the epitopes of two anti-HIV-1 gp41 monoclonal antibodies known to interact with helical structures were mapped at high resolution. These mappings precisely reflect existing X-ray data, and the arrays can be applied to lead identification, epitope mapping, and systematic analysis of amino acid contribution to coiled-coil systems. PMID:21708118

Langedijk, Johannes P M; Zekveld, Maria J; Ruiter, Mariska; Corti, Davide; Back, Jaap W

2011-10-01

63

Arginine 26 and aspartic acid 69 of the regulatory subunit are key residues of subunits interaction of acetohydroxyacid synthase isozyme III from E. coli.  

PubMed

Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS), which catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of branched-chain amino acids, is composed of catalytic and regulatory subunits. The enzyme exhibits full activity only when the regulatory subunit (RSU) binds to the catalytic subunit (CSU). However, the crystal structure of the holoenzyme has not been reported yet, and the molecular interaction between the CSU and RSU is also unknown. Herein, we introduced a global-surface, site-directed labeling scanning method to determine the potential interaction region of the RSU. This approach relies on the insertion of a bulky fluorescent probe at the designated site on the surface of the RSU to cause a dramatic change in holoenzyme activity by perturbing subunit interaction. Then, the key amino acid residues in the potential interaction regions were identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Compared to the wild-type, the single-point mutants R26A and D69A showed 54 and 64?% activity, respectively, whereas the double mutant (R26A+D69A) gave 14?%, thus suggesting that residues Arg26 and Asp69 are the key residues of subunit interaction with cooperative action. Additionally, the results of GST pull-down assays and pH-dependence experiments suggested that polar interaction is the main force for subunits interaction. A plausible protein-protein interaction model of the holoenzyme of Escherichia coli AHAS III is proposed, based on the mutagenesis and protein docking studies. The protocol established here should be useful for the identification of the molecular interactions between proteins. PMID:23047433

Zhao, Yuefang; Wen, Xin; Niu, Congwei; Xi, Zhen

2012-11-01

64

DawnKey: Automated Identification of Terrains on 4 Vesta using Dawn Framing Camera Bands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Dawn mission will rendezvous with asteroid (4) Vesta in July 2011. We have developed criteria for classifying terrains on Vesta by using the Dawn Framing Camera (FC) spectral bands and laboratory spectra of meteorites that are related to Vesta. Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HEDs) meteorites and, for example, pallasites, and mesosiderites are likely representative for the composition of these terrains. We implemented the classification of terrains in a program called DawnKey, which allows ingesting Dawn FC color cubes consisting of 7 filters. The software then returns the meteorite type that best fit the spectrum for each pixel.

Le Corre, L.; Reddy, V.; Nathues, A.; Hall, I.; Gutiérrez-Marqués, P.; Hoffmann, M.

2011-10-01

65

Identification of some key parameters limiting the performance of high-efficiency silicon solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents, for the first time, a detailed sensitivity analysis of key cell parameters on silicon-cell efficiency by incorporating advanced solar cell physics in a sophisticated numerical simulation program. It delineates the true physical barriers to obtaining a high-efficiency silicon solar cell. Specific parameters presently limiting cell efficiency are identified to be the minority carrier lifetime and the recombination velocities at the front and back surfaces. Practical cell efficiencies in the vicinity of 22 percent are estimated to be attainable by using good quality silicon crystal and substantially reducing surface recombination velocities.

Mokashi, Anant R.; Daud, Taher; Kachare, Ram H.

1986-01-01

66

Identification and Characterization of Key Human Performance Issues and Research in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report identifies key human-performance-related issues associated with Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) research in the NASA NextGen-Airspace Project. Four Research Focus Areas (RFAs) in the NextGen-Airspace Project - namely Separation Assurance (SA), Airspace Super Density Operations (ASDO), Traffic Flow Management (TFM), and Dynamic Airspace Configuration (DAC) - were examined closely. In the course of the research, it was determined that the identified human performance issues needed to be analyzed in the context of NextGen operations rather than through basic human factors research. The main gaps in human factors research in NextGen were found in the need for accurate identification of key human-systems related issues within the context of specific NextGen concepts and better design of the operational requirements for those concepts. By focusing on human-system related issues for individual concepts, key human performance issues for the four RFAs were identified and described in this report. In addition, mixed equipage airspace with components of two RFAs were characterized to illustrate potential human performance issues that arise from the integration of multiple concepts.

Lee, Paul U.; Sheridan, Tom; Poage, james L.; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Jobe, Kimberly K.

2010-01-01

67

Specific trophic factor-receptor interactions. Key selective elements in brain development and "regeneration".  

PubMed

An hypothesis is presented which emphasizes the key role of specific trophic factor-receptor interactions in the development of the brain. We postulate that very early in development neurons become dependent on external factors (mainly neuropeptides) for guidance and survival. These requirements are the key to the selection process which results in the creation of a functional nervous system. These specific localized trophic factor requirements are postulated to persist throughout life. Disruptions in specific trophic factor-receptor systems are postulated to be responsible for a variety of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The implications of recent animal and human transplant experiments in the context of the theoretical framework discussed above are profound. It would appear that the mature mammalian brain possesses an exquisite ability to regenerate specific connections to replace those lost due to death or injury to nerve cells. Unfortunately, it does not contain a population of undifferentiated stem cells to supply the necessary healthy neurons. The reason for this appears obvious based on the theoretical considerations given above, that the specific trophic factor-receptor interactions needed to produce a functional brain circuitry are necessarily stringently selective. Therefore, a significant stem cell population does not survive. However, if an appropriate stem cell population, ie, a fetal transplant, is provided, the brain will "heal itself" according to the program outlined above. In the future it may be technically feasible to perform genetic testing of newborns to determine to which genetic neurological diseases they are susceptible and at an appropriate time provide the appropriate fetal transplant. Obviously, society will have to deal with the profound ethical questions this technology will raise. PMID:2834427

Fine, R E; Rubin, J B

1988-05-01

68

Identification of key regulators for the migration and invasion of rheumatoid synoviocytes through a systems approach  

PubMed Central

Rheumatoid synoviocytes, which consist of fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) and synovial macrophages (SMs), are crucial for the progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Particularly, FLSs of RA patients (RA-FLSs) exhibit invasive characteristics reminiscent of cancer cells, destroying cartilage and bone. RA-FLSs and SMs originate differently from mesenchymal and myeloid cells, respectively, but share many pathologic functions. However, the molecular signatures and biological networks representing the distinct and shared features of the two cell types are unknown. We performed global transcriptome profiling of FLSs and SMs obtained from RA and osteoarthritis patients. By comparing the transcriptomes, we identified distinct molecular signatures and cellular processes defining invasiveness of RA-FLSs and proinflammatory properties of RA-SMs, respectively. Interestingly, under the interleukin-1? (IL-1?)–stimulated condition, the RA-FLSs newly acquired proinflammatory signature dominant in RA-SMs without losing invasive properties. We next reconstructed a network model that delineates the shared, RA-FLS–dominant (invasive), and RA-SM–dominant (inflammatory) processes. From the network model, we selected 13 genes, including periostin, osteoblast-specific factor (POSTN) and twist basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1), as key regulator candidates responsible for FLS invasiveness. Of note, POSTN and TWIST1 expressions were elevated in independent RA-FLSs and further instigated by IL-1?. Functional assays demonstrated the requirement of POSTN and TWIST1 for migration and invasion of RA-FLSs stimulated with IL-1?. Together, our systems approach to rheumatoid synovitis provides a basis for identifying key regulators responsible for pathological features of RA-FLSs and -SMs, demonstrating how a certain type of cells acquires functional redundancy under chronic inflammatory conditions.

You, Sungyong; Yoo, Seung-Ah; Choi, Susanna; Kim, Ji-Young; Park, Su-Jung; Ji, Jong Dae; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Ki-Jo; Cho, Chul-Soo; Hwang, Daehee; Kim, Wan-Uk

2014-01-01

69

Redescription of Liza bandialensis (Teleostei: Mugilidae) with an identification key to mullet species of Eastern Central Atlantic.  

PubMed

Liza bandialensis Diouf 1991 is redescribed because previous descriptions have not been in well-distributed publications and have lacked sufficient detail or reference to voucher specimens. The description provided here is based on specimens from the Sine Saloum estuary, Senegal (West Africa), from where the species was originally described. The distinctness of the species is confirmed both by meristic and molecular criteria. L. bandialensis presents a unique combination of characters with a low number of scales in the longitudinal series (32-33), 10.5-12 transverse scale rows, and distinctly yellowish dorsal, anal, and caudal fins. The currently known distribution of L. bandialensis includes coastal waters of Senegal, Gambia and Guinea Bissau. Finally, we provide a morphological identification key for the sixteen species of Mugilidae species occurring along the eastern central Atlantic coast of Africa. PMID:22325565

Trape, Sébastien; Harrison, Ian J; Diouf, Papa Samba; Durand, Jean-Dominique

2012-02-01

70

Checklist and Simple Identification Key for Frogs and Toads from District IV of The MADA Scheme, Kedah, Malaysia  

PubMed Central

A survey was conducted to catalogue the diversity of anurans in District IV of the Muda Agriculture Development Authority Scheme (MADA) in Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia, from July 1996 to January 1997. Eight species of anurans from three families were present in the study area. Of these, the Common Grass Frog (Fejevarya limnocharis) was the most abundant, followed by Mangrove Frog (Fejevarya cancrivora), Long-legged Frog (Hylarana macrodactyla), and Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus). Puddle Frog (Occidozyga lima), Taiwanese Giant Frog (Hoplobatrachus rugulosus), and Banded Bullfrog (Kaluola pulchra) were rare during the sampling period, and only one Paddy Frog (Hylarana erythraea) was captured. A simple identification key for the anurans of this area is included for use by scientists and laymen alike.

Jaafar, Ibrahim; Chai, Teoh Chia; Sah, Shahrul Anuar Mohd; Akil, Mohd Abdul Muin Md.

2009-01-01

71

Visible Wavelength Spectroscopy of Ferric Minerals: A Key Tool for Identification of Ancient Martian Aqueous Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mineralogic signatures of past aqueous alteration of a basaltic Martian crust may include iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, zeolites, carbonates, phyllosilicates, and silica. The identities, relative abundances, and crystallinities of the phases formed in a particular environment depend on physicochemical conditions. At one extreme, hot spring environments may be characterized by smectite-chlorite to talc-kaolinite silicate assemblages, plus crystalline ferric oxides dominated by hematite. However, most environments, including cold springs, pedogenic layers, and ponded surface water, are expected to deposit iron oxides and oxyhydroxides, carbonates, and smectite-dominated phyllosilicates. A substantial fraction of the ferric iron is expected to occur in nanophase form, with the exact mineralogy strongly influenced by Eh-pH conditions. Detection of these phases has been an objective of a large body of terrestrial telescopic, Mars orbital, and landed spectral investigations and in situ compositional measurements. However, clear identifications of many of these phases is lacking. Neither carbonate nor silica has been unequivocally detected by any method. Although phyllosilicates may occur near the limit of detection by remote sensing, in general they appear to occur in only poorly crystalline form. In contrast, compelling evidence for ferric iron minerals has been gathered by recent telescopic investigations, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP), and the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS). These data yield two crucial findings: (1) In the global, high spatial resolution TES data set, highly crystalline ferric iron (as coarse-grained 'gray' hematite) has been recognized but with only very limited spatial occurrence and (2) Low-resolution telescopic reflectance spectroscopy, very limited orbital reflectance spectroscopy, and landed multispectral imaging provide strong indications that at least two broad classes of ferric iron minerals are commonplace in non-dust covered regions.

Murchie, Scott L.; Bell, J. F., III; Morris, Richard V.

2000-01-01

72

Peptide Inhibitors of the Malaria Surface Protein, Apical Membrane Antigen 1: Identification of Key Binding Residues  

PubMed Central

Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is essential for malaria parasite invasion of erythrocytes and is therefore an attractive target for drug development. Peptides that bind AMA1 have been identified from random peptide libraries expressed on the surface of phage. Of these, R1, which binds to a hydrophobic ligand binding site on AMA1, was a particularly potent inhibitor of parasite invasion of erythrocytes in vitro. The solution structure of R1 contains a turn-like conformation between residues 5–10. Here the importance of residues in this turn-like structure for binding to AMA1 was examined by site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy. The peptide was expressed as a fusion protein following replacement of Met16 by Leu in order to accommodate cyanogen bromide cleavage. This modified peptide (R2) displayed the same affinity for AMA1 as R1, showing that the identity of the side chain at position 16 was not critical for binding. Substitution of Phe5, Pro7, Leu8, and Phe9 with alanine led to significant (7.5- to > 350-fold) decreases in affinity for AMA1. Comparison of backbone amide and C?H chemical shifts for these R2 analogues with corresponding values for R2 showed no significant changes, with the exception of R2(P7A), where slightly larger differences were observed, particularly for residues flanking position 7. The absence of significant changes in the secondary chemical shifts suggests that these mutations had little effect on the solution conformation of R2. The identification of a non-polar region of these peptides containing residues essential for AMA1 binding establishes a basis for the design of anti-malarial drugs based on R1 mimetics.

Lee, Erinna F.; Yao, Shenggen; Sabo, Jennifer K.; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Stevenson, Rachel A.; Harris, Karen S.; Anders, Robin F.; Foley, Michael; Norton, Raymond S.

2011-01-01

73

Identification of key odorants related to the typical aroma of oxidation-spoiled white wines.  

PubMed

The oxidative degradation of white wines rapidly leads to a loss of their sensorial qualities. The identification of the most important descriptors related with oxidation-spoiled wine was performed by a trained sensory panel. The terms selected were "honey-like", "farm-feed", "hay", and "woody-like". By gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis three aromatic zones related to these descriptors in the oxidation-spoiled white wines could be determined. Comparison of the aroma extract dilution analysis aromagrams of oxidation-spoiled white wines and a nonspoiled wine showed the highest values of dilution factors were attributed to 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, 1,1,6-trimethyl-1,2-dihydronaphthalene (TDN), and 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (sotolon). A "forced aging" experiment was implemented to simulate the typical oxidation-spoiled aroma. Samples rated with the highest score in the ranking test were also those that presented the highest concentration of these four molecules. To test the sensory impact of these substances, a normal wine (unspoiled) was spiked with these molecules (with the exception of TDN) singly and in combination, and the similarity value (SV) between samples and the oxidation-spoiled white wines was then determined. The highest value from the similarity tests was 5.4 when the three compounds were added simultaneously; 3-(methylthio)propionaldehyde alone was found to be responsible for 3.6, suggesting that, among the molecules studied, it is the most important contributor to the typical aroma of an oxidation-spoiled white wine. PMID:12590484

Silva Ferreira, Antonio César; Hogg, Timothy; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

2003-02-26

74

The cassava mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: first records, potential distribution, and an identification key.  

PubMed

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response. PMID:23077659

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

75

The Cassava Mealybug (Phenacoccus manihoti) in Asia: First Records, Potential Distribution, and an Identification Key  

PubMed Central

Phenacoccus manihoti Matile-Ferrero (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), one of the most serious pests of cassava worldwide, has recently reached Asia, raising significant concern over its potential spread throughout the region. To support management decisions, this article reports recent distribution records, and estimates the climatic suitability for its regional spread using a CLIMEX distribution model. The article also presents a taxonomic key that separates P. manihoti from all other mealybug species associated with the genus Manihot. Model predictions suggest P. manihoti imposes an important, yet differential, threat to cassava production in Asia. Predicted risk is most acute in the southern end of Karnataka in India, the eastern end of the Ninh Thuan province in Vietnam, and in most of West Timor in Indonesia. The model also suggests P. manihoti is likely to be limited by cold stress across Vietnam's northern regions and in the entire Guangxi province in China, and by high rainfall across the wet tropics in Indonesia and the Philippines. Predictions should be particularly important to guide management decisions for high risk areas where P. manihoti is absent (e.g., India), or where it has established but populations remain small and localized (e.g., South Vietnam). Results from this article should help decision-makers assess site-specific risk of invasion, and develop proportional prevention and surveillance programs for early detection and rapid response.

Parsa, Soroush; Kondo, Takumasa; Winotai, Amporn

2012-01-01

76

Reduced and oxidised scytonemin: theoretical protocol for Raman spectroscopic identification of potential key biomolecules for astrobiology.  

PubMed

Scytonemin is an important UV-radiation protective biomolecule synthesised by extremophilic cyanobacteria in stressed terrestrial environments. Scytonemin and its reduced form have been both isolated experimentally and the Raman spectrum for scytonemin has been assigned and characterised experimentally both in extracts and in living extremophilic cyanobacterial colonies. Scytonemin is recognised as a key biomarker molecule for terrestrial organisms in stressed environments. We propose a new, theoretically plausible structure for oxidised scytonemin which has not been mentioned in the literature hitherto. DFT calculations for scytonemin, reduced scytonemin and the new structure modelled and proposed for oxidised scytonemin are reported along with their Raman spectroscopic data and ?max UV-absorption data obtained theoretically. Comparison of the vibrational spectroscopic assignments allows the three forms of scytonemin to be detected and identified and assist not only in the clarification of the major features in the experimentally observed Raman spectral data for the parent scytonemin but also support a protocol proposed for their analytical discrimination. The results of this study provide a basis for the search for molecules of this type in future astrobiological missions of exploration and the search for extinct and extant life terrestrially. PMID:23981417

Varnali, Tereza; Edwards, Howell G M

2014-01-01

77

Identification of Key Residues Determining Species Differences in Inhibitor Binding of Microsomal Prostaglandin E Synthase-1*  

PubMed Central

Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (MPGES1) is induced during an inflammatory reaction from low basal levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines and subsequently involved in the production of the important mediator of inflammation, prostaglandin E2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs prevent prostaglandin E2 production by inhibiting the upstream enzymes cyclooxygenases 1 and 2. In contrast to these conventional drugs, a new generation of NSAIDs targets the terminal enzyme MPGES1. Some of these compounds potently inhibit human MPGES1 but do not have an effect on the rat orthologue. We investigated this interspecies difference in a rat/human chimeric form of the enzyme as well as in several mutants and identified key residues Thr-131, Leu-135, and Ala-138 in human MPGES1, which play a crucial role as gate keepers for the active site of MPGES1. These residues are situated in transmembrane helix 4, lining the entrance to the cleft between two subunits in the protein trimer, and regulate access of the inhibitor in the rat enzyme. Exchange toward the human residues in rat MPGES1 was accompanied with a gain of inhibitor activity, whereas exchange in human MPGES1 toward the residues found in rat abrogated inhibitor activity. Our data give evidence for the location of the active site at the interface between subunits in the homotrimeric enzyme and suggest a model of how the natural substrate PGH2, or competitive inhibitors of MPGES1, enter the active site via the phospholipid bilayer of the membrane.

Pawelzik, Sven-Christian; Uda, Narasimha Rao; Spahiu, Linda; Jegerschold, Caroline; Stenberg, Patric; Hebert, Hans; Morgenstern, Ralf; Jakobsson, Per-Johan

2010-01-01

78

Identification of the key aroma compounds in cocoa powder based on molecular sensory correlations.  

PubMed

Isolation of the volatile fraction from cocoa powder (50 g; 20% fat content) by a careful extraction/distillation process followed by application of an aroma extract dilution analysis revealed 35 odor-active constituents in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 8-4096. Among them, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty, rancid), dimethyl trisulfide (cooked cabbage), 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine (potato-chip-like), and phenylacetaldehyde (honey-like) showed the highest FD factors. Quantitation of 31 key odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays, followed by a calculation of their odor activity values (OAVs) (ratio of concentration to odor threshold) revealed OAVs>100 for the five odorants acetic acid (sour), 3-methylbutanal (malty), 3-methylbutanoic acid, phenylacetaldehyde, and 2-methylbutanal (malty). In addition, another 19 aroma compounds showed OAVs>1. To establish their contribution to the overall aroma of the cocoa powder, these 24 compounds were added to a reconstructed cocoa matrix in exactly the same concentrations as they occurred in the cocoa powder. The matrix was prepared from deodorized cocoa powder, which was adjusted to 20% fat content using deodorized cocoa butter. The overall sensory evaluation of this aroma recombinate versus the cocoa powder clearly indicated that the 24 compounds represented the typical sweet, cocoa-like odor of the real sample. PMID:16848541

Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

2006-07-26

79

Identification of key aerosol populations through their size and composition resolved spectral scattering and absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing chemical and physical aerosol properties is important to understand their sources, effects, and feedback mechanisms in the atmosphere. This study proposes a scheme to classify aerosol populations based on their spectral optical properties (absorption and scattering). The scheme is obtained thanks to the outstanding set of information on particle size and composition these properties contain. The spectral variability of the aerosol Single Scattering Albedo (dSSA), and the Scattering and Absorption Angstrom Exponents (SAE and AAE, respectively) were observed on the basis of two-year measurements of aerosol optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients at blue, green and red wavelengths) performed in the suburbs of Rome (Italy). Optical measurements of various aerosol types were coupled to measurements of particle number size distributions and relevant optical properties simulations (Mie theory). These latter allowed to investigate the role of the particle size and composition in the bulk aerosol properties observed. The combination of simulations and measurements suggested a general "paradigm" built on dSSA, SAE and AAE to optically classify aerosols. The paradigm proved suitable to identify the presence of key aerosol populations, including soot, biomass burning, organics, dust and marine particles. The work highlights that: (i) aerosol populations show distinctive combinations of SAE and dSSA times AAE, these variables being linked by a linear inverse relation varying with varying SSA; (ii) fine particles show SAE > 1.5, whilst SAE < 1 is found for both coarse particles and ultrafine soot-rich aerosols; (iii) fine and coarse particles both show SSA > 0.8, whilst ultrafine urban Aitken mode and soot particles show SSA < 0.8. A strict agreement was found when comparing the proposed paradigm to aerosol observations performed during past major field campaigns.

Costabile, F.; Barnaba, F.; Angelini, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

2012-07-01

80

Identification of key aerosol populations through their size and composition resolved spectral scattering and absorption  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Characterizing chemical and physical aerosol properties is important to understand their sources, effects, and feedback mechanisms in the atmosphere. This study proposes a scheme to classify aerosol populations based on their spectral optical properties (absorption and scattering). The scheme is obtained thanks to the outstanding set of information on particle size and composition these properties contain. The spectral variability of the aerosol single scattering albedo (dSSA), and the extinction, scattering and absorption Angstrom exponents (EAE, SAE and AAE, respectively) were observed on the basis of two-year measurements of aerosol optical properties (scattering and absorption coefficients at blue, green and red wavelengths) performed in the suburbs of Rome (Italy). Optical measurements of various aerosol types were coupled to measurements of particle number size distributions and relevant optical properties simulations (Mie theory). These latter allowed the investigation of the role of the particle size and composition in the bulk aerosol properties observed. The combination of simulations and measurements suggested a general "paradigm" built on dSSA, SAE and AAE to optically classify aerosols. The paradigm proved suitable to identify the presence of key aerosol populations, including soot, biomass burning, organics, dust and marine particles. The work highlights that (i) aerosol populations show distinctive combinations of SAE and dSSA times AAE, these variables being linked by a linear inverse relation varying with varying SSA; (ii) fine particles show EAE > 1.5, whilst EAE < 2 is found for both coarse particles and ultrafine soot-rich aerosols; (iii) fine and coarse particles both show SSA > 0.8, whilst ultrafine urban Aitken mode and soot particles show SSA < 0.8. The proposed paradigm agrees with aerosol observations performed during past major field campaigns, this indicating that relations concerning the paradigm have a general validity.

Costabile, F.; Barnaba, F.; Angelini, F.; Gobbi, G. P.

2013-03-01

81

Identification of the key residues determining the product specificity of isomerohydrolase  

PubMed Central

The efficient recycling of the chromophore of visual pigments, 11-cis retinal, through the retinoid visual cycle is an essential process for maintaining normal vision. RPE65 is the isomerohydrolase in retinal pigment epithelium and generates predominantly 11-cis retinol (11cROL) and a minor amount of 13-cis retinol (13cROL), from all-trans retinyl ester (atRE). We recently identified and characterized novel homologs of RPE65, RPE65c and 13-cis isomerohydrolase (13cIMH), which are expressed in the zebrafish inner retina and brain, respectively. Although these two homologs share 97% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit distinct product specificities. Under the same assay conditions, RPE65c generated predominantly 11cROL, similar to RPE65, while 13cIMH generated exclusively 13cROL from atRE substrate. To study the impacts of the key residues determining isomerization product specificity of RPE65, we replaced candidate residues by site-directed mutagenesis in RPE65c and 13cIMH. Point mutations at residues Tyr58, Phe103 and Leu133 in RPE65c resulted in significantly altered isomerization product specificities. Particularly, our results showed that residue 58 is a primary determinant of isomerization specificity, since the Y58N mutation in RPE65c and its reciprocal N58Y mutation in 13cIMH completely reversed the respective enzyme isomerization product specificities. These findings will contribute to the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying the isomerization reaction catalyzed by RPE65.

Takahashi, Yusuke; Moiseyev, Gennadiy; Nikolaeva, Olga; Ma, Jian-xing

2012-01-01

82

Identification of Key Residues That Confer Rhodobacter sphaeroides LPS Activity at Horse TLR4/MD-2  

PubMed Central

The molecular determinants underpinning how hexaacylated lipid A and tetraacylated precursor lipid IVa activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) are well understood, but how activation is induced by other lipid A species is less clear. Species specificity studies have clarified how TLR4/MD-2 recognises different lipid A structures, for example tetraacylated lipid IVa requires direct electrostatic interactions for agonism. In this study, we examine how pentaacylated lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RSLPS) antagonises human TLR4/MD-2 and activates the horse receptor complex using a computational approach and cross-species mutagenesis. At a functional level, we show that RSLPS is a partial agonist at horse TLR4/MD-2 with greater efficacy than lipid IVa. These data suggest the importance of the additional acyl chain in RSLPS signalling. Based on docking analysis, we propose a model for positioning of the RSLPS lipid A moiety (RSLA) within the MD-2 cavity at the TLR4 dimer interface, which allows activity at the horse receptor complex. As for lipid IVa, RSLPS agonism requires species-specific contacts with MD-2 and TLR4, but the R2 chain of RSLA protrudes from the MD-2 pocket to contact the TLR4 dimer in the vicinity of proline 442. Our model explains why RSLPS is only partially dependent on horse TLR4 residue R385, unlike lipid IVa. Mutagenesis of proline 442 into a serine residue, as found in human TLR4, uncovers the importance of this site in RSLPS signalling; horse TLR4 R385G/P442S double mutation completely abolishes RSLPS activity without its counterpart, human TLR4 G384R/S441P, being able to restore it. Our data highlight the importance of subtle changes in ligand positioning, and suggest that TLR4 and MD-2 residues that may not participate directly in ligand binding can determine the signalling outcome of a given ligand. This indicates a cooperative binding mechanism within the receptor complex, which is becoming increasingly important in TLR signalling.

Walsh, Catherine M.; Spring, David R.; Gay, Nicholas J.; Bryant, Clare E.

2014-01-01

83

Parameter identification for stochastic hybrid models of biological interaction networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a model of subtilin production by Bacillus subtilis, in this paper we discuss the parameter identification of stochastic hybrid dynamics that are typically found in biological regulatory networks. In accordance with the structure of the model, identification is split in two subproblems: estimation of the genetic network regulating subtilin production from gene expression data, and estimation of population

Eugenio Cinquemani; Riccardo Porreca; Giancarlo Ferrari-Trecate; John Lygeros

2007-01-01

84

Key parameters in blood-surface interactions of 3D bioinspired ceramic materials.  

PubMed

Direct contact of materials with blood components may trigger numerous processes which ultimately lead to hemolysis, clot formation and recruitment of inflammatory cells. In this study, the blood-surface interactions for two inert bioinspired ceramic scaffolds obtained from natural resources; biomorphic carbon and silicon carbides (bioSiC) from different origins have been studied. The response of the blood in contact with carbon is well known, however little has been identified on the influence of their 3D porous structure. Moreover, to our knowledge, there is no reference in the literature about the hemocompatibility of biomorphic silicon carbide as a porous scaffold. The experimental results showed the surface energy to be crucial to evaluate the hemocompatibility of a material however the surface topography and material porosity are also parameters to be considered. Surface roughness modifies clot formation whereas for protein adsorption total sample porosity seems to be the key parameter to be considered for hydrophilic materials (biomorphic silicon carbides), while the size of the pores determines the hemolytic response. PMID:24907756

Díaz-Rodríguez, P; González, P; Serra, J; Landin, M

2014-08-01

85

Person identification and interaction of social robots by using wireless tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a trial of immersing interactive humanoid robots into a real human society, where they are charged with the communication task of foreign language education. For this purpose, we developed interactive humanoid robots equipped with wireless person identification technology for facilitating interaction with multiple persons. We believe that the ability to identify persons allows more meaningful social relationships

Takayuki Kanda; Takayuki Hirano; Daniel Eaton; Hiroshi Ishiguro

2003-01-01

86

Identification of Novel Protein-Protein Interactions Using A Versatile Mammalian Tandem Affinity Purification Expression System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of protein-protein interactions is essential for elucidating the biochemical mechanism of signal transduction. Purification and identification of individual proteins in mammalian cells have been difficult, however, due to the sheer complexity of protein mixtures obtained from cellular extracts. Recently, a tandem affinity purifi- cation (TAP) method has been developed as a tool that allows rapid purification of native protein

Matthew Knuesel; Yong Wan; Zhan Xiao; Eric Holinger; Nick Lowe; Wei Wang; Xuedong Liu

2003-01-01

87

Integrative framework for identification of key cell identity genes uncovers determinants of ES cell identity and homeostasis.  

PubMed

Identification of genes associated with specific biological phenotypes is a fundamental step toward understanding the molecular basis underlying development and pathogenesis. Although RNAi-based high-throughput screens are routinely used for this task, false discovery and sensitivity remain a challenge. Here we describe a computational framework for systematic integration of published gene expression data to identify genes defining a phenotype of interest. We applied our approach to rank-order all genes based on their likelihood of determining ES cell (ESC) identity. RNAi-mediated loss-of-function experiments on top-ranked genes unearthed many novel determinants of ESC identity, thus validating the derived gene ranks to serve as a rich and valuable resource for those working to uncover novel ESC regulators. Underscoring the value of our gene ranks, functional studies of our top-hit Nucleolin (Ncl), abundant in stem and cancer cells, revealed Ncl's essential role in the maintenance of ESC homeostasis by shielding against differentiation-inducing redox imbalance-induced oxidative stress. Notably, we report a conceptually novel mechanism involving a Nucleolin-dependent Nanog-p53 bistable switch regulating the homeostatic balance between self-renewal and differentiation in ESCs. Our findings connect the dots on a previously unknown regulatory circuitry involving genes associated with traits in both ESCs and cancer and might have profound implications for understanding cell fate decisions in cancer stem cells. The proposed computational framework, by helping to prioritize and preselect candidate genes for tests using complex and expensive genetic screens, provides a powerful yet inexpensive means for identification of key cell identity genes. PMID:24711389

Cinghu, Senthilkumar; Yellaboina, Sailu; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Ghosh, Swati; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Oldfield, Andrew J; Lackford, Brad L; Zaykin, Dmitri V; Hu, Guang; Jothi, Raja

2014-04-22

88

Lipid shape is a key factor for membrane interactions of amphipathic helical peptides.  

PubMed

The membrane alignment of the amphiphilic alpha-helical model peptide MSI-103 (sequence [KIAGKIA]3-NH2) was examined by solid state 2H-NMR in different lipid systems by systematically varying the acyl chain length and degree of saturation, the lipid head group type, and the peptide-to-lipid molar ratio. In liquid crystalline phosphatidylcholine (PC) lipids with saturated chains, the amphiphilic helix changes its orientation from a surface-bound "S-state" to a tilted "T-state" with increasing peptide concentration. In PC lipids with unsaturated chains, on the other hand, the S-state is found throughout all concentrations. Using phosphatidylethanolamine lipids with a small head group or by addition of lyso-lipids with only one acyl chain, the spontaneous curvature of the bilayer was purposefully changed. In the first case with a negative curvature only the S-state was found, whereas in systems with a positive curvature the peptide preferred the obliquely immersed T-state at high concentration. The orientation of MSI-103 thus correlates very well with the shape of the lipid molecules constituting the membrane. Lipid charge, on the other hand, was found to affect only the initial electrostatic attraction to the membrane surface but not the alignment preferences. In bilayers that are "sealed" with 20% cholesterol, MSI-103 cannot bind in a well-oriented manner and forms immobilized aggregates instead. We conclude that the curvature properties of a membrane are a key factor in the interactions of amphiphilic helical peptides in general, whose re-alignment and immersion preferences may thus be inferred in a straightforward manner from the lipid-shape concept. PMID:22409944

Strandberg, Erik; Tiltak, Deniz; Ehni, Sebastian; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

2012-07-01

89

The genus Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 (Trichoptera, Philopotamidae, Philopotaminae) in northeastern Brazil, including the description of three new species and an identification key for the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract Alterosa Blahnik, 2005 contains 35 described species distributed in southern and southeastern Brazil. Three new species of Alterosa from northeastern Brazil are described and illustrated, Alterosa amadoi sp. n., Alterosa castroalvesi sp. n. and Alterosa caymmii sp. n., the first records of the genus from northeastern Brazil. An identification key for all known species of the genus is also presented.

Dumas, Leandro Lourenco; Calor, Adolfo Ricardo; Nessimian, Jorge Luiz

2013-01-01

90

7?-Hydroxypregnenolone, a New Key Regulator of Locomotor Activity of Vertebrates: Identification, Mode of Action, and Functional Significance  

PubMed Central

Steroids synthesized de novo by the central and peripheral nervous systems are called neurosteroids. The formation of neurosteroids from cholesterol in the brain was originally demonstrated in mammals by Baulieu and colleagues. Our studies over the past two decades have also shown that, in birds and amphibians as in mammals, the brain expresses several kinds of steroidogenic enzymes and produces a variety of neurosteroids. Thus, de novo neurosteroidogenesis from cholesterol is a conserved property that occurs throughout vertebrates. However, the biosynthetic pathways of neurosteroids in the brain of vertebrates was considered to be still incompletely elucidated. Recently, 7?-hydroxypregnenolone was identified as a novel bioactive neurosteroid stimulating locomotor activity in the brain of newts and quail through activation of the dopaminergic system. Subsequently, diurnal and seasonal changes in synthesis of 7?-hydroxypregnenolone in the brain were demonstrated. Interestingly, melatonin derived from the pineal gland and eyes regulates 7?-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, thus inducing diurnal locomotor changes. Prolactin, an adenohypophyseal hormone, regulates 7?-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis in the brain, and may also induce seasonal locomotor changes. This review highlights the identification, mode of action, and functional significance of 7?-hydroxypregnenolone, a new key regulator of locomotor activity of vertebrates, in terms of diurnal and seasonal changes in 7?-hydroxypregnenolone synthesis, and describes some of their regulatory mechanisms.

Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi; Haraguchi, Shogo; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Vaudry, Hubert

2010-01-01

91

Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. (Nematoda, Dorylaimidae) from Bulgaria with an identification key to the species of the genus  

PubMed Central

Abstract An unknown species belonging to the genusCalcaridorylaimus Andrássy, 1986 was collected from the litter of broadleaf forests dominated by Castanea sativa Mill. and mixed with Quercus daleshampii Ten. and Fagus sylvatica L. on Belasitsa Mountain, south-western Bulgaria. Calcaridorylaimus castaneae sp. n. is characterised by its long body (1.4–2.1 mm), lip region practically not offset, vulva transverse, short odontostyle (14.5–16 ?m) and tail (75.5–110.5 ?m, c=14.7–23.6; c’=2.9–4.4) in females and 38–46 ?m long spicules with small spur before their distant end in males. It is most similar to C. andrassyi Ahmad & Shaheen, 2004, but differs in having transverse vs pore-like vulva and shorter spicules (38–46 ?m vs 52–57 ?m). An identification key to the species of the genus Calcaridorylaimus is proposed. Phylogenetic analyses were performed on 18S and D2-D3 expansion domains of 28S rRNA genes by Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The phylograms inferred from 18S sequences showed closest relationships of the new species with some species belonging to the genus Mesodorylaimus. However, insufficient molecular data for members of both genera do not allow the phylogenetic relationships of Calcaridorylaimus and the new species described herein to be elucidated.

Nedelchev, Sevdan; Elshishka, Milka; Lazarova, Stela; Radoslavov, Georgi; Hristov, Peter; Peneva, Vlada

2014-01-01

92

Compulsory citizenship behavior and organizational citizenship behavior: the role of organizational identification and perceived interactional justice.  

PubMed

This article examines the psychological mechanism underlying the relationship between compulsory citizenship behavior (CCB) and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) by developing a moderated mediation model. The model focuses on the mediating role of organizational identification and the moderating role of interactional justice in influencing the mediation. Using a time-lagged research design, the authors collected two waves of data from 388 supervisor-subordinate dyads in 67 teams to test the moderated mediation model. Results revealed that CCB negatively influenced OCB via impairing organizational identification. Moreover, interactional justice moderated the strength of the indirect effect of CCB on OCB (through organizational identification), such that the mediated relationship was stronger under low interactional justice than under high interactional justice. PMID:24684078

Zhao, Hongdan; Peng, Zhenglong; Chen, Hsiu-Kuei

2014-01-01

93

Identification and comparison of aberrant key regulatory networks in breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach cancers through methylome database analysis.  

PubMed

Aberrant methylation of specific CpG sites at the promoter is widely responsible for genesis and development of various cancer types. Even though the microarray-based methylome analyzing techniques have contributed to the elucidation of the methylation change at the genome-wide level, the identification of key methylation markers or top regulatory networks appearing common in highly incident cancers through comparison analysis is still limited. In this study, we in silico performed the genome-wide methylation analysis on each 10 sets of normal and cancer pairs of five tissues: breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach. The methylation array covers 27,578 CpG sites, corresponding to 14,495 genes, and significantly hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes in the cancer were collected (FDR adjusted p-value <0.05; methylation difference >0.3). Analysis of the dataset confirmed the methylation of previously known methylation markers and further identified novel methylation markers, such as GPX2, CLDN15, and KL. Cluster analysis using the methylome dataset resulted in a diagram with a bipartite mode distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells regardless of tissue types. The analysis further revealed that breast cancer was closest with lung cancer, whereas it was farthest from colon cancer. Pathway analysis identified that either the "cancer" related network or the "cancer" related bio-function appeared as the highest confidence in all the five cancers, whereas each cancer type represents its tissue-specific gene sets. Our results contribute toward understanding the essential abnormal epigenetic pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Further, the novel methylation markers could be applied to establish markers for cancer prognosis. PMID:24842468

Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Seongeun; Jeong, Gookjoo; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Sun Jung

2014-01-01

94

Larval trematodes (Digenea) of planorbid snails (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) in Central Europe: a survey of species and key to their identification.  

PubMed

A survey of the larval stages (cercariae and metacercariae) of trematodes (Digenea) found in planorbid snails in Central Europe (Austria, Czech Republic, south-east Germany, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic) is presented based on a study of 7,628 snails of 12 species examined between 1998-2006. A total of 34 trematode larval stages, comprising cercariae of 28 species and metacercariae of seven species (one species occurred both as cercaria and metacercaria) of nine families were found in 898 (11.5%) snails of eight species. The dominant cercariae were those belonging to the Rubenstrema exasperatum (Rudolphi, 1819)/Neoglyphe locellus (Kossack, 1910) species complex, Tylodelphys excavata (Rudolphi, 1803) and Echinostoma spiniferum (La Valette, 1855) sensu Nasincová (1992), all from Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus). Almost the same spectrum of cercariae of the families Echinostomatidae, Plagiorchiidae and Omphalometridae was found in the present study as in previous reports; however, a considerably lower spectrum of cercariae of the families Diplostomidae and Strigeidae was recorded. The most frequent metacercariae were those of Echinoparyphium aconiatum Dietz, 1909, Neoglyphe locellus and Moliniella anceps (Molin, 1859), all occurring mainly in P. corneus. The most heavily infected snail species was P. corneus, followed by Planorbis planorbis (Linnaeus) and Segmentina nitida (Müller). The widest spectrum of trematode species was found in P. planorbis and P. corneus. Forty-two cercariae identified to the species level belonging to 15 families, plus an additional 43 taxa recorded under generic or provisional names, were reported from 11 species of planorbids in previous studies carried out in Central Europe. However, the actual number of trematode species occurring in the planorbid snails is probably much lower, because many, if not most, larval stages reported under provisional names or unidentified to the species level may be conspecific with identified adult forms. A key to the cercariae and metacercariae recorded from planorbids in Central Europe, together with illustrations of those species encountered most frequently in the field, is provided to facilitate identification. PMID:18210216

Faltýnková, Anna; Nasincová, Vanda; Kablásková, Lenka

2008-03-01

95

Identification and Comparison of Aberrant Key Regulatory Networks in Breast, Colon, Liver, Lung, and Stomach Cancers through Methylome Database Analysis  

PubMed Central

Aberrant methylation of specific CpG sites at the promoter is widely responsible for genesis and development of various cancer types. Even though the microarray-based methylome analyzing techniques have contributed to the elucidation of the methylation change at the genome-wide level, the identification of key methylation markers or top regulatory networks appearing common in highly incident cancers through comparison analysis is still limited. In this study, we in silico performed the genome-wide methylation analysis on each 10 sets of normal and cancer pairs of five tissues: breast, colon, liver, lung, and stomach. The methylation array covers 27,578 CpG sites, corresponding to 14,495 genes, and significantly hypermethylated or hypomethylated genes in the cancer were collected (FDR adjusted p-value <0.05; methylation difference >0.3). Analysis of the dataset confirmed the methylation of previously known methylation markers and further identified novel methylation markers, such as GPX2, CLDN15, and KL. Cluster analysis using the methylome dataset resulted in a diagram with a bipartite mode distinguishing cancer cells from normal cells regardless of tissue types. The analysis further revealed that breast cancer was closest with lung cancer, whereas it was farthest from colon cancer. Pathway analysis identified that either the “cancer” related network or the “cancer” related bio-function appeared as the highest confidence in all the five cancers, whereas each cancer type represents its tissue-specific gene sets. Our results contribute toward understanding the essential abnormal epigenetic pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Further, the novel methylation markers could be applied to establish markers for cancer prognosis.

Kim, Byungtak; Kang, Seongeun; Jeong, Gookjoo; Park, Sung-Bin; Kim, Sun Jung

2014-01-01

96

Protein Complex Identification by Integrating Protein-Protein Interaction Evidence from Multiple Sources  

PubMed Central

Background Understanding protein complexes is important for understanding the science of cellular organization and function. Many computational methods have been developed to identify protein complexes from experimentally obtained protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. However, interaction information obtained experimentally can be unreliable and incomplete. Reconstructing these PPI networks with PPI evidences from other sources can improve protein complex identification. Results We combined PPI information from 6 different sources and obtained a reconstructed PPI network for yeast through machine learning. Some popular protein complex identification methods were then applied to detect yeast protein complexes using the new PPI networks. Our evaluation indicates that protein complex identification algorithms using the reconstructed PPI network significantly outperform ones on experimentally verified PPI networks. Conclusions We conclude that incorporating PPI information from other sources can improve the effectiveness of protein complex identification.

Xu, Bo; Lin, Hongfei; Chen, Yang; Yang, Zhihao; Liu, Hongfang

2013-01-01

97

A prototype framework for models of socio-hydrology: identification of key feedback loops and parameterisation approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is increasingly acknowledged that, in order to sustainably manage global freshwater resources, it is critical that we better understand the nature of human-hydrology interactions at the broader catchment system scale. Yet to date, a generic conceptual framework for building models of catchment systems that include adequate representation of socioeconomic systems - and the dynamic feedbacks between human and natural systems - has remained elusive. In an attempt to work towards such a model, this paper outlines a generic framework for models of socio-hydrology applicable to agricultural catchments, made up of six key components that combine to form the coupled system dynamics: namely, catchment hydrology, population, economics, environment, socioeconomic sensitivity and collective response. The conceptual framework posits two novel constructs: (i) a composite socioeconomic driving variable, termed the Community Sensitivity state variable, which seeks to capture the perceived level of threat to a community's quality of life, and acts as a key link tying together one of the fundamental feedback loops of the coupled system, and (ii) a Behavioural Response variable as the observable feedback mechanism, which reflects land and water management decisions relevant to the hydrological context. The framework makes a further contribution through the introduction of three macro-scale parameters that enable it to normalise for differences in climate, socioeconomic and political gradients across study sites. In this way, the framework provides for both macro-scale contextual parameters, which allow for comparative studies to be undertaken, and catchment-specific conditions, by way of tailored "closure relationships", in order to ensure that site-specific and application-specific contexts of socio-hydrologic problems can be accommodated. To demonstrate how such a framework would be applied, two socio-hydrological case studies, taken from the Australian experience, are presented and the parameterisation approach that would be taken in each case is discussed. Preliminary findings in the case studies lend support to the conceptual theories outlined in the framework. It is envisioned that the application of this framework across study sites and gradients will aid in developing our understanding of the fundamental interactions and feedbacks in such complex human-hydrology systems, and allow hydrologists to improve social-ecological systems modelling through better representation of human feedbacks on hydrological processes.

Elshafei, Y.; Sivapalan, M.; Tonts, M.; Hipsey, M. R.

2014-06-01

98

Complex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: Experimental identification and modal interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear system identification is a challenging task in view of the complexity and wide variety of nonlinear phenomena. The present paper addresses the identification of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. The complete identification procedure, from nonlinearity detection and characterization to parameter estimation, is carried out based upon experimental data. The combined use of various analysis techniques, such as the wavelet transform and the restoring force surface method, brings different perspectives to the dynamics. Specifically, the structure is shown to exhibit particularly interesting nonlinear behaviors, including jumps, modal interactions, force relaxation and chattering during impacts on the mechanical stops.

Noël, J. P.; Renson, L.; Kerschen, G.

2014-06-01

99

A Guide to the Collection and Identification of Presmolt Pacific Salmon in Alaska with an Illustrated Key.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field and laboratory key contains recommendations for types of equipment needed, instructions for preserving and labeling specimens, and descriptions of the characters used in identifying five species of Pacific salmon. The key is illustrated with six...

M. B. Trautman

1973-01-01

100

Large-scale identification and analysis of suppressive drug interactions.  

PubMed

One drug may suppress the effects of another. Although knowledge of drug suppression is vital to avoid efficacy-reducing drug interactions or discover countermeasures for chemical toxins, drug-drug suppression relationships have not been systematically mapped. Here, we analyze the growth response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to anti-fungal compound ("drug") pairs. Among 440 ordered drug pairs, we identified 94 suppressive drug interactions. Using only pairs not selected on the basis of their suppression behavior, we provide an estimate of the prevalence of suppressive interactions between anti-fungal compounds as 17%. Analysis of the drug suppression network suggested that Bromopyruvate is a frequently suppressive drug and Staurosporine is a frequently suppressed drug. We investigated potential explanations for suppressive drug interactions, including chemogenomic analysis, coaggregation, and pH effects, allowing us to explain the interaction tendencies of Bromopyruvate. PMID:24704506

Cokol, Murat; Weinstein, Zohar B; Yilancioglu, Kaan; Tasan, Murat; Doak, Allison; Cansever, Dilay; Mutlu, Beste; Li, Siyang; Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Akhmedov, Murodzhon; Guvenek, Aysegul; Cokol, Melike; Cetiner, Selim; Giaever, Guri; Iossifov, Ivan; Nislow, Corey; Shoichet, Brian; Roth, Frederick P

2014-04-24

101

Glycoconjugates Play a Key Role in Campylobacter jejuni Infection: Interactions between Host and Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Glycan based interactions between host and pathogen are critical in many bacterial and viral diseases. Glycan interactions range from initial receptor based adherence to protecting the infective agent from the host’s immune response through molecular mimicry. Campylobacter jejuni is an ideal model for studying the role of glycans in host–pathogen interactions, as well as the role of bacterial surface glycoconjugates in infection. Using glycan array analysis, C. jejuni has been shown to interact with a wide range of host glycoconjugates. Mannose and sialic acid residues appear to play a role in initial interactions between host and pathogen following environmental exposure, whereas fucose and galactose based interactions are likely to be required for prolonged colonization. Other studies have highlighted potential decoy receptor type interactions between host’s intestinal mucins and C. jejuni, demonstrating the importance of host glycoproteins as defense against C. jejuni infection as well as the role for glycoconjugates found in human breast milk in protection of breast feeding infants from infection with C. jejuni. C. jejuni can produce N- and O-linked glycoproteins, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) and/or lipooligosaccharide (LOS) which results in C. jejuni presenting its own diverse sugar coated displays on the cell surface. Bacterial glycans play an important and versatile role in infection and disease. Of these, the best understood is the molecular mimicry of human gangliosides presented by C. jejuni’s LOS and its link to the onset of autoimmune neuropathies such as the Guillain Barrè syndrome (GBS). However, the role of glycoconjugates presented by C. jejuni extends beyond expression of sialylated ganglioside structures involved in initiation of GBS. Expression of surface glycans by C. jejuni may also relate to the ability of this organism to interact with the glycoproteins for initial host–pathogen interactions and continued infectivity.

Day, Christopher James; Semchenko, Evgeny Alexander; Korolik, Victoria

2012-01-01

102

The Concept of Transcortical Cell Assemblies: a Key to the Understanding of Cortical Lateralization and Interhemispheric Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

PULVERMÜLLER, F AND MOHR, B. Transcortical cell assemblies: a key to the understanding of cortical lateralization and interhemispheric interaction. NEUROSCI BEHAV REV 20(4) 557–566, 1996.—According to Hebb, elements of higher cognitive processes, such as concepts, words and mental images, are realized in the brain as cortical cell assemblies, i.e. large and strongly connected neuron populations that form functional units. Neurons

FRIEDEMANN PULVERMÜLLER; BETTINA MOHR

1996-01-01

103

Identification of ubiquitin-interacting proteins in purified polyglutamine aggregates.  

PubMed

Nuclear aggregates of enhanced green fluorescent protein and nuclear localization signal-fused truncated N-terminal huntingtin containing 150 repeats of glutamine residue were purified from ecdysine-inducible mutant neuro2A cell line by sequential extraction of nuclear soluble proteins. To analyze the aggregate-interacting proteins, we subjected the nuclear aggregates to high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting data revealed the presence of three new putative aggregate-interacting proteins: ubiquilin 1, ubiquilin 2 and Tollip. These proteins also associated with neuronal intranuclear inclusions in a mouse model of Huntington disease (HD). These aggregate-interacting proteins contain ubiquitin-interacting motifs, suggesting that they are recruited to the aggregates where they may lose their normal function. PMID:15280037

Doi, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Kenichi; Kurosawa, Masaru; Machida, Yoko; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Nukina, Nobuyuki

2004-07-30

104

Key intermolecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome revealed by coarse-grained analysis.  

PubMed

The ribosome is a very large complex that consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, intermolecular interactions in the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins and to capture functional motions in the ribosome, and then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs, and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, and they are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all the bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; however, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the intermolecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Voth, Gregory A

2011-10-26

105

MicroRNA-301a mediated regulation of Kv4.2 in diabetes: identification of key modulators.  

PubMed

Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that ultimately results in major pathophysiological complications in the cardiovascular system. Diabetics are predisposed to higher incidences of sudden cardiac deaths (SCD). Several studies have associated diabetes as a major underlying risk for heart diseases and its complications. The diabetic heart undergoes remodeling to cope up with the underlying changes, however ultimately fails. In the present study we investigated the changes associated with a key ion channel and transcriptional factors in a diabetic heart model. In the mouse db/db model, we identified key transcriptional regulators and mediators that play important roles in the regulation of ion channel expression. Voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv4.2) is modulated in diabetes and is down regulated. We hypothesized that Kv4.2 expression is altered by potassium channel interacting protein-2 (KChIP2) which is regulated upstream by NFkB and miR-301a. We utilized qRT-PCR analysis and identified the genes that are affected in diabetes in a regional specific manner in the heart. At protein level we identified and validated differential expression of Kv4.2 and KChIP2 along with NFkB in both ventricles of diabetic hearts. In addition, we identified up-regulation of miR-301a in diabetic ventricles. We utilized loss and gain of function approaches to identify and validate the role of miR-301a in regulating Kv4.2. Based on in vivo and in vitro studies we conclude that miR-301a may be a central regulator for the expression of Kv4.2 in diabetes. This miR-301 mediated regulation of Kv4.2 is independent of NFkB and Irx5 and modulates Kv4.2 by direct binding on Kv4.2 3'untranslated region (3'-UTR). Therefore targeting miR-301a may offer new potential for developing therapeutic approaches. PMID:23573265

Panguluri, Siva K; Tur, Jared; Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C; Katnik, Chris; Cuevas, Javier; Tipparaju, Srinivas M

2013-01-01

106

Identification of Novel Interacting Partners of Sirtuin6  

PubMed Central

SIRT6 is a member of the Sirtuin family of histone deacetylases that has been implicated in inflammatory, aging and metabolic pathways. Some of its actions have been suggested to be via physical interaction with NF?B and HIF1? and transcriptional regulation through its histone deacetylase activity. Our previous studies have investigated the histone deacetylase activity of SIRT6 and explored its ability to regulate the transcriptional responses to an inflammatory stimulus such as TNF?. In order to develop a greater understanding of SIRT6 function we have sought to identify SIRT6 interacting proteins by both yeast-2-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation studies. We report a number of interacting partners which strengthen previous findings that SIRT6 functions in base excision repair (BER), and novel interactors which suggest a role in nucleosome and chromatin remodeling, the cell cycle and NF?B biology.

Polyakova, Oxana; Borman, Satty; Grimley, Rachel; Vamathevan, Jessica; Hayes, Brian; Solari, Roberto

2012-01-01

107

Adjustable locks and flexible keys: plasticity of epitope-paratope interactions in germline antibodies.  

PubMed

Ag recognition by independent primary Abs against a small flexible Ag with overlapping epitopes was analyzed to address the determinants of Ag specificity during the initial encounter. Crystal structures of two distinct dodecapeptide Ags, GDPRPSYISHLL and PPYPAWHAPGNI, in complex with the germline mAb 36-65 were determined and compared with the structures of the same Ags bound to another independent germline mAb, BBE6.12H3. For each peptide Ag, the two germline mAbs recognized overlapping epitopes, but in different topologies. The peptide structures differed, and the two paratopes attained discrete conformations, leading to different surface topologies, in a mode that can be described as adjustable locks and flexible keys. This is in contrast to mature mAbs, in which conformational convergence of different paratopes while binding to a common epitope in a similar conformation has been reported. These results suggest that the primary immune receptor repertoire is highly versatile as compared with its mature counterpart. Germline and mature mAbs adopt distinct mechanisms for recognizing a flexible epitope. Whereas conservation of conformational repertoire is a key characteristic of mature mAbs achieved through affinity maturation, the germline mAbs, at the initial stages of Ag encounter, maintain substantial plasticity, accommodating a broad specificity repertoire. PMID:24790145

Khan, Tarique; Salunke, Dinakar M

2014-06-01

108

Identification of proteins interacting with Arabidopsis ACD11.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis ACD11 gene encodes a sphingosine transfer protein and was identified by the accelerated cell death phenotype of the loss of function acd11 mutant, which exhibits heightened expression of genes involved in the disease resistance hypersensitive response (HR). We used ACD11 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen of an Arabidopsis cDNA library to identify ACD11 interacting proteins. One interactor identified is a protein of unknown function with an RNA recognition motif (RRM) designated BPA1 (binding partner of ACD11). Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the ACD11-BPA1 interactions in vivo and in vitro. Two other ACD11 interactors (PRA7 and PRA8) are homologous to each other and to mammalian PRA1, and both were subsequently shown to interact with BPA1 in yeast. A fourth interactor (VAP27-1) is homologous to mammalian VAP-A, and was found to interact more strongly with a homolog of ACD11 than ACD11 itself. All interactors were shown to be associated with membrane fractions, suggesting that ACD11 function could be related to the regulation of membrane compartments. PMID:18845362

Petersen, Nikolaj H T; Joensen, Jan; McKinney, Lea V; Brodersen, Peter; Petersen, Morten; Hofius, Daniel; Mundy, John

2009-04-01

109

HandsDown: hand-contour-based user identification for interactive surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

HandsDown is a novel technique for user identification on interactive surfaces. It enables users to access personal data on a shared surface, to associate objects with their identity, and to fluidly customize appearance, content, or functionality of the user interface. To identify, users put down their hand flat on the surface. HandsDown is based on hand contour analysis; neither user

Dominik Schmidt; Ming Ki Chong; Hans Gellersen

2010-01-01

110

Gene-environment interactions: key to unraveling the mystery of Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. The gradual, irreversible loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra isthe signature lesion of PD. Clinical symptoms of PD become apparent when 50–60% of nigral dopamine neurons are lost. PD progresses insidiously for 5–7 years (preclinical period) and then continues to worsen even under the symptomatic treatment. To determine what triggers the disease onset and what drives the chronic, self-propelling neurodegenerative process becomes critical and urgent, since lack of such knowledge impedes the discovery of effective treatments to retard PD progression. At present, available therapeutics only temporarily relieve PD symptoms. While the identification of causative gene defects in familial PD uncovers important genetic influences in this disease, the majority of PD cases are sporadic and idiopathic. The current consensus suggests that PD develops from multiple risk factors including aging, genetic predisposition, and environmental exposure. Here, we briefly review research on the genetic and environmental causes of PD. We also summarize very recent genome-wide association studies on risk gene polymorphisms in the emergence of PD. We highlight the new converging evidence on gene-environment interplay in the development of PD with an emphasis on newly developed multiple-hit PD models involving both genetic lesions and environmental triggers.

Gao, Hui-Ming; Hong, Jau-shyong

2011-01-01

111

Directed network wiring identifies a key protein interaction in embryonic stem cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Cell signaling depends on dynamic protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, often assembled through modular domains each interacting with multiple peptide motifs. This complexity raises a conceptual challenge, namely to define whether a particular cellular response requires assembly of the complete PPI network of interest or can be driven by a specific interaction. To address this issue, we designed variants of the Grb2 SH2 domain ("pY-clamps") whose specificity is highly biased toward a single phosphotyrosine (pY) motif among many potential pYXNX Grb2-binding sites. Surprisingly, directing Grb2 predominantly to a single pY site of the Ptpn11/Shp2 phosphatase, but not other sites tested, was sufficient for differentiation of the essential primitive endoderm lineage from embryonic stem cells. Our data suggest that discrete connections within complex PPI networks can underpin regulation of particular biological events. We propose that this directed wiring approach will be of general utility in functionally annotating specific PPIs. PMID:24910098

Yasui, Norihisa; Findlay, Greg M; Gish, Gerald D; Hsiung, Marilyn S; Huang, Jin; Tucholska, Monika; Taylor, Lorne; Smith, Louis; Boldridge, W Clifford; Koide, Akiko; Pawson, Tony; Koide, Shohei

2014-06-19

112

The key residue for SSB-RecO interaction is dispensable for Deinococcus radiodurans DNA repair in vivo.  

PubMed

The RecFOR DNA repair pathway is one of the major RecA-dependent recombinatorial repair pathways in bacteria and plays an important role in double-strand breaks repair. RecO, one of the major recombination mediator proteins in the RecFOR pathway, has been shown to assist RecA loading onto single-stranded binding protein (SSB) coated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). However, it has not been characterized whether the protein-protein interaction between RecO and SSB contributes to that process in vivo. Here, we identified the residue arginine-121 of Deinococcus radiodurans RecO (drRecO-R121) as the key residue for RecO-SSB interaction. The substitution of drRecO-R121 with alanine greatly abolished the binding of RecO to SSB but not the binding to RecR. Meanwhile, SSB-coated ssDNA annealing activity was also compromised by the mutation of the residue of drRecO. However, the drRecO-R121A strain showed only modest sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Taking these data together, arginine-121 of drRecO is the key residue for SSB-RecO interaction, which may not play a vital role in the SSB displacement and RecA loading process of RecFOR DNA repair pathway in vivo. PMID:24681881

Cheng, Kaiying; Xu, Xin; Zhao, Ye; Wang, Liangyan; Xu, Guangzhi; Hua, Yuejin

2014-05-01

113

Magnetic anisotropy, magnetostatic interactions and identification of magnetofossils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single-domain magnetite particles produced by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) and aligned in chains, called magnetosomes, are potentially important recorders of paleomagnetic, paleoenvironmental and paleolife signals. Rock magnetic properties related to the anisotropy of magnetosome chains have been widely used to identify fossilized magnetosomes (magnetofossils) preserved in geological materials. However, ambiguities exist when linking magnetic properties to the chain structure because of the complexity of chain integrity and magnetostatic interactions among magnetofossils that results from chain collapse during post-depositional diagenesis. In this paper, magnetic properties of three sets of samples containing extracted magnetosomes of the cultured Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 were analyzed to determine how chain integrity and particle concentration influence magnetic properties. Intact MTB and well-dispersed magnetosome chains are characterized by strong magnetic anisotropy and weak magnetostatic interactions, but progressive chain breakup and particle clumping significantly increase the degree of magnetostatic interaction. This results in a change of the magnetic signature toward properties typical of interacting, single-domain particles, i.e., a decrease of the ratio of anhysteretic remanent magnetization to the saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, decreasing in the crossing point of the Wohlfarth-Cisowski test and in the delta ratio between losses of field and zero-field cooled remanent magnetization across the Verwey transition, as well as vertical broadening of the first-order reversal curve distribution. We propose a new diagram that summarizes the Verwey transition properties, with diagnostic limits for intact and collapsed chains of magnetosomes. This diagram can be used, in conjunction with other parameters, to identify unoxidized magnetofossils in sediments and rocks.

Li, Jinhua; Wu, Wenfang; Liu, Qingsong; Pan, Yongxin

2012-12-01

114

Identification of histone 3 variant 2 interacting factors  

PubMed Central

The epigenome is defined as a type of information that can be transmitted independently of the DNA sequence, at the chromatin level, through post-translational modifications present on histone tails. Recent advances in the identification of histone 3 variants suggest a new model of information transmission through deposition of specific histone variants. To date, several non-centromeric histone 3 variants have been identified in mammals. Despite protein sequence similarity, specific deposition complexes have been characterized for both histone 3.1 (H3.1) and histone 3.3 (H3.3), whereas no deposition complex for histone 3.2 (H3.2) has been identified to date. Here, we identified human H3.2 partners by immunopurification of nuclear H3.2 complexes followed by mass spectrometry analysis. Further biochemical analyses highlighted two major complexes associated with H3.2, one containing chromatin associated factor-1 subunits and the other consisting of a subcomplex of mini chromosome maintenance helicases, together with Asf1. The purified complexes could associate with a DNA template in vitro.

Latreille, Daniel; Bluy, Lisa; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary E.

2014-01-01

115

Identification of interspecies interactions affecting Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Periodontitis is recognized as a complex polymicrobial disease, however, the impact of the bacterial interactions among the 700–1,000 different species of the oral microbiota remains poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro screen for oral bacteria that mitigate selected virulence phenotypes of the important periodontal pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Method We isolated and identified oral anaerobic bacteria from subgingival plaque of dental patients. When cocultured with P. gingivalis W83, specific isolates reduced the cytopathogenic effects of P. gingivalis on oral epithelial cells. Result In an initial screen of 103 subgingival isolates, we identified 19 distinct strains from nine species of bacteria (including Actinomyces naeslundii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, and Veilonella dispar) that protect oral epithelial cells from P. gingivalis-induced cytotoxicity. We found that some of these strains inhibited P. gingivalis growth in plate assays through the production of organic acids, whereas some decreased the gingipain activity of P. gingivalis in coculture or mixing experiments. Conclusion In summary, we identified 19 strains isolated from human subgingival plaque that interacted with P. gingivalis, resulting in mitigation of its cytotoxicity to oral epithelial cells, inhibition of growth, and/or reduction of gingipain activity. Understanding the mechanisms of interaction between bacteria in the oral microbial community may lead to the development of new probiotic agents and new strategies for interrupting the development of periodontal disease.

Tenorio, Elizabeth L.; Klein, Brian A.; Cheung, Wai S.; Hu, Linden T.

2011-01-01

116

Protein-protein interaction map is a key gateway into liver regeneration  

PubMed Central

Recent studies indicate that the process of liver regeneration involves multiple signaling pathways and a variety of genes, cytokines and growth factors. Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) play a role in nearly all events that take place within the cell and PPI maps should be helpful in further understanding the process of liver regeneration. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding the PPIs that occur during liver regeneration especially those in the transforming growth factor ? signaling pathways. We believe the use of large-scale PPI maps for integrating the information already known about the liver regeneration is a useful approach in understanding liver regeneration from the standpoint of systems biology.

Xie, Chao; Gao, Jin; Zhu, Run-Zhi; Yuan, Yun-Sheng; He, Hong-Lin; Huang, Qiu-Shi; Han, Wei; Yu, Yan

2010-01-01

117

A kinase interacting protein (AKIP1) is a key regulator of cardiac stress  

PubMed Central

cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) regulates a myriad of functions in the heart, including cardiac contractility, myocardial metabolism, and gene expression. However, a molecular integrator of the PKA response in the heart is unknown. Here, we show that the PKA adaptor A-kinase interacting protein 1 (AKIP1) is up-regulated in cardiac myocytes in response to oxidant stress. Mice with cardiac gene transfer of AKIP1 have enhanced protection to ischemic stress. We hypothesized that this adaptation to stress was mitochondrial-dependent. AKIP1 interacted with the mitochondrial localized apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) under both normal and oxidant stress. When cardiac myocytes or whole hearts are exposed to oxidant and ischemic stress, levels of both AKIP1 and AIF were enhanced. AKIP1 is preferentially localized to interfibrillary mitochondria and up-regulated in this cardiac mitochondrial subpopulation on ischemic injury. Mitochondria isolated from AKIP1 gene-transferred hearts showed increased mitochondrial localization of AKIP1, decreased reactive oxygen species generation, enhanced calcium tolerance, decreased mitochondrial cytochrome C release, and enhance phosphorylation of mitochondrial PKA substrates on ischemic stress. These observations highlight AKIP1 as a critical molecular regulator and a therapeutic control point for stress adaptation in the heart.

Sastri, Mira; Haushalter, Kristofer J.; Panneerselvam, Mathivadhani; Chang, Philip; Fridolfsson, Heidi; Finley, J. Cameron; Ng, Daniel; Schilling, Jan M.; Miyanohara, Atsushi; Day, Michele E.; Hakozaki, Hiro; Petrosyan, Susanna; Koller, Antonius; King, Charles C.; Darshi, Manjula; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Ali, Sameh Saad; Roth, David M.; Patel, Hemal H.; Taylor, Susan S.

2013-01-01

118

Identification of Moving Interaction Forces with Incomplete Velocity Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to identify moving loads on a beam using measured vibration responses is studied for its possible application to identify axle loads when applied to the real bridge/vehicle interaction problem with road surface roughness and incomplete vehicle speed. Results from numerical studies on both a single and multi-span bridges and from laboratory experiment show that the method can identify individual axle loads travelling at non-uniform speed with small error. It can even identify the weight of the vehicle accurately when the vehicle brakes on top of the bridge deck.

ZHU, X. Q.; LAW, S. S.

2003-11-01

119

MIMO model of an interacting series process for Robust MPC via System Identification.  

PubMed

This paper discusses the empirical modeling using system identification technique with a focus on an interacting series process. The study is carried out experimentally using a gaseous pilot plant as the process, in which the dynamic of such a plant exhibits the typical dynamic of an interacting series process. Three practical approaches are investigated and their performances are evaluated. The models developed are also examined in real-time implementation of a linear model predictive control. The selected model is able to reproduce the main dynamic characteristics of the plant in open-loop and produces zero steady-state errors in closed-loop control system. Several issues concerning the identification process and the construction of a MIMO state space model for a series interacting process are deliberated. PMID:20304404

Wibowo, Tri Chandra S; Saad, Nordin

2010-07-01

120

Identification of the key bitter compounds in our daily diet is a prerequisite for the understanding of the hTAS2R gene polymorphisms affecting food choice.  

PubMed

In order to decode genetic variations affecting food choice and to determine whether to accept or to reject certain food products, it is a necessary prerequisite to deorphanize the hTAS2R/ligand pairs using the key bitter compounds in foods as stimuli rather than doing this either by using artificial molcules, to which the normal consumer had never been exposed, or by using food-born molecules which do not at all contribute to the overall bitterness. Therefore, the chemical structure of the most active bitter molecules in foods needs to be unequivocally determined in order to be sure that hTAS2R polymorphisms are related to the key molecules which really contribute to the overall bitterness perception of food products. As most studies focused primarily on quantitatively predominating compounds, rather than selecting the target compounds to be identified with regard to taste-activity, it seems that yet unknown components play a key role in evoking the bitter taste of food products. Driven by the need to discover the key players inducing the food taste, the research area "sensomics" made tremendous efforts in recent years to map the sensometabolome and to identify the most intense taste-active metabolites in fresh and processed foods. The present article summarizes recent studies on the identification of orphan key bitter stimuli in fresh, fermented, and thermally processed foods using carrots, cheese, and roasted coffee as examples. PMID:19686121

Hofmann, Thomas

2009-07-01

121

Strong-coupling superconductivity beyond BCS and the key pairing interaction in cuprate superconductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has been now over 20 years since the discovery of the first high temperature superconductor by Georg Bednorz and Alex Müller in 1986 and yet, despite intensive effort, no universally accepted theory exists about the origin of high-temperature superconductivity. A controversial issue on whether the electron-phonon interaction (EPI) is crucial for high-temperature superconductivity or weak and inessential has been one of the most challenging problems of contemporary condensed matter physics. I briefly review our recent theoretical results, which in conjunction with a great number of experimental observations including isotope effects, angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES), pump-probe and tunnelling spectroscopies, normal state diamagnetism and magnetic quantum oscillations provide the definite answer to this fundamental question. The true origin of high-temperature superconductivity is found in a significant finite-range Fröhlich EPI of nonadiabatic polaronic carriers which is beyond the conventional BCS-Migdal-Eliashberg approximation.

Alexandrov, A. S.

2011-03-01

122

Input to interaction to instruction: three key shifts in the history of child language research.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT In the early years of the Journal of Child Language, there was considerable disagreement about the role of language input or adult-child interaction in children's language acquisition. The view that quantity and quality of input to language-learning children is relevant to their language development has now become widely accepted as a principle guiding advice to parents and the design of early childhood education programs, even if it is not yet uncontested in the field of language development. The focus on variation in the language input to children acquires particular educational relevance when we consider variation in access to academic language - features of language particularly valued in school and related to success in reading and writing. Just as many children benefit from language environments that are intentionally designed to ensure adequate quantity and quality of input, even more probably need explicit instruction in the features of language that characterize its use for academic purposes. PMID:25023501

Snow, Catherine E

2014-07-01

123

Microbial glycan microarrays define key features of host-microbial interactions.  

PubMed

Genomic approaches continue to provide unprecedented insight into the microbiome, yet host immune interactions with diverse microbiota can be difficult to study. We therefore generated a microbial microarray containing defined antigens isolated from a broad range of microbial flora to examine adaptive and innate immunity. Serological studies with this microarray show that immunoglobulins from multiple mammalian species have unique patterns of reactivity, whereas exposure of animals to distinct microbes induces specific serological recognition. Although adaptive immunity exhibited plasticity toward microbial antigens, immunological tolerance limits reactivity toward self. We discovered that several innate immune galectins show specific recognition of microbes that express self-like antigens, leading to direct killing of a broad range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive microbes. Thus, host protection against microbes seems to represent a balance between adaptive and innate immunity to defend against evolving antigenic determinants while protecting against molecular mimicry. PMID:24814672

Stowell, Sean R; Arthur, Connie M; McBride, Ryan; Berger, Oren; Razi, Nahid; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Rodrigues, Lilian C; Gourdine, Jean-Philippe; Noll, Alexander J; von Gunten, Stephan; Smith, David F; Knirel, Yuriy A; Paulson, James C; Cummings, Richard D

2014-06-01

124

A bridge between liquids and socio-economic systems: the key role of interaction strengths  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One distinctive and pervasive aspect of social systems is the fact that they involve several kinds of agents. Thus, in order to draw parallels with physical systems one is led to consider binary (or multi-component) compounds. Recent views about the mixing of liquids in solutions gained from neutron and X-ray scattering show these systems to have a number of similarities with socio-economic systems. It appears that such phenomena as rearrangement of bonds in a solution, gas condensation, and selective evaporation of molecules can be transposed in a natural way to some socio-economic phenomena. These connections provide with a novel perspective for looking at social systems which we illustrate through examples. For instance, we interpret suicide as an escape phenomenon and in order to test this interpretation we consider social systems characterized by very low levels of social interaction. For these systems suicide rates are found to be 10 to 100 times higher than in the general population. Another interesting parallel concerns the phase transition that occurs when locusts gather together to form swarms which may contain several billion insects. What hinders the thorough investigation of such cases from the standpoint of collective phenomena that we advocate is the lack or inadequacy of statistical data; up to now socio-economic data were collected for completely different purposes. Most essential, for further progress, are the statistics which would permit to estimate the strength of social ties and interactions. Once adequate data become available, rapid advancement may be expected. At the end of the paper, we will discuss whether or not the ergodic principle applies to social systems.

Roehner, Bertrand M.

2005-03-01

125

Probing key coordination interactions: configurationally restricted metal activated CXCR4 antagonists.  

PubMed

The syntheses of configurationally restricted mono- and bis-macrocyclic copper(II) perchlorate complexes (copper(II) 5-benzyl-1,5,8,12-tetraazabicyclo[10.2.2]hexadecane and dicopper(II) 5,5'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]-bis(1,5,8,12-tetraazabicyclo[10.2.2]hexadecane)) are reported and the X-ray structure of the copper(II) mono-macrocyclic complex has been determined. EXAFS studies on the bis-macrocyclic species in aqueous solution show that the copper coordination spheres are essentially identical to the solid state structure, and do not vary in the presence of 20 equivalents of sodium acetate per metal centre. DFT calculations were carried out at the BP86/TZP level to determine the nature of potential binding interactions with CXCR4 aspartate residues. The alkylated single macrocyclic compound was modelled with an acetate included to represent the aspartate residue, demonstrating that the predicted macrocycle configuration has the lowest energy and the acetate interaction is effectively monodentate giving a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry at the copper centre. In vitro anti-HIV infection assays show that the configurationally restricted dicopper(II) complex is more active (average EC(50) = 0.026 microM against HIV-1) than the non-constrained dicopper(II) 1,1'-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]-bis(1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane) (average EC(50) = 0.047 microM against HIV-1) although it is an order of magnitude less active than the configurationally restricted dizinc(II) complex. PMID:17992286

McRobbie, Graeme; Valks, Gina C; Empson, Christopher J; Khan, Abid; Silversides, Jon D; Pannecouque, Christophe; De Clercq, Erik; Fiddy, Steven G; Bridgeman, Adam J; Young, Nigel A; Archibald, Stephen J

2007-11-21

126

Identification of Crew-Systems Interactions and Decision Related Trends  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Vehicle System Safety Technology (VSST) project management uses systems analysis to identify key issues and maintain a portfolio of research leading to potential solutions to its three identified technical challenges. Statistical data and published safety priority lists from academic, industry and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed by NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) systems analysis personnel to identify issues and future research needs related to one of VSST's technical challenges, Crew Decision Making (CDM). The data examined in the study were obtained from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Aviation Accident and Incident Data System, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Accident/Incident Data System and the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). In addition, this report contains the results of a review of safety priority lists, information databases and other documented references pertaining to aviation crew systems issues and future research needs. The specific sources examined were: Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) Safety Enhancements Reserved for Future Implementation (SERFIs), Flight Deck Automation Issues (FDAI) and NTSB Most Wanted List and Open Recommendations. Various automation issues taxonomies and priority lists pertaining to human factors, automation and flight design were combined to create a list of automation issues related to CDM.

Jones, Sharon Monica; Evans, Joni K.; Reveley, Mary S.; Withrow, Colleen A.; Ancel, Ersin; Barr, Lawrence

2013-01-01

127

Simple Protein Complex Purification and Identification Method Suitable for High- throughput Mapping of Protein Interaction Networks  

SciTech Connect

Most of the current methods for purification and identification of protein complexes use endogenous expression of affinity tagged bait, tandem affinity tag purification of protein complexes followed by specific elution of complexes from beads, gel separation, in-gel digestion and mass spectrometric analysis of protein interactors. We propose a single affinity tag in vitro pulldown assay with denaturing elution, trypsin digestion in organic solvent and LC ESI MS/MS protein identification using SEQUEST analysis. Our method is simple, easy to scale up and automate thus suitable for high throughput mapping of protein interaction networks and functional proteomics.

Markillie, Lye Meng; Lin, Chiann Tso; Adkins, Joshua N.; Auberry, Deanna L.; Hill, Eric A.; Hooker, Brian S.; Moore, Priscilla A.; Moore, Ronald J.; Shi, Liang; Wiley, H. S.; Kery, Vladimir

2005-04-11

128

Identification of early interactions between Francisella and the host.  

PubMed

The adaptive immune response to Francisella tularensis is dependent on the route of inoculation. Intradermal inoculation with the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) results in a robust Th1 response in the lungs, whereas intranasal inoculation produces fewer Th1 cells and instead many Th17 cells. Interestingly, bacterial loads in the lungs are similar early after inoculation by these two routes. We hypothesize that the adaptive immune response is influenced by local events in the lungs, such as the type of cells that are first infected with Francisella. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, we identified alveolar macrophages as the first cell type infected in the lungs of mice intranasally inoculated with F. novicida U112, LVS, or F. tularensis Schu S4. Following bacterial dissemination from the skin to the lung, interstitial macrophages or neutrophils are infected. Overall, we identified the early interactions between Francisella and the host following two different routes of inoculation. PMID:24686053

Roberts, Lydia M; Tuladhar, Shraddha; Steele, Shaun P; Riebe, Kristina J; Chen, Ching-Ju; Cumming, R Ian; Seay, Sarah; Frothingham, Richard; Sempowski, Gregory D; Kawula, Thomas H; Frelinger, Jeffrey A

2014-06-01

129

Artropodi delle Derrate Alimentari: Chiavi di Identificazione e Procedure Operative per la Determinazione dei Principali Infestanti Entomatici (Food-Contaminating Arthropods: Identification Keys and Laboratory Procedures to Determine Common Infesting Pests).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This guide represents a tool for surveying pests in food products for the Italian Public Health System workers. This report is structured in a section about identification keys of common food-contaminating arthropods and analysis for detecting pests.

C. Khoury R. Bianchi

2010-01-01

130

Genus Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) in Mexico: Adult Identification Keys, Diagnoses, Hosts, and Distribution (El genero Ixodes (Acari: Ixodidae) en Mexico: claves de identificacion para adultos, diagnosis, huespedes y distribucion).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Identification keys, diagnoses, hosts, and distribution data are provided for adults of the 26 species of Ixodes known from Mexico. Data are from specimens deposited in the Coleccion Nacional de Acaros (CNAC), Instituto de Biologia Universidad Nacional Au...

C. Guzman-Cornejo R. G. Robbins

2010-01-01

131

Citrus tristeza virus p23: a unique protein mediating key virus-host interactions  

PubMed Central

The large RNA genome of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV; ca. 20 kb) contains 12 open reading frames, with the 3?-terminal one corresponding to a protein of 209 amino acids (p23) that is expressed from an abundant subgenomic RNA. p23, an RNA-binding protein with a putative zinc-finger domain and some basic motifs, is unique to CTV because no homologs have been found in other closteroviruses, including the type species of the genus Beet yellows virus (despite both viruses having many homologous genes). Consequently, p23 might have evolved for the specific interaction of CTV with its citrus hosts. From a functional perspective p23 has been involved in many roles: (i) regulation of the asymmetrical accumulation of CTV RNA strands, (ii) induction of the seedling yellows syndrome in sour orange and grapefruit, (iii) intracellular suppression of RNA silencing, (iv) elicitation of CTV-like symptoms when expressed ectopically as a transgene in several Citrus spp., and (v) enhancement of systemic infection (and virus accumulation) in sour orange and CTV release from the phloem in p23-expressing transgenic sweet and sour orange. Moreover, transformation of Mexican lime with intron-hairpin constructs designed for the co-inactivation of p23 and the two other CTV silencing suppressors results in complete resistance against the homologous virus. From a cellular point of view, recent data indicate that p23 accumulates preferentially in the nucleolus, being the first closterovirus protein with such a subcellular localization, as well as in plasmodesmata. These major accumulation sites most likely determine some of the functional roles of p23.

Flores, Ricardo; Ruiz-Ruiz, Susana; Soler, Nuria; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus; Fagoaga, Carmen; Lopez, Carmelo; Navarro, Luis; Moreno, Pedro; Pena, Leandro

2013-01-01

132

Establishment of a Protein Frequency Library and Its Application in the Reliable Identification of Specific Protein Interaction Partners*  

PubMed Central

The reliable identification of protein interaction partners and how such interactions change in response to physiological or pathological perturbations is a key goal in most areas of cell biology. Stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based mass spectrometry has been shown to provide a powerful strategy for characterizing protein complexes and identifying specific interactions. Here, we show how SILAC can be combined with computational methods drawn from the business intelligence field for multidimensional data analysis to improve the discrimination between specific and nonspecific protein associations and to analyze dynamic protein complexes. A strategy is shown for developing a protein frequency library (PFL) that improves on previous use of static “bead proteomes.” The PFL annotates the frequency of detection in co-immunoprecipitation and pulldown experiments for all proteins in the human proteome. It can provide a flexible and objective filter for discriminating between contaminants and specifically bound proteins and can be used to normalize data values and facilitate comparisons between data obtained in separate experiments. The PFL is a dynamic tool that can be filtered for specific experimental parameters to generate a customized library. It will be continuously updated as data from each new experiment are added to the library, thereby progressively enhancing its utility. The application of the PFL to pulldown experiments is especially helpful in identifying either lower abundance or less tightly bound specific components of protein complexes that are otherwise lost among the large, nonspecific background.

Boulon, Severine; Ahmad, Yasmeen; Trinkle-Mulcahy, Laura; Verheggen, Celine; Cobley, Andy; Gregor, Peter; Bertrand, Edouard; Whitehorn, Mark; Lamond, Angus I.

2010-01-01

133

Identification of brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 as an interaction partner of glutaminase interacting protein  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} Brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2) is a new partner protein for GIP. {yields} BAI2 interaction with GIP was revealed by yeast two-hybrid assay. {yields} Binding of BAI2 to GIP was characterized by NMR, CD and fluorescence. {yields} BAI2 and GIP binding was mediated through the C-terminus of BAI2. -- Abstract: The vast majority of physiological processes in living cells are mediated by protein-protein interactions often specified by particular protein sequence motifs. PDZ domains, composed of 80-100 amino acid residues, are an important class of interaction motif. Among the PDZ-containing proteins, glutaminase interacting protein (GIP), also known as Tax Interacting Protein TIP-1, is unique in being composed almost exclusively of a single PDZ domain. GIP has important roles in cellular signaling, protein scaffolding and modulation of tumor growth and interacts with a number of physiological partner proteins, including Glutaminase L, {beta}-Catenin, FAS, HTLV-1 Tax, HPV16 E6, Rhotekin and Kir 2.3. To identify the network of proteins that interact with GIP, a human fetal brain cDNA library was screened using a yeast two-hybrid assay with GIP as bait. We identified brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor 2 (BAI2), a member of the adhesion-G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), as a new partner of GIP. BAI2 is expressed primarily in neurons, further expanding GIP cellular functions. The interaction between GIP and the carboxy-terminus of BAI2 was characterized using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy assays. These biophysical analyses support the interaction identified in the yeast two-hybrid assay. This is the first study reporting BAI2 as an interaction partner of GIP.

Zencir, Sevil [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ege University, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)] [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Ege University, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Ovee, Mohiuddin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Dobson, Melanie J. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2 (Canada)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2 (Canada); Banerjee, Monimoy [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Topcu, Zeki, E-mail: zeki.topcu@ege.edu.tr [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir 35100 (Turkey)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Ege University, Izmir 35100 (Turkey); Mohanty, Smita, E-mail: mohansm@auburn.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

2011-08-12

134

Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region.  

PubMed

The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna. PMID:23378807

Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

2012-01-01

135

Parasitoids of Monochamus galloprovincialis (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae), vector of the pine wood nematode, with identification key for the Palaearctic region  

PubMed Central

Abstract The parasitoid complex associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis (Olivier), vector of the pine wood nematode, is discussed. Four species of the family Braconidae and one Ichneumonidae were found associated with Monochamus galloprovincialis in Portugal, namely Atanycolus denigrator (Linnaeus), Atanycolus ivanowi (Kokujev), Cyanopterus flavator (Fabricius), Doryctes striatellus (Nees) (Braconidae), and Xorides depressus (Holmgren) (Ichneumonidae). Atanycolus ivanowi, Atanycolus denigrator, Doryctes striatellus and Xorides depressus are new species for Portugal fauna, and Monochamus galloprovincialis is recorded as a new host of Xorides depressus. A key for determination of the ichneumonoid parasitoids of the pine sawyer is provided for the Palaearctic fauna.

Petersen-Silva, Ricardo; Pujade-Villar, Juli; Naves, Pedro; Edmundo Sousa; Belokobylskij, Sergey

2012-01-01

136

Promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger induction signs mesenchymal stem cell commitment: identification of a key marker for stemness maintenance?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are an attractive cell source for cartilage and bone tissue engineering given their ability to differentiate into chondrocytes and osteoblasts. However, the common origin of these two specialized cell types raised the question about the identification of regulatory pathways determining the differentiation fate of MSCs into chondrocyte or osteoblast. Methods Chondrogenesis, osteoblastogenesis, and adipogenesis of human and mouse MSC were induced by using specific inductive culture conditions. Expression of promyelocytic leukemia zinc-finger (PLZF) or differentiation markers in MSCs was determined by RT-qPCR. PLZF-expressing MSC were implanted in a mouse osteochondral defect model and the neotissue was analyzed by routine histology and microcomputed tomography. Results We found out that PLZF is not expressed in MSCs and its expression at early stages of MSC differentiation is the mark of their commitment toward the three main lineages. PLZF acts as an upstream regulator of both Sox9 and Runx2, and its overexpression in MSC enhances chondrogenesis and osteogenesis while it inhibits adipogenesis. In vivo, implantation of PLZF-expressing MSC in mice with full-thickness osteochondral defects resulted in the formation of a reparative tissue resembling cartilage and bone. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that absence of PLZF is required for stemness maintenance and its expression is an early event at the onset of MSC commitment during the differentiation processes of the three main lineages.

2014-01-01

137

Identification of a key residue for oligomerisation and pore-formation of Clostridium perfringens NetB.  

PubMed

Necrotic enteritis toxin B (NetB) is a ?-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens and has been identified as a key virulence factor in the pathogenesis of avian necrotic enteritis, a disease causing significant economic damage to the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis was used to identify amino acids that play a role in NetB oligomerisation and pore-formation. NetB K41H showed significantly reduced toxicity towards LMH cells and human red blood cells relative to wild type toxin. NetB K41H was unable to oligomerise and form pores in liposomes. These findings suggest that NetB K41H could be developed as a genetic toxoid vaccine to protect against necrotic enteritis. PMID:24625763

Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Savva, Christos G; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Naylor, Claire E; Moss, David S; Basak, Ajit K; Titball, Richard W

2014-03-01

138

[Seed germination and key to seedling identification for six native tree species of wetlands from Southeast Mexico].  

PubMed

Wetland tree species are of importance for economic and restoration purposes. We describe the germination process and seedling morphology of six arboreal native species typical of Southeastern Mexico: Annona glabra, Ceiba pentandra, Pachira aquatica, Haematoxylum campechianum, Coccoloba barbadensis and Crataeva tapia. A total of 300 seeds per species were planted in a mixture of sand, cocoa plant husk and black soil (1:1:1), and maintained in a tree nursery with 30% artificial shade, from February to November of 2007. We carried out the morphological characterization, and elaborated a key to seedlings based on: 1) germination type 2) seedling axis and 3) leaf elements. P. aquatica has cryptocotylar hypogeal germination, the others have phanerocotylar epigeal germination. Germination rates were high (>86%), except for C. barbadensis (69%). PMID:20527471

Zamora-Cornelio, Luis Felipe; Ochoa-Gaona, Susana; Vargas Simón, Georgina; Castellanos Albores, Jorge; Jong, Bernardus H J de

2010-06-01

139

Identification of DNA damage checkpoint-dependent protein interactions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using quantitative mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Summary The DNA damage checkpoint (DDC) is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that is crucial to maintain genomic integrity. In response to DNA damage, DDC kinases are rapidly activated and phosphorylate an elaborate network of substrates involved in multiple cellular processes. An important role of the DDC response is to assemble protein complexes. However, for most of the DDC substrates, how the DDC-dependent phosphorylation modulates their network of interactions remains to be established. Here, we present a protocol for the identification of DDC-dependent protein-protein interactions based on Stable Isotope Labeling of Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) followed by affinity-tagged protein purification and quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. Based on a model study using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we provide a method that can be generally applied to study the role of kinases in mediating protein-protein interactions.

Bastos de Oliveira, Francisco M.; Smolka, Marcus B.

2014-01-01

140

An annotated key to the identification of commonly occurring and dominant genera of algae observed in the phytoplankton of the United States  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In early 1979, a retrieval was made for all phytoplankton data contained in the computerized data file of the U. S. Geological Survey. The retrieval revealed the analytical results of 17,959 samples collected and processed between October 1973 and October 1978. Of the approximately 500 genera of freshwater algae reported in the United States, the U.S. Geological Survey observed 321 genera in the phytoplankton. Fifty-two genera were considered to be commonly occurring and 42 genera were considered to be community dominants. The report lists, describes, and provides a detailed taxonomic key to the identification of 58 genera of algae considered either commonly occurring or dominant. Also included is a summary of environmental conditions under which each algal genus was observed, as well as a glossary and an extensive list of selected references.

Greeson, Phillip E.

1982-01-01

141

Identification of key performance indicators for on-farm animal welfare incidents: possible tools for early warning and prevention  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to describe aspects of case study herds investigated by the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (DAFF) in which animal welfare incidents occurred and to identify key performance indicators (KPIs) that can be monitored to enhance the Early Warning System (EWS). Despite an EWS being in place for a number of years, animal welfare incidents continue to occur. Questionnaires regarding welfare incidents were sent to Superintending Veterinary Inspectors (SVIs), resulting in 18 herds being chosen as case study herds, 12 of which had a clearly defined welfare incident date. For each study herd, data on six potential KPIs were extracted from DAFF databases. The KPIs for those herds with a clearly defined welfare incident date were studied for a consecutive four year window, with the fourth year being the 'incident year', when the welfare incident was disclosed. For study herds without a clearly defined welfare incident date, the KPIs were determined on a yearly basis between 2001 and 2009. Results We found that the late registration of calves, the use of on-farm burial as a method of carcase disposal, an increasing number of moves to knackeries over time and records of animals moved to 'herd unknown' were notable on the case farms. Conclusion Four KPIs were prominent on the case study farms and warrant further investigation in control herds to determine their potential to provide a framework for refining current systems of early warning and prevention.

2011-01-01

142

Transcription profile of soybean-root-knot nematode interaction reveals a key role of phythormones in the resistance reaction  

PubMed Central

Background Root-knot nematodes (RKN– Meloidogyne genus) present extensive challenges to soybean crop. The soybean line (PI 595099) is known to be resistant against specific strains and races of nematode species, thus its differential gene expression analysis can lead to a comprehensive gene expression profiling in the incompatible soybean-RKN interaction. Even though many disease resistance genes have been studied, little has been reported about phytohormone crosstalk on modulation of ROS signaling during soybean-RKN interaction. Results Using 454 technology to explore the common aspects of resistance reaction during both parasitism and resistance phases it was verified that hormone, carbohydrate metabolism and stress related genes were consistently expressed at high levels in infected roots as compared to mock control. Most noteworthy genes include those encoding glycosyltransferases, peroxidases, auxin-responsive proteins and gibberellin-regulated genes. Our data analysis suggests the key role of glycosyltransferases, auxins and components of gibberellin signal transduction, biosynthesis and deactivation pathways in the resistance reaction and their participation in jasmonate signaling and redox homeostasis in mediating aspects of plant growth and responses to biotic stress. Conclusions Based on this study we suggest a reasonable model regarding to the complex mechanisms of crosstalk between plant hormones, mainly gibberellins and auxins, which can be crucial to modulate the levels of ROS in the resistance reaction to nematode invasion. The model also includes recent findings concerning to the participation of DELLA-like proteins and ROS signaling controlling plant immune or stress responses. Furthermore, this study provides a dataset of potential candidate genes involved in both nematode parasitism and resistance, which can be tested further for their role in this biological process using functional genomics approaches.

2013-01-01

143

Evidence-based identification of key beliefs explaining adult male circumcision motivation in zimbabwe: targets for behavior change messaging.  

PubMed

Male circumcision (MC) reduces HIV acquisition among men, leading WHO/UNAIDS to recommend a goal to circumcise 80 % of men in high HIV prevalence countries. Significant investment to increase MC capacity in priority countries was made, yet only 5 % of the goal has been achieved in Zimbabwe. The integrated behavioral model (IBM) was used as a framework to investigate the factors affecting MC motivation among men in Zimbabwe. A survey instrument was designed based on elicitation study results, and administered to a representative household-based sample of 1,201 men aged 18-30 from two urban and two rural areas in Zimbabwe. Multiple regression analysis found all five IBM constructs significantly explained MC Intention. Nearly all beliefs underlying the IBM constructs were significantly correlated with MC Intention. Stepwise regression analysis of beliefs underlying each construct respectively found that 13 behavioral beliefs, 5 normative beliefs, 4 descriptive norm beliefs, 6 efficacy beliefs, and 10 control beliefs were significant in explaining MC Intention. A final stepwise regression of the five sets of significant IBM construct beliefs identified 14 key beliefs that best explain Intention. Similar analyses were carried out with subgroups of men by urban-rural and age. Different sets of behavioral, normative, efficacy, and control beliefs were significant for each sub-group, suggesting communication messages need to be targeted to be most effective for sub-groups. Implications for the design of effective MC demand creation messages are discussed. This study demonstrates the application of theory-driven research to identify evidence-based targets for intervention messages to increase men's motivation to get circumcised and thereby improve demand for male circumcision. PMID:24443147

Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Hamilton, Deven T; Tshimanga, Mufuta; Gorn, Gerald

2014-05-01

144

Identification and Functional Analysis of Delta-9 Desaturase, a Key Enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, Isolated from the Oleaginous Diatom Fistulifera  

PubMed Central

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?9 desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?9 desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?9 desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?9 acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?9 desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?9 desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain.

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

145

Structure and functioning of Mediterranean lagoon fish assemblages: A key for the identification of water body types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Knowledge on the structure and functioning variability of transitional water fish assemblages may help in finding out the main descriptors for identifying different water body types for which specific biological reference conditions can be reliably derived. Fish assemblages from 19 Mediterranean lagoons were therefore investigated by evaluating the variability of their structure and functioning, and by relating it to the lagoons' environmental features. Fish assemblage structure was measured by its species richness. Functioning was measured by categorizing fish species into functional categories (or guilds) according to their use of lagoon habitat, feeding and reproduction, and by defining the functional structure of fish assemblages as the relative number of species per guild in each lagoon. Mediterranean lagoons' fish assemblages were found to be more similar to each other in their functional structure than in the taxonomical composition, thus confirming a shared functional role of these environments for biological communities. Lagoon local features, such as the lagoon area, its habitat heterogeneity and average salinity, significantly affected the total species richness and the different use that fish make of the lagoon environment, hence playing a primary role in the assessment of these water body types. Latitude also influenced the variability of fish assemblages in the Mediterranean lagoons investigated, with particular regard to their functioning as feeding and reproductive grounds for fish. These results are compared with previous studies and, although this limited the investigation to structural aspects only, were found to confirm in part the previous results and also added new insights about the key factors affecting the functioning of transitional water systems.

Franco, Anita; Franzoi, Piero; Torricelli, Patrizia

2008-09-01

146

Functional Identification of APIP as Human mtnB, a Key Enzyme in the Methionine Salvage Pathway  

PubMed Central

The methionine salvage pathway is widely distributed among some eubacteria, yeast, plants and animals and recycles the sulfur-containing metabolite 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA) to methionine. In eukaryotic cells, the methionine salvage pathway takes place in the cytosol and usually involves six enzymatic activities: MTA phosphorylase (MTAP, EC 2.4.2.28), 5?-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase (mtnA, EC 5.3.1.23), 5?-methylthioribulose-1-phosphate dehydratase (mtnB, EC: 4.2.1.109), 2,3-dioxomethiopentane-1-phosphate enolase/phosphatase (mtnC, EC 3.1.3.77), aci-reductone dioxygenase (mtnD, EC 1.13.11.54) and 4-methylthio-2-oxo-butanoate (MTOB) transaminase (EC 2.6.1.-). The aim of this study was to complete the available information on the methionine salvage pathway in human by identifying the enzyme responsible for the dehydratase step. Using a bioinformatics approach, we propose that a protein called APIP could perform this role. The involvement of this protein in the methionine salvage pathway was investigated directly in HeLa cells by transient and stable short hairpin RNA interference. We show that APIP depletion specifically impaired the capacity of cells to grow in media where methionine is replaced by MTA. Using a Shigella mutant auxotroph for methionine, we confirm that the knockdown of APIP specifically affects the recycling of methionine. We also show that mutation of three potential phosphorylation sites does not affect APIP activity whereas mutation of the potential zinc binding site completely abrogates it. Finally, we show that the N-terminal region of APIP that is missing in the short isoform is required for activity. Together, these results confirm the involvement of APIP in the methionine salvage pathway, which plays a key role in many biological functions like cancer, apoptosis, microbial proliferation and inflammation.

Mary, Camille; Duek, Paula; Salleron, Lisa; Tienz, Petra; Bumann, Dirk; Bairoch, Amos; Lane, Lydie

2012-01-01

147

Identification of key functional groups of microbes in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the NE equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to explicate high secondary production of heterotrophic prokaryotes (hereafter bacteria; 2.35mgCm-3d-1 in subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM; 44m in depth), 1.73mgCm-3d-1 in OMZ core (700m in depth)) and to gauge dominated microbial groups in the oxygen minimum layer, we performed phylogenetic analysis based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene in the NE equatorial Pacific. A total of 290 bacterial clones and 261 archaeal clones were sequenced and used to compare microbial diversity between SCM layer and OMZ in July, 2010. Major groups of bacteria in the SCM layer (171.68?mol O2) were Cyanobacteria (28.1%), ?-proteobacteria (25.0%) and Bacterioidetes (6.3%). OMZ core (12.05?mol O2) was dominated by ?-proteobacteria (40.2%), ?-proteobacteria (19.6%), and ?-proteobacteria (12.4%) in order. The deeper layer of the OMZ (800m in depth, 19.20?mol O2) had the largest number of ?-proteobacteria (24.7%), followed by ?-proteobacteria (20.6%), and ?-proteobacteria (18.6%). In case of archaea, euryarchaeal Marine Group-? (MG-?) were dominated in the SCM layer (95.2%). On the other hand, in the OMZ core and the deeper layer of the OMZ, Crenarchaea (MG- ?) were most abundant (69.4% of 700m, 71.8% of 800m) and MG-? was the second (21.2% of 700m, 21.1% of 800m). In summary, bacterial clone libraries were dominated by ?-proteobacteria and ?-proteobacteria and archaeal clone libraries were dominated by MG- ? in the OMZ. It is generally known that Microbes involved in anaerobic processes are among those groups. Comparative phylogenic analysis of microbial communities have the potential to provide more detail information on diversity and identify key functional groups of bacteria in the OMZ.

Kim, M.; Cho, H.; Kim, K.; Ju, S.; Hyun, J.

2012-12-01

148

Identification and functional analysis of delta-9 desaturase, a key enzyme in PUFA Synthesis, isolated from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera.  

PubMed

Oleaginous microalgae are one of the promising resource of nonedible biodiesel fuel (BDF) feed stock alternatives. Now a challenge task is the decrease of the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content affecting on the BDF oxidative stability by using gene manipulation techniques. However, only the limited knowledge has been available concerning the fatty acid and PUFA synthesis pathways in microalgae. Especially, the function of ?9 desaturase, which is a key enzyme in PUFA synthesis pathway, has not been determined in diatom. In this study, 4 ?(9) desaturase genes (fD9desA, fD9desB, fD9desC and fD9desD) from the oleaginous diatom Fistulifera were newly isolated and functionally characterized. The putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) showed 3 histidine clusters that are well-conserved motifs in the typical ?(9) desaturase. Furthermore, the function of these ?(9) desaturases was confirmed in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ole1 gene deletion mutant (?ole1). All the putative ?(9) acyl-CoA desaturases showed ?(9) desaturation activity for C16?0 fatty acids; fD9desA and fD9desB also showed desaturation activity for C18?0 fatty acids. This study represents the first functional analysis of ?(9) desaturases from oleaginous microalgae and from diatoms as the first enzyme to introduce a double bond in saturated fatty acids during PUFA synthesis. The findings will provide beneficial insights into applying metabolic engineering processes to suppressing PUFA synthesis in this oleaginous microalgal strain. PMID:24039966

Muto, Masaki; Kubota, Chihiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Satoh, Akira; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Yoshino, Tomoko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi

2013-01-01

149

Identification of an unintended consequence of Nrf2-directed cytoprotection against a key tobacco carcinogen plus a counteracting chemopreventive intervention  

PubMed Central

Nrf2 is a major cytoprotective gene and is a key chemopreventive target against cancer and other diseases. Here we show that Nrf2 faces a dilemma in defense against 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), a major human bladder carcinogen from tobacco smoke and other environmental sources. While Nrf2 protected mouse liver against ABP (which is metabolically activated in liver), the bladder level of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP), the predominant ABP-DNA adduct formed in bladder cells and tissues, was markedly higher in Nrf2+/+ mice than in Nrf2?/? mice after ABP exposure. Notably, Nrf2 protected bladder cells against ABP in vitro. Mechanistic investigations showed that the dichotomous effects of Nrf2 could be explained at least partly by upregulation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT). Nrf2 promoted conjugation of ABP with glucuronic acid in the liver, increasing urinary excretion of the conjugate. While glucuronidation of ABP and its metabolites is a detoxification process, these conjugates, which are excreted in urine, are known to be unstable in acidic urine, leading to delivery of the parent compounds to bladder. Hence, while higher liver UGT activity may protect the liver against ABP it increases bladder exposure to ABP. These findings raise concerns of potential bladder toxicity when Nrf2-activating chemopreventive agents are used in humans exposed to ABP, especially in smokers. We further demonstrate that 5,6-dihydrocyclopenta[c][1,2]-dithiole-3(4H)-thione (CPDT) significantly inhibits dG-C8-ABP formation in bladder cells and tissues, but does not appear to significantly modulate ABP-catalyzing UGT in liver. Thus, CPDT exemplifies a counteracting solution to the dilemma posed by Nrf2.

Paonessa, Joseph D.; Ding, Yi; Randall, Kristen L.; Munday, Rex; Argoti, Dayana; Vouros, Paul; Zhang, Yuesheng

2011-01-01

150

Input force identification using Kalman filter techniques: application to soil-pile interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An identification method for estimating the time varying excitation force acting on a structural system based on its response measurement is presented in this study. The method employs the simple Kalman filter to establish a regression model between the residual innovation and the input excitation forces. Based on the regression model, a recursive least-squares estimator is proposed to identify the input excitation forces incorporating with the measurement noise and the modeling error. In applying the method, the ambient vibration measurement of a structural system was used first. The stochastic subspace identification is applied to estimate the system matrix "A" and the measurement matrix "C". Then the Kalman filter with a recursive estimator is applied to determine the input excitation forces. The dynamic excitation forces are estimated from the measured structural responses by an inverse algorithm while least-square method with a recursive estimator is employed to update the estimation in the sense of real-time computation. Verification of the method with numerical simulation through MIMO system is conducted first. Identification of soil forces during the shaking table test of soil-pile interaction is also demonstrated.

Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Wu, Ai-Lun; Yang, Jann N.; Chen, Chia-Han; Ueng, Tzou-Shin

2008-05-01

151

Identification of Cys255 in HIF-1? as a novel site for development of covalent inhibitors of HIF-1?/ARNT PasB domain protein-protein interaction  

PubMed Central

The heterodimer HIF-1? (hypoxia inducible factor)/HIF-? (also known as ARNT-aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator) is a key mediator of cellular response to hypoxia. The interaction between these monomer units can be modified by the action of small molecules in the binding interface between their C-terminal heterodimerization (PasB) domains. Taking advantage of the presence of several cysteine residues located in the allosteric cavity of HIF-1? PasB domain, we applied a cysteine-based reactomics “hotspot identification” strategy to locate regions of HIF-1? PasB domain critical for its interaction with ARNT. COMPOUND 5 was identified using a mass spectrometry-based primary screening strategy and was shown to react specifically with Cys255 of the HIF-1? PasB domain. Biophysical characterization of the interaction between PasB domains of HIF-1? and ARNT revealed that covalent binding of COMPOUND 5 to Cys255 reduced binding affinity between HIF-1? and ARNT PasB domains approximately 10-fold. Detailed NMR structural analysis of HIF-1?-PasB-COMPOUND 5 conjugate showed significant local conformation changes in the HIF-1? associated with key residues involved in the HIF-1?/ARNT PasB domain interaction as revealed by the crystal structure of the HIF-1?/ARNT PasB heterodimer. Our screening strategy could be applied to other targets to identify pockets surrounding reactive cysteines suitable for development of small molecule modulators of protein function.

Cardoso, Rosa; Love, Robert; Nilsson, Carol L; Bergqvist, Simon; Nowlin, Dawn; Yan, Jiangli; Liu, Kevin K-C; Zhu, Jing; Chen, Ping; Deng, Ya-Li; Dyson, H Jane; Greig, Michael J; Brooun, Alexei

2012-01-01

152

Identification of Diurnal, Seasonal and Inter-Annual Variability Across SE Asian Field Observations of key Water Cycle Variables: Rainfall, net Radiation, Total Evaporation and River Discharge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The identification of periodic patterns in water cycle variables is critical to the understanding of land-atmosphere interactions, climate change and the evaluation of General Circulation Model (GCM) output. SE Asia in particular plays a very important role on the global climate because it is a large source of energy and water fluxes into the upper atmosphere. Cycle identification is carried out following the Data Based Mechanistic (DBM) philosophy, which focuses on the use of parsimonious, rigorous models which are characterised by lack of a priori assumptions, built in uncertainty analysis and final model acceptance dependent on the physical interpretation of the results. The DBM tool used here is the Unobserved Component - Dynamic Harmonic Regression (UC-DHR) model, which is a statistical method that allows the identification of variability in time series by introducing Time Variable Parameter (TVP) estimation of harmonic components. UC-DHR is not scale dependent and was thus applied to both hourly (to investigate diurnal variation) and fortnightly datasets (for intra- and inter-annual variability). The data used in the analysis has been gathered from existing catchment datasets for three regions of tropical SE Asia, namely Northern Thailand, Central Peninsular Malaysia and Northeast Borneo. These regions were chosen because they represent the hydro-climatic gradient (seasonal to equatorial) present within the tropics and because SE Asia has the most extensive set of catchment/plot studies within the humid tropics. Results show modeling tools were able to quantify the main patterns present in the observations throughout different time scales (diurnal, intra-annual and inter-annual) and the strength of the correlation pattern between the four hydro-climatic variables. The subsequent discussion focuses on the physical processes behind those patterns (e.g. diurnal variability caused by local convection due to solar heating; impact of El Niño Southern Oscillation on inter-annual variability of rainfall and river discharge).

Solera García, M. A.; Tych, W.; Chappell, N.

2007-12-01

153

Identification of novel key amino acids at the interface of the transmembrane domains of human BST-2 and HIV-1 Vpu  

PubMed Central

Background BST-2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) is an interferon-inducible protein that inhibits virus release by tethering viral particles to the cell surface. This antiviral activity of BST-2 is antagonized by HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu. Vpu physically interacts with BST-2 through their mutual transmembrane (TM) domains. In this study, we utilized the BRET assay and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation method to further characterize the interaction of BST-2 and Vpu. Results Amino acids I34, L37, P40 and L41 in the TM domain of BST-2, and L11, A18 and W22 in the TM domain of Vpu were identified to be critical for the interaction between BST-2 and Vpu. The residues P40 in the TM domain of BST-2 and L11 in the TM domain of Vpu were shown, for the first time, to be important for their interaction. Furthermore, triple-amino-acid substitutions, 14–16 (AII to VAA) and 26–28 (IIE to AAA) in Vpu TM, not the single-residue mutation, profoundly disrupted BST-2/Vpu interaction. The results of MD simulation revealed significant conformational changes of the BST-2/Vpu complex as a result of mutating P40 of BST-2 and L11, 14–16 (AII to VAA) and 26–28 (IIE to AAA) of Vpu. In addition, disrupting the interaction between BST-2 and Vpu rendered BST-2 resistant to Vpu antagonization. Conclusions Through use of the BRET assay, we identified novel key residues P40 in the TM domain of BST-2 and L11 in the TM domain of Vpu that are important for their interaction. These results add new insights into the molecular mechanism behind BST-2 antagonization by HIV-1 Vpu.

2013-01-01

154

Keys to Soil Taxonomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) publication (11th edition, 2010) contains taxonomic keys necessary for the classification of soils in a form easily used in the field. The book describes soils in general, how to differentiate between them, and how the identification process works. The taxonomic key includes all known soil types, including mollisols, oxisols, alfisols, and others.

United States Department Of Agriculture, National C.

155

Identification of human disease genes from interactome network using graphlet interaction.  

PubMed

Identifying genes related to human diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease, etc., is an important task in biomedical research because of its applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Interactome networks, especially protein-protein interaction networks, had been used to disease genes identification based on the hypothesis that strong candidate genes tend to closely relate to each other in some kinds of measure on the network. We proposed a new measure to analyze the relationship between network nodes which was called graphlet interaction. The graphlet interaction contained 28 different isomers. The results showed that the numbers of the graphlet interaction isomers between disease genes in interactome networks were significantly larger than random picked genes, while graphlet signatures were not. Then, we designed a new type of score, based on the network properties, to identify disease genes using graphlet interaction. The genes with higher scores were more likely to be disease genes, and all candidate genes were ranked according to their scores. Then the approach was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The precision of the current approach achieved 90% at about 10% recall, which was apparently higher than the previous three predominant algorithms, random walk, Endeavour and neighborhood based method. Finally, the approach was applied to predict new disease genes related to 4 common diseases, most of which were identified by other independent experimental researches. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the graphlet interaction is an effective tool to analyze the network properties of disease genes, and the scores calculated by graphlet interaction is more precise in identifying disease genes. PMID:24465923

Wang, Xiao-Dong; Huang, Jia-Liang; Yang, Lun; Wei, Dong-Qing; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai

2014-01-01

156

Cebrennus Simon, 1880 (Araneae: Sparassidae): a revisionary up-date with the description of four new species and an updated identification key for all species.  

PubMed

The spider genus Cebrennus Simon, 1880 is revised again after thirteen years. Four new species are described: Cebrennus atlas spec. nov. from Morocco (female), C. flagellatus spec. nov. from Afghanistan (male), C. laurae spec. nov. from Canary Islands (male), and C. rechenbergi spec. nov. from Morocco (male and female). Cebrennus clercki (Audouin, 1826) comb. nov. is transferred from Philodromidae to Sparassidae and considered a nomen dubium. The holotype of C. aethiopicus Simon, 1880 is illustrated for the first time. Cebrennus tunetanus Simon, 1885 is re-described by illustrating its copulatory organs and some somatic characters, the internal duct system is shown for the first time supporting its placement in Cebrennus. An updated identification key for all species is provided. New records of Cebrennus species are listed: C. wagae (Simon, 1874) is recorded from Libya and Malta for the first time, the latter representing the first record for the entire genus from Europe. C. kochi (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1872) is recorded from Syria, C. aethiopicus from Sudan for the first time. Records from the Canary Islands and from Afghanistan extend the known generic distribution range further to the West and East. Behavioural aspects (burrowing, escaping, mating) of C. rechenbergi and partly of C. villosus (Jézéquel & Junqua, 1966) are described. Photographs of this behaviour as well as of the habitus of several species are provided. PMID:24869871

Jäger, Peter

2014-01-01

157

Phlebotomine sand flies from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). VII. An identification key for Phlebotomus with the description of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp.  

PubMed Central

An identification key of the Phlebotomus in Madagascar is proposed as well as the description of the male and female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp. from Mikea Forest in the south-west of Madagascar. The assignation of this new species to the genus Phlebotomus is based on the presence of mesanepisternal setae. Its inclusion in the subgenus Anaphlebotomus is based on the males on the presence of four spines on the style, the lack of a coxite basal process and the existence of a bifurcated paramere. The female has cibarial and pharyngeal armature and spermathecal architecture similar to Phlebotomus fertei and Phlebotomus berentiensis, two other Malagasy species which belong to Anaphlebotomus. Male and female are held to belong to the same species because of their morphological characters, the homology (100%) of their partial cytochrome b mtDNA sequences and their capture in the same trap. P. vaomalalae n. sp. is a small species compared to the other Phlebotomus species of Madagascar. The cibarium of the male and the female of P. vaomalalae n. sp. is armed with teeth, like those of other Malagasy Phlebotomus. However, it differs in the arrangement and shape of the respective teeth and denticles. The male of P. vaomalalae n. sp. looks like that of P. fontenillei due to its tuft of coxal setae (lacking in P. berentiensis and P. fertei) but differs from this species by the location of this tuft. As P. fertei and P. berentiensis, there is no spermathecal common duct in P. vaomalalae n. sp.

Randrianambinintsoa, Fano Jose; Leger, Nicole; Robert, Vincent; Depaquit, Jerome

2013-01-01

158

New findings and a new species of the genus Ammothea (Pycnogonida, Ammotheidae), with an updated identification key to all Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Specimens of the pycnogonid genus Ammothea collected during the Polarstern cruise XXIII/8 (23 November 2006-30 January 2007) were studied. Nine species were recognized in this collection: Ammothea bentartica, A. bicorniculata, A. carolinensis, A. clausi, A. longispina, A. minor, A. spinosa, A. striata and A. tibialis. Three of them ( A. bentartica, A. bicorniculata and A. tibialis) are reported for the second time, enlarging their known geographical and bathymetric range. In the present contribution, the observed morphological variability of all collected Ammothea species is described and discussed. For the identification and description of the material, different museum specimens were consulted. Among them, we have consulted part of the Discovery collection housed at the Natural History Museum in London. That material was initially identified by Isabella Gordon, a reputed author in the field of pycnogonid taxonomy. A new species, based on a museum specimen previously highly confused in the literature, is proposed in the present contribution as Ammothea isabellae n. sp. The new taxon is compared with its closest congeners, especially with A. longispina and A. stylirostris. Finally, we propose an updated dichotomous key to species covering all currently known Antarctic and sub-Antarctic Ammothea species.

Cano-Sánchez, E.; López-González, P. J.

2014-03-01

159

The flea genus Sigmactenus (Siphonaptera: Leptopsyllidae): three new taxa from Sulawesi, updated identification key, and distribution map for all known species and subspecies.  

PubMed

One new species and two new subspecies of fleas are described. These are S. sulawesiensis n. sp. from North and Central Sulawesi, S. alticola pilosus n. ssp. from Central Sulawesi, and S. alticola crassinavis n. ssp. from North Sulawesi. All three of these new taxa are ectoparasites of native, endemic murine rodents. Two of the new taxa, S. sulawesiensis and S. alticola crassinavis, coexist on the same mountain, Gunung Moajat, in North Sulawesi. The related S. alticola alticola, which becomes the nominate subspecies, parasitises the murine rodent Maxomys alticola in northern Borneo (Sabah) and it is hypothesized that Sigmactenus first colonized Sulawesi as an ectoparasite of ancestral Maxomys, or perhaps Rattus, as these murines dispersed from southeast Asia to Sulawesi; 15 endemic murine rodent species belonging to these two genera are known to currently inhabit Sulawesi. An identification key and distribution map are included for all known species and subspecies of Sigmactenus. In addition to the three new taxa and S. a. alticola, these include: S. celebensis from South Sulawesi, S. timorensis from Timor, S. toxopeusi from New Guinea, and S. werneri from the Philippines (Mindanao and Negros). PMID:11031750

Durden, L A; Beaucournu, J C

2000-09-01

160

Atom-Specific Interaction Quantification and Identification by 3D-SPM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entire scientific disciplines such as mechanics and chemistry are governed by the interactions between atoms and molecules. On surfaces, forces extending into the vacuum direct the behavior of phenomena such as thin film growth, nanotribology, and surface catalysis. To advance our knowledge of the fundamentals governing these topics, it is desirable to simultaneously map electron densities and quantify force interactions between the surface of interest and a probe with atomic resolution. Using the oxygen-reconstructed copper (100) surface as a model system, we demonstrate that much of this information can be derived from combining three-dimensional atomic force microscopy (3D-AFM) with simultaneous STM. The three-dimensional scanning probe microscopy (3D-SPM) variant resulting from this combination provides complementary information in the various interaction channels recorded. The surface oxide layer of copper (100) features defects and a distinct structure of the Cu and O sublattices that is ideally suited for such model investigations. The analysis of our experimental results allows for the identification of atomic species and defects on the sample surface through the comparison of simultaneously recorded force and current data.

Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Monig, Harry; Todorovic, Milica; Gotzen, Jan; Unverdi, Ozhan; Perez, Ruben; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

2012-02-01

161

Screening and identification of DnaJ interaction proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae.  

PubMed

Streptococcus pneumoniae DnaJ is recognized as a virulence factor whose role in pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we attempted to reveal the contribution of DnaJ in pneumococcal virulence from the identification of its interacting proteins using co-immunoprecipitation method. dnaJ was cloned into plasmid pAE03 generating pAE03-dnaJ-gfp which was used to transform S. pneumoniae D39 strain. Then anti-GFP coated beads were used to capture GFP-coupled proteins from the bacterial lysate. The resulting protein mixtures were subjected to SDS-PAGE and those differential bands were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. We finally obtained nine proteins such as DnaK, Gap, Eno, SpxB using this method. Furthermore, to confirm the interaction between DnaJ and these candidates, bacterial two-hybrid system was employed to reveal, for example, the interaction between DnaJ and DnaK, Eno, SpxB. Further protein expression experiments suggested that DnaJ prevented denaturation of Eno and SpxB at high temperature. These results help to understand the role of DnaJ in the pathogenesis of S. pneumoniae. PMID:23907491

Cai, YingYing; Yan, WenJuan; Xu, WenChun; Yin, YiBing; He, YuJuan; Wang, Hong; Zhang, XueMei

2013-12-01

162

Network understanding of herb medicine via rapid identification of ingredient-target interactions.  

PubMed

Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power. PMID:24429698

Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

2014-01-01

163

Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions  

PubMed Central

Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

2014-01-01

164

Identification, quantitation, and characterization of biomolecules by capillary electrophoretic analysis of binding interactions.  

PubMed

The high resolving power of capillary electrophoresis combined with the specificity of binding interactions may be used with advantage to characterize the structure-function relationship of biomolecules, to quantitate specific analytes in complex sample matrices, and to determine the purity of pharmaceutical and other molecules. We here review recent and innovative methodologies and applications of high resolution affinity electrophoresis within the fields of binding constant determination, structure-activity studies, quantitative microassays, analysis of drug purity and protein conformation, and immobilized affinity ligands. Despite the virtues of these approaches with respect to applicability, resolving power, speed, and low sample consumption, problems remain with respect to analyte identification and low concentration limits of detection. The ongoing development of new detector technologies for capillary electrophoresis such as mass spectrometry, and possibly nuclear magnetic resonance and other spectroscopic methods, is therefore very promising for the continued increased use of affinity capillary electrophoresis. PMID:10596820

Heegaard, N H; Kennedy, R T

1999-10-01

165

Identification of C6-ceramide-interacting proteins in D6P2T Schwannoma cells  

PubMed Central

Ceramide is a bioactive molecule involved in numerous cell signaling pathways that are associated with cell cycle control, differentiation, senescence and apoptosis. Although substantial knowledge about ceramide-regulated pathways has accumulated in the past decade, molecular mechanisms of ceramide action remain poorly understood, primarily due to limited information about ceramide-binding proteins. In the present study, we used affinity purification with a synthetic biotin-conjugated C6-ceramide analogue and LC-MS/MS to identify potential ceramide-interacting proteins in D6P2T Schwannoma cells. The purification resulted in identification of 97 unique proteins. The identified proteins are involved in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular stress, cell cycle, cell differentiation, signaling, transcription, translation, protein biogenesis, metabolism and transport.

Kota, Venkatesh; Szulc, Zdzislaw M.; Hama, Hiroko

2013-01-01

166

Discovery of novel interacting partners of PSMD9, a proteasomal chaperone: Role of an Atypical and versatile PDZ-domain motif interaction and identification of putative functional modules  

PubMed Central

PSMD9 (Proteasome Macropain non-ATPase subunit 9), a proteasomal assembly chaperone, harbors an uncharacterized PDZ-like domain. Here we report the identification of five novel interacting partners of PSMD9 and provide the first glimpse at the structure of the PDZ-domain, including the molecular details of the interaction. We based our strategy on two propositions: (a) proteins with conserved C-termini may share common functions and (b) PDZ domains interact with C-terminal residues of proteins. Screening of C-terminal peptides followed by interactions using full-length recombinant proteins, we discovered hnRNPA1 (an RNA binding protein), S14 (a ribosomal protein), CSH1 (a growth hormone), E12 (a transcription factor) and IL6 receptor as novel PSMD9-interacting partners. Through multiple techniques and structural insights, we clearly demonstrate for the first time that human PDZ domain interacts with the predicted Short Linear Sequence Motif (SLIM) at the C-termini of the client proteins. These interactions are also recapitulated in mammalian cells. Together, these results are suggestive of the role of PSMD9 in transcriptional regulation, mRNA processing and editing, hormone and receptor activity and protein translation. Our proof-of-principle experiments endorse a novel and quick method for the identification of putative interacting partners of similar PDZ-domain proteins from the proteome and for discovering novel functions.

Sangith, Nikhil; Srinivasaraghavan, Kannan; Sahu, Indrajit; Desai, Ankita; Medipally, Spandana; Somavarappu, Arun Kumar; Verma, Chandra; Venkatraman, Prasanna

2014-01-01

167

Building Empathy through Identification and Expression of Emotions: A Review of Interactive Tools for Children with Social Deficits  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is a review of available interactive aids designed to enhance the identification and expression of feelings in children. These skills are part of the overall development of empathy. The development of empathy, in turn, is crucial for social competence, social relatedness, and prosocial behavior. Improving these skills is likely to…

Maynard, Angelina S.; Monk, Jessica D.; Booker, Kimberly Wilson

2011-01-01

168

"Key to Freshwater Algae": A Web-Based Tool to Enhance Understanding of Microscopic Biodiversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freshwater Ecology Laboratory at Connecticut College has developed an interactive, Web-based identification key to freshwater algal genera using the Lucid Professional and Lucid 3 software developed by the Centre for Biological Information Technology at the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. The "Key to Freshwater Algae" was funded…

Shayler, Hannah A.; Siver, Peter A.

2006-01-01

169

Phlebotomine sand flies from Madagascar (Diptera: Psychodidae). VII. An identification key for Phlebotomus with the description of Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp.  

PubMed

An identification key of the Phlebotomus in Madagascar is proposed as well as the description of the male and female Phlebotomus (Anaphlebotomus) vaomalalae n. sp. from Mikea Forest in the south-west of Madagascar. The assignation of this new species to the genus Phlebotomus is based on the presence of mesanepisternal setae. Its inclusion in the subgenus Anaphlebotomus is based on the males on the presence of four spines on the style, the lack of a coxite basal process and the existence of a bifurcated paramere. The female has cibarial and pharyngeal armature and spermathecal architecture similar to Phlebotomus fertei and Phlebotomus berentiensis, two other Malagasy species which belong to Anaphlebotomus. Male and female are held to belong to the same species because of their morphological characters, the homology (100%) of their partial cytochrome b mtDNA sequences and their capture in the same trap. P. vaomalalae n. sp. is a small species compared to the other Phlebotomus species of Madagascar. The cibarium of the male and the female of P. vaomalalae n. sp. is armed with teeth, like those of other Malagasy Phlebotomus. However, it differs in the arrangement and shape of the respective teeth and denticles. The male of P. vaomalalae n. sp. looks like that of P. fontenillei due to its tuft of coxal setae (lacking in P. berentiensis and P. fertei) but differs from this species by the location of this tuft. As P. fertei and P. berentiensis, there is no spermathecal common duct in P. vaomalalae n. sp. PMID:23419267

Randrianambinintsoa, Fano José; Léger, Nicole; Robert, Vincent; Depaquit, Jérôme

2013-01-01

170

Revision of the genus Tanycypris (Ostracoda, Cypricercinae) with the description of Tanycypris alfonsi n. sp., and an identification key to the genus.  

PubMed

Specimens of a new species of the non-marine ostracod genus, Tanycypris Triebel, 1959 were found in samples from water plant containers, displayed in a greenhouse of the botanical garden in Munich, Germany. Beside the ubiquitous species Cypridopsis vidua O.F. Müller, 1776, the samples contained four alien species of the subfamily Cypricercinae, namely Chlamydotheca arcuata Sars, 1901, Strandesia bicuspis Claus, 1892, Tanycypris centa Chang et al., 2012, and Tanycypris alfonsi n. sp.. The genus Tanycypris has mainly been reported (native) from Asia, and (invasive) from Italian rice fields.        The Cypricercinae unite all species possessing a Triebel loop, a character of the caudal rami attachment. The subfamily is split into the tribes Cypricercini McKenzie, 1971, Bradleystrandesiini Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009 and Nealecypridini Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009, the latter of which comprises the genera Tanycypris Triebel, 1959, Astenocypris G.W. Müller, 1912, Diaphanocypris Würdig & Pinto, 1990 and Nealecypris Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009.        During the process of describing the new species, a number of taxonomic uncertainties were detected within the genus Tanycypris, leading to a revision of the nine species currently ascribed to it: Tanycypris camaguinensis (Tressler, 1937), Tanycypris centa Chang et al., 2012 Tanycypris clavigera (G.W. Müller, 1898) (now: Nealecypris clavigera nov. comb.), Tanycypris madagascarensis (G.W. Müller, 1898), Tanycypris marina (Hartmann, 1965) (now: Dolerocypris marina nov. comb.), Tanycypris pedroensis (Tressler, 1950) (now: Diaphanocypris pedroensis nov. comb.), Tanycypris pellucida (Klie, 1932), Tanycypris siamensis Savatenalinton & Martens, 2009a, and Tanycypris telavivensis (Krampner, 1928) (now: Herpetocypris telavivensis). An identification key has been developed to the species of the genus Tanycypris. PMID:24989755

Nagler, Christina; Geist, Juergen; Matzke-Karasz, Renate

2014-01-01

171

Genetic identification and cloning of a gene required for developmental cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed Central

Developmental mutants of Myxococcus xanthus have been previously described which appear to be defective in required cell-cell interactions. These mutants fall into four phenotypic classes, Asg, Bsg, Csg, and Dsg, each of which is unable to differentiate into spores but can be rescued by extracellular complementation by wild-type cells or by mutants of a different class. We report the identification of one of the loci in which mutations result in a Bsg phenotype. The cloned locus was contained on a 12-kilobase EcoRI fragment and then localized by subcloning and a combination of in vitro and transposon mutagenesis. All mutations in this locus behave as a single complementation group, which we designate bsgA (formerly ssbA). Each of the bsgA mutations results in a nonsporulating phenotype, which can be rescued by extracellular complementation. Furthermore, we report that the bsgA mutants have a distinctive interaction with wild-type cells when vegetatively growing, swarming colonies converge. Images

Gill, R E; Cull, M G; Fly, S

1988-01-01

172

Identification of unique SUN-interacting nuclear envelope proteins with diverse functions in plants.  

PubMed

Although a plethora of nuclear envelope (NE) transmembrane proteins (NETs) have been identified in opisthokonts, plant NETs are largely unknown. The only known NET homologues in plants are Sad1/UNC-84 (SUN) proteins, which bind Klarsicht/ANC-1/Syne-1 homology (KASH) proteins. Therefore, de novo identification of plant NETs is necessary. Based on similarities between opisthokont KASH proteins and the only known plant KASH proteins, WPP domain-interacting proteins, we used a computational method to identify the KASH subset of plant NETs. Ten potential plant KASH protein families were identified, and five candidates from four of these families were verified for their NE localization, depending on SUN domain interaction. Of those, Arabidopsis thaliana SINE1 is involved in actin-dependent nuclear positioning in guard cells, whereas its paralogue SINE2 contributes to innate immunity against an oomycete pathogen. This study dramatically expands our knowledge of plant KASH proteins and suggests that plants and opisthokonts have recruited different KASH proteins to perform NE regulatory functions. PMID:24891605

Zhou, Xiao; Graumann, Katja; Wirthmueller, Lennart; Jones, Jonathan D G; Meier, Iris

2014-06-01

173

Genetic identification and cloning of a gene required for developmental cell interactions in Myxococcus xanthus.  

PubMed

Developmental mutants of Myxococcus xanthus have been previously described which appear to be defective in required cell-cell interactions. These mutants fall into four phenotypic classes, Asg, Bsg, Csg, and Dsg, each of which is unable to differentiate into spores but can be rescued by extracellular complementation by wild-type cells or by mutants of a different class. We report the identification of one of the loci in which mutations result in a Bsg phenotype. The cloned locus was contained on a 12-kilobase EcoRI fragment and then localized by subcloning and a combination of in vitro and transposon mutagenesis. All mutations in this locus behave as a single complementation group, which we designate bsgA (formerly ssbA). Each of the bsgA mutations results in a nonsporulating phenotype, which can be rescued by extracellular complementation. Furthermore, we report that the bsgA mutants have a distinctive interaction with wild-type cells when vegetatively growing, swarming colonies converge. PMID:2846514

Gill, R E; Cull, M G; Fly, S

1988-11-01

174

Structure-based multiscale approach for identification of interaction partners of PDZ domains.  

PubMed

PDZ domains are peptide recognition modules which mediate specific protein-protein interactions and are known to have a complex specificity landscape. We have developed a novel structure-based multiscale approach which identifies crucial specificity determining residues (SDRs) of PDZ domains from explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on PDZ-peptide complexes and uses these SDRs in combination with knowledge-based scoring functions for proteomewide identification of their interaction partners. Multiple explicit solvent simulations ranging from 5 to 50 ns duration have been carried out on 28 PDZ-peptide complexes with known binding affinities. MM/PBSA binding energy values calculated from these simulations show a correlation coefficient of 0.755 with the experimental binding affinities. On the basis of the SDRs of PDZ domains identified by MD simulations, we have developed a simple scoring scheme for evaluating binding energies for PDZ-peptide complexes using residue based statistical pair potentials. This multiscale approach has been benchmarked on a mouse PDZ proteome array data set by calculating the binding energies for 217 different substrate peptides in binding pockets of 64 different mouse PDZ domains. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicates that, the area under curve (AUC) values for binder vs nonbinder classification by our structure based method is 0.780. Our structure based method does not require experimental PDZ-peptide binding data for training. PMID:24593775

Tiwari, Garima; Mohanty, Debasisa

2014-04-28

175

Identification of bacterial proteins mediating the interactions between Pseudomonas putida UW4 and Brassica napus (Canola).  

PubMed

The influence of canola root exudates on the proteome of Pseudomonas putida UW4 and the mutant strain P. putida UW4/AcdS(-), which lacks a functional 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase gene, was examined using two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis. Seventy-two proteins with significantly altered expression levels in the presence of canola root exudates were identified by mass spectrometry. Many of these proteins are involved in nutrient transport and utilization, cell envelope synthesis, and transcriptional or translational regulation and, hence, may play important roles in plant-bacterial interactions. Four proteins showing large changes in expression in response to canola root exudates in both the wild-type and mutant strains of P. putida UW4 (i.e., outer membrane protein F, peptide deformylase, transcription regulator Fis family protein, and a previously uncharacterized protein) were both overexpressed and disrupted in P. putida UW4 in an effort to better understand their functions. Functional studies of these modified strains revealed significantly enhanced or inhibited plant-growth-promoting abilities compared with the wild-type P. putida UW4, in agreement with the suggested involvement of three of these four proteins in plant-bacterial interactions. The work reported here suggests strategies to both identify potential antibacterial agents and develop bacterial strains that might be useful adjuncts to agriculture. This approach may be an effective means of identifying key proteins mediating the interactions of bacteria with their rhizosphere environment. PMID:19445593

Cheng, Zhenyu; Duan, Jin; Hao, Youai; McConkey, Brendan J; Glick, Bernard R

2009-06-01

176

Functions of key residues in the ligand-binding pocket of vitamin D receptor: Fragment molecular orbital interfragment interaction energy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fragment molecular orbital-interfragment interaction energy calculations of the vitamin D receptor (VDR)/1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D 3 complex were utilized to assign functions of key residues of the VDR. Only one residue forms a significant interaction with the corresponding hydroxy group of the ligand, although two residues are located around each hydroxy group. The degradation of binding affinity for derivatives upon removal of a hydroxy group is closely related to the trend in the strength of the hydrogen bonds. Type II hereditary rickets due to an Arg274 point mutation is caused by the lack of the strongest hydrogen bond.

Yamagishi, Kenji; Yamamoto, Keiko; Yamada, Sachiko; Tokiwa, Hiroaki

2006-03-01

177

Effective Identification of Akt Interacting Proteins by Two-Step Chemical Crosslinking, Co-Immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Akt is a critical protein for cell survival and known to interact with various proteins. However, Akt binding partners that modulate or regulate Akt activation have not been fully elucidated. Identification of Akt-interacting proteins has been customarily achieved by co-immunoprecipitation combined with western blot and/or MS analysis. An intrinsic problem of the method is loss of interacting proteins during procedures to remove non-specific proteins. Moreover, antibody contamination often interferes with the detection of less abundant proteins. Here, we developed a novel two-step chemical crosslinking strategy to overcome these problems which resulted in a dramatic improvement in identifying Akt interacting partners. Akt antibody was first immobilized on protein A/G beads using disuccinimidyl suberate and allowed to bind to cellular Akt along with its interacting proteins. Subsequently, dithiobis[succinimidylpropionate], a cleavable crosslinker, was introduced to produce stable complexes between Akt and binding partners prior to the SDS-PAGE and nanoLC-MS/MS analysis. This approach enabled identification of ten Akt partners from cell lysates containing as low as 1.5 mg proteins, including two new potential Akt interacting partners. None of these but one protein was detectable without crosslinking procedures. The present method provides a sensitive and effective tool to probe Akt-interacting proteins. This strategy should also prove useful for other protein interactions, particularly those involving less abundant or weakly associating partners.

Huang, Bill X.; Kim, Hee-Yong

2013-01-01

178

Proteomic identification of a PSF/p54nrb heterodimer as RNF43 oncoprotein-interacting proteins.  

PubMed

RNF43 is an oncogenic RING finger protein overexpressed in colorectal cancer. To dissect its biological functions, we explored RNF43-interacting proteins by pull-down assay and MS. We identified a heterodimer, p54nrb and PSF, as RNF43's binding partners and confirmed their physical interaction in vivo by the co-immunoprecipitation experiment. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that co-expression of PSF relocates RNF43 from the nuclear periphery to the nucleoplasm. Thus, proteomic identification of RNF43-associated proteins sheds light on its dynamic interaction network in nuclear events. PMID:18655028

Miyamoto, Kentaro; Sakurai, Hidetaka; Sugiura, Takeyuki

2008-07-01

179

Key Inter-molecular Interactions in the E. Coli 70S Ribosome Revealed by Coarse-Grained Analysis  

PubMed Central

The ribosome is a very large complex, which consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, inter-molecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins, and capture functional motions in the ribosome, then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, which are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all of bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has the minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; However, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the inter-molecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models.

Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Voth, Gregory A.

2011-01-01

180

Revolving SEM images visualising 3D taxonomic characters: application to six species of the millipede genus Ommatoiulus Latzel, 1884, with description of seven new species and an interactive key to the Tunisian members of the genus (Diplopoda, Julida, Julidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract A novel illustration technique based on scanning electron microscopy is used for the first time to enhance taxonomic descriptions. The male genitalia (gonopods) of six species of millipedes are used for construction of interactive imaging models. Each model is a compilation of a number of SEM images taken consecutively while rotating the SEM stage 360°, which allows the structure in question to be seen from all angles of view in one plane. Seven new species of the genus Ommatoiulus collected in Tunisia are described: Ommatoiulus chambiensis, Ommatoiulus crassinigripes, Ommatoiulus kefi, Ommatoiulus khroumiriensis, Ommatoiulus xerophilus, Ommatoiulus xenos, and Ommatoiulus zaghouani spp. n. Size differences between syntopic adult males of Ommatoiulus chambiensis and Ommatoiulus xerophilus spp. n. from Châambi Mountain are illustrated using scatter diagrams. A similar diagram is used to illustrate size differences in Ommatoiulus crassinigripes, Ommatoiulus khroumiriensis spp. n. and Ommatoiulus punicus (Brölemann, 1894). In addition to morphological differences, the latter three species display allopatric distribution and different habitat preferences. A dichotomous interactive key with a high visual impact and an intuitive user interface is presented to serve identification of the 12 Ommatoiulus species so far known from Tunisia. Updates on the North African Ommatoiulus fauna in general are presented.

Akkari, Nesrine; Cheung, David Koon-Bong; Enghoff, Henrik; Stoev, Pavel

2013-01-01

181

Oxyanion steering and CH-? interactions as key elements in an N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [4 + 2] cycloaddition.  

PubMed

The N-heterocyclic carbene catalyzed [4 + 2] cycloaddition has been shown to give ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactones in excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivity. However, preliminary computational studies of the geometry of the intermediate enolate rendered ambiguous both the origins of selectivity and the reaction pathway. Here, we show that a concerted, but highly asynchronous, Diels-Alder reaction occurs rather than the stepwise Michael-type or Claisen-type pathways. In addition, two crucial interactions are identified that enable high selectivity: an oxyanion-steering mechanism and a CH-? interaction. The calculations accurately predict the enantioselectivity of a number of N-heterocyclic carbene catalysts in the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction. PMID:22765294

Allen, Scott E; Mahatthananchai, Jessada; Bode, Jeffrey W; Kozlowski, Marisa C

2012-07-25

182

Identification of HiNF-P, a Key Activator of Cell Cycle-Controlled Histone H4 Genes at the Onset of S Phase  

PubMed Central

At the G1/S phase cell cycle transition, multiple histone genes are expressed to ensure that newly synthesized DNA is immediately packaged as chromatin. Here we have purified and functionally characterized the critical transcription factor HiNF-P, which is required for E2F-independent activation of the histone H4 multigene family. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis and ligation-mediated PCR-assisted genomic sequencing, we show that HiNF-P interacts with conserved H4 cell cycle regulatory sequences in vivo. Antisense inhibition of HiNF-P reduces endogenous histone H4 gene expression. Furthermore, we find that HiNF-P utilizes NPAT/p220, a substrate of the cyclin E/cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) kinase complex, as a key coactivator to enhance histone H4 gene transcription. The biological role of HiNF-P is reflected by impeded cell cycle progression into S phase upon antisense-mediated reduction of HiNF-P levels. Our results establish that HiNF-P is the ultimate link in a linear signaling pathway that is initiated with the growth factor-dependent induction of cyclin E/CDK2 kinase activity at the restriction point and culminates in the activation of histone H4 genes through HiNF-P at the G1/S phase transition.

Mitra, Partha; Xie, Rong-Lin; Medina, Ricardo; Hovhannisyan, Hayk; Zaidi, S. Kaleem; Wei, Yue; Harper, J. Wade; Stein, Janet L.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Gary S.

2003-01-01

183

Key Factors for the Development of a Culturally Appropriate Interactive Multimedia Informative Program for Aboriginal Health Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research aims to create and evaluate a model for a culturally appropriate, interactive, multimedia and informative health program for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers that aims to improve the capacity to independently control their learning within an attractive learning environment. The research also aims to provide…

El Sayed, Faeka; Soar, Jeffrey; Wang, Zoe

2012-01-01

184

The Pros and Cons of Interactive Whiteboards in Relation to the Key Stage 3 Strategy and Framework  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes data emerging from a study of a group of language teachers integrating use of the interactive whiteboard (IWB) into their classroom practice. Data collection tools were developed which allowed participants freedom of action and expression whilst providing a framework for reflection designed to focus on pedagogy rather than…

Gray, Carol; Hagger-Vaughan, Lesley; Pilkington, Rachel; Tomkins, Sally-Ann

2005-01-01

185

An overlapping module identification method in protein-protein interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have shown modular structures in PPI (protein-protein interaction) networks. More recently, many genome and metagenome investigations have focused on identifying modules in PPI networks. However, most of the existing methods are insufficient when applied to networks with overlapping modular structures. In our study, we describe a novel overlapping module identification method (OMIM) to address this problem. Results Our method is an agglomerative clustering method merging modules according to their contributions to modularity. Nodes that have positive effects on more than two modules are defined as overlapping parts. As well, we designed de-noising steps based on a clustering coefficient and hub finding steps based on nodal weight. Conclusions The low computational complexity and few control parameters prove that our method is suitable for large scale PPI network analysis. First, we verified OMIM on a small artificial word association network which was able to provide us with a comprehensive evaluation. Then experiments on real PPI networks from the MIPS Saccharomyces Cerevisiae dataset were carried out. The results show that OMIM outperforms several other popular methods in identifying high quality modular structures.

2012-01-01

186

Multi-alphabet consensus algorithm for identification of low specificity protein-DNA interactions.  

PubMed Central

A method for the identification and characterization of protein-DNA interactions is presented. We have developed an approach for finding unknown multiple patterns that occur imperfectly in a set of several sequences. The pattern may contain letters from the nucleotide alphabet (A, C, G and T) including ambiguous characters (A/C, A/G, A/T; A/C/G, etc.). This method reveals weak DNA signals on an unaligned set of DNA fragments known to be functionally related and assumes no prior information on the sequences' alignment. It determines the locations of the signals from only the information intrinsic to the sequences themselves. We have applied this method to analyze the binding sites of cAMP receptor protein (CRP). The consensus based on these data are discussed and a comparison of the consensus with the crystal structure of CAP-DNA complex is presented. We further show that in a mixture of DNA sequences, containing binding sites for two different proteins, both classes of binding sites can be discovered simultaneously by this method. The DNA sequences of nucleosome cores from chicken erythrocyte and a set of the other known nucleosomal sequences show existence of symmetrical features in nucleosome-binding DNA sequences. We also show multi-alphabet patterns that can play a role in the phasing signal on the nucleosome DNA molecule and have compared the results with existing models of nucleosome positioning.

Ulyanov, A V; Stormo, G D

1995-01-01

187

Identification and evolution of structurally dominant nodes in protein-protein interaction networks.  

PubMed

It is well known that protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are typical evolving complex networks. Identification of important nodes has been an emerging popular topic in complex networks. Many indexes have been proposed to measure the importance of nodes in complex networks, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, k-shell, clustering coefficient, semi-local centrality, eigenvector centrality. Based on multivariate statistical analysis, through integrating the above indexes and further considering the appearances of nodes in network motifs, this paper aims at developing a new measure to characterize the structurally dominant proteins (SDP) in PPI networks. Moreover, we will further investigate the evolution of the defined dominant nodes in temporal evolving real-world and artificial PPI networks. Our results indicate that the constructed artificial networks have some similar statistical properties as those of the real-world evolving networks. In this case, the artificial PPI networks can be used to further investigate the above evolution characteristics of the real-world evolving networks. Simulation results reveal that SDP in the yeast PPI networks are evolutionary conserved, however, the undominant nodes evolve rapidly. Furthermore, PPI networks are very robust against random mutations, while fragile yet with certain robustness to targeted mutations on SDP. Our investigations shed some light on the future applications of the evolving characteristics of bio-molecular networks, such as reengineering of particular networks for technological, synthetic or pharmacological purposes. PMID:24681922

Wang, Pei; Yu, Xinghuo; Lü, Jinhu

2014-02-01

188

On-line bioaffinity-electrospray mass spectrometry for simultaneous detection, identification, and quantification of protein-ligand interactions.  

PubMed

We describe here an on-line combination of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) biosensor with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SAW-ESI-MS) that enables the direct detection, identification, and quantification of affinity-bound ligands from a protein-ligand complex on a biosensor chip. A trapping column was used between the SAW-biosensor and the electrospray mass spectrometer equipped with a micro-guard column, which provides simultaneous sample concentration and desalting for the mass spectrometric analysis of the dissociated ligand. First applications of the on-line SAW-ESI-MS combination include (1), differentiation of ?-amyloid (A?) epitope peptides bound to anti-A? antibodies; (2), the identification of immobilized Substance P peptide-calmodulin complex; (3), identification and quantification of the interaction of 3-nitrotyrosine-modified peptides with nitrotyrosine-specific antibodies; and (4), identification of immobilized anti-?-synuclein-human ?-synuclein complex. Quantitative determinations of protein-ligand complexes by SAW yielded dissociation constants (K(D)) from micro-to low nanomolar sample concentrations. The on-line bioaffinity-ESI-MS combination presented here is expected to enable broad bioanalytical application to the simultaneous, label-free determination and quantification of biopolymer-ligand interactions, as diverse as antigen-antibody and lectin-carbohydrate complexes. PMID:20692851

Dragusanu, Mihaela; Petre, Brîndusa-Alina; Slamnoiu, Stefan; Vlad, Camelia; Tu, Tingting; Przybylski, Michael

2010-10-01

189

Interactions and stabilities of the UV RESISTANCE LOCUS8 (UVR8) protein dimer and its key mutants.  

PubMed

The dimeric UVR8 protein is an ultraviolet-B radiation (280-315 nm) photoreceptor responsible for the first step in UV-B regulation of gene expression in plants. Its action comprises the actual absorption of the UV quanta by a tryptophan array at the protein-protein interface, followed by monomerization and subsequent aggregation with downstream signaling components. A crystal structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana tryptophan-rich wild type UVR8 protein dimer was recently published, showing the presence of several salt bridges involving arginines R146, R286, R338, and R354. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations in conjunction with umbrella sampling were used to calculate the binding free energy for the wild type UVR8 dimer and three of its mutants (R286A, R338A, and R286A/R338A), in order to verify whether the key mutants are able to disrupt the dimeric structure as indicated experimentally. PMID:23745796

Wu, Min; Strid, Ake; Eriksson, Leif A

2013-07-22

190

Identification of candidate disease genes by integrating Gene Ontologies and protein-interaction networks: case study of primary immunodeficiencies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disease gene identification is still a challenge despite modern high-throughput methods. Many diseases are very rare or lethal and thus cannot be investigated with traditional methods. Several in silico methods have been developed but they have some limitations. We introduce a new method that combines information about protein-interaction net- work properties and Gene Ontology terms. Genes with high-calculated network scores

Csaba Ortutay; Mauno Vihinen

2008-01-01

191

A Max-Flow-Based Approach to the Identification of Protein Complexes Using Protein Interaction and Microarray Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emergence of high-throughput technologies leads to abundant protein-protein interaction (PPI) data and microar- ray gene expression profiles, and provides a great opportunity for the identification of novel protein complexes using computational methods. Although it has been demonstrated in the literature that methods using protein-protein in- teraction data alone can successfully predict a large number of protein complexes, the incorporation

Jianxing Feng; Rui Jiang; Tao Jiang

2011-01-01

192

Key role of receptor density in colloid/cell specific interaction: a quantitative biomimetic study on giant vesicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an experimental study of the adsorption of colloids on model membranes mediated by specific ligand-receptor interactions. The colloids consist of lipid multilamellar liposomes (spherulites) functionalized with the B-subunit of Shiga Toxin (STxB), while the membranes are lipid Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUV) containing STxB lipid receptor, Globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Through confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we show the specificity of the adsorption. Moreover, we show that flow cytometry can be used to efficiently quantify the kinetics of colloid adsorption on GUVs with very good statistics. By varying the bulk colloid concentration and receptor density in the membrane, we point out the existence of an optimum Gb3 density for adsorption. We propose that this optimum corresponds to a transition between reversible colloid adsorption at low Gb3 density and irreversible adsorption, and likely spherulite fusion, at high density. We compare our results both to STxB-colloids adhering on living cells and to free STxB proteins interacting with GUVs containing Gb3. This biomimetic system could be used for a quantitative evaluation of the early stage of virus infection or drug delivery.

Lamblet, M.; Delord, B.; Johannes, L.; van Effenterre, D.; Bassereau, P.

2008-05-01

193

Plant microRNA-Target Interaction Identification Model Based on the Integration of Prediction Tools and Support Vector Machine  

PubMed Central

Background Confident identification of microRNA-target interactions is significant for studying the function of microRNA (miRNA). Although some computational miRNA target prediction methods have been proposed for plants, results of various methods tend to be inconsistent and usually lead to more false positive. To address these issues, we developed an integrated model for identifying plant miRNA–target interactions. Results Three online miRNA target prediction toolkits and machine learning algorithms were integrated to identify and analyze Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA-target interactions. Principle component analysis (PCA) feature extraction and self-training technology were introduced to improve the performance. Results showed that the proposed model outperformed the previously existing methods. The results were validated by using degradome sequencing supported Arabidopsis thaliana miRNA-target interactions. The proposed model constructed on Arabidopsis thaliana was run over Oryza sativa and Vitis vinifera to demonstrate that our model is effective for other plant species. Conclusions The integrated model of online predictors and local PCA-SVM classifier gained credible and high quality miRNA-target interactions. The supervised learning algorithm of PCA-SVM classifier was employed in plant miRNA target identification for the first time. Its performance can be substantially improved if more experimentally proved training samples are provided.

Meng, Jun; Shi, Lin; Luan, Yushi

2014-01-01

194

Dichotomous Keys for Arthropods  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference tool allows students to identify an arthropod's order by making a series of guided decisions, such as six legs or more, well-developed or missing wing, and chewing or sucking mouthparts. The key, which includes only adult arthropods, is available as an interactive key on the AMNH's Web site that can be downloaded to your computer.

195

Identification and quantification of nucleosides and nucleobases in Geosaurus and Leech by hydrophilic-interaction chromatography.  

PubMed

A simple hydrophilic-interaction chromatography (HILIC) method was developed for the identification and quantification of 14 nucleosides and nucleobases, namely cytosine, uracil, cytidine, guanine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, uridine, thymine, inosine, guanosine, thymidine, 2'-deoxyadenosine, 2'-deoxyinosine and 2'-deoxyuridine in two traditional Chinese medicines, Geosaurus and Leech. The separation was achieved on a TSKgel Amide-80 column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3.0 ?m) with a mixture of acetonitrile and 10 mM aqueous ammonium acetate as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The temperature was set at 30°C and UV detection wavelength was set at 260 nm. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2)>0.9957) within the test ranges. The overall intra- and inter-day RSD ranged from 0.4 to 3.4% and from 0.7 to 3.3%, respectively. The LOD and LOQ were in the range of 0.07-30.49 ng/mL and 0.26-60.98 ng/mL, respectively. The repeatability of the method was in the range of 2.2-5.8% for Geosaurus and 1.4-5.5% for Leech. The recoveries of the samples were in the range of 91.4-100.9% for Geosaurus, and 91.9-99.3% for Leech. The established method was applied successfully for the analysis of nucleosides and nucleobases in 22 commercially available samples collected from different regions in China and Japan. Our data showed that HILIC had advantages as a useful tool for the study of the bioactive components in Geosaurus and Leech as well as their quality control, and could therefore be used for the determination of the analytes in pharmaceutical products and biological fluids. PMID:21807233

Chen, Pei; Li, Wei; Li, Qin; Wang, Yinghua; Li, Zhenguo; Ni, Yefeng; Koike, Kazuo

2011-09-15

196

Alkaline magma- oceanic lithosphere interaction: a key to understand the nephelinite-alkali basalt transition observed in oceanic islands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important question in the petrogenesis of oceanic island basalts is related to the location of the different mantle components which interact during their formation. Most models suggest that all components are located within the convecting mantle and therefore neglect the potential role of the oceanic lithosphere [e.g. 1]. Here we show that lithospheric mantle plays a fundamental role in the process responsible for the range of parental melt (i.e. from nephelinite to tholeiite) observed in intraplate volcanoes. Alkaline lavas from continental volcanoes or oceanic islands characterized by thick lithosphere (>50 km) define a compositional continuum from nephelinites to alkali olivine basalts and often to tholeiites. The decrease in incompatible trace-element concentrations from nephelinitic to tholeiitic magmas in single volcanoes is consistent with this continuum reflecting an increase in the degree of partial melting of a common source [2]; however, no experiments on mantle lithologies (peridotite, pyroxenite) have reproduced the observed compositional continuum (nor even the observed range of silica contents: ~40 to 48 wt. % SiO2). Alternatively, this continuum could be explained by reaction between nephelinitic/basanitic liquid and surrounding peridotite [3, 4, 5]. To test this latter hypothesis, 'sandwich' experiments were performed in which a layer of hornblendite (producing nephelinitic magmas [5]) was packed between layers of moderately depleted peridotite. Experiments were done at 1.5 and 2.5 GPa, with temperature ranging from 1225 to 1425° C. At the same temperature (1250-1300° C), the SiO2 contents of partial melts produced in the sandwich runs are up to 4-5 wt. % higher than liquids from the hornblendite-only experiments. This difference reflects the dissolution of orthopyroxene in the peridotite layers in the sandwich runs. For both major and trace elements, the compositional trends defined by glasses from the hornblendite-only melting experiments and from the sandwich experiments are similar to trends observed in natural basanite - alkali basalt suites. These results suggest that compositional trends from nephelinite/basanite to alkali basalt observed in intraplate setting are related to reaction between nephelinitic/basanitic liquids and peridotite rather than, for example, a pressure effect and/or an increase in the degree of partial melting of peridotitic sources. Although we do not exclude that the alkaline magma-peridotite interaction is an important process in the convecting mantle (i.e. at pressure higher that 2.5-3 GPa), we suggest that the main interaction which produces the nephelinite/basanite to alkali basalt/tholeiite composition ranges observed in oceanic islands appends in the lithospheric mantle. These experiments indicate also that the temperature at which alkali melts interact with peridotites could be significantly lower that the solidus temperature of theses peridotites. This provides an explanation for the implication of lithospheric components during the generation of alkaline lavas without requiring that these components reach their melting temperature. We conclude that lithospheric mantle needs to be considerate as an important component in the petrogenesis of alkaline lavas. [1] Ito and Mahoney (2005) EPSL 230, 29- 46; [2] Frey et al. (1978) J. Petrol. 19, 463-513; [3] Shaw et al. (1998) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 132, 354-370; [4] Lundstrom (2000) Nature 403, 527-530; [5] Pilet et al. (2008) Science 320, 916-919.

Pilet, Sebastien; Baker, Michael B.; Stolper, Edward M.; Muntener, Othmar

2010-05-01

197

Conformations, conformational preferences, and conformational exchange of N'-substituted N-acylguanidines: intermolecular interactions hold the key.  

PubMed

Guanidine and acylguanidine groups are crucial structural features of numerous biologically active compounds. Depending on the biological target, acylguanidines may be considered as considerably less basic bioisosteres of guanidines with improved pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, as recently reported for N'-monoalkylated N-acylguanidines as ligands of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The molecular basis for enhanced ligand-receptor interactions of acylguanidines is far from being understood. So far, only a few and contradictory results about their conformational preferences have been reported. In this study, the conformations, conformational preferences, and conformational exchange of four unprotonated and seven protonated monoalkylated acylguanidines with up to six anions and with bisphosphonate tweezers are investigated by NMR. Furthermore, the effects of the acceptor properties in acylguanidine salts, of microsolvation by dimethylsulfoxide, and of varying acyl and alkyl substituents are studied. Throughout the whole study, exclusively two out of eight possible acylguanidine conformations were detected, independent of the compound, the anion, or the solvent used. For the first time, it is shown that the strength and number of intermolecular interactions with anions, solvent molecules, or biomimetic receptors decide the conformational preferences and exchange rates. One recently presented and two new crystal structures resemble the conformational preferences observed in solution. Thus, consistent conformational trends are found throughout the structurally diverse compound pool, including two potent GPCR ligands, different anions, and receptors. The presented results may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of action at the molecular level and to the prediction and rational design of these biologically active compounds. PMID:20698689

Kleinmaier, Roland; Keller, Max; Igel, Patrick; Buschauer, Armin; Gschwind, Ruth M

2010-08-18

198

Validation of a tRNA-Glu-cytochrome b key for the molecular identification of 12 hake species (Merluccius spp.) and Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) using PCR-RFLPs, FINS, and BLAST.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to develop a diagnostic key for hake meat to solve the limitations of previous identification methodologies, mainly related to the high degradation of the DNA recovered from processed foods. We describe the development of two molecular tools based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the cytochrome b gene, respectively, to identify DNA from 12 hake species in commercial products. The first assay is an exclusion test consisting of the PCR amplification of a 122 bp fragment using nested primers interspecifically conserved in Merluccius spp. and in Gadus morhua. This 122 bp amplicon, being the shortest one so far designed for hake DNA, is a useful traceability tool for highly degraded samples because its sequence contains enough interspecific diagnostic variation to identify 10 hake species and cod and has been successfully amplified from most commercial products so far tested. The second identification key follows a positive outcome of the exclusion test and consists of the PCR amplification of a 464-465 bp fragment and its digestion with three restriction enzymes whose targets map at interspecifically nonconserved sites of the cytochrome b. The key presented here has passed through a rigorous methodological calibration including its testing for genus specificity, its validation on a large number of authenticated sample types from each species range, and its implementation with a maximum likelihood method for the assignment of unknown samples. Together, these two procedures constitute the most complete molecular key so far developed for Merluccius spp., which is optimal for routine identification of hakes in large commercial samples at a reasonable cost-time ratio. PMID:18950183

Pérez, Montse; Presa, Pablo

2008-11-26

199

Site-directed mutagenesis of the ? subunit of DNA polymerase III and single-stranded DNA-binding protein of E. coli reveals key residues for their interaction  

PubMed Central

During DNA replication in Escherichia coli, single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) protects single-stranded DNA from nuclease action and hairpin formation. It is known that the highly conserved C-terminus of SSB contacts the ? subunit of DNA polymerase III. However, there only exists a theoretical model in which the 11 C-terminal amino acids of SSB have been docked onto the surface of ?. In order to refine this model of SSB/? interaction, we exchanged amino acids in ? and SSB by site-directed mutagenesis that are predicted to be of key importance. Detailed characterization of the interaction of these mutants by analytical ultracentrifugation shows that the interaction area is correctly predicted by the model; however, the SSB C-terminus binds in a different orientation to the ? surface. We show that evolutionary conserved residues of ? form a hydrophobic pocket to accommodate the ultimate two amino acids of SSB, P176 and F177. This pocket is surrounded by conserved basic residues, important for the SSB/? interaction. Mass spectrometric analysis of ? protein cross-linked to a C-terminal peptide of SSB reveals that K132 of ? and D172 of SSB are in close contact. The proposed SSB-binding site resembles those described for RecQ and exonuclease?I.

Naue, Natalie; Fedorov, Roman; Pich, Andreas; Manstein, Dietmar J.; Curth, Ute

2011-01-01

200

Interactions with M Cells and Macrophages as Key Steps in the Pathogenesis of Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli Infections  

PubMed Central

Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are food-borne pathogens that can cause serious infections ranging from diarrhea to hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). Translocation of Shiga-toxins (Stx) from the gut lumen to underlying tissues is a decisive step in the development of the infection, but the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Many bacterial pathogens target the follicle-associated epithelium, which overlies Peyer's patches (PPs), cross the intestinal barrier through M cells and are captured by mucosal macrophages. Here, translocation across M cells, as well as survival and proliferation of EHEC strains within THP-1 macrophages were investigated using EHEC O157:H7 reference strains, isogenic mutants, and 15 EHEC strains isolated from HC/HUS patients. We showed for the first time that E. coli O157:H7 strains are able to interact in vivo with murine PPs, to translocate ex vivo through murine ileal mucosa with PPs and across an in vitro human M cell model. EHEC strains are also able to survive and to produce Stx in macrophages, which induce cell apoptosis and Stx release. In conclusion, our results suggest that the uptake of EHEC by M cells and underlying macrophages in the PP may be a critical step in Stx translocation and release in vivo. A new model for EHEC infection in humans is proposed that could help in a fuller understanding of EHEC-associated diseases.

Etienne-Mesmin, Lucie; Chassaing, Benoit; Sauvanet, Pierre; Denizot, Jeremy; Blanquet-Diot, Stephanie; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Pradel, Nathalie; Livrelli, Valerie

2011-01-01

201

Ascorbic acid is a key participant during the interactions between chloroplasts and mitochondria to optimize photosynthesis and protect against photoinhibition.  

PubMed

The possible role of L-ascorbate (AsA) as a biochemical signal during the interactions between photosynthesis and respiration was examined in leaf discs of Arabidopsis thaliana. AsA content was either decreased as in AsA-deficient vtc1 mutants or increased by treatment with L-galactono-1, 4-lactone (L-GalL, a precursor of AsA; EC 1.3.2.3). In mutants, photosynthesis was extremely sensitive to both antimycin A (inhibitor of the cytochrome c oxidase pathway [COX pathway]) and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM, inhibitor of the alternative pathway [AOX pathway]), particularly at high light conditions. Mitochondrial inhibitors lowered the ratio of reduced AsA to total AsA, at high light, indicating oxidative stress in leaf discs. Elevation of AsA by L-GalL decreased the sensitivity of photosynthesis at high light to antimycin A or SHAM, sustained photosynthesis at supraoptimal light and relieved the extent of photoinhibition. High ratios of reduced AsA to total AsA in L-GalL-treated leaf discs suggests that L-GalL lowers oxidative stress. The protection by L-GalL of photosynthesis against the mitochondrial inhibitors and photoinhibition was quite pronounced in vtc1 mutants. Our results suggest that the levels and redox state of AsA modify the pattern of modulation of photosynthesis by mitochondrial metabolism. The extent of the AOX pathway as a percentage of the total respiration in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts was much higher in vtc1 than in wild type. We suggest that the role of AsA becomes pronounced at high light and/or when the AOX pathway is inhibited. While acknowledging the importance of the COX pathway, we hypothesize that AsA and the AOX pathway may complement each other to protect photosynthesis against photoinhibition. PMID:21451257

Talla, Saikrishna; Riazunnisa, Khateef; Padmavathi, Lolla; Sunil, Bobba; Rajsheel, Pidakala; Raghavendra, Agepati S

2011-03-01

202

Identification of a key recombinant narrows the CADASIL gene region to 8 cM and argues against allelism of CADASIL and familial hemiplegic migraine  

SciTech Connect

This article reports on new information regarding the genetic mapping of the human CADASIL gene region. Previously, the gene had been mapped to human chromosome 19q12. Using the identification of a chromosomal crossover, the region has been refined to an 8-cM interval. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Dichgans, M.; Mayer, M.; Straube, A. [Univ. of Munich (Germany)] [and others] [Univ. of Munich (Germany); and others

1996-02-15

203

Interaction between CK2? and CK2?, the subunits of protein kinase CK2: thermodynamic contributions of key residues on the CK2? surface.  

PubMed

The protein Ser/Thr kinase CK2 (former name: casein kinase II) exists predominantly as a heterotetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic subunits (CK2?) bound to a dimer of noncatalytic subunits (CK2?). We undertook a study to further understand how these subunits interact to form the tetramer. To this end, we used recombinant, C-terminal truncated forms of human CK2 subunits that are able to form the holoenzyme. We analyzed the interaction thermodynamics between the binding of CK2? and CK2? as well as the impact of changes in temperature, pH, and the ionization enthalpy of the buffer using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). With structure-guided alanine scanning mutagenesis we truncated individual side chains in the hydrophobic amino acid cluster located within the CK2? interface to identify experimentally the amino acids that dominate affinity. The ITC results indicate that Leu41 or Phe54 single mutations were most disruptive to binding of CK2?. Additionally, these CK2? mutants retained their kinase activity. Furthermore, the substitution of Leu41 in combination with Phe54 showed that the individual mutations were not additive, suggesting that the cooperative action of both residues played a role. Interestingly, the replacement of Ile69, which has a central position in the interaction surface of CK2?, only had modest effects. The differences between Leu41, Phe54, and Ile69 in interaction relevance correlate with solvent accessibility changes during the transition from unbound to CK2?-bound CK2?. Identifying residues on CK2? that play a key role in CK2?/CK2? interactions is important for the future generation of small molecule drug design. PMID:21142136

Raaf, Jennifer; Bischoff, Nils; Klopffleisch, Karsten; Brunstein, Elena; Olsen, Birgitte B; Vilk, Greg; Litchfield, David W; Issinger, Olaf-Georg; Niefind, Karsten

2011-02-01

204

An Early CD4+ T Cell-dependent Immunoglobulin A Response to Influenza Infection in the Absence of Key Cognate T-B Interactions  

PubMed Central

Contact-mediated interactions between CD4+ T cells and B cells are considered crucial for T cell–dependent B cell responses. To investigate the ability of activated CD4+ T cells to drive in vivo B cell responses in the absence of key cognate T–B interactions, we constructed radiation bone marrow chimeras in which CD4+ T cells would be activated by wild-type (WT) dendritic cells, but would interact with B cells that lacked expression of either major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) or CD40. B cell responses were assessed after influenza virus infection of the respiratory tract, which elicits a vigorous, CD4+ T cell–dependent antibody response in WT mice. The influenza-specific antibody response was strongly reduced in MHC II knockout and CD40 knockout mice. MHC II–deficient and CD40-deficient B cells in the chimera environment also produced little virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)M and IgG, but generated a strong virus-specific IgA response with virus-neutralizing activity. The IgA response was entirely influenza specific, in contrast to the IgG2a response, which had a substantial nonvirus-specific component. Our study demonstrates a CD4+ T cell–dependent, antiviral IgA response that is generated in the absence of B cell signaling via MHC II or CD40, and is restricted exclusively to virus-specific B cells.

Sangster, Mark Y.; Riberdy, Janice M.; Gonzalez, Maricela; Topham, David J.; Baumgarth, Nicole; Doherty, Peter C.

2003-01-01

205

A small peptide mimicking the key domain of MEPE/OF45 interacting with CHK1 protects human cells from radiation-induced killing  

PubMed Central

Checkpoint activation benefits DNA homologous recombination repair and; therefore, protects cells from ionizing radiation (IR)-induced killing. CHK1 is one of the most important checkpoint regulators in mammalian cells. We recently reported that matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein/osteoblast factor 45 (MEPE/OF45) stabilizes CHK1 through interacting with CHK1, thus protecting cells from IR-induced killing. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a small peptide that mimics the key domain of MEPE/OF45 could interact with CHK1 and protect cells from IR-induced killing. We showed here that the synthesized peptide with 18 amino acids (aa) could enter human transformed lymphoblasts when it is linked to fatty acid CH3(CH2)8CO. After the 18 aa peptide entered the human cells, it interacted with CHK1, increased the CHK1 level and induced a stronger G2 arrest in the cells following IR. More importantly, the 18 aa peptide could protect the cells from IR-induced killing. Our data indicate that the 18 aa peptide, similar to MEPE/OF45, reduces CHK1 degradation and protects cells from IR-induced killing. We believe that these results provide useful information for drug development in two directions: protect cells from IR-induced damage and sensitize cells to radiation therapy.

Yu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongyan; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Xiangming; Guida, Peter; Hu, Baocheng; Wang, Ya

2014-01-01

206

Freud, ESP, and Interpersonal Relationships: Projective Identification and the Mobius Interaction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical overview of changes in psychodynamic theory that have provided foundation for reassessing significance of client-mental health counselor interactions. Introduces Mobius interaction, interaction qualitatively different from Freud's concepts of transference and countertransference. Argues that Mobius interaction results from…

Ginter, Earl J.; Bonney, Warren

1993-01-01

207

Key Facts  

Cancer.gov

Key Facts Scientists know that: I-131 breaks down rapidly in the atmosphere and environment Exposure was highest in the first few days after each nuclear test explosion Most exposure occurred through drinking fresh milk People received little exposure

208

Using Keys  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a As discussed in Chap. 3, keys must remain protected from would be attackers in order to provide security. However, they must\\u000a be accessed by trusted users or devices in order for security computations to be performed. These security computations include\\u000a protocols not only for communicating or establishing temporary keys but also for communicating confidential messages, signatures,\\u000a etc. This chapter will

Catherine H. Gebotys

209

Molecular mechanisms and modulation of key pathways underlying the synergistic interaction of sorafenib with erlotinib in non-small-cell-lung cancer (NSCLC) cells.  

PubMed

Combination of drugs with different targets is a logical approach to overcome multilevel cross-stimulation among key pathways in NSCLC progression such as EGFR, K-Ras and VEGFR. The sorafenib-erlotinib combination showed clinical activity and acceptable safety. Therefore, we evaluated mechanisms underlying sorafenib-erlotinib interaction in seven NSCLC cell lines selected for their heterogeneous pattern of EGFR and Raf-kinase-inhibitor protein (RKIP) expression, and EGFR/K-Ras mutations. Pharmacologic interaction was studied using MTT/SRB assays and the combination index (CI) method, while effects on EGFR, Erk1/2 and Akt phosphorylation, cell cycle and apoptosis were studied with western-blot, ELISA, and flow cytometry. Intracellular drug concentrations were measured with LC-MS/MS, whereas kinase activity profiles were generated on tyrosine kinase peptide substrate arrays. Synergism was detected in all cell lines, with CIs < 0.6 in K-Ras mutated A549, SW1573 and H460, as well as in H1975 (EGFR-T790M) cells. Sorafenib slowed cell cycle progression and induced apoptosis, which was significantly increased in the combination. Moreover, sorafenib reduced Akt/ERK phosphorylation in erlotinib-resistant cells, associated with significant RKIP up-regulation. No direct drug interaction was detected by LC-MS/MS measurement, while lysates from A549 and H1975 cells exposed to erlotinib+sorafenib showed a significant inhibition in the phosphorylation of 16 overlapping peptides, including sites from RAF, VEGFR2, PDGFR, CDK2 and SRC, suggesting new markers to identify NSCLC patients who are likely to respond to this treatment. In conclusion, several mechanisms, including apoptosis-induction, modulation of expression/phosphorylation of RKIP and crucial kinases contribute to erlotinib-sorafenib synergistic interaction and should be evaluated in future trials for the rational development of this combination in NSCLC. PMID:22973961

Giovannetti, E; Labots, M; Dekker, H; Galvani, E; Lind, J S W; Sciarrillo, R; Honeywell, R; Smit, E F; Verheul, H M; Peters, G J

2013-01-01

210

Stability of the Transthyretin Molecule as a Key Factor in the Interaction with A-Beta Peptide - Relevance in Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Transthyretin (TTR) protects against A-Beta toxicity by binding the peptide thus inhibiting its aggregation. Previous work showed different TTR mutations interact differently with A-Beta, with increasing affinities correlating with decreasing amyloidogenecity of the TTR mutant; this did not impact on the levels of inhibition of A-Beta aggregation, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy. Our work aimed at probing differences in binding to A-Beta by WT, T119M and L55P TTR using quantitative assays, and at identifying factors affecting this interaction. We addressed the impact of such factors in TTR ability to degrade A-Beta. Using a dot blot approach with the anti-oligomeric antibody A11, we showed that A-Beta formed oligomers transiently, indicating aggregation and fibril formation, whereas in the presence of WT and T119M TTR the oligomers persisted longer, indicative that these variants avoided further aggregation into fibrils. In contrast, L55PTTR was not able to inhibit oligomerization or to prevent evolution to aggregates and fibrils. Furthermore, apoptosis assessment showed WT and T119M TTR were able to protect against A-Beta toxicity. Because the amyloidogenic potential of TTR is inversely correlated with its stability, the use of drugs able to stabilize TTR tetrameric fold could result in increased TTR/A-Beta binding. Here we showed that iododiflunisal, 3-dinitrophenol, resveratrol, [2-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)amino] (DCPA) and [4-(3,5-difluorophenyl)] (DFPB) were able to increase TTR binding to A-Beta; however only DCPA and DFPB improved TTR proteolytic activity. Thyroxine, a TTR ligand, did not influence TTR/A-Beta interaction and A-Beta degradation by TTR, whereas RBP, another TTR ligand, not only obstructed the interaction but also inhibited TTR proteolytic activity. Our results showed differences between WT and T119M TTR, and L55PTTR mutant regarding their interaction with A-Beta and prompt the stability of TTR as a key factor in this interaction, which may be relevant in AD pathogenesis and for the design of therapeutic TTR-based therapies.

Ribeiro, Carlos A.; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Cardoso, Isabel

2012-01-01

211

Identification of Protein-Protein Interactions and Topologies in Living Cells with Chemical Cross-linking and Mass Spectrometry*S?  

PubMed Central

We present results from a novel strategy that enables concurrent identification of protein-protein interactions and topologies in living cells without specific antibodies or genetic manipulations for immuno-/affinity purifications. The strategy consists of (i) a chemical cross-linking reaction: intact cell labeling with a novel class of chemical cross-linkers, protein interaction reporters (PIRs); (ii) two-stage mass spectrometric analysis: stage 1 identification of PIR-labeled proteins and construction of a restricted database by two-dimensional LC/MSMS and stage 2 analysis of PIR-labeled peptides by multiplexed LC/FTICR-MS; and (iii) data analysis: identification of cross-linked peptides and proteins of origin using accurate mass and other constraints. The primary advantage of the PIR approach and distinction from current technology is that protein interactions together with topologies are detected in native biological systems by stabilizing protein complexes with new covalent bonds while the proteins are present in the original cellular environment. Thus, weak or transient interactions or interactions that require properly folded, localized, or membrane-bound proteins can be labeled and identified through the PIR approach. This strategy was applied to Shewanella oneidensis bacterial cells, and initial studies resulted in identification of a set of protein-protein interactions and their contact/binding regions. Furthermore most identified interactions involved membrane proteins, suggesting that the PIR approach is particularly suited for studies of membrane protein-protein interactions, an area under-represented with current widely used approaches.

Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Bruce, James E.

2009-01-01

212

The extensive CCD-observations of asteroids: Their testing and identification in interactive mode  

Microsoft Academic Search

The CERES software package developed at the Institute of Theoretical Astronomy and LAPLACE software created at the Pulkovo Observatory were used to test and identify the celestial bodies observed with Spacewatch Telescope during February 1995 -- March 1995 (1027 objects in all). The method to solve the identification problem was elaborated. It requares an one date asteroid's normal place and

N. O. Komarova

1997-01-01

213

Manoeuvring Ship Model Identification and Interacting Multiple Model Tracking Algorithm Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Precise discrete models of the manoeuvring ship motion and xtended Kalman filters are obtained. An IMM algorithm with a hard decision logic fuses the state estimates for finding the final state estimate. It is evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations. Keywords: marine targets model identification, multiple-

Emil Semerdjiev; Ludmila Mihaylova; Tzvetan Semerdjiev

214

Homotypic interaction and multimerization of nucleocapsid protein of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus: Identification and characterization of two interacting domains  

PubMed Central

The nucleocapsid protein (N) of tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV) plays a central role in the viral life cycle. With the aid of the yeast two-hybrid system and surface plasmon resonance analysis, homotypic interaction and multimerization of the N protein was detected. Analysis of deletion mutants identified two binding regions in the protein, located at the N terminus (amino acids 1–39) and the C terminus (amino acids 233–248), respectively, implying a “head-to-tail” interaction of the N terminus with the C terminus to form a multimeric chain. Further characterization of the binding domains was performed by site-directed mutagenesis. Two phenylalanines (F242 and F246) highly conserved in the N proteins within the Tospovirus genus were shown to play a crucial role in the interaction.

Uhrig, J. F.; Soellick, T.-R.; Minke, C. J.; Philipp, C.; Kellmann, J.-W.; Schreier, P. H.

1999-01-01

215

A Conifer ABI3-Interacting Protein Plays Important Roles during Key Transitions of the Plant Life Cycle1[C][W][OA  

PubMed Central

ABI3 (for ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE3), a transcription factor of the abscisic acid signal transduction pathway, plays a major role during seed development, dormancy inception, and dormancy maintenance. This protein appears to also function in meristematic and vegetative plant tissues and under certain stress conditions. We have isolated the ABI3 gene ortholog (CnABI3) from yellow cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis) and found that it was functionally similar to other ABI3 genes of angiosperms. Here, we report that using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid approach, we have identified another protein of yellow cedar (CnAIP2; for CnABI3 INTERACTING PROTEIN2) that physically interacts with CnABI3. Functional analyses revealed that CnAIP2 plays important roles during key transitions in the plant life cycle: (1) CnAIP2 impaired seed development and reduced seed dormancy; (2) CnAIP2 promoted root development, particularly the initiation of lateral roots, and the CnAIP2 gene promoter was exquisitely auxin sensitive; and (3) CnAIP2 promoted the transition from vegetative growth to reproductive initiation (i.e. flowering). The nature of the effects of CnAIP2 on these processes and other evidence place CnAIP2 in the category of a “global” regulator, whose actions are antagonistic to those of ABI3.

Zeng, Ying; Zhao, Tiehan; Kermode, Allison R.

2013-01-01

216

Florida Keys  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West.

This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Bjorn Eng of JPL is the project manager. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort to understand and protect our home planet. Through the study of Earth, NASA will help to provide sound science to policy and economic decision-makers so as to better life here, while developing the technologies needed to explore the universe and search for life beyond our home planet.

Size: 51.6 by 29.7 kilometers ( 32.0 by 18.4 miles) Location: 24.7 degrees North latitude, 81.5 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 1, 2, and 3 Original Data Resolution: 15 meters (49.2 feet) Date Acquired: October 28, 2001

2002-01-01

217

Key Nutrients.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lessons written to help trainer agents prepare aides for work with families in the Food and Nutrition Program are presented in this booklet. The key nutrients discussed in the 10 lessons are protein, carbohydrates, fat, calcium, iron, iodine, and Vitamins A, B, C, and D. the format of each lesson is as follows: Purpose, Presentation, Application…

Federal Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

218

Identification of the Substrates and Interaction Proteins of Aurora Kinases from a Protein-Protein Interaction Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing use of high-throughput and large-scale bioinformatics-based studies has generated a massive amount of data stored in a number of different databases. The major need now is to explore this disparate data to find biologically relevant interactions and pathways. Thus, in the post-genomic era, there is clearly a need for the development of algorithms that can accurately predict novel

An-Chi Tien; Ming-Hong Lin; Li-Jen Su; Yi-Ren Hong; Tai-Shan Cheng; Yuan-Chii G. Lee; Wey-Jinq Lin; Ivan H. Still; Chi-Ying F. Huang

2003-01-01

219

Identification of antisense RNA stem-loops that inhibit RNA-protein interactions using a bacterial reporter system  

PubMed Central

Many well-characterized examples of antisense RNAs from prokaryotic systems involve hybridization of the looped regions of stem–loop RNAs, presumably due to the high thermodynamic stability of the resulting loop–loop and loop–linear interactions. In this study, the identification of RNA stem–loops that inhibit U1A protein binding to the hpII RNA through RNA–RNA interactions was attempted using a bacterial reporter system based on phage ? N-mediated antitermination. As a result, loop sequences possessing 7–8 base complementarity to the 5? region of the boxA element important for functional antitermination complex formation, but not the U1 hpII loop, were identified. In vitro and in vivo mutational analysis strongly suggested that the selected loop sequences were binding to the boxA region, and that the structure of the antisense stem–loop was important for optimal inhibitory activity. Next, in an attempt to demonstrate the ability to inhibit the interaction between the U1A protein and the hpII RNA, the rational design of an RNA stem–loop that inhibits U1A-binding to a modified hpII was carried out. Moderate inhibitory activity was observed, showing that it is possible to design and select antisense RNA stem–loops that disrupt various types of RNA–protein interactions.

Yano, Akiko; Horiya, Satoru; Minami, Takako; Haneda, Eri; Ikeda, Makiko; Harada, Kazuo

2010-01-01

220

Detection and identification of huwentoxin-IV interacting proteins by biotin-avidin chemistry combined with mass spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Background Numerous spider toxins are of interest as tools for neurophysiological research or as lead molecules for the development of pharmaceuticals and insecticides. Direct detection and identification of the interacting proteins of a spider toxin are helpful for its action-mechanism analysis and practical application. The present study employed a combinative strategy for the analysis of interacting proteins of huwentoxin-IV (HWTX-IV), a peptidic neurotoxin from the venom of the spider Selenocosmia huwena. Results HWTX-IV was first lightly labeled with biotin under the optimized mild experimental conditions and the toxin labeled with a single biotin group (monobiotinylated HWTX-IV) was demonstrated by electrophysiological experiments to retain its original bioactivity and was used in combination with far-western blotting to detect its interacting proteins. Comparative experiments indicated that some membrane proteins from rat neuromuscular junction preparations bind to monobiotinylated HWTX-IV after being transferred onto a PVDF membrane from the SDS-gel. With capillary high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, several membrane proteins with which HWTX-IV potentially interacted were identified from the preparations and then bioinformatically analyzed. Conclusions This work has provided not only a new insight into the action mechanism of HWTX-IV but also a reference technology for the relevant researches.

2014-01-01

221

Identification of a Novel Protein-Protein Interaction Motif Mediating Interaction of GPCR-Associated Sorting Proteins with G Protein-Coupled Receptors  

PubMed Central

GPCR desensitization and down-regulation are considered key molecular events underlying the development of tolerance in vivo. Among the many regulatory proteins that are involved in these complex processes, GASP-1 have been shown to participate to the sorting of several receptors toward the degradation pathway. This protein belongs to the recently identified GPCR-associated sorting proteins (GASPs) family that comprises ten members for which structural and functional details are poorly documented. We present here a detailed structure–function relationship analysis of the molecular interaction between GASPs and a panel of GPCRs. In a first step, GST-pull down experiments revealed that all the tested GASPs display significant interactions with a wide range of GPCRs. Importantly, the different GASP members exhibiting the strongest interaction properties were also characterized by the presence of a small, highly conserved and repeated “GASP motif” of 15 amino acids. We further showed using GST-pull down, surface plasmon resonance and co-immunoprecipitation experiments that the central domain of GASP-1, which contains 22 GASP motifs, is essential for the interaction with GPCRs. We then used site directed mutagenesis and competition experiments with synthetic peptides to demonstrate that the GASP motif, and particularly its highly conserved core sequence SWFW, is critically involved in the interaction with GPCRs. Overall, our data show that several members of the GASP family interact with GPCRs and highlight the presence within GASPs of a novel protein-protein interaction motif that might represent a new target to investigate the involvement of GASPs in the modulation of the activity of GPCRs.

Bornert, Olivier; M?ller, Thor C.; Boeuf, Julien; Candusso, Marie-Pierre; Wagner, Renaud; Martinez, Karen L.; Simonin, Frederic

2013-01-01

222

Identification of subunits of acetylcholine receptor that interact with a cholesterol photoaffinity probe  

SciTech Connect

All four subunits of the acetylcholine receptor in membrane vesicles isolated from Torpedo californica have been labeled with (/sup 3/H)cholesteryl diazoacetate. As this probe incorporates into lipid bilayers analogously to cholesterol, this result indicates that acetylcholine receptor interacts with cholesterol. This investigation also demonstrates that this probe is a useful reagent for studying the interaction of cholesterol with membrane proteins.

Middlemas, D.S.; Raftery, M.A.

1987-03-10

223

Screening and identification of dynamin-1 interacting proteins in rat brain synaptosomes.  

PubMed

Dynamin-1 is a multi-domain GTPase that is crucial for the fission stage of synaptic vesicle recycling and vesicle trafficking. In this study, we constructed prokaryotic expression plasmids for the four functional domains of dynamin-1, which are pGEX-4T-2-PH, pGEX-4T-2-PRD, pGEX-4T-2-GED and pGEX-4T-2-GTPase. Glutathione S-transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP), and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry were used to screen and identify dynamin-1 interacting proteins in rat brain synaptosomes. We identified a set of 63 candidate protein interactions, including 36 proteins interacting with dynamin-1 C-terminal proline-rich domain (PRD), 14 with pleckstrin-homology domain (PH), 7 with GTPase effector domain (GED) and 6 with GTPase domain, consisting of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins, cytoskeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes and other proteins. We selected three previously unreported dynamin-1 interacting proteins to verify their interaction with dynamin-1 under native conditions. Using co-IP, we found that Rab GDP-dissociation inhibitor (Rab GDI) and chloride channel 3 (ClC-3) do interact with dynamin-1, but not with TUC-4b (the TOAD-64/Ulip/CRMP (TUC) family member). Those novel interactions detected in our study offer valuable insight into the protein-protein interacting network that could enhance our understanding of dynamin-1 mediated synaptic vesicle recycling. PMID:24211660

Zhang, Ciliu; Omran, Ahmed Galal; He, Fang; Deng, Xiaolu; Wu, Lei; Peng, Jing; Yin, Fei

2014-01-16

224

From Key to Shining Key.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a "living map" project that introduces the topology and climate of the Florida Keys through the use of creative, dramatic movement. Explains that gifted second and third grade students become parts of the environment on a large, topographical floor map. Describes materials, objectives, and procedures. (DB)

James, Sally

1990-01-01

225

Identification of Potential Plk1 Targets in a Cell-Cycle Specific Proteome through Structural Dynamics of Kinase and Polo Box-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

Polo like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a key player in orchestrating the wide variety of cell-cycle events ranging from centrosome maturation, mitotic entry, checkpoint recovery, transcriptional control, spindle assembly, mitotic progression, cytokinesis and DNA damage checkpoints recovery. Due to its versatile nature, Plk1 is considered an imperative regulator to tightly control the diverse aspects of the cell cycle network. Interactions among Plk1 polo box domain (PBD) and its putative binding proteins are crucial for the activation of Plk1 kinase domain (KD). To date, only a few substrate candidates have been characterized through the inclusion of both polo box and kinase domain-mediated interactions. Thus it became compelling to explore precise and specific Plk1 substrates through reassessment and extension of the structure-function paradigm. To narrow this apparently wide gap in knowledge, here we employed a thorough sequence search of Plk1 phosphorylation signature containing proteins and explored their structure-based features like conceptual PBD-binding capabilities and subsequent recruitment of KD directed phosphorylation to dissect novel targets of Plk1. Collectively, we identified 4,521 phosphodependent proteins sharing similarity to the consensus phosphorylation and PBD recognition motifs. Subsequent application of filters including similarity index, Gene Ontology enrichment and protein localization resulted in stringent pre-filtering of irrelevant candidates and isolated unique targets with well-defined roles in cell-cycle machinery and carcinogenesis. These candidates were further refined structurally using molecular docking and dynamic simulation assays. Overall, our screening approach enables the identification of several undefined cell-cycle associated functions of Plk1 by uncovering novel phosphorylation targets.

Bibi, Nousheen; Parveen, Zahida; Rashid, Sajid

2013-01-01

226

Integrative Identification of Arabidopsis Mitochondrial Proteome and Its Function Exploitation through Protein Interaction Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondria are major players on the production of energy, and host several key reactions involved in basic metabolism and biosynthesis of essential molecules. Currently, the majority of nucleus-encoded mitochondrial proteins are unknown even for model plant Arabidopsis. We reported a computational framework for predicting Arabidopsis mitochondrial proteins based on a probabilistic model, called Naive Bayesian Network, which integrates disparate genomic

Jian Cui; Jinghua Liu; Yuhua Li; Tieliu Shi; Vladimir Uversky

2011-01-01

227

Interaction of CO with OH on Au(111): HCOO, CO3, and HOCO as Key Intermediates in the Water-Gas Shift Reaction  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the role of formate (HCOO), carbonate (CO{sub 3}), and carboxyl (HOCO) species as possible intermediates in the OH{sub ads} + CO{sub gas} {yields} CO{sub 2,gas} + 0.5H{sub 2,gas} reaction on Au(111) using synchrotron-based core level photoemission, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and infrared absorption spectroscopy (IR). Adsorbed HCOO, CO{sub 3}, and OH species were prepared by adsorbing formic acid, carbon dioxide, and water on a Au(111) surface precovered with 0.2 ML of atomic oxygen, respectively. HCOOH interacts weakly with Au(111), but on O/Au(111) it dissociates its acidic H to yield adsorbed formate. The results of NEXAFS, IR, and density-functional calculations indicate that the formate adopts a bidentate configuration on Au(111). Since the HCOO groups are stable on Au(111) up to temperatures near 350 K, it is not likely that formate is a key intermediate for the OH{sub ads} + CO{sub gas} {yields} CO{sub 2,gas} + 0.5H{sub 2,gas} reaction at low temperatures. In fact, the formation of this species could lead eventually to surface poisoning. When compared to a formate species, a carbonate species formed by the reaction of CO{sub 2} with O/Au(111) has low stability, decomposing at temperatures between 100 and 125 K, and should not poison the gold surface. Neither HCOO nor CO{sub 3} was detected during the reaction of CO with OH on Au(111) at 90-120 K. The results of photoemission and IR spectroscopy point to HO {leftrightarrow} CO interactions, consistent with the formation of an unstable HOCO intermediate which has a very short lifetime on the gold surface. The possible mechanism for the low-temperature water-gas shift on gold catalysts is discussed in light of these results.

Senanayake, S.; Stacchiola, D; Liu, P; Mullins, C; Hrbek, J; Rodriguez, J

2009-01-01

228

The APETALA-2-like transcription factor OsAP2-39 controls key interactions between abscisic acid and gibberellin in rice.  

PubMed

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production. PMID:20838584

Yaish, Mahmoud W; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H; Good, Allen G; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

2010-09-01

229

The APETALA-2-Like Transcription Factor OsAP2-39 Controls Key Interactions between Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin in Rice  

PubMed Central

The interaction between phytohormones is an important mechanism which controls growth and developmental processes in plants. Deciphering these interactions is a crucial step in helping to develop crops with enhanced yield and resistance to environmental stresses. Controlling the expression level of OsAP2-39 which includes an APETALA 2 (AP2) domain leads to phenotypic changes in rice. Overexpression of OsAP2-39 leads to a reduction in yield by decreasing the biomass and the number of seeds in the transgenic rice lines. Global transcriptome analysis of the OsAP2-39 overexpression transgenic rice revealed the upregulation of a key Abscisic Acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene OsNCED-I which codes for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and leads to an increase in the endogenous ABA level. In addition to OsNCED-1, the gene expression analysis revealed the upregulation of a gene that codes for the Elongation of Upper most Internode (EUI) protein, an enzyme that catalyzes 16?, 17-epoxidation of non-13-hydroxylated GAs, which has been shown to deactivate gibberellins (GAs) in rice. The exogenous application of GA restores the wild-type phenotype in the transgenic line and ABA application induces the expression of EUI and suppresses the expression of OsAP2-39 in the wild-type line. These observations clarify the antagonistic relationship between ABA and GA and illustrate a mechanism that leads to homeostasis of these hormones. In vivo and in vitro analysis showed that the expression of both OsNCED-1 and EUI are directly controlled by OsAP2-39. Together, these results reveal a novel mechanism for the control of the ABA/GA balance in rice which is regulated by OsAP2-39 that in turn regulates plant growth and seed production.

Yaish, Mahmoud W.; El-kereamy, Ashraf; Zhu, Tong; Beatty, Perrin H.; Good, Allen G.; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J.

2010-01-01

230

The identification of Pcl1-interacting proteins that genetically interact with Cla4 may indicate a link between G1 progression and mitotic exit.  

PubMed Central

In budding yeast, Cla4 and Ste20, two p21-activated kinases, contribute to numerous morphogenetic processes. Loss of Ste20 or Cla4 individually confers distinct phenotypes, implying that they regulate different processes. However, loss of both proteins is lethal, suggesting some functional overlap. To explore the role(s) of Cla4, we and others have sought mutations that are lethal in a cla4 Delta strain. These mutations define >60 genes. Recently, both Ste20 and Cla4 have been implicated in mitotic exit. Here, we identify a genetic interaction between PHO85, which encodes a cyclin-dependent kinase, and CLA4. We further show that the Pho85-coupled G(1) cyclins Pcl1 and Pcl2 contribute to this Pho85 role. We performed a two-hybrid screen with Pcl1. Three Pcl1-interacting proteins were identified: Ncp1, Hms1, and a novel ATPase dubbed Epa1. Each of these proteins interacts with Pcl1 in GST pull-down experiments and is specifically phosphorylated by Pcl1.Pho85 complexes. NCP1, HMS1, and EPA1 also genetically interact with CLA4. Like Cla4, the proteins Hms1, Ncp1, and Pho85 appear to affect mitotic exit, a conclusion that follows from the mislocalization of Cdc14, a key mitotic regulator, in strains lacking these proteins. We propose a model in which the G(1) Pcl1.Pho85 complex regulates mitotic exit machinery.

Keniry, Megan E; Kemp, Hilary A; Rivers, David M; Sprague, George F

2004-01-01

231

Identification of epistatic effects using a protein-protein interaction database  

PubMed Central

Epistasis (i.e. gene–gene interaction) has long been recognized as an important mechanism underlying the complexity of the genetic architecture of human traits. Definitions of epistasis range from the purely molecular to the traditional statistical measures of interaction. The statistical detection of epistasis usually does not map onto or easily relate to the biological interactions between genetic variations through their combined influence on gene expression or through their interactions at the gene product (i.e. protein) or DNA level. Recently, greater high-dimensional data on protein–protein interaction (PPI) and gene expression profiles have been collected that enumerates sets of biological interactions. To better align statistical and molecular models of epistasis, we present an example of how to incorporate the PPI information into the statistical analysis of interactions between copy number variations (CNVs). Among the 23 640 pairs of known human PPIs and the 1141 common CNVs detected among HapMap samples, we identified 37 pairs of CNVs overlapping with both genes of a PPI pair. Two CNV pairs provided sufficient genotype variation to search for epistatic effects on gene expression. Using 47 294 probe-specific gene expression levels as the outcomes, five epistatic effects were identified with P-value less than 10?6. We found a CNV–CNV interaction significantly associated with gene expression of TP53TG3 (P-value of 2 × 10?20). The proteins associated with the CNV pair also bind TP53 which regulates the transcription of TP53TG3. This study demonstrates that using PPI data can assist in targeting statistical hypothesis testing to biological plausible epistatic interaction that reflects molecular mechanisms.

Sun, Yan V.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.

2010-01-01

232

Molecular interactions of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with mortalin: identification and functional characterization  

PubMed Central

Bcl-2 family of proteins consists of both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic members that control cellular apoptosis. They predominantly reside in the mitochondria and control the release of apoptotic factors from the mitochondria to the cytosol by regulating its membrane potential and opening the PT (permeability transition) pore. Here we report bioinformatics and biochemical evidence to demonstrate the interaction between Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL with a stress chaperone, mortalin. We demonstrate that such interaction results in the abrogation of mortalin-p53 interaction leading to nuclear translocation and transcriptional reactivation of p53 function that results in an induction of senescence in cancer cells.

Saxena, Nishant; Katiyar, Shashank P.; Liu, Ye; Grover, Abhinav; Gao, Ran; Sundar, Durai; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu

2013-01-01

233

Illustrated key for identification of the species included in the genus Leptoglossus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Coreinae: Anisoscelini), and descriptions of five new species and new synonyms.  

PubMed

Five new species of Leptoglossus are described: L.caicosensis from Turks and Caicos Island, L. egeri and L. impensus from Bolivia, L. franckei from Costa Rica, and L. polychromus from Ecuador, Cooperative Republic of Guiana (British Guiana), and French Guiana. Leptoglossus argentinus Bergroth is synonymized under L. chilensis chilensis (Spinola) and Narnia anaticula Brailovsky & Barrera under Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann. Dorsal view drawings and key to the 61 known species and 1 subspecies are included; a complete checklist, and the position of each species within the species-group defined herein, are given except for two species L. macrophylus Stål and L. polychromus sp.nov., that are insertae-sedis. The pronotal disk, hind legs, and male genital capsule of the new species here described are illustrated. PMID:24870317

Brailovsky, Harry

2014-01-01

234

Identification of key regulators in glycogen utilization in E. coli based on the simulations from a hybrid functional Petri net model  

PubMed Central

Background Glycogen and glucose are two sugar sources available during the lag phase of E. coli, but the mechanism that regulates their utilization is still unclear. Methods Attempting to unveil the relationship between glucose and glycogen, we propose an integrated hybrid functional Petri net (HFPN) model including glycolysis, PTS, glycogen metabolic pathway, and their internal regulatory systems. Results and conclusions By comparing known biological results to this model, basic necessary regulatory mechanism for utilizing glucose and glycogen were identified as a feedback circuit in which HPr and EIIAGlc play key roles. Based on this regulatory HFPN model, we discuss the process of glycogen utilization in E. coli in the context of a systematic understanding of carbohydrate metabolism.

2013-01-01

235

WITNESSING THE KEY EARLY PHASE OF QUASAR EVOLUTION: AN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS PAIR IN THE INTERACTING GALAXY IRAS 20210+1121  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) pair in the interacting galaxy system IRAS 20210+1121 at z = 0.056. An XMM-Newton observation reveals the presence of an obscured (N {sub H} {approx} 5 x 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}), Seyfert-like (L {sub 2-10keV} = 4.7 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) nucleus in the northern galaxy, which lacks unambiguous optical AGN signatures. Our spectral analysis also provides strong evidence that the IR-luminous southern galaxy hosts a Type 2 quasar embedded in a bright starburst emission. In particular, the X-ray primary continuum from the nucleus appears totally depressed in the XMM-Newton band as expected in the case of a Compton-thick absorber, and only the emission produced by Compton scattering ('reflection') of the continuum from circumnuclear matter is seen. As such, IRAS 20210+1121 seems to provide an excellent opportunity to witness a key, early phase in the quasar evolution predicted by the theoretical models of quasar activation by galaxy collisions.

Piconcelli, Enrico; Fiore, Fabrizio; Maiolino, Roberto; Nicastro, Fabrizio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (INAF), Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Vignali, Cristian [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bianchi, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Mathur, Smita [Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Guainazzi, Matteo [European Space Astronomy Centre of the European Space Agency, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Lanzuisi, Giorgio, E-mail: enrico.piconcelli@oa-roma.inaf.i [IASF - INAF, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

2010-10-20

236

Identification of New Protein Interactions between Dengue Fever Virus and Its Hosts, Human and Mosquito  

PubMed Central

The four divergent serotypes of dengue virus are the causative agents of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. About two-fifths of the world's population live in areas where dengue is prevalent, and thousands of deaths are caused by the viruses every year. Dengue virus is transmitted from one person to another primarily by the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Recent studies have begun to define how the dengue viral proteins interact with host proteins to mediate viral replication and pathogenesis. A combined analysis of these studies, however, suggests that many virus-host protein interactions remain to be identified, especially for the mosquito host. In this study, we used high-throughput yeast two-hybrid screening to identify mosquito and human proteins that physically interact with dengue proteins. We tested each identified host protein against the proteins from all four serotypes of dengue to identify interactions that are conserved across serotypes. We further confirmed many of the interactions using co-affinity purification assays. As in other large-scale screens, we identified some previously detected interactions and many new ones, moving us closer to a complete host – dengue protein interactome. To help summarize and prioritize the data for further study, we combined our interactions with other published data and identified a subset of the host-dengue interactions that are now supported by multiple forms of evidence. These data should be useful for understanding the interplay between dengue and its hosts and may provide candidates for drug targets and vector control strategies.

Mairiang, Dumrong; Zhang, Huamei; Sodja, Ann; Murali, Thilakam; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Malasit, Prida; Limjindaporn, Thawornchai; Finley, Russell L.

2013-01-01

237

Identification of HIV-1 Vif Regions Required for CBF-? Interaction and APOBEC3 Suppression  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif requires core binding factor ? (CBF-?) to degrade the host APOBEC3 restriction factors. Although a minimum domain and certain amino acids of HIV-1 Vif, including hydrophobic residues at the N-terminal, have been identified as critical sites for binding with CBF-?, other regions that potentially mediate this interaction need to be further investigated. Here, we mapped two new regions of HIV-1 Vif that are required for interaction with CBF-? by generating a series of single-site or multiple-site Vif mutants and testing their effect on the suppression of APOBEC3G (A3G) and APOBEC3F (A3F). A number of the mutants, including G84A/SIEW86-89AAAA (84/86–89), E88A/W89A (88/89), G84A, W89A, L106S and I107S in the 84GxSIEW89 and L102ADQLI107 regions, affected Vif function by disrupting CBF-? binding. These Vif mutants also had altered interactions with CUL5, since CBF-? is known to facilitate the binding of Vif to CUL5. We further showed that this effect was not due to misfolding or conformational changes in Vif, as the mutants still maintained their interactions with other factors such as ElonginB, A3G and A3F. Notably, G84D and D104A had stronger effects on the Vif-CUL5 interaction than on the Vif-CBF-? interaction, indicating that they mainly influenced the CUL5 interaction and implying that the interaction of Vif with CUL5 contributes to the binding of Vif to CBF-?. These new binding interfaces with CBF-? in HIV-1 Vif provide novel targets for the development of HIV-1 inhibitors.

Liu, Xin; Li, Zhaolong; Yu, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Wenyan

2014-01-01

238

Crystallographic studies on substituted m-terphenyls: identification of weak [CH3···I] interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crystallographic studies of 2,6-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-4-methyliodobenzene 1 and 2,6-diphenyl-4-methyliodobenzene 2 were performed and in both cases [CH3···I] interactions were identified. Theoretical calculation of the dipole moment of 1 and the partial charges of the iodine and methyl hydrogens were performed. These charges, although small, suggest that they are large enough to encourage the formation of weak dipole-dipole interactions in the absence of

Diane A. Dickie; Deepa Abeysekera; Iain D. McKenzie; Hilary A. Jenkins; Jason A. C. Clyburne

2003-01-01

239

Identification of phases in the interaction layer between U-Mo-Zr/Al and U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si  

SciTech Connect

Out-of-pile diffusion experiments were performed between U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr and Al or Al A356 (7,1wt.% Si) at 550 deg. C. In this work morphological characterization and phase identification on both interaction layer are presented. They were carried out by the use of different techniques: optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction and WDS microanalysis. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al, the phases UAl{sub 3}, UAl{sub 4}, Al{sub 20}Mo{sub 2}U and Al{sub 43}Mo{sub 4}U{sub 6} were identified. In the interaction layer U-7wt.% Mo-1wt.% Zr/Al A356, the phases U(Al, Si) with 25at.% Si and Si{sub 5}U{sub 3} were identified. This last phase, with a higher Si concentration, was identified with XRD Synchrotron radiation performed at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), Campinas, Brasil. (author)

Varela, C.L. Komar; Arico, S.F.; Mirandou, M.; Balart, S.N. [Departamento Materiales, GIDAT, GAEN, CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); Gribaudo, L.M. [Departamento Materiales, GIDAT, GAEN, CNEA, Avda. Gral Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin (Argentina); CONICET, Avda. Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2008-07-15

240

Identification of Beta-2 as a Key Cell Adhesion Molecule in PCa Cell Neurotropic Behavior: A Novel Ex Vivo and Biophysical Approach  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer (PCa) is believed to metastasize through the blood/lymphatics systems; however, PCa may utilize the extensive innervation of the prostate for glandular egress. The interaction of PCa and its nerve fibers is observed in 80% of PCa and is termed perineural invasion (PNI). PCa cells have been observed traveling through the endoneurium of nerves, although the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated. Voltage sensitive sodium channels (VSSC) are multimeric transmembrane protein complexes comprised of a pore-forming ? subunit and one or two auxiliary beta (?) subunits with inherent cell adhesion molecule (CAM) functions. The beta-2 isoform (gene SCN2B) interacts with several neural CAMs, while interacting putatively with other prominent neural CAMs. Furthermore, beta-2 exhibits elevated mRNA and protein levels in highly metastatic and castrate-resistant PCa. When overexpressed in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells (2BECFP), beta-2 alters LNCaP cell morphology and enhances LNCaP cell metastasis associated behavior in vitro. We hypothesize that PCa cells use beta-2 as a CAM during PNI and subsequent PCa metastasis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of beta-2 expression on PCa cell neurotropic metastasis associated behavior. We overexpressed beta-2 as a fusion protein with enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in weakly aggressive LNCaP cells and observed neurotropic effects utilizing our novel ex vivo organotypic spinal cord co-culture model, and performed functional assays with neural matrices and atomic force microscopy. With increased beta-2 expression, PCa cells display a trend of enhanced association with nerve axons. On laminin, a neural CAM, overexpression of beta-2 enhances PCa cell migration, invasion, and growth. 2BECFP cells exhibit marked binding affinity to laminin relative to LNECFP controls, and recombinant beta-2 ectodomain elicits more binding events to laminin than BSA control. Functional overexpression of VSSC beta subunits in PCa may mediate PCa metastatic behavior through association with neural matrices.

Jansson, Keith H.; Castillo, Deborah G.; Morris, Joseph W.; Boggs, Mary E.; Czymmek, Kirk J.; Adams, Elizabeth L.; Schramm, Lawrence P.; Sikes, Robert A.

2014-01-01

241

Inverse material identification in coupled acoustic-structure interaction using a modified error in constitutive equation functional  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work focuses on the identification of heterogeneous linear elastic moduli in the context of frequency-domain, coupled acoustic-structure interaction (ASI), using either solid displacement or fluid pressure measurement data. The approach postulates the inverse problem as an optimization problem where the solution is obtained by minimizing a modified error in constitutive equation (MECE) functional. The latter measures the discrepancy in the constitutive equations that connect kinematically admissible strains and dynamically admissible stresses, while incorporating the measurement data as additional quadratic error terms. We demonstrate two strategies for selecting the MECE weighting coefficient to produce regularized solutions to the ill-posed identification problem: 1) the discrepancy principle of Morozov, and 2) an error-balance approach that selects the weight parameter as the minimizer of another functional involving the ECE and the data misfit. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can successfully recover elastic parameters in 2D and 3D ASI systems from response measurements taken in either the solid or fluid subdomains. Furthermore, both regularization strategies are shown to produce accurate reconstructions when the measurement data is polluted with noise. The discrepancy principle is shown to produce nearly optimal solutions, while the error-balance approach, although not optimal, remains effective and does not need a priori information on the noise level.

Warner, James E.; Diaz, Manuel I.; Aquino, Wilkins; Bonnet, Marc

2014-04-01

242

Plant Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit on plant identification helps students prepare for their fieldwork by developing their observational skills and introducing them to resources that will help them with plant identification. It's designed to be completed in five or more sessions and has comprehensive curriculum materials information for teachers, including overviews of binomial nomenclature and dichotomous keys. Additionally, a guide to finding local specialists is available online. There are optional activites and information on supplemental resources available on line.

243

Identification of an endoplasmic reticulum membrane protein interacting with DNA polymerase beta by a yeast two-hybrid screen.  

PubMed

Base excision repair (BER) is a key pathway for maintaining genomic stability. A key enzyme in the BER pathway is DNA polymerase beta (polbeta). It has been shown that more than 11% of breast, bladder, esophageal, colon, and gastric cancer samples studied so far exhibit polbeta mutation. A truncated form of polbeta, polbetadelta (exon 11 deletion), identified in a colon tumour sample, exhibited dominant negative activity. Using this polbetadelta as bait, we screened a HeLa cDNA library for any interacting protein(s) in the yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system. Polbetadelta was cloned into a pGBKT7 vector (pGBKT7-polbetadelta). pGBKT7-polbetadelta was transformed into the yeast strain AH109. Then the cDNA library was co-transformed into AH109/pGBKT7-polbetadelta and screened by the selection procedure. The yeast-purified plasmids were transformed into Escherichia coli. Plasmid DNA was isolated from the colonies, purified, digested with Sma I and Sal I, and the fragments were sequenced. Four positive clones were obtained. Out of these, three proteins were already known to interact with polbeta (XRCC1, MGC5306, and AP endonuclease 1). The only member previously not known to interact with polbeta was phosphatidylinositol glycosylase type S (PIGS). PIGS is a 64-kDa membrane protein, encoded in chromosome 17. The PIGS protein interacts also with wild-type polbeta which was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis. The role of the newly identified protein in the dominant negative function of the variant form of polbeta remains to be seen. PMID:24772827

Panda, Kakali; Khanra, Kalyani; Bhattacharyya, Nandan

2014-01-01

244

Identification of New Genetic Susceptibility Loci for Breast Cancer Through Consideration of Gene-Environment Interactions  

PubMed Central

Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10?07), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15–1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72–1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10?05). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci.

Schoeps, Anja; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Dunning, Alison M.; Milne, Roger L.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Swerdlow, Anthony; Andrulis, Irene; Brenner, Hermann; Behrens, Sabine; Orr, Nicholas; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Li, Jingmei; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Knight, Julia; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna M.; Dumont, Martine; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Olson, Janet; Vachon, Celine; Purrington, Kristen; Moisse, Matthieu; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Spurdle, Amanda; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kataja, Vesa; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Hamann, Ute; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Dieffenbach, Aida K.; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Malats, Nuria; Arias Perez, JoseI.; Benitez, Javier; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, B?rge G.; Truong, Therese; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Silva, Isabel dos Santos; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Haberle, Lothar; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Braaf, Linde; Atsma, Femke; van den Broek, Alexandra J.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Cox, Angela; Simard, Jacques; Giles, Graham G.; Lambrechts, Diether; Mannermaa, Arto; Brauch, Hiltrud; Guenel, Pascal; Peto, Julian; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Couch, Fergus; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

2014-01-01

245

Identification of key residues for the binding of glucagon to the N-terminal domain of its receptor: an alanine scan and modeling study.  

PubMed

Glucagon plays an essential role in the glycemia maintenance during fasting, but also aggravates hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. A series of analogues of glucagon were synthesized replacing each amino acid of the C-terminal region (residues 15-29) with alanine. The residues affecting the binding to the glucagon receptor are found to be located on one face of the glucagon helix. Several 3-dimensional models of the N-terminal domain of the glucagon receptor in complex with its ligand peptide were built and used to analyze the peptide-receptor interface in terms of the nature of the peptide residues and the interactions they form with the receptor. The models suggest that glucagon keeps its native helical structure upon binding, and that a large part of the interface formed with the receptor is hydrophobic. We find that in the C-terminal region, F22, V23, M27, and D15 are the most important residues for peptide binding. They bury a large portion of their solvent accessible surface area and make numerous interactions with the receptor mainly of the hydrophobic type. PMID:22893257

Prévost, M; Vertongen, P; Waelbroeck, M

2012-10-01

246

Classification and the Dichotomous Key  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Classification is a vital science-process skill for all students to master. Understanding dichotomous keys as a means of classification enables students to better comprehend large amounts of information and understand how to organize, compare and contrast, and analyze that information. To biology students, mastering the dichotomous key provides an avenue through which they can identify any organism they come in contact with. This article discusses how to approach and teach the concepts of classification and identification in science classes.

Watson, Sandy; Miller, Ted

2009-03-01

247

Identification of key functional amino acids of the mouse fertilin beta (ADAM2) disintegrin loop for cell-cell adhesion during fertilization.  

PubMed

Fertilin beta (also known as ADAM2) is a cell adhesion molecule on the surface of mammalian sperm that participates in sperm-egg membrane binding. Fertilin beta is a member of the molecular family known as ADAMs or MDCs. These proteins have a disintegrin domain with homology to integrin ligands found in snake venoms; several of these snake proteins have an RGD tripeptide presented on an extended "disintegrin loop." However, fertilin beta lacks an RGD tripeptide and instead has the consensus sequence X(D/E)ECD (QDECD in mouse fertilin beta) in its putative disintegrin loop, and there is controversy over which amino acids comprise the active site of the fertilin beta disintegrin loop. We have used point-mutated versions of the sequence AQDECDVT and two bioassays to identify the key functional amino acids of this sequence from the mouse fertilin beta disintegrin domain. Amino acid substitutions for the terminal aspartic acid residue of the QDECD sequence result in dramatically reduced activities in the two assays for protein function, implicating the terminal aspartic acid residue as critical for protein function. Substitutions for the glutamic acid and the cysteine residues in the QDECD sequence result in slight reductions in activity, whereas substitution of the first aspartic acid has virtually no effect. These data suggest that the conserved ECD sequence of the mouse fertilin beta disintegrin loop, especially the terminal D residue, contributes more to the protein's activity than does the QDE sequence that aligns with the RGD tripeptide in other disintegrins. PMID:10713078

Zhu, X; Bansal, N P; Evans, J P

2000-03-17

248

Proteomic responses to lead-induced oxidative stress in Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) roots: identification of key biomarkers related to glutathione metabolisms.  

PubMed

In this study, Talinum triangulare Jacq. (Willd.) treated with different lead (Pb) concentrations for 7 days has been investigated to understand the mechanisms of ascorbate-glutathione metabolisms in response to Pb-induced oxidative stress. Proteomic study was performed for control and 1.25 mM Pb-treated plants to examine the root protein dynamics in the presence of Pb. Results of our analysis showed that Pb treatment caused a decrease in non-protein thiols, reduced glutathione (GSH), total ascorbate, total glutathione, GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio, and activities of glutathione reductase and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Conversely, cysteine and GSSG contents and glutathione-S-transferase activity was increased after Pb treatment. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed our metabolic and proteomic studies and showed that amino, phenolic, and carboxylic acids as well as alcoholic, amide, and ester-containing biomolecules had key roles in detoxification of Pb/Pb-induced toxic metabolites. Proteomic analysis revealed an increase in relative abundance of 20 major proteins and 3 new proteins (appeared only in 1.25 mM Pb). Abundant proteins during 1.25 mM Pb stress conditions have given a very clear indication about their involvement in root architecture, energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification, cell signaling, primary and secondary metabolisms, and molecular transport systems. Relative accumulation patterns of both common and newly identified proteins are highly correlated with our other morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters. PMID:24705950

Kumar, Abhay; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad

2014-07-01

249

Systematic identification of allosteric protein-metabolite interactions that control enzyme activity in vivo.  

PubMed

Recent data suggest that the majority of proteins bind specific metabolites and that such interactions are relevant to metabolic and gene regulation. However, there are no methods to systematically identify functional allosteric protein-metabolite interactions. Here we present an experimental and computational approach for using dynamic metabolite data to discover allosteric regulation that is relevant in vivo. By switching the culture conditions of Escherichia coli every 30 s between medium containing either pyruvate or (13)C-labeled fructose or glucose, we measured the reversal of flux through glycolysis pathways and observed rapid changes in metabolite concentration. We fit these data to a kinetic model of glycolysis and systematically tested the consequences of 126 putative allosteric interactions on metabolite dynamics. We identified allosteric interactions that govern the reversible switch between gluconeogenesis and glycolysis, including one by which pyruvate activates fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Thus, from large sets of putative allosteric interactions, our approach can identify the most likely ones and provide hypotheses about their function. PMID:23455438

Link, Hannes; Kochanowski, Karl; Sauer, Uwe

2013-04-01

250

Identification of antituberculosis agents that target ribosomal protein interactions using a yeast two-hybrid system  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis kills about 2 million people annually and antibiotic resistance is a cause of increased mortality. Therefore, development of new antituberculosis drugs is urgent for the control of widespread tuberculosis infections. For this purpose, we performed an innovative screen to identify new agents that disrupt the function of ribosomes in M. tuberculosis. Two bacterial ribosomal proteins L12 and L10 interact with each other and constitute the stalk of the 50S ribosomal subunit, which recruits initiation and elongation factors (EFs) during translation. Therefore, the L12–L10 interaction should be essential for ribosomal function and protein synthesis. We established a yeast two-hybrid system to identify small molecules that block the interaction between L12 and L10 proteins from M. tuberculosis. Using this system, we identified two compounds T766 and T054 that show strong bactericidal activity against tuberculosis but with low toxicity to mice and other bacterial strains. Moreover, using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) assay, we have demonstrated that these compounds bind specifically to L12 to disrupt L12–L10 interaction. Overproduction of L12 protein, but not L10, lowers the antibacterial activity of T766 and T054, indicating that the ribosome is likely the cellular target. Therefore, our data demonstrate that this yeast two-hybrid system is a useful tool to identify unique antituberculosis agents targeting the ribosomal protein L12–L10 interaction.

Lin, Yuan; Li, Yan; Zhu, Yuanjun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Yongzhen; Liu, Xiao; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Shishan; You, Xue-Fu; Xiao, Chunling; Hong, Bin; Wang, Yanchang; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Si, Shuyi

2012-01-01

251

Identification of Cellular Proteins Interacting with Equine Infectious Anemia Virus S2 Protein  

PubMed Central

The macrophage-tropic lentivirus, equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), encodes the small auxiliary protein S2 from a short open reading frame that overlaps the amino terminus of env. EIAV S2 is dispensable for virus replication in cultured cells but is required for disease production. S2 is approximately 7kDa and has no overall amino acid sequence homology to other cellular or viral proteins. Therefore it is likely that S2 plays a role as an adaptor protein. To further investigate S2 function we performed a yeast-2-hybrid screen to identify cellular proteins that interact with EIAV S2. The screen identified two human cellular proteins, amplified in osteosarcoma (OS-9) and proteasome 26S ATPase subunit 3 (PSMC3) that interact with S2. The equine homologues of these proteins were cloned and their interactions with S2 confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation assays. We identified two OS9 isoforms that interact with S2 and a third splice variant that does not, indicating a region of OS9 apparently required for the S2 interaction. The roles of these cellular proteins during EIAV infection have not been determined.

Covaleda, Lina; Gno, Bich-Ty; Fuller, Fredrick J.; Payne, Susan L.

2010-01-01

252

Identification of proteins interacting with lactate dehydrogenase in claw muscle of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes cinctipes  

PubMed Central

Biochemical adaptation of enzymes involves conservation of activity, stability and affinity across a wide range of intracellular and environmental conditions. Enzyme adaptation by alteration of primary structure is well known, but the roles of protein-protein interactions in enzyme adaptation are less well understood. Interspecific differences in thermal stability of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in porcelain crabs (genus Petrolisthes) are related to intrinsic differences among LDH molecules and by interactions with other stabilizing proteins. Here, we identified proteins that interact with LDH in porcelain crab claw muscle tissue using co-immunoprecipitation, and showed LDH exists in high molecular weight complexes using size exclusion chromatography and Western blot analyses. Co-immunoprecipitated proteins were separated using 2D SDS PAGE and analyzed by LC/ESI using peptide MS/MS. Peptide MS/MS ions were compared to an EST database for Petrolisthes cinctipes to identify proteins. Identified proteins included cytoskeletal elements, glycolytic enzymes, a phosphagen kinase, and the respiratory protein hemocyanin. Our results support the hypothesis that LDH interacts with glycolytic enzymes in a metabolon structured by cytoskeletal elements that may also include the enzyme for transfer of the adenylate charge in glycolytically produced ATP. Those interactions may play specific roles in biochemical adaptation of glycolytic enzymes.

Cayenne, Andrea P.; Gabert, Beverly; Stillman, Jonathon H.

2011-01-01

253

The Dictyostelium discoideum cellulose synthase: Structure/function analysis and identification of interacting proteins  

SciTech Connect

OAK-B135 The major accomplishments of this project were: (1) the initial characterization of dcsA, the gene for the putative catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum; (2) the detection of a developmentally regulated event (unidentified, but perhaps a protein modification or association with a protein partner) that is required for cellulose synthase activity (i.e., the dcsA product is necessary, but not sufficient for cellulose synthesis); (3) the continued exploration of the developmental context of cellulose synthesis and DcsA; (4) the isolation of a GFP-DcsA-expressing strain (work in progress); and (5) the identification of Dictyostelium homologues for plant genes whose products play roles in cellulose biosynthesis. Although our progress was slow and many of our results negative, we did develop a number of promising avenues of investigation that can serve as the foundation for future projects.

Richard L. Blanton

2004-02-19

254

Identification and characterization of molecular interactions between mortalin/mtHsp70 and HSP60.  

PubMed

Mortalin/mtHsp70 (mitochondrial Hsp70) and HSP60 (heat-shock protein 60) are heat-shock proteins that reside in multiple subcellular compartments, with mitochondria being the predominant one. In the present study, we demonstrate that the two proteins interact both in vivo and in vitro, and that the N-terminal region of mortalin is involved in these interactions. Suppression of HSP60 expression by shRNA (short hairpin RNA) plasmids caused the growth arrest of cancer cells similar to that obtained by suppression of mortalin expression by ribozymes. An overexpression of mortalin, but not of HSP60, extended the in vitro lifespan of normal fibroblasts (TIG-1). Taken together, this study for the first time delineates: (i) molecular interactions of HSP60 with mortalin; (ii) their co- and exclusive localizations in vivo; (iii) their involvement in tumorigenesis; and (iv) their functional distinction in pathways involved in senescence. PMID:15957980

Wadhwa, Renu; Takano, Syuichi; Kaur, Kamaljit; Aida, Satoshi; Yaguchi, Tomoko; Kaul, Zeenia; Hirano, Takashi; Taira, Kazunari; Kaul, Sunil C

2005-10-15

255

Identification and characterization of molecular interactions between mortalin/mtHsp70 and HSP60  

PubMed Central

Mortalin/mtHsp70 (mitochondrial Hsp70) and HSP60 (heat-shock protein 60) are heat-shock proteins that reside in multiple subcellular compartments, with mitochondria being the predominant one. In the present study, we demonstrate that the two proteins interact both in vivo and in vitro, and that the N-terminal region of mortalin is involved in these interactions. Suppression of HSP60 expression by shRNA (short hairpin RNA) plasmids caused the growth arrest of cancer cells similar to that obtained by suppression of mortalin expression by ribozymes. An overexpression of mortalin, but not of HSP60, extended the in vitro lifespan of normal fibroblasts (TIG-1). Taken together, this study for the first time delineates: (i) molecular interactions of HSP60 with mortalin; (ii) their co- and exclusive localizations in vivo; (iii) their involvement in tumorigenesis; and (iv) their functional distinction in pathways involved in senescence.

2005-01-01

256

Identification of new interacting partners of the shuttling protein ubinuclein (Ubn-1)  

SciTech Connect

We have previously characterized ubinuclein (Ubn-1) as a NACos (Nuclear and Adherent junction Complex components) protein which interacts with viral or cellular transcription factors and the tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1. The purpose of the present study was to get more insights on the binding partners of Ubn-1, notably those present in the epithelial junctions. Using an in vivo assay of fluorescent protein-complementation assay (PCA), we demonstrated that the N-terminal domains of the Ubn-1 and ZO-1 proteins triggered a functional interaction inside the cell. Indeed, expression of both complementary fragments of venus fused to the N-terminal parts of Ubn-1 and ZO-1 was able to reconstitute a fluorescent venus protein. Furthermore, nuclear expression of the chimeric Ubn-1 triggered nuclear localization of the chimeric ZO-1. We could localize this interaction to the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1 using an in vitro pull-down assay. More precisely, a 184-amino acid region (from amino acids 39 to 223) at the N-terminal region of Ubn-1 was responsible for the interaction with the PDZ2 domain of ZO-1. Co-imunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy experiments also revealed the tight junction protein cingulin as a new interacting partner of Ubn-1. A proteomic approach based on mass spectrometry analysis (MS) was then undertaken to identify further binding partners of GST-Ubn-1 fusion protein in different subcellular fractions of human epithelial HT29 cells. LYRIC (Lysine-rich CEACAM1-associated protein) and RACK-1 (receptor for activated C-kinase) proteins were validated as bona fide interacting partners of Ubn-1. Altogether, these results suggest that Ubn-1 is a scaffold protein influencing protein subcellular localization and is involved in several processes such as cell-cell contact signalling or modulation of gene activity.

Lupo, Julien [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France) [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Conti, Audrey [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Sueur, Charlotte [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France) [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coly, Pierre-Alain [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Coute, Yohann [CEA, IRTSV, Laboratoire Biologie a Grande Echelle, F-38054 Grenoble (France) [CEA, IRTSV, Laboratoire Biologie a Grande Echelle, F-38054 Grenoble (France); INSERM, U1038, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble 1, F-38000 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Hunziker, Walter [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Epithelial Cell Biology Laboratory, Singapore 1386473 (Singapore)] [Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Epithelial Cell Biology Laboratory, Singapore 1386473 (Singapore); Burmeister, Wim P. [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)] [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Germi, Raphaelle [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France) [Unit of Virus Host Cell Interactions (UVHCI), UMI 3265 UJF-EMBL-CNRS, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 181, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); CHU de Grenoble, BP217, 38043 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Manet, Evelyne; Gruffat, Henri [INSERM U758, Unite de Virologie humaine, Lyon, 46 allee d'Italie F-69007 France (France) [INSERM U758, Unite de Virologie humaine, Lyon, 46 allee d'Italie F-69007 France (France); Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, F-69007 France (France); Universite Lyon1, F-69007, Lyon (France); and others

2012-03-10

257

Identification of YidC Residues That Define Interactions with the Sec Apparatus  

PubMed Central

In bacteria, a subset of membrane proteins insert into the membrane via the Sec apparatus with the assistance of the widely conserved essential membrane protein insertase YidC. After threading into the SecYEG translocon, transmembrane segments of nascent proteins are thought to exit the translocon via a lateral gate in SecY, where YidC facilitates their transfer into the lipid bilayer. Interactions between YidC and components of the Sec apparatus are critical to its function. The first periplasmic loop of YidC interacts directly with SecF. We sought to identify the regions or residues of YidC that interact with SecY or with additional components of the Sec apparatus other than SecDF. Using a synthetic lethal screen, we identified residues of YidC that, when mutated, led to dependence on SecDF for viability. Each residue identified is highly conserved among YidC homologs; most lie within transmembrane domains. Overexpression of SecY in the presence of two YidC mutants partially rescued viability in the absence of SecDF, suggesting that the corresponding wild-type YidC residues (G355 and M471) participate in interactions, direct or indirect, with SecY. Staphylococcus aureus YidC complemented depletion of YidC, but not of SecDF, in Escherichia coli. G355 of E. coli YidC is invariant in S. aureus YidC, suggesting that this highly conserved glycine serves a conserved function in interactions with SecY. This study demonstrates that transmembrane residues are critical in YidC interactions with the Sec apparatus and provides guidance on YidC residues of interest for future structure-function analyses.

Li, Zaoping; Boyd, Dana; Reindl, Martin

2014-01-01

258

Identification of YidC residues that define interactions with the Sec Apparatus.  

PubMed

In bacteria, a subset of membrane proteins insert into the membrane via the Sec apparatus with the assistance of the widely conserved essential membrane protein insertase YidC. After threading into the SecYEG translocon, transmembrane segments of nascent proteins are thought to exit the translocon via a lateral gate in SecY, where YidC facilitates their transfer into the lipid bilayer. Interactions between YidC and components of the Sec apparatus are critical to its function. The first periplasmic loop of YidC interacts directly with SecF. We sought to identify the regions or residues of YidC that interact with SecY or with additional components of the Sec apparatus other than SecDF. Using a synthetic lethal screen, we identified residues of YidC that, when mutated, led to dependence on SecDF for viability. Each residue identified is highly conserved among YidC homologs; most lie within transmembrane domains. Overexpression of SecY in the presence of two YidC mutants partially rescued viability in the absence of SecDF, suggesting that the corresponding wild-type YidC residues (G355 and M471) participate in interactions, direct or indirect, with SecY. Staphylococcus aureus YidC complemented depletion of YidC, but not of SecDF, in Escherichia coli. G355 of E. coli YidC is invariant in S. aureus YidC, suggesting that this highly conserved glycine serves a conserved function in interactions with SecY. This study demonstrates that transmembrane residues are critical in YidC interactions with the Sec apparatus and provides guidance on YidC residues of interest for future structure-function analyses. PMID:24187090

Li, Zaoping; Boyd, Dana; Reindl, Martin; Goldberg, Marcia B

2014-01-01

259

Identification of key residues involved in fibril formation by the conserved N-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2).  

PubMed

Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is expressed as a GPI-anchored protein on the merozoite surface. MSP2 is assumed to have a role in erythrocyte invasion and is a leading vaccine candidate. Recombinant MSP2 forms amyloid-like fibrils upon storage, as do peptides corresponding to sequences in the conserved N-terminal region, which constitutes the structural core of fibrils formed by full-length MSP2. We have investigated the roles of individual residues in fibril formation and local ordered structure in two peptides, a recombinant 25-residue peptide corresponding to the entire N-terminal domain of mature MSP2 and an 8-residue peptide from the central region of this domain (residues 8-15). Both peptides formed fibrils that were similar to amyloid-like fibrils formed by full-length MSP2. Phe11 and Ile12 have important roles both in stabilising local structure in these peptides and promoting fibril formation; the F11A and I12A mutants of MSP2(8-15) were essentially unstructured in solution and fibril formation at pH 7.4 and 4.7 was markedly retarded. The T10A mutant showed intermediate behaviour, having a less well defined structure than wild-type and slower fibril formation at pH 7.4. The mutation of Phe11 and Ile12 in MSP2(1-25) significantly retarded but did not abolish fibril formation, indicating that these residues also play a key role in fibril formation by the entire N-terminal conserved region. These mutations had little effect on the aggregation of full-length MSP2, however, suggesting that regions outside the conserved N-terminus have unanticipated importance for fibril formation in the full-length protein. PMID:20542076

Yang, Xiaodong; Adda, Christopher G; MacRaild, Christopher A; Low, Andrew; Zhang, Xuecheng; Zeng, Weiguang; Jackson, David C; Anders, Robin F; Norton, Raymond S

2010-10-01

260

Identification of the key differential transcriptional responses of human whole blood following TLR2 or TLR4 ligation in-vitro.  

PubMed

The use of human whole blood for transcriptomic analysis has potential advantages over the use of isolated immune cells for studying the transcriptional response to pathogens and their products. Whole blood stimulation can be carried out in a laboratory without the expertise or equipment to isolate immune cells from blood, with the added advantage of being able to undertake experiments using very small volumes of blood. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors which recognise highly conserved microbial products. Using the TLR2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) and the TLR4 ligand (LPS), human whole blood was stimulated for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 hours at which times mRNA was isolated and a comparative microarray was undertaken. A common NF?B transcriptional programme was identified following both TLR2 and TLR4 ligation which peaked at between 3 to 6 hours including upregulation of many of the NF?B family members. In contrast an interferon transcriptional response was observed following TLR4 but not TLR2 ligation as early as 1 hour post stimulation and peaking at 6 hours. These results recapitulate the findings observed in previously published studies using isolated murine and human myeloid cells indicating that in vitro stimulated human whole blood can be used to interrogate the early transcriptional kinetic response of innate cells to TLR ligands. Our study demonstrates that a transcriptomic analysis of mRNA isolated from human whole blood can delineate both the temporal response and the key transcriptional differences following TLR2 and TLR4 ligation. PMID:24842522

Blankley, Simon; Graham, Christine M; Howes, Ashleigh; Bloom, Chloe I; Berry, Matthew P R; Chaussabel, Damien; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Lipman, Marc; O'Garra, Anne

2014-01-01

261

Comparative in vivo toxicity of topical JP-8 jet fuel and its individual hydrocarbon components: identification of tridecane and tetradecane as key constituents responsible for dermal irritation.  

PubMed

Despite widespread exposure to military jet fuels, there remains a knowledge gap concerning the actual toxic entities responsible for irritation observed after topical fuel exposure. The present studies with individual hydrocarbon (HC) constituents of JP-8 jet fuel shed light on this issue. To mimic occupational scenarios, JP-8, 8 aliphatic HC (nonane, decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, hexadecane) and 6 aromatic HC (ethyl benzene, o-xylene, trimethyl benzene, cyclohexyl benzene, naphthalene, dimethyl naphthalene) soaked cotton fabrics were topically exposed to pigs for 1 day and with repeated daily exposures for 4 days. Erythema, epidermal thickness, and epidermal cell layers were quantitated. No erythema was noted in 1-day in vivo HC exposures but significant erythema was observed in 4-day tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, and JP-8 exposed sites. The aromatic HCs did not produce any macroscopic lesions in 1 or 4 days of in vivo exposures. Morphological observations revealed slight intercellular and intracellular epidermal edema in 4-day exposures with the aliphatic HCs. Epidermal thickness and number of cell layers significantly increased (p < 0.05) in tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, and JP-8-treated sites. No significant differences were observed in the aromatic HC-exposed sites. Subcorneal microabscesses containing inflammatory cells were observed with most of the long-chain aliphatic HCs and JP-8 in 4-day exposures. Ultrastructural studies depicted that jet fuel HC-induced cleft formation within intercellular lipid lamellar bilayers of the stratum corneum. The degree of damage to the skin was proportional to the length of in vivo HC exposures. These data coupled with absorption and toxicity studies of jet fuel HC revealed that specific HCs (tridecane and tetradecane) might be the key constituents responsible for jet fuel-induced skin irritation. PMID:15902969

Muhammad, F; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Riviere, J E

2005-01-01

262

N2O emission from a partial nitrification-anammox process and identification of a key biological process of N2O emission from anammox granules.  

PubMed

Emission of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) during biological wastewater treatment is of growing concern. The emission of N(2)O from a lab-scale two-reactor partial nitrification (PN)-anammox reactor was therefore determined in this study. The average emission of N(2)O from the PN and anammox process was 4.0±1.5% (9.6±3.2% of the removed nitrogen) and 0.1±0.07% (0.14±0.09% of the removed nitrogen) of the incoming nitrogen load, respectively. Thus, a larger part (97.5%) of N(2)O was emitted from the PN reactor. The total amount of N(2)O emission from the PN reactor was correlated to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) concentration in the PN effluent rather than DO concentration. In addition, further studies were performed to indentify a key biological process that is responsible for N(2)O emission from the anammox process (i.e., granules). In order to characterize N(2)O emission from the anammox granules, the in situ N(2)O production rate was determined by using microelectrodes for the first time, which was related to the spatial organization of microbial community of the granule as determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Microelectrode measurement revealed that the active N(2)O production zone was located in the inner part of the anammox granule, whereas the active ammonium consumption zone was located above the N(2)O production zone. Anammox bacteria were present throughout the granule, whereas ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were restricted to only the granule surface. In addition, addition of penicillin G that inhibits most of the heterotrophic denitrifiers and AOB completely inhibited N(2)O production in batch experiments. Based on these results obtained, denitrification by putative heterotrophic denitrifiers present in the inner part of the granule was considered the most probable cause of N(2)O emission from the anammox reactor (i.e., granules). PMID:21996609

Okabe, Satoshi; Oshiki, Mamoru; Takahashi, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Hisashi

2011-12-01

263

Identification of the Key Differential Transcriptional Responses of Human Whole Blood Following TLR2 or TLR4 Ligation In-Vitro  

PubMed Central

The use of human whole blood for transcriptomic analysis has potential advantages over the use of isolated immune cells for studying the transcriptional response to pathogens and their products. Whole blood stimulation can be carried out in a laboratory without the expertise or equipment to isolate immune cells from blood, with the added advantage of being able to undertake experiments using very small volumes of blood. Toll like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors which recognise highly conserved microbial products. Using the TLR2 ligand (Pam3CSK4) and the TLR4 ligand (LPS), human whole blood was stimulated for 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 hours at which times mRNA was isolated and a comparative microarray was undertaken. A common NF?B transcriptional programme was identified following both TLR2 and TLR4 ligation which peaked at between 3 to 6 hours including upregulation of many of the NF?B family members. In contrast an interferon transcriptional response was observed following TLR4 but not TLR2 ligation as early as 1 hour post stimulation and peaking at 6 hours. These results recapitulate the findings observed in previously published studies using isolated murine and human myeloid cells indicating that in vitro stimulated human whole blood can be used to interrogate the early transcriptional kinetic response of innate cells to TLR ligands. Our study demonstrates that a transcriptomic analysis of mRNA isolated from human whole blood can delineate both the temporal response and the key transcriptional differences following TLR2 and TLR4 ligation.

Blankley, Simon; Graham, Christine M.; Howes, Ashleigh; Bloom, Chloe I.; Berry, Matthew P. R.; Chaussabel, Damien; Pascual, Virginia; Banchereau, Jacques; Lipman, Marc; O'Garra, Anne

2014-01-01

264

Functional Dissection of the Major Structural Protein of Bluetongue Virus: Identification of Key Residues within VP7 Essential for Capsid Assembly  

PubMed Central

A lattice of VP7 trimers forms the surface of the icosahedral bluetongue virus (BTV) core. To investigate the role of VP7 oligomerization in core assembly, a series of residues for substitution were predicted based on crystal structures of BTV type 10 VP7 molecule targeting the monomer-monomer contacts within the trimer. Seven site-specific substitution mutations of VP7 have been created using cDNA clones and were employed to produce seven recombinant baculoviruses. The effects of these mutations on VP7 solubility, ability to trimerize and formation of core-like particles (CLPs) in the presence of the scaffolding VP3 protein, were investigated. Of the seven VP7 mutants examined, three severely affected the stability of CLP, while two other mutants had lesser effect on CLP stability. Only one mutant had no apparent effect on the formation of the stable capsid. One mutant in which the conserved tyrosine at residue 271 (lower domain helix 6) was replaced by arginine formed insoluble aggregates, implying an effect in the folding of the molecule despite the prediction that such a change would be accommodated. All six soluble VP7 mutants were purified, and their ability to trimerize was examined. All mutants, including those that did not form stable CLPs, assembled into stable trimers, implying that single substitution may not be sufficient to perturb the complex monomer-monomer contacts, although subtle changes within the VP7 trimer could destabilize the core. The study highlights some of the key residues that are crucial for BTV core assembly and illustrates how the structure of VP7 in isolation underrepresents the dynamic nature of the assembly process at the biological level.

Limn, Chang-Kwang; Staeuber, Norbert; Monastyrskaya, Katherine; Gouet, Patrice; Roy, Polly

2000-01-01

265

Microenvironmental interactions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: hints for pathogenesis and identification of targets for rational therapy.  

PubMed

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by the accumulation/expansion of a clonal population of small mature B lymphocytes in blood, bone marrow, and lymphoid organs. Although initial genetic events are considered primarily responsible for the first step(s) of neoplastic transformation, the development and progression of the CLL clone are thought to be affected by various micro-environmental signals that regulate proliferation and survival of malignant B cells. In the present review, we focus on specific interactions of CLL cells with the microenvironmental component, as they occur through the usage by CLL cells of specific molecular structures whose expression has been associated with prognosis, including: i) interactions of CLL cells via the surface BCR and dependent on specific molecular features of the BCR itself and/or the presence of the BCR-associated molecule ZAP- 70; ii) non-BCR-dependent proliferative and/or pro-survival interactions of CLL cells by CD49d and CD38. An overview of the putative drugs that could be employed to target specific molecules involved in CLL cells/tumor microenvironment interactions is also proposed in the closing chapter of the review. PMID:22591383

Dal Bo, Michele; Bomben, Riccardo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Gaidano, Gianluca; Deaglio, Silvia; Efremov, Dimitar G; Gattei, Valter

2012-01-01

266

Unambiguous Identification of miRNA:Target Site Interactions by Different Types of Ligation Reactions.  

PubMed

To exert regulatory function, miRNAs guide Argonaute (AGO) proteins to partially complementary sites on target RNAs. Crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) assays are state-of-the-art to map AGO binding sites, but assigning the targeting miRNA to these sites relies on bioinformatics predictions and is therefore indirect. To directly and unambiguously identify miRNA:target site interactions, we modified our CLIP methodology in C. elegans to experimentally ligate miRNAs to their target sites. Unexpectedly, ligation reactions also occurred in the absence of the exogenous ligase. Our in vivo data set and reanalysis of published mammalian AGO-CLIP data for miRNA-chimeras yielded ?17,000 miRNA:target site interactions. Analysis of interactions and extensive experimental validation of chimera-discovered targets of viral miRNAs suggest that our strategy identifies canonical, noncanonical, and nonconserved miRNA:targets. About 80% of miRNA interactions have perfect or partial seed complementarity. In summary, analysis of miRNA:target chimeras enables the systematic, context-specific, in vivo discovery of miRNA binding. PMID:24857550

Grosswendt, Stefanie; Filipchyk, Andrei; Manzano, Mark; Klironomos, Filippos; Schilling, Marcel; Herzog, Margareta; Gottwein, Eva; Rajewsky, Nikolaus

2014-06-19

267

Rotor blade-vortex interaction impulsive noise source identification and correlation with rotor wake predictions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An acoustic source localization scheme applicable to noncompact moving sources is developed and applied to the blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise data of a 40-percent scale BO-105 model rotor. A generalized rotor wake code is employed to predict possible VBI locations on the rotor disk and is found quite useful in interpreting the acoustic localization results. The highly varying directivity patterns

W. R. Splettstoesser; K. J. Schultz; Ruth M. Martin

1987-01-01

268

Identification of Karyopherin ?1 and ?7 Interacting Proteins in Porcine Tissue  

PubMed Central

Specialized trafficking systems in eukaryotic cells serve a critical role in partitioning intracellular proteins between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic proteins (including chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors) must gain access to the nucleus to exert their functions to properly program fundamental cellular events ranging from cell cycle progression to gene transcription. Knowing that nuclear import mediated by members of the karyopherin ? family of transport receptors plays a critical role in regulating development and differentiation, we wanted to determine the identity of proteins that are trafficked by this karyopherin ? pathway. To this end, we performed a GST pull-down assay using porcine orthologs of karyopherin ?1 (KPNA1) and karyopherin ?7 (KPNA7) and prey protein derived from porcine fibroblast cells and used a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach to determine the identity of KPNA1 and KPNA7 interacting proteins. Our screen revealed that the proteins that interact with KPNA1 and KPNA7 are generally nuclear proteins that possess nuclear localization signals. We further validated two candidate proteins from this screen and showed that they are able to be imported into the nucleus in vivo and also interact with members of the karyopherin ? family of proteins in vitro. Our results also reveal the utility of using a GST pull-down approach coupled with LC-MS/MS to screen for protein interaction partners in a non-traditional model system.

Park, Ki-Eun; Inerowicz, H. Dorota; Wang, Xin; Li, Yanfang; Koser, Stephanie; Cabot, Ryan A.

2012-01-01

269

PAINT: A Promoter Analysis and Interaction Network Generation Tool for Gene Regulatory Network Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a bioinformatics tool named PAINT that automates the promoter analy- sis of a given set of genes for the presence of transcription factor binding sites. Based on co- incidence of regulatory sites, this tool produces an interaction matrix that represents a can- didate transcriptional regulatory network. This tool currently consists of (1) a database of promoter sequences

Rajanikanth Vadigepalli; Praveen Chakravarthula; Daniel E. Zak; James S. Schwaber; Gregory E. Gonye

2003-01-01

270

Identification of interaction partners of the dynamin-like protein DynA from Bacillus subtilis  

PubMed Central

Membrane dynamics are involved in crucial processes in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Membrane fusion and fission events are often catalyzed by proteins that belong to the dynamin family of large GTPases. It has recently been shown that members of the dynamin superfamily are also present in many bacterial species. Although structural information about full length bacterial dynamin-like proteins is available, their molecular role remains unclear. We have shown previously that DynA, a dynamin-like protein found in the firmicute Bacillus subtilis is able to fuse membranes in vitro. In contrast to other members of the dynamin family this membrane remodeling activity was not dependent on guanosine nucleotides, but required magnesium. DynA assemblies localize in foci that are often enriched at sites of septation and hence a potential role during bacterial cytokinesis was discussed. In order to identify potential interaction partners we constructed a bacterial-two hybrid (B2H) library and screened for DynA interacting proteins. Three potential interaction partner have been identified, YneK, RNaseY (YmdA), and YwpG. Localization of these proteins phenocopies that of DynA, supporting the potential interaction in vivo.

Burmann, Frank; Sawant, Prachi; Bramkamp, Marc

2012-01-01

271

Identification of a small molecule that modulates platelet glycoprotein Ib-von Willebrand factor interaction.  

PubMed

The von Willebrand factor (VWF) A1-glycoprotein (GP) Ib? interaction is of major importance during thrombosis mainly at sites of high shear stress. Inhibitors of this interaction prevent platelet-dependent thrombus formation in vivo, without major bleeding complications. However, the size and/or protein nature of the inhibitors currently in development limit oral bioavailability and clinical development. We therefore aimed to search for a small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitor interfering with the VWF-GPIb? binding. After determination of putative small molecule binding pockets on the surface of VWF-A1 and GPIb? using site-finding algorithms and molecular dynamics, high throughput molecular docking was performed on both binding partners. A selection of compounds showing good in silico docking scores into the predicted pockets was retained for testing their in vitro effect on VWF-GPIb? complex formation, by which we identified a compound that surprisingly stimulated the VWF-GPIb? binding in a ristocetin cofactor ELISA and increased platelet adhesion in whole blood to collagen under arterial shear rate but in contrast inhibited ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. The selected compound adhering to the predicted binding partner GPIb? could be confirmed by saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy. We thus clearly identified a small molecule that modulates VWF-GPIb? binding and that will now serve as a starting point for further studies and chemical modifications to fully characterize the interaction and to manipulate specific activity of the compound. PMID:22232560

Broos, Katleen; Trekels, Mieke; Jose, Rani Alphonsa; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Vandenbulcke, Aline; Vandeputte, Nele; Venken, Tom; Egle, Brecht; De Borggraeve, Wim M; Deckmyn, Hans; De Maeyer, Marc

2012-03-16

272

Identification of a Small Molecule That Modulates Platelet Glycoprotein Ib-von Willebrand Factor Interaction*  

PubMed Central

The von Willebrand factor (VWF) A1-glycoprotein (GP) Ib? interaction is of major importance during thrombosis mainly at sites of high shear stress. Inhibitors of this interaction prevent platelet-dependent thrombus formation in vivo, without major bleeding complications. However, the size and/or protein nature of the inhibitors currently in development limit oral bioavailability and clinical development. We therefore aimed to search for a small molecule protein-protein interaction inhibitor interfering with the VWF-GPIb? binding. After determination of putative small molecule binding pockets on the surface of VWF-A1 and GPIb? using site-finding algorithms and molecular dynamics, high throughput molecular docking was performed on both binding partners. A selection of compounds showing good in silico docking scores into the predicted pockets was retained for testing their in vitro effect on VWF-GPIb? complex formation, by which we identified a compound that surprisingly stimulated the VWF-GPIb? binding in a ristocetin cofactor ELISA and increased platelet adhesion in whole blood to collagen under arterial shear rate but in contrast inhibited ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation. The selected compound adhering to the predicted binding partner GPIb? could be confirmed by saturation transfer difference NMR spectroscopy. We thus clearly identified a small molecule that modulates VWF-GPIb? binding and that will now serve as a starting point for further studies and chemical modifications to fully characterize the interaction and to manipulate specific activity of the compound.

Broos, Katleen; Trekels, Mieke; Jose, Rani Alphonsa; Demeulemeester, Jonas; Vandenbulcke, Aline; Vandeputte, Nele; Venken, Tom; Egle, Brecht; De Borggraeve, Wim M.; Deckmyn, Hans; De Maeyer, Marc

2012-01-01

273

Identification and characterization of multiple novel Rab-myosin Va interactions.  

PubMed

Myosin Va is a widely expressed actin-based motor protein that binds members of the Rab GTPase family (3A, 8A, 10, 11A, 27A) and is implicated in many intracellular trafficking processes. To our knowledge, myosin Va has not been tested in a systematic screen for interactions with the entire Rab GTPase family. To that end, we report a yeast two-hybrid screen of all human Rabs for myosin Va-binding ability and reveal 10 novel interactions (3B, 3C, 3D, 6A, 6A', 6B, 11B, 14, 25, 39B), which include interactions with three new Rab subfamilies (Rab6, Rab14, Rab39B). Of interest, myosin Va interacts with only a subset of the Rabs associated with the endocytic recycling and post-Golgi secretory systems. We demonstrate that myosin Va has three distinct Rab-binding domains on disparate regions of the motor (central stalk, an alternatively spliced exon, and the globular tail). Although the total pool of myosin Va is shared by several Rabs, Rab10 and Rab11 appear to be the major determinants of its recruitment to intracellular membranes. We also present evidence that myosin Va is necessary for maintaining a peripheral distribution of Rab11- and Rab14-positive endosomes. PMID:24006491

Lindsay, Andrew J; Jollivet, Florence; Horgan, Conor P; Khan, Amir R; Raposo, Graça; McCaffrey, Mary W; Goud, Bruno

2013-11-01

274

Identification and characterization of multiple novel Rab-myosin Va interactions  

PubMed Central

Myosin Va is a widely expressed actin-based motor protein that binds members of the Rab GTPase family (3A, 8A, 10, 11A, 27A) and is implicated in many intracellular trafficking processes. To our knowledge, myosin Va has not been tested in a systematic screen for interactions with the entire Rab GTPase family. To that end, we report a yeast two-hybrid screen of all human Rabs for myosin Va-binding ability and reveal 10 novel interactions (3B, 3C, 3D, 6A, 6A?, 6B, 11B, 14, 25, 39B), which include interactions with three new Rab subfamilies (Rab6, Rab14, Rab39B). Of interest, myosin Va interacts with only a subset of the Rabs associated with the endocytic recycling and post-Golgi secretory systems. We demonstrate that myosin Va has three distinct Rab-binding domains on disparate regions of the motor (central stalk, an alternatively spliced exon, and the globular tail). Although the total pool of myosin Va is shared by several Rabs, Rab10 and Rab11 appear to be the major determinants of its recruitment to intracellular membranes. We also present evidence that myosin Va is necessary for maintaining a peripheral distribution of Rab11- and Rab14-positive endosomes.

Lindsay, Andrew J.; Jollivet, Florence; Horgan, Conor P.; Khan, Amir R.; Raposo, Graca; McCaffrey, Mary W.; Goud, Bruno

2013-01-01

275

A chemical genomics approach to identification of interactions between bioactive molecules and alternative reading frame proteins.  

PubMed

Magic Tag® immobilisation of bioactive molecules coupled with bacteriophage display, followed by an ELISA assay, provides a protocol that can probe interactions of drugs with putative products of alternative initiation of translation as exemplified by the binding of immobilised flecainide to protein products of genes linked to sudden cardiac death. PMID:24019076

Taylor, Paul C; Clark, Andrew J; Marsh, Andrew; Singer, Donald R J; Dilly, Suzanne J

2013-10-25

276

Identification of novel RasGRF1 interacting partners by large-scale proteomic analysis.  

PubMed

The brain-specific Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factor RasGRF1 is a protein harbouring a complex array of structural motifs. It contains a pleckstrin homology (PH1) domain, a coiled coil region (CC) and an ilimaquinone (IQ) one in addition to the catalytic Ras and Rac exchange factor domains. In this study, we used the recombinant N-terminal PH1, CC and IQ region (PHCCIQ) fused to the chitin-binding domain to isolate interacting proteins from mouse brain extracts. The use of an advanced software tool, the Pep-Miner, allowed clustering similar spectra from multiple mass spectrometry analysis, simplifying and improving the analysis of the complex peptide mixture. The most representative classes of RasGRF1-interacting proteins were ribosomal and other RNA-binding proteins, cytoskeletal proteins and proteins involved in vesicular trafficking. We confirmed the interaction of some of the identified proteins using different experimental approaches. We also demonstrated an RNA-dependent association of the PHCCIQ moiety of RasGRF1 with ribosomal protein S6 and Ras-GTPase-activating protein SH3-domain binding protein 2. In addition, we found that purified total RNA binds to the PHCCIQ fusion protein and the recombinant protein associates with poly(A)-sepharose. These data indicate that RasGRF1 can interact with different protein categories and exhibits a potential RNA-binding property. PMID:18607774

Lavagni, Paola; Indrigo, Marzia; Colombo, Graziano; Martegani, Enzo; Rosenblum, Kobi; Gnesutta, Nerina; Zippel, Renata

2009-03-01

277

Identification and characterization of a novel interaction between pulmonary surfactant protein D and decorin.  

PubMed

Surfactant-associated protein D (SP-D) is a collectin that is present in lung surfactant and mucosal surfaces. Although SP-D regulates diverse functions, only a few proteins are known to bind to this collectin. Here we describe the co-purification of decorin, a novel SP-D-binding protein, from amniotic fluid. The human decorin that co-purified with SP-D is a 130-150-kDa proteoglycan, which has a 46-kDa protein core and approximately 90-kDa dermatan sulfate chain. Both native and recombinant decorin can bind to SP-D that is already bound to maltose-agarose matrix, and these SP-D-decorin complexes are dissociated at high salt (0.5-1.0 m NaCl) conditions, releasing the decorin. We further show that SP-D and decorin interact with each other (kd = 4 nm) by two mechanisms. First, the direct binding and competition experiments show that the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of SP-D binds in a calcium dependent-manner to the sulfated N-acetyl galactosamine moiety of the glycosaminoglycan chain. Second, complement component C1q, a complement protein that is known to interact with decorin core protein via its collagen-like region, partially blocks the interaction between decorin and native SP-D. This protein, however, does not block the interaction between decorin and SP-D(n/CRD), a recombinant fragment that lacks the N-terminal and collagen-like regions. Furthermore, the core protein, obtained by chondroitin ABC lyase treatment of decorin, binds SP-D, but not SP-D(n/CRD). These findings suggest that decorin core protein binds the collagen-like region of the SP-D. Concentrations of decorin and SP-D are negatively correlated to each other, in amniotic fluid, implying a functional relevance for SP-D-decorin interaction, in vivo. Collectively, our results show that carbohydrate recognition domains of SP-D interact with the dermatan sulfate moiety of decorin via lectin activity and that the core protein of decorin binds the collagen-like region of SP-D in vitro, and these interactions may be operative in vivo. PMID:12730206

Nadesalingam, Jeya; Bernal, Andres Lopez; Dodds, Alister W; Willis, Antony C; Mahoney, David J; Day, Anthony J; Reid, Kenneth B M; Palaniyar, Nades

2003-07-11

278

In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers  

PubMed Central

Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA–MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA–MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel, and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein–protein interactions in cells.

Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Megan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, James K.; Bruce, James E.

2008-01-01

279

In Vivo Identification of the Outer Membrane Protein OmcA-MtrC Interaction Network in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Cells Using Novel Hydrophobic Chemical Cross-Linkers  

SciTech Connect

Outer membrane (OM) cytochromes OmcA (SO1779) and MtrC (SO1778) are the integral components of electron transfer used by Shewanella oneidensis for anaerobic respiration of metal (hydr)oxides. Here the OmcA-MtrC interaction was identified in vivo using a novel hydrophobic chemical cross-linker (MRN) combined with immunoprecipitation techniques. In addition, identification of other OM proteins from the cross-linked complexes allows first visualization of the OmcA-MtrC interaction network. Further experiments on omcA and mtrC mutant cells showed OmcA plays a central role in the network interaction. For comparison, two commercial cross-linkers were also used in parallel and both resulted in fewer OM protein identifications, indicating the superior properties of MRN for identification of membrane protein interactions. Finally, comparison experiments of in vivo cross-linking and cell lysate cross-linking resulted in significantly different protein interaction data, demonstrating the importance of in vivo cross-linking for study of protein-protein interactions in cells.

Zhang, Haizhen; Tang, Xiaoting; Munske, Gerhard R.; Zakharova, Natalia L.; Yang, Li; Zheng, Chunxiang; Wolff, Meagan A.; Tolic, Nikola; Anderson, Gordon A.; Shi, Liang; Marshall, Matthew J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Bruce, James E.

2008-04-01

280

Identification of proteins that interact with alpha A-crystallin using a human proteome microarray  

PubMed Central

Purpose To identify proteins interacting with alpha A-crystallin (CRYAA) and to investigate the potential role that these protein interactions play in the function of CRYAA using a human proteome (HuProt) microarray. Methods The active full-length CRYAA protein corresponding to amino acids 1–173 of CRYAA was recombined. A HuProt microarray composed of 17,225 human full-length proteins with N-terminal glutathione S-transferase (GST) tags was used to identify protein–protein interactions. The probes were considered detectable when the signal to noise ratio (SNR) was over 1.2. The identified proteins were subjected to subsequent bioinformatics analysis using the DAVID database. Results The HuProt microarray results showed that the signals of 343 proteins were higher in the recombinant CRYAA group than in the control group. The SNR of 127 proteins was ? 1.2. The SNR of the following eight proteins was > 3.0: hematopoietic cell-specific Lyn substrate 1 (HCLS1), Kelch domain-containing 6 (KLHDC6), sarcoglycan delta (SGCD), KIAA1706 protein (KIAA1706), RNA guanylyltransferase and 5?-phosphatase (RNGTT), chromosome 10 open reading frame 57 (C10orf57), chromosome 9 open reading frame 52 (C9orf52), and plasminogen activator, urokinase receptor (PLAUR). The bioinformatics analysis revealed 127 proteins associated with phosphoproteins, alternative splicing, acetylation, DNA binding, the nuclear lumen, ribonucleotide binding, the cell cycle, WD40 repeats, protein transport, transcription factor activity, GTP binding, and cellular response to stress. Functional annotation clustering showed that they belong to cell cycle, organelle or nuclear lumen, protein transport, and DNA binding and repair clusters. CRYAA interacted with these proteins to maintain their solubility and decrease the accumulation of denatured target proteins. The protein–protein interactions may help CRYAA carry out multifaceted functions. Conclusions One-hundred and twenty-seven of 17,225 human full-length proteins were identified that interact with CRYAA. The advent of microarray analysis enables a better understanding of the functions of CRYAA as a molecular chaperone.

Fan, Qi; Huang, Lv-Zhen; Zhu, Xiang-Jia; Zhang, Ke-Ke; Ye, Hong-Fei; Luo, Yi; Sun, Xing-Huai; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

281

Biomarker identification for prostate cancer and lymph node metastasis from microarray data and protein interaction network using gene prioritization method.  

PubMed

Finding a genetic disease-related gene is not a trivial task. Therefore, computational methods are needed to present clues to the biomedical community to explore genes that are more likely to be related to a specific disease as biomarker. We present biomarker identification problem using gene prioritization method called gene prioritization from microarray data based on shortest paths, extended with structural and biological properties and edge flux using voting scheme (GP-MIDAS-VXEF). The method is based on finding relevant interactions on protein interaction networks, then scoring the genes using shortest paths and topological analysis, integrating the results using a voting scheme and a biological boosting. We applied two experiments, one is prostate primary and normal samples and the other is prostate primary tumor with and without lymph nodes metastasis. We used 137 truly prostate cancer genes as benchmark. In the first experiment, GP-MIDAS-VXEF outperforms all the other state-of-the-art methods in the benchmark by retrieving the truest related genes from the candidate set in the top 50 scores found. We applied the same technique to infer the significant biomarkers in prostate cancer with lymph nodes metastasis which is not established well. PMID:22654636

Arias, Carlos Roberto; Yeh, Hsiang-Yuan; Soo, Von-Wun

2012-01-01

282

Data integration and exploration for the identification of molecular mechanisms in tumor-immune cells interaction  

PubMed Central

Cancer progression is a complex process involving host-tumor interactions by multiple molecular and cellular factors of the tumor microenvironment. Tumor cells that challenge immune activity may be vulnerable to immune destruction. To address this question we have directed major efforts towards data integration and developed and installed a database for cancer immunology with more than 1700 patients and associated clinical data and biomolecular data. Mining of the database revealed novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of tumor-immune cell interaction. In this paper we present the computational tools used to analyze integrated clinical and biomolecular data. Specifically, we describe a database for heterogenous data types, the interfacing bioinformatics and statistical tools including clustering methods, survival analysis, as well as visualization methods. Additionally, we discuss generic issues relevant to the integration of clinical and biomolecular data, as well as recent developments in integrative data analyses including biomolecular network reconstruction and mathematical modeling.

2010-01-01

283

Label-Free Proteomic Identification of Endogenous, Insulin-Stimulated Interaction Partners of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protein-protein interactions are key to most cellular processes. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)-based proteomics combined with co-immunoprecipitation (CO-IP) has emerged as a powerful approach for studying protein complexes. However, a majority of systematic proteomics studies on protein-protein interactions involve the use of protein overexpression and/or epitope-tagged bait proteins, which might affect binding stoichiometry and lead to higher false positives. Here, we report an application of a straightforward, label-free CO-IP-MS/MS method, without the use of protein overexpression or protein tags, to the investigation of changes in the abundance of endogenous proteins associated with a bait protein, which is in this case insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), under basal and insulin stimulated conditions. IRS-1 plays a central role in the insulin signaling cascade. Defects in the protein-protein interactions involving IRS-1 may lead to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses identified eleven novel endogenous insulin-stimulated IRS-1 interaction partners in L6 myotubes reproducibly, including proteins play an important role in protein dephosphorylation [protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A, (PPP1R12A)], muscle contraction and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and protein folding, as well as protein synthesis. This novel application of label-free CO-IP-MS/MS quantification to assess endogenous interaction partners of a specific protein will prove useful for understanding how various cell stimuli regulate insulin signal transduction.

Geetha, Thangiah; Langlais, Paul; Luo, Moulun; Mapes, Rebekka; Lefort, Natalie; Chen, Shu-Chuan; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Yi, Zhengping

2011-03-01

284

Identification of genes interacting with rnt-1 through large-scale RNAi screening in Caenorhabditis elegans.  

PubMed

Although many critical roles of the RUNX family proteins have already been identified, little attention has been given to how these proteins interact with other factors. Elucidating RUNX protein interactions will help extend our understanding of their roles in normal development and tumorigenesis. In this study, we performed large-scale RNAi screening to identify genes that genetically interact with rnt-1, the sole homolog of RUNX protein in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. To this end, we took advantage of the fact that C. elegans can survive a severe loss of RNT-1 function with only mild phenotypes, and we looked for genes that caused a synthetic phenotype in the rnt-1 mutant background. We identified seven genes, three of which (cdk-8, cic-1, and sur-2) are involved in transcription, two of which (pgp-2 and cct-5) are involved in stress response, and two of which (D2045.7 and W09D10.4) are involved in signaling cascades, according to their functional gene ontology terms. We further confirmed that the CDK8-containing mediator complex genetically interacts with RNT-1 by showing that knockdown of each component of the CDK8 mediator complex caused a synthetic phenotype, that is, the exploded intestine through the vulva (Eiv) phenotype, in the rnt-1 mutant background. We also identified a putative target gene, acs-4, which is regulated by the RNT-1 and CDK8 mediator complex. Our results strengthen the notion that the CDK8 mediator complex may also act together with RUNX proteins in mammals. PMID:23979934

Lee, Kiho; Shim, Jiwon; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Junho

2013-10-01

285

Identification of novel inhibitors that disrupt STAT3-DNA interaction from a ?-AApeptide OBOC combinatorial library.  

PubMed

From a ?-AApeptide-based one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial library, we identified ?-AApeptides that can selectively inhibit STAT3-DNA interaction and suppress the expression levels of STAT3 target genes in intact cells. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the SH2 domain, the DNA binding domain of STAT3 is targetable for the development of a new generation of anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:24964402

Teng, Peng; Zhang, Xiaolei; Wu, Haifan; Qiao, Qiao; Sebti, Said M; Cai, Jianfeng

2014-08-14

286

Parallel processing based on ship maneuvering in identification of interaction force coefficients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parallel processing based on the free running model test was adopted to predict the interaction force coefficients (flow\\u000a straightening coefficient and wake fraction) of ship maneuvering. And the multi-population genetic algorithm (MPGA) based\\u000a on real coding that can contemporarily process the data of free running model and simulation of ship maneuvering was applied\\u000a to solve the problem. Accordingly the

Xiao-jian Liu; Guo-liang Huang; De-heng Deng

2008-01-01

287

Identification of cyclin D3 as a new interaction partner of lamin A\\/C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lamin A\\/C is a major component of the nuclear lamina. An intact nuclear lamina has been proposed to be necessary for muscle differentiation. Cyclin D3 is known to be upregulated in differentiated muscle cells and to form insoluble complexes with cell-cycle regulatory factors in these cells. We have examined the possibility of direct binding interactions between lamin A\\/C and cyclin

Indumathi Mariappan; Ritika Gurung; Subramonian Thanumalayan; Veena K.. Parnaik

2007-01-01

288

Aplysia synapse associated protein (APSAP): identification, characterization, and selective interactions with Shaker-type potassium channels.  

PubMed

The vertebrate post-synaptic density (PSD) is a region of high molecular complexity in which dynamic protein interactions modulate receptor localization and synaptic function. Members of the membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) family of proteins represent a major structural and functional component of the vertebrate PSD. In order to investigate the expression and significance of orthologous PSD components associated with the Aplysia sensory neuron-motor neuron synapse, we have cloned an Aplysia Dlg-MAGUK protein, which we identify as Aplysia synapse associated protein (ApSAP). As revealed by western blot, RT-PCR, and immunocytochemical analyses, ApSAP is predominantly expressed in the CNS and is located in both sensory neuron and motor neurons. The overall amino acid sequence of ApSAP is 55-61% identical to Drosophila Dlg and mammalian Dlg-MAGUK proteins, but is more highly conserved within L27, PDZ, SH3, and guanylate kinase domains. Because these conserved domains mediate salient interactions with receptors and other PSD components of the vertebrate synapse, we performed a series of GST pull-down assays using recombinant C-terminal tail proteins from various Aplysia receptors and channels containing C-terminal PDZ binding sequences. We have found that ApSAP selectively binds to an Aplysia Shaker-type channel AKv1.1, but not to (i) NMDA receptor subunit AcNR1-1, (ii) potassium channel AKv5.1, (iii) receptor tyrosine kinase ApTrkl, (iv) glutamate receptor ApGluR1/4, (v) glutamate receptor ApGluR2/3, or (vi) glutamate receptor ApGluR7. These findings provide preliminary information regarding the expression and interactions of Dlg-MAGUK proteins of the Aplysia CNS, and will inform questions aimed at a functional analysis of how interactions in a protein network such as the PSD may regulate synaptic strength. PMID:18182049

Reissner, Kathryn J; Boyle, Heather D; Ye, Xiaojing; Carew, Thomas J

2008-05-01

289

Identification and Plant Interaction of a Phyllobacterium sp., a Predominant Rhizobacterium of Young Sugar Beet Plants  

PubMed Central

The second most abundant bacterium on the root surface of young sugar beet plants was identified as a Phyllobacterium sp. (Rhizobiaceae) based on a comparison of the results of 39 conventional identification tests, 167 API tests, 30 antibiotic susceptibility tests, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic fingerprints of total cellular proteins with type strains of Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum and Phyllobacterium rubiacearum. It was found on 198 of 1,100 investigated plants between the 2nd and 10th leaf stage on three different fields in Belgium and one field in Spain. Densities ranged from 2 × 104 to 2 × 108 CFU/g of root. Five isolates exerted a broad-spectrum in vitro antifungal activity. DNA-DNA hybridizations showed that Phyllobacterium sp. does not contain DNA sequences that are homologous with the attachment genes chvA, chvB, the transferred-DNA (T-DNA) hormone genes iaaH and ipt from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, iaaM from A. tumefaciens and Pseudomonas savastanoi, or the nitrogenase genes nifHDK from Klebsiella pneumoniae. Phyllobacterium sp. produces indolylacetic acid in in vitro cultures and induces auxinlike effects when cocultivated with callus tissue of tobacco. When Phyllobacterium sp. was transformed with a Ti plasmid derivative, it gained the capacity to induce tumors on Kalanchoe daigremontiana. The potential role of Phyllobacterium sp. in this newly recognized niche is discussed. Images

Lambert, Bart; Joos, Henk; Dierickx, Sabine; Vantomme, Robert; Swings, Jean; Kersters, Karel; Van Montagu, Marc

1990-01-01

290

Identification of novel small molecules that inhibit protein-protein interactions between MAGE and KAP-1  

PubMed Central

The Class I MAGE proteins are normally expressed only in developing germ cells but are often aberrantly expressed in malignancies, particularly melanoma, making them good therapeutic targets. MAGE proteins promote tumor survival by binding to the RBCC region of KAP-1 and suppressing p53. Although, suppression of MAGE expression, by RNA interference, relieves p53 suppression and inhibits tumor growth, its therapeutic uses are limited by lack of methods for systemic delivery of small interfering RNA. To overcome this barrier, we sought to discover chemical compounds that inhibit binding between MAGE and KAP-1 proteins. Based on previously published effects of MAGE suppression, we developed a strategy for screening a small molecule library based on selective death of MAGE positive cells, activation of p53 and lack of caspase activity. We screened the Maybridge HitFinder library of compounds and eight compounds fulfilled these criteria. Seven of these compounds interfered with co-precipitation of MAGE and KAP-1, and three interfered with binding of MAGE and KAP-1 in a mammalian two hybrid assay. We now report identification of three potential compounds that interfere with MAGE/KAP-1 binding and can be developed as novel chemo-therapeutic agents for treatment of advanced melanoma and other cancers.

Bhatia, Neehar; Yang, Bing; Xiao, Tony Z.; Peters, Noel; Hoffmann, Michael F.; Longley, B. Jack

2011-01-01

291

Identification of dynein light chain 2 as an interaction partner of p21-activated kinase 1.  

PubMed

p21-Activated kinase 1 (PAK1), a member of the evolutionarily conserved PAK family of serine/threonine kinases, is essential for a variety of cellular functions. Our previous studies showed that PAK1 participated in the apoptotic pathway mediated by p110C. To further investigate its functions, we used the yeast two-hybrid system to screen a human fetal brain cDNA library and identified dynein light chain 2 (DLC2)/myosin light chain (MLC) as an interacting partner of PAK1. The association of PAK1 with DLC2 was further confirmed by in vitro binding assay. With the stimulation of EGF, PAK1 interacted with HA-DLC2 in vivo and relocalized in cytoplasm near the perinuclear location in confocal microscope analysis. The deletion analysis showed that the interaction of DLC2 with PAK1 occurred within the residues 210-332 of PAK1. For that studies showed that DLC2 was a subunit of myosin complex, so it is possible that PAK1 binds to DLC2 and transports by myosin complex. PMID:15845372

Lu, Jieqiong; Sun, Qing; Chen, Xiaoning; Wang, Hanzhou; Hu, Yun; Gu, Jianxin

2005-05-27

292

Identification of interactions in fractional-order systems with high dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article proposes an approach to identify fractional-order systems with sparse interaction structures and high dimensions when observation data are supposed to be experimentally available. This approach includes two steps: first, it is to estimate the value of the fractional order by taking into account the solution properties of fractional-order systems; second, it is to identify the interaction coefficients among the system variables by employing the compressed sensing technique. An error analysis is provided analytically for this approach and a further improved approach is also proposed. Moreover, the applicability of the proposed approach is fully illustrated by two examples: one is to estimate the mutual interactions in a complex dynamical network described by fractional-order systems, and the other is to identify a high fractional-order and homogeneous sequential differential equation, which is frequently used to describe viscoelastic phenomena. All the results demonstrate the feasibility of figuring out the system mechanisms behind the data experimentally observed in physical or biological systems with viscoelastic evolution characters.

Ji, Xiaoxi; Wu, Yu; Sheng, Wenbo; Lin, Wei

2014-06-01

293

Identification of Nuclear Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Bisphosphate-Interacting Proteins by Neomycin Extraction*  

PubMed Central

Considerable insight into phosphoinositide-regulated cytoplasmic functions has been gained by identifying phosphoinositide-effector proteins. Phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions however are fewer and less clear. To address this, we established a proteomic method based on neomycin extraction of intact nuclei to enrich for nuclear phosphoinositide-effector proteins. We identified 168 proteins harboring phosphoinositide-binding domains. Although the vast majority of these contained lysine/arginine-rich patches with the following motif, K/R-(Xn = 3–7)-K-X-K/R-K/R, we also identified a smaller subset of known phosphoinositide-binding proteins containing pleckstrin homology or plant homeodomain modules. Proteins with no prior history of phosphoinositide interaction were identified, some of which have functional roles in RNA splicing and processing and chromatin assembly. The remaining proteins represent potentially other novel nuclear phosphoinositide-effector proteins and as such strengthen our appreciation of phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions. DNA topology was exemplar among these: Biochemical assays validated our proteomic data supporting a direct interaction between phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and DNA Topoisomerase II?. In addition, a subset of neomycin extracted proteins were further validated as phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphate-interacting proteins by quantitative lipid pull downs. In summary, data sets such as this serve as a resource for a global view of phosphoinositide-regulated nuclear functions.

Lewis, Aurelia E.; Sommer, Lilly; Arntzen, Magnus ?.; Strahm, Yvan; Morrice, Nicholas A.; Divecha, Nullin; D'Santos, Clive S.

2011-01-01

294

Identification of gene interactions associated with disease from gene expression data using synergy networks  

PubMed Central

Background Analysis of microarray data has been used for the inference of gene-gene interactions. If, however, the aim is the discovery of disease-related biological mechanisms, then the criterion for defining such interactions must be specifically linked to disease. Results Here we present a computational methodology that jointly analyzes two sets of microarray data, one in the presence and one in the absence of a disease, identifying gene pairs whose correlation with disease is due to cooperative, rather than independent, contributions of genes, using the recently developed information theoretic measure of synergy. High levels of synergy in gene pairs indicates possible membership of the two genes in a shared pathway and leads to a graphical representation of inferred gene-gene interactions associated with disease, in the form of a "synergy network." We apply this technique on a set of publicly available prostate cancer expression data and successfully validate our results, confirming that they cannot be due to pure chance and providing a biological explanation for gene pairs with exceptionally high synergy. Conclusion Thus, synergy networks provide a computational methodology helpful for deriving "disease interactomes" from biological data. When coupled with additional biological knowledge, they can also be helpful for deciphering biological mechanisms responsible for disease.

Watkinson, John; Wang, Xiaodong; Zheng, Tian; Anastassiou, Dimitris

2008-01-01

295

Jointly They Edit: Examining the Impact of Community Identification on Political Interaction in Wikipedia  

PubMed Central

Background In their 2005 study, Adamic and Glance coined the memorable phrase ‘divided they blog’, referring to a trend of cyberbalkanization in the political blogosphere, with liberal and conservative blogs tending to link to other blogs with a similar political slant, and not to one another. As political discussion and activity increasingly moves online, the power of framing political discourses is shifting from mass media to social media. Methodology/Principal Findings Continued examination of political interactions online is critical, and we extend this line of research by examining the activities of political users within the Wikipedia community. First, we examined how users in Wikipedia choose to display their political affiliation. Next, we analyzed the patterns of cross-party interaction and community participation among those users proclaiming a political affiliation. In contrast to previous analyses of other social media, we did not find strong trends indicating a preference to interact with members of the same political party within the Wikipedia community. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that users who proclaim their political affiliation within the community tend to proclaim their identity as a ‘Wikipedian’ even more loudly. It seems that the shared identity of ‘being Wikipedian’ may be strong enough to triumph over other potentially divisive facets of personal identity, such as political affiliation.

Neff, Jessica J.; Laniado, David; Kappler, Karolin E.; Volkovich, Yana; Aragon, Pablo; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

2013-01-01

296

Identification of specific interaction of juvenile hormone binding protein with isocitrate dehydrogenase.  

PubMed

Juvenile hormone (JH) is essential for multiple physiological processes: it controls larval development, metamorphosis and adult reproduction. In insect hemolymph more than 99 % of JH is bound to juvenile hormone binding protein (JHBP), which protects JH from degradation by nonspecific hydrolases and serves as a carrier to supply the hormone to the target tissues. In Galleria mellonella hemolymph, JHBP is found in a complex with lipid-binding high molecular weight proteins (HMWP) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of JH. In this report, we present studies on the interaction of JHBP with low molecular weight proteins (LMWP) in the hemolymph. Using ligand blotting we found that JHBP interacts with a protein of about 44 kDa. To identify the protein that preferentially binds JHBP, a LMWP fraction was applied to a Sepharose-bound JHBP and, after washing, the column was eluted with free JHBP acting as a specific competitor or with carbonic anhydrase as a negative control. The eluted proteins were separated by SDS/PAGE and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Isocitrate dehydrogenase was identified as a component of the supramolecular complex of JHBP with hemolymph proteins. PMID:21403916

Zalewska, Marta; O?yhar, Andrzej; Kochman, Marian

2011-01-01

297

The toxofilin-actin-PP2C complex of Toxoplasma: identification of interacting domains  

PubMed Central

Toxofilin is a 27 kDa protein isolated from the human protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis. Toxofilin binds to G-actin, and in vitro studies have shown that it controls elongation of actin filaments by sequestering actin monomers. Toxofilin affinity for G-actin is controlled by the phosphorylation status of its Ser53, which depends on the activities of a casein kinase II and a type 2C serine/threonine phosphatase (PP2C). To get insights into the functional properties of toxofilin, we undertook a structure–function analysis of the protein using a combination of biochemical techniques. We identified a domain that was sufficient to sequester G-actin and that contains three peptide sequences selectively binding to G-actin. Two of these sequences are similar to sequences present in several G- and F-actin-binding proteins, while the third appears to be specific to toxofilin. Additionally, we identified two toxofilin domains that interact with PP2C, one of which contains the Ser53 substrate. In addition to characterizing the interacting domains of toxofilin with its partners, the present study also provides information on an in vivo-based approach to selectively and competitively disrupt the protein–protein interactions that are important to parasite motility.

Jan, Gaelle; Delorme, Violaine; David, Violaine; Revenu, Celine; Rebollo, Angelita; Cayla, Xavier; Tardieux, Isabelle

2006-01-01

298

Identification of farnesoid X receptor modulators by a fluorescence polarization-based interaction assay.  

PubMed

Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) serves as a receptor for chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and other bile acids, and it coordinates cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Because targeting the FXR-CDCA interaction might provide a way to regulate lipid homeostasis, we developed an FXR binding assay based on fluorescence polarization. Employing a fluorescently labeled CDCA (CDCA-F), we showed that CDCA-F selectively bound to the ligand binding domain of FXR (FXR-LBD) among nuclear receptors. The assay was then used for screening inhibitors against the FXR-CDCA interaction, thereby discovering four relatively potent inhibitors. The selected inhibitors were further studied for changes in intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence of FXR-LBD to gain structural insights into the interaction. Furthermore, transactivation effects of the inhibitors on the human bile salt excretory pump (BSEP) promoter were examined to reveal their cellular activities in the FXR-mediated pathway. Therefore, we demonstrated that the developed assay would offer an efficient primary screening tool for identifying FXR modulators. PMID:19913492

Han, Ki-Cheol; Kim, Jung Hwan; Kim, Kook-Han; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Yang, Eun Gyeong

2010-03-15

299

Identification of human hnRNP C1/C2 as a dengue virus NS1-interacting protein  

SciTech Connect

Dengue virus nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a key glycoprotein involved in the production of infectious virus and the pathogenesis of dengue diseases. Very little is known how NS1 interacts with host cellular proteins and functions in dengue virus-infected cells. This study aimed at identifying NS1-interacting host cellular proteins in dengue virus-infected cells by employing co-immunoprecipitation, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. Using lysates of dengue virus-infected human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293T), immunoprecipitation with an anti-NS1 monoclonal antibody revealed eight isoforms of dengue virus NS1 and a 40-kDa protein, which was subsequently identified by quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS) as human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) C1/C2. Further investigation by co-immunoprecipitation and co-localization confirmed the association of hnRNP C1/C2 and dengue virus NS1 proteins in dengue virus-infected cells. Their interaction may have implications in virus replication and/or cellular responses favorable to survival of the virus in host cells.

Noisakran, Sansanee [Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Adulyadejvikrom Building (12th Floor), Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sengsai, Suchada [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Adulyadejvikrom Building (12th Floor), Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Thongboonkerd, Visith; Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn [Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Adulyadejvikrom Building (12th Floor), Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Medical Proteomics Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand); Sinchaikul, Supachok [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Shui-Tein [Institute of Biological Chemistry and Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Biochemical Sciences, College of Life Science, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Puttikhunt, Chunya [Medical Biotechnology Unit, National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Medical Molecular Biology Unit, Department of Research and Development, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Adulyadejvikrom Building (12th Floor), Mahidol University, Bangkok 10700 (Thailand)] (and others)

2008-07-18

300

Identification of genes involved in radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by integrating gene ontology and protein-protein interaction networks.  

PubMed

Radioresistance remains one of the important factors in relapse and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Thus, it is imperative to identify genes involved in radioresistance and explore the underlying biological processes in the development of radioresistance. In this study, we used cDNA microarrays to select differential genes between radioresistant CNE-2R and parental CNE-2 cell lines. One hundred and eighty-three significantly differentially expressed genes (p<0.05) were identified, of which 138 genes were upregulated and 45 genes were downregulated in CNE-2R. We further employed publicly available bioinformatics related software, such as GOEAST and STRING to examine the relationship among differentially expressed genes. The results show that these genes were involved in type I interferon-mediated signaling pathway biological processes; the nodes tended to have high connectivity with the EGFR pathway, IFN-related pathways, NF-?B. The node STAT1 has high connectivity with other nodes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Finally, the reliability of microarray data was validated for selected genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results were consistent with the microarray data. Our study suggests that microarrays combined with gene ontology and protein interaction networks have great value in the identification of genes of radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma; genes involved in several biological processes and protein interaction networks may be relevant to NPC radioresistance; in particular, the verified genes CCL5, STAT1-?, STAT2 and GSTP1 may become potential biomarkers for predicting NPC response to radiotherapy. PMID:21874234

Guo, Ya; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Qu, Song; Li, Ling; Su, Fang; Li, Ye; Huang, Shi-Ting; Li, Dan-Rong

2012-01-01

301

Identification of severe potential drug-drug interactions using an Italian general-practitioner database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To analyze prescriptions in a general-practitioner database over 1 year to determine the frequency, the characteristics, and\\u000a the monitoring of the severe potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records from 16 general practitioners in the Veneto region, an area in northern Italy.\\u000a The study covered the period from January 1 to December 31, 2004. We selected all severe

L. Magro; A. Conforti; F. Del Zotti; R. Leone; M. L. Iorio; I. Meneghelli; D. Massignani; E. Visonà; U. Moretti

2008-01-01

302

Identification of Odorant-Receptor Interactions by Global Mapping of the Human Odorome  

PubMed Central

The human olfactory system recognizes a broad spectrum of odorants using approximately 400 different olfactory receptors (hORs). Although significant improvements of heterologous expression systems used to study interactions between ORs and odorant molecules have been made, screening the olfactory repertoire of hORs remains a tremendous challenge. We therefore developed a chemical systems level approach based on protein-protein association network to investigate novel hOR-odorant relationships. Using this new approach, we proposed and validated new bioactivities for odorant molecules and OR2W1, OR51E1 and OR5P3. As it remains largely unknown how human perception of odorants influence or prevent diseases, we also developed an odorant-protein matrix to explore global relationships between chemicals, biological targets and disease susceptibilities. We successfully experimentally demonstrated interactions between odorants and the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Overall, these results illustrate the potential of integrative systems chemical biology to explore the impact of odorant molecules on human health, i.e. human odorome.

Audouze, Karine; Tromelin, Anne; Le Bon, Anne Marie; Belloir, Christine; Petersen, Rasmus Koefoed; Kristiansen, Karsten; Brunak, S?ren; Taboureau, Olivier

2014-01-01

303

Identification of FBXO25-interacting Proteins Using an Integrated Proteomics Approach  

PubMed Central

FBXO25 is one of 68 human F-box proteins that serve as specificity factors for a family of ubiquitin ligases composed of Skp1, Rbx1, Cullin1 and F-box protein (SCF1) that are involved in targeting proteins for destruction across the ubiquitin proteasome system. We recently reported that the FBXO25 protein accumulates in novel subnuclear structures named FBXO25-associated nuclear domains (FANDs). Combining two-step affinity purification followed by mass spectrometry with a classical two-hybrid screen, we identified 132 novel potential FBXO25 interacting partners. One of the identified proteins, ?-actin, physically interacts through its N-terminus with FBXO25 and is enriched in the FBXO25 nuclear compartments. Inhibitors of actin polymerization promote a significant disruption of FANDs, indicating that they are compartments influenced by the organizational state of actin in the nucleus. Furthermore, FBXO25 antibodies interfered with RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro. Our results open new perspectives for the understanding of this novel compartment and its nuclear functions.

Teixeira, Felipe R.; Yokoo, Sami; Gartner, Carlos G.; Manfiolli, Adriana O.; Baqui, Munira M. A.; Assmann, Eliana M.; Maragno, Ana Leticia G. C.; Yu, Huijun; de Lanerolle, Primal; Kobarg, Jorg; Gygi, Steven P.; Gomes, Marcelo D.

2011-01-01

304

Systematic identification of transcriptional regulatory modules from protein-protein interaction networks.  

PubMed

Transcription factors (TFs) combine with co-factors to form transcriptional regulatory modules (TRMs) that regulate gene expression programs with spatiotemporal specificity. Here we present a novel and generic method (rTRM) for the reconstruction of TRMs that integrates genomic information from TF binding, cell type-specific gene expression and protein-protein interactions. rTRM was applied to reconstruct the TRMs specific for embryonic stem cells (ESC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), neural progenitor cells, trophoblast stem cells and distinct types of terminally differentiated CD4(+) T cells. The ESC and HSC TRM predictions were highly precise, yielding 77 and 96 proteins, of which ?75% have been independently shown to be involved in the regulation of these cell types. Furthermore, rTRM successfully identified a large number of bridging proteins with known roles in ESCs and HSCs, which could not have been identified using genomic approaches alone, as they lack the ability to bind specific DNA sequences. This highlights the advantage of rTRM over other methods that ignore PPI information, as proteins need to interact with other proteins to form complexes and perform specific functions. The prediction and experimental validation of the co-factors that endow master regulatory TFs with the capacity to select specific genomic sites, modulate the local epigenetic profile and integrate multiple signals will provide important mechanistic insights not only into how such TFs operate, but also into abnormal transcriptional states leading to disease. PMID:24137002

Diez, Diego; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

2014-01-01

305

Systematic identification of transcriptional regulatory modules from protein-protein interaction networks  

PubMed Central

Transcription factors (TFs) combine with co-factors to form transcriptional regulatory modules (TRMs) that regulate gene expression programs with spatiotemporal specificity. Here we present a novel and generic method (rTRM) for the reconstruction of TRMs that integrates genomic information from TF binding, cell type-specific gene expression and protein–protein interactions. rTRM was applied to reconstruct the TRMs specific for embryonic stem cells (ESC) and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), neural progenitor cells, trophoblast stem cells and distinct types of terminally differentiated CD4+ T cells. The ESC and HSC TRM predictions were highly precise, yielding 77 and 96 proteins, of which ?75% have been independently shown to be involved in the regulation of these cell types. Furthermore, rTRM successfully identified a large number of bridging proteins with known roles in ESCs and HSCs, which could not have been identified using genomic approaches alone, as they lack the ability to bind specific DNA sequences. This highlights the advantage of rTRM over other methods that ignore PPI information, as proteins need to interact with other proteins to form complexes and perform specific functions. The prediction and experimental validation of the co-factors that endow master regulatory TFs with the capacity to select specific genomic sites, modulate the local epigenetic profile and integrate multiple signals will provide important mechanistic insights not only into how such TFs operate, but also into abnormal transcriptional states leading to disease.

Diez, Diego; Hutchins, Andrew Paul; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego

2014-01-01

306

Identification of mammalin cytosolic proteins that can interact specifically with FACC  

SciTech Connect

Fanconi`s anemia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital anomalies and chromosomal instability. Although the gene defective in complementation group C (FACC) has been isolated, the biochemical function of the FACC-encoded polypeptide is poorly understood. We have shown previously that this protein resides predominantly in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells, and is thus unlikely to play a direct role in DNA repair. The intracellular interactions of FACC could help to elucidate its function. In order to search for cellular proteins that potentially interact with FACC, we have screened a number of nuclear and cytosolic extracts with a chimeric FACC-immunoglobulin affinity reagent bound to protein A-agarose beads. We identified at least three such proteins from cytosolic, but not nuclear, extracts of multiple human and other mammalian cell lines. These proteins failed to bind to other chimeric immunoglobulin molecules. We conclude that mammalian cells contain a family of proteins that have readily detectable FACC-binding activity. The identity of these proteins could shed light on the function of FACC.

Youssoufian, H.; Lu, C. [Brigham and Women`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Verlander, P. [Rockefeller Univ., NY (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

307

Identification of the DNA sequence that interacts with the gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor.  

PubMed

The gut-enriched Krüppel-like factor (GKLF) is a recently identified eukaryotic transcription factor that contains three C2H2zinc fingers. The amino acid sequence of the zinc finger portion of GKLF is closely related to several Krüppel proteins, including the lung Krüppel-like factor (LKLF), the erythroid Krüppel-like factor (EKLF) and the basic transcription element binding protein 2 (BTEB2). The DNA sequence to which GKLF binds has not been definitively established. In the present study we determined the DNA binding sequence of GKLF using highly purified recombinant GKLF in a target detection assay of an oligonucleotide library consisting of random sequences. Upon repeated rounds of selection and subsequent characterization of the selected sequences by base-specific mutagenesis a DNA with the sequence 5'-G/AG/AGGC/TGC/T-3' was found to contain the minimal essential binding site for GKLF. This sequence is present in the promoters of two previously characterized genes: the CACCC element of the beta-globin gene, which interacts with EKLF, and the basic transcription element (BTE) of the CYP1A1 gene, which interacts with Sp1 and several Sp1-like transcription factors. Moreover, the selected GKLF binding sequence was capable of mediating transactivation of a linked reporter gene by GKLF in co-transfection experiments. Our results establish GKLF as a sequence-specific transcription factor likely involved in regulation of expression of endogenous genes. PMID:9443972

Shields, J M; Yang, V W

1998-02-01

308

Identification of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Through a Combined Measurement of Axial and Scalar Couplings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the prospects for detecting weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in a number of phenomenological scenarios, with a detector composed of a target simultaneously sensitive to both spin-dependent and spin-independent couplings, as is the case of COUPP (Chicagoland Observatory for Underground Particle Physics). First, we show that sensitivity to both couplings optimizes chances of initial WIMP detection. Second, we demonstrate that, in case of detection, a comparison of the signal on two complementary targets, such as in COUPP CF3I and C4F10 bubble chambers, allows a significantly more precise determination of the dark matter axial and scalar couplings. This strategy would provide crucial information on the nature of the WIMPs and possibly allow discrimination between neutralino and Kaluza-Klein dark matter.

Bertone, G.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Collar, J. I.; Odom, B.

2007-10-01

309

Aerosol generation and identification for model studies of particle-lung interactions.  

PubMed

This article discusses the idea and set-up of a laboratory system for generating reproducible concentrated occupational aerosols containing metal compounds. A dust representative for 2 metal-machining workstations (an electric grinder and an electric disc cutter) was released from a fluidized-bed generator, and then sampled and compared in respect to concentration, particle size distribution, particle morphology and the content of metal elements (Fe, Al, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mg). The results indicate the presence of a significant number of irregularly-shaped respirable particles. Those particles contained mainly Fe and Al, and their composition was shown to depend on particle size. The proposed system of aerosol generation and collection can be used in studies of interactions between airborne particles and a model lung surfactant. PMID:20331917

Kondej, Dorota; Sosnowski, Tomasz R

2010-01-01

310

The interaction of ?-chymotrypsin with one persistent organic pollutant (dicofol): spectroscope and molecular modeling identification.  

PubMed

Great attention is devoted to persistent organic pollutant (POP), among which the pesticide dicofol is critical related to food safety and might raise the risk of cancer incidence. To take a comprehensive evaluation of its toxicity, we investigated its interaction with a serine protease ?-chymotrypsin by multi-spectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling method. UV-vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence, and circular dichroism data elucidated that dicofol unfolded the framework of ?-chymotrypsin and led to secondary structure changes. The fluorescence and lifetime assay determined the static quenching mode and binding parameters. As an auxiliary method, molecular modeling has displayed the specific binding site and information about binding forces and drug-residues distances which were consistent with conclusions from above. Additional, enzyme activity assay gave evidence at the functional aspect to clarify the fact that dicofol could contribute to the conformational changes and furthermore alter the function of the enzyme. PMID:22771722

Liu, Ying; Liu, Rutao

2012-09-01

311

Peptide labeling with photoactivatable trifunctional cadaverine derivative and identification of interacting partners by biotin transfer.  

PubMed

A new photoactivatable trifunctional cross-linker, cBED (cadaverine-2-[6-(biotinamido)-2-(p-azidobenzamido) hexanoamido]ethyl-1,3'-dithiopropionate), was synthesized by chemical conversion of sulfo-SBED (sulfosuccinimidyl-2-[6-(biotinamido)-2-(p-azidobenzamido) hexanoamido]ethyl-1,3'-dithiopropionate) with cadaverine. This cross-linker was purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and characterized using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis. cBED is based on sulfo-SBED that has a photoactivatable azido group, a cleavable disulfide bond for label transfer methods, and a biotin moiety for highly sensitive biotin/avidin detection. By ultraviolet (UV) light, the azido group is converted to a reactive nitrene, transforming transient bindings of interacting structures to covalent bonds. In contrast to the sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide (sulfo-NHS) moiety of sulfo-SBED, which attaches quite unspecifically to amino groups, cBED includes a cadaverine moiety that can be attached by transglutaminase more specifically to certain glutamine residues. For instance, thymosin ?4 can be labeled with cBED using tissue transglutaminase. By high-resolution HPLC/ESI-MS (electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry) and tandem MS (MS/MS) of the trypsin digest, it was established that glutamine residues at positions 23 and 36 were labeled, whereas Q39 showed no reactivity. The covalent binding of cBED to thymosin ?4 did not influence its G-actin sequestering activity, and the complex could be used to identify new interaction partners. Therefore, cBED can be used to better understand the multifunctional role of thymosin ?4 as well as of other proteins and peptides. PMID:24732115

App, Christine; Knop, Jana; Huff, Thomas; Seebahn, Angela; Becker, Cord-Michael; Iavarone, Federica; Castagnola, Massimo; Hannappel, Ewald

2014-07-01

312

Identification of ORC1/CDC6-Interacting Factors in Trypanosoma brucei Reveals Critical Features of Origin Recognition Complex Architecture  

PubMed Central

DNA Replication initiates by formation of a pre-replication complex on sequences termed origins. In eukaryotes, the pre-replication complex is composed of the Origin Recognition Complex (ORC), Cdc6 and the MCM replicative helicase in conjunction with Cdt1. Eukaryotic ORC is considered to be composed of six subunits, named Orc1–6, and monomeric Cdc6 is closely related in sequence to Orc1. However, ORC has been little explored in protists, and only a single ORC protein, related to both Orc1 and Cdc6, has been shown to act in DNA replication in Trypanosoma brucei. Here we identify three highly diverged putative T. brucei ORC components that interact with ORC1/CDC6 and contribute to cell division. Two of these factors are so diverged that we cannot determine if they are eukaryotic ORC subunit orthologues, or are parasite-specific replication factors. The other we show to be a highly diverged Orc4 orthologue, demonstrating that this is one of the most widely conserved ORC subunits in protists and revealing it to be a key element of eukaryotic ORC architecture. Additionally, we have examined interactions amongst the T. brucei MCM subunits and show that this has the conventional eukaryotic heterohexameric structure, suggesting that divergence in the T. brucei replication machinery is limited to the earliest steps in origin licensing.

Tiengwe, Calvin; Marcello, Lucio; Farr, Helen; Gadelha, Catarina; Burchmore, Richard; Barry, J. David; Bell, Stephen D.; McCulloch, Richard

2012-01-01

313

Identification of the interaction region between hemagglutinin components of the botulinum toxin complex.  

PubMed

The large toxin complex (L-TC) produced by Clostridium botulinum is formed from the M-TC (BoNT/NTNHA complex) by conjugation of M-TC with HA-33/HA-17 trimer consists of two HA-33 proteins and a single HA-17 protein. This association is mediated by HA-70, which interacts with HA-17. The current study aims to identify the regions of the HA-70 molecule that adhere to the HA-33/HA-17 complex. Products from limited proteolysis of HA-70 were resolved by SDS-PAGE and transferred onto PVDF membranes, where they were probed with HA-33/HA-17 in a far-western blot. Among the HA-70 fragments, HA-33/HA-17 bound to those containing at least the C-terminal half of the HA-70 molecule, but not those carrying the N-terminal half. Additional docking simulation analysis indicated that the HA-70 region Gln420-Tyr575 is responsible for binding to HA-17, which is consistent with the far-western blot data. The findings here reveal additional details concerning the three-dimensional structure of the functional HA sub-complex in the botulinum toxin complex. PMID:24472509

Suzuki, Tomonori; Miyashita, Shin-Ichiro; Hayashi, Shintaro; Miyata, Keita; Inui, Ken; Kondo, Yosuke; Miyazaki, Satoru; Ohyama, Tohru; Niwa, Koichi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Sagane, Yoshimasa

2014-04-01

314

Investigation of antioxidant interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and identification of synergistic antioxidant compounds.  

PubMed

The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali) and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida) demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV ?max, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1?1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs. PMID:24498048

Wang, Fei; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Qu, Yi; Sun, Tianlei; Luo, Ting; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

315

Identification of small subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase a as a lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1-interacting protein.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidylinositol acyltransferase 1 (LPIAT1), also known as MBOAT7, is a phospholipid acyltransferase that selectively incorporates arachidonic acid (AA) into the sn-2 position of phosphatidylinositol (PI). We previously demonstrated that LPIAT1 regulates AA content in PI and plays a crucial role in brain development in mice. However, how LPIAT1 is regulated and which proteins function cooperatively with LPIAT1 are unknown. In this study, using a split-ubiquitin membrane yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the small subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase a (ssSPTa) as an LPIAT1-interacting protein. ssSPTa co-immunoprecipitated and colocalized with LPIAT1 in cultured mammalian cells. Knockdown of ssSPTa decreased the LPIAT1-dependent incorporation of exogenous AA into PI but did not affect the in vitro enzyme activity of LPIAT1 in the microsomal fraction. Interestingly, knockdown of ssSPTa decreased the protein level of LPIAT1 in the crude mitochondrial fraction but not in total homogenate or the microsomal fraction. LPIAT1 was localized to the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), where AA-selective acyl-CoA synthetase is enriched. These results suggest that ssSPTa plays a role in fatty acid remodeling of PI, probably by facilitating the MAM localization of LPIAT1. PMID:23510452

Hirata, Yusuke; Yamamori, Natsumi; Kono, Nozomu; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Inoue, Takao; Arai, Hiroyuki

2013-05-01

316

Identification of a new Mpl-interacting protein, Atp5d.  

PubMed

Thrombopoietin (TPO) can regulate hematopoiesis and megakaryopoiesis via activation of its receptor, c-Mpl, and multiple downstream signal transduction pathways. Using the cytoplasmic domain of Mpl as bait, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening, and found that the protein Atp5d might associate with Mpl. Atp5d is known as the ? subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, but little is known about the function of dissociative Atp5d. The interaction between Mpl and Atp5d was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid system, mammalian two-hybrid assay, pull-down experiment, and co-immunoprecipitation study in vivo and in vitro. An additional immunofluorescence assay showed that the two proteins can colocalize along the plasma membrane in the cytoplasm. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we tested a series of cytoplasmic truncated mutations for their ability to bind Atp5d and found an association between Atp5d and the Aa98-113 domain of Mpl. The dissociation of Atp5d from Mpl after TPO stimulation suggests that Atp5d may be a new component of TPO signaling. PMID:24615392

Liu, Hongyan; Zhao, Zhenhu; Zhong, Yuxu; Shan, Yajun; Sun, Xiaohong; Mao, Bingzhi; Cong, Yuwen

2014-06-01

317

Investigation of Antioxidant Interactions between Radix Astragali and Cimicifuga foetida and Identification of Synergistic Antioxidant Compounds  

PubMed Central

The medicinal plants of Huang-qi (Radix Astragali) and Sheng-ma (Cimicifuga foetida) demonstrate significantly better antioxidant effects when used in combination than when used alone. However, the bioactive components and interactional mechanism underlying this synergistic action are still not well understood. In the present study, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay was employed to investigate the antioxidant capacity of single herbs and their combination with the purpose of screening synergistic antioxidant compounds from them. Chromatographic isolation was performed on silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 columns and HPLC, and consequently to yield formononetin, calycosin, ferulic acid and isoferulic acid, which were identified by their retention time, UV ?max, MS and MS/MS data. The combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin at a dose ratio of 1?1 resulted in significant synergy in scavenging DPPH radicals and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Furthermore, the protective effects of these four potential synergistic compounds were examined using H2O2-induced HepG2 Cells bioassay. Results revealed that the similar synergy was observed in the combination of isoferulic acid and calycosin. These findings might provide some theoretical basis for the purported synergistic efficiency of Huang-qi and Sheng-ma as functional foods, dietary supplements and medicinal drugs.

Wang, Fei; Zhao, Shancang; Li, Feng; Zhang, Bo; Qu, Yi; Sun, Tianlei; Luo, Ting; Li, Dapeng

2014-01-01

318

Identification and Analysis of the Interaction between Edc3 and Dcp2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae? †  

PubMed Central

Cap hydrolysis is a critical control point in the life of eukaryotic mRNAs and is catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Dcp1-Dcp2 complex. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decapping is modulated by several factors, including the Lsm family protein Edc3, which directly binds to Dcp2. We show that Edc3 binding to Dcp2 is mediated by a short peptide sequence located C terminal to the catalytic domain of Dcp2. This sequence is required for Edc3 to stimulate decapping activity of Dcp2 in vitro, for Dcp2 to efficiently accumulate in P-bodies, and for efficient degradation of the RPS28B mRNA, whose decay is enhanced by Edc3. In contrast, degradation of YRA1 pre-mRNA, another Edc3-regulated transcript, occurs independently from this region, suggesting that the effect of Edc3 on YRA1 is independent of its interaction with Dcp2. Deletion of the sequence also results in a subtle but significant defect in turnover of the MFA2pG reporter transcript, which is not affected by deletion of EDC3, suggesting that the region affects some other aspect of Dcp2 function in addition to binding Edc3. These results raise a model for Dcp2 recruitment to specific mRNAs where regions outside the catalytic core promote the formation of different complexes involved in mRNA decapping.

Harigaya, Yuriko; Jones, Brittnee N.; Muhlrad, Denise; Gross, John D.; Parker, Roy

2010-01-01

319

Interactions of Nitrifying Bacteria and Heterotrophs: Identification of a Micavibrio-Like Putative Predator of Nitrospira spp.  

PubMed Central

Chemolithoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria release soluble organic compounds, which can be substrates for heterotrophic microorganisms. The identities of these heterotrophs and the specificities of their interactions with nitrifiers are largely unknown. In this study, we incubated nitrifying activated sludge with 13C-labeled bicarbonate and used stable isotope probing of 16S rRNA to monitor the flow of carbon from uncultured nitrifiers to heterotrophs. To facilitate the identification of heterotrophs, the abundant 16S rRNA molecules from nitrifiers were depleted by catalytic oligonucleotides containing locked nucleic acids (LNAzymes), which specifically cut the 16S rRNA of defined target organisms. Among the 13C-labeled heterotrophs were organisms remotely related to Micavibrio, a microbial predator of Gram-negative bacteria. Fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a close spatial association of these organisms with microcolonies of nitrite-oxidizing sublineage I Nitrospira in sludge flocs. The high specificity of this interaction was confirmed by confocal microscopy and a novel image analysis method to quantify the localization patterns of biofilm microorganisms in three-dimensional (3-D) space. Other isotope-labeled bacteria, which were affiliated with Thermomonas, colocalized less frequently with nitrifiers and thus were commensals or saprophytes rather than specific symbionts or predators. These results suggest that Nitrospira spp. are subject to bacterial predation, which may influence the abundance and diversity of these nitrite oxidizers and the stability of nitrification in engineered and natural ecosystems. In silico screening of published next-generation sequencing data sets revealed a broad environmental distribution of the uncultured Micavibrio-like lineage.

Dolinsek, Jan; Lagkouvardos, Ilias; Wanek, Wolfgang; Wagner, Michael

2013-01-01

320

Computer-assisted identification and volumetric quantification of dynamic contrast enhancement in brain MRI: an interactive system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a dedicated segmentation system for tumor identification and volumetric quantification in dynamic contrast brain magnetic resonance (MR) scans. Our goal is to offer a practically useful tool at the end of clinicians in order to boost volumetric tumor assessment. The system is designed to work in an interactive mode such that maximizes the integration of computing capacity and clinical intelligence. We demonstrate the main functions of the system in terms of its functional flow and conduct preliminary validation using a representative pilot dataset. The system is inexpensive, user-friendly, easy to deploy and integrate with picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), and possible to be open-source, which enable it to potentially serve as a useful assistant for radiologists and oncologists. It is anticipated that in the future the system can be integrated into clinical workflow so that become routine available to help clinicians make more objective interpretations of treatment interventions and natural history of disease to best advocate patient needs.

Wu, Shandong; Avgeropoulos, Nicholas G.; Rippe, David J.

2013-03-01

321

Identification of molecular crystals capable of undergoing an acyl-transfer reaction based on intermolecular interactions in the crystal lattice.  

PubMed

Investigation of the intermolecular acyl-transfer reactivity in molecular crystals of myo-inositol orthoester derivatives and its correlation with crystal structures enabled us to identify the essential parameters to support efficient acyl-transfer reactions in crystals: 1)?the favorable geometry of the nucleophile (-OH) and the electrophile (C-O) and 2)?the molecular assembly, reinforced by C-H???? interactions, which supports a domino-type reaction in crystals. These parameters were used to identify another reactive crystal through a data-mining study of the Cambridge Structural Database. A 2:1 co-crystal of 2,3-naphthalene diol and its di-p-methylbenzoate was selected as a potentially reactive crystal and its reactivity was tested by heating the co-crystals in the presence of solid sodium carbonate. A facile intermolecular p-toluoyl group transfer was observed as predicted. The successful identification of reactive crystals opens up a new method for the detection of molecular crystals capable of exhibiting acyl-transfer reactivity. PMID:23934729

Tamboli, Majid I; Krishnaswamy, Shobhana; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Shashidhar, Mysore S

2013-09-16

322

Identification of stromal cell products that interact with pre-B cells  

PubMed Central

Our understanding of lympho-hematopoietic microenvironments is incomplete, and a new cloning strategy was developed to identify molecules that bind to B lineage lymphocyte precursors. A cell sorting procedure was used for initial enrichment of cDNAs from stromal cell mRNA that contained signal sequences and were therefore likely to encode transmembrane or secreted proteins. A second step involved expression of the library as soluble Ig fusion proteins. Finally, pools representing these proteins were screened for the ability to recognize pre-B cells. This approach resulted in the cloning of biglycan, syndecan 4, collagen type I, clusterin, matrix glycoprotein sc1, osteonectin, and one unknown molecule (designated SIM). The full-length cDNA of SIM revealed that it is a type I transmembrane protein, and its intracellular domain has weak homology with myosin heavy chain and related proteins. Staining of established cell lines and freshly isolated hematopoietic cells with the Ig fusion proteins revealed distinct patterns of reactivity and differential dependence on divalent cations. Biglycan-, sc1-, and SIM-Ig fusion proteins selectively increased interleukin 7-dependent proliferation of pre-B cells. Overexpression of the entire SIM protein affected the morphology of 293T cells, while expression of just the extracellular portion was without effect. Thus, a series of stromal cell surface molecules has been identified that interact with blood cell precursors. Three of them promoted the survival and/or proliferation of pre-B cells in culture, and all merit further study in relation to lympho-hematopoiesis.

1996-01-01

323

Identification of novel interaction between ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) and thioredoxin-1.  

PubMed

ADAM17, which is also known as TNF?-converting enzyme, is the major sheddase for the EGF receptor ligands and is considered to be one of the main proteases responsible for the ectodomain shedding of surface proteins. How a membrane-anchored proteinase with an extracellular catalytic domain can be activated by inside-out regulation is not completely understood. We characterized thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) as a partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain that could be involved in the regulation of ADAM17 activity. We induced the overexpression of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain in HEK293 cells, and ligands able to bind this domain were identified by MS after protein immunoprecipitation. Trx-1 was also validated as a ligand of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and full-length ADAM17 recombinant proteins by immunoblotting, immunolocalization, and solid phase binding assay. In addition, using nuclear magnetic resonance, it was shown in vitro that the titration of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain promotes changes in the conformation of Trx-1. The MS analysis of the cross-linked complexes showed cross-linking between the two proteins by lysine residues. To further evaluate the functional role of Trx-1, we used a heparin-binding EGF shedding cell model and observed that the overexpression of Trx-1 in HEK293 cells could decrease the activity of ADAM17, activated by either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or EGF. This study identifies Trx-1 as a novel interaction partner of the ADAM17 cytoplasmic domain and suggests that Trx-1 is a potential candidate that could be involved in ADAM17 activity regulation. PMID:23105116

Aragão, Annelize Z B; Nogueira, Maria Luiza C; Granato, Daniela C; Simabuco, Fernando M; Honorato, Rodrigo V; Hoffman, Zaira; Yokoo, Sami; Laurindo, Francisco R M; Squina, Fabio M; Zeri, Ana Carolina M; Oliveira, Paulo S L; Sherman, Nicholas E; Paes Leme, Adriana F

2012-12-14

324

Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of Mexican lime tree infected with "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia"  

PubMed Central

Background "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia", is the causative agent of witches' broom disease in Mexican lime trees (Citrus aurantifolia L.), and is responsible for major losses of Mexican lime trees in Southern Iran and Oman. The pathogen is strictly biotrophic, and thus is completely dependent on living host cells for its survival. The molecular basis of compatibility and disease development in this system is poorly understood. Therefore, we have applied a cDNA- amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) approach to analyze gene expression in Mexican lime trees infected by "Ca. Phytoplasma aurantifolia". Results We carried out cDNA-AFLP analysis on grafted infected Mexican lime trees of the susceptible cultivar at the representative symptoms stage. Selective amplifications with 43 primer combinations allowed the visualisation of 55 transcript-derived fragments that were expressed differentially between infected and non-infected leaves. We sequenced 51 fragments, 36 of which were identified as lime tree transcripts after homology searching. Of the 36 genes, 70.5% were down-regulated during infection and could be classified into various functional groups. We showed that Mexican lime tree genes that were homologous to known resistance genes tended to be repressed in response to infection. These included the genes for modifier of snc1 and autophagy protein 5. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes involved in metabolism, transcription, transport and cytoskeleton was observed, which included the genes for formin, importin ? 3, transducin, L-asparaginase, glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase, and RNA polymerase ?. In contrast, genes that encoded a proline-rich protein, ubiquitin-protein ligase, phosphatidyl glycerol specific phospholipase C-like, and serine/threonine-protein kinase were up-regulated during the infection. Conclusion The present study identifies a number of candidate genes that might be involved in the interaction of Mexican lime trees with "Candidatus Phytoplasma aurantifolia". These results should help to elucidate the molecular basis of the infection process and to identify genes that could be targeted to increase plant resistance and inhibit the growth and reproduction of the pathogen.

2011-01-01

325

Features analysis for identification of date and party hubs in protein interaction network of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

Background It has been understood that biological networks have modular organizations which are the sources of their observed complexity. Analysis of networks and motifs has shown that two types of hubs, party hubs and date hubs, are responsible for this complexity. Party hubs are local coordinators because of their high co-expressions with their partners, whereas date hubs display low co-expressions and are assumed as global connectors. However there is no mutual agreement on these concepts in related literature with different studies reporting their results on different data sets. We investigated whether there is a relation between the biological features of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins and their roles as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs, and date hubs. We propose a classifier that separates these four classes. Results We extracted different biological characteristics including amino acid sequences, domain contents, repeated domains, functional categories, biological processes, cellular compartments, disordered regions, and position specific scoring matrix from various sources. Several classifiers are examined and the best feature-sets based on average correct classification rate and correlation coefficients of the results are selected. We show that fusion of five feature-sets including domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, and composition pairs with two and one gaps provide the best discrimination with an average correct classification rate of 77%. Conclusions We study a variety of known biological feature-sets of the proteins and show that there is a relation between domains, Position Specific Scoring Matrix-400, cellular compartments level one, composition pairs with two and one gaps of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae's proteins, and their roles in the protein interaction network as non-hubs, intermediately connected, party hubs and date hubs. This study also confirms the possibility of predicting non-hubs, party hubs and date hubs based on their biological features with acceptable accuracy. If such a hypothesis is correct for other species as well, similar methods can be applied to predict the roles of proteins in those species.

2010-01-01

326

Identification of a PP2A-interacting protein that functions as a negative regulator of phosphatase activity in the ATM\\/ATR signaling pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein serine\\/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity must be tightly controlled to maintain cell homeostasis. Here, we report the identification of a previously uncharacterized mammalian protein, type 2A-interacting protein (TIP), as a novel regulatory protein of PP2A and the PP2A-like enzymes PP4 and PP6. TIP is a ubiquitously expressed protein and parallels the distribution of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Unlike its

J L McConnell; R J Gomez; L R A McCorvey; B K Law; B E Wadzinski

2007-01-01

327

Unnatural selection: talent identification and development in sport.  

PubMed

The early identification of talented individuals has become increasingly important across many performance domains. Current talent identification (TI) schemes in sport typically select on the basis of discrete, unidimensional measures at unstable periods in the athlete's development. In this article, the concept of talent is revised as a complex, dynamical system in which future behaviors emerge from an interaction of key performance determinants such as psychological behaviors, motor abilities, and physical characteristics. Key nonlinear dynamics concepts are related to TI approaches such as sensitivity to initial conditions, transitions, and exponential behavioral distributions. It is concluded that many TI models place an overemphasis on early identification rather than the development of potentially talented performers. A generic model of talent identification and development is proposed that addresses these issues and provides direction for future research. PMID:15629068

Abbott, Angela; Button, Chris; Pepping, Gert-Jan; Collins, Dave

2005-01-01

328

Identification of SHRUBBY, a SHORT-ROOT and SCARECROW interacting protein that controls root growth and radial patterning.  

PubMed

The timing and extent of cell division is particularly important for the growth and development of multicellular organisms. Roots of the model organism Arabidopsis thaliana have been widely studied as a paradigm for organ development in plants. In the Arabidopsis root, the plant-specific GRAS family transcription factors SHORT-ROOT (SHR) and SCARECROW (SCR) are key regulators of root growth and of the asymmetric cell divisions that separate the ground tissue into two separate layers: the endodermis and cortex. To elucidate the role of SHR in root development, we identified 17 SHR-interacting proteins. Among those isolated was At5g24740, which we named SHRUBBY (SHBY). SHBY is a vacuolar sorting protein with similarity to the gene responsible for Cohen syndrome in humans. Hypomorphic alleles of shby caused poor root growth, decreased meristematic activity and defects in radial patterning that are characterized by an increase in the number of cell divisions in the ground tissue that lead to extra cells in the cortex and endodermis, as well as additional cell layers. Analysis of genetic and molecular markers indicates that SHBY acts in a pathway that partially overlaps with SHR, SCR, PLETHORA1 and PLETHORA2 (PLT1 and PLT2). The shby-1 root phenotype was partially phenocopied by treatment of wild-type roots with the proteosome inhibitor MG132 or the gibberellic acid (GA) synthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PAC). Our results indicate that SHBY controls root growth downstream of GA in part through the regulation of SHR and SCR. PMID:23444357

Koizumi, Koji; Gallagher, Kimberly L

2013-03-01

329

Talent identification in youth soccer.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review article was firstly to evaluate the traditional approach to talent identification in youth soccer and secondly present pilot data on a more holistic method for talent identification. Research evidence exists to suggest that talent identification mechanisms that are predicated upon the physical (anthropometric) attributes of the early maturing individual only serve to identify current performance levels. Greater body mass and stature have both been related to faster ball shooting speed and vertical jump capacity respectively in elite youth soccer players. This approach, however, may prematurely exclude those late maturing individuals. Multiple physiological measures have also been used in an effort to determine key predictors of performance; with agility and sprint times, being identified as variables that could discriminate between elite and sub-elite groups of adolescent soccer players. Successful soccer performance is the product of multiple systems interacting with one another. Consequently, a more holistic approach to talent identification should be considered. Recent work, with elite youth soccer players, has considered whether multiple small-sided games could act as a talent identification tool in this population. The results demonstrated that there was a moderate agreement between the more technically gifted soccer player and success during multiple small-sided games. PMID:23046427

Unnithan, Viswanath; White, Jordan; Georgiou, Andreas; Iga, John; Drust, Barry

2012-01-01

330

Novel Insights into CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Signaling: A Key Interaction Identified between the Extracellular-3 Loop and Transmembrane Helix 2S?  

PubMed Central

Activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1) is modulated by aspartate residue D2.63176 in transmembrane helix (TMH) 2. Interestingly, D2.63 does not affect the affinity for ligand binding at the CB1 receptor. Studies in class A G protein-coupled receptors have suggested an ionic interaction between residues of TMH2 and 7. In this report, modeling studies identified residue K373 in the extracellular-3 (EC-3) loop in charged interactions with D2.63. We investigated this possibility by performing reciprocal mutations and biochemical studies. D2.63176A, K373A, D2.63176A-K373A, and the reciprocal mutant with the interacting residues juxtaposed D2.63176K-K373D were characterized using radioligand binding and guanosine 5?-3-O-(thio)triphosphate functional assays. None of the mutations resulted in a significant change in the binding affinity of N-(piperidiny-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride (SR141716A) or (?)-3cis -[2-hydroxyl-4-(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-[3-hydroxyl-propyl] cyclohexan-1-ol (CP55,940). Modeling studies indicated that binding-site interactions and energies of interaction for CP55,940 were similar between wild-type and mutant receptors. However, the signaling of CP55,940, and (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl](1-naphthalenyl)-methanone mesylate (WIN55,212-2) was impaired at the D2.63176A-K373A and the single-alanine mutants. In contrast, the reciprocal D2.63176K-K373D mutant regained function for both CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2. Computational results indicate that the D2.63176-K373 ionic interaction strongly influences the conformation(s) of the EC-3 loop, providing a structure-based rationale for the importance of the EC-3 loop to signal transduction in CB1. The putative ionic interaction results in the EC-3 loop pulling over the top (extracellular side) of the receptor; this EC-3 loop conformation may serve protective and mechanistic roles. These results suggest that the ionic interaction between D2.63176 and K373 is important for CB1 signal transduction.

Marcu, Jahan; Shore, Derek M.; Kapur, Ankur; Trznadel, Megan; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Reggio, Patricia H.

2013-01-01

331

Identification of microRNA-mRNA functional interactions in UVB-induced senescence of human diploid fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular senescence can be induced by a variety of extrinsic stimuli, and sustained exposure to sunlight is a key factor in photoaging of the skin. Accordingly, irradiation of skin fibroblasts by UVB light triggers cellular senescence, which is thought to contribute to extrinsic skin aging, although molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here, we addressed molecular mechanisms underlying UVB induced senescence of human diploid fibroblasts. Results We observed a parallel activation of the p53/p21WAF1 and p16INK4a/pRb pathways. Using genome-wide transcriptome analysis, we identified a transcriptional signature of UVB-induced senescence that was conserved in three independent strains of human diploid fibroblasts (HDF) from skin. In parallel, a comprehensive screen for microRNAs regulated during UVB-induced senescence was performed which identified five microRNAs that are significantly regulated during the process. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA-mRNA networks was performed to identify new functional mRNA targets with high confidence for miR-15a, miR-20a, miR-20b, miR-93, and miR-101. Already known targets of these miRNAs were identified in each case, validating the approach. Several new targets were identified for all of these miRNAs, with the potential to provide new insight in the process of UVB-induced senescence at a genome-wide level. Subsequent analysis was focused on miR-101 and its putative target gene Ezh2. We confirmed that Ezh2 is regulated by miR-101 in human fibroblasts, and found that both overexpression of miR-101 and downregulation of Ezh2 independently induce senescence in the absence of UVB irradiation. However, the downregulation of miR-101 was not sufficient to block the phenotype of UVB-induced senescence, suggesting that other UVB-induced processes induce the senescence response in a pathway redundant with upregulation of miR-101. Conclusion We performed a comprehensive screen for UVB-regulated microRNAs in human diploid fibroblasts, and identified a network of miRNA-mRNA interactions mediating UVB-induced senescence. In addition, miR-101 and Ezh2 were identified as key players in UVB-induced senescence of HDF.

2013-01-01

332

The Development of High-Quality Interaction and Thinking Alongside the Extension of Child-Initiated Learning into Key Stage One: A Whole School Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A UK East Midlands urban infant (four to seven years) school is working to design, implement and evaluate a new pedagogy across all three year groups in the school. The focus is on the implementation of a negotiated progressive skills matrix, centred on continuous and enhanced provision and on creating high-quality interactions between adults and…

Hood, Philip

2013-01-01

333

Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

2008-01-01

334

Carboxyl group footprinting mass spectrometry and molecular dynamics identify key interactions in the HER2-HER3 receptor tyrosine kinase interface.  

PubMed

The HER2 receptor tyrosine kinase is a driver oncogene in many human cancers, including breast and gastric cancer. Under physiologic levels of expression, HER2 heterodimerizes with other members of the EGF receptor/HER/ErbB family, and the HER2-HER3 dimer forms one of the most potent oncogenic receptor pairs. Previous structural biology studies have individually crystallized the kinase domains of HER2 and HER3, but the HER2-HER3 kinase domain heterodimer structure has yet to be solved. Using a reconstituted membrane system to form HER2-HER3 kinase domain heterodimers and carboxyl group footprinting mass spectrometry, we observed that HER2 and HER3 kinase domains preferentially form asymmetric heterodimers with HER3 and HER2 monomers occupying the donor and acceptor kinase positions, respectively. Conformational changes in the HER2 activation loop, as measured by changes in carboxyl group labeling, required both dimerization and nucleotide binding but did not require activation loop phosphorylation at Tyr-877. Molecular dynamics simulations on HER2-HER3 kinase dimers identify specific inter- and intramolecular interactions and were in good agreement with MS measurements. Specifically, several intermolecular ionic interactions between HER2 Lys-716-HER3 Glu-909, HER2 Glu-717-HER3 Lys-907, and HER2 Asp-871-HER3 Arg-948 were identified by molecular dynamics. We also evaluated the effect of the cancer-associated mutations HER2 D769H/D769Y, HER3 E909G, and HER3 R948K (also numbered HER3 E928G and R967K) on kinase activity in the context of this new structural model. This study provides valuable insights into the EGF receptor/HER/ErbB kinase structure and interactions, which can guide the design of future therapies. PMID:23843458

Collier, Timothy S; Diraviyam, Karthikeyan; Monsey, John; Shen, Wei; Sept, David; Bose, Ron

2013-08-30

335

Specific functional interactions of nucleotides at key ?3 and +4 positions flanking the initiation codon with components of the mammalian 48S translation initiation complex  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 1 maintains the fidelity of initiation codon selection and enables mammalian 43S preinitiation complexes to discriminate against AUG codons with a context that deviates from the optimum sequence GCC(A/G)CC AUGG, in which the purines at ?3 and +4 positions are most important. We hypothesize that eIF1 acts by antagonizing conformational changes that occur in ribosomal complexes upon codon–anticodon base-pairing during 48S initiation complex formation, and that the role of ?3 and +4 context nucleotides is to stabilize these changes by interacting with components of this complex. Here we report that U and G at +4 both UV-cross-linked to ribosomal protein (rp) S15 in 48S complexes. However, whereas U cross-linked strongly to C1696 and less well to AA1818–1819 in helix 44 of 18S rRNA, G cross-linked exclusively to AA1818–1819. U at ?3 cross-linked to rpS5 and eIF2?, whereas G cross-linked only to eIF2?. Results of UV cross-linking experiments and of assays of 48S complex formation done using ?-subunit-deficient eIF2 indicate that eIF2?’s interaction with the ?3 purine is responsible for recognition of the ?3 context position by 43S complexes and suggest that the +4 purine/AA1818–1819 interaction might be responsible for recognizing the +4 position.

Pisarev, Andrey V.; Kolupaeva, Victoria G.; Pisareva, Vera P.; Merrick, William C.; Hellen, Christopher U.T.; Pestova, Tatyana V.

2006-01-01

336

RUNX1 Is a Key Target in t(4;11) Leukemias that Contributes to Gene Activation through an AF4-MLL Complex Interaction  

PubMed Central

Summary The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (MLL) protein is an important epigenetic regulator required for the maintenance of gene activation during development. MLL chromosomal translocations produce novel fusion proteins that cause aggressive leukemias in humans. Individual MLL fusion proteins have distinct leukemic phenotypes even when expressed in the same cell type, but how this distinction is delineated on a molecular level is poorly understood. Here, we highlight a unique molecular mechanism whereby the RUNX1 gene is directly activated by MLL-AF4 and the RUNX1 protein interacts with the product of the reciprocal AF4-MLL translocation. These results support a mechanism of transformation whereby two oncogenic fusion proteins cooperate by activating a target gene and then modulating the function of its downstream product.

Wilkinson, Adam C.; Ballabio, Erica; Geng, Huimin; North, Phillip; Tapia, Marta; Kerry, Jon; Biswas, Debabrata; Roeder, Robert G.; Allis, C. David; Melnick, Ari; de Bruijn, Marella F.T.R.; Milne, Thomas A.

2013-01-01

337

Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa.  

PubMed

Application of 3.6 mm silicon (Si+) to the rose (Rosa hybrida) cultivar Smart increased the concentration of antimicrobial phenolic acids and flavonoids in response to infection by rose powdery mildew (Podosphaera pannosa). Simultaneously, the expression of genes coding for key enzymes in the phenylpropanoid pathway (phenylalanine ammonia lyase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and chalcone synthase) was up-regulated. The increase in phenolic compounds correlated with a 46% reduction in disease severity compared with inoculated leaves without Si application (Si-). Furthermore, Si application without pathogen inoculation induced gene expression and primed the accumulation of several phenolics compared with the uninoculated Si- control. Chlorogenic acid was the phenolic acid detected in the highest concentration, with an increase of more than 80% in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Among the quantified flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin were detected in the highest concentrations, and the rutin concentration increased more than 20-fold in Si+ inoculated compared with Si- uninoculated plants. Both rutin and chlorogenic acid had antimicrobial effects on P. pannosa, evidenced by reduced conidial germination and appressorium formation of the pathogen, both after spray application and infiltration into leaves. The application of rutin and chlorogenic acid reduced powdery mildew severity by 40% to 50%, and observation of an effect after leaf infiltration indicated that these two phenolics can be transported to the epidermal surface. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Si plays an active role in disease reduction in rose by inducing the production of antifungal phenolic metabolites as a response to powdery mildew infection. PMID:22021421

Shetty, Radhakrishna; Fretté, Xavier; Jensen, Birgit; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Jensen, Jens Due; Jørgensen, Hans Jørgen Lyngs; Newman, Mari-Anne; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

2011-12-01

338

Interaction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Set values for the initial position, velocity, and mass of the two particles, and click on the button "Initialize Animation" to play the animation using your specified values. Note, if m or v are too large, the particles may actually pass through one another which will seem a little strange. Note: the interaction between the particles is a "non-contact" interaction, much like the electrostatic force on two charges. Mathematically, it is actually a Hooke's law interaction.

Christian, Wolfgang; Belloni, Mario

2008-02-19

339

What is the Key to Classification?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lesson plan defines dichotomous key and its role in classification. Students learn how to make a key and identify important organisms from a biofilm community in Chesapeake Bay. An interactive, online key with photos and species profiles challenges students to identify 8 invertebrates and an interactive quiz helps them test their understanding. Designed for use with the MD Sea Grant "Biofilms & Biodiversity" activity. Outlines learning objectives, skills and processes, biology concepts covered, and related activities.

340

Identification of RNA Helicase A as a Cellular Factor That Interacts with Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein and Its Role in the Virus Life Cycle  

PubMed Central

Influenza A virus NS1 protein has multiple functions in the infected cell during the virus life cycle. Identification of novel cellular factors that interact with NS1 and understanding their functions in virus infection are of great interest. Recombinant viruses carrying a tagged NS1 are valuable for investigation of interactions between NS1 and cellular factors in the context of virus infection. Here, we report the generation of replication-competent recombinant influenza A viruses bearing a Strep tag in the NS1 protein. Purification of a protein complex associated with Strep-tagged NS1 from virus-infected cells followed by mass spectrometry revealed a number of attractive host factors. Among them, we focused our study on RNA helicase A (RHA) in this report. Through biomedical and functional analyses, we demonstrated that RHA interacts with NS1 in an RNA-dependent manner. Knockdown of RHA resulted in a significant reduction on virus yield and polymerase activity in a minigenome assay. Our cell-free viral genome replication assay showed that viral RNA replication and transcription can be enhanced by addition of RHA, and the enhanced effect of RHA required its ATP-dependent helicase activity. In summary, we established a system to identify cellular factors that interact with NS1 protein during virus infection and furthermore demonstrated that RHA interacts with NS1 and enhances viral replication and transcription.

Lin, Li; Li, Yang; Pyo, Hyun-Mi; Lu, Xinya; Raman, Sathya N. Thulasi; Liu, Qiang; Brown, Earl G.

2012-01-01

341

Filamin B Plays a Key Role in Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-induced Endothelial Cell Motility through Its Interaction with Rac-1 and Vav-2*  

PubMed Central

Actin-binding proteins filamin A (FLNA) and B (FLNB) are expressed in endothelial cells and play an essential role during vascular development. In order to investigate their role in adult endothelial cell function, we initially confirmed their expression pattern in different adult mouse tissues and cultured cell lines and found that FLNB expression is concentrated mainly in endothelial cells, whereas FLNA is more ubiquitously expressed. Functionally, small interfering RNA knockdown of endogenous FLNB in human umbilical vein endothelial cells inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced in vitro angiogenesis by decreasing endothelial cell migration capacity, whereas FLNA ablation did not alter these parameters. Moreover, FLNB-depleted cells increased their substrate adhesion with more focal adhesions. The molecular mechanism underlying this effect implicates modulation of small GTP-binding protein Rac-1 localization and activity, with altered activation of its downstream effectors p21 protein Cdc42/Rac-activated kinase (PAK)-4/5/6 and its activating guanine nucleotide exchange factor Vav-2. Moreover, our results suggest the existence of a signaling complex, including FLNB, Rac-1, and Vav-2, under basal conditions that would further interact with VEGFR2 and integrin ?v?5 after VEGF stimulation. In conclusion, our results reveal a crucial role for FLNB in endothelial cell migration and in the angiogenic process in adult endothelial cells.

del Valle-Perez, Beatriz; Martinez, Vanesa Gabriela; Lacasa-Salavert, Cristina; Figueras, Agnes; Shapiro, Sandor S.; Takafuta, Toshiro; Casanovas, Oriol; Capella, Gabriel; Ventura, Francesc; Vinals, Francesc

2010-01-01

342

Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm2 with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

Ocaña, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A.

2010-10-01

343

Laser Shock Processing of Metallic Materials: Coupling of Laser-Plasma Interaction and Material Behaviour Models for the Assessment of Key Process Issues  

SciTech Connect

Profiting by the increasing availability of laser sources delivering intensities above 109 W/cm{sup 2} with pulse energies in the range of several Joules and pulse widths in the range of nanoseconds, laser shock processing (LSP) is consolidating as an effective technology for the improvement of surface mechanical and corrosion resistance properties of metals. The main advantage of the laser shock processing technique consists on its capability of inducing a relatively deep compression residual stresses field into metallic alloy pieces allowing an improved mechanical behaviour, explicitly, the life improvement of the treated specimens against wear, crack growth and stress corrosion cracking. Although significant work from the experimental side has been contributed to explore the optimum conditions of application of the treatments and to assess their ultimate capability to provide enhanced mechanical behaviour to work-pieces of typical materials, only limited attempts have been developed in the way of full comprehension and predictive assessment of the characteristic physical processes and material transformations with a specific consideration of real material properties. In the present paper, a review on the physical issues dominating the development of LSP processes from a high intensity laser-matter interaction point of view is presented along with the theoretical and computational methods developed by the authors for their predictive assessment and practical results at laboratory scale on the application of the technique to different materials.

Ocana, J. L.; Morales, M.; Molpeceres, C.; Porro, J. A. [Centro Laser UPM. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Campus Sur UPM. Edificio La Arboleda. Ctra. de Valencia, km. 7.3. 28031 Madrid (Spain)

2010-10-08

344

Site-directed mutations and kinetic studies show key residues involved in alkylammonium interactions and reveal two sites for phosphorylcholine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphorylcholine (Pcho) to produce choline and inorganic phosphate. PchP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily (HAD) and possesses the three characteristic motifs of this family: motif I ((31)D and (33)D), motif II ((166)S), and motif III ((242)K, (261)G, (262)D and (267)D), which fold to form the catalytic site that binds the metal ion and the phosphate moiety of Pcho. Based on comparisons to the PHOSPHO1 and PHOSPHO2 human enzymes and the choline-binding proteins of Gram-(+) bacteria, we selected residues (42)E and (43)E and the aromatic triplet (82)YYY(84) for site-directed mutagenesis to study the interactions with Pcho and p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrates of PchP. Because mutations in (42)E, (43)E and the three tyrosine residues affect both the substrate affinity and the inhibitory effect produced by high Pcho concentrations, we postulate that two sites, one catalytic and one inhibitory, are present in PchP and that they are adjacent and share residues. PMID:21515416

Beassoni, Paola R; Otero, Lisandro H; Boetsch, Cristhian; Domenech, Carlos E; González-Nilo, Fernado D; Lisa, Angela T

2011-07-01

345

SINE RNA Induces Severe Developmental Defects in Arabidopsis thaliana and Interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a Key Member of the DCL1 Complex  

PubMed Central

The proper temporal and spatial expression of genes during plant development is governed, in part, by the regulatory activities of various types of small RNAs produced by the different RNAi pathways. Here we report that transgenic Arabidopsis plants constitutively expressing the rapeseed SB1 SINE retroposon exhibit developmental defects resembling those observed in some RNAi mutants. We show that SB1 RNA interacts with HYL1 (DRB1), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein (dsRBP) that associates with the Dicer homologue DCL1 to produce microRNAs. RNase V1 protection assays mapped the binding site of HYL1 to a SB1 region that mimics the hairpin structure of microRNA precursors. We also show that HYL1, upon binding to RNA substrates, induces conformational changes that force single-stranded RNA regions to adopt a structured helix-like conformation. Xenopus laevis ADAR1, but not Arabidopsis DRB4, binds SB1 RNA in the same region as HYL1, suggesting that SINE RNAs bind only a subset of dsRBPs. Consistently, DCL4-DRB4-dependent miRNA accumulation was unchanged in SB1 transgenic Arabidopsis, whereas DCL1-HYL1-dependent miRNA and DCL1-HYL1-DCL4-DRB4-dependent tasiRNA accumulation was decreased. We propose that SINE RNA can modulate the activity of the RNAi pathways in plants and possibly in other eukaryotes.

Elmayan, Taline; Vaucheret, Herve; Boko, Drasko; Jantsch, Michael F.; Deragon, Jean-Marc

2008-01-01

346

Assessing Effects and interactions among key variables affecting the growth of mixotrophic microalgae: pH, inoculum volume, and growth medium composition.  

PubMed

A 2(3) + 3 full factorial experimental design was used to evaluate growth rate and biomass productivity of four selected, high-biomass-yielding microalgae species,namely, Chlorella vulgaris (CV), Scenedesmus acutus (SA), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (CR), and Chlamydomonas debaryana (CD), in mixtures of growth medium (MWC) and wastewater at different proportions (from 20 to 50% of MWC) and at different pH (from 7 to 9). Multilinear regression analysis of the biomass productivity data showed that for SA and CD the biomass productivity was independent of the proportion of medium (MWC), while the growth of CV and CR slowed down in mixtures with high proportions of wastewater. However, the biomass productivity of SA was dependent on pH, while the growth of the other microalgae was independent of pH (7-9). When evaluating the influence of pH and proportion of medium, CD appeared most robust among the algae species, despite its lower biomass productivity. All the four species reduced 80-90% of the nitrate [Formula: see text] and 60-70% of the ammonia [Formula: see text] initially present in the wastewater:medium mixture, although the extent of the reduction was dependent on the initial [Formula: see text] ratio. Both SA and CV reduced ?20-25% of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) contained in the wastewater. This study shows the remarkable influence of certain variables that are often ignored in the search for optimal conditions of microalgal growth and also reveals the importance of considering interactions among growth variables in potential applications at large scale, particularly in the field of bioremediation. PMID:24274013

Ale, M T; Pinelo, M; Meyer, A S

2014-01-01

347

Key Management Using Biometrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The security of cryptosystems lies in three main factors: the complexity of the encryption algorithm, the length of the key, and safe storage of the key. Safe storage of the key, which is known as key management, is the most vulnerable area in the encryption process. Since biometrics requires the physical presence of the user, we can use biometric data

Haiyong Chen; Hongwei Sun; Kwok-Yan Lam

2007-01-01

348

Quantum identification system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and sequences are ``refueled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.

Dušek, Miloslav; Haderka, Ond?ej; Hendrych, Martin; Myška, Robert

1999-07-01

349

An identification procedure for foodborne microbial hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stepwise and interactive identification procedure for foodborne microbial hazards has been developed in which use is made of several levels of detail ranging from rough hazard identification to comprehensive hazard identification. This approach allows one to tackle the most obvious hazards first, before focusing on less obvious hazards. The interactive character of the identification procedure is based on the

Gerwen van S. J. C; Wit de J. C; S. Notermans; M. H. Zwietering

1997-01-01

350

Identification of a novel nuclear localization signal and speckle-targeting sequence of tuftelin-interacting protein 11, a splicing factor involved in spliceosome disassembly  

SciTech Connect

Tuftelin-interacting protein 11 (TFIP11) is a protein component of the spliceosome complex that promotes the release of the lariat-intron during late-stage splicing through a direct recruitment and interaction with DHX15/PRP43. Expression of TFIP11 is essential for cell and organismal survival. TFIP11 contains a G-patch domain, a signature motif of RNA-processing proteins that is responsible for TFIP11-DHX15 interactions. No other functional domains within TFIP11 have been described. TFIP11 is localized to distinct speckled regions within the cell nucleus, although excluded from the nucleolus. In this study sequential C-terminal deletions and mutational analyses have identified two novel protein elements in mouse TFIP11. The first domain covers amino acids 701-706 (VKDKFN) and is an atypical nuclear localization signal (NLS). The second domain is contained within amino acids 711-735 and defines TFIP11's distinct speckled nuclear localization. The identification of a novel TFIP11 nuclear speckle-targeting sequence (TFIP11-STS) suggests that this domain directly interacts with additional spliceosomal components. These data help define the mechanism of nuclear/nuclear speckle localization of the splicing factor TFIP11, with implications for it's function.

Tannukit, Sissada [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)] [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Crabb, Tara L.; Hertel, Klemens J. [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025 (United States)] [Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-4025 (United States); Wen, Xin [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)] [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States); Jans, David A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Nuclear Signalling Laboratory, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Paine, Michael L., E-mail: paine@usc.edu [Center for Craniofacial Molecular Biology, University of Southern California, 2250 Alcazar Street, CSA Rm103, Los Angeles, CA 90033-1004 (United States)

2009-12-18

351

Division protein interaction web: identification of a phylogenetically conserved common interactome between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

The ability of each of the 11 Streptococcus pneumoniae division proteins to interact with itself and with each of the remaining proteins was studied in 66 combinations of protein pairs, using a bacterial two-hybrid system. Interactions (homo- or hetero-dimerizations) were detected between 37 protein pairs, whereas 29 protein pairs did not interact. In some cases, positive interactions of the S. pneumoniae proteins were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments in Escherichia coli. Comparison between the S. pneumoniae division protein interaction web and that of E. coli, the only micro-organisms for which the whole division interactome has been described systematically, was also performed. At least nine division proteins, ZapA, FtsZ, FtsA, FtsK, FtsQ/DivIB, FtsB/DivIC, FtsL, FtsI and FtsW, are believed to have a conserved function between these bacteria and thus we may say that a significant part of the interactions are conserved. Out of 45 protein pairs tested in both bacteria, 30 showed the same behaviour: 23 interacted while seven did not. In agreement with these results, cross-interactions between S. pneumoniae proteins and the corresponding E. coli orthologues were observed. Taken together, these results suggest a phylogenetically conserved minimal common interactome of the division proteins. PMID:18832310

Maggi, Silvia; Massidda, Orietta; Luzi, Giuseppe; Fadda, Daniela; Paolozzi, Luciano; Ghelardini, Patrizia

2008-10-01

352

Identification of human protein interaction domains using an ORFeome-based yeast two-hybrid fragment library.  

PubMed

Physical interactions between proteins are essential for biological processes. Hence, there have been major efforts to elucidate the complete networks of protein-protein interactions, or "interactomes", of various organisms. Detailed descriptions of protein interaction networks should include information on the discrete domains that mediate these interactions, yet most large-scale efforts model interactions between whole proteins only. We previously developed a yeast two-hybrid-based strategy to systematically map interaction domains and generated a domain-based interactome network for 750 proteins involved in C. elegans early embryonic development. Here, we expand the concept of Y2H-based interaction domain mapping to the genome-wide level. We generated a human fragment library by randomly fragmenting the full-length open reading frames (ORFs) present in the human ORFeome collection. Screens using several proteins required for cell division or polarity establishment as baits demonstrate the ability to accurately identify interaction domains for human proteins using this approach, while the experimental quality of the Y2H data was independently verified in coaffinity purification assays. The library generation strategy can easily be adapted to generate libraries from full-length ORF collections of other organisms. PMID:23718855

Waaijers, Selma; Koorman, Thijs; Kerver, Jana; Boxem, Mike

2013-07-01

353

Mineral Identification  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Imagine you are hiking with your family and this shiney looking crystal catches your eye. You bring it home and no one in your family is able to tell you what it is. How do you find out? First you need to practice. Identifying minerals. Click on the following link. Identify all five minerals. On your peice of paper tell me their Name Color Luster Cleavage/Fracture Hardness Glenco simple mineral identification Now try and identify 7 real minerals using a virtual key. Answer the following questions What properties do you use to identify the mineral? Which ...

Rmesser

2010-11-16

354

The identification and characterisation of a functional interaction between arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase and topoisomerase II  

SciTech Connect

Topoisomerase II is required for the viability of all eukaryotic cells. It plays important roles in DNA replication, recombination, chromosome segregation, and the maintenance of the nuclear scaffold. Proteins that interact with and regulate this essential enzyme are of great interest. To investigate the role of proteins interacting with the N-terminal domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae topoisomerase II, we used a yeast two-hybrid protein interaction screen. We identified an interaction between arginyl-tRNA-protein transferase (Ate1) and the N-terminal domain of the S. cerevisiae topoisomerase II, including the potential site of interaction. Ate1 is a component of the N-end rule protein degradation pathway which targets proteins for degradation. We also propose a previously unidentified role for Ate1 in modulating the level of topoisomerase II through the cell cycle.

Barker, Catherine R. [University of Liverpool, School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, Henry Wellcome Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Gastroenterology, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Mouchel, Nathalie A.P. [Compton Paddock Laboratories, Frilsham Home Farm Business Unit, Yattendon, Thatcham RG 18 0XT (United Kingdom); Jenkins, John R. [University of Liverpool, School of Clinical Sciences, Division of Gastroenterology, Henry Wellcome Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Gastroenterology, Crown Street, Liverpool L69 3BX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: John.Jenkins@Liverpool.ac.uk

2006-04-07

355

Detection of in vivo interactions between Arabidopsis class A-HSFs, using a novel BiFC fragment, and identification of novel class B-HSF interacting proteins.  

PubMed

Class A heat shock factors (Hsfs) of Arabidopsis are known to function as transcriptional activators of stress genes. Genetic and functional analysis suggests that HsfA1a and HsfA1b are central regulators required in the early phase of the heat shock response, which have the capacity to functionally replace each other. In order to examine Hsf interaction in vivo, we conducted interaction assays using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) on Arabidopsis protoplasts co-transformed with suitable Hsf-YFP fusion genes. BiFC assays were quantified with confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, and confirmed with immunoprecipitation assays. For each Hsf we could not only demonstrate homomeric interactions but also detect heteromeric interaction between HsfA1a and HsfA1b. Truncated versions of these of Hsfs, containing deletions of the oligomerization domains (ODs), provided clear evidence that the ODs are required and sufficient for the HSF interaction in vivo. By contrast there was only homomeric but no heteromeric interaction detected between two different class B Hsf transcription factors (HsfB1 and HsfB2b) in a yeast two-hybrid assay. HsfB1/HsfB2b functions are not directly linked with the expression of conventional heat shock genes; class B Hsfs are devoid of the activation domain motif conserved in class A Hsfs. In order to identify other proteins interacting with HsfB1 and HsfB2b we performed yeast two-hybrid screenings of cDNA libraries. Three of the identified proteins were common to both screenings. This suggests that HsfB1 and HsfB2b may be involved in complex regulatory networks, which are linked to other stress responses and signaling processes. PMID:19945192

Li, Ming; Doll, Jasmin; Weckermann, Katrin; Oecking, Claudia; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Schöffl, Friedrich

2010-01-01

356

Identification of the potential regions of Epap-1 that interacts with V3 loop of HIV-1 gp120.  

PubMed

Early pregnancy associated protein-1 (Epap-1), a 90kDa glycoprotein present in first trimester placental tissue, inhibits HIV-1 entry through interaction with HIV-1 gp120 at V3 and C5 regions. In the present study, we have identified the specific 32 mer region of Epap-1 that can interact with V3 loop. This was achieved by docking between Epap-1 molecular model and gp120 and studying the interaction of peptides with gp120 in vitro. Out of four peptides analyzed, two peptides (P-2 and P-3) showed significant interaction with V3 domain (N=8; N=7) of gp120. In the studies conducted using soluble gp120 and virus, peptide P-2 has shown conserved interaction at V3 loop regions recognized by 257D and F425 antibodies and higher anti-viral activity. Also, P-2 inhibited cell fusion mediated dye transfer between gp120 expressing HL2/3 and CD4 expressing Sup T1 cells suggesting its inhibition of viral entry, which is further confirmed by its action on HIV infection mediated by Tat activated beta gal expression in TZM-bl cells. Further optimization of P-2 peptide showed that the anti-viral activity and gp120 interaction residues lie in the N-terminal region of the peptide. These results together suggest that P-2 inhibits viral entry through specific interaction at V3 loop region. PMID:23360764

Bhaskar, C; Reddy, Palakolanu S; Chandra, K Sarath; Sabde, Sudeep; Mitra, Debashis; Kondapi, Anand K

2013-04-01

357

Lead identification of novel and selective TYK2 inhibitors.  

PubMed

A therapeutic rationale is proposed for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), by selective targeting of TYK2. Hit triage, following a high-throughput screen for TYK2 inhibitors, revealed pyridine 1 as a promising starting point for lead identification. Initial expansion of 3 separate regions of the molecule led to eventual identification of cyclopropyl amide 46, a potent lead analog with good kinase selectivity, physicochemical properties, and pharmacokinetic profile. Analysis of the binding modes of the series in TYK2 and JAK2 crystal structures revealed key interactions leading to good TYK2 potency and design options for future optimization of selectivity. PMID:23867602

Liang, Jun; Tsui, Vickie; Van Abbema, Anne; Bao, Liang; Barrett, Kathy; Beresini, Maureen; Berezhkovskiy, Leo; Blair, Wade S; Chang, Christine; Driscoll, James; Eigenbrot, Charles; Ghilardi, Nico; Gibbons, Paul; Halladay, Jason; Johnson, Adam; Kohli, Pawan Bir; Lai, Yingjie; Liimatta, Marya; Mantik, Priscilla; Menghrajani, Kapil; Murray, Jeremy; Sambrone, Amy; Xiao, Yisong; Shia, Steven; Shin, Young; Smith, Jan; Sohn, Sue; Stanley, Mark; Ultsch, Mark; Zhang, Birong; Wu, Lawren C; Magnuson, Steven

2013-09-01

358

Identification and characterization of a Ca2+ -sensitive interaction of the vanilloid receptor TRPV1 with tubulin.  

PubMed

The vanilloid receptor TRPV1 plays a well-established functional role in the detection of a range of chemical and thermal noxious stimuli, such as those associated with tissue inflammation and the resulting pain. TRPV1 activation results in membrane depolarization, but may also trigger intracellular Ca2+ -signalling events. In a proteomic screen for proteins associated with the C-terminal sequence of TRPV1, we identified beta-tubulin as a specific TRPV1-interacting protein. We demonstrate that the TRPV1 C-terminal tail is capable of binding tubulin dimers, as well as of binding polymerized microtubules. The interaction is Ca2+ -sensitive, and affects microtubule properties, such as microtubule sensitivity towards low temperatures and nocodazole. Our data thus provide compelling evidence for the interaction of TRPV1 with the cytoskeleton. The Ca2+ -sensitivity of this interaction suggests that the microtubule cytoskeleton at the cell membrane may be a downstream effector of TRPV1 activation. PMID:15569253

Goswami, C; Dreger, M; Jahnel, R; Bogen, O; Gillen, C; Hucho, F

2004-12-01

359

Public Key Cryptography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes public key cryptography, also known as RSA, which is a system using two keys, one used to put a message into cipher and another used to decipher the message. Presents examples using small prime numbers. (MKR)

Tapson, Frank

1996-01-01

360

The Key to Security.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides tips on using low-tech, traditional key and lock systems for effectively securing university and college facilities. Discusses providing keys with utility patents as well as the need to design doors that offer greater deterrence to vandalism. (GR)

Kennedy, Mike

2001-01-01

361

NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction.  

PubMed

Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (?60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find that competition between the metabolites for binding is absent for most of these metabolites. These mappings in plasma mimics may thus open new opportunities for improved metabolic profiling of blood plasma. For instance, correct metabolite concentrations can be determined for the non-interacting metabolites and/or concentration corrections made for interacting metabolites. Secondly, the interacting metabolites could be used to act as reporters on HSA and fatty acid concentration in plasma, and thus potentially act as biomarker in diagnostic studies of trauma or cardiovascular diseases. Finally, we find in the blood plasma mimics that after ultrafiltration, commonly used to remove the protein from plasma, the measured concentration equals the total metabolite concentration, except for the strongest binding metabolite citrate. PMID:23357430

Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J; Girard, Frederic C; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S

2013-03-01

362

Identification of a Skp1-Like Protein Interacting with SFB, the Pollen S Determinant of the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility in Prunus1[W  

PubMed Central

Many species in Rosaceae, Solanaceae, and Plantaginaceae exhibit S-RNase-based self-incompatibility (SI). In this system, the pistil and pollen specificities are determined by S-RNase and the S locus F-box protein, respectively. The pollen S determinant F-box protein in Prunus (Rosaceae) is referred to by two different terms, SFB (for S-haplotype-specific F-box protein) and SLF (for S locus F box), whereas it is called SLF in Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae. Prunus SFB is thought to be a molecule indispensable for its cognate S-RNase to exert cytotoxicity and to arrest pollen tube growth in incompatible reactions. Although recent studies have demonstrated the molecular function of SCFSLF in the SI reaction of Solanaceae and Plantaginaceae, how SFB participates in the Prunus SI mechanism remains to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) SFB (PavSFB)-interacting Skp1-like1 (PavSSK1) using a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid screening against the pollen cDNA library. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PavSSK1 belongs to the same clade as Antirrhinum hispanicum SLF-interacting Skp1-like1 and Petunia hybrida SLF-interacting Skp1-like1 (PhSSK1). In yeast, PavSSK1 interacted not only with PavSFBs from different S haplotypes and Cullin1-likes (PavCul1s), but also with S-locus F-box-likes. A pull-down assay confirmed the interactions between PavSSK1 and PavSFB and between PavSSK1 and PavCul1s. These results collectively indicate that PavSSK1 could be a functional component of the SCF complex and that PavSFB may function as a component of the SCF complex. We discuss the molecular function of PavSFB in self-/nonself-recognition in the gametophytic SI of Prunus.

Matsumoto, Daiki; Yamane, Hisayo; Abe, Kazuyuki; Tao, Ryutaro

2012-01-01

363

Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with Human Airway Epithelial Cells: Adherence, Entry, Survival, and Identification of Potential Adhesins by Surface Proteome Analysis  

PubMed Central

This study examined the in vitro interaction between Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and human alveolar and nasal epithelial cells, demonstrating that M. leprae can enter both cell types and that both are capable of sustaining bacterial survival. Moreover, delivery of M. leprae to the nasal septum of mice resulted in macrophage and epithelial cell infection in the lung tissue, sustaining the idea that the airways constitute an important M. leprae entry route into the human body. Since critical aspects in understanding the mechanisms of infection are the identification and characterization of the adhesins involved in pathogen-host cell interaction, the nude mouse-derived M. leprae cell surface-exposed proteome was studied to uncover potentially relevant adhesin candidates. A total of 279 cell surface-exposed proteins were identified based on selective biotinylation, streptavidin-affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry; 11 of those proteins have been previously described as potential adhesins. In vitro assays with the recombinant forms of the histone-like protein (Hlp) and the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), considered to be major mycobacterial adhesins, confirmed their capacity to promote bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. Taking our data together, they suggest that the airway epithelium may act as a reservoir and/or portal of entry for M. leprae in humans. Moreover, our report sheds light on the potentially critical adhesins involved in M. leprae-epithelial cell interaction that may be useful in designing more effective tools for leprosy control.

Silva, Carlos A. M.; Danelishvili, Lia; McNamara, Michael; Berredo-Pinho, Marcia; Bildfell, Robert; Biet, Franck; Rodrigues, Luciana S.; Oliveira, Albanita V.

2013-01-01

364

Interaction of Mycobacterium leprae with human airway epithelial cells: adherence, entry, survival, and identification of potential adhesins by surface proteome analysis.  

PubMed

This study examined the in vitro interaction between Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, and human alveolar and nasal epithelial cells, demonstrating that M. leprae can enter both cell types and that both are capable of sustaining bacterial survival. Moreover, delivery of M. leprae to the nasal septum of mice resulted in macrophage and epithelial cell infection in the lung tissue, sustaining the idea that the airways constitute an important M. leprae entry route into the human body. Since critical aspects in understanding the mechanisms of infection are the identification and characterization of the adhesins involved in pathogen-host cell interaction, the nude mouse-derived M. leprae cell surface-exposed proteome was studied to uncover potentially relevant adhesin candidates. A total of 279 cell surface-exposed proteins were identified based on selective biotinylation, streptavidin-affinity purification, and shotgun mass spectrometry; 11 of those proteins have been previously described as potential adhesins. In vitro assays with the recombinant forms of the histone-like protein (Hlp) and the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA), considered to be major mycobacterial adhesins, confirmed their capacity to promote bacterial attachment to epithelial cells. Taking our data together, they suggest that the airway epithelium may act as a reservoir and/or portal of entry for M. leprae in humans. Moreover, our report sheds light on the potentially critical adhesins involved in M. leprae-epithelial cell interaction that may be useful in designing more effective tools for leprosy control. PMID:23670556

Silva, Carlos A M; Danelishvili, Lia; McNamara, Michael; Berredo-Pinho, Márcia; Bildfell, Robert; Biet, Franck; Rodrigues, Luciana S; Oliveira, Albanita V; Bermudez, Luiz E; Pessolani, Maria C V

2013-07-01

365

Work Keys USA.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Work Keys" is a comprehensive program for assessing and teaching workplace skills. This serial "special issue" features 18 first-hand reports on Work Keys projects in action in states across North America. They show how the Work Keys is helping businesses and educators solve the challenge of building a world-class work force. The reports are as…

Work Keys USA, 1998

1998-01-01

366

Certificateless Public Key Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces and makes concrete the concept of certiflcateless public key cryptography (CL-PKC), a model for the use of public key cryp- tography which avoids the inherent escrow of identity-based cryptography and yet which does not require certiflcates to guarantee the authenticity of public keys. The lack of certiflcates and the presence of an adversary who has access to

Sattam S. Al-riyami; Kenneth G. Paterson

2003-01-01

367

Keys to Scholarship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Up ahead, a foreboding wooden door showing wear from passage of earlier travelers is spotted. As the old porch light emits a pale yellow glow, a key ring emerges from deep inside the coat pocket. Searching for just the right key, the voyager settles on one that also shows age. As the key enters its receptacle and begins to turn, a clicking noise…

Hebert, Terri

2011-01-01

368

Binary Switch Key.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The code key provides an information code pattern for a switching network. The code key is a portable self contained switch setting device employing spring loaded key pins, protected by a retractable skirt and a positive locking plate for securing the pin...

E. C. Bean C. J. Creveling

1965-01-01

369

Megabits secure key rate quantum key distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum cryptography can provide unconditional secure communication between two authorized parties based on the basic principles of quantum mechanics. However, imperfect practical conditions limit its transmission distance and communication speed. Here, we implemented the differential phase shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) with an up-conversion-assisted hybrid photon detector (HPD) and achieved a 1.3 Mbits per second secure key rate over a 10 km fiber, which is tolerant against photon number splitting (PNS) attack, general collective attacks on individual photons and any other known sequential unambiguous state discrimination (USD) attacks.

Zhang, Q.; Takesue, H.; Honjo, T.; Wen, K.; Hirohata, T.; Suyama, M.; Takiguchi, Y.; Kamada, H.; Tokura, Y.; Tadanaga, O.; Nishida, Y.; Asobe, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

2009-04-01

370

Identification of a Suppressive Mechanism for Hedgehog Signaling through a Novel Interaction of Gli with 14-3-3*  

PubMed Central

Gli transcription factors are central effectors of Hedgehog signaling in development and tumorigenesis. Using a tandem affinity purification (TAP) strategy and mass spectrometry, we have found that Gli1 interacts with 14-3-3?, and that Gli2 and Gli3 also bind to 14-3-3? through homologous sites. This interaction depends on their phosphorylation, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), a known negative regulator of Hedgehog signaling serves as a responsible kinase. A Gli2 mutant engineered to eliminate this interaction exhibited increased transcriptional activity (2 ? 3×). Transcriptional repression by 14-3-3 binding was also observed with Gli3, when its N-terminal repressor domain was deleted. The phosphorylation sites responsible for the binding to 14-3-3 are distinct from those required for proteolysis, the known mechanism for PKA-induced repression of Hh signaling. Our data propose a novel mechanism in which PKA down-regulates Hedgehog signaling by promoting the interaction between Gli and 14-3-3 as well as proteolysis. Given the certain neuronal or malignant disorders in human caused by the abnormality of 17p13 encompassing 14-3-3? overlap with increased Hh signaling, the Gli-14-3-3 interaction may have pathological significance for those human diseases.

Asaoka, Yoshinari; Kanai, Fumihiko; Ichimura, Tohru; Tateishi, Keisuke; Tanaka, Yasuo; Ohta, Miki; Seto, Motoko; Tada, Motohisa; Ijichi, Hideaki; Ikenoue, Tsuneo; Kawabe, Takao; Isobe, Toshiaki; Yaffe, Michael B.; Omata, Masao

2010-01-01

371

AutoKey: human assisted key extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Key extraction is an inverse problem of finding the foreground, the background, and the alpha from an image and some hints. Although the chromakey solves this for a limited case (single background color), this is often too restrictive in practical situations. When the extraction from arbitrary background is necessary, this is currently done by a time consuming manual task. In

Tomoo Mitsunaga; Taku Yokoyama; Takashi Totsuka

1995-01-01

372

Mass spectrometric identification of proteins that interact through specific domains of the poly(A) binding protein  

PubMed Central

Poly(A) binding protein (PAB1) is involved in a number of RNA metabolic functions in eukaryotic cells and correspondingly is suggested to associate with a number of proteins. We have used mass spectrometric analysis to identify 55 non-ribosomal proteins that specifically interact with PAB1 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Because many of these factors may associate only indirectly with PAB1 by being components of the PAB1-mRNP structure, we additionally conducted mass spectrometric analyses on seven metabolically defined PAB1 deletion derivatives to delimit the interactions between these proteins and PAB1. These latter analyses identified 13 proteins whose associations with PAB1 were reduced by deleting one or another of PAB1’s defined domains. Included in this list of 13 proteins were the translation initiation factors eIF4G1 and eIF4G2, translation termination factor eRF3, and PBP2, all of whose previously known direct interactions with specific PAB1 domains were either confirmed, delimited, or extended. The remaining nine proteins that interacted through a specific PAB1 domain were CBF5, SLF1, UPF1, CBC1, SSD1, NOP77, yGR250c, NAB6, and GBP2. In further study, UPF1, involved in nonsense-mediated decay, was confirmed to interact with PAB1 through the RRM1 domain. We additionally established that while the RRM1 domain of PAB1 was required for UPF1-induced acceleration of deadenylation during nonsense-mediated decay, it was not required for the more critical step of acceleration of mRNA decapping. These results begin to identify the proteins most likely to interact with PAB1 and the domains of PAB1 through which these contacts are made.

Zhang, Chongxu; Nielsen, Maria E. O.; Chiang, Yueh-Chin; Kierkegaard, Morten; Wang, Xin; Lee, Darren J.; Andersen, Jens S.; Yao, Gang

2013-01-01

373

Crystal structures of resorcin[4]arene and pyrogallol[4]arene complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid. Model compounds for the recognition of the pipecolinyl ring, a key fragment of FK506, through C-H⋯? interaction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resorcin[4]arene (resorcinol cyclic tetramer, abbreviated as RCT) or pyrogallol[4]arene (pyrogallol cyclic tetramer, PCT) form host-guest 1:1 complexes with DL-pipecolinic acid (DL-pipeH), RCT·DL-pipeH·EtOH·8H2O (1), PCT DL-pipeH·EtOH·4H2O (2), and PCT·DL-pipeH·3H2O (3), whose crystal structures have been determined. In each complex, the pipeH ligand is incorporated into the bowl-shaped cavity of the RCT or PCT host molecules through C-H⋯? interactions between alkyl protons of the piperidine ring of pipeH and ?-rings of RCT or PCT, forming an [(RCT/PCT)·pipeH] structural fragment. In 1 and 3, two [(RCT/PCT) pipeH] fragments self-associate across an inversion center to form a guest-mediated, obliquely declined dimeric structure [(RCT/PCT)·L-pipeH·D-pipeH (RCT/PCT)]. In 2, each PCT-capped pipeH ligand bridges to two adjacent PCT molecules to form guest-mediated, optically-discrete helical polymers [PCT·L-pipeH]n or [PCT·D-pipeH]n. An 1H NMR experiment shows that the complexation through C-H⋯? interaction between the piperidine ring of pipeH and ?-rings of RCT or PCT occurs also in solution, with the binding constants of 9.7 ± 0.6 M-1 for RCT and 26.5 ± 1.5 M-1 for PCT. These complexes provide a synthetic model for the recognition of the pipecolinyl-ring moiety, a key constituent of immunosuppressant drugs such as FK506, FK520 or rapamycin, by their binding proteins through C-H⋯? interaction.

Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Kitamura, Yuji; Kato, Ryo; Murayama, Kazutaka; Aoki, Katsuyuki

2014-01-01

374

Identification of the Matriptase Second CUB Domain as the Secondary Site for Interaction with Hepatocyte Growth Factor Activator Inhibitor Type-1*  

PubMed Central

Matriptase is a type II transmembrane serine protease comprising 855 amino acid residues. The extracellular region of matriptase comprises a noncatalytic stem domain (containing two tandem repeats of complement proteases C1r/C1s-urchin embryonic growth factor-bone morphogenetic protein (CUB) domain) and a catalytic serine protease domain. The stem domain of matriptase contains site(s) for facilitating the interaction of this protease with the endogenous inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type-1 (HAI-1). The present study aimed to identify these site(s). Analyses using a secreted variant of recombinant matriptase comprising the entire extracellular domain (MAT), its truncated variants, and a recombinant HAI-1 variant with an entire extracellular domain (HAI-1–58K) revealed that the second CUB domain (CUB domain II, Cys340–Pro452) likely contains the site(s) of interest. We also found that MAT undergoes cleavage between Lys379 and Val380 within CUB domain II and that the C-terminal residues after Val380 are responsible for facilitating the interaction with HAI-1–58K. A synthetic peptide corresponding to Val380–Asp390 markedly increased the matriptase-inhibiting activity of HAI-1–58K, whereas the peptides corresponding to Val380–Val389 and Phe382–Asp390 had no effect. HAI-1–58K precipitated with immobilized streptavidin resins to which a synthetic peptide Val380–Pro392 with a biotinylated lysine residue at its C terminus was bound, suggesting direct interaction between CUB domain II and HAI-1. These results led to the identification of the matriptase CUB domain II, which facilitates the primary inhibitory interaction between this protease and HAI-1.

Inouye, Kuniyo; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Yasumoto, Makoto; Kojima, Kenji; Mochida, Seiya; Fushiki, Tohru

2010-01-01

375

Systems Integration of Biodefense Omics Data for Analysis of Pathogen-Host Interactions and Identification of Potential Targets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIAID (National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Biodefense Proteomics program aims to identify targets for potential vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics for agents of concern in bioterrorism, including bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens. The program includes seven Proteomics Research Centers, generating diverse types of pathogen-host data, including mass spectrometry, microarray transcriptional profiles, protein interactions, protein structures and biological reagents.

Peter B. McGarvey; Hongzhan Huang; Raja Mazumder; Jian Zhang; Yongxing Chen; Chengdong Zhang; Stephen Cammer; Rebecca Will; Margie Odle; Bruno Sobral; Margaret Moore; Cathy H. Wu; Jörg Hoheisel

2009-01-01

376

Identification and characterization of cDNAs encoding four novel proteins that interact with translin associated factor-X.  

PubMed

Translin-associated factor X (TRAX) is the predominantly cytoplasmic binding partner of TB-RBP/translin in mouse testis. Four mouse testis cDNAs encoding specific TRAX-interacting proteins were isolated from a yeast two-hybrid library screen. One novel cDNA designated Tsnaxip1 (TRAX-interacting protein-1) encodes 709 amino acids. We isolated a cDNA encoding the 427 carboxy-terminal amino acids of MEA-2, a Golgi-associated, maleenhanced autoantigen; a cDNA encoding 429 amino acids with 73% homology to centrosomal Akap9; and a cDNA encoding 346 amino acids with 75% homology to SUN1, a predicted human protein that contains a SUN domain (which is present in some perinuclear proteins). Interactions were verified using in vitro synthesized fusion proteins. All four genes were expressed in the testis and enriched in germ cells. Confocal microscopy studies using green fluorescent protein fusion proteins determined that these TRAX-interacting proteins colocalize with TRAX. The data suggest that TRAX may have a function associated with perinuclear organelles during spermatogenesis. PMID:12036294

Bray, Jeffrey D; Chennathukuzhi, Vargheese M; Hecht, Norman B

2002-06-01

377

Identification of Factor Xa Residues Critical for Interaction with Protein Z-dependent Protease Inhibitor: Both Active-site and Exosite Interactions Are Required for Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor (ZPI) is a plasma serpin which can rapidly inactivate factor Xa (fXa) in the presence of protein Z (PZ), negatively charged phospholipids and Ca2+. To investigate the mechanism by which ZPI inactivates fXa, we expressed the serpin in mammalian cells and characterized its reactivity with both wild-type and selected mutants of fXa which 1) contained substitutions in the autolysis loop and the heparin-binding exosite, 2) lacked the first EGF-like domain (fXa-des-EGF-1), or 3) contained the Gla domain of protein C (fXa/PC-Gla). Inhibition studies in both the presence and absence of PZ revealed that Arg-143, Lys-147 and Arg-154 of the autolysis loop and Lys-96, Lys-169 and Lys-236 of the heparin-binding exosite are required for recognition of ZPI, with Arg-143 being essential for the interaction. Similar studies with fXa-des-EGF-1 and fXa/PC-Gla suggested that protein-protein interaction with either the Gla or the EGF-1 domain may not play a dominant role in the PZ-dependent recognition of fXa by the serpin on phospholipid vesicles. Further studies showed that an inactive Ser-195 to Ala mutant of fXa effectively competes with wild-type fXa for binding to the non-serpin inhibitors, tissue factor pathway inhibitor and recombinant tick anticoagulant peptide, but does not compete for binding to ZPI. This suggests that the catalytic residue of fXa is required for interaction with ZPI.

Manithody, Chandrashekhara; Yang, Likui

2005-01-01

378

Identification of Novel Ryanodine Receptor 1 (RyR1) Protein Interaction with Calcium Homeostasis Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein (CHERP)*?  

PubMed Central

The ryanodine receptor type 1 (RyR1) is a homotetrameric Ca2+ release channel located in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal muscle where it plays a role in the initiation of skeletal muscle contraction. A soluble, 6×-histidine affinity-tagged cytosolic fragment of RyR1 (amino acids 1–4243) was expressed in HEK-293 cells, and metal affinity chromatography under native conditions was used to purify the peptide together with interacting proteins. When analyzed by gel-free liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 703 proteins were identified under all conditions. This group of proteins was filtered to identify putative RyR interacting proteins by removing those proteins found in only 1 RyR purification and proteins for which average spectral counts were enriched by less than 4-fold over control values. This resulted in 49 potential RyR1 interacting proteins, and 4 were selected for additional interaction studies: calcium homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP), endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment 53-kDa protein (LMAN1), T-complex protein, and phosphorylase kinase. Western blotting showed that only CHERP co-purified with affinity-tagged RyR1 and was eluted with imidazole. Immunofluorescence showed that endogenous CHERP co-localizes with endogenous RyR1 in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of rat soleus muscle. A combination of overexpression of RyR1 in HEK-293 cells with siRNA-mediated suppression of CHERP showed that CHERP affects Ca2+ release from the ER via RyR1. Thus, we propose that CHERP is an RyR1 interacting protein that may be involved in the regulation of excitation-contraction coupling.

Ryan, Timothy; Sharma, Parveen; Ignatchenko, Alex; MacLennan, David H.; Kislinger, Thomas; Gramolini, Anthony O.

2011-01-01

379

Amino acid-dependent growth of Campylobacter jejuni : key roles for aspartase (AspA) under microaerobic and oxygen-limited conditions and identification of AspB (Cj0762), essential for growth on glutamate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Amino acids are key carbon and energy sources for the asaccharolytic food-borne human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni. During microaerobic growth in amino acid rich complex media, aspartate, glutamate, proline and serine are the only amino acids signifi- cantly utilized by strain NCTC 11168. The catabolism of aspartate and glutamate was investigated. An aspartase (aspA) mutant (unable to utilize any amino

Edward Guccione; Maria del Rocio Leon-Kempis; Bruce M. Pearson; Edward Hitchin; Francis Mulholland; Pauline M. van Diemen; Mark P. Stevens; David J. Kelly

2008-01-01

380

Identification of expressed genes during compatible interaction between stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) and wheat using a cDNA library  

PubMed Central

Background Wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. To establish compatibility with the host, Pst forms special infection structures to invade the plant with minimal damage to host cells. Although compatible interaction between wheat and Pst has been studied using various approaches, research on molecular mechanisms of the interaction is limited. The aim of this study was to develop an EST database of wheat infected by Pst in order to determine transcription profiles o