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Sample records for interbody fusion alif

  1. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  2. Newer lumbar interbody fusion techniques.

    PubMed

    Nasca, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to update the reader on more recent, less invasive lumbar interbody fusion procedures. The article contains a brief history on the development of lumbar interbody fusion methods, as well as the indications and descriptions of the various open and minimally invasive procedures, their complications, and outcomes. In contrast to the more traditional open methods of performing anterior and posterior interbody fusions, surgeons doing the less invasive techniques of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, extreme lateral and direct lateral interbody fusion, and the presacral axial approach are reporting less morbidity, shorter hospital stays, high rates of fusion, and improved patient outcomes. Although each technique has a different anatomical plane of approach, the goal is to achieve a solid interbody fusion of the pain generating segment(s) without complications. PMID:23628562

  3. Mini-Open Anterior Retroperitoneal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Spinal Degeneration Disease

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgery for lumbar spinal degeneration disease is widely performed. While posterior decompression and fusion are popular, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is also used for treatment. Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) is commonly used for noninvasive ALIF; however, several complications, such as spinal nerve and psoas muscle injury, have been reported. In the current study, we examined the clinical efficacy and complications of oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for lumbar spinal degeneration disease. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients with degenerated spondylolisthesis, discogenic pain, and kyphoscoliosis were examined. All patients underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) with or without posterior decompression, without real-time electromyography monitoring. Posterior screws were used in all patients. Visual analog scale (VAS) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery. Surgical complications were also evaluated. Results Pain scores significantly improved after surgery, compared to those before surgery (p<0.05). There was no patient who underwent revision surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. Few patients showed symptoms from psoas invasion. Conclusion OLIF surgery produced good surgical results without any major complication. PMID:26069130

  4. Extreme lateral interbody fusion with posterior instrumentation for spondylodiscitis.

    PubMed

    Blizzard, Daniel J; Hills, Christopher P; Isaacs, Robert E; Brown, Christopher R

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate our initial experience utilizing extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF; NuVasive, San Diego, CA, USA) with percutaneous posterior instrumentation to treat 11 spondylodiscitis patients between January 2011 and February 2014. Although medical management is the first line treatment for spondylodiscitis, many patients fail antibiotic therapy and bracing, or present with instability, neurologic deficits, or sepsis, requiring operative debridement and stabilization. High rates of fusion and infection clearance have been reported with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but this approach requires a morbid exposure, associated with non-trivial rates of vascular and peritoneal complications. XLIF is an increasingly popular interbody fusion technique which utilizes a fast and minimally invasive approach, sparing the anterior longitudinal ligament, and allowing sufficient visualization of the intervertebral discs and bodies to debride and place a large, lordotic cage. The outcome measures for this study included lumbar lordosis, sagittal balance, subsidence, fusion, pain, neurological deficit, and microbiology/laboratory evidence of infection. The mean follow-up time was 9.3months. All patients had improvements in pain and neurological symptoms. The mean lordosis change was 11.0°, from 23.1° preoperatively to 34.0° postoperatively. Fusion was confirmed with CT scans in five of six patients. At the last follow-up, all patients had normalization of inflammatory markers, no symptoms of infection, and none required repeat surgical treatment for spondylodiscitis. XLIF with percutaneous posterior instrumentation is a minimally invasive technique with reduced morbidity for lumbar spine fusion which affords adequate exposure to the vertebral bodies and discs to aggressively debride necrotic and infected tissue. This study suggests that XLIF may be a safe and effective alternative to ALIF for the treatment of spondylodiscitis. PMID:26138052

  5. Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  6. Miniopen oblique lateral L5-s1 interbody fusion: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Keijiro; Ohtori, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Miyagi, Masayuki; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Hanaoka, Eiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications. PMID:25400963

  7. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System: expandable, standalone interbody fusion

    PubMed Central

    Emstad, Erik; del Monaco, Diana Cardenas; Fielding, Louis C; Block, Jon E

    2015-01-01

    Intervertebral fusion cages have been in clinical use since the 1990s. Cages offer the benefits of bone graft containment, restored intervertebral and foraminal height, and a more repeatable, stable procedure compared to interbody fusion with graft material alone. Due to concerns regarding postoperative stability, loss of lordosis, and subsidence or migration of the implant, interbody cages are commonly used with supplemental fixation such as pedicle screw systems or anterior plates. While providing additional stability, supplemental fixation techniques increase operative time, exposure, cost, and morbidity. The VariLift® Interbody Fusion System (VariLift® system) has been developed as a standalone solution to provide the benefits of intervertebral fusion cages without the requirement of supplemental fixation. The VariLift® system, FDA-cleared for standalone use in both the cervical and lumbar spine, is implanted in a minimal profile and then expanded in situ to provide segmental stability, restored lordosis, and a large graft chamber. Preclinical testing and analyses have found that the VariLift® System is durable, and reduces stresses that may contribute to subsidence and migration of other standalone interbody cages. Fifteen years of clinical development with the VariLift® system have demonstrated positive clinical outcomes, continued patient maintenance of segmental stability and lordosis, and no evidence of implant migration. The purpose of this report is to describe the VariLift® system, including implant characteristics, principles of operation, indications for use, patient selection criteria, surgical technique, postoperative care, preclinical testing, and clinical experience. The VariLift® System represents an improved surgical option for a stable interbody fusion without requiring supplemental fixation. PMID:26060414

  8. Analysis of spinal lumbar interbody fusion cage subsidence using Taguchi method, finite element analysis, and artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassau, Christopher John; Litofsky, N. Scott; Lin, Yuyi

    2012-09-01

    Subsidence, when implant penetration induces failure of the vertebral body, occurs commonly after spinal reconstruction. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) cages may subside into the vertebral body and lead to kyphotic deformity. No previous studies have utilized an artificial neural network (ANN) for the design of a spinal interbody fusion cage. In this study, the neural network was applied after initiation from a Taguchi L 18 orthogonal design array. Three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed to address the resistance to subsidence based on the design changes of the material and cage contact region, including design of the ridges and size of the graft area. The calculated subsidence is derived from the ANN objective function which is defined as the resulting maximum von Mises stress (VMS) on the surface of a simulated bone body after axial compressive loading. The ANN was found to have minimized the bone surface VMS, thereby optimizing the ALIF cage given the design space. Therefore, the Taguchi-FEA-ANN approach can serve as an effective procedure for designing a spinal fusion cage and improving the biomechanical properties.

  9. Minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion for adult degenerative scoliosis with 1 or 2 dislocated levels.

    PubMed

    Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Ratte, Louis; Poignard, Alexandre; Auregan, Jean-Charles; Queinnec, Steffen; Hernigou, Philippe; Allain, Jérôme

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Frequent complications of posterolateral instrumented fusion have been reported after treatment of degenerative scoliosis in elderly patients. Considering that in some cases, most of the symptomatology of adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS) is a consequence of the segmental instability at the dislocated level, the use of minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) to manage symptoms can be advocated to reduce surgical morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the midterm outcomes of 1- or 2-level minimally invasive ALIFs in ADS patients with 1- or 2-level dislocations. METHODS A total of 47 patients (average age 64 years; range 43-80 years) with 1- or 2-level ALIF performed for ADS (64 levels) in a single institution were included in the study. An independent spine surgeon retrospectively reviewed all the patients' medical records and radiographs to assess operative data and surgery-related complications. Clinical outcome was reported using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the visual analog scale (VAS) for lumbar and leg pain. Intraoperative data and complications were collected. Fusion and risk for adjacent-level degeneration were assessed. RESULTS The mean follow-up duration was 3 years (range 1-10 years). ODI, and back and leg pain VAS scores were significantly improved at last follow-up. A majority of patients (74%) had a statistically significant improvement in their ODI score of more than 20 points at latest follow-up and 1 had a worsening of his disability. The mean operating time was 166 minutes (range 70-355 minutes). The mean estimated blood loss was 410 ml (range 50-1700 ml). Six (5 major and 1 minor) surgical complications (12.7% of patients) and 13 (2 major and 11 minor) medical complications (27.7% of patients) occurred without death or wound infection. Fusion was achieved in 46 of 47 patients. Surgery resulted in a slight but significant decrease of the Cobb angle, and improved the pelvic parameters and lumbar lordosis, but had no effect on the global sagittal balance. At latest follow-up, 9 patients (19.1%) developed adjacent-segment disease at a mean of 2 years' delay from the index surgery; 4 were symptomatic but treated medically, and none required iterative surgery. CONCLUSIONS Single- or 2-level minimally invasive fusion through a minimally invasive anterior approach in some selected cases of ADS produced a good functional outcome with a high fusion rate. They were associated with a significantly lower rate of complications in this study than the historical control. PMID:26315959

  10. Single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis treated with mini-open anterior debridement and fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified anterior lumbar interbody fusion approach.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang; Li, Feng; Chen, Wenjian; Zeng, Heng; Chen, Anmin; Xiong, Wei

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation for single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. METHODS This is a retrospective study. Twenty-two patients with single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis underwent mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) approach. Patients underwent follow-up for 24 to 38 months. Clinical data, etiological examinations, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) grade, Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) lumbar function score, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), postoperative complications, and the bony fusion rate were recorded. RESULTS The mean operative time was 181.1 ± 22.6 minutes (range 155-240 minutes). The mean intraoperative blood loss was 173.2 ± 70.1 ml (range 100-400 ml). Infection was found in lumbar vertebrae L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 in 2, 6, and 14 patients, respectively. Bacterial cultures were positive in 15 patients, including 4 with Staphylococcus aureus, 6 with Staphylococcus epidermidis, 4 with Streptococcus, and 1 with Escherichia coli. Postoperative complications included urinary retention, constipation, and numbness in the thigh in 5, 3, and 2 patients, respectively. Compared with before surgery, the VAS scores and ODI were significantly lower at the final follow-up, the JOA scores were significantly higher, and the ASIA grades had improved. All patients achieved good intervertebral bony fusion. CONCLUSIONS Mini-open anterior debridement and lumbar interbody fusion in combination with posterior percutaneous fixation via a modified ALIF approach results in little surgical trauma and intraoperative blood loss, acceptable postoperative complications, and is effective and safe for the treatment of single-level lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis. This approach could be an alternative to the conventional open surgery. PMID:26340382

  11. Complications associated with posterior and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Chrastil, Jesse; Patel, Alpesh A

    2012-05-01

    Posterior lumbar interbody fusion and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion are commonly performed to obtain a 360° arthrodesis through a posterior-only approach. These techniques are currently used in the management of spondylolisthesis, degenerative scoliosis, pseudarthrosis, recurrent disk herniation, and chronic low back pain with associated degenerative disk disease. Several adverse events have been described, including intraoperative neurologic injury, implant migration or subsidence, dural tears, infection, heterotopic ossification, BMP-related radiculitis, and osteolysis. Although the use of newer materials (eg, bone morphogenetic proteins) and procedures (eg, minimally invasive surgery) is on the rise, they are associated with unique concerns. Understanding the potential adverse events and steps that can be taken to prevent, detect, and manage complications is critical in patient counseling and perioperative decision making. PMID:22553100

  12. Mini-Open Anterior Retroperitoneal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Oblique Lateral Interbody Fusion for Degenerated Lumbar Spinal Kyphoscoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Mannoji, Chikato; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kishida, Shunji; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Inoue, Gen; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective case series. Purpose To examine the clinical efficacy of mini-open anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion: oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) for degenerated lumbar spinal kyphoscoliosis. Overview of Literature The existing surgical procedures for the treatment of spinal kyphotic deformity, including Smith-Petersen osteotomy, pedicle subtraction osteotomy, and vertebral column resection procedures, are invasive in nature. Extreme lateral interbody fusion to provide less invasive treatment of the deformity has been reported, but complications including spinal nerve and psoas muscle injury have been noted. In the current study, we examined the clinical efficacy and complications of OLIF for degenerated lumbar spinal kyphoscoliosis. Methods Twelve patients with degenerated lumbar spinal kyphoscoliosis were examined. All patients underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) with open pedicle screws or percutaneous pedicle screws, without real-time monitoring by electromyography. Visual analog scale score and Oswestry disability index were evaluated before and 12 months after surgery, and fusion rate at OLIF cage, correction of the deformity, total blood loss, and surgical complications were also evaluated. Results Pain scores significantly improved after surgery (p<0.05). Fusion rate was found to be 90%, balance parameters also improved after surgery (p<0.05), and average total blood loss was less than 350 mL. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury, or breakage of instrumentation. Conclusions OLIF surgery for degenerated lumbar spinal kyphoscoliosis is less invasive than other procedures and good surgical results were produced without major complications. PMID:26240716

  13. A Comparative Study of Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Alexander P.; Sama, Andrew A.; Girardi, Federico P.; Lebl, Darren R.; Cammisa, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Level 4 retrospective review. Purpose To compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) with posterior segmental spinal instrumentation (SSI) for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. Overview of Literature Both PLIF and LLIF have been performed for degenerative spondylolisthesis with good results, but no study has directly compared these two techniques so far. Methods The electronic medical and radiographic records of 78 matched patients were analyzed. In one group, 39 patients underwent PLIF with SSI at 41 levels (L3-4/L4-5), while in the other group, 39 patients underwent the LLIF procedure at 48 levels (L3-4/L4-5). Radiological outcomes such as restoration of disc height and neuroforaminal height, segmental lumbar lordosis, total lumbar lordosis, incidence of endplate fracture, and subsidence were measured. Perioperative parameters were also recorded in each group. Clinical outcome in both groups was assessed by the short form-12, Oswestry disability index and visual analogue scale scores. The average follow-up period was 16.1 months in the LLIF group and 21 months in the PLIF group. Results The restoration of disc height, foraminal height, and segmental lumbar lordosis was significantly better in the LLIF group (p<0.001). The duration of the operation was similar in both groups, but the average blood loss was significantly lower in the LLIF group (p<0.001). However, clinical outcome scores were similar in both groups. Conclusions Safe, effective interbody fusion can be achieved at multiple levels with neuromonitoring by the lateral approach. LLIF is a viable treatment option in patients with new onset symptoms due to degenerative spondylolisthesis who have had previous lumbar spine surgery, and it results in improved sagittal alignment and indirect foraminal decompression. PMID:26435782

  14. Clinical comparison of Zero-profile interbody fusion device and anterior cervical plate interbody fusion in treating cervical spondylosis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bin; Nie, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: the aim of the study was to compare the clinical effect of Zero-profile interbody fusion device (Zero-P) with anterior cervical plate interbody fusion system (PCB) in treating cervical spondylosis. Methods: a total of 98 patients with cervical spondylosis (110 segments) in February 2011 to January 2013 were included in our hospital. All participants were randomly divided into observation group and control group with 49 cases in each group. The observation group was treated with Zero-P, while the control group received PCB treatment. Comparison of the two groups in neurological function score (JOA), pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the neck disability index (NDI), quality of life score (SF-36) and cervical curvature (Cobb angle) change were recorded and analyzed before and after treatment. Results: The observation group was found with 90% excellent and good rate, which was higher than that of the control group (80%). Dysphagia rate in observational group was 16.33% (8/49), which was significantly less than that in control group (46.94%). Operation time and bleeding volume in the observation group was less than those in control group. Postoperative improvements of JOA score, VAS score, and NDI in observational group were also significantly better than that in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: The clinical effect of Zero-P and PCB for the treatment of cervical spondylosis was quite fair, but Zero-P showed a better therapeutic effect with improvement of life quality. PMID:26550337

  15. Operative treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with posterior stabilization and ALIF. Cages versus autogenous bone grafts.

    PubMed

    Pankowski, Rafal; Smoczynski, Andrzej; Roclawski, Marek; Ceynowa, Marcin; Kloc, Wojciech; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Jende, Piotr; Liczbik, Wieslaw; Beldzinski, Piotr; Libionka, Witold; Pierzak, Olaf; Adamski, Stanislaw; Niedbala, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    In the following study the use of cages and autogenous bone grafts were compared in the operative treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with the posterior stabilization and Anterior Lumbosacral Interbody Fusion (ALIF). 55 patients were divided into two groups. Autogenous bone grafts were used in the first group (34 patients) and titanium interbody implants (cages) in the second group (21 patients). The mean follow up period in the first group was 8.6 years and 3.4 years in the second group. The radiological outcome was based upon the evaluation of the degree of spondylolisthesis, the angle of the lumbar lordosis, the height of the interbody space and intervertebral foramen and the evaluation of the spinal fusion. The objective clinical outcome assessment was based on Oswestry Disability Index. Subjective clinical evaluation was performed with the use of Visual Analog Pain Score (VAS) and the two questions concerning the evaluation of success of the operative treatment and a possible agreement to the following operation if necessary. The use of autogenous bone grafts alone in ALIF was related to the significant loss of achieved segmental spine anatomy restoration. The implantation of the cages prevented the loss of slippage correction, permanently reconstructed the anatomical conditions in the area of the operated spinal segment. PMID:22744517

  16. Sacrum fracture following L5-S1 stand-alone interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    We report a 72-year-old man with a rare sacral fracture following stand-alone L5-S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion for isthmic spondylolisthesis. The man underwent a minimally invasive management strategy using posterior percutaneous pedicle fixation and partial reduction of the deformity. We also discuss the current literature on fusion procedures for isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:26100158

  17. Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of Segmental Spinal Fusion in Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Spinous Process Tricortical Autograft

    PubMed Central

    Tangviriyapaiboon, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study. Purpose To investigate clinical and radiological outcomes when using spinous process as a tricortical autograft for segmental spinal fusion in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Overview of Literature Interbody spinal fusion is one of the important procedures in spinal surgery. Many types of autografts are harvested at the expense of complications. Clinical and radiographic results of patients who underwent TLIF with intraoperative harvested spinous process autograft in Prasat Neurological Institue, Bangkok, Thailand, were assessed as new technical innovation. Methods Between October 2005 to July 2009, 30 cases of patients who underwent TLIF with spinous process tricortical autograft were included. Clinical evaluations were assessed by visual analog scales (VAS) and Prolo functional and economic scores at the preoperation and postoperation and at 2 years postoperation. Static and dynamic plain radiograph of lumbar spine were reviewed for achievement of fusion. Results Initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion with spinous process tricortical autograft was 4.72 months (range, 3.8-6.1 months) postoperation and 100% fusion rate was reported at 2 years. Our initial successful fusion time in lumbar interbody fusion was compared to the other types of grafts in previous literatures. Conclusions The use of intraoperative harvested spinous process tricortical autograft has overcome many disadvantages of harvesting autograft with better initial successful fusion time (4.72 months). VAS and Prolo scores showed some improvement in the outcomes between the preoperative and postoperative periods. PMID:24761199

  18. Viscoelastic Disc Arthroplasty Provides Superior Back and Leg Pain Relief in Patients with Lumbar Disc Degeneration Compared to Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Burkhard; Smith, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Background Lumbar disc degeneration (LDD) is one of the most frequently diagnosed spinal diseases. The symptoms these disorders cause are anticipated to increase as the population in Western countries ages. Purpose Compare back and leg pain alleviation in patients with LDD and a viscoelastic disc prosthesis documented in the SWISSspine registry versus patients with anterior lumbar interbody fusion documented in the Spine Tango registry. Study Design Prospectively collected clinical and outcome data in two independent spine registries. Outcome Measures were back and leg pain relief on 0 to 10 numerical rating scales. Materials and Methods The analysis included a single surgeon series of 48 patients with viscoelastic total disc replacement (VTDR) from the SWISSspine registry which were compared to 131 patients with anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) from the Spine Tango registry. Two linear multivariate regression models were built to assess the associations of patient characteristics with back and leg pain relief. The following covariates were included in the models: patient age and sex, disc herniation as additional diagnosis, number of treated segments, level of treated segment, treatment type (VTDR, ALIF), preoperative back and leg pain levels and follow-up interval. Results Both models showed VTDR to be associated with significantly higher back (2.76 points; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.78 - 3.73; p < 0.001) and leg pain (2.12 points; 95% CI 1.12 to 3.13; p < 0.001) relief than ALIF. Other influential factors for higher back pain relief were female sex compared with male sex (1.03 additional points; 95% CI 0.27 to 1.78; p = 0.008), monosegmental surgery compared with bisegmental surgery (1.02 additional points; 95% CI 0.21 to 1.83; p = 0.014), and higher back pain at baseline (0.87 points additional pain relief per level of preoperative back pain; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.03; p < 0.001). Other influential factors for leg pain relief were monosegmental surgery (0.93 additional points; 95% CI 0.10 to 1.77; p = 0.029) and higher leg pain at baseline (0.83 points additional pain relief per level of preoperative leg pain; 95% CI 0.70 to 0.96). In both models the L3/4 segment showed 2.36 points (95% CI -4.27 to -0.45; p = 0.016) and 3.69 points (95% CI -5.66 to -1.71; p < 0.001) less pain relief than L5/S1. Discussion Significantly higher back and leg pain relief were observed after viscoelastic total disc replacement in comparison with anterior lumbar interbody fusion. The new less rigid materials used in the second generation total disc replacements (TDRs) may make artificial disc replacement an increasingly attractive option for patients with degenerative lumbar disc disease. Further controlled and long-term follow-up studies are required for more detailed comparisons of the outcomes of these types of disc implants. The Freedom Lumbar Disc is limited by U.S. federal law to investigational use only. PMID:26196033

  19. Outcomes of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Talia, Adrian J; Wong, Michael L; Lau, Hui C; Kaye, Andrew H

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to assess the results of extended transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for a two surgeon, single institution series. In total, extended TLIF with bilateral decompression was performed in 57 patients. Pain, American Spinal Injury Association scores, patient demographics, body mass index (BMI), perioperative indices and radiographic measurements were recorded and analysed. The surgeries were performed between February 2011 and January 2014 on 38 women and 19 men. The mean patient age was 62.86years, and the mean BMI was 30.31kg/m(2). In 49 patients, spondylolisthesis was the primary indication. The mean intraoperative time was 284.65min, and this decreased as the series progressed. The median length of stay was 5days (range: 2-9). The surgical complication rate was 19.3%. Two patients died from cardiopulmonary complications. Single level TLIF was performed in 78.9% of the cohort, with L4/5 the most commonly fused level. Significant pain reduction was achieved from a mean (±standard deviation) preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) of 8.28±1.39 to 1.50±1.05 at 12months postoperatively. No patients deteriorated neurologically. Spondylolisthesis was significantly corrected from a preoperative mean of 6.82mm to 2.80mm postoperatively. Although there is a learning curve associated with the procedure, extended TLIF with bilateral facet joint removal and decompression appeared to be a safe and effective alternative to other fusion techniques, and our results were comparable to other published case series. The stabilisation and correction of spinal deformity reduces pain, aids neurologic recovery and improves quality of life. PMID:26358199

  20. Comparison of posterior versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shujie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the influence of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) on adjacent segment degeneration. Methods: The study was carried out in the Traumatology and Orthopedics Laboratory, Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Medical School, Jinan University, Guangzhou, China, between December 2013 and November 2014. A normal, healthy finite element model of L3-5 was developed, a PLIF and a TLIF model were modified from the normal model, and interbody fusions were performed in the L4-5 segment. An 800 N compressive loading plus 10 Nm moments simulating flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were imposed on the L3 superior endplate. Intradiscal pressure and intersegmental rotation in L3-4 were investigated. Results: The values of intradiscal pressure and intersegmental rotation in the PLIF or TLIF model were higher than those in the normal, healthy model, but the values in the TLIF model were relatively lower than those in the PLIF model in all directions. Conclusion: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion has more adverse influence on the superior adjacent segment than TLIF. PMID:26219453

  1. Complications and Morbidities of Mini-open Anterior Retroperitoneal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Oblique Lumbar Interbody Fusion in 179 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Thiong, Jean-Marc; Hilmi, Radwan; Roussouly, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective study including 179 patients who underwent oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) at one institution. Purpose To report the complications associated with a minimally invasive technique of a retroperitoneal anterolateral approach to the lumbar spine. Overview of Literature Different approaches to the lumbar spine have been proposed, but they are associated with an increased risk of complications and a longer operation. Methods A total of 179 patients with previous posterior instrumented fusion undergoing OLIF were included. The technique is described in terms of: the number of levels fused, operative time and blood loss. Persurgical and postsurgical complications were noted. Results Patients were age 54.1 ± 10.6 with a BMI of 24.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2. The procedure was performed in the lumbar spine at L1-L2 in 4, L2-L3 in 54, L3-L4 in 120, L4-L5 in 134, and L5-S1 in 6 patients. It was done at 1 level in 56, 2 levels in 107, and 3 levels in 16 patients. Surgery time and blood loss were, respectively, 32.5 ± 13.2 minutes and 57 ± 131 ml per level fused. There were 19 patients with a single complication and one with two complications, including two patients with postoperative radiculopathy after L3-5 OLIF. There was no abdominal weakness or herniation. Conclusions Minimally invasive OLIF can be performed easily and safely in the lumbar spine from L2 to L5, and at L1-2 for selected cases. Up to 3 levels can be addressed through a 'sliding window'. It is associated with minimal blood loss and short operations, and with decreased risk of abdominal wall weakness or herniation. PMID:22708012

  2. Acute Contralateral Radiculopathy after Unilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Young-Baeg; Park, Yong-Sook; Nam, Taek-Kyun; Lee, Young-Seok

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cases of contralateral radiculopathy after a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with a single cage (unilateral TLIF) had been reported, but the phenomenon has not been explained satisfactorily. The purpose of this study was to determine its incidence, causes, and risk factors. Methods We did retrospective study with 546 patients who underwent a unilateral TLIF, and used CT and MRI to study the causes of contralateral radicular symptoms that appeared within a week postoperatively. Clinical and radiological results were compared by dividing the patients into the symptomatic group and asymptomatic group. Results Contralateral symptoms occurred in 32 (5.9%) of the patients underwent unilateral TLIF. The most common cause of contralateral symptoms was a contralateral foraminal stenosis in 22 (68.8%), screw malposition in 4 (12.5%), newly developed herniated nucleus pulposus in 3 (9.3%), hematoma in 1 (3.1%), and unknown origin in 2 patients (6.3%). 16 (50.0%) of the 32 patients received revision surgery. There was no difference in visual analogue scale and Oswestry disability index between the two groups at discharge. Both preoperative and postoperative contralateral foraminal areas were significantly smaller, and postoperative segmental angle was significantly greater in the symptomatic group comparing to those of the asymptomatic group (p<0.05). Conclusion The incidence rate is not likely to be small (5.9%). If unilateral TLIF is performed for cases when preoperative contralateral foraminal stenosis already exists or when a large restoration of segmental lordosis is required, the probability of developing contralateral radiculopathy is increased and caution from the surgeon is needed. PMID:26587189

  3. Treatment of Surgical Site Infection in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Su; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective observational and case control study. Purpose To identify appropriate treatment options according to the types of surgical site infections (SSI) in instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). Overview of Literature There has been no agreement or consensus with regard to this matter. Methods Thirty-two consecutive SSIs were included and followed for more than one year. The elapsed time to diagnosis (ETD) according to the type of SSI was analyzed. The treatment options for each type and consequent clinical results were reviewed. The risk factors of removing the implants were analyzed. Results There were 6/32 (19%) superficial incisional, 6/32 (19%) deep incisional, and 20/32 (62%) organ/space infection cases (SII, DII, and O/SI, respectively) (p=0.002). ETD was 8.5±2.3 days in SII, 8.7±2.3 days in DII, and 164.5±131.1 days in O/SI (p=0.013). All cases of SII and DII retained implants and were treated by repeated irrigation and secondary closure. Among O/SIs, 10/20 were treated conservatively. Nine out of ten underwent posterior one stage simultaneous revision (POSSR) and in one case, the cage was removed anteriorly. Those who had ETDs longer than 3 months showed a significant risk of implant removal (p=0.008, odds ratio [OR]=40.3). The Oswestry disability index (ODI) improved from 47.3% to 33.8% in SII, from 55.0% to 32.3% in DII, and from 53.4% to 42.1% in O/SI (p=0.002). There was no difference among the three groups (p=0.106); however, there was a partial correlation between ETD and final ODI (r=0.382, p=0.034). Conclusions Latent O/SI was the most common type of SSI in PLIF. In cases of SII and DII, early aggressive wound management and secondary closure was effective and implant removal was not necessary. In some cases of O/SI, implant removal was unavoidable. However, implant removal could be averted by an earlier diagnosis. POSSR was feasible and safe. Functional outcomes were improved; however, disability increased as ETD increased. PMID:26713114

  4. Simultaneous Lateral Interbody Fusion and Posterior Percutaneous Instrumentation: Early Experience and Technical Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Drazin, Doniel; Kim, Terrence T.; Johnson, J. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar fusion surgery involving lateral lumbar interbody graft insertion with posterior instrumentation is traditionally performed in two stages requiring repositioning. We describe a novel technique to complete the circumferential procedure simultaneously without patient repositioning. Twenty patients diagnosed with worsening back pain with/without radiculopathy who failed exhaustive conservative management were retrospectively reviewed. Ten patients with both procedures simultaneously from a single lateral approach and 10 control patients with lateral lumbar interbody fusion followed by repositioning and posterior percutaneous instrumentation were analyzed. Pars fractures, mobile grade 2 spondylolisthesis, and severe one-level degenerative disk disease were matched between the two groups. In the simultaneous group, avoiding repositioning leads to lower mean operative times: 130 minutes (versus control 190 minutes; p = 0.009) and lower intraoperative blood loss: 108?mL (versus 93?mL; NS). Nonrepositioned patients were hospitalized for an average of 4.1 days (versus 3.8 days; NS). There was one complication in the control group requiring screw revision. Lateral interbody fusion and percutaneous posterior instrumentation are both readily accomplished in a single lateral decubitus position. In select patients with adequately sized pedicles, performing simultaneous procedures decreases operative time over sequential repositioning. Patient outcomes were excellent in the simultaneous group and comparable to procedures done sequentially. PMID:26649303

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Feng, Shi-Qing; Zhao, Feng-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This cross-sectional study was designed to obtain the current prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and analyze related risk factors in patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion. Medical record data were collected from Department of Spinal Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, between July 2014 and March 2015. Both univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to determine risk factors for DVT. A total of 995 patients were admitted into this study, including 484 men and 511 women, aged from 14 to 89 years old (median 50, IQR 19). The detection rate of lower limb DVT by ultrasonography was 22.4% (223/995) in patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion. Notably, average VAS (visual analog scale) score in the first 3 days after surgery in the DVT group was more than that in the non-DVT group (Z?=??21.69, P?interbody fusion surgery. PMID:26632909

  6. Instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bioabsorbable polymer implants and iliac crest autograft.

    PubMed

    Coe, Jeffrey D

    2004-03-15

    Object. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in 31 patients from one center who underwent instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for primarily degenerative indications. Methods. Bioabsorbable polymer spacers manufactured with a copolymer of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) and filled with iliac crest autograft bone were used for the TLIF procedure. In this paper the details of this procedure, intermediate (1- to 2-year) clinical and radiographic outcomes, and the basic science and rationale for the use of bioabsorbable polymers are discussed. At a mean of 18.4 months of follow up, 30 patients (96.8%) were judged to have attained solid fusions and 25 patients (81%) had good to excellent results. Three patients (9.7%) experienced complications, none of which were directly or indirectly attributable to the use of the bioabsorbable polymer implant. Only one implant in one patient (3.2%) demonstrated mechanical failure on insertion, and that patient experienced no clinical sequelae. Conclusions. This is the first clinical series to be published in which the mean follow-up duration equals or exceeds the biological life expectancy of this material (12-18 months). Both the clinical and radiographic results of this study support the use of interbody devices manufactured from biodegradable polymers for structural interbody support in the TLIF procedure. PMID:15198499

  7. Non-union rate with stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Robert; Watkins, Robert; Hanna, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective radiographic analysis.To determine the fusion rate of stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). Biomechanical studies have indicated that LLIF may be more stable than anterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Early clinical reports of stand-alone LLIF have shown success in obtaining fusion and indirectly decompressing nerve roots. A consecutive case series of stand-alone LLIF was analyzed with chart and radiographic review. Non-union was determined by symptomatology consistent with non-union and absence of bridging bone on the CT scan. Thirty-nine levels of stand alone LLIF were performed in 23 patients. Eleven patients received 1-level surgery, 7 patients received 2-level surgery, 3 patients received 3-level surgery, and 1 patient received 4-level surgery. Excluding 1 infected case, we analyzed 37 levels of stand alone LLIF in 22 patients. Non-union incidence was 7 levels in 6 patients. Non-union rate was 7/37 (19%) per level and 6/22 (27%) per patient. While our study population was relatively low, a non-union rate of 19% to 27% is concerning for modern spine surgery. Currently in our practice, we occasionally still perform stand-alone LLIF utilizing 22 mm wide grafts in low-demand levels in non-smoking and non-osteoporotic patients. However, in a majority of patients, we provide supplemental fixation: bilateral pedicle screws in most patients and unilateral pedicle screws or spinous process plates in some patients. PMID:25546670

  8. Non-Union Rate With Stand-Alone Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Robert; Watkins, Robert; Hanna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Retrospective radiographic analysis. To determine the fusion rate of stand-alone lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF). Biomechanical studies have indicated that LLIF may be more stable than anterior or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Early clinical reports of stand-alone LLIF have shown success in obtaining fusion and indirectly decompressing nerve roots. A consecutive case series of stand-alone LLIF was analyzed with chart and radiographic review. Non-union was determined by symptomatology consistent with non-union and absence of bridging bone on the CT scan. Thirty-nine levels of stand alone LLIF were performed in 23 patients. Eleven patients received 1-level surgery, 7 patients received 2-level surgery, 3 patients received 3-level surgery, and 1 patient received 4-level surgery. Excluding 1 infected case, we analyzed 37 levels of stand alone LLIF in 22 patients. Non-union incidence was 7 levels in 6 patients. Non-union rate was 7/37 (19%) per level and 6/22 (27%) per patient. While our study population was relatively low, a non-union rate of 19% to 27% is concerning for modern spine surgery. Currently in our practice, we occasionally still perform stand-alone LLIF utilizing 22?mm wide grafts in low-demand levels in non-smoking and non-osteoporotic patients. However, in a majority of patients, we provide supplemental fixation: bilateral pedicle screws in most patients and unilateral pedicle screws or spinous process plates in some patients. PMID:25546670

  9. Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

    2014-03-01

    The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

  10. Clinical and Radiological Results of Microsurgical Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Decompression without Posterior Instrumentation for Lateral Recess Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    ?i?man, Lokman; Türkmen, Faik; Efe, Duran; Pekince, O?uzhan; Göncü, Recep Gani; Sever, Cem

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A single-center, retrospective patient review of clinical and radiological outcomes of microsurgical posterior lumbar interbody fusion and decompression, without posterior instrumentation, for the treatment of lateral recess stenosis. Purpose This study documented the clinical and radiological results of microsurgical posterior lumbar interbody fusion and decompression of the lateral recess using interbody cages without posterior instrumentation for the treatment of lateral recess stenosis. Overview of Literature Although microsurgery has some advantages, various complications have been reported following microsurgical decompression, including cage migration, pseudoarthrosis, neurologic deficits, and persistent pain. Methods A total of 34 patients (13 men, 21 women), with a mean age of 56.65±9.1 years (range, 40-77 years) confirmed spinal stability, and preoperative radiological findings of lateral recess stenosis, were included in the study. Interbody polyetheretherketone cages and auto grafts were used in all patients. Posterior instrumentation was not used because of limited resection of the posterior lumbar structures. Preoperative and postoperative radiographs, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging were assessed and compared to images taken at the final follow-up. Functional recovery was also evaluated according to the Macnab criteria at the final follow-up. Results The average follow-up time was 35.05±8.65 months (range, 24-46 months). The clinical results, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and duration of hospital stay were similar to previously published results; the fusion rate (85.2%) was decreased and the migration rate (5.8%) was increased, compared with prior reports. Conclusions Although microsurgery has some advantages, migration and pseudoarthrosis remain challenges to achieving adequate lumbar interbody fusion. PMID:26435789

  11. Clinical study of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability

    PubMed Central

    GUO, SHUGUANG; SUN, JUNYING; TANG, GENLIN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the clinical effects of bilateral decompression via vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion in the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The 48 patients comprised 27 males and 21 females, aged 47–72 years. Three cases had first and second degree lumbar spondylolisthesis and all received bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using a threaded fusion cage (TFC), which maintains the three-column spinal stability. Attention was given to ensure the correct pre-operative fenestration, complete decompression and the prevention of adhesions. After an average follow-up of 26.4 months, the one year post-operative X-ray radiographs suggested that the successful fusion rate was 88.1%, and this was 100% in the two-year post-operative radiographs. Moreover, the functional recovery rate was 97.9%. Bilateral vertebral lamina fenestration for lumbar interbody fusion is an ideal surgical method for the treatment of lower lumbar instability. The surgical method retains the spinal posterior column and middle column and results in full decompression and reliable fusion by a limited yet effective surgical approach. PMID:23407794

  12. Anterior column realignment following lateral interbody fusion for sagittal deformity correction.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Luiz; Fortti, Fernanda; Oliveira, Leonardo; Marchi, Luis; Jensen, Rubens; Coutinho, Etevaldo; Amaral, Rodrigo

    2015-07-01

    Degenerative and iatrogenic diseases may lead to loss of lordosis or even kyphotic thoracolumbar deformity and sagittal misalignment. Traditional surgery with three-column osteotomies is associated with important neurologic risks and postoperative morbidity. In a novel technique, the lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is complemented with the sacrifice of the anterior longitudinal ligament and anterior portion of the annulus followed by the insertion of a hyperlordotic interbody cage. This is a less invasive lateral technique named anterior column realignment (ACR) and aims to correct sagittal misalignment in adult spinal deformity (ASD), with or without the addition of minor posterior osteotomies. In this article, we provide an account of the evolution to the ACR technique, the literature, and the Brazilian experience in the treatment of adult spinal deformity with this novel advanced application of LTIF. In the presence of ASD, the risk-to-benefit ratio of a surgical correction must be evaluated. Less invasive surgical strategies can be alternatives to treat the deformity and provide better quality of life to the patient. ACR is an advanced application of lateral transpsoas approach, up to date has shown to be reliable and effective when used for ASD, and may minimize complications and morbidity from traditional surgical procedures. Long-term follow-up and comparative studies are needed to evaluate real benefit. PMID:25971442

  13. Comparison of complication rates of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and lateral lumbar interbody fusion: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jacob R; Smith, Brandon W; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul

    2015-10-01

    OBJECT Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) and lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) are 2 currently popular techniques for lumbar arthrodesis. The authors compare the total risk of each procedure, along with other important complication outcomes. METHODS This systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Relevant studies (up to May 2015) that reported complications of either MI-TLIF or LLIF were identified from a search in the PubMed database. The primary outcome was overall risk of complication per patient. Secondary outcomes included risks of sensory deficits, temporary neurological deficit, permanent neurological deficit, intraoperative complications, medical complications, wound complications, hardware failure, subsidence, and reoperation. RESULTS Fifty-four studies were included for analysis of MI-TLIF, and 42 studies were included for analysis of LLIF. Overall, there were 9714 patients (5454 in the MI-TLIF group and 4260 in the LLIF group) with 13,230 levels fused (6040 in the MI-TLIF group and 7190 in the LLIF group). A total of 1045 complications in the MI-TLIF group and 1339 complications in the LLIF group were reported. The total complication rate per patient was 19.2% in the MI-TLIF group and 31.4% in the LLIF group (p < 0.0001). The rate of sensory deficits and temporary neurological deficits, and permanent neurological deficits was 20.16%, 2.22%, and 1.01% for MI-TLIF versus 27.08%, 9.40%, and 2.46% for LLIF, respectively (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.002, respectively). Rates of intraoperative and wound complications were 3.57% and 1.63% for MI-TLIF compared with 1.93% and 0.80% for LLIF, respectively (p = 0.0003 and p = 0.034, respectively). No significant differences were noted for medical complications or reoperation. CONCLUSIONS While there was a higher overall complication rate with LLIF, MI-TLIF and LLIF both have acceptable complication profiles. LLIF had higher rates of sensory as well as temporary and permanent neurological symptoms, although rates of intraoperative and wound complications were less than MI-TLIF. Larger, prospective comparative studies are needed to confirm these findings as the current literature is of relative poor quality. PMID:26424344

  14. Hybrid Biosynthetic Autograft Extender for Use in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Safety and Clinical Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Chedid, Mokbel K; Tundo, Kelly M; Block, Jon E; Muir, Jeffrey M

    2015-01-01

    Autologous iliac crest bone graft is the preferred option for spinal fusion, but the morbidity associated with bone harvest and the need for graft augmentation in more demanding cases necessitates combining local bone with bone substitutes. The purpose of this study was to document the clinical effectiveness and safety of a novel hybrid biosynthetic scaffold material consisting of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA, 75:25) combined by lyophilization with unmodified high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (10-12% wt:wt) as an extender for a broad range of spinal fusion procedures. We retrospectively evaluated all patients undergoing single- and multi-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion at an academic medical center over a 3-year period. A total of 108 patients underwent 109 procedures (245 individual vertebral levels). Patient-related outcomes included pain measured on a Visual Analog Scale. Radiographic outcomes were assessed at 6 weeks, 3-6 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Radiographic fusion or progression of fusion was documented in 221 of 236 index levels (93.6%) at a mean (±SD) time to fusion of 10.2+4.1 months. Single and multi-level fusions were not associated with significantly different success rates. Mean pain scores (+SD) for all patients improved from 6.8+2.5 at baseline to 3.6+2.9 at approximately 12 months. Improvements in VAS were greatest in patients undergoing one- or two-level fusion, with patients undergoing multi-level fusion demonstrating lesser but still statistically significant improvements. Overall, stable fusion was observed in 64.8% of vertebral levels; partial fusion was demonstrated in 28.8% of vertebral levels. Only 15 of 236 levels (6.4%) were non-fused at final follow-up PMID:26161161

  15. Postoperative Flat Back: Contribution of Posterior Accessed Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Spinopelvic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Deok Ryeng; Kim, Joo Seung

    2014-01-01

    Objective Posterior accessed lumbar interbody fusion (PALIF) has a clear objective to restore disc height and spinal alignment but surgeons may occasionally face the converse situation and lose lumbar lordosis. We analyzed retrospective data for factors contributing to a postoperative flat back. Methods A total of 105 patients who underwent PALIF for spondylolisthesis and stenosis were enrolled. The patients were divided according to surgical type [posterior lumbar inter body fusion (PLIF) vs. unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)], number of levels (single vs. multiple), and diagnosis (spondylolisthesis vs. stenosis). We measured perioperative index level lordosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, pelvic incidence, and disc height in standing lateral radiographs. The change and variance in each parameter and comparative group were analyzed with the paired and Student t-test (p<0.05), correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results A significant perioperative reduction was observed in index-level lordosis following TLIF at the single level and in patients with spondylolisthesis (p=0.002, p=0.005). Pelvic tilt and sacral slope were significantly restored following PLIF multilevel surgery (p=0.009, p=0.003). Sacral slope variance was highly sensitive to perioperative variance of index level lordosis in high sacral sloped pelvis. Perioperative variance of index level lordosis was positively correlated with disc height variance (R2=0.286, p=0.0005). Conclusion Unilateral TLIF has the potential to cause postoperative flat back. PLIF is more reliable than unilateral TLIF to restore spinopelvic parameters following multilevel surgery and spondylolisthesis. A high sacral sloped pelvis is more vulnerable to PALIF in terms of a postoperative flat back. PMID:25371781

  16. Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Lumbar Degenerative Disorders: Mini-open TLIF and Corrective TLIF

    PubMed Central

    HARA, Masahito; NISHIMURA, Yusuke; NAKAJIMA, Yasuhiro; UMEBAYASHI, Daisuke; TAKEMOTO, Masaya; YAMAMOTO, Yuu; HAIMOTO, Shoichi

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) as a short fusion is widely accepted among the spine surgeons. However in the long fusion for degenerative kyphoscoliosis, corrective spinal fixation by an open method is thought to be frequently selected. Our objective is to study whether the mini-open TLIF and corrective TLIF contribute to the improvement of the spinal segmental and global alignment. We divided the patients who performed lumbar fixation surgery into three groups. Group 1 (G1) consisted of mini-open TLIF procedures without complication. Group 2 (G2) consisted of corrective TLIF without complication. Group 3 (G3) consisted of corrective TLIF with instrumentation-related complication postoperatively. In all groups, the lumbar lordosis (LL) highly correlated with developing surgical complications. LL significantly changed postoperatively in all groups, but was not corrected in the normal range in G3. There were statistically significant differences in preoperative and postoperative LL and mean difference between the pelvic incidence (PI) and LL between G3 and other groups. The most important thing not to cause the instrumentation-related failure is proper correction of the sagittal balance. In the cases with minimal sagittal imbalance with or without coronal imbalance, short fusion by mini-open TLIF or long fusion by corrective TLIF contributes to good clinical results if the lesion is short or easily correctable. However, if the patients have apparent sagittal imbalance with or without coronal imbalance, we should perform proper correction of the sagittal spinal alignment introducing various technologies. PMID:26119895

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Uninstrumented Posterolateral Fusion in the Degenerative Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Jalalpour, Kourosh; Neumann, Pavel; Johansson, Christer; Hedlund, Rune

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Randomized controlled trial. Objective?Despite a large number of publications of outcomes after spinal fusion surgery, there is still no consensus on the efficacy of the several different fusion methods. The aim of this study was to determine whether transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) results in an improved clinical outcome compared with uninstrumented posterolateral fusion (PLF) in the surgical treatment for chronic low back pain. Methods?This study included 135 patients with degenerative disk disease (n?=?96) or postdiskectomy syndrome (n?=?39). Inclusion criteria were at least 1?year of back pain with or without leg pain in patients aged 20 to 65 with one- or two-level disease. Exclusion criteria were sequestration of disk hernia, psychosocial instability, isthmic spondylolisthesis, drug abuse, and previous spine surgery other than diskectomy. Pain was assessed by visual analog scale (pain index). Functional disability was quantified by the disability rating index and Oswestry Disability Index. The global outcome was assessed by the patient and classified as much better, better, unchanged, or worse. The patients were randomized to conventional uninstrumented PLF (n?=?67) or TLIF (n?=?68). PLF was performed in a standardized fashion using autograft. TLIF was performed with pedicle titanium screw fixation and a porous tantalum interbody spacer with interbody and posterolateral autograft. The clinical outcome measurements were obtained preoperatively and at 12 and 24 months postoperatively. The 2-year follow-up rate was 98%. Results?The two treatment groups improved significantly from preoperatively to 2 years' follow-up. At final follow-up, the results in the TLIF group were significantly superior to those in the PLF group in pain index (2.0 versus 3.9, p?=?0.007) and in disability rating index (22 versus 36, p?=?0.003). The Oswestry Disability Index was better in the TLIF group (20 versus 28, p?=?0.110, not significant). The global assessment was clearly superior in the TLIF group: 63% of patients scored “much better” in the TLIF group as compared with 48% in the PLF group (p?=?0.017). Conclusions?The results of the current study support the use of TLIF rather than uninstrumented PLF in the surgical treatment of the degenerative lumbar spine. The less optimal outcome after uninstrumented PLF may be explained by the much higher reoperation rate. PMID:26225282

  18. Fueling the debate: Are outcomes better after posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or after posterolateral fusion (PLF) in adult patients with low-grade adult isthmic spondylolisthesis?

    PubMed Central

    Barbanti Bròdano, G.; Lolli, F.; Martikos, K.; Gasbarrini, A.; Bandiera, S.; Greggi, T.; Parisini, P.; Boriani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Study design:?Retrospective cohort study. Clinical question:?Do more adult patients affected by low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis have significant clinical and radiological improvement following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) than those who receive posterolateral fusion (PLF)? Methods:?One hundred and fourteen patients affected by adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis, treated with posterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterolateral fusion, were reviewed. Clinical outcome was assessed by means of the questionnaires ODI, RMDQ and VAS. Radiographic evaluation included CT, MRI, and x-rays. The results were analyzed using the Student t-test. Results:?The two groups were similar with respect to demographic and surgical characteristics. At an average follow-up of 62.1 months, 71 patients were completely reviewed. Mean ODI, RMDQ and VAS scores didn't show statistically significant differences. Fusion rate was similar between the two groups (97% in PLIF group, 95% in PLF group). Major complications occurred in 5 of 71 patients reviewed (7%): one in the PLIF group (3.6%), four in the PLF group (9.3%). Pseudarthrosis occurred in one case in the PLIF group (3,6%) and in two cases in PLF group (4.6%). Conclusions:?In our series, there does not appear to be a clear advantage of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) over posterolateral fusion (PLF) in terms of clinical and radiological outcome for treatment of adult low grade isthmic spondylolisthesis. PMID:23544021

  19. Oblique Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion (OLLIF): Technical Notes and Early Results of a Single Surgeon Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background context: Lower back pain is one of the most prevalent and expensive health conditions in the Western world. The standard treatment, interbody fusion, is an invasive procedure that requires the stripping of muscles and soft tissue, leading to surgical morbidity. Current minimally invasive (MI) spinal fusions are technically demanding and suffer from technical limitations. Purpose: Oblique lumbar lateral interbody fusion (OLLIF) is a new technique for fusion of the lumbar spine that overcomes these complications. Outcome measures include patient demographics, reported outcomes, and surgical outcomes. Study design/Setting: Kambin's Triangle can easily be located as a silent window with an electrophysiological probe. Discectomy is performed through a single access portal with a 10 mm diameter. After a discectomy, the disc space is packed with beta-tricalcium phosphate soaked in autologous bone marrow, aspirated, and the cage is inserted. Finally, a minimally invasive posterior fixation is performed. Methods: OLLIF’s major innovation is to approach the disc through Kambin’s Triangle, aided by bilateral fluoroscopy. Results: We present data from 69 consecutive OLLIF surgeries on 128 levels with a control group of 55 consecutive open transformational lumbar interbody fusions (TLIFs) on 125 levels. For a single level OLLIF, the mean surgery time is 69 minutes (min) and blood loss is 29 ml. Surgery time was approximately twice as fast as open TLIF (mean: 135 min) and blood loss is reduced by over 80% compared to TLIF (mean: 355 ml). Conclusions: OLLIF is a minimally invasive fusion that significantly reduces surgery times compared to open surgery. OLLIF overcomes the difficulties of traditional open fusions, making it a safe and technically less demanding surgery than open or minimally invasive TLIF. 

  20. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion and posterolateral fusion: Analogous procedures in decreasing the index of disability in patients with spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Alijani, Babak; Emamhadi, Mohamahreza; Behzadnia, Hamid; Aramnia, Ali; Chabok, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh; Ramtinfar, Sara; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnejad; Golmohamadi, Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the disability in patients with spondylolisthesis who assigned either to posterolateral fusion (PLF) or posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to compare it between two groups. Methods: In a prospective observational study, 102 surgical candidates with low-grade degenerative and isthmic spondylolisthesis enrolled from 2012 to 2014, and randomly assigned into two groups: PLF and PLIF. Evaluation of disability has been done by a questionnaire using Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The questionnaire was completed by all patients before the surgery, the day after surgery, after 6 months and after 1-year. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in terms of age and sex distribution and pre-operation ODI between groups (P > 0.05). Comparison of the mean ODI scores of two groups over the whole study period showed no significant statistical difference (P = 0.074). ODIs also showed no significant differences between two groups the day after surgery, 6th months and 1-year after surgery (P = 0.385, P = 0.093, P = 0.122 and P = 433) respectively. Analyzing the course of ODI over the study period, showed a significant descending pattern for either of groups (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Both surgical fusion techniques (PLF and PLIF) were efficient to lessen the disability of patients with spondylolisthesis, and none of the fusion techniques were related to a better outcome in terms of disability. PMID:25767584

  1. Lateral lumbar interbody fusion for sagittal balance correction and spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Rao, Prashanth J; Scherman, Daniel B; Dandie, Gordon; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a systematic review to assess the safety and clinical and radiological outcomes of the recently introduced, direct or extreme lateral lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) approach for degenerative spinal deformity disorders. Open fusion and instrumentation has traditionally been the mainstay treatment. However, in recent years, there has been an increasing emphasis on minimally invasive fusion and instrumentation techniques, with the aim of minimizing surgical trauma and blood loss and reducing hospitalization. From six electronic databases, 21 eligible studies were included for review. The pooled weighted average mean of preoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) pain scores was 6.8, compared to a postoperative VAS score of 2.9 (p<0.0001). The weighted average preoperative and postoperative coronal segmental Cobb angles were 3.6 and 1.1°, respectively. The weighted average preoperative and postoperative coronal regional Cobb angles were 19.1 and 10.0°, respectively. Regional lumbar lordosis also significantly improved from 35.8 to 43.3°. Sagittal alignment was comparable pre- and postoperatively (34mm versus 35.1mm). The weighted average operative duration was 125.6minutes, whilst the mean estimated blood loss was 155mL. The weighted average hospitalization length was 3.6days. Whilst the available data is limited, minimally invasive XLIF procedures appear to be a promising alternative for the treatment of scoliosis, with improved functional VAS and Oswestry disability index outcomes and restored coronal deformity. Future comparative studies are warranted to assess the long term benefits and risks of XLIF compared to anterior and posterior procedures. PMID:26190218

  2. Accidental Durotomy in Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Frequency, Risk Factors, and Management

    PubMed Central

    Volz, Florian; Krüger, Marie T.; Kogias, Evangelos; Rölz, Roland; Sircar, Ronen; Hubbe, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the frequency, risk factors, and management of accidental durotomy in minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF). Methods. This single-center study retrospectively investigates 372 patients who underwent MIS TLIF and were mobilized within 24 hours after surgery. The frequency of accidental durotomies, intraoperative closure technique, body mass index, and history of previous surgery was recorded. Results. We identified 32 accidental durotomies in 514 MIS TLIF levels (6.2%). Analysis showed a statistically significant relation of accidental durotomies to overweight patients (body mass index ?25?kg/m2; P = 0.0493). Patient age older than 65 years tended to be a positive predictor for accidental durotomies (P = 0.0657). Mobilizing patients on the first postoperative day, we observed no durotomy-associated complications. Conclusions. The frequency of accidental durotomies in MIS TLIF is low, with overweight being a risk factor for accidental durotomies. The minimally invasive approach seems to minimize durotomy-associated complications (CSF leakage, pseudomeningocele) because of the limited dead space in the soft tissue. Patients with accidental durotomy can usually be mobilized within 24 hours after MIS TLIF without increased risk. The minimally invasive TLIF technique might thus be beneficial in the prevention of postoperative immobilization-associated complications such as venous thromboembolism. This trial is registered with DRKS00006135. PMID:26075294

  3. Neurogenic Shock Immediately following Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Okuda, Shinya; Haku, Takamitsu; Maeda, Kazuya; Maeno, Takafumi; Yamashita, Tomoya; Yamasaki, Ryoji; Kuratsu, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Motoki

    2015-08-01

    Study Design?Case report. Objective?To present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and that appeared to have been caused by the vasovagal reflex after dural injury and incarceration of the cauda equina. Case Report?We present two cases of neurogenic shock that occurred immediately following PLIF. One patient had bradycardia, and the other developed cardiac arrest just after closing the surgical incision and opening the drainage tube. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed immediately, and the patients recovered successfully, but they showed severe motor loss after awakening. The results of laboratory data, chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, computed tomography, and echocardiography ruled out pulmonary embolism, hemorrhagic shock, and cardiogenic shock. Although the reasons for the postoperative shock were obscure, reoperation was performed to explore the cause of paralysis. At reoperation, a cerebrospinal fluid collection and the incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets through a small dural tear were observed. The incarcerated cauda equina rootlets were reduced, and the dural defect was closed. In both cases, the reoperation was uneventful. From the intraoperative findings at reoperation, it was thought that the pathology was neurogenic shock via the vasovagal reflex. Conclusion?Incarceration of multiple cauda equina rootlets following the accidental dural tear by suction drainage caused a sudden decrease of cerebrospinal fluid pressure and traction of the cauda equina, which may have led to the vasovagal reflex. PMID:26225287

  4. Open and Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Comparison of Intermediate Results and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Hee, Hwan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Prospective study. Purpose To compare clinical and radiological outcomes of open vs. minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature MI-TLIF promises smaller incisions and less soft tissue dissection resulting in lower morbidity and faster recovery; however, it is technically challenging. Methods Twenty-five patients with MI-TLIF were compared with 25 matched open TLIF controls. A minimum 2 year follow-up and a statistical analysis of perioperative and long-term outcomes were performed. Potential complications were recorded. Results The mean ages for the open and MI-TLIF cases were 44.4 years (range, 19-69 years) and 43.6 years (range, 20-69 years), respectively. The male:female ratio was 13:12 for both groups. Average follow-up was 26.9 months for the MI-TLIF group and 29.3 months for the open group. Operative duration was significantly longer in the MI-TLIF group than that in the open group (p<0.05). No differences in estimated blood loss, duration to ambulation, or length of stay were found. Significant improvements in the Oswestry disability index and EQ-5D functional scores were observed at 6-, 12-, and 24-months in both groups, but no significant difference was detected between the groups. Fusion rates were comparable. Cage sizes were significantly smaller in the MI-TLIF group at the L5/S1 level (p<0.05). One patient had residual spinal stenosis at the MI-TLIF level, and one patient who underwent two-level MI-TLIF developed a deep vein thrombosis resulting in a pulmonary embolism. Conclusions MI-TLIF and open TLIF had comparable long-term benefits. Due to technical constraints, patients should be advised on the longer operative time and potential undersizing of cages at the L5S1 level. PMID:25901228

  5. BMP-2-induced Neuroforaminal Bone Growth in the Setting of a Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Junyoung; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Singh, Kern

    2015-06-01

    Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has become a popular alternative to traditional methods of lumbar decompression and fusion. When compared with the open technique, the minimally invasive approach can result in decreased pain and blood loss as well as a shorter length of hospitalization. However, the narrower working channel through the tubular retractor increases the difficulty of decortication and bone grafting. Therefore, recombinant human bone morphogenetic proteins (rhBMP-2) is often utilized (although this is off-label) to create a more favorable interbody fusion environment. Recently, the use of rhBMP-2 has been associated with excessive bone growth in an MIS-TLIF. If this bone growth compresses the neighboring neural structures, patients may present with either new or recurrent radicular pain. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging can demonstrate heterotopic bone growth extending from the disk space into either the ipsilateral neuroforamen or lateral recess, which may result in the compression of the exiting or traversing root, respectively. The purpose of this article and the accompanying video is to demonstrate a technique for defining and resecting rhBMP-2-induced heterotopic bone growth following a previous MIS-TLIF. PMID:25978140

  6. Vasculopathy, Ischemia, and the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery: Report of Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Allison, David W; Allen, Richard T; Kohanchi, David D; Skousen, Collin B; Lee, Yu-Po; Gertsch, Jeffrey H

    2015-12-01

    Multi-modal neurophysiologic monitoring consisting of triggered and spontaneous electromyography and transcranial motor-evoked potentials may detect and prevent both acute and slow developing mechanical and vascular nerve injuries in lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) surgery. In case report 1, a marked reduction in the transcranial motor-evoked potentials on the operative side alerted to a 28% decrease in mean arterial blood pressure in a 54-year-old woman during an L3-4, L4-5 LLIF. After hemodynamic stability was regained, transcranial motor-evoked potentials returned to baseline and the patient suffered no postoperative complications. In case report 2, a peroneal nerve train-of-four stimulation threshold of 95 mA portended the potential for a triggered electromyography false negative in a 70-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and body mass index of 30.7 kg/m undergoing an L3-4, L4-5 LLIF. Higher triggered electromyography threshold values were applied to this patient's relatively quiescent triggered electromyography and the patient suffered no postoperative complications. In case report 3, the loss of right quadriceps motor-evoked potentials detected a retractor related nerve injury in a 59-year-old man undergoing an L4-5 LLIF. The surgery was aborted, but the patient suffered persistent postoperative right leg paresthesia and weakness. These reports highlight the sensitivity of peripheral nerve elements to ischemia (particularly in the presence of vascular risk factors) during the LLIF procedure and the need for dynamic multi-modal intraoperative monitoring. PMID:26629762

  7. Outcome of posterior lumbar interbody fusion for L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Kawahara, Norio; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) has become the standard in the treatment for degenerative spondylolisthesis since improvement of spinal instrumentation However, few published studies have reported long term outcomes of PLIF using a same surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a long term outcome of PLIF using a same surgical procedure for L4-L5 degenerative spondylolisthesis. Materials and Methods: Out of 45 patients who underwent L4-L5 PLIF for degenerative spondylolisthesis between 1995 and 2003, 37 patients (16 males and 21 females) were evaluated in this study. Mean age was 61.8 years. The average followup period was 121 months. We evaluated % slip, lordosis at L4/L5, lumbar lordosis, Japanese Orthopedic Association's (JOA) score and adjacent segment degeneration. Results: The % slip significantly improved from an average of 17.0% before surgery to 9.7% at the last followup. Lordosis at L4/L5 averaged 3.6° before surgery, 8.2° after surgery and 6.9° at the last followup. Although patients experienced some loss of correction at last followup, their lordosis at L4/L5 at last followup still was significantly different from their lordosis at L4/L5 before surgery. Lumbar lordosis did not significantly change. Mean JOA score was 13.4 before surgery and 24.5 at the last followup; mean recovery ratio was 71.2%. Adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 40.5% of patients, almost all of which occurred in the cranial adjacent segment. Three patients (8.1%) required reoperation due to adjacent segment degeneration, at an average of 76 months after their initial surgery. Conclusions: With more than 10-year followup after L4-L5 PLIF for degenerative spondylolisthesis, the adjacent segment degeneration occurred in 40.5% and reoperation was required in 8.1%. PMID:26015627

  8. Particular Features of Surgical Site Infection in Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Go We

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous reports have observed differences only in infection rates between posterolateral fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). There have been no reports that describe the particular features of surgical site infection (SSI) in PLIF. In this study, we endeavor to identify the distinguishing characteristics and risk factors of SSI in PLIF. Methods Our study undertook a review of a case series of an institute. Patients who had undergone PLIF consecutively in the author's hospital were reviewed. Two proactive procedures were introduced during the study period. One was irrigation of the autolocal bone, and the other was the intradiscal space irrigation with a nozzle. Infection rate and risk factors were analyzed. For subgroup analysis, the elapsed time to a diagnosis (ETD), clinical manifestations, hematologic findings, and causative bacteria were examined in patients with SSI. Results In a total of 1,831 cases, there were 30 cases of SSI (1.6%). Long operation time was an independent risk factor (p = 0.008), and local bone irrigation was an independent protective factor (p = 0.001). Two cases of referred SSI were included in the subgroup analysis. There were 6/32 (19%) superficial incisional infections (SII), 6/32 (19%) deep incisional infections (DII), and 20/32 (62%) organ/space infections (O/SI). The difference of incidence among three groups was significant (p = 0.002).The most common bacteria encountered were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis followed by methicillin-resistant S. aureus in incisional infections, and no growth followed by S. epidermidis in O/SI. ETD was 8.5 ± 2.3 days in SII, 8.7 ± 2.3 days in DII and 164.5 ± 131.1 days in O/SI (p = 0.013). Conclusions The rate of SSI in PLIF was 1.6%, with the most common type being O/SI. The causative bacteria of O/SI was of lower virulence than in the incisional infection, and thus diagnosis was delayed due to its latent and insidious feature. Contamination of auto-local bone was presumed attributable to the progression of SSI. Irrigation of auto-local bone helped in the reduction of SSI. PMID:26330956

  9. Finite Element Analysis of a New Pedicle Screw-Plate System for Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Changqing; Liu, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is increasingly popular for the surgical treatment of degenerative lumbar disc diseases. The constructs intended for segmental stability are varied in MI-TLIF. We adopted finite element (FE) analysis to compare the stability after different construct fixations using interbody cage with posterior pedicle screw-rod or pedicle screw-plate instrumentation system. Methods A L3–S1 FE model was modified to simulate decompression and fusion at L4–L5 segment. Fixation modes included unilateral plate (UP), unilateral rod (UR), bilateral plate (BP), bilateral rod (BR) and UP+UR fixation. The inferior surface of the S1 vertebra remained immobilized throughout the load simulation, and a bending moment of 7.5 Nm with 400N pre-load was applied on the L3 vertebra to recreate flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation. Range of motion (ROM) and Von Mises stress were evaluated for intact and instrumentation models in all loading planes. Results All reconstructive conditions displayed decreased motion at L4–L5. The pedicle screw-plate system offered equal ROM to pedicle screw-rod system in unilateral or bilateral fixation modes respectively. Pedicle screw stresses for plate system were 2.2 times greater than those for rod system in left lateral bending under unilateral fixation. Stresses for plate were 3.1 times greater than those for rod in right axial rotation under bilateral fixation. Stresses on intervertebral graft for plate system were similar to rod system in unilateral and bilateral fixation modes respectively. Increased ROM and posterior instrumentation stresses were observed in all loading modes with unilateral fixation compared with bilateral fixation in both systems. Conclusions Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion augmentation with pedicle screw-plate system fixation increases fusion construct stability equally to the pedicle screw-rod system. Increased posterior instrumentation stresses are observed in all loading modes with plate fixation, and bilateral fixation could reduce stress concentration. PMID:26649749

  10. Lateral Pressure and VAS Pain Score Analysis for the Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion Procedure

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure is a minimally invasive procedure that has become widely utilized. The LLIF procedure typically involves bending the table to access the disc spaces of interest due to anatomical constraints. It is unknown if this bending process is painful or what pressures are exhibited on the downside part of the body. The goal of the study was to determine whether sex, height, weight, body mass index, bed angle, or positioning relative to the break of the bed affects the downside skin pressures and VAS pain scores in awake volunteers. Methods Fifty-six volunteers were placed in the lateral decubitus position and pressure sensors were placed at the downside part of their anatomy (shoulder, T10 rib , iliac crest, and greater trochanter). The pressures were checked with the iliac crest or greater trochanter at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 degree bed angles. VAS scores were checked when the iliac crest or greater trochanter were at the maximum bed break angles. Results A significant positive association was found between increased bed angle and pressure at all five areas on the downside body locations (p<0.0001). The greatest pressures were located at the iliac crest and greater trochanter when these specific locations were centered over the break of the bed (p<0.0001). When the iliac crest was placed at maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI increased the VAS pain by 0.13 (p<0.0001)and men had 1.96 (p=0.0009)higher VAS scores then women. When the greater trochanter was placed at the maximal bed break, each unit increase in BMI decreased VAS pain by 0.19 (p<0.0001) and women had 1.55 (p=0.0002)higher VAS pain scores then men. Conclusions In awake volunteers, the pressure at the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed increases by increasing the bed angle. Women with a lower BMI had high VAS pain scores when their greater trochanter was at maximal bed break. Men with higher BMI had high VAS pain scores when their iliac crest was at maximal bed break. An awareness of the iliac crest or greater trochanter at the break of the bed should be considered to prevent pain and increased pressure based on the patient's sex and BMI. PMID:26512342

  11. Applying hierarchical task analysis to improving the patient positioning for direct lateral interbody fusion in spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Al-Hakim, Latif; Maiping, Tanaphon; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-07-01

    The present study brings together for the first time the techniques of hierarchical task analysis (HTA), human error identification (HEI), and business process management (BPM) to select practices that can eliminate or reduce potential errors in a surgical setting. We applied the above approaches to the improvement of the patient positioning process for lumbar spine surgery referred to as 'direct lateral interbody fusion' (DLIF). Observations were conducted to gain knowledge on current DLIF positioning practices, and an HTA was constructed. Potential errors associated with the practices specific to DLIF patient positioning were identified. Based on literature review and expert views alternative practices are proposed aimed at improving the DLIF patient positioning process. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use BPM in association with HEI/HTA for the purpose of improving the performance and safety of a surgical process - with promising results. PMID:24332824

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Patients Undergoing Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery: A Single-Center Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Si-Dong; Ding, Wen-Yuan; Yang, Da-Long; Shen, Yong; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Feng, Shi-Qing; Zhao, Feng-Dong

    2015-12-01

    This cross-sectional study was designed to obtain the current prevalence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and analyze related risk factors in patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion.Medical record data were collected from Department of Spinal Surgery, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, between July 2014 and March 2015. Both univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were performed to determine risk factors for DVT.A total of 995 patients were admitted into this study, including 484 men and 511 women, aged from 14 to 89 years old (median 50, IQR 19). The detection rate of lower limb DVT by ultrasonography was 22.4% (223/995) in patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion. Notably, average VAS (visual analog scale) score in the first 3 days after surgery in the DVT group was more than that in the non-DVT group (Z?=?-21.69, P?interbody fusion surgery. PMID:26632909

  13. Percutaneous Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (pTLIF) with a Posterolateral Approach for the Treatment of Denegerative Disk Disease: Feasibility and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background Interbody fusion by open discectomy is the usual treatment for degenerative disk disease but requires a relatively long recovery period. The transforaminal posterolateral approach is a well-known standard in endoscopic spine surgery that allows direct access to the disk with progressive tissue dilation. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of percutaneous transforaminal interbody fusion (pTLIF) with insertion of an expandable or a standard rigid interbody implant for patients with degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis and for revision surgery. Methods Between 2009 and 2014, the pTLIF procedure was performed in 30 patients. Ten patients underwent insertion of a rigid implant (group A) and the remaining 20 underwent insertion of an expandable titanium interbody implant as the initial procedure (n = 10) (group B) or after failed back surgery (n = 10) (group C). Patient outcomes were scored with visual analogic scale (VAS), Oswestry disability index (ODI) and modified Macnab criteria. Results The mean follow-up period was 38 (17) (range 11 to 67) months. The outcome was excellent in 18, good in 10 and fair in 2. No poor results and no major complications were reported. No differences in VAS and ODI scores according to the study group were found. Median postoperative time until hospital discharge was 26 hours (20 to 68 hours). Postoperative values for VAS and ODI scores improved significantly (p<0.05) compared to preoperative data in all study groups. Conclusions These preliminary results have shown the feasibility and efficacy of the pTLIF procedure using a posterolateral approach for the treatment of degenerative disk disease with or without spondylolisthesis up to grade 2 and in revision surgery. No significant differences in outcome were observed between an expandable and a rigid cage. Median postoperative time until hospital discharge was faster compared to standard TLIF (26 hours vs. 9.3 days). PMID:26484004

  14. Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial of The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) Versus Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) Implants for Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, William; McLain, Robert F.; Rufo-Smith, Candace; Gurd, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Degenerative disc disease is common and debilitating for many patients. If conservative extensive care fails, anterior lumbar interbody fusion has proven to be an alternative form of surgical management. The Stabilis Stand Alone Cage(SAC) was introduced as a method to obtain stability and fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage (SAC) is comparable in safety and efficacy to the Bagby and Kuslich (BAK) device. Methods As part of a prospective, randomized, controlled FDA trial, 73 patients underwent anterior interbody fusion using either the SAC(56%) or the BAK device (44%). Results Background characteristics were similar between the two groups. There was no significant difference between the SAC and BAK groups in mean operative time or mean blood loss during surgery. Adverse event rates did not differ between the groups. Assessment of plain radiographs could not confirm solid fusion in 63% of control and 71% of study patients. Functional scores from Owestry and SF-36 improved in both groups by the two-year follow-up. There were no significant differences between the SAC and BAK patients with respect to outcome. Conclusions Both the Stabilis Stand Alone Cage and the BAK Cage provided satisfactory improvement in function and pain relief, despite less than expected radiographic fusion rates. The apparent incongruency between fusion rates and functional outcomes suggests that either radiographs underestimate the true incidence of fusion, or that patients are obtaining good pain relief and improved function despite a lower rate of fusion than previously reported. This was a Level III study. PMID:25694930

  15. Perioperative Surgical Complications and Learning Curve Associated with Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Single-Institute Experience

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Soo Bin; Seok, Sang Ok; Jo, Byung Woo; Ha, Joong Won

    2015-01-01

    Background As surgical complications tend to occur more frequently in the beginning stages of a surgeon's career, knowledge of perioperative complications is important to perform a safe procedure, especially if the surgeon is a novice. We sought to identify and describe perioperative complications and their management in connection with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of our first 124 patients who underwent minimally invasive TLIF. The primary outcome measure was adverse events during the perioperative period, including neurovascular injury, implant-related complications, and wound infection. Pseudarthroses and adjacent segment pathologies were not included in this review. Adverse events that were not specifically related to spinal surgery and did not affect recovery were also excluded. Results Perioperative complications occurred in 9% of patients (11/124); including three cases of temporary postoperative neuralgia, two deep wound infections, two pedicle screw misplacements, two cage migrations, one dural tear, and one grafted bone extrusion. No neurologic deficits were reported. Eight complications occurred in the first one-third of the series and only 3 complications occurred in the last two-thirds of the series. Additional surgeries were performed in 6% of patients (7/124); including four reoperations (two for cage migrations, one for a misplaced screw, and one for an extruded graft bone fragment) and three hardware removals (one for a misplaced screw and two for infected cages). Conclusions We found perioperative complications occurred more often in the early period of a surgeon's experience with minimally invasive TLIF. Implant-related complications were common and successfully managed by additional surgeries in this series. We suggest greater caution should be exercised to avoid the potential complications, especially when surgeon is a novice to this procedure. PMID:25729524

  16. Posterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumented posterolateral fusion in adult spondylolisthesis: description and association of clinico-surgical variables with prognosis in a series of 36 cases

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Moreta, Juan A.; Hernandez-Vicente, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background We present our experience in the treatment of patients with isthmic or degenerative spondylolisthesis, by means of a posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and instrumented posterolateral fusion (IPLF), and we compare them with those published in the literature. We analyse whether there exists any statistical association between the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the disease and our surgical technique, with the complications and the clinical-radiological prognosis of the cases. Method We designed a prospective study. A total of 36 cases were operated. The patients included were 14 men and 22 women, with an average age of 57.17±27.32 years. Our technique consists of PLIF+IPLF, using local bone for the fusion. The clinical results were evaluated with the Visual Analogical Scale (VAS) and the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria. The radiological evaluation followed the Bratingan (PLIF) and Lenke (IPLF) methodology. A total of 42 variables were statistically analysed by means of SPSS18. We used the Paired Student's T-test, logistic regression and Pearson's Chi-square-test. Results The spondylolisthesis was isthmic in 15 cases and degenerative in 21 cases. The postoperative evaluations had excellent or good results in 94.5% (n = 34), with a statistically significant improvement in the back pain and sciatica (p < 0.01). The rate of circumferential fusion reached was approximately 92%. We had 13.88% of transitory morbility and 0% of mortality associated with our technique. A greater age, degree of listhesis or length of illness before the intervention, weakly correlated with worse clinical results (p< -0.2). In our series, the logistical regression showed that the clinical characteristics of the patient, radiological characteristics of the lesion and our surgical technique were not associated with greater postoperative complications. Conclusion Although a higher level of training is necessary, we believe that the described technique is a very effective decision in cases of spondylolisthesis, isthmic or degenerative, refractory to conservative treatment, for the obtaining the best clinical results and rates of fusion, with similar risks to those of the other published techniques. Our statistical analysis could contribute to improve outcomes after surgery. PMID:26196029

  17. Spinal fusion - series (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    Interbody cage fusion uses a hollow threaded titanium or carbon fiber cylinder to fuse two vertebrae together. The diseased disk is removed and two interbody cages are placed in the opening where the diseased ...

  18. Biomechanical analysis of an expandable lateral cage and a static transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion cage with posterior instrumentation in an in vitro spondylolisthesis model.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Matthew; Cyriac, Mathew; Haines, Colin M; Gudipally, Manasa; O'Brien, Joseph R

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT Insufficient biomechanical data exist from comparisons of the stability of expandable lateral cages with that of static transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) cages. The purpose of this biomechanical study was to compare the relative rigidity of L4-5 expandable lateral interbody constructs with or without additive pedicle screw fixation with that of L4-5 static TLIF cages in a novel cadaveric spondylolisthesis model. METHODS Eight human cadaver spines were used in this study. A spondylolisthesis model was created at the L4-5 level by creating 2 injuries. First, in each cadaver, a nucleotomy from 2 channels through the anterior side was created. Second, the cartilage of the facet joint was burred down to create a gap of 4 mm. Light-emitting-diode tracking markers were placed at L-3, L-4, L-5, and S-1. Specimens were tested in the following scenarios: intact model, bilateral pedicle screws, expandable lateral 18-mm-wide cage (alone, with unilateral pedicle screws [UPSs], and with bilateral pedicle screws [BPSs]), expandable lateral 22-mm-wide cage (alone, with UPSs, and with BPSs), and TLIF (alone, with UPSs, and with BPSs). Four of the spines were tested with the expandable lateral cages (18-mm cage followed by the 22-mm cage), and 4 of the spines were tested with the TLIF construct. All these constructs were tested in flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. RESULTS The TLIF-alone construct was significantly less stable than the 18- and 22-mm-wide lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) constructs and the TLIF constructs with either UPSs or BPSs. The LLIF constructs alone were significantly less stable than the TLIF construct with BPSs. However, there was no significant difference between the 18-mm LLIF construct with UPSs and the TLIF construct with BPSs in any of the loading modes. CONCLUSIONS Expandable lateral cages with UPSs provide stability equivalent to that of a TLIF construct with BPSs in a degenerative spondylolisthesis model. PMID:26384133

  19. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    Background The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. Material/Methods Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. Results Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. Conclusions This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  20. Minimally Invasive Unilateral vs. Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation and Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Treatment of Multi-Segment Lumbar Degenerative Disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyang; Li, Guangrun; Wang, Jiefeng; Zhang, Heqing

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The choice for instrumentation with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) in treatment of degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD) remains controversial. The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes in consecutive patients with multi-segment DLD treated with unilateral pedicle screw (UPS) vs. bilateral pedicle screw (BPS) instrumented TLIF. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eighty-four consecutive patients who had multi-level MIS-TLIF were retrospectively reviewed. All data were collected to compare the clinical outcomes between the 2 groups. RESULTS Both groups showed similar clinical function scores in VAS and ODI. The two groups differed significantly in operative time (P<0.001), blood loss (P<0.001), and fusion rate (P=0.043), respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study demonstrated similar clinical outcomes between UPS fixation and BPS procedure after MIS-TLIF for multi-level DLD. Moreover, UPS technique was superior in operative time and blood loss, but represented lower fusion rate than the BPS construct did. PMID:26603050

  1. Surgical Data and Early Postoperative Outcomes after Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Results of a Prospective, Multicenter, Observational Data-Monitored Study

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Paulo; Buzek, David; Franke, Jörg; Senker, Wolfgang; Kosmala, Arkadiusz; Hubbe, Ulrich; Manson, Neil; Rosenberg, Wout; Assietti, Roberto; Martens, Frederic; Barbanti Brodano, Giovanni; Scheufler, Kai-Michael

    2015-01-01

    Minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion (MILIF) offers potential for reduced operative morbidity and earlier recovery compared with open procedures for patients with degenerative lumbar disorders (DLD). Firm conclusions about advantages of MILIF over open procedures cannot be made because of limited number of large studies of MILIF in a real-world setting. Clinical effectiveness of MILIF in a large, unselected real-world patient population was assessed in this Prospective, monitored, international, multicenter, observational study. Objective: To observe and document short-term recovery after minimally invasive interbody fusion for DLD. Materials and Methods: In a predefined 4-week analysis from this study, experienced surgeons (?30 MILIF surgeries pre-study) treated patients with DLD by one- or two-level MILIF. The primary study objective was to document patients’ short-term post-interventional recovery (primary objective) including back/leg pain (visual analog scale [VAS]), disability (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), health status (EQ-5D) and Patient satisfaction. Results: At 4 weeks, 249 of 252 patients were remaining in the study; the majority received one-level MILIF (83%) and TLIF was the preferred approach (94.8%). For one-level (and two-level) procedures, surgery duration was 128 (182) min, fluoroscopy time 115 (154) sec, and blood-loss 164 (233) mL. Time to first ambulation was 1.3 days and time to study-defined surgery recovery was 3.2 days. Patients reported significantly (P < 0.0001) reduced back pain (VAS: 2.9 vs 6.2), leg pain (VAS: 2.5 vs 5.9), and disability (ODI: 34.5% vs 45.5%), and a significantly (P < 0.0001) improved health status (EQ-5D index: 0.61 vs 0.34; EQ VAS: 65.4 vs 52.9) 4 weeks postoperatively. One adverse event was classified as related to the minimally invasive surgical approach. No deep site infections or deaths were reported. Conclusions: For experienced surgeons, MILIF for DLD demonstrated early benefits (short time to first ambulation, early recovery, high patient satisfaction and improved patient-reported outcomes) and low major perioperative morbidity at 4 weeks postoperatively. PMID:25811615

  2. Comparison Between Posterior Short-segment Instrumentation Combined With Lateral-approach Interbody Fusion and Traditional Wide-open Anterior-Posterior Surgery for the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Fractures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Zhang, Junwei; Tang, Hehu; Lu, Zhen; Liu, Shujia; Chen, Shizheng; Hong, Yi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the radiographic and clinical outcomes between posterior short-segment pedicle instrumentation combined with lateral-approach interbody fusion and traditional anterior-posterior (AP) surgery for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.Lateral-approach interbody fusion has achieved satisfactory results for thoracic and lumbar degenerative disease. However, few studies have focused on the use of this technique for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures.Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. All patients who meet the above criteria were prospectively treated by posterior short-segment instrumentation and secondary-staged minimally invasive lateral-approach interbody fusion, and classified as group A. A historical group of patients who were treated by traditional wide-open AP approach was used as a control group and classified as group B. The radiological and clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups.There were 12 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. The mean operative time and intraoperative blood loss of anterior reconstruction were significantly higher in group B than those in group A (127.1?±?21.7 vs 197.5?±?47.7?min, P?interbody fusion, can achieve similar clinical results with significant less operative time, blood loss, and surgical complication. This procedure seems to be a reasonable treatment option for selective patients with thoracolumbar fractures. PMID:26554800

  3. Incidence of microbiological contamination of local bone autograft used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion and its association with postoperative spinal infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chong-Suh; Kang, Kyung-Chung; Chung, Sung-Soo; Kim, Ki-Tack; Shin, Seong-Kee

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The aim of this study was to examine the results of microbiological cultures from local bone autografts used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and to identify their association with postoperative spinal infection. METHODS The authors retrospectively evaluated cases involving 328 patients who had no previous spinal surgeries and underwent PLIF for degenerative diseases with a minimum 1-year follow-up. Local bone was obtained during laminectomy, and microbiological culture was performed immediately prior to bone grafting. The associations between culture results from local bone autografts and postoperative spinal infections were evaluated. RESULTS The contamination rate of local bone was 4.3% (14 of 328 cases). Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (29%) was the most common contaminant isolated, followed by Streptococcus species and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. Of 14 patients with positive culture results, 5 (35.7%) had postoperative spinal infections and were treated with intravenous antibiotics for a minimum of 4 weeks. One of these 5 patients also underwent reoperation for debridement during this 4-week period. Regardless of the microbiological culture results, the infection rate after PLIF with local bone autograft was 2.4% (8 of 328 cases), with 5 (62.5%) of 8 patients showing positive results on autograft culture. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of contamination of local bone autograft during PLIF was considerable, and positive culture results were significantly associated with postoperative spinal infection. Special attention focused on the preparation of local bone for autograft and its microbiological culture will be helpful for the control of postoperative spinal infection. PMID:26360142

  4. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of topology designed and conventional 3D printed bioresorbable PCL cervical interbody fusion devices.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Ashleen R; Borkowski, Sean L; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Flanagan, Colleen L; Hollister, Scott J; Sangiorgio, Sophia N

    2015-09-01

    Recently, as an alternative to metal spinal fusion cages, 3D printed bioresorbable materials have been explored; however, the static and fatigue properties of these novel cages are not well known. Unfortunately, current ASTM testing standards used to determine these properties were designed prior to the advent of bioresorbable materials for cages. Therefore, the applicability of these standards for bioresorbable materials is unknown. In this study, an image-based topology and a conventional 3D printed bioresorbable poly(?)-caprolactone (PCL) cervical cage design were tested in compression, compression-shear, and torsion, to establish their static and fatigue properties. Difficulties were in fact identified in establishing failure criteria and in particular determining compressive failure load. Given these limitations, under static loads, both designs withstood loads of over 650 N in compression, 395 N in compression-shear, and 0.25 Nm in torsion, prior to yielding. Under dynamic testing, both designs withstood 5 million (5M) cycles of compression at 125% of their respective yield forces. Geometry significantly affected both the static and fatigue properties of the cages. The measured compressive yield loads fall within the reported physiological ranges; consequently, these PCL bioresorbable cages would likely require supplemental fixation. Most importantly, supplemental testing methods may be necessary beyond the current ASTM standards, to provide more accurate and reliable results, ultimately improving preclinical evaluation of these devices. PMID:26072198

  5. Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... my staff, my scrub techs, and the x-ray techs, and everybody's ready to go. So first ... to take a quick shot on the x-rays to make sure that I'm in a ... the retractor is in a good position. X-ray again. Picture. Okay, once we get this position, ...

  6. Development and Testing of Manufacturing Methods for a Piezoelectric Composite Stacked Generator to Improve the Success Rate of Interbody Spinal Fusion

    E-print Network

    Tobaben, Eric

    2014-08-31

    A piezoelectric composite stacked generator was developed to promote bone growth in spinal fusion surgeries. The objective of this study is to examine a method of manufacturing using conductive adhesive copper tape and compare to an alternative...

  7. esearchers in artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) are interested

    E-print Network

    Brooks, Rodney

    R esearchers in artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) are interested search engines to the bayesian match- ing techniques used in help and document autoformatting systems, be they aliens or ants, we are watching groups of agents acting under Alife models of group behaviour. When we

  8. Spine interbody implants: material selection and modification, functionalization and bioactivation of surfaces to improve osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Rao, Prashanth J; Pelletier, Matthew H; Walsh, William R; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2014-05-01

    The clinical outcome of lumbar spinal fusion is correlated with achievement of bony fusion. Improving interbody implant bone on-growth and in-growth may enhance fusion, limiting pseudoarthrosis, stress shielding, subsidence and implant failure. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and titanium (Ti) are commonly selected for interbody spacer construction. Although these materials have desirable biocompatibility and mechanical properties, they require further modification to support osseointegration. Reports of extensive research on this topic are available in biomaterial-centric published reports; however, there are few clinical studies concerning surface modification of interbody spinal implants. The current article focuses on surface modifications aimed at fostering osseointegration from a clinician's point of view. Surface modification of Ti by creating rougher surfaces, modifying its surface topography (macro and nano), physical and chemical treatment and creating a porous material with high interconnectivity can improve its osseointegrative potential and bioactivity. Coating the surface with osteoconductive materials like hydroxyapatite (HA) can improve osseointegration. Because PEEK spacers are relatively inert, creating a composite by adding Ti or osteoconductive materials like HA can improve osseointegration. In addition, PEEK may be coated with Ti, effectively bio-activating the coating. PMID:24890288

  9. Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... have. Most things in spinal surgery, other than spinal cord compression in the neck or in the thoracic ... do here. If we were in the cervical spinal cord, we cannot touch it because we can paralyze ...

  10. Passing the ALife test: Activity statistics classify evolution in Geb as unbounded

    E-print Network

    Channon, Alastair

    Passing the ALife test: Activity statistics classify evolution in Geb as unbounded Alastair Channon Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering Anglesea Road, University of Portsmouth, PO1 3DJ. UK statistics [1, 2] are used to classify the evolutionary dynamics in Geb [3, 4], a system designed to verify

  11. Proc. of the Alife XII Conference, Odense, Denmark, 2010 525 Enhancing Creativity with Niche Construction

    E-print Network

    McCormack, Jon

    Proc. of the Alife XII Conference, Odense, Denmark, 2010 525 Enhancing Creativity with Niche be abstracted and beneficially applied in creative domains. Evolution is a process capa- ble of generating representable or human evaluated), but this is ill-suited to creative systems, as creativity is not necessarily

  12. An ecology of text: using text retrieval to study alife on the net.

    PubMed

    Best, M L

    1997-01-01

    I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text retrieval method based on principal component analysis, to distill from the corpus those replicating units of text. LSI arrives at suitable replicators because it discovers word co-occurrences that segregate and recombine with appreciable frequency. I argue that natural selection is necessarily in operation because sufficient conditions for its occurrence are met: replication, mutagenicity, and trait/fitness covariance. I describe a set of experiments performed on a static corpus of over 10,000 posts. In these experiments I study average population fitness, a fundamental element of population ecology. My study of fitness arrives at the unhappy discovery that a flame-war, centered around an overly prolific poster, is the king of the jungle. PMID:9654782

  13. Midline Lumbar Fusion with Cortical Bone Trajectory Screw

    PubMed Central

    MIZUNO, Masaki; KURAISHI, Keita; UMEDA, Yasuyuki; SANO, Takanori; TSUJI, Masanori; SUZUKI, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    A novel cortical bone trajectory (CBT) screw technique provides an alternative fixation technique for lumbar spine. Trajectory of CBT screw creates a caudo-cephalad path in sagittal plane and a medio-lateral path in axial plane, and engages cortical bone in the pedicle. The theoretical advantage is that it provides enhanced screw grip and interface strength. Midline lumbar fusion (MIDLF) is composed of posterior mid-line approach, microsurgical laminectomy, and CBT screw fixation. We adopted the MIDLF technique for lumbar spondylolisthesis. Advantages of this technique include that decompression and fusion are available in the same field, and it minimizes approach-related damages. To determine whether MIDLF with CBT screw is as effective as traditional approach and it is minimum invasive technique, we studied the clinical and radiological outcomes of MIDLF. Our results indicate that MIDLF is effective and minimum invasive technique. Evidence of effectiveness of MIDLF is that patients had good recovery score, and that CBT screw technique was safety in clinical and stable in radiological. MIDLF with CBT screw provides the surgeon with additional options for fixation. This technique is most likely to be useful for treating lumbar spondylolisthesis in combination with midline decompression and insertion of an interbody graft, such as the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar interbody fusion techniques. PMID:25169139

  14. Biomechanical evaluation of a spherical lumbar interbody device at varying levels of subsidence

    PubMed Central

    Rundell, Steven A.; Isaza, Jorge E.; Kurtz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Ulf Fernström implanted stainless steel ball bearings following discectomy, or for painful disc disease, and termed this procedure disc arthroplasty. Today, spherical interbody spacers are clinically available, but there is a paucity of associated biomechanical testing. The primary objective of the current study was to evaluate the biomechanics of a spherical interbody implant. It was hypothesized that implantation of a spherical interbody implant, with combined subsidence into the vertebral bodies, would result in similar ranges of motion (RoM) and facet contact forces (FCFs) when compared with an intact condition. A secondary objective of this study was to determine the effect of using a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) versus a cobalt chrome (CoCr) implant on vertebral body strains. We hypothesized that the material selection would have a negligible effect on vertebral body strains since both materials have elastic moduli substantially greater than the annulus. Methods A finite element model of L3-L4 was created and validated by use of ROM, disc pressure, and bony strain from previously published data. Virtual implantation of a spherical interbody device was performed with 0, 2, and 4 mm of subsidence. The model was exercised in compression, flexion, extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending. The ROM, vertebral body effective (von Mises) strain, and FCFs were reported. Results Implantation of a PEEK implant resulted in slightly lower strain maxima when compared with a CoCr implant. For both materials, the peak strain experienced by the underlying bone was reduced with increasing subsidence. All levels of subsidence resulted in ROM and FCFs similar to the intact model. Conclusions The results suggest that a simple spherical implant design is able to maintain segmental ROM and provide minimal differences in FCFs. Large areas of von Mises strain maxima were generated in the bone adjacent to the implant regardless of whether the implant was PEEK or CoCr. PMID:25802664

  15. A Clinical Investigation of Contralateral Neurological Symptom after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiayue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yapeng; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze treatment outcomes and morbidity of contralateral neurological symptom in patients after TLIF surgery and to explore its possible causes. Material/Methods A retrospective study was conducted involving a total of 476 patients who underwent TILF from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital. These cases were divided into a symptomatic group (Group S) and a non-symptomatic group. The differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery were compared between Group S and a random sample of 40 cases of non-symptomatic group patients (group N). In addition, according to whether the patient underwent second surgery, Group S patients were further divided into a transient neurologic symptoms group (Group T) and an operations exploration group (Group O). The time of symptom appearance, duration, and symptomatic severity (JOA VAS score) were compared between Group T and O. Results Among the 476 patients, 18 had postoperative contralateral neurological symptoms; thus, the morbidity was 3.7815%. The indicators in Group S were lower than in Group N in the differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery (p<0.05). Five patients (Group O) in Group S had second surgery because of invalid conservative treatment. The surgical exploration rate was 1.0504%. Compared with Group T, the symptoms of Group O patients appeared earlier, persisted longer, and were more serious (p<0.05). Conclusions Contralateral neurological symptom is a potential complication after TLIF, and its causes are diverse. Surgical explorations should be conducted early for those patients with the complication who present with obvious nerve damage. PMID:26109143

  16. Is Hydronephrosis a Complication after Anterior Lumbar Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Ruth M.; Behrbalk, Eyal; Mosharraf, Syed; Müller, Roger M.; Boszczyk, Bronek M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design?Prospective follow-up design. Objective?Ureteral injury is a recognized complication following gynecologic surgery and can result in hydronephrosis. Anterior lumbar surgery includes procedures like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and total disk replacement (TDR). Anterior approaches to the spine require mobilization of the great vessels and visceral organs. The vascular supply to the ureter arising from the iliac arteries may be compromised during midline retraction of the ureter, which could theoretically lead to ureter ischemia and stricture with subsequent hydronephrosis formation. Methods?Potential candidates with previous ALIF or TDR via anterior retroperitoneal access between January 2008 and March 2012 were chosen from those operated on by a single surgeon in a university hospital setting (n?=?85). Renal ultrasound evaluation of hydronephrosis was performed on all participants. Simple descriptive and inferential statistics were used to generate results. Results?A total of 37 voluntary participants were recruited (23 male, 14 female subjects; average age 51.8 years). The prevalence of hydronephrosis in our population was 0.0% (95% confidence interval 0 to 8.1%). Conclusions?Retraction of the ureter across the midline in ALIF and TDR does not result in an increase in hydronephrosis and appears to be a safe surgical technique. PMID:26682096

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging on disc degeneration changes after implantation of an interspinous spacer and fusion of the adjacent segment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaokang; Liu, Yingjie; Lian, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of the lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after the implantation of interspinous device and the fusion of the adjacent segment. A total of 62 consecutive patients suffering L5/S1 lumbar disc herniation (LDH) with concomitant disc space narrowing or low-grade instability up to 5 mm translational slip in L5/S1 level were treated with lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) via posterior approach. Thirty-four of these patients (Coflex group) received an additional implantation of the interspinous spacer device (Coflex™) in the level L4/L5, while the rest of 28 patients (fusion group) underwent the fusion surgery alone. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at pre- and postoperative visits to compare the clinical outcomes and the changes of the L4/L5 vertebral disc degeneration on MRI in both Coflex and fusion group. Although both Coflex and fusion group showed improvements of the clinical outcomes assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) after surgery, patients in Coflex group had more significant amelioration (P < 0.05) compared to fusion group. During follow up, the postoperative disc degeneration changes in Coflex group assessed by the relative signal intensity (RSI) differed from those in fusion group (P < 0.05). The supplemental implantation of Coflex™ after the fusion surgery could delay the disc degeneration of the adjacent segment. PMID:26131210

  18. Complication with Removal of a Lumbar Spinal Locking Plate

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Brooke; Lenarz, Christopher; Watson, J. Tracy; Alander, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The use of locking plate technology for anterior lumbar spinal fusion has increased stability of the vertebral fusion mass over traditional nonconstrained screw and plate systems. This case report outlines a complication due to the use of this construct. Case. A patient with a history of L2 corpectomy and anterior spinal fusion presented with discitis at the L4/5 level and underwent an anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) supplemented with a locking plate placed anterolaterally for stability. Fifteen months after the ALIF procedure, he returned with a hardware infection. He underwent debridement of the infection site and removal of hardware. Results. Once hardware was exposed, removal of the locking plate screws was only successful in one out of four screws using a reverse thread screw removal device. Three of the reverse thread screw removal devices broke in attempt to remove the subsequent screws. A metal cutting drill was then used to break hoop stresses associated with the locking device and the plate was removed. Conclusion. Anterior locking plates add significant stability to an anterior spinal fusion mass. However, removal of this hardware can be complicated by the inherent properties of the design with significant risk of major vascular injury. PMID:25838956

  19. Changes in Neuroforaminal Height with 2 Level Axial Presacral Lumbar Interbody Fusion at L4-S1

    PubMed Central

    Marawar, Satyajit; Jung, Jin; Sun, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to examine the changes in neuroforaminal height at L4-L5 and L5-S1 after insertion and graduated foraminal distraction using the 2 level transsacral implant in a cadaveric model. Methods Discectomy and transsacral instrumentation was performed in six fresh human cadavers at L4-S1. The neuroforaminal height was measured at L4-L5 and L5-S1 before and after insertion of the implant and then at each stage of manual distraction. Results Mean L4-5 neuroforaminal height increased from 18.2 ± 3.1mm to 20.3± 2.9mm (11%) on the left and from 18.8±2.8mm to 20.6± 2.3mm (12%) on the right (P<0.05). Mean L5-S1 neuroforaminal height increased from 15.7±3.0mm to 18.4 ±2.8mm (17%) on the left and from 15.6 ±2.1mm to 18.3 ±1.8mm (17%) on the right (P<0.05). When the neuroforaminal height was plotted against amount of rotation of the screw driver it was found that the neuroforaminal height at L5-S1 increased by 1mm on average for every complete revolution of the screw driver. At least 2 full rotations of the screw driver were achieved in all cadavers. Conclusions The transsacral screw construct distracted the disc space and neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric spine model without soft tissue envelope. During the initial process, manual control of disc space distraction predictably correlated with the increase in the neuroforaminal height to a maximum. However, further research is needed to look at variables affecting disc space pliability, implant subsidence, in vivo application, and clinical benefit of this procedure. PMID:25694937

  20. Fusion breeder

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-02-22

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

  1. Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion

    E-print Network

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Beyond for Latent Variables", Feb. 2-4 2015 1 / 64 #12;Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion Context Multi School "Search for Latent Variables", Feb. 2-4 2015 2 / 64 #12;Bayesian fusion of multi-band image fusion

  2. Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL

    PubMed Central

    Barrey, Cédric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

  3. Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

  4. Assisted fusion

    E-print Network

    German Kälbermann

    2009-10-19

    A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

  5. The role of sacral slope in lumbosacral fusion: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Drazin, Doniel; Hussain, Mir; Harris, Jonathan; Hao, John; Phillips, Matt; Kim, Terrence T; Johnson, J Patrick; Bucklen, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT Abnormal sacral slope (SS) has shown to increase progression of spondylolisthesis, yet there exists a paucity in biomechanical studies investigating its role in the correction of adult spinal deformity, its influence on lumbosacral shear, and its impact on the instrumentation selection process. This in vitro study investigates the effect of SS on 3 anterior lumbar interbody fusion constructs in a biomechanics laboratory. METHODS Nine healthy, fresh-frozen, intact human lumbosacral vertebral segments were tested by applying a 550-N axial load to specimens with an initial SS of 20° on an MTS Bionix test system. Testing was repeated as SS was increased to 50°, in 10° increments, through an angulated testing fixture. Specimens were instrumented using a standalone integrated spacer with self-contained screws (SA), an interbody spacer with posterior pedicle screws (PPS), and an interbody spacer with anterior tension band plate (ATB) in a randomized order. Stiffness was calculated from the linear portion of the load-deformation curve. Ultimate strength was also recorded on the final construct of all specimens (n = 3 per construct) with SS of 40°. RESULTS Axial stiffness (N/mm) of the L5-S1 motion segment was measured at various angles of SS: for SA 292.9 ± 142.8 (20°), 277.2 ± 113.7 (30°), 237.0 ± 108.7 (40°), 170.3 ± 74.1 (50°); for PPS 371.2 ± 237.5 (20°), 319.8 ± 167.2 (30°), 280.4 ± 151.7 (40°), 233.0 ± 117.6 (50°); and for ATB 323.9 ± 210.4 (20°), 307.8 ± 125.4 (30°), 249.4 ± 126.7 (40°), 217.7 ± 99.4 (50°). Axial compression across the disc space decreased with increasing SS, indicating that SS beyond 40° threshold shifted L5-S1 motion into pure shear, instead of compression-shear, defining a threshold. Trends in ultimate load and displacement differed from linear stiffness with SA > PPS > ATB. CONCLUSIONS At larger SSs, bilateral pedicle screw constructs with spacers were the most stable; however, none of the constructs were significantly stiffer than intact segments. For load to failure, the integrated spacer performed the best; this may be due to angulations of integrated plate screws. Increasing SS significantly reduced stiffness, which indicates that surgeons need to consider using more aggressive fixation techniques. PMID:26273763

  6. Anterior lumbar interbody surgery for spondylosis results from a classically-trained neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Chatha, Gurkirat; Foo, Stacy W L; Lind, Christopher R P; Budgeon, Charley; Bannan, Paul E

    2014-09-01

    Anterior lumbar surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a relatively novel technique that can prevent damage to posterior osseous, muscular and ligamentous spinal elements. This study reports the outcomes and complications in 286 patients who underwent fusion - with artificial disc implants or combined fusion and artificial disc implants - by a single-operator neurosurgeon, with up to 24 months of follow-up. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF36) and prospective log of adverse events were used to assess the clinical outcome. Radiographic assessments of implant position and bony fusion were analysed. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Irrespective of pre-surgical symptoms (back pain alone or back and leg pain combined), workers' compensation status and type of surgical implant, clinically significant improvements in VAS, ODI and SF36 were primarily observed at 3 and/or 6 month follow-up, and improvements were maintained at 24 months after surgery. A 94% fusion rate was obtained; the overall complication was 9.8% which included 3.5% with vascular complications. The anterior lumbar approach can be used for treating DDD for both back pain and back and leg pain with low complication rates. With appropriate training, single-operator neurosurgeons can safely perform these surgeries. PMID:24786717

  7. Fusion Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingee, David A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the extraordinary potential, the technical difficulties, and the financial problems that are associated with research and development of fusion power plants as a major source of energy. (GA)

  8. Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

    2013-10-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

  9. Cervical spondylodiscitis associated with oesophageal perforation: a rare complication after anterior cervical fusion.

    PubMed

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Repantis, Thomas; Vitsas, Vasilis; Vardakastanis, Konstantinos

    2013-11-01

    Anterior cervical instrumented fusion is a commonly performed spinal surgery with relatively low complication rate. Especially, spinal infections are very rare and often associated with oesophageal perforation secondary to hardware migration. We present a rare complication of cervical spondylodiscitis in a 24-year-old man after an anterior cervical fusion. He had sustained a C5/C6 fracture dislocation associated with incomplete tetraplegia and he was treated by a combined staged posterior (lateral mass screws) and anterior (plate, PEEK) cervical fusion with an uneventful postoperative course with exception of light dysphagia for liquids. Three months after surgery, the patient developed fever and severe dysphagia. A barium-swallow study was indicative for oesophageal perforation, while MRI of the neck demonstrated spondylodiscitis C5/C6 accompanied by a prevertebral and epidural abscess. The treatment consisted of surgical debridement and evacuation of the abscesses, removal of the anterior spinal implants and insertion of a mesh cage with iliac bone graft. The weakened oesophagus posterior wall was enhanced with resorbable interrupted sutures and a 6-week course of antibiotics was administered. Dysphagia improved significantly while interbody fusion occurred 5 months following revision surgery. Five years postoperatively motor and sensor function had returned to normal limits. Dysphagia or deterioration of preexisted dysphagia in the late postoperative setting should be considered carefully and evaluated for oesophageal perforation and complicated spinal infection. In the case of not completed fusion, removal of the implants followed by meticulous debridement and insertion of titanium mesh cage, filled with autogenous bone graft lead to successful fusion and infection eradication. PMID:23412223

  10. Cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Podbilewicz, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Selective cell fusion is a natural part of development. It is found in sexually reproducing organisms that require fertilization to propagate and in muscles, placenta, bones, lens of the eye and stem cells. Cell fusion is particularly important in the development of C. elegans: in addition to 300 sperm and oocytes that fuse during fertilization, 300 of the 1090 somatic cells born, fuse throughout development. Studies of cell fusion in C. elegans have shown that although different types of cells fuse, cell membrane merger is initiated through a common mechanism involving the action of one gene, eff-1. In worms with mutations that inactivate eff-1, almost none of the 300 somatic cells that normally fuse do so, but appear to differentiate, attach and behave in the same way as fusing cells. Such worms develop and survive but have numerous morphological, behavioral and fertility defects associated to cell fusion failure in the epidermis, pharynx, male tail, vulva and uterus. Cell fusion in embryonic dorsal epithelial cells has been analyzed in great detail by confocal microscopy using membrane fluorescent probes, apical junction markers and cytoplasmic aqueous fluorescent probes allowing the direct observation of membrane disappearance, pore expansion and cytoplasmic content mixing. The complete elimination of the membranes between two fusing cells takes about 30 min and involves vesiculation of the fusing membranes. Genetic and cell biological evidence indicates that eff-1 activity is both necessary and sufficient to fuse epithelial and myoepithelial cells in vivo. Based on electron microscopic analyses of intermediates of cell fusion in eff-1 mutants, it appears that eff-1 is required for both initiation and expansion of fusion pores, similar to the fusogen of Influenza virus. While only one gene encoding a novel candidate component of the cell membrane fusion machinery has been found, the nematode's cell fusion program is under the control of many cell-specific transcriptional regulators. A large number of these conserved regulators prevent cell fusion by repressing eff-1 activity. For example, if either ceh-16/engrailed or the GATA factor EGL-18/ELT-5 is inactivated, the lateral epidermal cells that normally do not fuse in the embryo will fuse causing embryonic lethality. And if either the Hox protein lin-39/Deformed or its cofactor ceh-20/Extradenticle is inactivated, the ventral epidermal vulval precursor cells that normally do not fuse in the larvae will fuse and the hermaphrodite will have no vulva. In addition, there is evidence for coordinated and complex regulation of lin-39 in the ventral epidermis by Ras, Wnt, Rb/E2F, NuRD and lin-15 pathways. It appears that in many cells that normally do not fuse, specific transcription complexes repress eff-1 expression preventing cell fusion. ref-2 (REgulator of Fusion-2) encodes a Zn-finger protein that is required to generate ventral Pn.p cells and to keep them unfused both in males and hermaphrodites. ref-2 is necessary, but not sufficient, to maintain Pn.p cells unfused. This review shows that far from cell fusion being an unusual phenomenon, there is the clear prospect that animal cells in all tissues are intrinsically programmed to fuse, and are only prevented from fusing by transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. There are three major questions that remain open for future research: (1) How does eff-1 fuse cells? (2) How do Ras, Wnt, Rb, NuRD, E2F, heterochronic and other pathways control cell fusion? (3) What are the implications of cell fusion beyond worms? PMID:18050486

  11. Single-stage Anterior and Posterior Fusion Surgery for Correction of Cervical Kyphotic Deformity Using Intervertebral Cages and Cervical Lateral Mass Screws: Postoperative Changes in Total Spine Sagittal Alignment in Three Cases with a Minimum Follow-up of Five Years

    PubMed Central

    OGIHARA, Satoshi; KUNOGI, Junichi

    The surgical treatment of cervical kyphotic deformity remains challenging. As a surgical method that is safer and avoids major complications, the authors present a procedure of single-stage anterior and posterior fusion to correct cervical kyphosis using anterior interbody fusion cages without plating, as illustrated by three consecutive cases. Case 1 was a 78-year-old woman who presented with a dropped head caused by degeneration of her cervical spine. Case 2 was a 54-year-old woman with athetoid cerebral palsy. She presented with cervical myelopathy and cervical kyphosis. Case 3 was a 71-year-old woman with cervical kyphotic deformity following a laminectomy. All three patients underwent anterior release and interbody fusion with cages and posterior fusion with cervical lateral mass screw (LMS) fixation. Postoperative radiographs showed that correction of kyphosis was 39° in case 1, 43° in case 2, and 39° in case 3. In all three cases, improvement of symptoms was established without major perioperative complications, solid fusion was achieved, and no loss of correction was observed at a minimum follow-up of 61 months. We also report that preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment was improved after corrective surgery for cervical kyphosis and was maintained at the latest follow-up in all three cases. The combination of anterior fusion cages and LMS is considered a safe and effective procedure in cases of severe cervical kyphotic deformity. Preoperative total spine sagittal malalignment improved, accompanied by correction of cervical kyphosis, and was maintained at last follow-up in all three cases. PMID:26119893

  12. RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion

    E-print Network

    Pelizzari, Charles A.

    RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

  13. Laser fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, W.A.; Boskma, P.

    1980-12-01

    Unrestricted laser fusion offers nations an opportunity to circumvent arms control agreements and develop thermonuclear weapons. Early laser weapons research sought a clean radiation-free bomb to replace the fission bomb, but this was deceptive because a fission bomb was needed to trigger the fusion reaction and additional radioactivity was induced by generating fast neutrons. As laser-implosion experiments focused on weapons physics, simulating weapons effects, and applications for new weapons, the military interest shifted from developing a laser-ignited hydrogen bomb to more sophisticated weapons and civilian applications for power generation. Civilian and military research now overlap, making it possible for several countries to continue weapons activities and permitting proliferation of nuclear weapons. These countries are reluctant to include inertial confinement fusion research in the Non-Proliferation Treaty. 16 references. (DCK)

  14. Nell-1 Protein Promotes Bone Formation in a Sheep Spinal Fusion Model

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Ronald K.; Lu, Steven S.; Li, Weiming; Whang, Julie; McNeill, Gabriel; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin M.; Turner, A. Simon; Seim, Howard B.; Hoang, Paul; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Gertzman, Arthur A.; Ting, Kang

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are widely used as bone graft substitutes in spinal fusion, but are associated with numerous adverse effects. The growth factor Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1) is mechanistically distinct from BMPs and can minimize complications associated with BMP therapies. This study evaluates the efficacy of Nell-1 combined with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a novel bone graft material for interbody spine fusion using sheep, a phylogenetically advanced animal with biomechanical similarities to human spine. Nell-1+sheep DBM or Nell-1+heat-inactivated DBM (inDBM) (to determine the osteogenic effect of residual growth factors in DBM) were implanted in surgical sites as follows: (1) DBM only (control) (n=8); (2) DBM+0.3?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=8); (3) DBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=8); (4) inDBM only (control) (n=4); (5) inDBM+0.3?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=4); (6) inDBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=4). Fusion was assessed by computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. One hundred percent fusion was achieved by 3 months in the DBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 group and by 4 months in the inDBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 group; bone volume and mineral density were increased by 58% and 47%, respectively. These fusion rates are comparable to published reports on BMP-2 or autograft bone efficacy in sheep. Nell-1 is an independently potent osteogenic molecule that is efficacious and easily applied when combined with DBM. PMID:21128865

  15. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  16. Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, E. D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; helium-3 to helium-4 ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of helium-3/helium-4.

  17. data fusion 15 June 2012

    E-print Network

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    real world data fusion Fred Daum 15 June 2012 data fusion Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All fusion fusion of measurements performance fusion of tracks interesting parameter 3 #12;real world multi-sensor data fusion fusion of tracks performance fusion of measurements interesting parameter 4 #12;real world

  18. Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture

    E-print Network

    Rowell, Eric C.

    Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Braided Weakly Integral Fusion Fusion Categories #12;Braided Fusion Categories First Conjecture Second Conjecture Outline 1 Braided Fusion Categories Preliminaries Dimensions and Braid Representations 2 First Conjecture Finiteness

  19. Block theory Fusion systems

    E-print Network

    Block theory Fusion systems Results Block theory and fusion systems Benjamin Sambale Jena 02. 05. 2011 Benjamin Sambale Block theory and fusion systems #12;Block theory Fusion systems Results Blocks Characters in blocks Defect groups Conjectures Blocks Let G be a finite group and p be a prime. Let (K, R, F

  20. About sponsorship Fusion power

    E-print Network

    About sponsorship Fusion power Nuclear ambitions Jun 30th 2005 From The Economist print edition project to build a nuclear-fusion reactor came a step closer to reality when politicians agreed it should century, fusion advocates have claimed that achieving commercial nuclear fusion is 30 years away

  1. Fusion Residues

    E-print Network

    Kenneth Intriligator

    1991-08-19

    We discuss when and how the Verlinde dimensions of a rational conformal field theory can be expressed as correlation functions in a topological LG theory. It is seen that a necessary condition is that the RCFT fusion rules must exhibit an extra symmetry. We consider two particular perturbations of the Grassmannian superpotentials. The topological LG residues in one perturbation, introduced by Gepner, are shown to be a twisted version of the $SU(N)_k$ Verlinde dimensions. The residues in the other perturbation are the twisted Verlinde dimensions of another RCFT; these topological LG correlation functions are conjectured to be the correlation functions of the corresponding Grassmannian topological sigma model with a coupling in the action to instanton number.

  2. Porous titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium cage has better osseointegration and less micromotion than a poly-ether-ether-ketone cage in sheep vertebral fusion.

    PubMed

    Wu, Su-Hua; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Li, Xiao-Kang; Yuan, Chao-Fan; Hao, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

    2013-12-01

    Interbody fusion cages made of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) have been widely used in clinics for spinal disorders treatment; however, they do not integrate well with surrounding bone tissue. Ti-6Al-4V (Ti) has demonstrated greater osteoconductivity than PEEK, but the traditional Ti cage is generally limited by its much greater elastic modulus (110?GPa) than natural bone (0.05-30?GPa). In this study, we developed a porous Ti cage using electron beam melting (EBM) technique to reduce its elastic modulus and compared its spinal fusion efficacy with a PEEK cage in a preclinical sheep anterior cervical fusion model. A porous Ti cage possesses a fully interconnected porous structure (porosity: 68?±?5.3%; pore size: 710?±?42??m) and a similar Young's modulus as natural bone (2.5?±?0.2?GPa). When implanted in vivo, the porous Ti cage promoted fast bone ingrowth, achieving similar bone volume fraction at 6 months as the PEEK cage without autograft transplantation. Moreover, it promoted better osteointegration with higher degree (2-10x) of bone-material binding, demonstrated by histomorphometrical analysis, and significantly higher mechanical stability (P?

  3. Fusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg

    E-print Network

    Fusion Cons: · It doesn't work yet 8 #12;How does fusion work? Science · Nuclear physics · Plasma physicsFusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg PSFC & NSE January 2012 1 #12;Outline 1. What is fusion's role in energy production 2. How does fusion work? 3. Where is fusion research now? 4. Where might fusion

  4. Degenerative Spondylolisthesis: Does Fusion Method Influence Outcome? Four-Year Results of the Spine Patient Outcomes Research Trial (SPORT)

    PubMed Central

    Abdu, William A.; Lurie, Jon D.; Spratt, Kevin F.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Zhao, Wenyan; Tosteson, Tor D.; Herkowitz, Harry; Longely, Michael; Boden, Scott D.; Emery, Sanford; Weinstein, James N.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design Clinical trial sub-group analysis Objective To compare outcomes of different fusion techniques treating degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). Summary of Background Data Surgery has been shown to be more effective than non-operative treatment out to four years.1,2 Questions remain regarding the differential effect of fusion technique. METHODS Surgical candidates from 13 centers in 11 states with at least 12 weeks of symptoms and confirmatory imaging showing stenosis and DS were studied. In addition to standard decompressive laminectomy, one of three fusion techniques was employed at the surgeon’s discretion: posterolateral in situ fusion (PLF); posterolateral instrumented fusion with pedicle screws (PPS); or PPS plus interbody fusion (360°). Main outcome measures were the SF-36 Bodily Pain (BP) and Physical Function (PF) scales and the modified Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) assessed at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and yearly to 4 years. The as-treated analysis combined the randomized and observational cohorts using mixed longitudinal models adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS Of 380 surgical patients, 21% (N= 80) received a PLF; 56% (N=213) received a PPS; 17% (N=63) received a 360°; and 6% (N=23) had decompression only without fusion. Early outcomes varied, favoring PLF compared to PPS at 6 weeks (PF: 12.73 vs. 6.22, p<0.020) and 3 months (PF: 25.24 vs.18.95, p<0.025) and PPS compared to 360° at 6 weeks (ODI: ?14.46 vs. ?9.30, p<0.03) and 3 months (ODI: ?22.30 vs. ?16.78, p<0.02). At two years, 360° had better outcomes: BP: 39.08 vs. 29.17 PLF, p<0.011; and vs. 29.13 PPS, p<0.002; PF; 31.93 vs. 23.27 PLF, p<0.021; and vs. 25.29 PPS, p<0.036. However, these differences were not maintained at 3- and 4-year follow-up, when there were no statistically significant differences between the three fusion groups. CONCLUSIONS In patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis and associated spinal stenosis, no consistent differences in clinical outcomes were seen among fusion groups over four years. PMID:19755935

  5. ALVW: an alife behaviour modelling system

    E-print Network

    Gutierrez, Diego

    : modelling behaviour for synthetic cockroaches within his own environment. Findings ­ A detailed example for cockroaches. The next natural step is to make a cognitive behaviour modelling and to extend it to other

  6. Clear Zone Formation around Screws in the Early Postoperative Stages after Posterior Lumbar Fusion Using the Cortical Bone Trajectory Technique

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-Ichiro; Ohkawa, Toshika; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the initial fixation using the cortical bone trajectory (CBT) technique for posterior lumbar fusion through assessment of the clear zones around the screws and the risk factors involved. Overview of Literature Postoperative radiolucent zones (clear zones) are an indicator of poor conventional pedicle screw fixation. Methods Between January 2013 and April 2014, 19 patients (8 men and 11 women) underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion or posterior lumbar fusion using the CBT technique. A total of 109 screws were used for evaluation with measurement of the maximum insertional torque of last two screw rotations. Clear zone-positivity on plain radiographs was investigated 6 months after surgery. The relation between intraoperative insertional torque and clear zone-positivity was investigated by one-way analysis of variance. In addition, the correlation between clear zone-positivity and gender, age (<75 years old or >75 years old), or operative stabilization level (<2 or >3 vertebral levels) was evaluated using the chi-square test. Results Clear zones were observed around six screws (5.50%) in five patients (26.3%). The mean insertional torque (4.00±2.09 inlbs) of clear zone-positive screws was lower than that of clear zone-negative screws (8.12±0.50 in-lbs), but the difference was not significant. There was a significant correlation between clear zone-positivity and operative level of stabilization. Conclusions The low incidence of clear zone-positive screws indicates good initial fixation using the CBT technique. Multilevel fusions may be risk factors for clear zone generation. PMID:26713120

  7. Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"

    E-print Network

    Rainer W. Kuehne

    2006-04-14

    Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

  8. Fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The main purpose of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is to develop an experimental fusion reactor through the united efforts of many technologically advanced countries. The ITER terms of reference, issued jointly by the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States, call for an integrated international design activity and constitute the basis of current activities. Joint work on ITER is carried out under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the terms of quadripartite agreement reached between the European Community, Japan, the USSR, and the United States. The site for joint technical work sessions is at the MaxPlanck Institute of Plasma Physics. Garching, Federal Republic of Germany. The ITER activities have two phases: a definition phase performed in 1988 and the present design phase (1989--1990). During the definition phase, a set of ITER technical characteristics and supporting research and development (R D) activities were developed and reported. The present conceptual design phase of ITER lasts until the end of 1990. The objectives of this phase are to develop the design of ITER, perform a safety and environmental analysis, develop site requirements, define future R D needs, and estimate cost, manpower, and schedule for construction and operation. A final report will be submitted at the end of 1990. This paper summarizes progress in the ITER program during the 1989 design phase.

  9. Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-print Network

    Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making commercially viable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada · Plan to demonstrate a fusion system capable of "net gain" within 3 years

  10. Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-print Network

    Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

  11. Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Urologic Conditions Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) Horseshoe Kidney (Renal Fusion) Most people are born with two ... final position as they develop. What is horseshoe kidney? Horseshoe kidney occurs in about one in 500 ...

  12. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission

    E-print Network

    Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed-heated) plasma, and the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) has concluded that the fusion program

  13. Fusion: Intro Fusion: Numerics and Asymptotics Fusion: Summary Superconductor: Problem Superconductor: Results Investigation into the Feasibility and

    E-print Network

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Fusion: Intro Fusion: Numerics and Asymptotics Fusion: Summary Superconductor: Problem Superconductor: Results Investigation into the Feasibility and Operation of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor, Committee Member May 7, 2015 Michael Lindstrom Magnetized Target Fusion and Field Perturbations #12;Fusion

  14. Presented by Information Fusion

    E-print Network

    Presented by Information Fusion: Science and Engineering of Combining Information from Multiple's Office of Science #12;2 Managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Rao_InfoFusion_SC10 Information Fusion at ORNL · ORNL Instrumental in formulating and fostering this multi-disciplinary area

  15. Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion.

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion conditions is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion.

  16. FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF)

    E-print Network

    FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM & SUPPORTING FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE FACILITY (FNSF): UPDATE in order to apply the knowledge we gained about burning plasma state #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM #12;FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT OF ELEMENTS OF THE FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE PROGRAM

  17. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion In the 1950s,the promise of controlled nuclear fusion, although there is still some way to go to realize the dream,the latest status report on fusion research compiled by the International Fusion Research Council (Nucl. Fusion 45,A1­A28; 2005) provides good reason

  18. The European Fusion Programme

    SciTech Connect

    Antidormi, R.; Bartlett, D.; Bruhns, H.

    2004-03-15

    The long-term objective of the European fusion programme is the harnessing of the power of fusion to help meet mankind's future energy needs.This paper describes the current research programme, the unique organisational character of the fusion programme, and European and world-wide co-operation. The future evolution of the programme as part of the European Research Area and the developments currently taking place in preparation for the possible construction of ITER, the next major step towards the realisation of fusion power, are discussed.

  19. Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance

    E-print Network

    Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance required for a Fusion Power Plant. Const. Cost $B Date

  20. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  1. Fusion Science Education Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

    1996-11-01

    This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

  2. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-print Network

    Dong, Bao-Guo

    2015-01-01

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at dif...

  3. Robotics and local fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmerman, Philip J.

    2005-05-01

    Teams of robots or mixed teams of warfighters and robots on reconnaissance and other missions can benefit greatly from a local fusion station. A local fusion station is defined here as a small mobile processor with interfaces to enable the ingestion of multiple heterogeneous sensor data and information streams, including blue force tracking data. These data streams are fused and integrated with contextual information (terrain features, weather, maps, dynamic background features, etc.), and displayed or processed to provide real time situational awareness to the robot controller or to the robots themselves. These blue and red force fusion applications remove redundancies, lessen ambiguities, correlate, aggregate, and integrate sensor information with context such as high resolution terrain. Applications such as safety, team behavior, asset control, training, pattern analysis, etc. can be generated or enhanced by these fusion stations. This local fusion station should also enable the interaction between these local units and a global information world.

  4. Fusion excitation function revisited

    E-print Network

    Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

    2012-09-28

    We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

  5. Thermal Resonance Fusion

    E-print Network

    Bao-Guo Dong

    2015-07-07

    We first show a possible mechanism to create a new type of nuclear fusion, thermal resonance fusion, i.e. low energy nuclear fusion with thermal resonance of light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium or tritium. The fusion of two light nuclei has to overcome the Coulomb barrier between these two nuclei to reach up to the interacting region of nuclear force. We found nuclear fusion could be realized with thermal vibrations of crystal lattice atoms coupling with light atoms at low energy by resonance to overcome this Coulomb barrier. Thermal resonances combining with tunnel effects can greatly enhance the probability of the deuterium fusion to the detectable level. Our low energy nuclear fusion mechanism research - thermal resonance fusion mechanism results demonstrate how these light nuclei or atoms, such as deuterium, can be fused in the crystal of metal, such as Ni or alloy, with synthetic thermal vibrations and resonances at different modes and energies experimentally. The probability of tunnel effect at different resonance energy given by the WKB method is shown that indicates the thermal resonance fusion mode, especially combined with the tunnel effect, is possible and feasible. But the penetrating probability decreases very sharply when the input resonance energy decreases less than 3 keV, so for thermal resonance fusion, the key point is to increase the resonance peak or make the resonance sharp enough to the acceptable energy level by the suitable compound catalysts, and it is better to reach up more than 3 keV to make the penetrating probability larger than 10^{-10}.

  6. FUSION SIMULATION PROJECT Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems

    E-print Network

    #12;FUSION SIMULATION PROJECT Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems Final report of the FESAC ISOFS Subcommittee ISOFS (Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems) Subcommittee-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital

  7. Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Xiangyu Wang

    E-print Network

    Rui, Yong

    Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Method Xiangyu Wang National Univ. of Singapore multimedia's nature of hav- ing multiple information sources, fusion methods are criti- cal for its data analysis and understanding. However, most of the traditional fusion methods are static with respect to time

  8. Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven

    E-print Network

    Craven, David A.

    Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven September 2010 Abstract This short note provides a new and straightforward proof of the original fusion theorem of Alperin, then considers so-called domestic intersections, which are special types of tame intersections that should play a role in fusion

  9. MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division

    E-print Network

    MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz M.I.T. Plasma Science and Fusion Center Review of FIRE TF, PF, Structures, VV, PFC's, Fueling and Pumping Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Princeton, NJ June 5-7, 2001 #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center

  10. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow wastes of spinal fusion procedure (TLIF) for low back pain patients and preparation of bone dusts for transplantable autologous bone graft with a serum glue.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, T; Anabuki, K; Nishijima, Y; Ono, H

    2010-06-01

    Low back pain and subsequent disabilities are common. A lumbar spinal fusion procedure is an effective treatment with autologous bone grafts, but harvesting the bone from the iliac crest is associated with risks of complications. New treatments using stem cells together with osteoconductive and otesoinductive materials have made the procedure safer, but the inconsistency of the amount of stem cells harvested from bone marrow aspirate still remains to be solved. This study reports that the bone dusts, usually discarded as surgical wastes during transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedure (TLIF procedure), yielded cells which had the characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro. The cells were positive for the MSC markers and were able to differentiate in osteogenic and adipogenic directions. The cells grew robustly in an osteoconductive material, Bolheal (serum glue), and also proliferated well in culture medium supplemented with autologous serum. Therefore, the bone dust is a good candidate for the alternative source of stem cells other than bone marrow aspirate to increase the safety of the TLIF procedure. PMID:20592461

  11. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights

    E-print Network

    Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

  12. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

    1985-10-03

    The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

  13. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

  14. FUSION POWER ASSOCIATES Annual Meeting and Symposium

    E-print Network

    Agenda FUSION POWER ASSOCIATES 35TH Annual Meeting and Symposium Fusion Energy: Recent Progress Fusion and the Road Ahead 12:50 The Magnetic Fusion Program in Korea ­ G.S. Lee, Korea 1:10 The Magnetic Fusion Program in China ­ Yuanxi Wan, China 1:30 The Magnetic Fusion Program in Europe ­ Tony Donne, EuroFusion

  15. Fusion-breeder program

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-11-19

    The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

  16. Cold nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyganov, E. N.

    2012-02-15

    Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

  17. Glossary of fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitson, M. O.

    1985-02-01

    The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

  18. Fusion Development Facility Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. D.; Chan, V. S.; Garofalo, A. M.; Smith, J. P.; Wong, C. P. C.

    2008-11-01

    A Fusion Development Facility (FDF) is proposed to fill the gaps between ITER and current experiments and a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO). FDF should carry forward Advanced Tokamak physics and enable development of fusion's energy applications. Near term advanced tokamak physics will be used to achieve steady-state with burn, producing 100-250 MW fusion power with modest energy gain (Q<5) in a modest sized device (between DIII-D and JET). FDF will further develop all elements of AT physics for an advanced performance DEMO. With neutron flux at the outboard midplane of 1-2 MW/m^2, continuous operation for periods up to two weeks, and a goal of a duty factor of 0.3 on a year, FDF can produce fluences of 3-6 MW-yr/m^2 in ten years of operation. The development of blankets suitable for tritium, electricity, and hydrogen production will be done in port modules. The most promising candidates will be deployed as full blankets in FDF. FDF will have a goal of demonstrating closure of the fusion fuel cycle, producing its own tritium. FDF, ITER, IFMIF, and other AT devices will provide the basis for a fusion DEMO power plant of the ARIES-AT type.

  19. ITER Fusion Energy

    ScienceCinema

    Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

    2010-01-08

    ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

  20. Magnetized Target Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

  1. MMMMaaaaggggnnnneeeettttiiiicccc FFFFuuuussssiiiioooonnnn EEEEnnnneeeerrrrggggyyyy MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY

    E-print Network

    Science of Magnetic Fusion · The Magnetic Fusion Energy Portfolio · Science and Technology SpinFusionPlasma ScienceandTechnology Attractive Fusion Energy Previous Strategy Basic Plasma Science Innovative Concepts · Science and Technology Spin-offs · Summary and Recommendations #12;MMMMaaaaggggnnnneeeettttiiiicccc

  2. Fusion, magnetic confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Berk, H.L.

    1992-08-06

    An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

  3. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M.

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  4. Road to Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Meeting

    E-print Network

    . Crack is clear through 5 mm thick deck plate #12;Coal-fired and KrF laser fusion power power plants have-electron-beams-nrl-to-clean-up- nox-emissions-from-coal-power-plant NRL has a Cooperative Research and Development AgreementRoad to Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Meeting Washington DC 16 December 2014

  5. Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap

    E-print Network

    Realization of Fusion Energy: An alternative fusion roadmap Farrokh Najmabadi Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering Director, Center for Energy Research UC San Diego International Fusion Road of emerging nations, energy use is expected to grow ~ 4 fold in this century (average 1.6% annual growth rate

  6. Simulation of Fusion Plasmas

    ScienceCinema

    Holland, Chris [UC San Diego, San Diego, California, United States

    2010-01-08

    The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

  7. Ceramics for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Ceramics are required for a number of applications in fusion devices, among the most critical of which are magnetic coil insulators, windows for RF heating systems, and structural uses. Radiation effects dominate consideration of candidate materials, although good pre-irradiation properties are a requisite. Materials and components can be optimized by careful control of chemical and microstructural content, and application of brittle material design and testing techniques. Future directions for research and development should include further extension of the data base in the areas of electrical, structural, and thermal properties; establishment of a fission neutron/fusion neutron correlation including transmutation gas effects; and development of new materials tailored to meet the specific needs of fusion reactors.

  8. Spherical torus fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Yueng-Kay M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    A fusion reactor is provided having a near spherical-shaped plasma with a modest central opening through which straight segments of toroidal field coils extend that carry electrical current for generating a toroidal magnet plasma confinement fields. By retaining only the indispensable components inboard of the plasma torus, principally the cooled toroidal field conductors and in some cases a vacuum containment vessel wall, the fusion reactor features an exceptionally small aspect ratio (typically about 1.5), a naturally elongated plasma cross section without extensive field shaping, requires low strength magnetic containment fields, small size and high beta. These features combine to produce a spherical torus plasma in a unique physics regime which permits compact fusion at low field and modest cost.

  9. Multisensor data fusion algorithm development

    SciTech Connect

    Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

  10. Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments & Modeling

    E-print Network

    Cohen, David

    College, Prism Computational Sciences) Joe MacFarlane (Prism Computational Sciences) Don Haynes Spectroscopy Ablator Characterization #12;What is Fusion? Fusion is the joining together of small, light nuclei

  11. Fusion welding process

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

  12. Fusion for Space Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and engineering capabilities have been demonstrated for a fusion reactor gain (Q) of the order of unity (TFTR: 0.25, JET: 0.65, JT-60: Q(sub eq) approx. 1.25). These technological advances made it compelling for considering fusion for propulsion.

  13. Atomic data for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  14. Magnetic Fusion Pilot Plant Studies

    E-print Network

    : Integrate key science and technology capabilities of a fusion power plant in a next-step R&D facilityMagnetic Fusion Pilot Plant Studies Jon Menard Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Fusion Power Street, Washington, DC December 1-2, 2010 #12;Exploring "Pilot Plant" as a possible pathway from ITER

  15. The Fusion Machine (extended abstract)

    E-print Network

    Gardner, Philippa

    The Fusion Machine (extended abstract) Philippa Gardner Cosimo Laneve Lucian Wischik March 27, 2002. In particular, we describe a dis- tributed abstract machine called the fusion machine. In it, only channels exist at runtime. It uses a form of concurrent constraints called fusions--equations on channel names

  16. Human-Centered Fusion Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

    2007-05-16

    In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

  17. Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven

    E-print Network

    Craven, David A.

    Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven March 2009 Abstract In this article, we consider control of fusion, quotients, and p-soluble fusion systems. For control of fusion, we for fusion systems. We move on to p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us

  18. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  19. Fusion Probability in Dinuclear System

    E-print Network

    Hong, Juhee

    2015-01-01

    Fusion can be described by the time evolution of a dinuclear system with two degrees of freedom, the relative motion and transfer of nucleons. In the presence of the coupling between two collective modes, we solve the Fokker-Planck equation in a locally harmonic approximation. The potential of a dinuclear system has the quasifission barrier and the inner fusion barrier, and the escape rates can be calculated by the Kramers' model. To estimate the fusion probability, we calculate the quasifission rate and the fusion rate. We investigate the coupling effects on the fusion probability and the cross section of evaporation residue.

  20. Fusion Probability in Dinuclear System

    E-print Network

    Juhee Hong

    2015-03-26

    Fusion can be described by the time evolution of a dinuclear system with two degrees of freedom, the relative motion and transfer of nucleons. In the presence of the coupling between two collective modes, we solve the Fokker-Planck equation in a locally harmonic approximation. The potential of a dinuclear system has the quasifission barrier and the inner fusion barrier, and the escape rates can be calculated by the Kramers' model. To estimate the fusion probability, we calculate the quasifission rate and the fusion rate. We investigate the coupling effects on the fusion probability and the cross section of evaporation residue.

  1. Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion

    E-print Network

    K. Hamaguchi; T. Hatsuda; T. T. Yanagida

    2006-10-06

    We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present technology of producing stau.

  2. Research on fusion neutron sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-01

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  3. Research on fusion neutron sources

    SciTech Connect

    Gryaznevich, M. P.

    2012-06-19

    The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

  4. The path to fusion power.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

    2007-04-15

    Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power. PMID:17272246

  5. Physics of magnetic confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, F.

    2013-06-01

    Fusion is the energy source of the universe. The local conditions in the core of the Sun allow the transfer of mass into energy, which is finally released in the form of radiation. Technical fusion melts deuterons and tritons to helium releasing large amounts of energy per fusion process. Because of the conditions for fusion, which will be deduced, the fusion fuel is in the plasma state. Here we report on the confinement of fusion plasmas by magnetic fields. Different confinement concepts — tokamaks and stellarators — will be introduced and described. The first fusion reactor, ITER, and the most modern stellarator, Wendelstein 7-X, are under construction. Their basic features and objectives will be presented.

  6. The Need for Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassibry, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  7. 50 years of fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meade, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Fusion energy research began in the early 1950s as scientists worked to harness the awesome power of the atom for peaceful purposes. There was early optimism for a quick solution for fusion energy as there had been for fission. However, this was soon tempered by reality as the difficulty of producing and confining fusion fuel at temperatures of 100 million °C in the laboratory was appreciated. Fusion research has followed two main paths—inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion. Over the past 50 years, there has been remarkable progress with both approaches, and now each has a solid technical foundation that has led to the construction of major facilities that are aimed at demonstrating fusion energy producing plasmas.

  8. Introduction to nuclear fusion Modelling Finite volume scheme Formal asymptotics Summary Magnetized Target Fusion: Insights from

    E-print Network

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Introduction to nuclear fusion Modelling Finite volume scheme Formal asymptotics Summary Magnetized fusion Modelling Finite volume scheme Formal asymptotics Summary Context A local Canadian research Target Fusion #12;Introduction to nuclear fusion Modelling Finite volume scheme Formal asymptotics

  9. Experiments in cold fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.P.

    1986-03-28

    The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

  10. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, D.S.

    1987-07-31

    The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  12. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  13. (Fusion energy research)

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  14. Fusion development and technology

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  15. COLLABORATIVE: FUSION SIMULATION PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Choong Seock

    2012-06-05

    New York University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, participated in the ���¢��������Fusion Simulation Program (FSP) Planning Activities���¢������� [http://www.pppl.gov/fsp], with C.S. Chang as the institutional PI. FSP���¢��������s mission was to enable scientific discovery of important new plasma phenomena with associated understanding that emerges only upon integration. This requires developing a predictive integrated simulation capability for magnetically-confined fusion plasmas that are properly validated against experiments in regimes relevant for producing practical fusion energy. Specific institutional goal of the New York University was to participate in the planning of the edge integrated simulation, with emphasis on the usage of large scale HPCs, in connection with the SciDAC CPES project which the PI was leading. New York University successfully completed its mission by participating in the various planning activities, including the edge physics integration, the edge science drivers, and the mathematical verification. The activity resulted in the combined report that can be found in http://www.pppl.gov/fsp/Overview.html. Participation and presentations as part of this project are listed in a separation file.

  16. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee FINAL REPORT

    E-print Network

    Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) FINAL REPORT September 1990 Report of the Technical Panel on Magnetic Fusion of the Energy Research Advisory Board Washington, D .C. 20585 #12;#12;Fusion Policy of your Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. It presents a fusion policy that the Committee believes

  17. Chase Delphi study on fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A. J.

    1982-10-01

    The ongoing Chase Delphi study of fusion power has employed a panel of over 100 experts from 13 countries. The use of fusion for synfuel production was emphasized. The panelists believed that the length of time to successful demonstrations and commercialization of fusion could be substantially reduced over current estimates given optimal funding, and that a hydrocarbon producing reactor is feasible with minimal adverse impact on the environment.

  18. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  19. OCULUS Sea Track Fusion Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagiotou, Stylianos C.; Rizogiannis, Constantinos; Katsoulis, Stavros; Lampropoulos, Vassilis; Kanellopoulos, Sotirios; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2015-06-01

    Oculus Sea is a complete solution regarding maritime surveillance and communications at Local as well as Central Command and Control level. It includes a robust and independent track fusion service whose main functions include: 1) Interaction with the User to suggest the fusion of two or more tracks, confirm Track ID and Vessel Metadata creation for the fused track, and suggest de-association of two tracks 2) Fusion of same vessel tracks arriving simultaneously from multiple radar sensors featuring track Association, track Fusion of associated tracks to produce a more accurate track, and Multiple tracking filters and fusion algorithms 3) Unique Track ID Generator for each fused track 4) Track Dissemination Service. Oculus Sea Track Fusion Service adopts a system architecture where each sensor is associated with a Kalman estimator/tracker that obtains an estimate of the state vector and its respective error covariance matrix. Finally, at the fusion center, association and track state estimation fusion are carried out. The expected benefits of this system include multi-sensor information fusion, enhanced spatial resolution, and improved target detection.

  20. Network-centric data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholson, David; Lloyd, C. M.; Collins, Peter R. C.

    2002-08-01

    The performance of three distributed sensor fusion network architectures is investigated: a fully-connected and a partially-connected measurement fusion system and a partially-connected track fusion system. The investigation employs an advanced military scenario generator, FLAMES, which was customised for exercising a range of distributed data fusion experiments. Specifically, it includes a representative model of the delays in a communication system (such as JTIDS or Link 16). Here the delays were used to modify communication bandwidth and to evaluate how this affected the performance of the fusion architectures/algorithms. Under certain specific scenario conditions, it was found that decentralised measurement fusion system was severely affected by reduced bandwidth. This is because each node loads its communication buffer with every measurement and consequently some measurements are never transmitted. The decentralised track fusion system exhibits improved performance because it lumps measurements into tracks and thereby it makes much more effective use of the bandwidth. Moreover, it was found that the performance of the partially connected decentralised track fusion system was very close to the optimal performance achieved by the fully-connected decentralised measurement fusion system.

  1. The path to fusion power†

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16?MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

  2. Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission in Mammals

    E-print Network

    Chan, David

    Mitochondrial Fusion and Fission in Mammals David C. Chan Division of Biology, California Institute dynamics, organelle morphology, membrane fusion, membrane trafficking Abstract Eukaryotic cells maintain. Unbalanced fission leads to mitochondrial fragmentation, and un- balanced fusion leads to mitochondrial

  3. Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, E.

    1991-01-01

    Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

  4. Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Annual

    E-print Network

    · Linear Transformer Driver technology · Pulsed power IFE #12;3 We were required to demonstrate 31 Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting and Symposium December 4, 2008 Keith Matzen Pulsed Power Sciences Sandia National Laboratories (505-845-7756, mkmatze

  5. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

  6. Fusion Power Associates -2013 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion

    E-print Network

    frame/second video camera · X-ray photo diodes · triple Langmuir probe Plasma Injector Design #12;Fusion · Stand off problem · Cost/shot problem · Fuel rebreeding LINUS Concept (1976) #12;Fusion Power Associates Power Associates - 2013 Annual Meeting 8 Largest Plasma Injectors ever built Record spheromak plasma

  7. Pathways to Laser Fusion Beyond NIF Fusion Power Associates Meeting

    E-print Network

    Pathways to Laser Fusion Beyond NIF Fusion Power Associates Meeting Washington DC 10 December 2013 Research supported by the Department of Energy, NNSA #12;How far will NIF go towards ignition? NIF indirect of laser energy on capsule · Ignition and significant yield?? NIF Polar drive · Much more efficient use

  8. Fusion project decision delayed ITER -NUCLEAR FUSION PROJECT

    E-print Network

    and Technology ministry. Self-sustaining Iter is the boldest nuclear initiative since the Manhattan ProjectFusion project decision delayed ITER - NUCLEAR FUSION PROJECT The project is estimated to cost $5bn or Japan for the multi-billion dollar project. The US has been against the French option because of France

  9. 50 Years of Fusion Research Fusion Innovation Research and Energy

    E-print Network

    /Ohkawa ­ Quiescent period in Zeta due to strong magnetic shear in self-organized state ­ Several levitated of experiments were tried and ended up far from fusion conditions ­ Magnetic Fusion research in the U for idealized geometries revealed a plethora of microinstabilities with the potential to cause anomalous

  10. Culham Centre for Fusion Energy Fusion -A clean future

    E-print Network

    our energy. Fossil fuels bring atmospheric pollution and the prospect of climate change; Governments of advantages: · No atmospheric pollution. The fusion reaction produces helium, which is an inert gas could be produced in a fusion power plant from a light metal, lithium, which is abundant in the earth

  11. Systematics of fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions

    E-print Network

    Ning Wang; Junlong Tian; Werner Scheid

    2011-12-28

    The fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions leading to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei is investigated systematically. The quasi-fission barrier influences the formation of the super-heavy nucleus around the "island of stability" in addition to the shell correction. Based on the quasi-fission barrier height obtained with the Skyrme energy-density functional, we propose an analytical expression for the description of the fusion probability, with which the measured evaporation residual cross sections can be reproduced acceptably well. Simultaneously, some special fusion reactions for synthesizing new elements 119 and 120 are studied. The predicted evaporation residual cross sections for 50Ti+249Bk are about 10-150fb at energies around the entrance-channel Coulomb barrier. For the fusion reactions synthesizing element 120 with projectiles 54Cr and 58Fe, the cross sections fall to a few femtobarns which seems beyond the limit of the available facilities.

  12. Cold nuclear fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, E. N.; Bavizhev, M. D.; Buryakov, M. G.; Dabagov, S. B.; Golovatyuk, V. M.; Lobastov, S. P.

    2015-07-01

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction's theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300-700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of 4He?.

  13. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, R. B.; Hoffman, M. A.; Logan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat delta T of 2000 K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000 K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D He-3.

  14. Physics of Fusion Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

  15. The future of fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, John

    2001-05-01

    The population of the world is increasing, mainly in the developing world, and is projected to saturate within about 100 years at up to twice the present population of 6 billion people (Bos et al., World Population Projections: 1994-95 Edition, Published for the World Bank). Studies (Goldemberg and Johansson (Eds.), Energy as an Instrument for Socio-Economic Development United Nations Development Programme, New York, 1995, p. 9; United Nations Statistical Yearbooks, 10th issue; 1965; 20th issue; 1975, 22nd issue, 1977; 32nd issue, 1987; and 39th issue 1994, United Nations Publications; Sheffield, J. Technol. Forecasting Social Change 59 (1998) 55.) show that, historically, the population growth rate has varied inversely as the annual per capita energy use in most parts of the developing world, where per capita energy use is typically less than 1 t of oil equivalent energy per year. However, in areas with more than 2-3 t of oil equivalent of energy use per year per person, the growth rate is around zero. If this trend continues, a stable world population will require, allowing for energy efficiency improvements, some 2-3 times the present annual energy use. There is an abundance of energy in the world both exploited and potential to meet this need - fossil, fission, and renewables - but it is not evenly distributed, some are costly, and there are issues of environmental pollution in present use, that may limit use. Fusion energy is a potential longer-term source with attractive environmental features. It is the least-developed energy option and still faces a challenging development path, but there are many areas of the world that would benefit hugely from its deployment from the later part of the 21st century onward, and it is important to consider how it might be deployed. Most fusion power plant options considered today show an economy of scale, owing to the fixed distance needed for shielding fusion neutrons, tritium breeding and handling the heat loads. One interesting approach is to use the power plant to co-produce electricity and hydrogen to facilitate the introduction of lower cost of electricity, multi-gigawatt power plants (Sheffield et al., A study of options for the deployment of large fusion power plants, 2000, to be published).

  16. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

  17. Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review. S. Department of Energy Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) review of its Inertial Fusion Energy of California at San Diego. KEY WORDS: Fusion; fusion science; fusion energy; inertial fusion energy. I. SUMMARY

  18. Frontiers of Fusion Materials Science

    E-print Network

    Frontiers of Fusion Materials Science Presented by S.J. Zinkle, Oak Ridge National Laboratory ¥The mission of the Fusion Materials Sciences program is to ÒAdvance the materials science base (alloys and ceramic composites), insulators, etc. ¥TodayÕs presentation: Materials science highlights

  19. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  20. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    DOEpatents

    Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

    1998-02-17

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

  1. Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF)

    E-print Network

    Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) ­ Motivation, Role, Required Capabilities YK Martin Peng;1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy Example: fusion nuclear-nonnuclear coupling effects-composites; Nano-structure alloy; PFC designs, etc. · Nuclear-nonnuclear coupling in PFC: - Plasma ion flux induces

  2. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  3. Fusion algebra of critical percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Pearce, Paul A.

    2007-09-01

    We present an explicit conjecture for the chiral fusion algebra of critical percolation considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The representations that we take to generate fusion are countably infinite in number. The ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of these representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of these representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an s\\ell (2) structure. They involve representations which we call Kac representations of which some are reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fusion algebra is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the recent results of Eberle Flohr and Read Saleur. Notably, in agreement with Eberle Flohr, we find the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. Our fusion rules are supported by extensive numerical studies of an integrable lattice model of critical percolation. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere.

  4. The status of cold fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  5. Fusion algebra of critical percolation

    E-print Network

    Jorgen Rasmussen; Paul A. Pearce

    2007-08-08

    We present an explicit conjecture for the chiral fusion algebra of critical percolation considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The representations we take to generate fusion are countably infinite in number. The ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of these representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of these representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sl(2) structure. They involve representations which we call Kac representations of which some are reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fusion algebra is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the recent results of Eberle-Flohr and Read-Saleur. Notably, in agreement with Eberle-Flohr, we find the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. Our fusion rules are supported by extensive numerical studies of an integrable lattice model of critical percolation. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere.

  6. Data fusion qualitative sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.A.; Lewis, R.E.

    1995-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory was tasked with testing, debugging, and refining the Hanford Site data fusion workstation (DFW), with the assistance of Coleman Research Corporation (CRC), before delivering the DFW to the environmental restoration client at the Hanford Site. Data fusion is the mathematical combination (or fusion) of disparate data sets into a single interpretation. The data fusion software used in this study was developed by CRC. The data fusion software developed by CRC was initially demonstrated on a data set collected at the Hanford Site where three types of data were combined. These data were (1) seismic reflection, (2) seismic refraction, and (3) depth to geologic horizons. The fused results included a contour map of the top of a low-permeability horizon. This report discusses the results of a sensitivity analysis of data fusion software to variations in its input parameters. The data fusion software developed by CRC has a large number of input parameters that can be varied by the user and that influence the results of data fusion. Many of these parameters are defined as part of the earth model. The earth model is a series of 3-dimensional polynomials with horizontal spatial coordinates as the independent variables and either subsurface layer depth or values of various properties within these layers (e.g., compression wave velocity, resistivity) as the dependent variables.

  7. Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has adopted: achieving a fusion gain of 1 as

    E-print Network

    Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has as fusion energy produced divided the external energy incident on the fusion reaction chamber. Typical fusion power plant design concepts require a fusion gain of 30 for MFE and 70 for IFE. Fusion energy

  8. Is there hope for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, T. Kenneth

    1990-04-01

    From the outset in the 1950's, fusion research has been motivated by environmental concerns as well as long-term fuel supply issues. Compared to fossil fuels both fusion and fission would produce essentially zero emissions to the atmosphere. Compared to fission, fusion reactors should offer high demonstrability of public protection from accidents and a substantial amelioration of the radioactive waste problem. Fusion still requires lengthy development, the earliest commercial deployment being likely to occur around 2025 to 2050. However, steady scientific progress is being made and there is a wide consensus that it is time to plan large-scale engineering development. A major international effort, called the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is being carried out under IAEA auspices to design the world's first fusion engineering test reactor, which could be constructed in the 1990's.

  9. Magnetic fusion energy and computers

    SciTech Connect

    Killeen, J.

    1982-01-01

    The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

  10. Collaborations in fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, D.; Davis, S.; Roney, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews current experimental collaborative efforts in the fusion community and extrapolates to operational scenarios for the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Current requirements, available technologies and tools, and problems, issues and concerns are discussed. This paper specifically focuses on the issues that apply to experimental operational collaborations. Special requirements for other types of collaborations, such as theoretical or design and construction efforts, will not be addressed. Our current collaborative efforts have been highly successful, even though the tools in use will be viewed as primitive by tomorrow`s standards. An overview of the tools and technologies in today`s collaborations can be found in the first section of this paper. The next generation of fusion devices will not be primarily institutionally based, but will be national (TPX) and international (ITER) in funding, management, operation and in ownership of scientific results. The TPX will present the initial challenge of real-time remotely distributed experimental data analysis for a steady state device. The ITER will present new challenges with the possibility of several remote control rooms all participating in the real-time operation of the experimental device. A view to the future of remote collaborations is provided in the second section of this paper.

  11. Utility requirements for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  12. Clean steels for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  13. Inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, L.; Condouris, R.; Kotowski, M.; Murphy, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the ICF Quarterly contains seven articles that describe recent progress in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's ICF program. The Department of Energy recently initiated an effort to design a 1--2 MJ glass laser, the proposed National Ignition Facility (NIF). These articles span various aspects of a program which is aimed at moving forward toward such a facility by continuing to use the Nova laser to gain understanding of NIF-relevant target physics, by developing concepts for an NIF laser driver, and by envisioning a variety of applications for larger ICF facilities. This report discusses research on the following topics: Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering in Nitrogen; A Maxwell Equation Solver in LASNEX for the Simulation of Moderately Intense Ultrashort Pulse Experiments; Measurements of Radial Heat-Wave Propagation in Laser-Produced Plasmas; Laser-Seeded Modulation Growth on Directly Driven Foils; Stimulated Raman Scattering in Large-Aperture, High-Fluence Frequency-Conversion Crystals; Fission Product Hazard Reduction Using Inertial Fusion Energy; Use of Inertial Confinement Fusion for Nuclear Weapons Effects Simulations.

  14. Information integration for data fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  15. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for ELM control and implications for ITER. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2011 in Jülich. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. We hope that this special issue of Nuclear Fusion will further stimulate interest in the fascinating and important subject of stochasticity in fusion plasmas.

  16. LiWall Fusion - The New Concept of Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    L.E. Zakharov

    2011-01-12

    Utilization of the outstanding abilities of a liquid lithium layer in pumping hydrogen isotopes leads to a new approach to magnetic fusion, called the LiWall Fusion. It relies on innovative plasma regimes with low edge density and high temperature. The approach combines fueling the plasma by neutral injection beams with the best possible elimination of outside neutral gas sources, which cools down the plasma edge. Prevention of cooling the plasma edge suppresses the dominant, temperature gradient related turbulence in the core. Such an approach is much more suitable for controlled fusion than the present practice, relying on high heating power for compensating essentially unlimited turbulent energy losses.

  17. Characterization of fusion genes and the significantly expressed fusion isoforms in breast cancer by hybrid sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Weirather, Jason L.; Afshar, Pegah Tootoonchi; Clark, Tyson A.; Tseng, Elizabeth; Powers, Linda S.; Underwood, Jason G.; Zabner, Joseph; Korlach, Jonas; Wong, Wing Hung; Au, Kin Fai

    2015-01-01

    We developed an innovative hybrid sequencing approach, IDP-fusion, to detect fusion genes, determine fusion sites and identify and quantify fusion isoforms. IDP-fusion is the first method to study gene fusion events by integrating Third Generation Sequencing long reads and Second Generation Sequencing short reads. We applied IDP-fusion to PacBio data and Illumina data from the MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Compared with the existing tools, IDP-fusion detects fusion genes at higher precision and a very low false positive rate. The results show that IDP-fusion will be useful for unraveling the complexity of multiple fusion splices and fusion isoforms within tumorigenesis-relevant fusion genes. PMID:26040699

  18. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, Bernard . E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

    2006-01-05

    The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

  19. Future of Inertial Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J H; Wood, L L

    2002-09-04

    In the past 50 years, fusion R&D programs have made enormous technical progress. Projected billion-dollar scale research facilities are designed to approach net energy production. In this century, scientific and engineering progress must continue until the economics of fusion power plants improves sufficiently to win large scale private funding in competition with fission and non-nuclear energy systems. This economic advantage must be sustained: trillion dollar investments will be required to build enough fusion power plants to generate ten percent of the world's energy. For Inertial Fusion Energy, multi-billion dollar driver costs must be reduced by up to an order of magnitude, to a small fraction of the total cost of the power plant. Major cost reductions could be achieved via substantial improvements in target performance-both higher gain and reduced ignition energy. Large target performance improvements may be feasible through a combination of design innovations, e.g., ''fast ignition,'' propagation down density gradients, and compression of fusion fuel with a combination of driver and chemical energy. The assumptions that limit projected performance of fusion targets should be carefully examined. The National Ignition Facility will enable development and testing of revolutionary targets designed to make possible economically competitive fusion power plants.

  20. Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxxxxx Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US

    E-print Network

    Raffray, A. René

    2006-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US N 2005 Abstract Fusion nuclear technology (FNT) research in the United States encompasses many activities is divided into several task areas, with aspects of magnet fusion energy (MFE) fusion nuclear technology

  1. FUSION FRAMES AND THEORETICAL APPLICATIONS: FOR THE FUSION FRAME WEB PAGE

    E-print Network

    Casazza, Pete

    FUSION FRAMES AND THEORETICAL APPLICATIONS: FOR THE FUSION FRAME WEB PAGE PETER G. CASAZZA The deepest and most difficult question in Fusion Frame Theory is the construction of fusion frames with added that they do not show how to construct the frames. Recently, Casazza and Fickus [4] have developed a Fusion

  2. Sean Finnegan & Ann Satsangi Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    Sean Finnegan & Ann Satsangi Fusion Energy Sciences Program Management Team for HEDLP Fusion Power Associates15 December 2011 Comments on the DOE-SC Program in High Energy Density Laboratory Plasma Science & Inertial Fusion Energy Science #12;summary 2 Fusion Energy Sciences is pursuing a strategic vision

  3. Summary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    and design concepts for fusion nuclear components worldwide (focus on power extraction and tritium fuel cycle)? · What are the key fusion nuclear science and technology (FNST) issues and challenges? · What issues can be resolved in non-fusion facilities? · What issues require experiments in integrated fusion nuclear

  4. 2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary

    E-print Network

    2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary 31 July 2002 #12;page 2 of 15 2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary The 2002 Fusion Summer Study was conducted from July 8-19, 2002, in Snowmass, CO, and carried out a critical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program in both

  5. Fusion Lecture Summary Eugene S. Evans

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    Fusion Lecture Summary Eugene S. Evans Physics H190, University of California, Berkeley March 31. Evans (2010) Fusion Lecture Summary March 31, 2010 1 / 15 #12;Outline 1 Overview of NIF Specifications Timeline Goals 2 Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) 3 Science at NIF 4 Fusion and the Future Laser Inertial

  6. Fusion Protein Products Screen Purify Detect Cleave

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fusion Protein Products · Screen · Purify · Detect · Cleave Fusion Protein Products · Screen researchers look to plasmid vectors to express fusion proteins, they find themselves in need of methods proteins is also included for those fusion proteins that may have an inaccessible tag. Pierce offers a host

  7. Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report

    E-print Network

    Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report Summary for NRC BPAC Panel (Focus on MFE of a demonstration power plant in approximately 35 years. The plan should recognize the capabilities of all fusion facilities around the world, and include both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE

  8. Pulsed High Density Fusion John Slough#

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    possible that nuclear fusion will be the only source that can provide the prodigious power demands that the world will face in the future. Fusion is the only power source where there are large and available for low magnetic confinement. To make fusion energy a viable option, a small, lower power fusion system

  9. Microwave superheaters for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, R.B.; Hoffman, M.A.; Logan, B.G.

    1987-10-16

    The microwave superheater uses the synchrotron radiation from a thermonuclear plasma to heat gas seeded with an alkali metal to temperatures far above the temperature of material walls. It can improve the efficiency of the Compact Fusion Advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle described elsewhere in these proceedings. For a proof-of-principle experiment using helium, calculations show that a gas superheat ..delta..T of 2000/sup 0/K is possible when the wall temperature is maintained at 1000/sup 0/K. The concept can be scaled to reactor grade systems. Because of the need for synchrotron radiation, the microwave superheater is best suited for use with plasmas burning an advanced fuel such as D-/sup 3/He. 5 refs.

  10. Fusion pumped light source

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  11. Fusion pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

  12. Fusion Power Demonstration III

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1985-07-01

    This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

  13. Fusion reactor pumped laser

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, D.L.

    1987-09-04

    A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

  14. Prospects for bubble fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  15. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  16. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  17. Economic analysis of fusion breeders

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included.

  18. (Advanced ceramics for fusion applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, R.L.

    1988-07-11

    This report outlines a two-day Japan/US workshop on Advanced Ceramics for Fusion Applications.'' The workshop program was devoted half to work resulting directly from United States or Japanese fusion materials programs and half to more general advanced ceramics of related interest. Also outlined are visits to four Japanese institutions engaged in advanced ceramics research and development. An evaluation of the status of Japanese fusion ceramics technology and recommendations for future United States work direction will be addressed in a later report prepared by the United States workshop team.

  19. Polywell Fusion Electrostatic Fusion in a Magnetic Cusp

    E-print Network

    to the Polywell Fusion Concept 3 James Tuck: Picket Fence, Elmore- Tuck-Watson virtual cathode, & Explosive focus, non ns prevent a simple interpretation of d to infer density or the temperature. e signal can still

  20. 91039: Magnetic fusion: The DOE fusion energy sciences program

    SciTech Connect

    Rowberg, R.E.

    1997-01-24

    For over 40 years, the U.S. has been trying to harness the energy source of the hydrogen bomb to produce electricity. Controlling fusion, the nuclear reaction that powers the sun, requires confining and heating deuterium and tritium nuclei to the point where they will collide (a D-T reaction) producing nuclear energy in a sustained, regulated way. One path to this goal, called magnetic fusion energy (MFE), is to use very strong magnetic fields to confine a deuterium and tritium plasma while heating it to fusion temperatures. The potential benefits from fusion are enormous. The fuel resources are vast. Radioactive waste would be generated from a D-T reaction, but the long term buildup would be orders of magnitude less than that of a comparable fission reactor.

  1. Seminar -1. letnik bolonjske magistrske stopnje Inertial confinement fusion

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    the principles of nuclear fusion. I will describe two different approaches to fusion, which are the magnetic fusion is and two different paths to achieve the final goal, nuclear fusion. [1] Fusion FusionSeminar - 1. letnik bolonjske magistrske stopnje Inertial confinement fusion Author: Matic Kunsek

  2. Fusion materials irradiations at MaRIE's fission fusion facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pitcher, Eric J

    2010-10-06

    Los Alamos National Laboratory's proposed signature facility, MaRIE, will provide scientists and engineers with new capabilities for modeling, synthesizing, examining, and testing materials of the future that will enhance the USA's energy security and national security. In the area of fusion power, the development of new structural alloys with better tolerance to the harsh radiation environments expected in fusion reactors will lead to improved safety and lower operating costs. The Fission and Fusion Materials Facility (F{sup 3}), one of three pillars of the proposed MaRIE facility, will offer researchers unprecedented access to a neutron radiation environment so that the effects of radiation damage on materials can be measured in-situ, during irradiation. The calculated radiation damage conditions within the F{sup 3} match, in many respects, that of a fusion reactor first wall, making it well suited for testing fusion materials. Here we report in particular on two important characteristics of the radiation environment with relevancy to radiation damage: the primary knock-on atom spectrum and the impact of the pulse structure of the proton beam on temporal characteristics of the atomic displacement rate. With respect to both of these, analyses show the F{sup 3} has conditions that are consistent with those of a steady-state fusion reactor first wall.

  3. Fusion genes in breast cancer

    E-print Network

    Batty, Elizabeth

    2012-02-07

    and lung cancer suggests that fusion genes may play an important role in epithelial carcinogenesis, and that they have been previously under-reported due to the difficulties of cytogenetic analysis of solid tumours. In particular, breast cancers often...

  4. Vaginal Abnormalities: Fusion and Duplication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... eyes, ears, hands and feet, but in the female reproductive system, a doubling of certain organs - such as the ... causes vaginal fusion and duplication? Much of the female reproductive system is derived from two structures, known as mullerian ...

  5. Fusion of the ear bones

    MedlinePLUS

    Fusion of the ear bones is the joining of the bones of the inner ear. These are the incus, malleus, and stapes bones. Related topics include: Chronic ear infection Otosclerosis Middle ear malformations

  6. Cell fusion in Neurospora crassa 

    E-print Network

    Lichius, Alexander

    2010-11-24

    The primary research aims of this thesis were the identification of novel cell fusion mutants of Neurospora crassa and the subsequent functional characterization of selected candidate proteins during conidial anastomosis ...

  7. World progress toward fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements (about 75 percent of that required for ignition) have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R&D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century.

  8. Prospects for Tokamak Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.; Galambos, J.

    1995-04-01

    This paper first reviews briefly the status and plans for research in magnetic fusion energy and discusses the prospects for the tokamak magnetic configuration to be the basis for a fusion power plant. Good progress has been made in achieving fusion reactor-level, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas with the production of significant fusion power in the Joint European Torus (up to 2 MW) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (up to 10 MW) tokamaks. Advances on the technologies of heating, fueling, diagnostics, and materials supported these achievements. The successes have led to the initiation of the design phases of two tokamaks, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the US Toroidal Physics Experiment (TPX). ITER will demonstrate the controlled ignition and extended bum of D-T plasmas with steady state as an ultimate goal. ITER will further demonstrate technologies essential to a power plant in an integrated system and perform integrated testing of the high heat flux and nuclear components required to use fusion energy for practical purposes. TPX will complement ITER by testing advanced modes of steady-state plasma operation that, coupled with the developments in ITER, will lead to an optimized demonstration power plant.

  9. TRITIUM ACCOUNTANCY IN FUSION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J. E.; Farmer, D. A.; Moore, M. L.; Tovo, L. L.; Poore, A. S.; Clark, E. A.; Harvel, C. D.

    2014-03-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has clearly defined requirements for nuclear material control and accountability (MC&A) of tritium whereas the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) does not since tritium is not a fissile material. MC&A requirements are expected for tritium fusion machines and will be dictated by the host country or regulatory body where the machine is operated. Material Balance Areas (MBAs) are defined to aid in the tracking and reporting of nuclear material movements and inventories. Material subaccounts (MSAs) are established along with key measurement points (KMPs) to further subdivide a MBA to localize and minimize uncertainties in the inventory difference (ID) calculations for tritium accountancy. Fusion systems try to minimize tritium inventory which may require continuous movement of material through the MSAs. The ability of making meaningful measurements of these material transfers is described in terms of establishing the MSA structure to perform and reconcile ID calculations. For fusion machines, changes to the traditional ID equation will be discussed which includes breading, burn-up, and retention of tritium in the fusion device. The concept of “net” tritium quantities consumed or lost in fusion devices is described in terms of inventory taking strategies and how it is used to track the accumulation of tritium in components or fusion machines.

  10. Conformal nets III: fusion of defects

    E-print Network

    Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

    2015-02-21

    Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

  11. Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Xiaoming

    2012-09-26

    The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

  12. Inertial confinement fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, H. T.; Schleich, D. P.; Murphy, P. W.

    In the 1990 National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report of its review of the U.S. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program, it was recommended that a high priority be placed on completing the Precision Nova Project and its associated experimental campaign. Since fiscal year 1990, the lab has therefore campaigned vigorously on Nova and in its supporting laboratories to develop the Precision Nova capabilities needed to perform the stressful target experiments recommended in the 1990 NAS report. The activities to enable these experiments have been directed at improvements in three areas - the Nova laser, target fabrication capabilities, and target diagnostics. As summarized in the five articles in this report, the Precision Nova improvements have been successfully completed. These improvements have had a positive impact on target performance and on the ability to diagnose the results, as evidenced by the HEP-1 experimental results. The five articles generally concentrate on improvements to the capabilities rather than on the associated target physics experiments. Separate abstracts are included for each paper.

  13. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  14. The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Prager, Stewart

    2011-05-04

    When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

  15. Future Direction of National Fusion Research Tentative translation to English

    E-print Network

    Future Direction of National Fusion Research (Report) Tentative translation to English Office of Fusion Energy, Research and Development Bureau, MEXT January 8, 2003 Working Group on Fusion Research Design of Fusion Research ---------------------------------2 (1) Necessity of Centralization

  16. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  17. Fusion reactions at low energy

    SciTech Connect

    Beckerman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Fusion measurement methods at low energies are briefly described, and experimental and theoretical fusion cross sections for /sup 58/Ni + /sup 58/Ni, /sup 58/Ni + /sup 64/Ni and /sup 64/Ni + /sup 64/Ni reactions are discussed. It is shown that quantal tunneling calculations do not describe the near- and sub-barrier behavior of the fusion data. Instead, the WKB predictions fall progressively further blow the experimental results as the energy is lowered. At far subbarrier energies the measured cross sections exceed the WKB predictions by more than three orders of magnitude. The unexpectedly strong dependence of the fusion probability upon the nuclear valence structure is illustrated and discussed. The relationship of channel coupling and quantal tunneling is discussed. In conclusion, it was established that atomic nuclei fuse far more readily at low energies that would be expected from quantal tunneling considerations alone. It was found that the behavior of the cross sections for fusion depends strongly upon the valence structure of the collision partners. This structural dependence extends from light 1p-shell systems to systems involving nearly 200 nucleons. These new phenomena may be viewed as characterizing the tunneling of a quantal system with many degrees of freedom. The failure of standard tunneling models may be understood as resulting from the ability of the dinuclear system to tunnel into the classically forbidden region by means of couplings to intrinsic degrees of freedom. 38 refs. (WHK)

  18. Nuclear Fusion prize laudation Nuclear Fusion prize laudation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, W.

    2011-01-01

    Clean energy in abundance will be of critical importance to the pursuit of world peace and development. As part of the IAEA's activities to facilitate the dissemination of fusion related science and technology, the journal Nuclear Fusion is intended to contribute to the realization of such energy from fusion. In 2010, we celebrated the 50th anniversary of the IAEA journal. The excellence of research published in the journal is attested to by its high citation index. The IAEA recognizes excellence by means of an annual prize awarded to the authors of papers judged to have made the greatest impact. On the occasion of the 2010 IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon, Republic of Korea at the welcome dinner hosted by the city of Daejeon, we celebrated the achievements of the 2009 and 2010 Nuclear Fusion prize winners. Steve Sabbagh, from the Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York is the winner of the 2009 award for his paper: 'Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas' [1]. This is a landmark paper which reports record parameters of beta in a large spherical torus plasma and presents a thorough investigation of the physics of resistive wall mode (RWM) instability. The paper makes a significant contribution to the critical topic of RWM stabilization. John Rice, from the Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge is the winner of the 2010 award for his paper: 'Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks' [2]. The 2010 award is for a seminal paper that analyzes results across a range of machines in order to develop a universal scaling that can be used to predict intrinsic rotation. This paper has already triggered a wealth of experimental and theoretical work. I congratulate both authors and their colleagues on these exceptional papers. W. Burkart Deputy Director General Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria References [1] Sabbagh S. et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 [2] Rice J.E. et al 2007 Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24

  19. A Plan for the Development of Fusion Energy. Final Report to Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee, Fusion Development Path Panel

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2003-03-05

    This report presents a plan for the deployment of a fusion demonstration power plant within 35 years, leading to commercial application of fusion energy by mid-century. The plan is derived from the necessary features of a demonstration fusion power plant and from the time scale defined by President Bush. It identifies critical milestones, key decision points, needed major facilities and required budgets.

  20. Fusion Blanket Development in FDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, C. P. C.; Smith, J. P.; Stambaugh, R. D.

    2008-11-01

    To satisfy the electricity and tritium self-sufficiency missions of a Fusion Development Facility (FDF), suitable blanket designs will need to be evaluated, selected and developed. To demonstrate closure of the fusion fuel cycle, 2-3 main tritium breeding blankets will be used to cover most of the available chamber surface area in order to reach the project goal of achieving a tritium breeding ratio, TBR > 1. To demonstrate the feasibility of electricity and tritium production for subsequent devices such as the fusion demonstration power reactor (DEMO), several advanced test blankets will need to be selected and tested on the FDF to demonstrate high coolant outlet temperature necessary for efficient electricity production. Since the design goals for the main and test blankets are different, the design criteria of these blankets will also be different. The considerations in performing the evaluation of blanket and structural material options in concert with the maintenance approach for the FDF will be reported in this paper.

  1. Laser fusion experiments at LLL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlstrom, H.G.

    1980-06-16

    These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

  2. PCA-based image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S. Senthil; Muttan, S.

    2006-05-01

    IMAGE FUSION is 'the combination of two or more different images to form a fused image by using a fusion algorithm'. In this paper, an algorithm is designed in which extracts the pixels from the stacked images. Principal component analysis is carried out which aims at reducing a large set of variables to a small set that still containing most of the information that was available in the large set. The technique of principal component analysis enables us to create and use a reduced set of variables, which are called principal factors. A reduced set is much easier to analyze and interpret. In this paper, fusion of images obtained from a visible camera and that from an infrared camera is been done.

  3. Cell fusion in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Stephanie; Schumann, Marcel R; Fleißner, André

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa has advanced as a model organism for studying eukaryotic cell-cell communication and fusion. Cell merger in this fungus employs an unusual mode of communication, in which the fusion partners appear to switch between signal sending and receiving. Many molecular factors mediating this intriguing mechanism and the subsequent membrane merger have been identified. It has become apparent that conserved factors, such as MAP kinases, NADPH oxidases and the STRIPAK complex, together with fungal specific proteins are wired into an intricate signaling network. Here, we will present an overview of recent findings on the molecular mechanism mediating fusion in N. crassa and will discuss the current working model. PMID:26340439

  4. Tissue fusion over nonadhering surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nier, Vincent; Deforet, Maxime; Duclos, Guillaume; Yevick, Hannah G; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Marcq, Philippe; Silberzan, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Tissue fusion eliminates physical voids in a tissue to form a continuous structure and is central to many processes in development and repair. Fusion events in vivo, particularly in embryonic development, often involve the purse-string contraction of a pluricellular actomyosin cable at the free edge. However, in vitro, adhesion of the cells to their substrate favors a closure mechanism mediated by lamellipodial protrusions, which has prevented a systematic study of the purse-string mechanism. Here, we show that monolayers can cover well-controlled mesoscopic nonadherent areas much larger than a cell size by purse-string closure and that active epithelial fluctuations are required for this process. We have formulated a simple stochastic model that includes purse-string contractility, tissue fluctuations, and effective friction to qualitatively and quantitatively account for the dynamics of closure. Our data suggest that, in vivo, tissue fusion adapts to the local environment by coordinating lamellipodial protrusions and purse-string contractions. PMID:26199417

  5. Superconducting magnets for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1987-07-02

    Fusion magnet technology has made spectacular advances in the past decade; to wit, the Mirror Fusion Test Facility and the Large Coil Project. However, further advances are still required for advanced economical fusion reactors. Higher fields to 14 T and radiation-hardened superconductors and insulators will be necessary. Coupled with high rates of nuclear heating and pulsed losses, the next-generation magnets will need still higher current density, better stability and quench protection. Cable-in-conduit conductors coupled with polyimide insulations and better steels seem to be the appropriate path. Neutron fluences up to 10/sup 19/ neutrons/cm/sup 2/ in niobium tin are achievable. In the future, other amorphous superconductors could raise these limits further to extend reactor life or decrease the neutron shielding and corresponding reactor size.

  6. Fusion power for space propulsion.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

    1972-01-01

    Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

  7. (Meeting on fusion reactor materials)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H. ); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. ); Loomis, B.A. )

    1990-11-01

    During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

  8. Fusion power from lunar resources

    SciTech Connect

    Kulcinski, G.L. . Fusion Technology Inst.); Schmitt, H.H.

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that the moon contains an enormous energy source in {sup 3}He deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of {sup 3}He with deuterium in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce {gt} 1000 MW (electric) of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 {times} 10{sup 9} kg of {sup 3}He. This fuel can supply {gt}1000 yr of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D-{sup 3}He fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep-space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought.

  9. Fusion Power www.pppl.gov

    E-print Network

    Biewer, Theodore

    discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc2 , Albert Einstein's familiar formula, provided the basis for understanding fusion. Einstein's theory that mass can be converted into energy

  10. Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Engineering Status Report

    E-print Network

    Fusion Ignition Research Experiment -FIRE- Engineering Status Report For Fiscal Year 2000 Issued on the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE), a tokamak designed for burning plasma research. Engineering news, FIRE physics and engineering, international collaborations, FIRE reports, Snowmass and NSO

  11. Role of atomic collisions in fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Post, D.E.

    1982-04-01

    Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

  12. Advanced Concepts: Aneutronic Fusion Power and Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Aneutronic Fusion for In-Space thrust, power. Clean energy & potential nuclear gains. Fusion plant concepts, potential to use advanced fuels. Methods to harness ionic momentum for high Isp thrust plus direct power conversion into electricity will be presented.

  13. Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 3343 Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    2006-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 81 (2006) 33­43 Overview of fusion nuclear technology in the US N 2005 Available online 18 January 2006 Abstract Fusion nuclear technology (FNT) research in the United energy (MFE) fusion nuclear technology being addressed mainly in the Plasma Chamber, Neutronics, Safety

  14. Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2008 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2008 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile by Subprogram (dollars in thousands) FY 2006 Current Appropriation FY 2007 Request FY 2008 Request Fusion Energy,182 31,317 Total, Fusion Energy Sciences 280,683a 318,950 427,850 Public Law Authorizations: Public Law

  15. FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxxxxx

    E-print Network

    Raffray, A. René

    2006-01-01

    FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Recent progress.07.087 #12;FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 2 F. Najmabadi, A.R. Raffray / Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxx­xxx of any stellarator configuration represents a large number of trade-offs among physics

  16. Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2011 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2011 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile FY 2010 Current Appropriation FY 2011 Request Fusion Energy Sciences Science 163,479 +57,399 182, Fusion Energy Sciences 394,518b +91,023 426,000 380,000 Public Law Authorizations: Public Law 95

  17. Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2007 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2007 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile Adjustments FY 2006 Current Appropriation FY 2007 Request Fusion Energy Sciences Science,182 Total, Fusion Energy Sciences........... 266,947b 290,550 -2,906 287,644 318,950 Public Law

  18. An accelerator based fusion-product source for development of inertial confinement fusion nuclear diagnostics

    E-print Network

    An accelerator based fusion-product source for development of inertial confinement fusion nuclear Received 28 December 2007; accepted 10 March 2008; published online 14 April 2008 A fusion-product source for inertial confinement fusion ICF diagnostic de- velopment. Originally manufactured by Texas Nuclear Corp

  19. THE NATIONAL FUSION COLLABORATORY PROJECT: APPLYING GRID TECHNOLOGY FOR MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Mary R.

    THE NATIONAL FUSION COLLABORATORY PROJECT: APPLYING GRID TECHNOLOGY FOR MAGNETIC FUSION RESEARCH D Diego, California 92186-5608 email: schissel@fusion.gat.com, Phone: (858) 455-3387, Fax: (858) 455- 4156, Berkeley, California 04720 The overall goal of the DOE SciDAC funded U.S. National Fusion Collaboratory

  20. HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates

    E-print Network

    Nagle, John F.

    HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates Stephanie in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fusion between the viral envelope and the T x-ray scattering is that the bending modulus KC is greatly reduced upon addition of the HIV fusion

  1. 2002 Summer Fusion Study 1 July 19, 2002 2002 Fusion Summer Study

    E-print Network

    2002 Summer Fusion Study 1 July 19, 2002 2002 Fusion Summer Study Snowmass Village, CO. July 19, 2002 For Immediate Release Fusion energy shows great promise to contribute to securing the energy leading scientists from the U.S. and international fusion community concluded a two-week forum assessing

  2. Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges and Facilities

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges these issues. 2 #12;FNST is the science, engineering, technology and materials Fusion Nuclear Science & Technology (FNST) FNST is the science, engineering, technology and materials for the fusion nuclear

  3. Report ofReport of Nuclear Fusion Section,Nuclear Fusion Section,

    E-print Network

    Report ofReport of Nuclear Fusion Section,Nuclear Fusion Section, National Committee for NuclearJapan Atomic Energy Research Institute On the New Way of Nuclear Fusion ResearchOn the New Way of Nuclear on the new way of developing nuclear fusion under the new circumstances (chair: Prof. A. Koyama) under

  4. Inside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 1 History of Fusion

    E-print Network

    Early Fusion history can not be separated from nuclear weapon development July 16 1945, 5:29:45 A masses are bonded stronger then light or heavy nuclei. · If products of nuclear fusion or fissionInside ITER seminar on History of Fusion Page 1 History of Fusion Personal view V. Chuyanov 9 July

  5. Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges and Facilities

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges on MFE Roadmapping in the ITER Era Princeton, NJ 7-10 September 2011 1 #12;Fusion Nuclear Science never done any experiments on FNST in a real fusion nuclear environment we must be realistic on what

  6. Membrane fusion and inverted phases

    SciTech Connect

    Ellens, H.; Siegel, D.P.; Alford, D.; Yeagle, P.L.; Boni, L.; Lis, L.J.; Quinn, P.J.; Bentz, J. )

    1989-05-02

    We have found a correlation between liposome fusion kinetics and lipid phase behavior for several inverted phase forming lipids. N-Methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-Me), or mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), will form an inverted hexagonal phase (HII) at high temperatures (above TH), a lamellar phase (L alpha) at low temperatures, and an isotropic/inverted cubic phase at intermediate temperatures, which is defined by the appearance of narrow isotropic {sup 31}P NMR resonances. The phase behavior has been verified by using high-sensitivity DSC, {sup 31}P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature range over which the narrow isotropic resonances occur is defined as delta TI, and the range ends at TH. Extruded liposomes (approximately 0.2 microns in diameter) composed of these lipids show fusion and leakage kinetics which are strongly correlated with the temperatures of these phase transitions. At temperatures below delta TI, where the lipid phase is L alpha, there is little or no fusion, i.e., mixing of aqueous contents, or leakage. However, as the temperature reaches delta TI, there is a rapid increase in both fusion and leakage rates. At temperatures above TH, the liposomes show aggregation-dependent lysis, as the rapid formation of HII phase precursors disrupts the membranes. We show that the correspondence between the fusion and leakage kinetics and the observed phase behavior is easily rationalized in terms of a recent kinetic theory of L alpha/inverted phase transitions. In particular, it is likely that membrane fusion and the L alpha/inverted cubic phase transition proceed via a common set of intermembrane intermediates.

  7. Normal myoblast fusion requires myoferlin

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Katherine R.; Cave, Andrew; Davis, Dawn Belt; Delmonte, Anthony J.; Posey, Avery; Earley, Judy U.; Hadhazy, Michele; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Muscle growth occurs during embryonic development and continues in adult life as regeneration. During embryonic muscle growth and regeneration in mature muscle, singly nucleated myoblasts fuse to each other to form myotubes. In muscle growth, singly nucleated myoblasts can also fuse to existing large, syncytial myofibers as a mechanism of increasing muscle mass without increasing myofiber number. Myoblast fusion requires the alignment and fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The repair of muscle plasma membrane disruptions also relies on the fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The protein dysferlin, the product of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 locus, has been shown to be necessary for efficient, calcium-sensitive, membrane resealing. We now show that the related protein myoferlin is highly expressed in myoblasts undergoing fusion, and is expressed at the site of myoblasts fusing to myotubes. Like dysferlin, we found that myoferlin binds phospholipids in a calcium-sensitive manner that requires the first C2A domain. We generated mice with a null allele of myoferlin. Myoferlin null myoblasts undergo initial fusion events, but they form large myotubes less efficiently in vitro, consistent with a defect in a later stage of myogenesis. In vivo, myoferlin null mice have smaller muscles than controls do, and myoferlin null muscle lacks large diameter myofibers. Additionally, myoferlin null muscle does not regenerate as well as wild-type muscle does, and instead displays a dystrophic phenotype. These data support a role for myoferlin in the maturation of myotubes and the formation of large myotubes that arise from the fusion of myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. PMID:16280346

  8. Normal myoblast fusion requires myoferlin.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Katherine R; Cave, Andrew; Davis, Dawn Belt; Delmonte, Anthony J; Posey, Avery; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; McNally, Elizabeth M

    2005-12-01

    Muscle growth occurs during embryonic development and continues in adult life as regeneration. During embryonic muscle growth and regeneration in mature muscle, singly nucleated myoblasts fuse to each other to form myotubes. In muscle growth, singly nucleated myoblasts can also fuse to existing large, syncytial myofibers as a mechanism of increasing muscle mass without increasing myofiber number. Myoblast fusion requires the alignment and fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The repair of muscle plasma membrane disruptions also relies on the fusion of two apposed lipid bilayers. The protein dysferlin, the product of the Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 locus, has been shown to be necessary for efficient, calcium-sensitive, membrane resealing. We now show that the related protein myoferlin is highly expressed in myoblasts undergoing fusion, and is expressed at the site of myoblasts fusing to myotubes. Like dysferlin, we found that myoferlin binds phospholipids in a calcium-sensitive manner that requires the first C2A domain. We generated mice with a null allele of myoferlin. Myoferlin null myoblasts undergo initial fusion events, but they form large myotubes less efficiently in vitro, consistent with a defect in a later stage of myogenesis. In vivo, myoferlin null mice have smaller muscles than controls do, and myoferlin null muscle lacks large diameter myofibers. Additionally, myoferlin null muscle does not regenerate as well as wild-type muscle does, and instead displays a dystrophic phenotype. These data support a role for myoferlin in the maturation of myotubes and the formation of large myotubes that arise from the fusion of myoblasts to multinucleate myotubes. PMID:16280346

  9. Dinuclear systems in complete fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    Formation and evolution of dinuclear systems in reactions of complete fusion are considered. Based on the dinuclear system concept, the process of compound nucleus formation is studied. Arguments confirming the validity of this concept are given. The main problems of describing the complete fusion in adiabatic approximation are listed. Calculations of evaporation residue cross sections in complete fusion reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are shown. Isotopic trends of the cross sections of heavy nuclei formation in complete fusion reactions are considered.

  10. Z-Pinch Fusion for Energy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    SPIELMAN,RICK B.

    2000-01-01

    Z pinches, the oldest fusion concept, have recently been revisited in light of significant advances in the fields of plasma physics and pulsed power engineering. The possibility exists for z-pinch fusion to play a role in commercial energy applications. We report on work to develop z-pinch fusion concepts, the result of an extensive literature search, and the output for a congressionally-mandated workshop on fusion energy held in Snowmass, Co July 11-23,1999.

  11. A Review of Data Fusion Techniques

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The integration of data and knowledge from several sources is known as data fusion. This paper summarizes the state of the data fusion field and describes the most relevant studies. We first enumerate and explain different classification schemes for data fusion. Then, the most common algorithms are reviewed. These methods and algorithms are presented using three different categories: (i) data association, (ii) state estimation, and (iii) decision fusion. PMID:24288502

  12. Fusion and Breakup of Weakly Bound Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Padron, I.; Crema, E.; Chamon, L. C.; Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.

    2006-08-14

    We discuss the influence of the breakup process of weakly bound nuclei on the fusion cross section. The complete fusion for heavy targets is found to be suppressed due to the incomplete fusion following the breakup, whereas this effect is negligible for light targets. The total fusion cross sections for stable projectiles are not affected by the breakup process, whereas it is suppressed for halo projectiles. The non capture breakup is the dominant process at sub-barrier energies.

  13. Exo-endo cellulase fusion protein

    DOEpatents

    Bower, Benjamin S. (Palo Alto, CA); Larenas, Edmund A. (Palo Alto, CA); Mitchinson, Colin (Palo Alto, CA)

    2012-01-17

    The present invention relates to a heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct, which encodes a fusion protein having cellulolytic activity comprising a catalytic domain derived from a fungal exo-cellobiohydrolase and a catalytic domain derived from an endoglucanase. The invention also relates to vectors and fungal host cells comprising the heterologous exo-endo cellulase fusion construct as well as methods for producing a cellulase fusion protein and enzymatic cellulase compositions.

  14. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-06-11

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83.

  15. Method for vacuum fusion bonding

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

    2001-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  16. Fusion bonding and alignment fixture

    DOEpatents

    Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

    2000-01-01

    An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

  17. Z-Pinch Fusion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Shorter trips are better for humans in the harmful radiation environment of deep space. Nuclear propulsion and power plants can enable high Ispand payload mass fractions because they require less fuel mass. Fusion energy research has characterized the Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method. (1) Lightning is form of pinched plasma electrical discharge phenomena. (2) Wire array Z-Pinch experiments are commonly studied and nuclear power plant configurations have been proposed. (3) Used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects (NWE) testing in the defense industry, nuclear weapon x-rays are simulated through Z-Pinch phenomena.

  18. Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )

    E-print Network

    . White, H. Wood Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117, USA D. In this Talk: ·Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) demonstration, FRCHX at AFRL in Albuquerque ·Some MIF-IFE reactor/Target Combinations are possible Los Alamos / AFRL Field Reversed Configuration Shiva Star FRCHX U. Rochester LLE

  19. Fusion ProgramFusion Program Overview at Los Alamos

    E-print Network

    with the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque. The experiment at LANL is called FRX-L, and at AFRL;Magnetized Target Fusion, LANL/AFRL FRCHX progress W h d 2 i i t t h tWe had 2 engineering tests shots in FY

  20. Fusion for Neutrons as a Necessary Step to Commercial Fusion

    E-print Network

    interest to steady state operations, which are urgently needed for applications of fusion neutrons Several (fission reactors and spallation neutron sources) Steady State Operations in neutron environment economy are at a stage of concept selection and still have unclear prospects due to technological

  1. Laser Fusion Research at NRL Fusion Power Associates Meeting

    E-print Network

    are conducted on the Nike KrF facility Nike is operated by 3 technicians Nike's angularly multiplexed optical experiments with Nike facility Success with inertial fusion requires a precise understanding of the underlying physics. The NRL program helps develop the basic physics of ICF using its Nike laser facility, theory

  2. THE FUSION HYBRID, A NEW (OLD ) IDEA FOR FUSION DEVELOPMENT

    E-print Network

    of qualifications) · Source Energy (TW-yrs) Relative Carbon · Coal 5000 1.6 · Oil 1200 1.3 · Natural Gas 1200 1 Fission is energy rich and neutron poor, while fusion is energy poor and neutron rich. A perfect match to civilization is not global warming, but lack of cheap energy. Today the world uses 13 TW, but population growth

  3. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power

    E-print Network

    Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

  5. Automated geographic information fusion and ontology alignment

    E-print Network

    Duckham, Matt

    geographic information fusion system is semantic heterogeneity, where the concepts and categories usedAutomated geographic information fusion and ontology alignment Matt Duckham1 and Mike Worboys2 1@spatial.maine.edu 1 Introduction Geographic information fusion is the process of integrating geographic infor- mation

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory

    E-print Network

    Slide 1 Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Briefing for the National Academy review of Inertial Fusion Energy B. Grant Logan Director, U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory, a collaboration of LBNL, LLNL, and PPPL heavy ion research *This work was performed under

  7. Magnetic Confinement Fusion at the Crossroads

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    for the stars ­ Nobel prize 1967 "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars" #12;MGB / UT / 070307 3 If Fusion Energy Powers the Sun fusion reactions to boost fission bombs 1950 E. Teller given approval to develop fusion bomb "Super

  8. Fusion Power Associates Meeting 3 December 2009

    E-print Network

    and spatial incoherence may help suppress laser plasma instabilities. Nike KrF focal profile #12;KrF LightFusion Power Associates Meeting 3 December 2009 Overview of the NRL laser fusion program: Progress in the Science and Technology of Direct Drive Laser fusion with the KrF laser Presented by: Steve Obenschain

  9. Dale M. Meade Fusion Power Associates

    E-print Network

    , technology) Engineering Test Reactor and evolves seamlessly into a fusion DEMO. #12;FIRE will EmphasizeDale M. Meade Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting Washington, DC December 4, 2002 FIRE Lighting the Way to Fusion for the National FIRE Study Team http://fire.pppl.gov Status of FIRE #12;FESAC has

  10. EPRI Fusion Energy Assessment July 19, 2011

    E-print Network

    · Requires two major changes to the MFE enterprise ­ An accelerated fusion nuclear science and engineering research program RJF EPRI 2011 #12;ACCELERATE MFE VIA FUSION NUCLEAR S&T PROGRAM IN ITER TIMEFRAME #12;THE & Opportunities + ReNew ­ 2010: Fusion Nuclear Science Program (FNSP) White Paper ­ 2010: Pilot Plant concept

  11. Exotic fusion systems over 2-groups

    E-print Network

    Thévenaz, Jacques

    Exotic fusion systems over 2-groups Bob Oliver joint with Kasper Andersen and Joana Ventura The fusion category of a finite group G encodes the conjugacy relations within a Sylow p-subgroup S of GFS(G)(P, Q) = HomG(P, Q). 1 #12;The notion of an abstract fusion system is due to Puig. The definitions we

  12. Experience with PowerPlex Fusion

    E-print Network

    Experience with PowerPlex Fusion Jeffrey Nye Michigan State Police ISHI Workshop on New Loci 3500s being established · Offender database of 300,000+ include Penta loci PowerPlex Fusion #12;Fortunate to be able to use actual casework samples More than 40 cases have been analyzed with Fusion- only

  13. FUSION POWER PLANTS GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    FUSION POWER PLANTS ­ GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES Farrokh Najmabadi Dept. of Electrical & Computer Eng. and Fusion Energy Research Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 619-534-7869 (619-534-7716, Fax) ABSTRACT Fusion is one of a few future power sources with the poten

  14. Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications

    E-print Network

    Sroubek, Filip

    Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser,sroubekf,zitova}@utia.cas.cz #12;Introduction The term fusion means in general an approach to extraction of information acquired in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal

  15. COMMENTARIES ON CRITICISMS OF MAGNETIC FUSION

    E-print Network

    Engineering Heat Transfer Limits for D-T Fusion Reactors. p16 Technical Annex 2 Advanced Tokamak Modes of Operation. p18 Technical Annex 3 `Advanced' Fusion Fuels. p19 Technical Annex 4 Comparison of Magnetic unlimited when advanced fuel cycles are included. Fusion energy will be environmentally benign

  16. Membrane fusion during phage lysis

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Joel; Kongari, Rohit; Cahill, Jesse; Young, Ry

    2015-01-01

    In general, phages cause lysis of the bacterial host to effect release of the progeny virions. Until recently, it was thought that degradation of the peptidoglycan (PG) was necessary and sufficient for osmotic bursting of the cell. Recently, we have shown that in Gram-negative hosts, phage lysis also requires the disruption of the outer membrane (OM). This is accomplished by spanins, which are phage-encoded proteins that connect the cytoplasmic membrane (inner membrane, IM) and the OM. The mechanism by which the spanins destroy the OM is unknown. Here we show that the spanins of the paradigm coliphage lambda mediate efficient membrane fusion. This supports the notion that the last step of lysis is the fusion of the IM and OM. Moreover, data are provided indicating that spanin-mediated fusion is regulated by the meshwork of the PG, thus coupling fusion to murein degradation by the phage endolysin. Because endolysin function requires the formation of ?m-scale holes by the phage holin, the lysis pathway is seen to require dramatic dynamics on the part of the OM and IM, as well as destruction of the PG. PMID:25870259

  17. MagnetoInertial Fusion Description

    E-print Network

    and the Air Force Research Laboratory is investigating solid liner compression of a magnetically confined approaches that add a strong magnetic field to the compressed fusion DT fuel. The key physics effects of the compressed burning fuel. The primary features are a significant enlargement of the areal density (r

  18. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.

    1992-09-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called ``International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)`` will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

  19. Magnetic fusion and project ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.K.

    1992-01-01

    It has already been demonstrated that our economics and international relationship are impacted by an energy crisis. For the continuing prosperity of the human race, a new and viable energy source must be developed within the next century. It is evident that the cost will be high and will require a long term commitment to achieve this goal due to a high degree of technological and scientific knowledge. Energy from the controlled nuclear fusion is a safe, competitive, and environmentally attractive but has not yet been completely conquered. Magnetic fusion is one of the most difficult technological challenges. In modem magnetic fusion devices, temperatures that are significantly higher than the temperatures of the sun have been achieved routinely and the successful generation of tens of million watts as a result of scientific break-even is expected from the deuterium and tritium experiment within the next few years. For the practical future fusion reactor, we need to develop reactor relevant materials and technologies. The international project called International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)'' will fulfill this need and the success of this project will provide the most attractive long-term energy source for mankind.

  20. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  1. Fusion blanket inherent safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.; Jung, J.; Cheng, E.T.

    1986-01-01

    The inherent safety aspect of TPSS reactor blankets has been investigated. The idea is to design the blanket so safe that cost savings can be realized such as through non-nuclear grading construction. If the blanket materials are carefully selected, inherent safety is feasible for fusion reactor blankets up to 5 to 10 MW/m/sup 2/ neutron wall loading.

  2. Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

    2003-01-01

    Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

  3. Exposure Fusion Tom Mertens1

    E-print Network

    Kautz, Jan

    Exposure Fusion Tom Mertens1 Jan Kautz2 Frank Van Reeth1 1 Hasselt University -- EDM transationale a bracketed exposure sequence into a high quality image, without converting to HDR first. Skipping technique blends multiple exposures, guided by simple quality measures like saturation and contrast

  4. Virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasseri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2015-11-01

    The virtual experiment of pyroelectric fusion was conducted by Geant4 simulator. Despite the limitations of the code for simulating the pyroelectric fusion experiment precisely, the following interesting results were obtained. Two crystals were separated by a certain distance. A constant electric field with varying intensities was applied between the crystals. As initial particles, deuterium ions were emitted to deuterated polypropylene (CD2). This virtual experiment showed that the number of ions that hit the target, for different distances between the crystals, increases with the increase of the intensity of the electric field; however, further increase of the electric field results in the reduction of the number of hit ions, which attains a constant value of about 57% of the initial number of ions. For a (D, D) fusion reaction to occur, the distance between the two crystals should be <1.5 cm and for a (D, T) fusion reaction to occur, this distance could be up to 2 cm. The energy spectra of ions for low and high electric fields were narrow and long and wide and short, respectively.

  5. Progress in Fusion Materials Research

    E-print Network

    -Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Outline · Examples of structural materials design data · Overview of key and lower operating temperature limits · Materials design strategy and prospects for developing new high of Energy The Launching of Fusion Energy Bridges the Development of Modern Materials Science 1940 1950 1960

  6. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, ? (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, ?CN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections over a wider energy range for many more reactions is desired for accurate determination of and more insight into the dynamics of fusion in the heavy mass region.

  7. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.

    2006-04-01

    In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasma has become more and more recognized. These fields will cause ergodization at well defined plasma layers and can induce large size islands at rational q-surfaces. A hope for future large scale tokamak devices is the development of a reliable method for mitigating the large ELMs of type 1 ELMy-H-modes by modifying the edge transport. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area and optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, or the understanding of the transport around tearing mode instabilities. The cluster of papers in this issue of Nuclear Fusion is a successor to the 2004 special issue (Nuclear Fusion 44 S1-122 ) intended to raise interest in the subject. The contents of this present issue are based on presentations at the Second Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Juelich, Germany, 15-17 March 2005. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop was originally devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge but it has been broadened to transport questions over the whole plasma cross-section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2007 in Juelich, Germany. For details see http://www.fz-juelich.de/sfp/. The content of the workshop is summarized in the following conference summary (K.H. Finken 2006 Nuclear Fusion 46 S107-112). At the workshop experimental results on the plasma transport resulting from ergodization in various devices were presented. Highlights were the results from DIII-D on the mitigation of ELMs (see also T.E. Evans et al 2005 Nuclear Fusion 45 595 ). Theoretical work was focused around the topics of mapping methods of magnetic field lines, 3D-plasma transport modelling efforts of ergodized plasmas and island divertors, and on the penetration of the external field including the resulting force transfer. We hope that the article series in Nuclear Fusion will stimulate interest in this fascinating subject of plasma physics.

  8. Delineating the hepatocyte's hematopoietic fusion partner.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Holger; Grompe, Markus

    2004-12-01

    Cell fusion has evolved as an explanation of how transplanted bone marrow cells adopt the phenotype of hepatocytes, Purkinje neurons, skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. In vivo nuclear transfer associated with cell fusion has direct implications for regenerative medicine, but the spontaneous frequency of cell fusion is well below the thresholds of therapeutic significance. Increased efficiency could be achieved by utilizing cellular factors known to govern fusion but for this the identity of the hematopoietic cell that fuses with the host cell must be known. Using increasingly lineage-restricted donor bone marrow cell populations we have shown in mouse liver that fusion occurs between host hepatocytes and transplanted myelomonocytic cells such as macrophages. Now it should be feasible to increase the efficiency and assess the potential of cell fusion for the correction of a broad range of somatic cell types that can be targeted by fusion. PMID:15611666

  9. Security on the US Fusion Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  10. Data security on the national fusion grid

    SciTech Connect

    Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

    2005-06-01

    The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

  11. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact toroids called Field-Reversed Configurations. As reported earlier, it appears that the existing pulsed-power Shiva Star facility at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM can satisfy the heating requirements by means of imploding a thin metal cylinder (called a "liner") surrounding an FRC of the type presently being developed. The proposed next step is an integrated liner-on-plasma experiment in which an FRC would be heated to 10 keV by the imploding liner.

  12. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (˜100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  13. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

    2013-03-15

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

  14. Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

    2011-10-01

    Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ~ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

  15. Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, C. D.; Hogan, W. J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Klein, G.; Diaz, F. C.

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short-duration manned-mission performance exceeding other technologies. We are conducting a study to assess the systems aspects of inertial fusion as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983) we describe the required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel. We give preliminary design details for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days. Specific mission performance results will be published elsewhere, after the study has been completed.

  17. Trust metrics in information fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik

    2014-05-01

    Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

  18. Study of fusion Q-value rule in sub-barrier fusion of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Gao-Long; Zhang, Huan-Qiao

    2015-07-01

    A vast body of fusion data has been analyzed for different projectiles and target nuclei. It is indicated that the sub-barrier fusion depends on the fusion Q-value. In terms of a recently introduced fusion Q-value rule and an energy scaling reduction procedure, the experimental fusion excitation functions are reduced and compared with each other. It is found that the reduced fusion excitations of selected fusion systems show a similar trend. The fusion data for massive nuclei are in agreement with the Q-value rule. In the fusion process, the Q contribution should be considered. Within this approach, the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of most fusion systems can be predicted without involving any structure effects of colliding nuclei. Instances of disagreement are presented in a few fusion systems. The use of the energy scaling as a criterion of possible experimental data inconsistency is discussed. More precise experimental fusion data need to be measured. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11475013, 11035007, 11175011), State Key Laboratory of Software Development Environment (SKLSDE-2014ZX-08), Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities and the Key Laboratory of High Precision Nuclear Spectroscopy, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences

  19. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finken, K. H.

    2008-02-01

    In recent years the importance of externally imposed resonant magnetic fields on plasmas has become more and more recognized. These fields act either at well defined plasma layers, e.g. by ergodization or more globally by exciting large-size modes in the plasma. A major achievement of research in recent years is the possibility to suppress large type 1 ELMS by resonant perturbation fields which modify the transport at the plasma edge. This option has been studied extensively at DIII-D and recently progress has also been made at JET and TEXTOR. Several devices are preparing further experiments to study the important aim of avoiding transient heat pulses and thus to substantially increase the lifetime of ITER. Other topics of interest for fusion reactors are the option of distributing the heat to a large area, optimizing methods for heat and particle exhaust, and understanding the transport around tearing mode instabilities. Since October 2003, three SFP workshops have taken place. Important papers from the first two workshops have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6 and stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4) and the contents of this issue are based on presentations to the Third Workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas (SFP) held in Jülich, Germany, 5-7 March 2007. The SFP workshops have been stimulated by the installation of the Dynamic Ergodic Divertor (DED) in the TEXTOR tokamak. It has attracted colleagues working on various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators or reversed field pinches. The workshop is devoted to phenomena on the plasma edge and to transport questions over the whole plasma cross section. It is a meeting place for experimental and theoretical working groups. The next workshop is planned for February/March 2009 in Jülich. For details see www.fzjuelich.de/sfp/. We hope that the article series in Nuclear Fusion will stimulate interest in the fascinating subject of plasma physics.

  20. Fusion for Earth and Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2009-03-01

    The compact reactor concept (Williams, 2007) has the potential to provide clean, safe and unlimited supply of energy for Earth and Space applications. The concept is a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for individual home and space power. The concept also would make it possible for each plant or remote location to have it's own power source, on site, without the need for a connection to the power grid. This would minimize, or eliminate, power blackouts. The concept could replace large fission reactors and fossil fuel power plants plus provide energy for ships, locomotives, trucks and autos. It would make an ideal source of energy for space power applications and for space propulsion.

  1. An improved ash fusion test

    SciTech Connect

    Coin, C.D.A.; Kahraman, H.; Peifenstein, A.P.

    1996-12-31

    A new method of measurement of ash fusion temperatures has been developed using essentially the same equipment as is used for measurement of ash fusibility under Standards such as AS1038.15-87 and ASTM D1857-87. However, unlike the standard method the new method produces quantitative results of progressive dimensional changes during heating and melting of the ash. Further, the new method has much improved precision in determination of the temperatures at which these changes take place. Repeatability and reproducibility of the results are much improved and have scope for further improvement. Correspondence between the index points of current ash fusion tests [Initial Deformation, Sphere, Hemisphere and Flow] with reference points in the new method is poor, particularly in relation to ID temperatures and initial dimensional changes. The temperatures of significant movement in the new test appear to be systematic and therefore are likely to correspond to mineralogical melting points. As slagging and fouling mechanisms depend on relative melting of mineral phases, the new test should provide a significant improvement on the current ash-fusion method.

  2. Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emrich, William J., Jr.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear fusion appears to be the most promising concept for producing extremely high specific impulse rocket engines. One particular fusion concept which seems to be particularly well suited for fusion propulsion applications is the gasdynamic mirror (GDM). This device would operate at much higher plasma densities and with much larger LD ratios than previous mirror machines. Several advantages accrue from such a design. First, the high LA:) ratio minimizes to a large extent certain magnetic curvature effects which lead to plasma instabilities causing a loss of plasma confinement. Second, the high plasma density will result in the plasma behaving much more Re a conventional fluid with a mean free path shorter than the length of the device. This characteristic helps reduce problems associated with "loss cone" microinstabilities. An experimental GDM device is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to provide an initial assessment of the feasibility of this type of propulsion system. Initial experiments are expected to commence in the late fall of 2000.

  3. Image Fusion schemes using ICA bases Nikolaos Mitianoudis, Tania Stathaki

    E-print Network

    Mitianoudis, Nikolaos

    Image Fusion schemes using ICA bases Nikolaos Mitianoudis, Tania Stathaki Communications and Signal Processing group, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, SW7 2AZ London, UK Abstract Image fusion as analysis and synthesis tools for image fusion by the fusion community. Using various fusion rules, one can

  4. FUSION SYSTEMS FOR PROFINITE GROUPS RADU STANCU AND PETER SYMONDS

    E-print Network

    Symonds, Peter

    FUSION SYSTEMS FOR PROFINITE GROUPS RADU STANCU AND PETER SYMONDS Abstract. We introduce the notion of a pro-fusion system on a pro-p group, which generalizes the notion of a fusion system on a finite p-group. We also prove a version of Alperin's Fusion Theorem for pro-fusion systems. 1. Introduction Profinite

  5. Fusion Frames Peter G. Casazza and Gitta Kutyniok

    E-print Network

    Kutyniok, Gitta

    Chapter 1 Fusion Frames Peter G. Casazza and Gitta Kutyniok Abstract Novel technological advances. Fusion frames, which can be regarded as frames of subspaces, do satisfy exactly those needs. They analyze, distributed processing, fusion coherence, fusion frame, fusion frame potential, isoclinic subspaces, mutually

  6. M. Abdou April 2013 Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    M. Abdou April 2013 Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Challenges and Required R&D Mohamed Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Challenges and Required R&D Presentation Outline Introduction to the Fusion Nuclear Environment and Fusion Nuclear Components FNST R&D Challenges Need for Fusion Nuclear

  7. Magne&c fusion energy from physics to DEMO

    E-print Network

    · Fusion nuclear science Fusion Nuclear Facility ~ 2020 start ~ 2025 start ~ 2035 · Plasmamaterials interface · Fusion nuclear science Fusion Nuclear Facility ~ 2020 start ~ 2025 startMagne&c fusion energy from physics to DEMO R. Fonck,1 M Haynes,2 F. Najmabadi,3 S. Prager,4 R

  8. JJ, IAP Cambridge January 20101 Fusion Energy & ITER:Fusion Energy & ITER

    E-print Network

    is compensatedcompensated by magnetic field pressureby magnetic field pressure ·· Fusion born helium atomsFusion born helium internal components are water cooled; max: 10 MW/mAll internal components are water cooled; max: 10 MW/m22

  9. Mitochondrial fusion in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii zygotes.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Dirk; Westermann, Benedikt

    2013-02-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that were found to fuse and divide in many different cell types. Mitochondrial fusion plays important roles in maintenance of respiratory capacity, dissipation of metabolic energy, and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA. While the molecular machinery of mitochondrial fusion has been characterized in great detail in yeast and mammals, only little is known about mitochondrial fusion in higher plants and algae. We asked whether mitochondrial fusion can be observed in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Mitochondria were stained with fluorescent dyes in gametes, and mixing of fluorescent markers was detected by fluorescence microscopy in zygotes indicating fusion. Mitochondrial fusion was observed in wild type zygotes, and also in respiratory mutants, albeit with less efficiency. We conclude that mitochondria readily fuse in green algae. PMID:23218829

  10. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S&E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selecti

  11. Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

    1980-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

  12. Influence of breakup on fusion barrier distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, D.; Nayak, B. K.; Mukherjee, S.; Biswas, D. C.; Mirgule, E. T.; John, B. V.; Gupta, Y. K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Prajapati, G.; Danu, L. S.; Rath, P. K.; Desai, V.; Deshmukh, N.; Saxena, A.

    2013-04-01

    Fusion barrier distributions have been extracted from the quasi-elastic scattering excitation functions, measured at backward angle ?lab = 160° in reactions of 6,7Li+209Bi. The present results have been compared with the barrier distributions obtained from the fusion excitation function measurements for the above mentioned systems. The fusion barrier distributions from the quasi-elastic scattering excitation functions have been analyzed with simplified Coupled Channels calculations using Fresco. Inclusions of resonant states for both 6,7Li projectiles improve the predictions to describe the measured quasi-elastic scattering excitation functions and barrier distributions. For both the reactions peak positions of fusion barrier distributions are shifted towards a lower energy side in comparison to that obtained from the fusion excitation function measurements. The observed discrepancy in peak positions of barrier distributions obtained from quasi-elastic scattering and fusion excitation function measurements has been discussed in terms of total reaction threshold distribution.

  13. Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Office of Exploration sponsored the NASA Lunar Helium-3 and Fusion Power Workshop. The meeting was held to understand the potential of using He-3 from the moon for terrestrial fusion power production. It provided an overview, two parallel working sessions, a review of sessions, and discussions. The lunar mining session concluded that mining, beneficiation, separation, and return of He-3 from the moon would be possible but that a large scale operation and improved technology is required. The fusion power session concluded that: (1) that He-3 offers significant, possibly compelling, advantages over fusion of tritium, principally increased reactor life, reduced radioactive wastes, and high efficiency conversion, (2) that detailed assessment of the potential of the D/He-3 fuel cycle requires more information, and (3) D/He-3 fusion may be best for commercial purposes, although D/T fusion is more near term.

  14. Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Kessel, et. al.

    2012-02-23

    With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

  15. Distinct methylation profiles characterize fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wenyue; Chatterjee, Bishwanath; Wang, Yonghong; Stevenson, Holly S; Edelman, Daniel C; Meltzer, Paul S; Barr, Frederic G

    2015-09-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma comprises two major subtypes, fusion positive (PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1) and fusion negative. To investigate the significance of DNA methylation in these subtypes, we analyzed methylation profiles of 37 rhabdomyosarcoma tumors and 10 rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines, as well as 8 normal tissues. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation clearly distinguished the fusion-positive and fusion-negative subsets. The fusion-positive tumors showed substantially lower overall levels of methylation compared with fusion-negative tumors. Comparison with the methylation pattern of normal skeletal muscle and bone marrow indicates that fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma is more similar to these normal tissues compared with fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma, and suggests that many of the methylation differences between these subtypes arise from 'aberrant' hyper- and hypomethylation events in fusion-positive rhabdomyosarcoma. Integrative methylation and gene expression analysis revealed that methylation differences between fusion-positive and fusion-negative tumors could either be positively or negatively associated with mRNA expression. There was no significant difference in the distribution of PAX3-FOXO1-binding sites between genes with and without differential methylation. However, the finding that PAX3-FOXO1-binding sites were enriched among genes that were both differentially methylated and differentially expressed suggests that the fusion protein interacts with DNA methylation to regulate target gene expression. An 11-gene DNA methylation signature, classifying the rhabdomyosarcoma tumors into fusion-positive and fusion-negative subsets, was established and validated by pyrosequencing assays. Notably, EMILIN1 (part of the 11-gene signature) showed higher methylation and lower mRNA expression in fusion-positive compared with fusion-negative tumors, and demonstrated demethylation and re-expression in multiple fusion-positive cell lines after treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that fusion-positive and fusion-negative rhabdomyosarcoma tumors possess characteristic methylation profiles that contribute to the expression differences between these fusion subtypes. These findings indicate an important relationship between fusion status and epigenetic changes in rhabdomyosarcoma, present a novel approach for ascertaining fusion status, and may identify new therapeutic targets in rhabdomyosarcoma. PMID:26226845

  16. Fusion energy Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high temperatures

    E-print Network

    Fusion energy · Fusion powers the Sun, and all stars, in which light nuclei fuse together at high temperatures (15 million degrees) releasing a large amount of energy. · The aim of fusion research is to use fusion to produce power on earth. · The most promising approach to fusion power is based on the `tokamak

  17. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    E-print Network

    Zhong, X H; Ning, P Z

    2004-01-01

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  18. Some Calculations for Cold Fusion Superheavy Elements

    E-print Network

    X. H. Zhong; L. Li; P. Z. Ning

    2004-10-18

    The Q value and optimal exciting energy of the hypothetical superheavy nuclei in cold fusion reaction are calculated with relativistic mean field model and semiemperical shell model mass equation(SSME) and the validity of the two models is tested. The fusion barriers are also calculated with two different models and reasonable results are obtained. The calculations can give useful references for the experiments in the superheavy nuclei synthesized in cold fusion reactions.

  19. Equivalence of data fusion and simultaneous retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccherini, Simone; Carli, Bruno; Raspollini, Piera

    2015-04-01

    A new method for the data fusion of atmospheric vertical profiles, referred to as complete fusion, is presented. The performance of the method is compared with that of weighted and arithmetic means using the measurements of the MIPAS instrument. The complete fusion perfectly reproduces the results of the simultaneous retrieval with equal error estimates and number of degrees of freedom, while arithmetic and weighted means have relatively low vertical resolution and differ from the simultaneous retrieval by more than their errors.

  20. Fusion et volution des caractristiques topologiques

    E-print Network

    Damiand, Guillaume

    intéressons aux fusions dans le cadre de la construction de la carte topologique. Nous avons vu que pour un voxel de l'image. Nous e#27;ectuons ensuite certaines fusions, suivant les contraintes déjà déjà présenté l'opération de fusion lors de la dé#28;nition de la carte topolo- gique en dimensions 2

  1. Review of alternative concepts for magnetic fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Although the Tokamak represents the mainstay of the world's quest for magnetic fusion power, with the tandem mirror serving as a primary backup concept in the US fusion program, a wide range of alternative fusion concepts (AFC's) have been and are being pursued. This review presents a summary of past and present reactor projections of a majority of AFC's. Whenever possible, quantitative results are given.

  2. Materials issues in fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, A. K.; Krishnamurthy, N.; Batra, I. S.

    2010-02-01

    The world scientific community is presently engaged in one of the toughest technological tasks of the current century, namely, exploitation of nuclear fusion in a controlled manner for the benefit of mankind. Scientific feasibility of controlled fusion of the light elements in plasma under magnetic confinement has already been proven. International efforts in a coordinated and co-operative manner are presently being made to build ITER - the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - to test, in this first step, the concept of 'Tokamak' for net fusion energy production. To exploit this new developing option of making energy available through the route of fusion, India too embarked on a robust fusion programme under which we now have a working tokamak - the Aditya and a steady state tokamak (SST-1), which is on the verge of functioning. The programme envisages further development in terms of making SST-2 followed by a DEMO and finally the fusion power reactor. Further, with the participation of India in the ITER program in 2005, and recent allocation of half - a - port in ITER for placing our Lead - Lithium Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) based Test Blanket Module (TBM), meant basically for breeding tritium and extracting high grade heat, the need to understand and address issues related to materials for these complex systems has become all the more necessary. Also, it is obvious that with increasing power from the SST stages to DEMO and further to PROTOTYPE, the increasing demands on performance of materials would necessitate discovery and development of new materials. Because of the 14.1 MeV neutrons that are generated in the D+T reaction exploited in a tokamak, the materials, especially those employed for the construction of the first wall, the diverter and the blanket segments, suffer crippling damage due to the high He/dpa ratios that result due to the high energy of the neutrons. To meet this challenge, the materials that need to be developed for the tokamaks are steels for the first wall and other structurals, copper alloys for the heat sink, and beryllium for facing the plasma. For the TBMs, the materials that need to be developed include beryllium and/or beryllium-titanium alloys for neutron multiplication, lithium-bearing compounds for tritium generation, and the liquid metal coolants like lead-lithium eutectic in which lead acts as a neutron multiplier and lithium as a tritium breeder. The other materials that need attention of the materials scientists include superconductors made of NbTi, Nb3Sn and Nb3Al for the tokamaks, coatings or ceramic inserts to offset the effect of corrosion and the MHD in liquid metal cooled TBMs, and a host of other materials like nano-structured materials, special adhesives and numerous other alloys and compounds. Apart from this, the construction of the tokamaks would necessitate development of methodologies of joining the selected materials. This presentation would deal with the issues related to the development, characterization and qualification of both the structural as well as the functional materials required to carry forward the challenging task of harnessing fusion energy for use of mankind in engineered systems.

  3. Inertial fusion: strategy and economic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide convincing experimental evidence that the required high target gains are feasible. This will be the principal objective of the NOVA laser experiments. Implosions will be conducted with scaled targets which are nearly hydrodynamically equivalent to the high gain target implosions. Experiments which demonstrate high target gains will be conducted in the early nineties when multi-megajoule drivers become available. Efficient drivers will also be demonstrated by this time period. Magnetic fusion may demonstrate high Q at about the same time as inertial fusion demonstrates high gain. Beyond demonstration of high performance fusion, economic considerations will predominate. Fusion energy will achieve full commercial success when it becomes cheaper than fission and coal. Analysis of the ultimate economic potential of inertial fusion suggests its costs may be reduced to half those of fission and coal. Relative cost escalation would increase this advantage. Fusions potential economic advantage derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy (which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity).

  4. Mitochondrial fusion is essential for steroid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Alejandra; Poderoso, Cecilia; Cooke, Mariana; Soria, Gastón; Cornejo Maciel, Fabiana; Gottifredi, Vanesa; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of mitochondrial dynamics (a balance in fusion/fission events and changes in mitochondria subcellular distribution) to key biological process has been reported, the contribution of changes in mitochondrial fusion to achieve efficient steroid production has never been explored. The mitochondria are central during steroid synthesis and different enzymes are localized between the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum to produce the final steroid hormone, thus suggesting that mitochondrial fusion might be relevant for this process. In the present study, we showed that the hormonal stimulation triggers mitochondrial fusion into tubular-shaped structures and we demonstrated that mitochondrial fusion does not only correlate-with but also is an essential step of steroid production, being both events depend on PKA activity. We also demonstrated that the hormone-stimulated relocalization of ERK1/2 in the mitochondrion, a critical step during steroidogenesis, depends on mitochondrial fusion. Additionally, we showed that the SHP2 phosphatase, which is required for full steroidogenesis, simultaneously modulates mitochondrial fusion and ERK1/2 localization in the mitochondrion. Strikingly, we found that mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) expression, a central protein for mitochondrial fusion, is upregulated immediately after hormone stimulation. Moreover, Mfn2 knockdown is sufficient to impair steroid biosynthesis. Together, our findings unveil an essential role for mitochondrial fusion during steroidogenesis. These discoveries highlight the importance of organelles' reorganization in specialized cells, prompting the exploration of the impact that organelle dynamics has on biological processes that include, but are not limited to, steroid synthesis. PMID:23029265

  5. FUSION ET VOLUTION DES CARACTRISTIQUES TOPOLOGIQUES

    E-print Network

    Damiand, Guillaume

    intéressons aux fusions dans le cadre de la construction de la carte topologique. Nous avons vu que pour voxel de l'image. Nous effectuons ensuite certaines fusions, suivant les contraintes déjà présentées, et topologiques 6.1 Définition algébrique de l'opération de fusion Nous avons déjà présenté l'opération de fusion

  6. Multifocus image fusion using phase congruency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Kun; Li, Qiaoqiao; Teng, Jicai; Wang, Mingying; Shi, Jinhui

    2015-05-01

    We address the problem of fusing multifocus images based on the phase congruency (PC). PC provides a sharpness feature of a natural image. The focus measure (FM) is identified as strong PC near a distinctive image feature evaluated by the complex Gabor wavelet. The PC is more robust against noise than other FMs. The fusion image is obtained by a new fusion rule (FR), and the focused region is selected by the FR from one of the input images. Experimental results show that the proposed fusion scheme achieves the fusion performance of the state-of-the-art methods in terms of visual quality and quantitative evaluations.

  7. Cavitation-Induced Fusion: Proof of Concept

    E-print Network

    Max I. Fomitchev-Zamilov

    2012-09-09

    Cavitation-induced fusion (also known as bubble fusion or sonofusion) has been a topic of much debate and controversy and is generally (albeit incorrectly) perceived as unworkable. In this paper we present the theoretical foundations of cavitation-induced fusion and summarize the experimental results of the research conducted in the past 20 years. Based on the systematic study of all available data we conclude that the cavitation-induced fusion is feasible, doable, and can be used for commercial power generation. We present the results of our own research and disclose a commercial reactor prototype.

  8. Radiation hardening of diagnostics for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Baur, J.F.; Engholm, B.A.; Hacker, M.P.; Maya, I.; Miller, P.H.; Toffolo, W.E.; Wojtowicz, S.S.

    1981-12-01

    A list of the diagnostic systems presently used in magnetic confinement fusion experiments is compiled herein. The radiation-sensitive components are identified, and their locations in zones around the machine are indicated. A table of radiation sensitivities of components is included to indicate the data available from previous work in fission reactor, space probe, and defense-related programs. Extrapolation and application to hardening of fusion diagnostic systems requires additional data that are more specific to the fusion radiation environment and fusion components. A list is also given of present radiation-producing facilities where near-term screening tests of materials and components can be performed.

  9. Fusion: A general framework for hierarchical tilings

    E-print Network

    Natalie Priebe Frank

    2013-11-21

    One well studied way to construct quasicrystalline tilings is via inflate-and-subdivide (a.k.a. substitution) rules. These produce self-similar tilings--the Penrose, octagonal, and pinwheel tilings are famous examples. We present a different model for generating hierarchical tilings we call "fusion rules". Inflate-and-subdivide rules are a special case of fusion rules, but general fusion rules are more flexible and allow for defects, changes in geometry, and even constrained randomness. A condition that produces homogeneous structures and a method for computing frequency for fusion tiling spaces are discussed.

  10. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion / High Energy

    E-print Network

    11/29/2007 The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory 1 Overview of Heavy Ion Fusion / High Energy Density Laboratory Physics * B. Grant Logan On behalf of the Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory** (HIFS-VNL)** LBNL, LLNL, PPPL Presentation in two parts: 1. Heavy ion driven

  11. Fusion EnergyFusion Energy Powering the XXI centuryPowering the XXI century

    E-print Network

    Fusion EnergyFusion Energy Powering the XXI centuryPowering the XXI century Carlos Matos FerreiraInstituto SuperiorSuperior TTéécnicocnico,, LisboaLisboa, Portugal, Portugal 20th International Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Energy Conference, Vilamoura, Portugal #12;OutlineOutline ·· World Energy ConsumptionWorld Energy

  12. Compatibility of Physics and Engineering in Magnetic Fusion White Paper on Magnetic Fusion Priorities

    E-print Network

    difficulties of engineering. The equilibrium of a fusion plasma is determined by (1) the externally producedCompatibility of Physics and Engineering in Magnetic Fusion White Paper on Magnetic Fusion.edu (Dated: July 14, 2012) The compatibility of the requirements of physics and engineering

  13. Fusion Engineering ScienceFusion Engineering Science Subgroup ASubgroup A Subgroup BSubgroup B

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Fusion Engineering ScienceFusion Engineering Science Subgroup ASubgroup A Subgroup BSubgroup B (Science questions for Materials and Plasma Chamber) (Science questions in technologies for plasma heating) #12;T13: How does the challenging fusion environment affect plasma chamber systems? T14: What

  14. Fusion Engineering and Design 41 (1998) 393400 Economic goals and requirements for competitive fusion energy

    E-print Network

    1998-01-01

    fusion energy Ronald L. Miller Fusion Energy Research Program, Uni6ersity of California, San Diego, La reserved. 1. Introduction As part of a general consideration of future energy issues [1], the rationale and methodology of cost projections for magnetic-fusion-energy central-station electric power plants have been

  15. Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor: A

    E-print Network

    Fournier, John J.F.

    achievable by inertial techniques alone. One particular form of MTF (suggested by General Fusion) involves us and bounds in recent years due to improved technology and engineering methods. Magnetized Target Fusion to developing a more complete physical picture. Nuclear fusion is a complicated process in which lighter

  16. Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 537548 Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion energy--three

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    1998-01-01

    Fusion Engineering and Design 42 (1998) 537­548 Chamber technology concepts for inertial fusion features at the required pulse rate. Representative chamber concepts are described, and key technical to a large variety of chamber design concepts for inertial fusion energy (IFE). Refs. [1­8] provide

  17. National Research Centre "Kurchatov Institute" Progress in Magnetic Fusion TechnologyProgress in Magnetic Fusion Technology

    E-print Network

    on Magnetic Fusion Technology FUSION ENGINEERING INTEGRATION&POWER PLANT DESIGNFUSION ENGINEERING, INTEGRATION&POWER PLANT DESIGN FUSION NUCLEAR SCIENCE MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS SAFETY ECONOMIC of prototypes and parts Higher activity in DEMO and FNSF G h f FT ib i MFT i i OV&OV/PGrowth of FT contributions

  18. Introduction to Nuclear Fusion Power and the Design of Fusion Reactors. An Issue-Oriented Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillo, J. A.

    This three-part module focuses on the principles of nuclear fusion and on the likely nature and components of a controlled-fusion power reactor. The physical conditions for a net energy release from fusion and two approaches (magnetic and inertial confinement) which are being developed to achieve this goal are described. Safety issues associated…

  19. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets

    E-print Network

    Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady-state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

  20. Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets

    E-print Network

    Long Pulse Fusion Physics Experiments Without Superconducting Electromagnets Robert D. Woolley fusion physics experiments can be performed economically via resistive electromagnets designed for thermally steady­state operation. Possible fusion experiments using resistive electromagnets include long

  1. 76 FR 49757 - Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ...provides advice and recommendations to the Department of Energy on long-range plans, priorities, and strategies for advancing plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology related to the Fusion Energy Sciences program. Additionally, the...

  2. Fusion action systems by Matthew J.K. Gelvin.

    E-print Network

    Gelvin, Matthew J. K. (Matthew Justin Karcher)

    2010-01-01

    The study of fusion first arose in the local theory of finite groups. Puig abstracted the fusion data of a finite group to the notion of fusion system, an object that reflects local data in more abstract algebraic settings, ...

  3. Magnetized Target Fusion in Advanced Propulsion Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cylar, Rashad

    2003-01-01

    The Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) Propulsion lab at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama has a program in place that has adopted to attempt to create a faster, lower cost and more reliable deep space transportation system. In this deep space travel the physics and development of high velocity plasma jets must be understood. The MTF Propulsion lab is also in attempt to open up the solar system for human exploration and commercial use. Fusion, as compared to fission, is just the opposite. Fusion involves the light atomic nuclei combination to produce denser nuclei. In the process, the energy is created by destroying the mass according to the distinguished equation: E = mc2 . Fusion energy development is being pursued worldwide as a very sustainable form of energy that is environmentally friendly. For the purposes of space exploration fusion reactions considered include the isotopes of hydrogen-deuterium (D2) and tritium (T3). Nuclei have an electrostatic repulsion between them and in order for the nuclei to fuse this repulsion must be overcome. One technique to bypass repulsion is to heat the nuclei to very high temperatures. The temperatures vary according to the type of reactions. For D-D reactions, one billion degrees Celsius is required, and for D-T reactions, one hundred million degrees is sufficient. There has to be energy input for useful output to be obtained form the fusion To make fusion propulsion practical, the mass, the volume, and the cost of the equipment to produce the reactions (generally called the reactor) need to be reduced by an order of magnitude or two from the state-of-the-art fusion machines. Innovations in fusion schemes are therefore required, especially for obtaining thrust for propulsive applications. Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is one of the innovative fusion concepts that have emerged over the last several years. MSFC is working with Los Alamos National Laboratory and other research groups in studying the underlying principles involved in MTF. Magnetized Target Fusion is an attempt to combine MCF (magnetic confinement fusion) for energy confinement and ICF (inertial confinement fusion) for efficient compression heating and wall free containment of the fusing plasma. It also seeks to combine the best features to these two main commonplace approaches to fusion.

  4. Ch. 37, Inertial Fusion Energy Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, E

    2010-06-09

    Nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and renewable energy (including biofuels) are the only energy sources capable of satisfying the Earth's need for power for the next century and beyond without the negative environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Substantially increasing the use of nuclear fission and renewable energy now could help reduce dependency on fossil fuels, but nuclear fusion has the potential of becoming the ultimate base-load energy source. Fusion is an attractive fuel source because it is virtually inexhaustible, widely available, and lacks proliferation concerns. It also has a greatly reduced waste impact, and no danger of runaway reactions or meltdowns. The substantial environmental, commercial, and security benefits of fusion continue to motivate the research needed to make fusion power a reality. Replicating the fusion reactions that power the sun and stars to meet Earth's energy needs has been a long-sought scientific and engineering challenge. In fact, this technological challenge is arguably the most difficult ever undertaken. Even after roughly 60 years of worldwide research, much more remains to be learned. the magnitude of the task has caused some to declare that fusion is 20 years away, and always will be. This glib criticism ignores the enormous progress that has occurred during those decades, progress inboth scientific understanding and essential technologies that has enabled experiments producing significant amounts of fusion energy. For example, more than 15 megawatts of fusion power was produced in a pulse of about half a second. Practical fusion power plants will need to produce higher powers averaged over much longer periods of time. In addition, the most efficient experiments to date have required using about 50% more energy than the resulting fusion reaction generated. That is, there was no net energy gain, which is essential if fusion energy is to be a viable source of electricity. The simplest fusion fuels, the heavy isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium), are derived from water and the metal lithium, a relatively abundant resource. The fuels are virtually inexhaustible and they are available worldwide. Deuterium from one gallon of seawater would provide the equivalent energy of 300 gallons of gasoline, or over a half ton of coal. This energy is released when deuterium and tritium nuclei are fused together to form a helium nucleus and a neutron. The neutron is used to breed tritium from lithium. The energy released is carried by the helium nucleus (3.5 MeV) and the neutron (14 MeV). The energetic helium nucleus heats the fuel, helping to sustain the fusion reaction. Once the helium cools, it is collected and becomes a useful byproduct. A fusion power plant would produce no climate-changing gases.

  5. Fusion algebras of logarithmic minimal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Jørgen; Pearce, Paul A.

    2007-11-01

    We present explicit conjectures for the chiral fusion algebras of the logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p^{\\prime}) considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The generators of fusion are countably infinite in number but the ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sell(2) structure but require so-called Kac representations which are typically reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fundamental fusion algebra p ? 1 is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the results of Gaberdiel and Kausch for p = 1 and with Eberle and Flohr for (p, p') = (2, 5) corresponding to the logarithmic Yang-Lee model. In the latter case, we confirm the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. We also find that closure of a fundamental fusion algebra is achieved without the introduction of indecomposable representations of rank higher than 3. The conjectured fusion rules are supported, within our lattice approach, by extensive numerical studies of the associated integrable lattice models. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere. The agreement of our fusion rules with the previous fusion rules lends considerable support for the identification of the logarithmic minimal models {\\cal LM}(p,p^{\\prime}) with the augmented c_{p,p^{\\prime}} (minimal) models defined algebraically.

  6. Fusion Algebras of Logarithmic Minimal Models

    E-print Network

    Jorgen Rasmussen; Paul A. Pearce

    2007-09-21

    We present explicit conjectures for the chiral fusion algebras of the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p') considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The generators of fusion are countably infinite in number but the ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sl(2) structure but require so-called Kac representations which are reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fundamental fusion algebra is in general a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the results of Gaberdiel and Kausch for p=1 and with Eberle and Flohr for (p,p')=(2,5) corresponding to the logarithmic Yang-Lee model. In the latter case, we confirm the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. We also find that closure of a fundamental fusion algebra is achieved without the introduction of indecomposable representations of rank higher than 3. The conjectured fusion rules are supported, within our lattice approach, by extensive numerical studies of the associated integrable lattice models. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere. The agreement of our fusion rules with the previous fusion rules lends considerable support for the identification of the logarithmic minimal models LM(p,p') with the augmented c_{p,p'} (minimal) models defined algebraically.

  7. Magnetized Target Fusion Driven by Plasma Liners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Knapp, Charles E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion is an emerging, relatively unexplored approach to fusion for electrical power and propulsion application. The physical principles of the concept are founded upon both inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and magnetic confinement fusion (MCF). It attempts to combine the favorable attributes of both these orthogonal approaches to fusion, but at the same time, avoiding the extreme technical challenges of both by exploiting a fusion regime intermediate between them. It uses a material liner to compress, heat and contain the fusion reacting plasma (the target plasma) mentally. By doing so, the fusion burn could be made to occur at plasma densities as high as six orders of magnitude higher than conventional MCF such as tokamak, thus leading to an approximately three orders of magnitude reduction in the plasma energy required for ignition. It also uses a transient magnetic field, compressed to extremely high intensity (100's T to 1000T) in the target plasma, to slow down the heat transport to the liner and to increase the energy deposition of charged-particle fusion products. This has several compounding beneficial effects. It leads to longer energy confinement time compared with conventional ICF without magnetized target, and thus permits the use of much lower plasma density to produce reasonable burn-up fraction. The compounding effects of lower plasma density and the magneto-insulation of the target lead to greatly reduced compressional heating power on the target. The increased energy deposition rate of charged-particle fusion products also helps to lower the energy threshold required for ignition and increasing the burn-up fraction. The reduction in ignition energy and the compressional power compound to lead to reduced system size, mass and R&D cost. It is a fusion approach that has an affordable R&D pathway, and appears attractive for propulsion application in the nearer term.

  8. Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology ProgramFusion Nuclear Science and Technology Program Issues and Strategy for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF)

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    Need for Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology ProgramFusion Nuclear Science and Technology Program ­Issues and Strategy for Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) ­Key R&D Areas to begin NOW (modeling 12, 2010 #12;Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) FNST is the science engineering technology

  9. Radiation Shielding for Fusion Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.T.

    1999-10-01

    Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel. Radiation shielding requirements for fusion reactors present different problems than those for fission reactors and accelerators. Fusion devices, particularly tokamak reactors, are complicated by geometry constraints that complicate disposition of fully effective shielding. This paper reviews some of these shielding issues and suggested solutions for optimizing the machine and biological shielding. Radiation transport calculations are essential for predicting and confirming the nuclear performance of the reactor and, as such, must be an essential part of the reactor design process. Development and optimization of reactor components from the first wall and primary shielding to the penetrations and containment shielding must be carried out in a sensible progression. Initial results from one-dimensional transport calculations are used for scoping studies and are followed by detailed two- and three-dimensional analyses to effectively characterize the overall radiation environment. These detail model calculations are essential for accounting for the radiation leakage through ports and other penetrations in the bulk shield. Careful analysis of component activation and radiation damage is cardinal for defining remote handling requirements, in-situ replacement of components, and personnel access at specific locations inside the reactor containment vessel.

  10. Interplanetary propulsion using inertial fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, Charles D.; Hoffman, Nate; Murray, Kathy; Klein, Gail; Diaz, Franklin Chang

    1987-01-01

    Inertial fusion can be used to power spacecraft within the solar system and beyond. Such spacecraft have the potential for short duration manned mission performance exceeding other technologies. A study was conducted to assess the systems aspects of inertial as applied to such missions, based on the conceptual engine design of Hyde (1983). The required systems for an entirely new spacecraft design called VISTA that is based on the use of DT fuel is described. Preliminary design details are given for the power conversion and power conditioning systems for manned missions to Mars of total duration of about 100 days.

  11. A. Sakharov and Fusion Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, Bruno

    2012-02-01

    In the landmark paper by Tamm and Sakharov [1], a controlled nuclear fusion reactor based on an axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration whose principles remain valid to this day, was proposed. In the light of present understanding of plasma physics the virtues (e.g. that of considering the D-D reaction) and the shortcomings of this paper are pointed out. In fact, relatively recent results of theoretical plasma physics (e.g. discovery of the so called second stability region) and advances in high field magnet technology have made it possible to identify the parameters of meaningful experiments capable of exploring D-D and D-^3He burn conditions. At the same time an experimental program (IGNIR) has been undertaken through a (funded) collaboration between Italy and Russia to investigate D-T plasmas close to ignition conditions based on an advanced high field toroidal confinement configuration. A. Sakharov envisioned a bolder approach to fusion research than that advocated by some of his contemporaries. The time taken to design and decide to fabricate the first experiment capable of reaching ignition conditions is due in part to the problem of gaining an adequate understanding the expected physics of fusion burning plasmas. However, most of the relevant financial effort has gone in the pursuit of slow and indirect enterprises complying with the ``playing it safe'' tendencies of large organizations or motivated by the purpose to develop technologies or maintain a high level of expertise in plasma physics to the expected benefit of other kinds of endeavors. The creativity demonstrated by A. Sakharov in dealing with civil rights and disarmament issues is needed, while maintaining our concerns for energy and the environment on a global scale, to orient the funding for fusion research toward a direct and well based scientific effort on concepts for which a variety of developments can be envisioned. These can span from uncovering new physics relevant, for instance, to high energy astrophysics to the feasibility of new neutron sources.[4pt] [1] A. Sakharov, Collected Scientific Works (Publ. Marcel Dekkes, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1982).

  12. Quantum circuits for qubit fusion

    E-print Network

    Jonathan E. Moussa

    2015-12-23

    We consider four-dimensional qudits as qubit pairs and their qudit Pauli operators as qubit Clifford operators. This introduces a nesting, $C_1^2 \\subset C_2^4 \\subset C_3^2$, where $C_n^m$ is the $n$th level of the $m$-dimensional qudit Clifford hierarchy. If we can convert between logical qubits and qudits, then qudit Clifford operators are qubit non-Clifford operators. Conversion is achieved by qubit fusion and qudit fission using stabilizer circuits that consume a resource state. This resource is a fused qubit stabilizer state with a fault-tolerant state preparation using stabilizer circuits.

  13. Kinematics in Vector Boson Fusion

    E-print Network

    D. Green

    2006-03-02

    The vector boson fusion process leads to two forward/backward jets (tag jets) and the produced state, a Higgs boson in this case, moving slowly in the p-p C.M. frame at the LHC. For the case of Higgs decaying to W+W (W*) with Higgs mass below 180 GeV, the W bosons have low momentum in the Higgs C.M. For the case of W leptonic decays, this fact allows for an approximate reconstruction of the two final state neutrinos. In turn, those solutions then provide additional kinematic cuts against background.

  14. Magneized target fusion: An overview of the concept

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) seeks to take advantage of the reduction of thermal conductivity through the application of a strong magneticfield and thereby ease the requirements for reaching fusion conditions in a thermonuclear (TN) fusion fuel. A potentially important benefit of the strong field in the partial trapping of energetic charged particles to enhance energy deposition by the TN fusion reaction products. The essential physics is described. MTF appears to lead to fusion targets that require orders of magnitude less power and intensity for fusion ignition than currently proposed (unmagnetized) inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets do, making some very energetic pulsed power drivers attractive for realizing controlled fusion.

  15. Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions.

    PubMed

    Donovan, D C; Boris, D R; Kulcinski, G L; Santarius, J F; Piefer, G R

    2013-03-01

    A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (?100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device. PMID:23556815

  16. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-print Network

    Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2012 a safe, secure, and reliable nuclear weapons stockpile without underground testing. Science-based weapons's Budget. Page 105 #12;Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY

  17. Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cool

    SciTech Connect

    2011-01-01

    Plasmas are Hot and Fusion is Cold. The DOE Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) collaborates to develop fusion as a safe, clean and abundant energy source for the future. This video discusses PPPL's research and development on plasma, the fourth state of matter.

  18. Socio-economic Aspects of Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Schmidt

    2004-10-21

    Fusion power systems, if developed and deployed, would have many attractive features including power production not dependant on weather or solar conditions, flexible siting, and minimal carbon dioxide production. In this paper, we quantify the benefit of these features. In addition, fusion deployment scenarios are developed for the last half of this century and these scenarios are analyzed for resource requirements and waste production.

  19. Prospects for developing attractive magnetic fusion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1985-01-01

    Comments are made pertaining to a generic magnetic fusion reactor study carried out at ORNL. A second study was made of the required reactor characteristics for attractive fusion reactors. The study concluded that both the physics and economics would be achievable with present magnetic configurations.

  20. Working with Fusion in Lesbian Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Nicki F.

    The phenomena of fusion within a lesbian relationship is described in a six-phased model. Fusion in relationships is defined as two incomplete people coming together in an attempt to make one more complete whole, the merging of two ego boundaries. The six phases discussed include ecstacy, getting married, the routine, depression/withdrawal,…

  1. EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association Annual Report

    E-print Network

    that from today's fission nuclear power stations. In Europe, fusion research is co-ordinated by EURATOM Zacks at the Small Negative Ion Facility, a new neutral beam heating test device at CCFE. #12;EURATOM of the plasma ­ one of the biggest physics puzzles that has to be solved if we are to put fusion power

  2. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Strategic Planning

    E-print Network

    D R A F T Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee Report on Strategic Planning: Priorities Assessment and Budget Scenarios September 21, 2014 U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science #12; ii ............................................................................................................... 68 #12; iii Preface Fusion, the energy source that powers our sun and the stars

  3. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T ..-->.. n(14.1 MeV) + ..cap alpha..(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device.

  4. widehat {su}( 3 ; )k FUSION COEFFICIENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, L.; Mathieu, P.; Walton, M. A.

    A closed and explicit formula for all widehat {su}( 3 ; )k fusion coefficients is presented which, in the limit k??, turns into a simple and compact expression for the su(3) tensor product coefficients. The derivation is based on a new diagrammatic method which gives directly both tensor product and fusion coefficients.

  5. Application of polarized nuclei to fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    It is shown that the d-t fusion reaction can be modified by polarizing nuclear spins. The ways in which this improves reactor performance are mentioned and the feasibility of the process of spin polarization for magnetic fusion is discussed. 18 refs.

  6. LLNL-PRES-463228 FUSION PERSPECTIVES*

    E-print Network

    devices (DIII-D, NSTX, ....) · Possibility to create "snowflake" in ITER- scale machines with PF coils problems with wall heat loads) · Fusion occurs in a simple linear solenoid · Inherently steady · Natural divertors (no problems with wall heat loads) · Fusion occurs in a simple linear solenoid

  7. Dale M. Meade 2002 Fusion Summer Study

    E-print Network

    Technolgy Innovation in Fusion Plasma Science and Technology EU Power Plant ITER Based 30 MA JA Power Plant for an Attractive Fusion Power Plant have been Identified Desired Characteristics · Power gain Q 25 nETi > 6 x 1021 ?? US Power Plant (12 MA) Advanced Confinement Systems Burning Plasmas Materials Dev Fac ITER-FEAT EU

  8. The National Fusion Collaboratory Project Presented by

    E-print Network

    The National Fusion Collaboratory Project Presented by David P. Schissel at The PSACI PAC June 5 -- Code developers can control intellectual property -- Fair use of shared resources can be demonstrated early deployment of these tools." #12;SUCCESSFUL GRID COMPUTING FOR FUSION SCIENCE "This is a success

  9. National Ignition Facility for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Paisner, J.A.; Murray, J.R.

    1997-10-08

    The National Ignition Facility for inertial confinement fusion will contain a 1.8 MJ, 500 TW frequency-tripled neodymium glass laser system that will be used to explore fusion ignition and other problems in the physics of high temperature and density. We describe the facility briefly. The NIF is scheduled to be completed in 2003.

  10. Fusion Simulation Project (Whole Tokamak Plasma Modeling)

    E-print Network

    Fusion Simulation Project (Whole Tokamak Plasma Modeling) FSP Committee and Panels Presented of which is develop an improved capacity for Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Fusion Systems on simulations of individual physical phenomena · Development of high fidelity physics models for individual

  11. Method of controlling fusion reaction rates

    DOEpatents

    Kulsrud, Russell M. (Princeton, NJ); Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Valeo, Ernest J. (Princeton Junction, NJ); Goldhaber, Maurice (Bayport, NY)

    1988-01-01

    A method of controlling the reaction rates of the fuel atoms in a fusion reactor comprises the step of polarizing the nuclei of the fuel atoms in a particular direction relative to the plasma confining magnetic field. Fusion reaction rates can be increased or decreased, and the direction of emission of the reaction products can be controlled, depending on the choice of polarization direction.

  12. Perspectives on Fusion Electric Power Plants

    E-print Network

    years) 1. Plasma Physics #12;Our vision of a fusion system in 1980s was a large pulsed device. Non and plasma Our vision of a fusion system in 1980s was a large pulsed device. Non-inductive current drive Directions for Improvement What we pay for,VFPC r Power density, 1/Vp r > r ~ r

  13. Discovery Research in Magnetic Fusion Energy

    E-print Network

    Mauel, Michael E.

    Discovery Research in Magnetic Fusion Energy or "How we learn about magnetic containment ! The slides for this talk are online at: http://www.apam.columbia.edu/mauel/mauel_pubs/NUF2014-Discovery" axisymmetric magnetic confinement · Fusion energy needs discoveries to overcome challenges to economic

  14. Controlled Nuclear Fusion: Status and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, David J.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history, current concerns and potential developments of nuclear fusion as a major energy source. Controlled fusion research is summarized, technological feasibility is discussed and environmental factors are examined. Relationships of alternative energy sources as well as energy utilization are considered. (JM)

  15. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  16. Fusion Propulsion Z-Pinch Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, J.; Statham, G.; Fabisinski, L.; Maples, C. D.; Adams, R.; Polsgrove, T.; Fincher, S.; Cassibry, J.; Cortez, R.; Turner, M.; Percy, T.

    2011-01-01

    Fusion-based nuclear propulsion has the potential to enable fast interplanetary transportation. Due to the great distances between the planets of our solar system and the harmful radiation environment of interplanetary space, high specific impulse (Isp) propulsion in vehicles with high payload mass fractions must be developed to provide practical and safe vehicles for human spaceflight missions. The Z-Pinch dense plasma focus method is a Magneto-Inertial Fusion (MIF) approach that may potentially lead to a small, low cost fusion reactor/engine assembly1. Recent advancements in experimental and theoretical understanding of this concept suggest favorable scaling of fusion power output yield 2. The magnetic field resulting from the large current compresses the plasma to fusion conditions, and this process can be pulsed over short timescales (10(exp -6 sec). This type of plasma formation is widely used in the field of Nuclear Weapons Effects testing in the defense industry, as well as in fusion energy research. A Decade Module 2 (DM2), approx.500 KJ pulsed-power is coming to the RSA Aerophysics Lab managed by UAHuntsville in January, 2012. A Z-Pinch propulsion concept was designed for a vehicle based on a previous fusion vehicle study called "Human Outer Planet Exploration" (HOPE), which used Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) 3 propulsion. The reference mission is the transport of crew and cargo to Mars and back, with a reusable vehicle.

  17. Mechanics of membrane fusion/pore formation.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmans, Marc; Marelli, Giovanni; Smirnova, Yuliya G; Müller, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Lipid bilayers play a fundamental role in many biological processes, and a considerable effort has been invested in understanding their behavior and the mechanism of topological changes like fusion and pore formation. Due to the time- and length-scale on which these processes occur, computational methods have proven to be an especially useful tool in their study. With their help, a number of interesting findings about the shape of fusion intermediates could be obtained, and novel hypotheses about the mechanism of topological changes and the involvement of peptides therein were suggested. In this work, we try to present a summary of these developments together with some hitherto unpublished results, featuring, among others, the shape of stalks and fusion pores, possible modes of action of the influenza HA fusion peptide and the SNARE protein complex, the mechanism of supported lipid bilayer formation by vesicle spreading, and the free energy and transition pathway of the fusion process. PMID:25087882

  18. Economic potential of magnetic fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1981-03-10

    Scientific feasibility of magnetic fusion is no longer seriously in doubt. Rapid advances have been made in both tokamak and mirror research, leading to a demonstration in the TFTR tokamak at Princeton in 1982 and the tandem mirror MFTF-B at Livermore in 1985. Accordingly, the basis is established for an aggressive engineering thrust to develop a reactor within this century. However, care must be taken to guide the fusion program towards an economically and environmentally viable goal. While the fusion fuels are essentially free, capital costs of reactors appear to be at least as large as current power plants. Accordingly, the price of electricity will not decline, and capital availability for reactor constructions will be important. Details of reactor cost projections are discussed and mechanisms suggested for fusion power implementation. Also discussed are some environmental and safety aspects of magnetic fusion.

  19. A Reliability-Based Track Fusion Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Pan, Liqiang; Jin, Shuilin; Liu, Haibo; Yin, Guisheng

    2015-01-01

    The common track fusion algorithms in multi-sensor systems have some defects, such as serious imbalances between accuracy and computational cost, the same treatment of all the sensor information regardless of their quality, high fusion errors at inflection points. To address these defects, a track fusion algorithm based on the reliability (TFR) is presented in multi-sensor and multi-target environments. To improve the information quality, outliers in the local tracks are eliminated at first. Then the reliability of local tracks is calculated, and the local tracks with high reliability are chosen for the state estimation fusion. In contrast to the existing methods, TFR reduces high fusion errors at the inflection points of system tracks, and obtains a high accuracy with less computational cost. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and the superiority of the algorithm in dense sensor environments. PMID:25950174

  20. Does Mitochondrial Fusion Require Transmembrane Potential?

    PubMed

    Karavaeva, I E; Shekhireva, K V; Severin, F F; Knorre, D A

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation of transmembrane potential inhibits mitochondrial fusion and thus prevents reintegration of damaged mitochondria into the mitochondrial network. Consequently, damaged mitochondria are removed by autophagy. Does transmembrane potential directly regulate the mitochondrial fusion machinery? It was shown that inhibition of ATP-synthase induces fragmentation of mitochondria while preserving transmembrane potential. Moreover, mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae retain the ability to fuse even in the absence of transmembrane potential. Metazoan mitochondria in some cases retain ability to fuse for a short period even in a depolarized state. It also seems unlikely that transmembrane potential-based regulation of mitochondrial fusion would prevent reintegration of mitochondria with damaged ATP-synthase into the mitochondrial network. Such reintegration could lead to clonal expansion of mtDNAs harboring deleterious mutations in ATP synthase. We speculate that transmembrane potential is not directly involved in regulation of mitochondrial fusion but affects mitochondrial NTP/NDP ratio, which in turn regulates their fusion. PMID:26071772

  1. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.

    1983-09-27

    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm/sup -1/, which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs.

  2. Fusion of light weakly bound nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szanto de Toledo, A.; Alonso, E. E.; Carlin, N.; Neto, R. Liguori; Moura, M. M.; Munhoz, M. G.; Suaide, A. A.; Souza, F. A.; Szanto, E. M.; Takahashi, J.; Beck, C.; Rousseau, M.; Bednarczyk, P.; Courtin, S.; Haas, F.; Stezowski, O.; Szilner, S.; Sanders, S. J.

    2003-07-01

    The effect of breakup in the fusion cross section in terms of suppression versus enhancement, discussed in a conflicting way in the literature is addressed. Data and theoretical predictions available in the literature are compared. Excitation functions of the sub- and near-barrier fusion cross-sections for a wide variety of light and heavy systems are presented and interpreted. We have measured fusion excitation functions and breakup correlation functions for the medium weight systems 6Li + 59Co and 7Li + 59Co. These measurements help to establish the influence of the projectile breakup on the fusion process at near-barrier energies and contribute to the determination of how the mass of the target affects the breakup role. The results indicate a light fusion enhancement at sub-barrier energies and a geometry dominated cross section at barrier energies.

  3. Plasma effects on resonant fusion

    E-print Network

    Sawyer, R F

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects of plasma interactions on resonance-enhanced fusion rates in stars. Starting from basic principles we derive an expression for the fusion rate that can serve as a basis for discussion of approximation schemes. The present state-of-the-art correction algorithms, based on the classical correlation function for the fusing particles and the classical energy shift for the resonant state, do not follow from this result, even as an approximation. The results of expanding in a perturbation solution for the case of a weakly coupled plasma are somewhat enlightening. But at this point we are at a loss as to how to do meaningful calculations in systems with even moderate plasma coupling strength. Examples where this can matter are: the effect of a possible low energy $^{12}$ C +$^{12}$ C resonance on X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars or on supernova 1A simulations; and the calculation of the triple $\\alpha$ rate in some of the more strongly coupled regions in which the process enters, s...

  4. Plasma effects on resonant fusion

    E-print Network

    R. F. Sawyer

    2012-03-09

    We investigate the effects of plasma interactions on resonance-enhanced fusion rates in stars. Starting from basic principles we derive an expression for the fusion rate that can serve as a basis for discussion of approximation schemes. The present state-of-the-art correction algorithms, based on the classical correlation function for the fusing particles and the classical energy shift for the resonant state, do not follow from this result, even as an approximation. The results of expanding in a perturbation solution for the case of a weakly coupled plasma are somewhat enlightening. But at this point we are at a loss as to how to do meaningful calculations in systems with even moderate plasma coupling strength. Examples where this can matter are: the effect of a possible low energy $^{12}$ C +$^{12}$ C resonance on X-ray bursts from accreting neutron stars or on supernova 1A simulations; and the calculation of the triple $\\alpha$ rate in some of the more strongly coupled regions in which the process enters, such as accretion onto a neutron star.

  5. Learning Sample Specific Weights for Late Fusion.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kuan-Ting; Liu, Dong; Chang, Shih-Fu; Chen, Ming-Syan

    2015-09-01

    Late fusion is one of the most effective approaches to enhance recognition accuracy through combining prediction scores of multiple classifiers, each of which is trained by a specific feature or model. The existing methods generally use a fixed fusion weight for one classifier over all samples, and ignore the fact that each classifier may perform better or worse for different subsets of samples. In order to address this issue, we propose a novel sample specific late fusion (SSLF) method. Specifically, we cast late fusion into an information propagation process that diffuses the fusion weights of labeled samples to the individual unlabeled samples, and enforce positive samples to have higher fusion scores than negative samples. Upon this process, the optimal fusion weight for each sample is identified, while positive samples are pushed toward the top at the fusion score rank list to achieve better accuracy. In this paper, two SSLF methods are presented. The first method is ranking SSLF (R-SSLF), which is based on graph Laplacian with RankSVM style constraints. We formulate and solve the problem with a fast gradient projection algorithm; the second method is infinite push SSLF (I-SSLF), which combines graph Laplacian with infinite push constraints. I-SSLF is a l? norm constrained optimization problem and can be solved by an efficient alternating direction method of multipliers method. Extensive experiments on both large-scale image and video data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods. In addition, in order to make our method scalable to support large data sets, the AnchorGraph model is employed to propagate information on a subset of samples (anchor points) and then reconstruct the entire graph to get the weights of all samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first method that supports learning of sample specific fusion weights for late fusion. PMID:25879948

  6. INTRODUCTION: Status report on fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkart, Werner

    2005-10-01

    A major milestone on the path to fusion energy was reached in June 2005 on the occasion of the signing of the joint declaration of all parties to the ITER negotiations, agreeing on future arrangements and on the construction site at Cadarache in France. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been promoting fusion activities since the late 1950s; it took over the auspices of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities in 1988, and of the ITER Engineering and Design Activities in 1992. The Agency continues its support to Member States through the organization of consultancies, workshops and technical meetings, the most prominent being the series of International Fusion Energy Conferences (formerly called the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research). The meetings serve as a platform for experts from all Member States to have open discussions on their latest accomplishments as well as on their problems and eventual solutions. The papers presented at the meetings and conferences are routinely published, many being sent to the journal it Nuclear Fusion, co-published monthly by Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, UK. The journal's reputation is reflected in the fact that it is a world-renowned publication, and the International Fusion Research Council has used it for the publication of a Status Report on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion in 1978 and 1990. This present report marks the conclusion of the preparatory phases of ITER activities. It provides background information on the progress of fusion research within the last 15 years. The International Fusion Research Council (IFRC), which initiated the report, was fully aware of the complexities of including all scientific results in just one paper, and so decided to provide an overview and extensive references for the interested reader who need not necessarily be a fusion specialist. Professor Predhiman K. Kaw, Chairman, prepared the report on behalf of the IFRC, reflecting members' personal views on the latest achievements in fusion research, including magnetic and inertial confinement scenarios. The report describes fusion fundamentals and progress in fusion science and technology, with ITER as a possible partner in the realization of self-sustainable burning plasma. The importance of the socio-economic aspects of energy production using fusion power plants is also covered. Noting that applications of plasma science are of broad interest to the Member States, the report addresses the topic of plasma physics to assist in understanding the achievements of better coatings, cheaper light sources, improved heat-resistant materials and other high-technology materials. Nuclear fusion energy production is intrinsically safe, but for ITER the full range of hazards will need to be addressed, including minimising radiation exposure, to accomplish the goal of a sustainable and environmentally acceptable production of energy. We anticipate that the role of the Agency will in future evolve from supporting scientific projects and fostering information exchange to the preparation of safety principles and guidelines for the operation of burning fusion plasmas with a Q > 1. Technical progress in inertial and magnetic confinement, as well as in alternative concepts, will lead to a further increase in international cooperation. New means of communication will be needed, utilizing the best resources of modern information technology to advance interest in fusion. However, today the basis of scientific progress is still through journal publications and, with this in mind, we trust that this report will find an interested readership. We acknowledge with thanks the support of the members of the IFRC as an advisory body to the Agency. Seven chairmen have presided over the IFRC since its first meeting in 1971 in Madison, USA, ensuring that the IAEA fusion efforts were based on the best professional advice possible, and that information on fusion developments has been widely and expertly disseminated. We further acknowledge the efforts of the Chairman of

  7. Thermonuclear fusion in a strong laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krainov, V. P.

    2014-08-01

    Thermonuclear fusion induced by the irradiation of solid deuterated cluster targets and foils with fields of strong femtosecond and picosecond laser pulses is discussed. The thermonuclear-fusion process D( d, n)3He in a collision of two deuterons at an energy of 50 to 100 keV in a deuterium cluster target irradiated with a strong laser pulse is discussed. A theory of thermonuclear fusion proceeding upon the irradiation of clusters formed by deuterium iodide (DI) molecules with the field of a superintense femtosecond laser pulse is developed. This theory is based on an above-barrier process in which the sequential multiple inner ionization of atomic ions within a cluster is accompanied by field-induced outer ionization. The yield of neutrons from thermonuclear fusion in a deuteron-deuteron collision after the completion of a laser pulse is calculated. The yield of neutrons is determined for the thermonuclear-fusion reaction proceeding in the interaction of an intense picosecond laser pulse with thin TiD2 foils. A multiple ionization of titanium atoms at the front edge of the laser pulse is considered. The heating of free electron occurs in induced inverse bremsstrahlung in the process of electron scattering on multiply charged titanium ions. The yield of alpha particles in the thermonuclear-fusion reaction involving protons and 11B nuclei that is induced in microdrops by a strong laser field is determined. Experimental data on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion are discussed.

  8. Fusion-breeder-reactor design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1983-04-05

    Studies of the technical and economic feasibility of producing fissile fuel in tandem mirrors and in tokamaks for use in fission reactors are presented. Fission-suppressed fusion breeders promise unusually good safety features and can provide make-up fuel for 11 to 18 LWRs of equal nuclear power depending on the fuel cycle. The increased revenues from sales of both electricity and fissile material might allow the commercial application of fusion technology significantly earlier than would be possible with electricity production from fusion alone. Fast-fission designs might allow a fusion reactor with a smaller fusion power and lower Q value to be economical and thus make this application of fusion even earlier. A demonstration reactor with a fusion power of 400 MW could produce 600 kg of fissile material per year at a capacity factor of 50%. The critical issues, for which small scale experiments are either being carried out or planned, are: (1) material compatibility, (2) beryllium feasibility, (3) MHD effects, and (4) pyrochemical reprocessing.

  9. Statistical label fusion with hierarchical performance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asman, Andrew J.; Dagley, Alexander S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    Label fusion is a critical step in many image segmentation frameworks (e.g., multi-atlas segmentation) as it provides a mechanism for generalizing a collection of labeled examples into a single estimate of the underlying segmentation. In the multi-label case, typical label fusion algorithms treat all labels equally - fully neglecting the known, yet complex, anatomical relationships exhibited in the data. To address this problem, we propose a generalized statistical fusion framework using hierarchical models of rater performance. Building on the seminal work in statistical fusion, we reformulate the traditional rater performance model from a multi-tiered hierarchical perspective. This new approach provides a natural framework for leveraging known anatomical relationships and accurately modeling the types of errors that raters (or atlases) make within a hierarchically consistent formulation. Herein, we describe several contributions. First, we derive a theoretical advancement to the statistical fusion framework that enables the simultaneous estimation of multiple (hierarchical) performance models within the statistical fusion context. Second, we demonstrate that the proposed hierarchical formulation is highly amenable to the state-of-the-art advancements that have been made to the statistical fusion framework. Lastly, in an empirical whole-brain segmentation task we demonstrate substantial qualitative and significant quantitative improvement in overall segmentation accuracy.

  10. Status and problems of fusion reactor development.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, U

    2001-03-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes. PMID:11402837

  11. Update and Outlook for the Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    E-print Network

    Update and Outlook for the Fusion Energy Sciences Program E.J. Synakowski Associate Director, Office of Science Fusion Energy Sciences Fusion Power Associates Annual Meeting Washington, D.C. December of Science Edmund Synakowski Chief of Staff Gene Nardella Program Analyst and Procurements John Sauter Fusion

  12. NON-PROLIFERATION CHALLENGES IN CONNECTION WITH MAGNETIC FUSION POWER

    E-print Network

    OF MAGNETIC FUSION · The nuclear weapons proliferation risks associated with magnetic fusion power plantsNON-PROLIFERATION CHALLENGES IN CONNECTION WITH MAGNETIC FUSION POWER RICHARD KAMENDJE FPA Annual · ITER construction is on-going · Worldwide magnetic fusion programme is in a transition to one

  13. C2 Domains and Membrane Fusion Sascha Martens1

    E-print Network

    McMahon, Harvey

    the nuclear envelope (Guttinger, Laurell, & Kutay, 2009). However, membrane fusion processes are not limitedCHAPTER 6 C2 Domains and Membrane Fusion Sascha Martens1 and Harvey T. McMahon2 1 Max F. Perutz Kingdom I. Overview II. Membrane Fusion A. Calcium-dependent membrane fusion III. The Molecular Machinery

  14. Fusion Frames and Robust Dimension Reduction Ali Pezeshki

    E-print Network

    Kutyniok, Gitta

    Fusion Frames and Robust Dimension Reduction Ali Pezeshki Princeton University Princeton, NJ 08544 fusion frame measurements in presence noise and subspace erasures. Each fusion frame mea- surement is a low-dimensional vector whose elements are inner products of an orthogonal basis for a fusion frame

  15. 2002 Fusion Summer Study Subgroup E4 -Development Pathway Subgroup

    E-print Network

    Najmabadi, Farrokh

    2002 Fusion Summer Study Subgroup E4 - Development Pathway Subgroup Draft by: Farrokh Najmabadi A burning plasma experiment is a key step in developing fusion. The realization of fusion, however, requires and fusion power technologies, etc. An important discriminator among various embodiments of burning plasma

  16. Fusion Technology at CIEMAT Overview of Material Irradiation Activities

    E-print Network

    McDonald, Kirk

    Fusion Technology at CIEMAT Overview of Material Irradiation Activities A. Ibarra Ra (ENERGY, FUSION, ENVIRONMENT, TECHNOLOGY, and BASIC RESEARCH) and 3 transversal departments. #12;Ra confinement fusion as a future energy resource and coordinates the Spanish fusion research carried out as part

  17. SPLITTING FUSION SYSTEMS OVER 2-GROUPS BOB OLIVER

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Bob

    SPLITTING FUSION SYSTEMS OVER 2-GROUPS BOB OLIVER Abstract.We find conditions which imply that a saturated fusion system ov* *er a product of 2-groups splits as a product of fusion systems over the factors. A saturated fusion system F

  18. 359-06/RDS/ Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and Program

    E-print Network

    359-06/RDS/ rs Fusion Nuclear Science Facility and Program by R.D. Stambaugh Fusion Power, DC #12;359-06/RDS/ rs Mission of a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) Two Candidates: FNSF That Must Be Filled Between ITER and a DEMO * A Fusion Nuclear Science Program and Facility Fills Nearly All

  19. asahi.com>ENGLISH> Opinion,Editorial Fusion reactor bid

    E-print Network

    Experimental Reactor (ITER) project to build a facility for joint research in nuclear fusion, a field highly. Considering the hefty cost and weighty questions about the ultimate feasibility of nuclear fusion, we see to harness nuclear fusion-creating energy by causing a nuclear fusion reaction. It's a process that would

  20. Taming turbulence in magnetized plasmas: from fusion energy to

    E-print Network

    the plasma at fusion temperatures so that 10MW of fusion power could be generated (like burning wet wood to maintain the plasma at fusion temperatures so that 10MW of fusion power could be generated (like burning wet wood) #12;So what's the hold-up? · Problem: in current devices the required heating power to reach

  1. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

    1984-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reaction accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  2. Progress in Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1988-09-01

    The progress of the field of Heavy Ion Fusion has been documented in the proceedings of the series of International Symposia that, in recent years, have occurred every second year. The latest of these conferences was hosted by Gesellshaft fuer Schwerionenforshung (GSI) in Darmstadt, West Germany, June 28-30, 1988. For this report, a few highlights from the conference are selected, stressing experimental progress and prospects for future advances. A little extra time is devoted to report on the developments at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) which is the center for most of the HIFAR program. The Director of the HIFAR program at LBL is Denis Keefe, who presented the HIF report at the last two of the meetings in this series, and in whose place the author is appearing now. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ``hands-on`` refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided.

  4. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, J.

    1994-12-31

    Toroidal magnetic systems present the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They offer potential solutions to the main requirements that confront a power plant designer. An ideal system may be postulated in which the coils are a very small part of the cost, and the cost stems primarily from the inescapable components: minimal plasma heating (and sustaining system), tritium breeding blanket, shield, particle input, removal and treatment system, heat transfer system, generators, buildings, and balance of plant. No present system meets the ideal standards; however, toroidal systems contain among them the elements required. Consequently, a logical program may be based upon an evolutionary development, building on the contributions of the tokamak, which has been the mainline of research for a number of years.

  5. Multishell inertial confinement fusion target

    DOEpatents

    Holland, James R. (Butler, PA); Del Vecchio, Robert M. (Vandergrift, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A method of fabricating multishell fuel targets for inertial confinement fusion usage. Sacrificial hemispherical molds encapsulate a concentric fuel pellet which is positioned by fiber nets stretched tautly across each hemispherical mold section. The fiber ends of the net protrude outwardly beyond the mold surfaces. The joint between the sacrificial hemispheres is smoothed. A ceramic or glass cover is then deposited about the finished mold surfaces to produce an inner spherical surface having continuously smooth surface configuration. The sacrificial mold is removed by gaseous reactions accomplished through the porous ceramic cover prior to enclosing of the outer sphere by addition of an outer coating. The multishell target comprises the inner fuel pellet concentrically arranged within a surrounding coated cover or shell by fiber nets imbedded within the cover material.

  6. Pulsed Power Fusion Program update

    SciTech Connect

    Quintenz, J.P.; Adams, R.G.; Allshouse, G.O.

    1998-06-01

    The US Department of Energy has supported a substantial research program in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since the early 1970s. Over the course of the ensuing 25 years, pulsed power energy, efficiency, and relatively low cost of the technology when compared to the mainline ICF approach involving large glass lasers. These compelling advantages of pulsed power, however, have been tempered with the difficulty that has been encountered in concentrating the energy in space and time to create the high energy and power density required to achieve temperatures useful in indirect drive ICF. Since the Beams `96 meeting two years ago, the situation has changed dramatically and extremely high x-ray power ({approximately}290 TW) and energy ({approximately}1.8 MJ) have been produced in fast x-pinch implosions on the Z accelerator. These sources have been utilized to heat hohlraums to >150 eV and have opened the door to important ICF capsule experiments.

  7. Magnetic systems for fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, C.D.

    1985-02-01

    Mirror experiments have led the way in applying superconductivity to fusion research because of unique requirements for high and steady magnetic fields. The first significant applications were Baseball II at LLNL and IMP at ORNL. More recently, the MFTF-B yin-yang coil was successfully tested and the entire tandem configuration is nearing completion. Tokamak magnets have also enjoyed recent success with the large coil project tests at ORNL, preceded by single coil tests in Japan and Germany. In the USSR, the T-7 Tokamak has been operational for many years and the T-15 Tokamak is under construction, with the TF coils nearing completion. Also the Tore Supra is being built in France.

  8. Sensor fusion for robot navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Jollay, D.M.; Ricks, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a relatively simple vision analysis algorithm can be used in conjunction with sonar sensors to greatly improve the ability of the robot to perceive and accurately locate obstacles. So far, the system can only handle somewhat constrained environments: tall, rectangular, darker colored obstacles with well lighted, ligher colored walls forming the background. The intent was to demonstrate how a simple sensor fusion system can lead to great improvements in robot perception. The program is executed much more quickly than other more sophisticated 3D vision techniques. It is more reliable than if just one type of sensor was used. In addition, the robot, HERMIES-II, is capable of accurately maintaining its position and orientation in the navigation area. The navigation program is relatively inexpensive to implement, and is goal oriented. It allows relatively optimum paths to be found in a previously unexplored, potentially dynamic environment. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Greenly, John, B.

    2005-07-31

    This Final Technical Report presents the results of the program, Ion Rings for Magnetic Fusion, which was carried out under Department of Energy funding during the period August, 1993 to January, 2005. The central objective of the program was to study the properties of field-reversed configurations formed by ion rings. In order to reach this objective, our experimental program, called the Field-reversed Ion Ring Experiment, FIREX, undertook to develop an efficient, economical technology for the production of field-reversed ion rings. A field-reversed configuration (FRC) in which the azimuthal (field-reversing) current is carried by ions with gyro-radius comparable to the magnetic separatrix radius is called a field-reversed ion ring. A background plasma is required for charge neutralization of the ring, and this plasma will be confined within the ring's closed magnetic flux. Ion rings have long been of interest as the basis of compact magnetic fusion reactors, as the basis for a high-power accelerator for an inertial fusion driver, and for other applications of high power ion beams or plasmas of high energy density. Specifically, the FIREX program was intended to address the longstanding question of the contribution of large-orbit ions to the observed stability of experimental FRCs to the MHD tilt mode. Typical experimental FRCs with s {approx} 2-4, where s is the ratio of separatrix radius to ion gyro-radius, have been stable to tilting, but desired values for a fusion reactor, s > 20, should be unstable. The FIREX ring would consist of a plasma with large s for the background ions, but with s {approx} 1 for the ring ions. By varying the proportions of these two populations, the minimum proportion of large-orbit ions necessary for stability could be determined. The incorporation of large-orbit ions, perhaps by neutral-beam injection, into an FRC has been advanced for the purpose of stabilizing, heating, controlling angular momentum, and aiding the formation of a reactor-scale FRC, and the FIREX program was intended to test the ideas behind this approach. We will describe in this report the technological development path and advances in physics understanding that allowed FIREX to reach a regime in which ion rings were reproducibly created with up to about half the current necessary to produce field reversal. Unfortunately, the experiments were limited to this level by a fundamental, unanticipated aspect of the physics of strong ion rings in plasma. The FIREX ring is a strongly anisotropic, current-carrying population of ions moving faster than the Alfven speed in the background plasma. The rapidly changing ring current excites very large-amplitude Alfven waves in the plasma, and these waves strongly affect the ring, causing rapid energy loss in a way that is not compatible with the success of the ring trapping scenario around which FIREX was designed. The result was that FIREX rings were always very short-lived. We will discuss the implication of these results for possible future use of large-orbit ions in FRCs. In short, it appears that a certain range of the parameters characterizing the ring Alfven mach number and distribution function must be avoided to allow the existence of a long-lived energetic ion component in an FRC. This report will explain why FIREX experimental results cannot be directly scaled to quantitatively predict this range for a particular FRC configuration. This will require accurate, three-dimensional simulations. FIREX results do constitute a very good dataset for validating such a code, and simulations already carried out during this program provide a guide to the important physics involved.

  10. SLE and Virasoro Representations: Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubédat, Julien

    2015-06-01

    We continue the study of null-vector equations in relation with partition functions of (systems of) Schramm-Loewner Evolutions (SLEs) by considering the question of fusion. Starting from n commuting SLEs seeded at distinct points, the partition function satisfies n null-vector equations (at level 2). We show how to obtain higher level null-vector equations by coalescing the seeds one by one. As an example, we extend Schramm's formula (for the position of a marked bulk point relatively to a chordal SLE trace) to an arbitrary number of SLE strands. The argument combines input from representation theory—the study of Verma modules for the Virasoro algebra—with regularity estimates, themselves based on hypoellipticity and stochastic flow arguments.

  11. Magnetic fusion commercial power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheffield, J.

    Toroidal magnetic systems present the best opportunity to make a commercial fusion power plant. They offer potential solutions to the main requirements that confront a power plant designer. An ideal system may be postulated in which the coils are a very small part of the cost, and the cost stems primarily from the inescapable components: minimal plasma heating (and sustaining system), tritium breeding blanket, shield, particle input, removal and treatment system, heat transfer system, generators, buildings, and balance of plant. No present system meets the ideal standards; however, toroidal systems contain among them the elements required. Consequently, a logical program may be based upon an evolutionary development, building on the contributions of the tokamak, which has been the mainline of research for a number of years.

  12. Status of cold fusion (2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storms, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    The phenomenon called cold fusion has been studied for the last 21 years since its discovery by Profs. Fleischmann and Pons in 1989. The discovery was met with considerable skepticism, but supporting evidence has accumulated, plausible theories have been suggested, and research is continuing in at least eight countries. This paper provides a brief overview of the major discoveries and some of the attempts at an explanation. The evidence supports the claim that a nuclear reaction between deuterons to produce helium can occur in special materials without application of high energy. This reaction is found to produce clean energy at potentially useful levels without the harmful byproducts normally associated with a nuclear process. Various requirements of a model are examined.

  13. First experiments with the FUSION detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekou-Youmbi, V.; Sida, J. L.; Alamanos, N.; Charlot, X.; Mazur, C.; Mougeot, A.; Auger, F.; Bazin, D.; Borcea, C.; Cabot, C.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Gillibert, A.; Lecesne, N.; Lepine, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Marie, F.; Mittig, W.; Mols, J. P.; Ottini, S.; Pollacco, E. C.; Ostrowski, A.; Riallot, M.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Volant, C.; Feng, Y. Y.

    1999-11-01

    The Fusion Utility for Secondary Ions (FUSION) has been built to measure the fusion-fission cross section induced by radioactive beams at energies around the barrier. A set of 10 parallel plate avalanche counters measures the fission fragments which are stopped therein. Twenty plastic scintillators, surrounding the inner shell of PPACs, detect the eventual residue from the projectile. This detector could work in different geometry and allow measurements of low cross section with very weak beams. The measurements at GANIL of the fission cross sections at barrier energies for 9,11Be on U are reported.

  14. IPFR: Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Sze, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    The IPFR (Integrated Pool Fusion Reactor) concept is to place a fusion reactor into a pool of molten Flibe. The Flibe will serve the multiple functions of breeding, cooling, shielding, and moderating. Therefore, the only structural material between the superconducting magnets and the plasma is the first wall. The first wall is a stand-alone structure with no coolant connection and is cooled by Flibe at the atmospheric pressure. There is also no need of the primary coolant loop. The design is expected to improve the safety, reliability, and maintainability aspects of the fusion system.

  15. Fusion utility in the Knudsen layer

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-09-15

    In inertial confinement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared with those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer effect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate the restoring reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  16. Fusion and reactions of exotic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, I.; Aguilera, E. F.; Acosta, L.; Sánchez-Benítez, A. M.; Wolski, R.

    2011-10-01

    Close to the drip lines, the scattering cross sections of halo nuclei show a different behaviour as compared to the tightly bound projectiles of the stability line. Several experiments carried out in the last decade have been dedicated to investigate the competition between transfer, breakup and fusion channels at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The rather complex scenario gives rise to conflicting conclusions concerning the effect of breakup and transfer on reaction dynamics and the sub-barrier fusion process. In this work we discuss recent experimental findings in fusion and reactions of 6He halo nucleus at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  17. Fusion Utility in the Knudsen Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Davidovits, Seth; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2014-08-01

    In inertial confi#12;nement fusion, the loss of fast ions from the edge of the fusing hot-spot region reduces the reactivity below its Maxwellian value. The loss of fast ions may be pronounced because of the long mean free paths of fast ions, compared to those of thermal ions. We introduce a fusion utility function to demonstrate essential features of this Knudsen layer e#11;ffect, in both magnetized and unmagnetized cases. The fusion utility concept is also used to evaluate restoring the reactivity in the Knudsen layer by manipulating fast ions in phase space using waves.

  18. A New Approach to Image Fusion Based on Cokriging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; LeMoigne, Jacqueline; Mount, David M.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the image fusion problem involving remotely sensed data. We introduce cokriging as a method to perform fusion. We investigate the advantages of fusing Hyperion with ALI. The evaluation is performed by comparing the classification of the fused data with that of input images and by calculating well-chosen quantitative fusion quality metrics. We consider the Invasive Species Forecasting System (ISFS) project as our fusion application. The fusion of ALI with Hyperion data is studies using PCA and wavelet-based fusion. We then propose utilizing a geostatistical based interpolation method called cokriging as a new approach for image fusion.

  19. The dengue virus type 2 envelope protein fusion peptide is essential for membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Claire Y.-H.; Butrapet, Siritorn; Moss, Kelly J.; Childers, Thomas; Erb, Steven M.; Calvert, Amanda E.; Silengo, Shawn J.; Kinney, Richard M.; Blair, Carol D.; Roehrig, John T.

    2010-01-20

    The flaviviral envelope (E) protein directs virus-mediated membrane fusion. To investigate membrane fusion as a requirement for virus growth, we introduced 27 unique mutations into the fusion peptide of an infectious cDNA clone of dengue 2 virus and recovered seven stable mutant viruses. The fusion efficiency of the mutants was impaired, demonstrating for the first time the requirement for specific FP AAs in optimal fusion. Mutant viruses exhibited different growth kinetics and/or genetic stabilities in different cell types and adult mosquitoes. Virus particles could be recovered following RNA transfection of cells with four lethal mutants; however, recovered viruses could not re-infect cells. These viruses could enter cells, but internalized virus appeared to be retained in endosomal compartments of infected cells, thus suggesting a fusion blockade. Mutations of the FP also resulted in reduced virus reactivity with flavivirus group-reactive antibodies, confirming earlier reports using virus-like particles.

  20. Basics of Fusion-Fissison Research Facility (FFRF) as a Fusion Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid E. Zakharov

    2011-06-03

    FFRF, standing for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility represents an option for the next step project of ASIPP (Hefei, China) aiming to a first fusion-fission multifunctional device [1]. FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China. With R/a=4/1m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50- 100 MW, Pfission=80-4000MW, 1 m thick blanket, FFRF has a unique fusion mission of a stationary fusion neutron source. Its pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission consists in accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications.

  1. Alternative approaches to fusion. [reactor design and reactor physics for Tokamak fusion reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The limitations of the Tokamak fusion reactor concept are discussed and various other fusion reactor concepts are considered that employ the containment of thermonuclear plasmas by magnetic fields (i.e., stellarators). Progress made in the containment of plasmas in toroidal devices is reported. Reactor design concepts are illustrated. The possibility of using fusion reactors as a power source in interplanetary space travel and electric power plants is briefly examined.

  2. The restructured fusion program and the role of alternative fusion concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, L.J.

    1996-03-05

    This testimony to the subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the U.S. House of Representatives`s Committee on Science pushes for about 25% of the fusion budget to go to alternative fusion concepts. These concepts are: low density magnetic confinement, inertial confinement fusion, high density magnetic confinement, and non- thermonuclear and miscellaneous programs. Various aspects of each of these concepts are outlined.

  3. Vilamoura 1 November 2004 The Fast Track to Fusion PowerThe Fast Track to Fusion Power

    E-print Network

    Vilamoura 1 November 2004 The Fast Track to Fusion PowerThe Fast Track to Fusion Power Chris of need Prospects for fusion - recent European Power Plant Study power stations with acceptable performance accessible without major advances (barring surprises) Fast Track to Fusion (model being developed

  4. Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 15, Nos. 3/4, 1996 Report of the FESAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel

    E-print Network

    Abdou, Mohamed

    Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 15, Nos. 3/4, 1996 Report of the FESAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Marshall Rosenbluth, H,~3 William Tang, 12 and Ernest Valeo 12 Dr. Robert W. Conn, Chair Fusion Energy on a specific recommendation made by your Committee in its report, "A Restructured Fusion Energy Sciences Pro

  5. Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials Science Subcommittee

    E-print Network

    1 Fusion Technologies for Tritium-Suppressed D-D Fusion White Paper prepared for FESAC Materials, Columbia University 2 Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT December 19, 2011 Summary The proposal for tritium-suppressed D-D fusion and the understanding of the turbulent pinch in magnetically confined plasma

  6. SUPPORT FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES IN FY 2013 HELP THE UNITED STATES REMAIN A WORLD LEADER IN FUSION RESEARCH

    E-print Network

    SUPPORT FUSION ENERGY SCIENCES IN FY 2013 HELP THE UNITED STATES REMAIN A WORLD LEADER IN FUSION RESEARCH RESTORE FUNDING FOR THE DOMESTIC FUSION PROGRAM AND MAINTAIN OUR COMMITMENT TO ITER the goals of the U.S. fusion program. To realize the promise of participation in ITER, cultivate future

  7. West Virginia coal: guide to ash-fusion characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-07-01

    Ash-fusion temperatures for coal affect how efficiently and dependably electricity is generated. The wrong ash fusion could seriously impact the coal-fired utility. This report includes information about the coal-fired utility, the importance of ash-fusion temperatures, and a data base of ash-fusion temperature information for West Virginia coal seams. Maps are included that were developed using the data base, which show the variation of ash-fusion temperatures in the West Virginia coal seams.

  8. Visualization of graphical information fusion results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Levchuk, Georgiy; Staskevich, Gennady; Burke, Dustin; Aved, Alex

    2014-06-01

    Graphical fusion methods are popular to describe distributed sensor applications such as target tracking and pattern recognition. Additional graphical methods include network analysis for social, communications, and sensor management. With the growing availability of various data modalities, graphical fusion methods are widely used to combine data from multiple sensors and modalities. To better understand the usefulness of graph fusion approaches, we address visualization to increase user comprehension of multi-modal data. The paper demonstrates a use case that combines graphs from text reports and target tracks to associate events and activities of interest visualization for testing Measures of Performance (MOP) and Measures of Effectiveness (MOE). The analysis includes the presentation of the separate graphs and then graph-fusion visualization for linking network graphs for tracking and classification.

  9. Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition

    E-print Network

    Weapons Activities/ Inertial Confinement Fusion Ignition and High Yield Campaign FY 2011, and reliability of the Nation's nuclear weapons without nuclear testing. The program provides this capability and pulsed power facilities. Science- based weapons assessments and certification requires

  10. Alloy Design for a Fusion Power Plant

    E-print Network

    Kemp, Richard

    for potential fusion alloys. Recommendations on the most fruitful ways of designing future experiments have also been made. In addition, a classical nucleation theory approach was taken to modelling the incubation and nucleation of irradiation-induced voids...

  11. Kintinuous: Spatially Extended KinectFusion

    E-print Network

    Whelan, Thomas

    2012-07-19

    In this paper we present an extension to the KinectFusion algorithm that permits dense mesh-based mapping of extended scale environments in real-time. This is achieved through (i) altering the original algorithm such that ...

  12. Fusion categories arising from semisimple Lie algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haahr Andersen, Henning; Paradowski, Jan

    1995-05-01

    Using tilting modules we equip certain semisimple categories with a “reduced” tensor product structure. The fusion rules for this tensor product are determined via known character formulas for the involved modules.

  13. 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This book is a guide to the 1995 International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference. It consists largely of abstracts of the oral and poster presentations that were to be made, and gives some general information about the conference and its schedule.

  14. PROGRESS TOWARD UNDERSTANDING MAGNETIZED TARGET FUSION (MTF).

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R. C.; Lindemuth, I. R.; Barnes, D. C.; Faehl, R. J.; Sheehey, P. T.; Knapp, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized target fusion (MTF) takes advantage of (1) the reduction of the electron thermal conductivity in a plasma due to magnetization and (2) the efficient heating through bulk compression. MTF proposes to create a warm plasma with an embedded magnetic field and to compress it using an imploded liner or shell. The minimum energy required for fusion in an optimized target is directly proportional to the mass of the ignited fusion fuel. Simple theoretical arguments and parameter studies have demonstrated that MTF has the potential for significantly reducing the power and intensity of a target driver needed to achieve fusion. In order to acquire a comprehensive understanding of MTF and its potential applications it is prudent to develop more complete and reliable computational techniques. This paper briefly reviews the progress toward that goal.

  15. EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association Annual Report

    E-print Network

    is an international partnership on additive manufacturing techniques led by the European Space Agency, which could lead to smarter ways of building the fusion machines of the future. The new Materials Research Facility

  16. Microscopic study of Ca$+$Ca fusion

    E-print Network

    R. Keser; A. S. Umar; V. E. Oberacker

    2012-02-17

    We investigate the fusion barriers for reactions involving Ca isotopes $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}$, $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$, and $\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ using the microscopic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory coupled with a density constraint. In this formalism the fusion barriers are directly obtained from TDHF dynamics. We also study the excitation of the pre-equilibrium GDR for the $\\mathrm{^{40}Ca}+\\mathrm{^{48}Ca}$ system and the associated $\\gamma$-ray emission spectrum. Fusion cross-sections are calculated using the incoming-wave boundary condition approach. We examine the dependence of fusion barriers on collision energy as well as on the different parametrizations of the Skyrme interaction.

  17. Fusion materials modeling: Challenges and opportunities

    E-print Network

    Wirth, B. D.

    The plasma facing components, first wall, and blanket systems of future tokamak-based fusion power plants arguably represent the single greatest materials engineering challenge of all time. Indeed, the United States National ...

  18. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-print Network

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  19. Data Fusion for Improved Respiration Rate Estimation

    E-print Network

    Nemati, Shamim

    We present an application of a modified Kalman-Filter (KF) framework for data fusion to the estimation of respiratory rate from multiple physiological sources which is robust to background noise. A novel index of the ...

  20. Implications of Theoretical Ideas Regarding Cold Fusion

    E-print Network

    Afsar Abbas

    1995-03-29

    A lot of theoretical ideas have been floated to explain the so called cold fusion phenomenon. I look at a large subset of these and study further physical implications of the concepts involved. I suggest that these can be tested by other independent physical means. Because of the significance of these the experimentalists are urged to look for these signatures. The results in turn will be important for a better understanding and hence control of the cold fusion phenomenon.

  1. Radar E-O image fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneil, William F.

    1993-01-01

    The fusion of radar and electro-optic (E-O) sensor images presents unique challenges. The two sensors measure different properties of the real three-dimensional (3-D) world. Forming the sensor outputs into a common format does not mask these differences. In this paper, the conditions under which fusion of the two sensor signals is possible are explored. The program currently planned to investigate this problem is briefly discussed.

  2. Computational mathematics and physics of fusion reactors

    PubMed Central

    Garabedian, Paul R.

    2003-01-01

    Theory has contributed significantly to recent advances in magnetic fusion research. New configurations have been found for a stellarator experiment by computational methods. Solutions of a free-boundary problem are applied to study the performance of the plasma and look for islands in the magnetic surfaces. Mathematical analysis and numerical calculations have been used to study equilibrium, stability, and transport of optimized fusion reactors. PMID:14614129

  3. Nuclear structure and sub-barrier fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Esbensen, H. . Cyclotron Lab. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1990-01-01

    The influence of nuclear structure on heavy-ion fusion and elastic scattering, at energies near and below the Coulomb barrier, is discussed within the coupled channels formalism. The coupled channels approach provides a consistent description of the enhancement of sub-barrier fusion and the energy dependence of the effective potential for elastic scattering. This is illustrated by comparison to the data for several systems. 48 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Fluidized wall for protecting fusion chamber walls

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James A. (Danville, CA); Meier, Wayne R. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Apparatus for protecting the inner wall of a fusion chamber from microexplosion debris, x-rays, neutrons, etc. produced by deuterium-tritium (DT) targets imploded within the fusion chamber. The apparatus utilizes a fluidized wall similar to a waterfall comprising liquid lithium or solid pellets of lithium-ceramic, the waterfall forming a blanket to prevent damage of the structural materials of the chamber.

  5. Traces on Module Categories over Fusion Categories

    E-print Network

    Gregor Schaumann

    2015-01-27

    We consider traces on module categories over pivotal fusion categories which are compatible with the module structure. It is shown that such module traces characterise the Morita classes of special haploid symmetric Frobenius algebras. Moreover, they are unique up to a scale factor and they equip the dual category with a pivotal structure. This implies that for each pivotal structure on a fusion category over the complex numbers there exists a conjugate pivotal structure defined by the canonical module trace.

  6. Antiproton catalyzed microfission/fusion propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, Pi-Ren; Lewis, Raymond A.; Smith, Gerald A.; Newton, Richard; Dailey, James; Werthman, W. Lance; Chakrabarti, Suman

    1994-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) utilizing an antiproton catalyzed hybrid fission/fusion target is discussed as a potential energy source for interplanetary propulsion. A proof-of-principle experiment underway at Phillips Laboratory, Kirtland AFB and antiproton trapping experiments at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, are presented. The ICAN propulsion concept is described and results of performance analyses are reviewed. Future work to further define the ICAN concept is outlined.

  7. Heavy ion fusion: Prospects and status

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1995-10-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to review the status of HIF as it was presented at Princeton, and also to try to deduce something about the prospects for HIF in particular, and fusion in general, from the world and US political scene. The status of the field is largely, though not entirely, expressed through presentations from the two leading HIF efforts: (1) the US program, centered at LBNL and LLNL, is primarily concerned with applying induction linac technology for HIF drivers; (2) the European program, centered at GSI, Darmstadt, but including several other laboratories, is primarily directed towards the rf linac approach using storage rings for energy compression. Several developments in the field of HIF should be noted: (1) progress towards construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) gives strength to the whole rational for developing a driver for Inertial Fusion Energy; (2) the field of accelerator science has matured far beyond the status that it had in 1976; (3) Heavy Ion Fusion has passed some more reviews, including one by the Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC), and has received the usual good marks; (5) as the budgets for Magnetic Fusion have fallen, the pressures on the Office of Fusion energy (OFE) have intensified, and a move is underway to shift the HIF program out of the IFE program and back into the ICF program in the Defense Programs (DP) side of the DOE.

  8. A comprehensive simulation environment for sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macior, Robert E.; Mercurio, Steven M.; Walter, Sharon M.; Rakowski, Sheila W.; Kozak, Mark P.; Blount, Michael P.

    2006-05-01

    Future battlespaces will contain large numbers of varied sensors deployed on the ground, in the air, and in space. Military commanders will make more effective decisions if sensor data is fused to provide a cohesive picture of their battlespace environment. The Air Force Research Laboratory Information Directorate (AFRL/IF) has developed a testbed within which to integrate, evaluate, and demonstrate fusion and information technologies to support and facilitate the sharing and exploitation of data from a variety of sensors. The Fusion Testbed is used to support analytical studies, on-site and network distributed simulation exercises, and the processing of real-world, multiple source intelligence (multi-INT) data. Varied scenario simulation tools, platform and sensor models (including JSTARS, U2, and Global Hawk), data simulators for GMTI, ELINT and MASINT along with operational systems (including MTIX and KAST), and highly developed multi-INT data fusion systems are available for application to the problem of ground target identification and tracking against a variety of operational scenarios. Scenario animations display simulation environment activities and unique automated analytical tools quantify established Measures of Performance (MOPs). In total, the Fusion Testbed facilitates a broad range of command, control, intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (C2ISR), and fusion technology developments. This paper describes the AFRL Fusion Testbed component capabilities and operationally-focused applications.

  9. Accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangerter, R. O.; Faltens, A.; Seidl, P. A.

    2014-02-01

    Since the 1970s, high energy heavy ion accelerators have been one of the leading options for imploding and igniting targets for inertial fusion energy production. Following the energy crisis of the early 1970s, a number of people in the international accelerator community enthusiastically began working on accelerators for this application. In the last decade, there has also been significant interest in using accelerators to study high energy density physics (HEDP). Nevertheless, research on heavy ion accelerators for fusion has proceeded slowly pending demonstration of target ignition using the National Ignition Facility (NIF), a laser-based facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A recent report of the National Research Council recommends expansion of accelerator research in the US if and when the NIF achieves ignition. Fusion target physics and the economics of commercial energy production place constraints on the design of accelerators for fusion applications. From a scientific standpoint, phase space and space charge considerations lead to the most stringent constraints. Meeting these constraints almost certainly requires the use of multiple beams of heavy ions with kinetic energies > 1 GeV. These constraints also favor the use of singly charged ions. This article discusses the constraints for both fusion and HEDP, and explains how they lead to the requirements on beam parameters. RF and induction linacs are currently the leading contenders for fusion applications. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both options. We also discuss the principal issues that must yet be resolved.

  10. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herring, J. S.; Holland, D. F.; Piet, S. J.

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex, with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g., for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions.

  11. Biologically based sensor fusion for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Mario; Garrett, Aaron L.

    2001-03-01

    We present an architecture for the fusion of multiple medical image modalities that enhances the original imagery and combines the complimentary information of the various modalities. The design principles follow the organization of the color vision system in humans and primates. Mainly, the design of within- modality enhancement and between-modality combination for fusion is based on the neural connectivity of retina and visual cortex. The architecture is based on a system developed for night vision applications while the first author was at MIT Lincoln Laboratory. Results of fusing various modalities are presented, including: a) fusion of T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI images, b) fusion of PD, T1 weighted, and T2-weighted, and c) fusion of SPECT and MRI/CT. The results will demonstrate the ability to fuse such disparate imaging modalities with regard to information content and complimentarities. These results will show how both brightness and color contrast are used in the resulting color fused images to convey information to the user. In addition, we will demonstrate the ability to preserve the high spatial resolution of modalities such as MRI even when combined with poor resolution images such as from SPECT scans. We conclude by motivating the use of the fusion method to derive more powerful image features to be used in segmentation and pattern recognition.

  12. Interactive Muon Catalyzed and Inertial Confinement Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cripps, Gregory Ronald

    Energetic viability calculations of nuclear fusion energy systems based on two distinct approaches to a symbiotic combination of Muon Catalyzed Fusion (mu CF) and Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) have been performed. The first approach involves a deuterium-tritium ICF pellet ignited by muon catalyzed fusion heating; the second approach is based on the energy generated by muCF reactions in deuterium-tritium compressed to high density. Viability evaluations rely upon modelling of identified critical energy gain parameters for energy systems based upon each of the muCF-ICF approaches. Analysis leading to viability evaluation consists of outlining the general technological requirements of an interactive muCF-ICF system and developing muon catalyzed reaction models in conditions found in high density compressions. An energy system based on muCF in compressed deuterium-tritium was found to be non-viable due primarily to the sharp decrease in the muon induced fusion rate for temperatures greater than 40 eV. The viability of a fusion energy system based on the mu CF triggered spark ignition is favourable provided that technology can be developed which allows for the deposition of sufficient quantities of muons into a very small volume within a very short duration.

  13. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  14. Trends in fusion reactor safety research

    SciTech Connect

    Herring, J.S.; Holland, D.F.; Piet, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion has the potential to be an attractive energy source. From the safety and environmental perspective, fusion must avoid concerns about catastrophic accidents and unsolvable waste disposal. In addition, fusion must achieve an acceptable level of risk from operational accidents that result in public exposure and economic loss. Finally, fusion reactors must control routine radioactive effluent, particularly tritium. Major progress in achieving this potential rests on development of low-activation materials or alternative fuels. The safety and performance of various material choices and fuels for commercial fusion reactors can be investigated relatively inexpensively through reactor design studies. These studies bring together experts in a wide range of backgrounds and force the group to either agree on a reactor design or identify areas for further study. Fusion reactors will be complex with distributed radioactive inventories. The next generation of experiments will be critical in demonstrating that acceptable levels of safe operation can be achieved. These machines will use materials which are available today and for which a large database exists (e.g. for 316 stainless steel). Researchers have developed a good understanding of the risks associated with operation of these devices. Specifically, consequences from coolant system failures, loss of vacuum events, tritium releases, and liquid metal reactions have been studied. Recent studies go beyond next step designs and investigate commercial reactor concerns including tritium release and liquid metal reactions. 18 refs.

  15. Helium cryopumping for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1988-05-01

    Large quantities of helium and hydrogen isotopes will be exhausted continuously from fusion power reactors. This paper summarizes two development programs undertaken to address vacuum pumping for this application: (i) A continuous duty cryopump for pumping helium and/or hydrogen species using charcoal sorbent and (ii) a cryopump configuration with an alternative shielding arrangement using charcoal sorbent or argon spray. A test program evaluated automatic pumping of helium, helium pumping by charcoal cryosorption and with argon spray, and cryosorption of helium/hydrogen mixtures. The continuous duty cryopump pumped helium continuously and conveniently. Helium pumping speed was 7.7 l/s/cm/sup 2/ of charcoal, compared to 5.8 l/s/cm/sup 2/ for the alternative pump. Helium speed using argon spray was 18% of that obtained by charcoal cryosorption in the same (W-panel) pump. During continuous duty cryopump mixture tests with helium and hydrogen copumped on charcoal, gas was released sporadically. Testing was insufficient to explain this unacceptable event.

  16. Space-Time Data Fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braverman, Amy; Nguyen, Hai; Olsen, Edward; Cressie, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Space-time Data Fusion (STDF) is a methodology for combing heterogeneous remote sensing data to optimally estimate the true values of a geophysical field of interest, and obtain uncertainties for those estimates. The input data sets may have different observing characteristics including different footprints, spatial resolutions and fields of view, orbit cycles, biases, and noise characteristics. Despite these differences all observed data can be linked to the underlying field, and therefore the each other, by a statistical model. Differences in footprints and other geometric characteristics are accounted for by parameterizing pixel-level remote sensing observations as spatial integrals of true field values lying within pixel boundaries, plus measurement error. Both spatial and temporal correlations in the true field and in the observations are estimated and incorporated through the use of a space-time random effects (STRE) model. Once the models parameters are estimated, we use it to derive expressions for optimal (minimum mean squared error and unbiased) estimates of the true field at any arbitrary location of interest, computed from the observations. Standard errors of these estimates are also produced, allowing confidence intervals to be constructed. The procedure is carried out on a fine spatial grid to approximate a continuous field. We demonstrate STDF by applying it to the problem of estimating CO2 concentration in the lower-atmosphere using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Japanese Greenhouse Gasses Observing Satellite (GOSAT) over one year for the continental US.

  17. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    E-print Network

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  18. Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2006 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    radioactive waste. A science-based approach to fusion offers the most deliberate path to commercial fusion, and the efficient destruction of chemical and radioactive wastes. The FES program is also pushing the boundaries could be designed to shut down easily, have only short-lived radioactivity, and produce manageable

  19. Towards establishing fusion's credibilityTowards establishing fusion's credibility Presented byPresented by

    E-print Network

    SciencesFusion Energy Sciences Office of Science, U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Science, U and urgency In the coming decade, the fusion energy sciences must undergo a transformation in how we conduct is deeper. Both the science and technology need to be advanced in concert for IFE to establish needed

  20. A Strategic Program Plan for Fusion Energy Sciences Fusion Energy Sciences

    E-print Network

    A Strategic Program Plan for Fusion Energy Sciences 1 Fusion Energy Sciences #12;2 Bringing nanoscale science to construct radically new materials that will withstand the temperatures and forces of Science. Answer the key scientific questions and overcome enormous technical challenges to harness