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1

Injection of Bupivacaine into Disc Space to Detect Painful Nonunion after Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion (ALIF) Surgery in Patients with Discogenic Low Back Pain  

PubMed Central

Purpose Bupivacaine is commonly used for the treatment of back pain and the diagnosis of its origin. Nonunion is sometimes observed after spinal fusion surgery; however, whether the nonunion causes pain is controversial. In the current study, we aimed to detect painful nonunion by injecting bupivacaine into the disc space of patients with nonunion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery for discogenic low back pain. Materials and Methods From 52 patients with low back pain, we selected 42 who showed disc degeneration at only one level (L4-L5 or L5-S1) on magnetic resonance imaging and were diagnosed by pain provocation on discography and pain relief by discoblock (the injection of bupivacaine). They underwent ALIF surgery. If the patients showed low back pain and nonunion 2 years after surgery, we injected bupivacaine into the nonunion disc space. Patients showing pain relief after injection of bupivacaine underwent additional posterior fixation using pedicle screws. These patients were followed up 2 years after the revision surgery. Results Of the 42 patient subjects, 7 showed nonunion. Four of them did not show low back pain; whereas 3 showed moderate or severe low back pain. These 3 patients showed pain reduction after injection of bupivacaine into their nonunion disc space and underwent additional posterior fixation. They showed bony union and pain relief 2 years after the revision surgery. Conclusion Injection of bupivacaine into the nonunion disc space after ALIF surgery for discogenic low back pain is useful for diagnosis of the origin of pain. PMID:24532522

Kimura, Seiji; Orita, Sumihisa; Inoue, Gen; Eguchi, Yawara; Takaso, Masashi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Aoki, Yasuchika; Ishikawa, Tetsuhiro; Miyagi, Masayuki; Kamoda, Hiroto; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Gou; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Toyone, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Junichi; Kishida, Shunji; Sato, Jun; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

2

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Two-Year Results with a Modular Interbody Device  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective case series. Purpose To present radiographic outcomes following anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) utilizing a modular interbody device. Overview of Literature Though multiple anterior lumbar interbody techniques have proven successful in promoting bony fusion, postoperative subsidence remains a frequently reported phenomenon. Methods Forty-three consecutive patients underwent ALIF with (n=30) or without (n=11) supplemental instrumentation. Two patients underwent ALIF to treat failed posterior instrumented fusion. The primary outcome measure was presence of fusion as assessed by computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were lordosis, intervertebral lordotic angle (ILA), disc height, subsidence, Bridwell fusion grade, technical complications and pain score. Interobserver reliability of radiographic outcome measures was calculated. Results Forty-three patients underwent ALIF of 73 motion segments. ILA and disc height increased over baseline, and this persisted through final follow-up (p<0.01). Solid anterior interbody fusion was present in 71 of 73 motion segments (97%). The amount of new bone formation in the interbody space increased over serial imaging. Subsidence >4 mm occurred in 12% of patients. There were eight surgical complications (19%): one major (reoperation for nonunion/progressive subsidence) and seven minor (five subsidence, two malposition). Conclusions The use of a modular interbody device for ALIF resulted in a high rate of radiographic fusion and a low rate of subsidence. The large endplate and modular design of the device may contribute to a low rate of subsidence as well as maintenance of ILA and lordosis. Previously reported quantitative radiographic outcome measures were found to be more reliable than qualitative or categorical measures. PMID:25346811

Yeoman, Chevas; Chung, Woosik M.; Chappuis, James L; Freedman, Brett

2014-01-01

3

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Postoperative Spondylodiscitis  

PubMed Central

Objective To analyze the clinical courses and outcomes after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for the treatment of postoperative spondylodiscitis. Methods A total of 13 consecutive patients with postoperative spondylodiscitis treated with ALIF at our institute from January, 1994 to August, 2013 were included (92.3% male, mean age 54.5 years old). The outcome data including inflammatory markers (leukocyte count, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the modified Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and bony fusion rate using spine X-ray were obtained before and 6 months after ALIF. Results All of the cases were effectively treated with combination of systemic antibiotics and ALIF with normalization of the inflammatory markers. The mean VAS for back and leg pain before ALIF was 6.8±1.1, which improved to 3.2±2.2 at 6 months after ALIF. The mean ODI score before ALIF was 70.0±14.8, which improved to 34.2±27.0 at 6 months after ALIF. Successful bony fusion rate was 84.6% (11/13) and the remaining two patients were also asymptomatic. Conclusion Our results suggest that ALIF is an effective treatment option for postoperative spondylodiscitis. PMID:25371780

Kim, Sung Han; Kang, Moo-Sung; Chin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Keun-Su; Cho, Yong-Eun

2014-01-01

4

Mini-open approach to the spine for anterior lumbar interbody fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background context: Since the introduction of threaded devices in the mid-1990s, anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has become a staple in the armamentarium of the spine surgeon. The procedure, however, is heavily dependent on the ability of the approach surgeon to provide exposure quickly and safely in view of a reported incidence of vascular injury as high as 15% and

Salvador A Brau

2002-01-01

5

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 11: interbody techniques for lumbar fusion.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion techniques have been promoted as an adjunct to lumbar fusion procedures in an effort to enhance fusion rates and potentially improve clinical outcome. The medical evidence continues to suggest that interbody techniques are associated with higher fusion rates compared with posterolateral lumbar fusion (PLF) in patients with degenerative spondylolisthesis who demonstrate preoperative instability. There is no conclusive evidence demonstrating improved clinical or radiographic outcomes based on the different interbody fusion techniques. The addition of a PLF when posterior or anterior interbody lumbar fusion is performed remains an option, although due to increased cost and complications, it is not recommended. No substantial clinical benefit has been demonstrated when a PLF is included with an interbody fusion. For lumbar degenerative disc disease without instability, there is moderate evidence that the standalone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) has better clinical outcomes than the ALIF plus instrumented, open PLF. With regard to type of interbody spacer used, frozen allograft is associated with lower pseudarthrosis rates compared with freeze-dried allograft; however, this was not associated with a difference in clinical outcome. PMID:24980588

Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

6

Mini-Open Approach for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective analysis. Purposes To introduce the mini-open lateral approach for the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), and to investigate the advantages, technical pitfalls and complications by providing basic knowledge on extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) or direct lumbar interbody fusion (DLIF). Overview of Literature Recently, minimally invasive lateral approach for the lumbar spine is revived and receiving popularity under the name of XLIF or DLIF by modification of mini-open method when using the sequential tubular dilator and special expandable retractor system. Methods Seventy-four patients who underwent surgery by the mini-open lateral approach from September 2000 to April 2008 with various disease entities were included. Blood losses, operation times, incision sizes, postoperative time to mobilization, length of hospital stays, technical problems and complications were all analyzed. Results The blood losses and operation times of patients who underwent simple ALIF were 61.2 mL and 86 minutes for one level, 107 mL and 106 minutes for two levels, 250 mL and 142.8 minutes for three levels, and 400 mL and 190 minutes for four levels of fusion. The incision sizes were on average 4.5 cm for one level, 6.3 cm for two levels, 8.5 cm for three levels and 10.0 cm for four levels of fusion. The complications were retroperitoneal hematoma (2 cases), pneumonia (1 case) and transient lumbosacral plexus palsy (3 cases). Conclusions Trials of mini-open lateral approach would be helpful before the trial of XLIF or DLIF. However, special attention is required for complications such as transient lumbosacral plexus palsy. PMID:25187867

Chung, Sung-Soo; Pae, Young-Ryeol; Park, Se-Jun

2014-01-01

7

Miniopen Oblique Lateral L5-S1 Interbody Fusion: A Report of 2 Cases  

PubMed Central

Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.

Kanno, Keijiro; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Eguchi, Yawara; Aoki, Yasuchika; Nakamura, Junichi; Suzuki, Miyako; Kubota, Gou; Inage, Kazuhide; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hiroto; Toyone, Tomoaki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

2014-01-01

8

Spinal stenosis and posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-two patients with the common types of spinal stenosis were treated by posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The majority of the patients had one or more decompressive procedures prior to PLIF. The results were excellent or good in 78%. A review of the literature concerning long-term results of decompressive procedures indicates a short-term failure rate of 15%-20% and about 50% failure by ten or more years after the operation. Anterior fusion in primary disc lesions produces admirable results but is of little value in spinal stenosis. Long-term reports of the success rates of posterior lumbar interbody fusion indicate that this operation combines the success rate of an anterior interbody fusion with the benefits of posterior decompression. PMID:3971609

Hutter, C G

1985-03-01

9

Fracture of the L-4 vertebral body after use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device in degenerative spondylolisthesis for anterior L3-4 fixation.  

PubMed

Many studies attest to the excellent results achieved using anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for degenerative spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this report is to document a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone interbody fusion device for L3-4 ALIF. The patient, a 55-year-old man, had suffered intractable pain of the back, right buttock, and left leg for several weeks. Initial radiographs showed Grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis, with instability in the sagittal plane (upon 15° rotation) and stenosis of central and both lateral recesses at the L3-4 level. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion of the affected vertebrae was subsequently conducted using a stand-alone cage/plate system. Postoperatively, the severity of spondylolisthesis diminished, with resolution of symptoms. However, the patient returned 2 months later with both leg weakness and back pain. Plain radiographs and CT indicated device failure due to anterior fracture of the L-4 vertebral body, and the spondylolisthesis had recurred. At this point, bilateral facetectomies were performed, with reduction/fixation of L3-4 by pedicle screws. Again, degenerative spondylolisthesis improved postsurgically and symptoms eased, with eventual healing of the vertebral body fracture. This report documents a rare instance of L-4 vertebral body fracture following use of a stand-alone device for ALIF at L3-4, likely as a consequence of angular instability in degenerative spondylolisthesis. Under such conditions, additional pedicle screw fixation is advised. PMID:24725181

Kwon, Yoon-Kwang; Jang, Ju-Hee; Lee, Choon-Dae; Lee, Sang-Ho

2014-06-01

10

Instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody fusion device (Cage) in degenerative disc disease (DDD): 3 years outcome.  

PubMed

This prospective interventional study carried out at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University and a private hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh during the period from October 2003 to September 2011. Surgical treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD) should aim to re-expand the interbody space and stabilize until fusion is complete. The present study conducted to find out the efficacy of using interbody fusion device (Cage) to achieve interbody space re-expansion and fusion in surgical management of DDD. We have performed the interventional study on 53 patients, 42 female and 11 male, with age between 40 to 67 years. All the patients were followed up for 36 to 60 months (average 48 months). Forty seven patients were with spondylolisthesis and 06 with desiccated disc. All subjects were evaluated with regard to immediate and long term complications, radiological fusion and interbody space re-expansion and maintenance. The clinical outcome (pain and disability) was scored by standard pre and postoperative questionnaires. Intrusion, extrusion and migration of the interbody fusion cage were also assessed. Forty seven patients were considered to have satisfactory outcome in at least 36 months follow up. Pseudoarthrosis developed in 04 cases and 06 patients developed complications. In this series posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with interbody cage and instrumentation in DDD showed significant fusion rate and maintenance of interbody space. Satisfactory outcome observed in 88.68% cases. PMID:24292314

Ahsan, M K; Hossain, M A; Sakeb, N; Khan, S I; Zaman, N

2013-10-01

11

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Background: The use of minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques represents the most recent modification of methods used to achieve lumbar interbody fusion. The advantages of minimally invasive spinal instrumentation techniques are less soft tissue injury, reduced blood loss, less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay while achieving clinical outcomes comparable with equivalent open procedure. The aim was to study the clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 23 patients, 17 females and 6 males, who underwent MIS-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) followed up for a mean 15 months. The subjects were evaluated for clinical and radiological outcome who were manifested by back pain alone (n = 4) or back pain with leg pain (n = 19) associated with a primary diagnosis of degenerative spondylolisthesis, massive disc herniation, lumbar stenosis, recurrent disc herniation or degenerative disc disease. Paraspinal approach was used in all patients. The clinical outcome was assessed using the revised Oswestry disability index and Macnab criteria. Results: The mean age of subjects was 55.45 years. L4-L5 level was operated in 14 subjects, L5-S1 in 7 subjects; L3-L4 and double level was fixed in 1 patient each. L4-L5 degenerative listhesis was the most common indication (n = 12). Average operative time was 3 h. Fourteen patients had excellent results, a good result in 5 subjects, 2 subjects had fair results and 2 had poor results. Three patients had persistent back pain, 4 patients had residual numbness or radiculopathy. All patients had a radiological union except for 1 patient. Conclusion: The study demonstrates a good clinicoradiological outcome of minimally invasive TLIF. It is also superior in terms of postoperative back pain, blood loss, hospital stay, recovery time as well as medication use.

Jhala, Amit; Singh, Damandeep; Mistry, MS

2014-01-01

12

Instrumented Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Adult Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

It is unclear whether using artificial cages increases fusion rates compared with use of bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis. We hypothesized artificial cages for posterior lumbar interbody fusion would provide better clinical and radiographic outcomes than bone chips alone. We assumed solid fusion would provide good clinical outcomes. We clinically and radiographically followed 34 patients with spondylolisthesis having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with mixed autogenous and allogeneic bone chips alone and 42 patients having posterior lumbar interbody fusion with implantation of artificial cages packed with morselized bone graft. Patients with the artificial cage had better functional improvement in the Oswestry disability index than those with bone chips alone, whereas pain score, patient satisfaction, and fusion rate were similar in the two groups. Postoperative disc height ratio, slip ratio, and segmental lordosis all decreased at final followup in the patients with bone chips alone but remained unchanged in the artificial cage group. The functional outcome correlated with radiographic fusion status. We conclude artificial cages provide better functional outcomes and radiographic improvement than bone chips alone in posterior lumbar interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis, although both techniques achieved comparable fusion rates. Level of Evidence: Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18846411

Yu, Ching-Hsiao; Wang, Chen-Ti

2008-01-01

13

Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusion Procedure  

MedlinePLUS

... there, we just get access to the disk space and perform the fusion. And that's all done ... are placed to allow exposure to the disc space. This patient is suffering from severe lumbar spondylosis. ...

14

Surgical results of lumbar interbody fusion using calcium phosphate cement.  

PubMed

Clinical and radiological outcomes of lumbar interbody fusion using artificial fusion cages filled with calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) were retrospectively reviewed. Between 2002 and 2011, 25 patients underwent lumbar interbody fusion at Tokushima University Hospital, and 22 patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 5 patients received autologous local bone grafts and 17 received CPC. Japan Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used for clinical outcome assessments. Lumbar radiography and computed tomography (CT) were performed at 12, 24 months and last follow-up period to assess bony fusion. The mean JOA score of all patients improved from 9.3 before surgery to 21.0 at 24 months after surgery. Fusion had occurred in 5 of 5 patients in the local bone graft group and in 16 of 17 patients in CPC group at 24 months postoperatively. No surgically related complication was occurred in both groups. CPC is a useful and safe graft material for lumbar interbody fusion. PMID:25169138

Hirasawa, Motohiro; Mure, Hideo; Toi, Hiroyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji

2014-09-15

15

The presacral retroperitoneal approach for axial lumbar interbody fusion: a prospective study of clinical outcomes, complications and fusion rates at a follow-up of two years in 26 patients.  

PubMed

The presacral retroperitoneal approach for axial lumbar interbody fusion (presacral ALIF) is not widely reported, particularly with regard to the mid-term outcome. This prospective study describes the clinical outcomes, complications and rates of fusion at a follow-up of two years for 26 patients who underwent this minimally invasive technique along with further stabilisation using pedicle screws. The fusion was single-level at the L5-S1 spinal segment in 17 patients and two-level at L4-5 and L5-S1 in the other nine. The visual analogue scale for pain and Oswestry Disability Index scores were recorded pre-operatively and during the 24-month study period. The evaluation of fusion was by thin-cut CT scans at six and 12 months, and flexion-extension plain radiographs at six, 12 and 24 months. Significant reductions in pain and disability occurred as early as three weeks postoperatively and were maintained. Fusion was achieved in 22 of 24 patients (92%) at 12 months and in 23 patients (96%) at 24 months. One patient (4%) with a pseudarthrosis underwent successful revision by augmentation of the posterolateral fusion mass through a standard open midline approach. There were no severe adverse events associated with presacral ALIF, which in this series demonstrated clinical outcomes and fusion rates comparable with those of reports of other methods of interbody fusion. PMID:21705570

Tobler, W D; Ferrara, L A

2011-07-01

16

Cervical disc prosthesis replacement and interbody fusion: a comparative study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this paper is to compare the new functional intervertebral cervical disc prosthesis replacement and the classical interbody fusion operation, including the clinical effect and maintenance of the stability and segmental motion of cervical vertebrae. Twenty-four patients with single C5-6 intervertebral disk hernias were specifically selected and divided randomly into two groups: One group underwent artificial cervical disc replacement and the other group received interbody fusion. All patients were followed up and evaluated. The operation time for the single disc replacement was (130 +/- 50) minutes and interbody fusion was (105 +/- 53) minutes. Neurological or vascular complications were not observed during or after operation. There was no prosthesis subsidence or extrusion. The JOA score of the group with prosthesis replacement increased from an average of 8.6 to 15.8. The JOA score of the group with interbody fusion increased from an average of 9 to 16.2. The clinical effect and the ROM of the adjacent space of the two groups showed no statistical difference. The short follow-up time does not support the advantage of the cervical disc prosthesis. The clinical effect and the maintenance of the function of the motion of the intervertebral space are no better than the interbody fusion. At least 5 years of follow-up is needed to assess the long-term functionality of the prosthesis and the influence on adjacent levels. PMID:17180356

Peng-Fei, Sun; Yu-Hua, Jia

2008-02-01

17

Clinical and radiological outcomes of axial lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Axial lumbar interbody fusion is a novel percutaneous alternative to common open techniques, such as anterior, posterior, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. This minimally invasive technique uses the presacral space to access the L5-S1 and L4-L5 disk space. The goal of this study was to examine outcomes following axial lumbar interbody fusion. The charts of all patients who underwent axial lumbar interbody fusion surgery at our institution between 2006 and 2008 were reviewed. Clinical outcomes included visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Radiographs were also evaluated for disk space height, L4-L5 and/or L5-S1 Cobb angle, and fusion. Of the 50 patients (32 women, 18 men; mean age, 49.29 years) treated with axial lumbar interbody fusion, 48 had preoperative VAS scores and 16 had preoperative ODI scores available. Complete radiographic data were available at the preoperative, initial postoperative, and final postoperative time points for 46 patients (92%). At last follow-up (average, 12 months), ODI scores were reduced from 46 to 22, and VAS scores were lowered from 8.1 to 3.6. Of the 49 patients with postoperative radiographs, 47 (96%) went on to a solid fusion. There were no significant differences between pre- and postoperative disk space height and lumbar lordosis angle. The most common complications were superficial infection and pseudoarthrosis. Other complications were rectal injury, hematoma, and irritation of a nerve root by a screw. Overall, we found the axial lumbar interbody fusion procedure in combination with pedicle screw placement to have good clinical and radiological outcomes. PMID:21162514

Patil, Suresh S; Lindley, Emily M; Patel, Vikas V; Burger, Evalina L

2010-12-01

18

Biomechanical comparisons of different posterior instrumentation constructs after two-level ALIF: a finite element study.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) with cylindrical cages and supplemental posterior fixation has been widely used for internal disc derangement. However, most researchers have focused on single-level ALIF. Therefore, the biomechanical performance of various fixation constructs after two-level ALIF is not well characterized. This research used three-dimensional finite element models (FEM) with a nonlinear contact analysis to evaluate the initial biomechanical behavior of five types of fixation devices after two-level ALIF (L3/L4, L4/L5) under six loading conditions. These fixation constructs included a three-level pedicle screw and rod, a two-level translaminar facet screw, a two-level transfacet pedicle screw, a bisegmental pedicle screw and rod, and a bisegmental pedicle screw and rod with cross-linking. The FEM's developed in this study demonstrate that, compared to the other four types of posterior fixation constructs analyzed, the three-level pedicle screw and rod provide the best biomechanical stability. Both two-level facet screw fixation constructs showed unfavorable loading in lateral bending. For the construct of the three-level pedicle screw and rod, the middle-segment pedicle screw should not be omitted even though a cross-link is used. The two-level ALIF models with cages and posterior fixation constructs that we developed can be used to evaluate the initial biomechanical performance of a wide variety of posterior fixation devices prior to surgery. PMID:20061174

Fan, Chang-Yuan; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chao, Ching-Kong; Lin, Shang-Chih; Chao, Kuo-Hua

2010-03-01

19

Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization  

PubMed Central

Background Minimally invasive lateral approaches to the lumbar spine have been adopted to allow access to the intervertebral disc space while avoiding the complications associated with anterior or posterior approaches. This report describes a minimally invasive technique for lateral lumbar interbody fusion LLIF that allows direct intraoperative visualization of the psoas and surrounding neurovasculature (DV-LIF). Methods The technique utilizes a radiolucent tubular retractor and a secondary psoas retractor that allows a muscle-sparing approach while offering excellent visualization of the operative site. The unique advantage of this procedure is that the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves can be directly visualized intraoperatively to supplement neuromonitoring. We retrospectively reviewed complication rates in 34 patients treated with DV-LLIF (n?=?19) or standard lateral lumbar interbody fusion (S-LLIF, n?=?15). Results There were 29 complications (median: 1 per patient) with DV-LLIF and 20 (median: 1 per patient) complications with S-LLIF. Postoperative sensory deficits were reported in eight (42%) and seven (47%) patients, respectively. Thigh pain or numbness was reported in eight (42%) and five (33%) patients, respectively. The percentage of the overall complications directly attributable to the procedure was 69% with DV-LLIF and 83% with S-LLIF. One severe complication (back pain) was reported in one DV-LLIF patient and four severe complications (severe bleeding, respiratory failure, deep venous thrombosis and gastrointestinal prophylaxis, and nicked renal vein and aborted procedure) were reported in two S-LLIF patients. Conclusions Preliminary evidence suggests that minimally invasive lateral interbody fusion with direct psoas visualization may reduce the risk for severe procedural complications. PMID:24666669

2014-01-01

20

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior lumbar interbody fusion utilizing BMP-2 in treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis: neither safe nor cost effective  

PubMed Central

Background: With the rise of health care costs, there is increased emphasis on evaluating the cost of a particular surgical procedure for quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Recent data have shown that surgical intervention for the treatment of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is as cost-effective as total joint arthroplasty. Despite these excellent outcomes, some argue that the addition of interbody fusion supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) enhances the value of this procedure. Methods: This review examines the current research regarding the cost-effectiveness of the surgical management of lumbar DS utilizing interbody fusion along with BMP. Results: Posterolateral spinal fusion with instrumentation for focal lumbar spinal stenosis with DS can provide and maintain improvement in self-reported quality of life. Based on the available literature, including nonrandomized comparative studies and case series, the addition of interbody fusion along with BMP does not lead to significantly better clinical outcomes and increases costs when compared with more routine posterolateral fusion techniques. Conclusions: To enhance the value of the surgical management for DS, costs must decrease or there should be substantial improvement in effectiveness as measured by clinical outcomes. To date, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of interbody fusion devices along with BMP to treat routine cases of focal stenosis accompanied by DS, which are routinely adequately treated utilizing posterolateral fusion techniques. PMID:23646277

Moatz, Bradley; Tortolani, P. Justin

2013-01-01

21

Lumbar Laminectomy and Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... FUSION THOMAS JEFFERSON UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA November 15, 2006 00:00:08 ANNOUNCER: During the next ... And the answer to that is in this case we will not, which is an advantage for ...

22

Systematic review and meta-analysis of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion rates performed without posterolateral fusion.  

PubMed

The need for posterolateral fusion (PLF) in addition to interbody fusion during minimally invasive (MIS) transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has yet to be established. Omitting a PLF significantly reduces overall surface area available for achieving a solid arthrodesis, however it decreases the soft tissue dissection and costs of additional bone graft. The authors sought to perform a meta-analysis to establish the fusion rate of MIS TLIF performed without attempting a PLF. We performed an extensive Medline and Ovid database search through December 2010 revealing 39 articles. Inclusion criteria necessitated that a one or two level TLIF procedure was performed through a paramedian MIS approach with bilateral posterior pedicle screw instrumentation and without posterolateral bone grafting. CT scan verified fusion rates were mandatory for inclusion. Seven studies (case series and case-controls) met inclusion criteria with a total of 408 patients who underwent MIS TLIF as described above. The mean age was 50.7 years and 56.6% of patients were female. A total of 78.9% of patients underwent single level TLIF. Average radiographic follow-up was 15.6 months. All patients had local autologous interbody bone grafting harvested from the pars interarticularis and facet joint of the approach side. Either polyetheretherketone (PEEK) or allograft interbody cages were used in all patients. Overall fusion rate, confirmed by bridging trabecular interbody bone on CT scan, was 94.7%. This meta-analysis suggests that MIS TLIF performed with interbody bone grafting alone has similar fusion rates to MIS or open TLIF performed with interbody supplemented with posterolateral bone grafting and fusion. PMID:24913928

Bevevino, Adam J; Kang, Daniel G; Lehman, Ronald A; Van Blarcum, Gregory S; Wagner, Scott C; Gwinn, David E

2014-10-01

23

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and spondylolisthesis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis. A prospective analysis was conducted of 23 consecutive patients with grade I or grade II lumbar spondylolisthesis who underwent a MI-TLIF using image guidance between August 2008 and September 2010. The patient group comprised 13 males and 10 females (mean age 57 years), 22 of whom underwent single level fusion and one patient with a two level fusion. All patients underwent postoperative CT scans to assess pedicle screw and cage placement and fusion at six months. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were recorded preoperatively and at the six-month follow-up. We found that 22 of 23 (95.7%) patients showed evidence of fusion at six months with a mean improvement of 26.7 on ODI scores. The mean length of hospital stay was four days. The mean operative time was 172 minutes. Anatomical reduction of the spondylolisthesis was complete in 16 patients and incomplete in seven. Regarding complications, we observed: one of 94 (1.1%) pedicle screws misplaced, which did not require revision postoperatively; one of 23 patients (4.3%) with a pulmonary embolism and one of 23 (4.3%) patients with transient nerve root pain. There were no occurrences of infection and no postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leaks. We conclude that MI-TLIF offers patients a safe and effective surgical option for lumbar spondylolisthesis treatment. Furthermore, it may offer patients additional advantages in terms of postoperative pain and recovery. PMID:22386479

Tsahtsarlis, Antonio; Wood, Martin

2012-06-01

24

Vertebral osteolytic defect due to cellulose particles derived from gauze fibers after posterior lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Vertebral cystic lesions may be observed in pseudarthroses after lumbar fusion surgery. The authors report a rare case of pseudarthrosis after spinal fusion, accompanied by an expanding vertebral osteolytic defect induced by cellulose particles. A male patient originally presented at the age of 69 years with leg and low-back pain caused by a lumbar isthmic spondylolisthesis. He underwent a posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and his neurological symptoms and pain resolved within a year but recurred 14 months after surgery. Radiological imaging demonstrated a cystic lesion on the inferior endplate of L-5 and the superior endplate of S-1, which rapidly enlarged into a vertebral osteolytic defect. The patient underwent revision surgery, and his low-back pain resolved. A histopathological examination demonstrated foreign body-type multinucleated giant cells, containing 10-?m particles, in the sample collected just below the defect. Micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the foreign particles were cellulosic, presumably originating from cotton gauze fibers that had contaminated the interbody cages used during the initial surgery. Vertebral osteolytic defects that occur after interbody fusion are generally presumed to be the result of infection. This case suggests that some instances of vertebral osteolytic defects may be aseptically induced by foreign particles. Hence, this possibility should be carefully considered in such cases, to help prevent contamination of the morselized bone used for autologous grafts by foreign materials, such as gauze fibers. PMID:25259557

Takenaka, Shota; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Hosono, Noboru; Tateishi, Kosuke; Fuji, Takeshi

2014-12-01

25

Minimally invasive versus open transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: evaluating initial experience  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to compare our experience with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF) and open midline transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF). A total of 36 patients suffering from isthmic spondylolisthesis or degenerative disc disease were operated with either a MITLIF (n?=?18) or an open TLIF technique (n?=?18) with an average follow-up of 22 and 24 months, respectively. Clinical outcome was assessed using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). There was no difference in length of surgery between the two groups. The MITLIF group resulted in a significant reduction of blood loss and had a shorter length of hospital stay. No difference was observed in postoperative pain, initial analgesia consumption, VAS or ODI between the groups. Three pseudarthroses were observed in the MITLIF group although this was not statistically significant. A steeper learning effect was observed for the MITLIF group. PMID:19023571

Tzinieris, Nicolas; Tsiridis, Elefterios; Kosmopoulos, Victor

2008-01-01

26

MRI Measurement of Neuroforaminal Dimension at the Index and Supradjacent Levels after Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background Anterior interbody fusion has previously been demonstrated to increase neuroforaminal height in a cadaveric model using cages. No prior study has prospectively assessed the relative change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated neuroforaminal dimensions at the index and supradjacent levels, after anterior interbody fusion with a corticocancellous allograft in a series of patients without posterior decompression. The objective of this study was to determine how much foraminal dimension can be increased with indirect foraminal decompression alone via anterior interbody fusion, and to determine the effect of anterior lumbar interbody fusion on the dimensions of the supradjacent neuroforamina. Methods A prospective study comparing pre- and postoperative neuroforaminal dimensions on MRI scan among 26 consecutive patients undergoing anterior lumbar interbody fusion without posterior decompression was performed. We studies 26 consecutive patients (50 index levels) that had undergone anterior interbody fusion followed by posterior pedicle screw fixation without distraction or foraminotomy. We used preoperative and postoperative MRI imaging to assess the foraminal dimensions at each operated level on which the lumbar spine had been operated. The relative indirect foraminal decompression achieved was calculated. The foraminal dimension of the 26 supradjacent untreated levels was measured pre- and postoperatively to serve as a control and to determine any effects after anterior interbody fusion. Results In this study, 8 patients underwent 1 level fusion (L5-S1), 12 patients had 2 levels (L4-S1) and 6 patients had 3 levels (L3-S1). The average increase in foraminal dimension was 43.3% (p < 0.05)-19.2% for L3-4, 57.1% for L4-5, and 40.1% for L5-S1. Mean pre- and postoperative supradjacent neuroforaminal dimension measurements were 125.84 mm2 and 124.89 mm2, respectively. No significant difference was noted (p > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft can significantly increase neuroforaminal dimension even in the absence of formal posterior distraction or foraminotomy; anterior interbody fusion with a coriticocancellous allograft has little effect on supradjacent neuroforaminal dimensions. PMID:23467381

Sokolowski, Mark J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Garvey, Timothy A.; Perl, John; Transfeldt, Ensor E.

2013-01-01

27

Clinical Outcome and Fusion Rates after the First 30 Extreme Lateral Interbody Fusions  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion (XLIF) is gaining popularity. Studies examining a surgeon's early experience are rare. We aim to report treatment, complication, clinical, and radiographic outcomes in an early series of patients. Methods. Prospective data from the first thirty patients treated with XLIF by a single surgeon was reviewed. Outcome measures included pain, disability, and quality of life assessment. Radiographic assessment of fusion was performed by computed tomography. Results. Average follow-up was 11.5 months, operative time was 60 minutes per level and blood loss was 50?mL. Complications were observed: clinical subsidence, cage breakage upon insertion, new postoperative motor deficit and bowel injury. Approach side-effects were radiographic subsidence and anterior thigh sensory changes. Two patients required reoperation; microforaminotomy and pedicle screw fixation respectively. VAS back and leg pain decreased 63% and 56%, respectively. ODI improved 41.2% with 51.3% and 8.1% improvements in PCS and MCS. Complete fusion (last follow-up) was observed in 85%. Conclusion. The XLIF approach provides superior treatment, clinical outcomes and fusion rates compared to conventional surgical approaches with lowered complication rates. Mentor supervision for early cases and strict adherence to the surgical technique including neuromonitoring is essential. PMID:23213282

Malham, Gregory M.; Ellis, Ngaire J.; Parker, Rhiannon M.; Seex, Kevin A.

2012-01-01

28

Instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with bioabsorbable polymer implants and iliac crest autograft.  

PubMed

Object. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in 31 patients from one center who underwent instrumented transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) for primarily degenerative indications. Methods. Bioabsorbable polymer spacers manufactured with a copolymer of 70:30 poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) and filled with iliac crest autograft bone were used for the TLIF procedure. In this paper the details of this procedure, intermediate (1- to 2-year) clinical and radiographic outcomes, and the basic science and rationale for the use of bioabsorbable polymers are discussed. At a mean of 18.4 months of follow up, 30 patients (96.8%) were judged to have attained solid fusions and 25 patients (81%) had good to excellent results. Three patients (9.7%) experienced complications, none of which were directly or indirectly attributable to the use of the bioabsorbable polymer implant. Only one implant in one patient (3.2%) demonstrated mechanical failure on insertion, and that patient experienced no clinical sequelae. Conclusions. This is the first clinical series to be published in which the mean follow-up duration equals or exceeds the biological life expectancy of this material (12-18 months). Both the clinical and radiographic results of this study support the use of interbody devices manufactured from biodegradable polymers for structural interbody support in the TLIF procedure. PMID:15198499

Coe, Jeffrey D

2004-03-15

29

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw  

PubMed Central

Lumbar spinal fusion is advancing with minimally invasive techniques, bone graft alternatives, and new implants. This has resulted in significant reductions of operative time, duration of hospitalization, and higher success in fusion rates. However, costs have increased as many new technologies are expensive. This study was carried out to investigate the clinical outcomes and fusion rates of a low implant load construct of unilateral pedicle screws and a translaminar screw in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) which reduced the cost of the posterior implants by almost 50%. Nineteen consecutive patients who underwent single level TLIF with this construct were included in the study. Sixteen patients had a TLIF allograft interbody spacer placed, while in three a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cage was used. Follow-up ranged from 15 to 54 months with a mean of 32 months. A clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out preoperatively and at multiple time points following surgery. An overall improvement in Oswestry scores and visual analogue scales for leg and back pain (VAS) was observed. Three patients underwent revision surgery due to recurrence of back pain. All patients showed radiographic evidence of fusion from 9 to 26 months (mean 19) following surgery. This study suggests that unilateral pedicle screws and a contralateral translaminar screw are a cheaper and viable option for single level lumbar fusion. PMID:19015896

Lee, Sandra; Vaidya, Rahul

2008-01-01

30

Time-sequential changes of differentially expressed miRNAs during the process of anterior lumbar interbody fusion using equine bone protein extract, rhBMP-2 and autograft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The precise mechanism of bone regeneration in different bone graft substitutes has been well studied in recent researches. However, miRNAs regulation of the bone formation has been always mysterious. We developed the anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) model in pigs using equine bone protein extract (BPE), recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on an absorbable collagen sponge (ACS), and autograft as bone graft substitute, respectively. The miRNA and gene expression profiles of different bone graft materials were examined using microarray technology and data analysis, including self-organizing maps, KEGG pathway and Biological process GO analyses. We then jointly analyzed miRNA and mRNA profiles of the bone fusion tissue at different time points respectively. Results showed that miRNAs, including let-7, miR-129, miR-21, miR-133, miR-140, miR-146, miR-184, and miR-224, were involved in the regulation of the immune and inflammation response, which provided suitable inflammatory microenvironment for bone formation. At late stage, several miRNAs directly regulate SMAD4, Estrogen receptor 1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) receptor 2C for bone formation. It can be concluded that miRNAs play important roles in balancing the inflammation and bone formation.

Chen, Da-Fu; Zhou, Zhi-Yu; Dai, Xue-Jun; Gao, Man-Man; Huang, Bao-Ding; Liang, Tang-Zhao; Shi, Rui; Zou, Li-Jin; Li, Hai-Sheng; Bünger, Cody; Tian, Wei; Zou, Xue-Nong

2014-03-01

31

Serial Changes in Signal Intensities of the Adjacent Discs on T2Weighted Sagittal Images after Surgical Treatment of Cervical Spondylosis: Anterior Interbody Fusion Versus Expansive Laminoplasty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a ?Background. There have been many reports about newly developed degenerative changes in the adjacent segments after anterior interbody\\u000a fusion. It is a controversial issue whether the adjacent-segment disease in patients treated by anterior interbody fusion\\u000a is the result of progressive cervical spondylosis at the adjacent levels or is caused by the arthrodesis. The aim of this\\u000a study is to

T. Iseda; T. Goya; S. Nakano; T. Kodama; T. Moriyama; S. Wakisaka

2001-01-01

32

Axial lumbar interbody fusion: a 6-year single-center experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study is to report our 6-year single-center experience with L5–S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF). Methods A total of 131 patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease refractory to nonsurgical treatment were treated with AxiaLIF at L5–S1, and were followed for a minimum of 1 year (mean: 21 months). Main outcomes included back and leg pain severity, Oswestry Disability Index score, working status, analgesic medication use, patient satisfaction, and complications. Computed tomography was used to determine postoperative fusion status. Results No intraoperative complications, including vascular, neural, urologic, or bowel injuries, were reported. Back and leg pain severity decreased by 51% and 42%, respectively, during the follow-up period (both P < 0.001). Back function scores improved 50% compared to baseline. Clinical success, defined as improvement ?30%, was 67% for back pain severity, 65% for leg pain severity, and 71% for back function. The employment rate increased from 47% before surgery to 64% at final follow-up (P < 0.001). Less than one in four patients regularly used analgesic medications postsurgery. Patient satisfaction with the AxiaLIF procedure was 83%. The fusion rate was 87.8% at final follow-up. During follow-up, 17 (13.0%) patients underwent 18 reoperations on the lumbar spine, including pedicle screw fixation (n = 10), total disc replacement of an uninvolved level (n = 3), facet screw fixation (n = 3), facet screw removal (n = 1), and interbody fusion at L4–L5 (n = 1). Eight (6.1%) reoperations were at the index level. Conclusion Single-level AxiaLIF is a safe and effective means to achieve lumbosacral fusion in patients with symptomatic degenerative disc disease. PMID:23976846

Zeilstra, Dick J; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

33

Thoracolumbar fracture dislocations treated by posterior reduction, interbody fusion and segmental instrumentation  

PubMed Central

Background: Literature describing the application of modern segmental instrumentation to thoracic and lumbar fracture dislocation injuries is limited and the ideal surgical strategy for this severe trauma remains controversial. The purpose of this article was to investigate the feasibility and efficacy of single-stage posterior reduction with segmental instrumentation and interbody fusion to treat this type of injury. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of 30 patients who had sustained fracture dislocation of the spine and underwent single stage posterior surgery between January 2007 and December 2011 was performed. All the patients underwent single stage posterior pedicle screw fixation, decompression and interbody fusion. Demographic data, medical records and radiographic images were reviewed thoroughly. Results: Ten females and 20 males with a mean age of 39.5 years were included in this study. Based on the AO classification, 13 cases were Type B1, 4 cases were B2, 4 were C1, 6 were C2 and 3 cases were C3. The average time of the surgical procedure was 220 min and the average blood loss was 550 mL. All of the patients were followed up for at least 2 years, with an average of 38 months. The mean preoperative kyphosis was 14.4° and reduced to -1.1° postoperatively. At the final followup, the mean kyphosis was 0.2°. The loss of correction was small (1.3°) with no significant difference compared to postoperative kyphotic angle (P = 0.069). Twenty seven patients (90%) achieved definitive bone fusion on X-ray or computed tomography imaging within 1 year followup. The other three patients were suspected possible pseudarthrosis. They remained asymptomatic without hardware failure or local pain at the last followup. Conclusion: Single stage posterior reduction using segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, combined with decompression and interbody fusion for the treatment of thoracic or lumbar fracture-dislocations is a safe, less traumatic and reliable technique. This procedure can achieve effective reduction, sagittal angle correction and solid fusion.

Wang, Xiao-Bin; Yang, Ming; Li, Jing; Xiong, Guang-Zhong; Lu, Chang; Lu, Guo-Hua

2014-01-01

34

Postoperative Flat Back: Contribution of Posterior Accessed Lumbar Interbody Fusion and Spinopelvic Parameters  

PubMed Central

Objective Posterior accessed lumbar interbody fusion (PALIF) has a clear objective to restore disc height and spinal alignment but surgeons may occasionally face the converse situation and lose lumbar lordosis. We analyzed retrospective data for factors contributing to a postoperative flat back. Methods A total of 105 patients who underwent PALIF for spondylolisthesis and stenosis were enrolled. The patients were divided according to surgical type [posterior lumbar inter body fusion (PLIF) vs. unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF)], number of levels (single vs. multiple), and diagnosis (spondylolisthesis vs. stenosis). We measured perioperative index level lordosis, lumbar lordosis, pelvic tilt, sacral slope, pelvic incidence, and disc height in standing lateral radiographs. The change and variance in each parameter and comparative group were analyzed with the paired and Student t-test (p<0.05), correlation coefficient, and regression analysis. Results A significant perioperative reduction was observed in index-level lordosis following TLIF at the single level and in patients with spondylolisthesis (p=0.002, p=0.005). Pelvic tilt and sacral slope were significantly restored following PLIF multilevel surgery (p=0.009, p=0.003). Sacral slope variance was highly sensitive to perioperative variance of index level lordosis in high sacral sloped pelvis. Perioperative variance of index level lordosis was positively correlated with disc height variance (R2=0.286, p=0.0005). Conclusion Unilateral TLIF has the potential to cause postoperative flat back. PLIF is more reliable than unilateral TLIF to restore spinopelvic parameters following multilevel surgery and spondylolisthesis. A high sacral sloped pelvis is more vulnerable to PALIF in terms of a postoperative flat back. PMID:25371781

Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Deok Ryeng; Kim, Joo Seung

2014-01-01

35

A Meta-Analysis of Unilateral versus Bilateral Pedicle Screw Fixation in Minimally Invasive Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Meta-analysis. Background Bilateral pedicle screw fixation (PS) after lumbar interbody fusion is a widely accepted method of managing various spinal diseases. Recently, unilateral PS fixation has been reported as effective as bilateral PS fixation. This meta-analysis aimed to comparatively assess the efficacy and safety of unilateral PS fixation and bilateral PS fixation in the minimally invasive (MIS) lumbar interbody fusion for one-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, BIOSIS Previews, and Cochrane Library were searched through March 30, 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on unilateral versus bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion that met the inclusion criteria and the methodological quality standard were retrieved and reviewed. Data on participant characteristics, interventions, follow-up period, and outcomes were extracted from the included studies and analyzed by Review Manager 5.2. Results Six studies (5 RCTs and 1 CCT) involving 298 patients were selected. There were no significant differences between unilateral and bilateral PS fixation procedures in fusion rate, complications, visual analogue score (VAS) for leg pain, VAS for back pain, Oswestry disability index (ODI). Both fixation procedures had similar length of hospital stay (MD?=?0.38, 95% CI?=??0.83 to 1.58; P?=?0.54). In contrast, bilateral PS fixation was associated with significantly more intra-operative blood loss (P?=?0.002) and significantly longer operation time (P?=?0.02) as compared with unilateral PS fixation. Conclusions Unilateral PS fixation appears as effective and safe as bilateral PS fixation in MIS lumbar interbody fusion but requires less operative time and causes less blood loss, thus offering a simple alternative approach for one-level lumbar degenerative disease. PMID:25375315

Liu, Zheng; Fei, Qi; Wang, Bingqiang; Lv, Pengfei; Chi, Cheng; Yang, Yong; Zhao, Fan; Lin, Jisheng; Ma, Zhao

2014-01-01

36

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using an Unilateral Cage: A Prospective Study of Clinical Outcome and Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological results of instrumented posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using an unilateral cage. Methods Seventeen patients with unilateral radiculopathy who underwent bilateral percutaneous screw fixation with a single fusion cage inserted on the symptomatic side for treatment of focal degenerative lumbar spine disease were prospectively enrolled in this study. Their clinical results, radiological parameters, and related complications were assessed 10 days, 3 months, and 12 months postoperatively. Results There was no pseudarthrosis, instrumented fusion failure, significant cage subsidence, or retropulsion in any patient. The surgery restored the disc space height and maintained it as of 12 months postoperatively and did not exacerbate the lumbar lordotic and scoliotic angles. All patients had excellent or good outcomes according to the modified MacNab's criteria. The mean pain score according to the visual analogue scale was 7.5 preoperatively but had improved to 2.5 when reassessed 3 months postoperatively. The improvement was maintained as of 12 months postoperatively. Conclusion In cases of uncomplicated unilateral radiculopathy, PLIF using a single cage can be an effective and safe procedure with the advantage of preserving the posterior elements of the contralateral side. A shorter operative time and greater cost-effectiveness than for PLIF using bilateral cages can be expected. PMID:25110483

Lee, Seok Ki; Kim, Seok Won; Ju, Chang Il; Lee, Sung Myung

2014-01-01

37

Autologous clavicle bone graft for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with titanium interbody cage.  

PubMed

A variety of donor-site complications have been reported for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using autologous iliac bone graft. To minimize such morbidities and to obtain optimal bony fusion at the ACDF surgery, a novel technique was used to harvest cancellous bone from the autologous clavicle instead of the popular iliac crest graft. After a routine cervical discectomy of the affected level, a 1.5-cm linear skin incision was made over the clavicle within 2.5 cm of the sternoclavicular joint on the medial one-third portion. This portion is known as an anatomically safe zone, with no subcutaneous distribution of the supraclavicular nerve. Then, cancellous bone was harvested through a small cortical window developed on the clavicle. Care was taken not to injure the subclavian major vessels and the lung below the clavicle. A box-type titanium cage was packed with the harvested cancellous bone and then inserted into the discectomy-treated space for cervical interbody fusion. From 2009 to 2013, 16 patients with cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy underwent single-level ACDF with this method. All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement of clinical symptoms after the surgery and showed radiographic evidence of solid bony fusion and spinal stabilization within 6 months. Further, no peri- and postoperative complications at the clavicular donor site were noted. The mean visual analog scale pain score (range 0 [no pain to 10 [maximum pain]) at 1 year after the surgery was 0.1, and 13 of 14 patients with data at 1-year follow-up were highly satisfied with their donor-site cosmetic outcome. The clavicle is a safe, reliable, and technically easy source of autologous bone graft that yields optimal fusion rates and patient satisfaction with ACDF surgery. PMID:25170654

Iwasaki, Koichi; Ikedo, Taichi; Hashikata, Hirokuni; Toda, Hiroki

2014-11-01

38

Porous biodegradable lumbar interbody fusion cage design and fabrication using integrated global-local topology optimization with laser sintering.  

PubMed

Biodegradable cages have received increasing attention for their use in spinal procedures involving interbody fusion to resolve complications associated with the use of nondegradable cages, such as stress shielding and long-term foreign body reaction. However, the relatively weak initial material strength compared to permanent materials and subsequent reduction due to degradation may be problematic. To design a porous biodegradable interbody fusion cage for a preclinical large animal study that can withstand physiological loads while possessing sufficient interconnected porosity for bony bridging and fusion, we developed a multiscale topology optimization technique. Topology optimization at the macroscopic scale provides optimal structural layout that ensures mechanical strength, while optimally designed microstructures, which replace the macroscopic material layout, ensure maximum permeability. Optimally designed cages were fabricated using solid, freeform fabrication of poly(?-caprolactone) mixed with hydroxyapatite. Compression tests revealed that the yield strength of optimized fusion cages was two times that of typical human lumbar spine loads. Computational analysis further confirmed the mechanical integrity within the human lumbar spine, although the pore structure locally underwent higher stress than yield stress. This optimization technique may be utilized to balance the complex requirements of load-bearing, stress shielding, and interconnected porosity when using biodegradable materials for fusion cages. PMID:23897113

Kang, Heesuk; Hollister, Scott J; La Marca, Frank; Park, Paul; Lin, Chia-Ying

2013-10-01

39

Unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw instrumentation for single-level minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) has become an increasingly popular method of lumbar arthrodesis. However, there are few published studies comparing the clinical outcomes between unilateral and bilateral instrumented MIS TLIF. Sixty-five patients with degenerative lumbar spine disease were enrolled in this study. Thirty-one patients were randomized to the unilateral group and 34 to the bilateral group. Recorded demographic data included sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and degenerated segment. Operative time, blood loss, hospital stay length, complication rates, and fusion rates were also evaluated. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score data were obtained. All patients were asked to follow-up at 3 and 6 months after surgery, and once every 6 months thereafter. The mean follow-up was 26.6 months (range 18-36 months). The two groups were similar in sex, age, preoperative diagnosis, and operated level. The unilateral group had significantly shorter operative time, lower blood loss, and shorter hospital time than the bilateral group. The average postoperative ODI and VAS scores improved significantly in each group. No significant differences were found between the two groups in relation to ODI and VAS. All patients showed evidence of fusion at 12 months postoperatively. The total fusion rate, screw failure, and general complication rate were not significantly different. Results showed that single-level MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation would be sufficient in the management of preoperatively stable patients with lumbar degenerative disease. It seems that MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw instrumentation is a better choice for single-level degenerative lumbar spine disease. PMID:24814852

Shen, Xiaolong; Zhang, Hailong; Gu, Xin; Gu, Guangfei; Zhou, Xu; He, Shisheng

2014-09-01

40

Clinical and Radiological Comparison of Posterolateral Fusion and Posterior Interbody Fusion Techniques for Multilevel Lumbar Spinal Stabilization In Manual Workers  

PubMed Central

Study Design Eighty-four patients who had been treated for degenerative spinal diseases between January 2006 and June 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. Purpose We aimed to compare the clinical and radiologic findings of manual workers who underwent posterolateral fusion (PLF) or posterior interbody fusion (PLIF) involving fusion of 3 or more levels of the spine. Overview of Literature Previous studies have concluded that there is no significant difference between the clinical outcome of PLF and PLIF techniques. Methods After standard decompression, 42 patients underwent PLF and the other 42 patients underwent PLIF. Radiologic findings, Oswestry disability index (ODI) scores, and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were assessed preoperatively and at 6-month intervals postoperatively and return to work times/rates were assessed for 48 months. Results Patients who underwent PLF had significantly shorter surgical time and less blood loss. According to the 48-month clinical results, ODI and VAS scores were reduced significantly in the two groups, but the PLIF group showed better results than the PLF group at the last follow-up. Return to work rate was 63% in the PLF group and 87% in the PLIF group. Union rates were found to be 81% and 89%, respectively, after 24 months (p=0.154). Conclusions PLIF is a preferable technique with respect to stability and correction, but the result does not depend on only the fusion rates. Discectomy and fusion mass localization should be considered for achieving clinical success with the fusion technique. Before performing PLIF, the association of the long operative time and high blood loss with mortality and morbidity should be taken into consideration, particularly in the elderly and disabled patients.

Cakar, Albert; Huseyinoglu, Nergiz; Huseyinoglu, Urfettin; Celik, Recep

2014-01-01

41

Disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction treated by minimally invasive transforaminal interbody fusion surgery.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgery-transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases. Use of this procedure for thoracolumbar junction disc herniation remains challenging. Reports concerning MIS-TLIF at the thoracolumbar junction are rare. Thus, we performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical outcomes of 10 patients with thoracolumbar junction disc herniation treated by MIS-TLIF between December 2007 and October 2010. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of MIS-TLIF for disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction. Clinical and radiological data were collected and analyzed. Fusion levels included T12-L1 (two patients), L1-L2 (four patients) and L2-L3 (four patients). Clinical outcome was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The average follow-up period was 39.2 months, with a minimum of 24 months. The mean ± standard error of the mean of the operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and x-ray exposure were 128 ± 36 minutes, 204 ± 35 mL, and 43 ± 12 seconds, respectively. The VAS for back and leg pain decreased significantly postoperatively from 6.4 ± 2.7 to 1.5 ± 0.6 (p<0.01), and from 7.1 ± 2.4 to 1.3 ± 0.4 (p<0.01) respectively, as did the ODI from 39.3 ± 11.2 to 16.5 ± 4.7 (p<0.01). Bone fusion was observed in eight patients. There were no other major complications at last follow-up. MIS-TIF is a safe and effective procedure for disc herniation in the thoracolumbar junction. Occurrence of non-union is relatively high compared to previous findings. PMID:24225365

Wang, Jian; Zhou, Yue; Zhang, Zheng Feng; Li, Chang Qing; Zheng, Wen Jie; Huang, Bo

2014-03-01

42

Anterior Dislodgement of a Fusion Cage after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Treatment of Isthmic Spondylolisthesis  

PubMed Central

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is commonly used procedure for spinal fusion. However, there are no reports describing anterior cage dislodgement after surgery. This report is a rare case of anterior dislodgement of fusion cage after TLIF for the treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis with lumbosacral transitional vertebra (LSTV). A 51-year-old man underwent TLIF at L4-5 with posterior instrumentation for the treatment of grade 1 isthmic spondylolisthesis with LSTV. At 7 weeks postoperatively, imaging studies demonstrated that banana-shaped cage migrated anteriorly and anterolisthesis recurred at the index level with pseudoarthrosis. The cage was removed and exchanged by new cage through anterior approach, and screws were replaced with larger size ones and cement augmentation was added. At postoperative 2 days of revision surgery, computed tomography (CT) showed fracture on lateral pedicle and body wall of L5 vertebra. He underwent surgery again for paraspinal decompression at L4-5 and extension of instrumentation to S1 vertebra. His back and leg pains improved significantly after final revision surgery and symptom relief was maintained during follow-up period. At 6 months follow-up, CT images showed solid fusion at L4-5 level. Careful cage selection for TLIF must be done for treatment of spondylolisthesis accompanied with deformed LSTV, especially when reduction will be attempted. Banana-shaped cage should be positioned anteriorly, but anterior dislodgement of cage and reduction failure may occur in case of a highly unstable spine. Revision surgery for the treatment of an anteriorly dislodged cage may be effectively performed using an anterior approach. PMID:24175028

Oh, Hyeong Seok; Lee, Sang-Ho

2013-01-01

43

Allogeneic morphogenetic protein vs. recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 in lumbar interbody fusion procedures: a radiographic and economic analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Since the introduction of rhBMP-2 (Infuse®) in 2002, surgeons have had an alternative substitute to autograft and its related donor site morbidity. Recently, the prevalence of reported adverse events and complications related to the use of rhBMP-2 has raised many ethical and legal concerns for surgeons. Additionally, the cost and decreasing reimbursement landscape of rhBMP-2 use have required identification of a viable alternative. Osteo allogeneic morphogenetic protein (OsteoAMP®) is a commercially available allograft-derived growth factor rich in osteoinductive, angiogenic, and mitogenic proteins. This study compares the radiographic fusion outcomes between rhBMP-2 and OsteoAMP allogeneic morphogenetic protein in lumbar interbody fusion spine procedures. Methods Three hundred twenty-one (321) patients from three centers underwent a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) or lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) procedure and were assessed by an independent radiologist for fusion and radiographically evident complications. The independent radiologist was blinded to the intervention, product, and surgeon information. Two hundred and twenty-six (226) patients received OsteoAMP with autologous local bone, while ninety-five (95) patients received Infuse with autologous local bone. Patients underwent radiographs (x-ray and/or CT) at standard postoperative follow-up intervals of approximately 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Fusion was defined as radiographic evidence of bridging across endplates, or bridging from endplates to interspace disc plugs. Osteobiologic surgical supply costs were also analyzed to ascertain cost differences between OsteoAMP and rhBMP-2. Results OsteoAMP produced higher rates of fusion at 6, 12, and 18 months (p???0.01). The time required for OsteoAMP to achieve fusion was approximately 40% less than rhBMP-2 with approximately 70% fewer complications. Osteobiologic supply costs were 80.5% lower for OsteoAMP patients (73.7% lower per level) than for rhBMP-2. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that OsteoAMP is a viable alternative to rhBMP-2 both clinically and economically when used in TLIF and LLIF spine procedures. PMID:24373225

2013-01-01

44

Comparison of the biomechanical stability of dense cancellous allograft with tricortical iliac autograft and fibular allograft for cervical interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Several choices are available for cervical interbody fusion after anterior cervical discectomy. A recent option is dense cancellous allograft (CS) which is characterized by an open-matrix structure that may promote vascularization and cellular penetration during early osseous integration. However, the biomechanical stability of CS should be comparable to that of the tricortical iliac autograft (AG) and fibular allograft (FA) to be an acceptable alternative to these materials. The purpose of this study was to compare the initial biomechanical stability of CS to that of AG and FA in a one-level anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion (ACDF) model. Twelve human cervical spines (C3–T1) were loaded in six modes of motion and evaluated under three conditions: (1) intact, (2) after ACDF using CS, AG, and FA in alternating sequences, and (3) after ACDF with anterior plating. Three reflective markers were placed on the adjacent vertebral bodies. Intervertebral motion was measured with a video-based motion-capture system (MacReflex, Qualisys, Sweden). Torques were applied to a maximum of 2.0 N m. The range-of-motion and neutral-zone values measured in each loading mode were compared. No graft material displayed significant differences in biomechanical stability in any of the tested loading modes, suggesting that the initial stability of CS is comparable to that of AG and FA. Anterior cervical plating significantly increased biomechanical stability in all modes. PMID:16429289

Lim, Jesse T.; Kim, Sung-Min; Paterno, Josemaria; Kim, Daniel H.

2006-01-01

45

Usefulness of Contralateral Indirect Decompression through Minimally Invasive Unilateral Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose This study aims to investigate the clinical and radiological results of contralateral indirect decompression through minimally invasive unilateral transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF). Overview of Literature Several studies have proposed that blood loss and operation time could be reduced through a unilateral approach, although many surgeons have forecast that satisfactory foraminal decompression is difficult to achieve through a unilateral approach. Methods The study included 30 subjects who had undergone single-level MI-TLIF. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Oswestry disability index (ODI) were analyzed for clinical assessment. Disc height, segmental lordosis, and lumbar lordosis angle were examined for radiological assessment. The degree of contralateral indirect decompression was evaluated through a comparative analysis, with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed preoperatively and at one year postoperatively. Results Intraoperative blood loss volume was 308.75 mL in the unilateral approach group (UAP), and 575.00 mL in the bilateral approach group (BAP), showing a statistically significant difference. Operation time was 139.50 minutes in the UAP group, and 189.00 minutes in the BAP group, exhibiting a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). On the other hand, no significant difference was found in VAS, ODI, disc height, lordosis angles and the degree of nerve decompression in the vertebral foramen, using MRI, between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusions Satisfactory results were acquired with MI-TLIF conducted through the unilateral approach of contralateral indirect decompression, in alignment with the bilateral approach. Therefore, contralateral indirect decompression is thought to be a useful procedure in reducing the operation time and volume of blood loss. PMID:25187862

Yoo, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jun-Yeul

2014-01-01

46

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using Compressive Bone Graft with Allograft and Autograft in the Pyogenic Discitis  

PubMed Central

Study Design This is a retrospective study. Purpose To evaluate the advantages and effects of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) using allograft and posterior instrumentation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis, which are resistant to antibiotics. Overview of Literature To present preliminary results of PLIF using a compressive bone graft with allograft and pedicle screw fixation in the lumbar pyogenic discitis. Methods Fifteen patients who had lumbar pyogenic discitis were treated by posterior approach from May 2004 to July 2008. The mean follow-up duration was 27.2 ± 18.68 months. The standing radiographs of the lumbar spine and clinical results were compared and analyzed in order to assess the bony union, the changes in the distance between the two vertebral bodies and the changes in the lordotic angle formed between the fused bodies immediately after surgery and at the final follow-up. Results Fifteen solid unions at an average of 15.2 ± 3.5 weeks after operation. The mean preoperative lordotic angle of the affected segments was 14.3 ± 15.1°, compared to 20.3 ± 12.3° after surgery and 19.8 ± 15.2° at last follow-up. For the functional result according to the Kirkaldy-Willis criteria, the outcome was excellent in 9, good in 5, fair in 1, and there were no poor cases. The average visual analogue scale score was decreased from 7.4 before surgery to 3.4 at 2 weeks postoperative. Conclusions The main advantage in the procedure of PLIF using compressive bone graft with allograft and post instrumentation is early ambulation. We believe that this is another good procedure for patients with poor general condition because a further autograft bone harvest is not required. PMID:22439083

An, Ki Chan; Kim, Tae Hyoung; Kim, Jin Suck; Park, Dae Hyoun; Kim, Jeon Gyo; Sung, Tae Woo

2012-01-01

47

Clinical and Radiological Outcomes of a New Cage for Direct Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective In Korea, direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF) was started since 2011, using standard cage (6° lordotic angle, 18mm width). Recently, a new wider cage with higher lordotic angle (12°, 22mm) was introduced. The aim of our study is to compare the clinical and radiologic outcomes of the two cage types. Methods We selected patients underwent DLIF, 125 cases used standard cages (standard group) and 38 cases used new cages (wide group). We followed them up for more than 6 months, and their radiological and clinical outcomes were analyzed retrospectively. For radiologic outcomes, lumbar lordotic angle (LLA), segmental lordoic angle (SLA), disc angle (DA), foraminal height change (FH), subsidence and intraoperative endplate destruction (iED) were checked. Clinical outcomes were compared using visual analog scale (VAS) score, Oswestry disability index (ODI) score and complications. Results LLA and SLA showed no significant changes postoperatively in both groups. DA showed significant increase after surgery in the wide group (p<0.05), but not in the standard group. Subsidence was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). There was no difference in clinical outcomes between the two groups. Additional posterior decompression was done more frequently in the wide group. Postoperative change of foraminal height was significantly lower in the wide group (p<0.05). The iED was observed more frequently in the wide group (p<0.05) especially at the anterior edge of cage. Conclusion The new type of cage seems to result in more DA and less subsidence. But indirect foraminal decompression seems to be less effective than standard cage. Intraoperative endplate destruction occurs more frequently due to a steeper lordotic angle of the new cage.

Kim, Shin Jae; Lee, Young Seok; Kim, Young Baeg; Hung, Vo Tan

2014-01-01

48

Experience with transforaminal interbody fusion in corrective surgery for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.  

PubMed

One of the surgical goals during the treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is to preserve segments and thus mobility while achieving a well-balanced spine on all planes. The transforaminal interbody fusion (TLIF) technique allows for a significant degree of rotational correction and thus may allow for preservation of more mobile segments. This retrospective study analyzed the use of TLIF in AIS patients who underwent surgery between 2006 and 2009 at a single center, and discusses the degree of curve correction, complications and outcomes. All curves were classified using the Lenke classification system. Standing posterior-anterior Cobb angle, sagittal and coronal balance, percent correction, and end/stable/neutral/apical vertebra were determined on preoperative, postoperative and follow-up radiographs. Nine patients were identified (eight women and one man) ranging in age from 11.6-18 years. All TLIF procedures were performed at the L2/3 level. Lenke curves included 5CN (n=5), 5BN (n=2), and 6CN (n=2). Average follow-up was 27.4 months (range, 12-57 months). Average postoperative curve correction was 79%. One patient underwent revision surgery. All patients remained stable from a clinical and radiographic standpoint on their last follow-up visit. TLIF is an important adjunct in the surgical management of select AIS patients. By allowing for greater rotational correction, it may be possible to preserve one more mobile segment without decompensation or overcorrection. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the role of TLIF in AIS. Future studies are warranted in determining those who will maximally benefit from this technique. PMID:23702374

Barami, Kaveh; Lincoln, Todd; Bains, Ravinder

2013-09-01

49

Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion for the Correction of Spondylolisthesis and Adult Degenerative Scoliosis in High-Risk Patients: Early Radiographic Results and Complications  

PubMed Central

Background Lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is not associated with many of the complications seen in other interbody fusion techniques. This study used computed tomography (CT) scans, the radiographic gold standard, to assess interbody fusion rates achieved utilizing the LLIF technique in high-risk patients. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients who underwent LLIF between January 2008 and July 2013. Forty-nine patients underwent nonstaged or staged LLIF on 119 levels with posterior correction and augmentation. Per protocol, patients received CT scans at their 1-year follow-up. Of the 49 patients, 21 patients with LLIF intervention on 54 levels met inclusion criteria. Two board-certified musculoskeletal radiologists and the senior surgeon (JZ) assessed fusion. Results Of the 21 patients, 6 patients had had previous lumbar surgery, and the cohort's comorbidities included osteoporosis, diabetes, obesity, and smoking, among others. Postoperative complications occurred in 12 (57.1%) patients and included anterior thigh pain and weakness in 6 patients, all of which resolved by 6 months. Two cases of proximal junctional kyphosis occurred, along with 1 case of hardware pullout. Two cases of abdominal atonia occurred. By CT scan assessment, each radiologist found fusion was achieved in 53 of 54 levels (98%). The radiologists' findings were in agreement with the senior surgeon. Conclusion Several studies have evaluated LLIF fusion and reported fusion rates between 88%-96%. Our results demonstrate high fusion rates using this technique, despite multiple comorbidities in the patient population. Spanning the ring apophysis with large LLIF cages along with supplemental posterior pedicle screw augmentation can enhance stability of the fusion segment and increase fusion rates. PMID:24688329

Waddell, Brad; Briski, David; Qadir, Rabah; Godoy, Gustavo; Houston, Allison Howard; Rudman, Ernest; Zavatsky, Joseph

2014-01-01

50

TranS1 VEO system: a novel psoas-sparing device for transpsoas lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Minimally invasive approaches for lumbar interbody fusion have been popularized in recent years. The retroperitoneal transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine is a technique that allows direct lateral access to the intervertebral disc space while mitigating the complications associated with traditional anterior or posterior approaches. However, a common complication of this procedure is iatrogenic injury to the psoas muscle and surrounding nerves, resulting in postsurgical motor and sensory deficits. The TranS1 VEO system (TranS1 Inc, Raleigh, NC, USA) utilizes a novel, minimally invasive transpsoas approach to the lumbar spine that allows direct visualization of the psoas and proximal nerves, potentially minimizing iatrogenic injury risk and resulting clinical morbidity. This paper describes the clinical uses, procedural details, and indications for use of the TranS1 VEO system. PMID:23766663

Hardenbrook, Mitchell A; Miller, Larry E; Block, Jon E

2013-01-01

51

Clinical and radiographic outcomes with L4-S1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) and posterior instrumentation: a multicenter study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Previous studies have confirmed the benefits and limitations of the presacral retroperitoneal approach for L5–S1 interbody fusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and effectiveness of the minimally invasive axial lumbar interbody approach (AxiaLIF) for L4–S1 fusion. Methods In this retrospective series, 52 patients from four clinical sites underwent L4–S1 interbody fusion with the AxiaLIF two-level system with minimum 2-year clinical and radiographic follow-up (range: 24–51 months). Outcomes included back pain severity (on a 10-point scale), the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and Odom’s criteria. Flexion and extension radiographs, as well as computed tomography scans, were evaluated to determine fusion status. Longitudinal outcomes were assessed with repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Mean subject age was 52 ± 11 years and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Patients sustained no intraoperative bowel or vascular injury, deep infection, or neurologic complication. Median procedural blood loss was 220 cc and median length of hospital stay was 3 days. At 2-year follow-up, mean back pain had improved 56%, from 7.7 ± 1.6 at baseline to 3.4 ± 2.7 (P < 0.001). Back pain clinical success (ie, ?30% improvement from baseline) was achieved in 39 (75%) patients at 2 years. Mean ODI scores improved 42%, from 60% ± 16% at baseline to 35% ± 27% at 2 years (P < 0.001). ODI clinical success (ie, ?30% improvement from baseline) was achieved in 26 (50%) patients. At final follow-up, 45 (87%) patients were rated as good or excellent, five as fair, and two as poor by Odom’s criteria. Interbody fusion observed on imaging was achieved in 97 (93%) of 104 treated interspaces. During follow-up, five patients underwent reoperation on the lumbar spine, including facet screw removal (two), laminectomy (two), and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (one). Conclusion The AxiaLIF two-level device is a safe, effective treatment adjunct for patients with L4–S1 disc pathology resistant to conservative treatments. PMID:24092998

Tobler, William D; Melgar, Miguel A; Raley, Thomas J; Anand, Neel; Miller, Larry E; Nasca, Richard J

2013-01-01

52

Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with unilateral pedicle screw fixation: comparison between primary and revision surgery.  

PubMed

Minimally invasive surgery with a transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS TLIF) is an important minimally invasive fusion technique for the lumbar spine. Lumbar spine reoperation is challenging and is thought to have greater complication risks. The purpose of this study was to compare MIS TLIF with unilateral screw fixation perioperative results between primary and revision surgeries. This was a prospective study that included 46 patients who underwent MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw. The patients were divided into two groups, primary and revision MIS TLIF, to compare perioperative results and complications. The two groups were similar in age, sex, and level of operation, and were not significantly different in the length of follow-up or clinical results. Although dural tears were more common with the revision group (primary 1; revision 4), operation time, blood loss, total perioperative complication, and fusion rates were not significantly different between the two groups. Both groups showed substantial improvements in VAS and ODI scores one year after surgical treatment. Revision MIS TLIF performed by an experienced surgeon does not necessarily increase the risk of perioperative complication compared with primary surgery. MIS TLIF with unilateral pedicle screw fixation is a valuable option for revision lumbar surgery. PMID:24949483

Kang, Moo Sung; Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

2014-01-01

53

Rectocutaneous fistula and nonunion after TranS1 axial lumbar interbody fusion L5-S1 fixation: case report.  

PubMed

The authors report a case of rectal injury, rectocutaneous fistula, and pseudarthrosis after a TranS1 axial lumbar interbody fusion (AxiaLIF) L5-S1 fixation. The TranS1 AxiaLIF procedure is a percutaneous minimally invasive approach to transsacral fusion of the L4-S1 vertebral levels. It is gaining popularity due to the ease of access to the sacrum through the presacral space, which is relatively free from intraabdominal and neurovascular structures. This 35-year-old man had undergone the procedure for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. The patient subsequently presented with fever, syncope, and foul-smelling gas and bloody drainage from the surgical site. A CT fistulagram and flexible sigmoidoscopy showed evidence of rectocutaneous fistula, which was managed with intravenous antibiotic therapy and bowel rest with total parenteral nutrition. Subsequent studies performed 6 months postoperatively revealed evidence of pseudarthrosis. The patient's rectocutaneous fistula symptoms gradually subsided, but his preoperative back pain recurred prompting a revision of his L5-S1 spinal fusion. PMID:23790047

Siegel, Geoffrey; Patel, Nilesh; Ramakrishnan, Rakesh

2013-08-01

54

Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.  

PubMed

A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion. PMID:17415762

Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

2007-11-01

55

Minimally invasive lateral transpsoas interbody fusion using a stand-alone construct for the treatment of adjacent segment disease of the lumbar spine: review of the literature and report of three cases.  

PubMed

We describe 3 patients who presented with radiographic signs and clinical symptoms of adjacent segment disease several years after undergoing L4-S1 posterior pedicle screw fusion. All patients underwent successful lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) at 1-2 levels above their previous constructs, using stand-alone cages, with complete resolution of radiculopathy and a significant improvement in low-back pain. In addition to a thorough analysis of these cases, we review the pertinent literature regarding treatment options for adjacent segment disease and the applications of the lateral lumbar interbody technique. PMID:25019458

Palejwala, Sheri K; Sheen, Whitney A; Walter, Christina M; Dunn, Jack H; Baaj, Ali A

2014-09-01

56

Comparison of Dynesys posterior stabilization and posterior lumbar interbody fusion for spinal stenosis L4L5.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical outcome after treatment of lumbar spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis, with either posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) (26 patients) or Dynesys posterior stabilization (27 patients). Demographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. Dynesys stabilization resulted in significantly higher preservation of motion at the index level (p < 0.001), and significantly less (p < 0.05) hypermobility at the adjacent segments. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and VAS for back and leg pain improved significantly (p < 0.05) with both methods, but there was no significant difference between groups. Operation time, blood loss, and length of hospital stay were all significantly (p < 0.001) less in the Dynesys group. The latter benefits may be of particular importance for elderly patients, or those with significant comorbidities. Complications were comparable in both groups. Dynesys posterior stabilization was effective for treating spinal stenosis L4L5 with or without spondylolisthesis. PMID:22696995

Yu, Shang-Won; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Ma, Ching-Hou; Wu, Chin-Hsien; Yen, Cheng-Yo; Tu, Yuan-Kun

2012-04-01

57

Clinical and radiological outcome of anterior-posterior fusion versus transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for symptomatic disc degeneration: a retrospective comparative study of 133 patients  

PubMed Central

Abundant data are available for direct anterior/posterior spine fusion (APF) and some for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF), but only few studies from one institution compares the two techniques. One-hundred and thirty-three patients were retrospectively analyzed, 68 having APF and 65 having TLIF. All patients had symptomatic disc degeneration of the lumbar spine. Only those with one or two-level surgeries were included. Clinical chart and radiologic reviews were done, fusion solidity assessed, and functional outcomes determined by pre- and postoperative SF-36 and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and a satisfaction questionnaire. The minimum follow-up was 24 months. The mean operating room time and hospital length of stay were less in the TLIF group. The blood loss was slightly less in the TLIF group (409 vs. 480 cc.). Intra-operative complications were higher in the APF group, mostly due to vein lacerations in the anterior retroperitoneal approach. Postoperative complications were higher in the TLIF group due to graft material extruding against the nerve root or wound drainage. The pseudarthrosis rate was statistically equal (APF 17.6% and TLIF 23.1%) and was higher than most published reports. Significant improvements were noted in both groups for the SF-36 questionnaires. The mean ODI scores at follow-up were 33.5 for the APF and 39.5 for the TLIF group. The patient satisfaction rate was equal for the two groups. PMID:19125304

Schwender, James D.; Safriel, Yair; Gilbert, Thomas J.; Mehbod, Amir A.; Denis, Francis; Transfeldt, Ensor E.; Wroblewski, Jill M.

2009-01-01

58

Spinal fusion  

MedlinePLUS

Vertebral interbody fusion; Posterior spinal fusion; Arthrodesis; Anterior spinal fusion; Spine surgery - spinal fusion ... Spinal fusion is most often done along with other surgical procedures of the spine. It may be done: With ...

59

Modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion for radiculopathy following healed vertebral collapse of the middle-lower lumbar spine.  

PubMed

Study Design?Retrospective study. Objectives?Lumbar radiculopathy is rarely observed in patients who have achieved bony healing of vertebral fractures in the middle-lower lumbar spine. The objectives of the study were to clarify the clinical features of such radiculopathy and to evaluate the preliminary outcomes of treatment using a modified posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) procedure. Methods?Fourteen patients with at least 2-year follow-up were enrolled in this study. The radiologic and clinical features of radiculopathy were retrospectively reviewed. As part of our modified PLIF procedure, a bone block was laid on chipped bone to fill the cavity of the fractured end plate and to flatten the cage-bone interface. Results?The morphologic features of spinal deformity in our patients typically consisted of the intradiscal vacuum phenomenon, spondylolisthesis, and a retropulsed intervertebral disk with a vertebral rim in the damaged segment. Cranial end plate fracture resulted in radiculopathy of the traversing nerve roots due to lateral recess stenosis. On the other hand, caudal end plate fracture led to unilateral radiculopathy of the exiting nerve root due to foraminal stenosis. The mean recovery rate based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score was 65.0%. Solid fusion was achieved in all but one case. Conclusions?Because of severe deterioration of the anterior column following end plate fracture, the foraminal zone must be decompressed in caudal end plate fractures. The modified PLIF procedure yielded satisfactory clinical outcomes due to anterior reconstruction and full decompression for both foraminal and lateral recess stenoses. PMID:25396106

Yamashita, Tomoya; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Ohwada, Tetsuo

2014-12-01

60

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using unilateral pedicle screw fixation plus contralateral translaminar facet screw fixation in lumbar degenerative diseases  

PubMed Central

Background: Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) has been used in lumbar degenerative diseases. Some researchers have applied unilateral fixation in TLIF to reduce operational trauma without compromising the clinical outcome, but it is always suspected biomechanically unstable. The supplementary contralateral translaminar facet screw (cTLFS) seemed to be able to overcome the inherent drawbacks of unilateral pedicle screw (uPS) fixation theoretically. This study evaluates the safety, feasibility and efficacy of TLIF using uPS with cTLFS fixation in the treatment of lumbar degenerative diseases (LDD). Materials and Methods: 50 patients (29 male) underwent the aforementioned surgical technique for their LDD between December 2009 and April 2012. The results were evaluated based on visual analogue scale (VAS) of the leg and back, Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were recorded. The radiographic examinations in form of X-ray, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging was done preoperatively and 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months postoperatively. The student t-test was used for comparison between the preoperative values and postoperative counterparts. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Among 50 patients, 22 received one level fusion and 28 two level's, with corresponding operation time and estimated blood loss being approximately 90 min, 150 ml and 120 min, 200 ml, respectively. No severe complications happened perioperatively. The mean VAS (back, leg) scores dropped from (7.6, 7.5) preoperatively to (2.1, 0.6) at 12 months’ followup, ODI from 49.1 preoperatively to 5.6 and JOA score raised from 10.6 preoperatively to 28.5, all P < 0.001, suggesting of good clinical outcome. From the three-dimensional reconstructed CT, 62 out of 70 segments displayed solid fusion with fusion rate of 88.6% at 12 months postoperatively. Conclusions: TLIF using uPS fixation plus cTLFS fixation is a safe, feasible and effective technique in the treatment of one or two level lumbar degenerative diseases short termly. PMID:25143640

Liu, Fubing; Jiang, Chun; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Feng, Zhenzhou

2014-01-01

61

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion  

PubMed Central

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

WU, HAN; YU, WEI-DONG; JIANG, RUI; GAO, ZHONG-LI

2013-01-01

62

Treatment of multilevel degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis with spondylolisthesis using a combination of microendoscopic discectomy and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.  

PubMed

Degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS) has become increasingly common and is characterized by multilevel disc herniation and lumbar spondylolisthesis, which are difficult to treat. The current study aimed to evaluate the short-term clinical outcomes and value of the combined use of microendoscopic discectomy (MED) and minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) for the treatment of multilevel DLSS with spondylolisthesis, and to compare the combination with traditional posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). A total of 26 patients with multilevel DLSS and spondylolisthesis underwent combined MED and MI-TLIF surgery using a single cage and pedicle rod-screw system. These cases were compared with 27 patients who underwent traditional PLIF surgery during the same period. Data concerning incision length, surgery time, blood loss, time of bed rest and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score prior to and following surgery were analyzed statistically. Statistical significance was reached in terms of incision length, blood loss and the time of bed rest following surgery (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference between the surgery time and ODI scores of the two groups. The combined use of MED and MI-TLIF has the advantages of reduced blood loss, less damage to the paraspinal soft tissue, shorter length of incision, shorter bed rest time, improved outcomes and shorter recovery times and has similar short-term clinical outcomes to traditional PLIF. PMID:23403827

Wu, Han; Yu, Wei-Dong; Jiang, Rui; Gao, Zhong-Li

2013-02-01

63

The use of RhBMP-2 in single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a clinical and radiographic analysis.  

PubMed

The "off label" use of rhBMP-2 in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has become increasingly popular. Although several studies have demonstrated the successful use of rhBMP-2 for this indication, uncertainties remain regarding its safety and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the single-level TLIF procedure using rhBMP-2. Patients who underwent a single-level TLIF between January 2004 and May 2006 with rhBMP-2 were identified. A retrospective evaluation of these patients included operative report(s), pre- and postoperative medical records, and dynamic and static lumbar radiographs. Patient-reported clinical outcome measures were obtained from a telephone questionnaire and included a modification of the Odom's criteria, a patient satisfaction score, and back and leg pain numeric rating scale scores. Forty-eight patients met the study criteria and were available for follow-up (avg. radiographic and clinical follow-up of 19.4 and 27.4 months, respectively). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 95.8% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 71% of patients. On most recent clinical follow-up, 83% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms and 84% reported satisfaction with their surgery. Twenty-nine patients (60.4%) reported that they still had some back pain, with an average back pain numeric rating score of 2.8. Twenty patients (41.7%) reported that they still had some leg pain, with an average leg pain numeric rating score was 2.4. Thirteen patients (27.1%) had one or more complications, including transient postoperative radiculitis (8/48), vertebral osteolysis (3/48), nonunion (2/48), and symptomatic ectopic bone formation (1/48). The use of rhBMP-2 in the TLIF procedure produces a high rate of fusion, symptomatic improvement and patient satisfaction. Although its use eliminates the risk of harvesting autograft, rhBMP-2 is associated with other complications that raise concern, including a high rate of postoperative radiculitis. PMID:19475434

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Makda, Junaid; Hong, Joseph; Patel, Ravi; Hilibrand, Alan S; Anderson, David G; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Albert, Todd J

2009-11-01

64

The use of RhBMP-2 in single-level transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion: a clinical and radiographic analysis  

PubMed Central

The “off label” use of rhBMP-2 in the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) procedure has become increasingly popular. Although several studies have demonstrated the successful use of rhBMP-2 for this indication, uncertainties remain regarding its safety and efficacy. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the single-level TLIF procedure using rhBMP-2. Patients who underwent a single-level TLIF between January 2004 and May 2006 with rhBMP-2 were identified. A retrospective evaluation of these patients included operative report(s), pre- and postoperative medical records, and dynamic and static lumbar radiographs. Patient-reported clinical outcome measures were obtained from a telephone questionnaire and included a modification of the Odom’s criteria, a patient satisfaction score, and back and leg pain numeric rating scale scores. Forty-eight patients met the study criteria and were available for follow-up (avg. radiographic and clinical follow-up of 19.4 and 27.4 months, respectively). Radiographic fusion was achieved in 95.8% of patients. Good to excellent results were achieved in 71% of patients. On most recent clinical follow-up, 83% of patients reported improvement in their symptoms and 84% reported satisfaction with their surgery. Twenty-nine patients (60.4%) reported that they still had some back pain, with an average back pain numeric rating score of 2.8. Twenty patients (41.7%) reported that they still had some leg pain, with an average leg pain numeric rating score was 2.4. Thirteen patients (27.1%) had one or more complications, including transient postoperative radiculitis (8/48), vertebral osteolysis (3/48), nonunion (2/48), and symptomatic ectopic bone formation (1/48). The use of rhBMP-2 in the TLIF procedure produces a high rate of fusion, symptomatic improvement and patient satisfaction. Although its use eliminates the risk of harvesting autograft, rhBMP-2 is associated with other complications that raise concern, including a high rate of postoperative radiculitis. PMID:19475434

Makda, Junaid; Hong, Joseph; Patel, Ravi; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Anderson, David G.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Albert, Todd J.

2009-01-01

65

Quality-of-Life Outcomes With Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Based on Long-Term Analysis of 304 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Design. This was a prospective clinical study that took place in an outpatient spine clinic. Objective. To demonstrate the short-/long-term outcomes from a large cohort of patients undergoing minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MITLIF). Summary of Background Data. Long-term prospective outcomes in patients undergoing minimally invasive spinal fusion for debilitating back pain has not been well studied. Methods. Presenting diagnosis was determined from clinical findings and radiographical (radiograph, magnetic resonance image, computed tomographic scan) evaluations preoperatively. Patients were assessed with outcome measures preoperatively, and postoperatively at 2 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and annually 2 to 7 years (mean follow-up: 47 mo) final follow-up. The rate of postoperative complications and reoperations at the initial level of MITLIF and adjacent level(s) were followed. Fusion rates were assessed blinded and independently by radiograph. Results. Visual analogue scale scores decreased significantly from 7.0 preoperatively to 3.5 at mean 47-month follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index scores declined from 43.1 preoperatively to 28.2 at mean 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 mental component scores increased from 43.8 preoperatively to 49.7 at 47-month follow-up. Short-Form 36 physical component scores increased from 30.6 preoperatively to 39.6 at 47-month follow-up (P < 0.05). Conclusion. This prospectively collected outcomes study shows long-term statistically significant clinical outcomes improvement after MITLIF in patients with clinically symptomatic spondylolisthesis and degenerative disc disease with or without stenosis. MITLIF resulted in a high rate of spinal fusion and very low rate of interbody fusion failure and/or adjacent segment disease requiring reoperation while reducing postoperative complications. Level of Evidence: 3 PMID:24150437

Hussain, Namath S.; White, G. Zachary; Begun, Evan M.; Collins, Robert A.; Fahim, Daniel K.; Hiremath, Girish K.; Adbi, Fadumo M.; Yacob, Sammy A.

2014-01-01

66

Hybrid computer-guided and minimally open surgery: anterior lumbar interbody fusion and translaminar screw fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Less invasiveness is the way forward for spinal surgery. Minimal disruption of tissue, preservation of muscle function, and restoration of normal spinal alignment are still the goals of most surgical procedures. An anterior lumbar fusion technique using a less invasive procedure with the addition of translaminar screws is described. The autograft is harvested from the vertebral body, thus avoiding the

N. Kumar; A. Wild; J. K. Webb; M. Aebi

2000-01-01

67

Hybrid computer-guided and minimally open surgery: anterior lumbar interbody fusion and translaminar screw fixation.  

PubMed

Less invasiveness is the way forward for spinal surgery. Minimal disruption of tissue, preservation of muscle function, and restoration of normal spinal alignment are still the goals of most surgical procedures. An anterior lumbar fusion technique using a less invasive procedure with the addition of translaminar screws is described. The autograft is harvested from the vertebral body, thus avoiding the morbidity associated with an iliac crest bone graft. The operative steps for the procedure are described. PMID:10766061

Kumar, N; Wild, A; Webb, J K; Aebi, M

2000-02-01

68

Complications in patients undergoing combined transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation with deformity correction for degenerative scoliosis and spinal stenosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Utilization of the transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) approach for scoliosis offers the patients deformity correction and interbody fusion without the additional morbidity associated with more invasive reconstructive techniques. Published reports on complications associated with these surgical procedures are limited. The purpose of this study was to quantify the intra- and postoperative complications associated with the TLIF surgical approach in patients undergoing surgery for spinal stenosis and degenerative scoliosis correction. Methods: This study included patients undergoing TLIF for degenerative scoliosis with neurogenic claudication and painful lumbar degenerative disc disease. The TLIF technique was performed along with posterior pedicle screw instrumentation. The average follow-up time was 30 months (range, 15–47). Results: A total of 29 patients with an average age of 65.9 years (range, 49–83) were evaluated. TLIFs were performed at 2.2 levels on average (range, 1–4) in addition to 6.0 (range, 4–9) levels of posterolateral instrumented fusion. The preoperative mean lumbar lordosis was 37.6° (range, 16°–55°) compared to 40.5° (range, 26°–59.2°) postoperatively. The preoperative mean coronal Cobb angle was 32.3° (range, 15°–55°) compared to 15.4° (range, 1°–49°) postoperatively. The mean operative time was 528 min (range, 276–906), estimated blood loss was 1091.7 mL (range, 150–2500), and hospitalization time was 8.0 days (range, 3–28). A baseline mean Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score of 7.6 (range, 4–10) decreased to 3.6 (range, 0–8) postoperatively. There were a total of 14 (49%) hardware and/or surgical technique related complications, and 8 (28%) patients required additional surgeries. Five (17%) patients developed pseudoarthrosis. The systemic complications (31%) included death (1), cardiopulmonary arrest with resuscitation (1), myocardial infarction (1), pneumonia (5), and pulmonary embolism (1). Conclusion: This study suggests that although the TLIF approach is a feasible and effective method to treat degenerative adult scoliosis, it is associated with a high rate of intra- and postoperative complications and a long recovery process. PMID:22439116

Burneikiene, Sigita; Nelson, E. Lee; Mason, Alexander; Rajpal, Sharad; Serxner, Benjamin; Villavicencio, Alan T.

2012-01-01

69

Septic hematogenous lumbar spondylodiscitis in elderly patients with multiple risk factors: efficacy of posterior stabilization and interbody fusion with iliac crest bone graft  

PubMed Central

The conservative and operative treatment strategies of hematogenous spondylodiscitis in septic patients with multiple risk factors are controversial. The present series demonstrates the outcome of 18 elderly patients (median age, 72 years) with septic hematogenous spondylodiscitis and intraspinal abscess treated with microsurgical decompression and debridement of the infective tissue, followed by posterior stabilization and interbody fusion with iliac crest bone graft in one or two lumbar segments. The majority of the patients were unsuccessfully treated with intravenous antibiotics prior to the operation. Antibiotic therapy was continued for more than 6 weeks postoperatively. Morbidity and early mortality amounted to 50 and 17%, respectively. Three patients died in the hospital from internal complications after an initial postoperative improvement of the inflammatory clinical signs and laboratory parameters. Fifteen patients recovered from the spinal infection. Three of them died several months after discharge (cerebral hemorrhage, malignancy and unknown cause). Twelve patients had excellent or good outcomes during the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The series shows that operative decompression and eradication of the intraspinal and intervertebral infective tissue with fusion and stabilization via a posterior approach is possible in septic patients with multiple risk factors and leads to good results in those patients, who survive the initial severe stage of the septic disease. However, the morbidity and mortality suggest that this surgical treatment is not the therapy of first choice in high-risk septic patients, but may be considered in patients when conservative management has failed. PMID:20495933

Mater, Eckhardt; Schon, Ralph

2010-01-01

70

Evaluation of Functional Outcomes in Individuals 10 Years after Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion with Corundum Implants and Decompression: A Comparison of 2 Surgical Techniques  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate lumbar spine-related functional disability in individuals 10 years after lumbar decompression and lumbar decompression with posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) with corundum implants surgery for degenerative stenosis and to compare the long-term outcome of these 2 surgical techniques. Material/Methods From 1998 to 2002, 100 patients with single-level lumbar stenosis were surgically treated. The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups that did not differ in terms of clinical or neurological symptoms. Group A consisted of 50 patients who were treated with PLIF and the use of porous ceramic corundum implants; the mean age was 57.74 and BMI was 27.34. Group B consisted of 50 patients treated with decompression by fenestration; mean age was 51.28 and the mean BMI was 28.84. Results There was no statistical significance regarding age, BMI, and sex. Both treatments revealed significant improvements. In group A, ODI decreased from 41.01% to 14.3% at 1 year and 16.3 at 10 years. In group B, ODI decreased from 63.8% to 18.36% at 1 year and 22.36% at 10 years. The difference between groups was statistically significant. There were no differences between the groups regarding the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire and VAS at 1 and 10 years after surgery. Conclusions Long-term results evaluated according to the ODI, the Rolland-Morris disability questionnaire, and the VAS showed that the both methods significantly reduce patient disability, and this was maintained during next 10 years. The less invasive fenestration procedure was only slightly less favorable than surgical treatment of stenosis by both PLIF with corundum implants and decompression. PMID:25106708

Truszczynska, Aleksandra; Rapala, Kazimierz; Lukawski, Stanislaw; Trzaskoma, Zbigniew; Tarnowski, Adam; Drzal-Grabiec, Justyna; Cabak, Anna

2014-01-01

71

A unique modular implant system enhances load sharing in anterior cervical interbody fusion: a finite element study  

PubMed Central

Background The efficacy of dynamic anterior cervical plates is somewhat controversial. Screws in static-plate designs have a smaller diameter and can cut through bone under load. While not ideal, this unintended loosening can help mitigate stress shielding. Stand-alone interbody devices with integral fixation have large endplate contact areas that may inhibit or prevent loosening of the fixation. This study investigates the load sharing ability of a novel dynamic plate design in preventing the stress shielding of the graft material compared to the non-dynamic devices. Methods An experimentally validated intact C5-C6 finite element model was modified to simulate discectomy and accommodate implant-graft assembly. Four implant iterations were modeled; InterPlate titanium device with dynamic surface features (springs), InterPlate titanium non-dynamic device, InterPlate titanium design having a fully enclosed graft chamber, and the InterPlate design in unfilled PEEK having a fully enclosed graft chamber. All the models were fixed at the inferior-most surface of C6 and the axial displacement required to completely embed the dynamic surface features was applied to the model. Results InterPlate device with dynamic surface features induced higher graft stresses compared to the other design iterations resulting in uniform load sharing. The distribution of these graft stresses were more uniform for the InterPlate dynamic design. Conclusions These results indicate that the dynamic design decreases the stress shielding by increasing and more uniformly distributing the graft stress. Fully enclosed graft chambers increase stress shielding. Lower implant material modulus of elasticity does not reduce stress shielding significantly. PMID:24618205

2014-01-01

72

The influence of different magnitudes and methods of applying preload on fusion and disc replacement constructs in the lumbar spine: a finite element analysis.  

PubMed

In a finite element (FE) analysis of the lumbar spine, different preload application methods that are used in biomechanical studies may yield diverging results. To investigate how the biomechanical behaviour of a spinal implant is affected by the method of applying the preload, hybrid-controlled FE analysis was used to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine under different preload application methods. The FE models of anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) and artificial disc replacement (ADR) were tested under three different loading conditions: a 150 N pressure preload (PP) and 150 and 400 N follower loads (FLs). This study analysed the resulting range of motion (ROM), facet contact force (FCF), inlay contact pressure (ICP) and stress distribution of adjacent discs. The FE results indicated that the ROM of both surgical constructs was related to the preload application method and magnitude; differences in the ROM were within 7% for the ALIF model and 32% for the ADR model. Following the application of the FL and after increasing the FL magnitude, the FCF of the ADR model gradually increased, reaching 45% at the implanted level in torsion. The maximum ICP gradually decreased by 34.1% in torsion and 28.4% in lateral bending. This study concluded that the preload magnitude and application method affect the biomechanical behaviour of the lumbar spine. For the ADR, remarkable alteration was observed while increasing the FL magnitude, particularly in the ROM, FCF and ICP. However, for the ALIF, PP and FL methods had no remarkable alteration in terms of ROM and adjacent disc stress. PMID:22224913

Zhong, Zheng-Cheng; Hung, Chinghua; Lin, Hung-Ming; Wang, Ying-Hui; Huang, Chang-Hung; Chen, Chen-Sheng

2013-01-01

73

A Comparison of Radiostereometric Analysis and Computed Tomography for the Assessment of Lumbar Spinal Fusion in a Sheep Model  

PubMed Central

Study Design?Prospective animal study. Objective?The aim of this animal study is to evaluate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) compared with computed tomographic (CT) scan in the assessment of spinal fusion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) using histology as a gold standard. Methods?Three non-adjacent ALIFs (L1–L2, L3–L4, and L5–L6) were performed in nine sheep. The sheep were divided into three groups of three sheep. All the animals were humanely killed immediately after having the last scheduled RSA. The lumbar spine was removed and in vitro fine cut CT and histopathology were performed. Results?Using histological assessment as the gold standard for assessing fusion, RSA demonstrated better results (100% sensitivity and 66.7% specificity; positive predictive value [PPV]?=?27.3%, negative predictive value [NPV] =100.0%) compared with CT (66.7% sensitivity and 60.0% specificity [PPV?=?16.7%, NPV?=?93.8%]). Conclusions?RSA demonstrated higher sensitivity and specificity when compared with CT. Furthermore, RSA has the advantage of much lower radiation exposure compared with fine cut CT. Further studies are required to see if RSA remains superior to CT scan for the assessment spinal fusion in the clinical setting. Assessment of Class of Evidence (CoE) for individual studies of diagnostic test evaluation Methodological principle Study design  Prospective cohort design X  Retrospective cohort design  Case–control design Broad spectrum of patients with expected condition a Appropriate reference standard used X Adequate description of test and reference for replication X Blinded comparison with appropriate reference X Reference standard performed independently of test X Evidence level II Note: Blank box indicates criterion not met, could not be determined, or information not reported by author or was not reported. aThis study contained nine animal subjects. PMID:24436705

Humadi, Ali; Freeman, Brian J. C.; Moore, Rob J.; Callary, Stuart; Halldin, Klas; David, Vikram; Maclaurin, William; Tauro, Paul; Schoenwaelder, Mark

2013-01-01

74

Biomechanical comparison of unilateral and bilateral pedicle screws fixation for transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion after decompressive surgery -- a finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the biomechanical effectiveness of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) cages in different positioning and various posterior implants used after decompressive surgery. The use of the various implants will induce the kinematic and mechanical changes in range of motion (ROM) and stresses at the surgical and adjacent segments. Unilateral pedicle screw with or without supplementary facet screw fixation in the minimally invasive TLIF procedure has not been ascertained to provide adequate stability without the need to expose on the contralateral side. This study used finite element (FE) models to investigate biomechanical differences in ROM and stress on the neighboring structures after TLIF cages insertion in conjunction with posterior fixation. Methods A validated finite-element (FE) model of L1-S1 was established to implant three types of cages (TLIF with a single moon-shaped cage in the anterior or middle portion of vertebral bodies, and TLIF with a left diagonally placed ogival-shaped cage) from the left L4-5 level after unilateral decompressive surgery. Further, the effects of unilateral versus bilateral pedicle screw fixation (UPSF vs. BPSF) in each TLIF cage model was compared to analyze parameters, including stresses and ROM on the neighboring annulus, cage-vertebral interface and pedicle screws. Results All the TLIF cages positioned with BPSF showed similar ROM (<5%) at surgical and adjacent levels, except TLIF with an anterior cage in flexion (61% lower) and TLIF with a left diagonal cage in left lateral bending (33% lower) at surgical level. On the other hand, the TLIF cage models with left UPSF showed varying changes of ROM and annulus stress in extension, right lateral bending and right axial rotation at surgical level. In particular, the TLIF model with a diagonal cage, UPSF, and contralateral facet screw fixation stabilize segmental motion of the surgical level mostly in extension and contralaterally axial rotation. Prominent stress shielded to the contralateral annulus, cage-vertebral interface, and pedicle screw at surgical level. A supplementary facet screw fixation shared stresses around the neighboring tissues and revealed similar ROM and stress patterns to those models with BPSF. Conclusions TLIF surgery is not favored for asymmetrical positioning of a diagonal cage and UPSF used in contralateral axial rotation or lateral bending. Supplementation of a contralateral facet screw is recommended for the TLIF construct. PMID:22591664

2012-01-01

75

[Application of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on a novel porous TiO2/glass ceramic--2: Biomechanical evaluation after implantation in the sheep cervical spine].  

PubMed

Animals are becoming more and more common as in vivo models for the human spine. Especially the sheep cervical spine is stated to be of good comparability and usefulness in the evaluation of in vivo radiological, biomechanical and histological behaviour of new bone replacement materials, implants and cages for cervical spine interbody fusion. In preceding biomechanical in vitro examinations human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO2/glass composite (Ecopore) or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) after discectomy. Following our first experience with the use of the new material and its influence on the primary stability after in vitro application we carried out fusions of 20 sheep cervical spines levels with either PMMA or an Ecopore-cage, and performed radiological examinations during the following 2-4 months. In this second part of the study we intended the biomechanical evaluation of the spine segments with reference to the previously determined morphological findings, like subsidence of the implants, significant increase of the kyphosis angle and degree of the bony fusion along with the interpretation of the results. 20 sheep cervical spines segments with either PMMA- or Ecopore-fusion in the levels C2/3 and C4/5 were tested, in comparison to 10 native corresponding sheep cervical spine segments. Non-destructive biomechanical testing was performed, including flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation using a spine testing apparatus. Three-dimensional range of motion (ROM) was evaluated using an ultrasound measurement system. In the native spine segments C2/3 and C4/5 the ROM increased in cranio-caudal direction particulary in flexion/extension, less pronounced in lateral flexion and axial rotation (p < 0.05). The overall ROM of both tested segments was greatest in lateral flexion, reduced to 52% in flexion/extension and to 16% in axial rotation. After 2 months C2/3- and C4/5-segments with PMMA-fusion and C2/3-segments with Ecopore-interposition showed decrease of ROM in lateral flexion in comparison to the native segments, indicating increasing stiffening. However, after 4 months all operated segments, independent from level or implanted material, were stiffer than the comparable native segments. The decrease of the ROM correlated with the radiological-morphological degree of fusion. Our evaluation of the new porous TiO2/glass composite as interbody fusion cage has shown satisfactory radiological results as well as distinct biomechanical stability and fusion of the segments after 4 months in comparison to PMMA. After histological analysis of the bone-biomaterial-interface, further examinations of this biomaterial previous to an application as alternative to other customary cages in humans are necessary. PMID:15884708

Korinth, M C; Hero, T; Pandorf, T; Zell, D

2005-04-01

76

[Application of a stand-alone interbody fusion cage based on a novel porous TiO2/glass composite. I. Implantation in the sheep cervical spine and radiological evaluation].  

PubMed

Animals are becoming more and more common as in vitro and in vivo models for the human spine. Especially the sheep cervical spine is stated to be of good comparability and usefulness in the evaluation of in vivo radiological, biomechanical and histological behaviour of new bone replacement materials, implants and cages for cervical spine interbody fusion. In preceding biomechanical in vitro examination human cervical spine specimens were tested after fusion with either a cubical stand-alone interbody fusion cage manufactured from a new porous TiO/glass composite (Ecopore) or polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) after discectomy. First experience with the use of the new material and its influence on the primary stability after in vitro application were gained. After fusion of 10 sheep cervical spines in the levels C2/3 and C4/5 in each case with PMMA and with an Ecopore-cage, radiologic as well as computertomographic examinations were performed postoperatively and every 4 weeks during the following 2 and 4 months, respectively. Apart from establishing our animal model, we analysed the radiological changes and the degree of bony fusion of the operated segments during the course. In addition we performed measurements of the corresponding disc space heights (DSH) and intervertebral angles (IVA) for comparison among each other, during the course and with the initial values. Immediately after placement of both implants in the disc spaces the mean DSH and IVA increased (34.8% and 53.9%, respectively). During the following months DSH decreased to a greater extent in the Ecopore-segments than in the PMMA-segments, even to a value below the initial value (p>0.05). Similarly, the IVA decreased in both groups in the postoperative time lapse, but more distinct in the Ecopore-segments (p<0.05). These changes in terms of a subsidence of the implants, were confirmed morphologically in the radiological examination in the course. The radiologically evaluated fusion, i.e. bony bridging of the operated segments, was more pronounced after implantation of an Ecopore-cage (83%), than after PMMA interposition (50%), but did not gain statistical significance. In this first in vivo examination of our new porous ceramic bone replacement material we showed its application in the spondylodesis model of the sheep cervical spine. Distinct radiological changes regarding evident subsidence and detectable fusion of the segments, operated on with the new biomaterial, were seen. We demonstrated the radiological changes of the fused segments during several months and analysed them morphologically, before the biomechanical evaluation will be presented in a subsequent publication. PMID:15655929

Korinth, M C; Hero, T; Mahnken, A H; Ragoss, C; Scherer, K

2004-12-01

77

Passing the ALife test: Activity statistics classify evolution in Geb as unbounded  

E-print Network

with unbounded evolutionary dynamics will belong to class 3 (one of 3a, 3b and 3c). Previously, onlyPassing the ALife test: Activity statistics classify evolution in Geb as unbounded Alastair Channon to pass this test. However, having passed it, the most prudent course of action is to look for weaknesses

Fernandez, Thomas

78

esearchers in artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial life (Alife) are interested  

E-print Network

in our word proces- sors. When we play a video game our oppo- nentisusuallyanAIsystem.Atmanyairports, an these properties for useful purposes. AI researchers are interest- ed mostly in perception, cognition AI and Alife have benefited from thisshift. Increased computer power has enabled search-based AI

Brooks, Rodney

79

Comparison between Two Different Cervical Interbody Fusion Cages in One Level Stand-alone ACDF: Carbon Fiber Composite Frame Cage Versus Polyetheretherketone Cage  

PubMed Central

Objective The authors conducted a retrospective study to compare the implantation of carbon fiber composite frame cages (CFCFCs) to the implantation of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages after anterior cervical discectomy for cervical degenerative disc disease. In addition, the predictive factors that influenced fusion or subsidence were investigated. Methods A total of 58 patients with single-level degenerative disc disease were treated with anterior cervical discectomy and implantation of stand-alone cages; CFCFCs were used in 35 patients, and PEEK cages were used in 23 patients. Preoperative and postoperative radiological and clinical assessments were performed. Results During the mean follow-up period of 41 months, fusion occurred in 43 patients (74.1%), and subsidence developed in 18 patients (31.0%). Pain decreased in all patients, and the patients' satisfaction rate was 75.9%. Neither fusion nor subsidence was related to the clinical outcome. There were no significant differences in the clinical and radiological outcomes between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Smoking history (p=0.023) was significantly associated with pseudarthrosis, and cage height (?7mm) (p=0.037) were significantly associated with subsidence. Conclusion The clinical and radiological results were similar between the CFCFC and the PEEK cage groups. Fusion or subsidence did not affect the clinical outcomes. Smoking history and cage height (?7mm) were predictive factors for pseudarthrosis or subsidence in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with stand-alone cages.

Yoo, Minwook; Kim, Wook-Ha; Hyun, Seung-Jae; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun-Jib

2014-01-01

80

Sequential Changes of Plasma C-Reactive Protein, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate and White Blood Cell Count in Spine Surgery : Comparison between Lumbar Open Discectomy and Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often utilized to evaluate for postoperative infection. Abnormal values may be detected after surgery even in case of non-infection because of muscle injury, transfusion, which disturbed prompt perioperative management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the perioperative CRP, ESR, and white blood cell (WBC) counts after spine surgery, which was proved to be non-infection. Methods Twenty patients of lumbar open discectomy (LOD) and 20 patients of posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) were enrolled in this study. Preoperative and postoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely for 7 days. Blood samples were obtained one day before surgery and postoperative day (POD) 1, POD3, and POD7. Using repeated measures ANOVA, changes in effect measures over time and between groups over time were assessed. All data analysis was conducted using SAS v.9.1. Results Changes in CRP, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were both statistically significant F(3,120)=5.05, p=0.003 and F(1,39)=7.46, p=0.01, respectively. Most dramatic changes were decreases in the LOD group on POD3 and POD7. Changes in ESR, within treatment groups over time and between treatment groups over time were also found to be statistically significant, F(3,120)=6.67, p=0.0003 and F(1,39)=3.99, p=0.01, respectively. Changes in WBC values also were be statistically significant within groups over time, F(3,120)=40.52, p<0.001, however, no significant difference was found in between groups WBC levels over time, F(1,39)=0.02, p=0.89. Conclusion We found that, dramatic decrease of CRP was detected on POD3 and POD7 in LOD group of non-infection and dramatic increase of ESR on POD3 and POD7 in PLIF group of non-infection. We also assumed that CRP would be more effective and sensitive parameter especially in LOD than PLIF for early detection of infectious complications. Awareness of the typical pattern of CRP, ESR, and WBC may help to evaluate the early postoperative course. PMID:25368764

Choi, Man Kyu; Kim, Kee D; Ament, Jared D.

2014-01-01

81

[Interbody spacers in the treatment of cervical spine disorders].  

PubMed

Degenerative conditions of the spine represent a group of most common lifestyle associated diseases with significant medical and important social impact. Clinical symptoms and syndromes of surgically considerable degenerative diseases of the spine mostly result from nerve root or spinal cord compression caused by a herniated intervertebral disc or a dorsal osteophyte. Therefore, the main goal of the surgical treatment is decompression of the neural structures by complete removal of the intervertebral disc and the osteophytes followed by insertion of an artificial disc spacer into the remaining space. The most frequently used procedure for treating such findings is called anterior cervical discectomy. Since its first introduction in 1950, several modifications of the original technique have been introduced. Their common feature is that removal of the degenerated intervertebral disc or the osteophytes requires stabilization of the adjacent segments by fusion. Thus, implantation of an interbody spacer results not only in intervertebral space reconstruction, but by immobilizing the adjacent vertebral bodies also in forming a firm bony bridging between them--and ultimately a solid bony block. Our paper provides a review of cervical interbody spacers in the order of their evolution from auto- and allografts, through compact materials, cages and dynamic artificial disks. Furthermore, different types of cage filling materials used for fusion augmentation are also discussed. PMID:20731309

Pataky, F; Gajdos, M; Kat'uch, V

2010-07-01

82

Instrumented Minimally Invasive spinal-Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (MIS-TLIF); Minimum 5-years Follow-up With Clinical and Radiologic Outcomes.  

PubMed

STUDY DESIGN:: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE:: To determine the clinical and radiological outcomes of the long-term results of instrumented MIS-TLIF in unstable, single level, low-grade, isthmic spondylolisthesis (IS) or degenerative spondylosis (DS) including degenerative spondylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis with central stenosis, degenerative disc disease, and recurrent disc herniation. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA:: MIS-TLIF is a common surgical procedure to treat lumbar spondylolisthesis. However, there are no studies that have documented the long-term results of MIS-TLIF. METHODS:: Forty-four patients who had undergone instrumented MIS-TLIF between July 2003 and January 2005, were retrospectively reviewed. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), patient satisfaction rate (PSR), and the patient's return-to-work status were used to assess clinical and functional outcomes. Radiological follow-up were carried out in patients to check for adjacent segmental degeneration (ASD). The plain radiographs, CT and MRI were used in all patients in last follow-up period. RESULTS:: The mean VAS scores for back and leg pain decreased from 5.8 and 7 to 3.5 and 3.7 respectively in the DS group (n=19) and from 6.8 and 6.9 to 1.8 and 2.0 respectively in the IS group (n=25) (P<0.001). The mean ODI scores improved from 61.7% to 21.5% in the DS group and from 53.9% to 16% in the IS group (P<0.001). PSR was 80% and 81% in the DS and IS groups, respectively. Evidence of fusion was observed radiologically in 24 (96%) and 19 (100%) of the patients in the IS and the DS group respectively, giving an overall fusion rate of 97.7% (43/44). The final ASD rate, observed using radiography, was 68.4% (13/19) in the DS, and 40% (10/25) in the IS group. However, 15.8% (3/19) in the DS and 4% (1/25) in the IS group had symptoms associated with ASD. CONCLUSIONS:: The long-term clinical and radiologic outcomes after instrumented MIS-TLIF in patients with unstable single-level spine are favorable. PMID:23027364

Kim, Jin-Sung; Jung, Byungjoo; Lee, Sang-Ho

2012-09-28

83

Improving and still passing the ALife test: Component-normalised activity statistics classify evolution in Geb as unbounded  

E-print Network

, such as the biosphere's fossil record. Any artificial system can be tested, and those that have been include Tierra evolution in Geb as unbounded Alastair Channon Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering Anglesea provides a test for open- ended evolution. Making this ALife test more rigorous, and passing it, are two

Channon, Alastair

84

146 H. ALIF_-\\XET )IARIE BEJA)IBES. -DOSAGE SDIULTAN [Il] E. G. PONT. The \\Vashing of Butter and It s Effect on Curd Content and  

E-print Network

146 H. ALIF_-\\XET )IARIE BEJA)IBES. - DOSAGE SDIULTAN� [Il] E. G. PONT. The \\Vashing of Butter. POXT. The Keeping Quality of Non- \\Vashed Butter. J. éouneilSei. Incl. Hcsearch., Aust ra.lia, 21 : 319, 1948. [13] R. R. RIEL, A. H. \\VHITE, and \\V.' A. MCGUGAN. \\Vashed and Non- washed Butter. Il. Che mica

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

85

Development of a Novel Piezoelectric Implant to Improve the Success Rate of Spinal Fusions  

E-print Network

is one of the most common neurological diseases, second to only headaches. The primary surgical procedure to relieve lower back pain is known as a lumbar interbody fusion. The goal of this surgery is to stabilize the problematic spine segment by removing...

Tobaben, Nicholas

2012-08-31

86

Outcome in Cloward Anterior Fusion for Degenerative Cervical Spinal Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  ¶?The Cloward ventral interbody fusion is often employed for treatment of cervical degenerative disease. The present study\\u000a was aimed at evaluating results and complications in this classical type of autologous bone graft procedure in a cohort of\\u000a patients with radiculopathy (RP) or myeloradiculopathy (MRP). Indications for and limitations of the technique were investigated\\u000a by retrospective data analysis in a series

V. Heidecke; N. G. Rainov; T. Marx; W. Burkert

2000-01-01

87

Adjacent Lumbar Disc Herniation after Lumbar Short Spinal Fusion  

PubMed Central

A 70-year-old outpatient presented with a chief complaint of sudden left leg motor weakness and sensory disturbance. He had undergone L4/5 posterior interbody fusion with L3–5 posterior fusions for spondylolisthesis 3 years prior, and the screws were removed 1 year later. He has been followed up for 3 years, and there had been no adjacent segment problems before this presentation. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a large L2/3 disc hernia descending to the L3/4 level. Compared to the initial MRI, this hernia occurred in an “intact” disc among multilevel severely degenerated discs. Right leg paresis and bladder dysfunction appeared a few days after admission. Microscopic lumbar disc herniotomy was performed. The right leg motor weakness improved just after the operation, but the moderate left leg motor weakness and difficulty in urination persisted. PMID:25276453

Iwatsuki, Koichi; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Yoshimine, Toshiki

2014-01-01

88

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion Using a Modified Distractor Handle: A Midterm Clinicoradiological Follow-Up Study  

PubMed Central

In current TLIF practice, the choice of the cage size is empirical and primarily depends on the case volume and experience of the surgeon. We used a self-made modified distractor handle in TLIF procedure with the goal of standardizing the intervertebral space tension and determining the proper cage size. PMID:24089692

Rewuti, Abuduaini; Chen, Zixian; Feng, Zhenzhou; Cao, Yuanwu; Jiang, Xiaoxing; Jiang, Chun

2013-01-01

89

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 4: radiographic assessment of fusion status.  

PubMed

The ability to identify a successful arthrodesis is an essential element in the management of patients undergoing lumbar fusion procedures. The hypothetical gold standard of intraoperative exploration to identify, under direct observation, a solid arthrodesis is an impractical alternative. Therefore, radiographic assessment remains the most viable instrument to evaluate for a successful arthrodesis. Static radiographs, particularly in the presence of instrumentation, are not recommended. In the absence of spinal instrumentation, lack of motion on flexion-extension radiographs is highly suggestive of a successful fusion; however, motion observed at the treated levels does not necessarily predict pseudarthrosis. The degree of motion on dynamic views that would distinguish between a successful arthrodesis and pseudarthrosis has not been clearly defined. Computed tomography with fine-cut axial images and multiplanar views is recommended and appears to be the most sensitive for assessing fusion following instrumented posterolateral and anterior lumbar interbody fusions. For suspected symptomatic pseudarthrosis, a combination of techniques including static and dynamic radiographs as well as CT images is recommended as an option. Lack of facet fusion is considered to be more suggestive of a pseudarthrosis compared with absence of bridging posterolateral bone. Studies exploring additional noninvasive modalities of fusion assessment have demonstrated either poor potential, such as with (99m)Tc bone scans, or provide insufficient information to formulate a definitive recommendation. PMID:24980581

Choudhri, Tanvir F; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dhall, Sanjay S; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Ghogawala, Zoher; Watters, William C; Dailey, Andrew T; Resnick, Daniel K; Sharan, Alok; Wang, Jeffrey C; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

90

Nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of nuclear fusion as an energy source and research progress in this area are summarized. The current state of the art is described. Laser fusion, inertial confinement fusion, and magnetic fusion (the tokamak) are explained, the latter in some detail. Remaining problems and planned future reactors are considered. They are the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT), the International Thermonuclear

T. K. Fowler

1989-01-01

91

Nuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect

The advantages of nuclear fusion as an energy source and research progress in this area are summarized. The current state of the art is described. Laser fusion, inertial confinement fusion, and magnetic fusion (the tokamak) are explained, the latter in some detail. Remaining problems and planned future reactors are considered. They are the compact ignition tokamak (CIT), the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER), and TIBER II. The design of the latter is shown.

Fowler, T.K. (Dept. of Nuci. Eng., California Univ., Berkeley, CA (US))

1989-05-01

92

Fusion Basics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory provides background information about fusion. Different sections cover fusion reactions, plasma heating, and how a fusion power plant would work. In addition, the site offers links to research projects at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.

2009-11-05

93

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-04-20

94

Fusion breeder  

SciTech Connect

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs.

Moir, R.W.

1982-02-22

95

"Polarized" Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing energy demand in view of limited supply, as well as environmental and nuclear-safety concerns leading to increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as solar or wind energy are expected to focus public and scientific interest increasingly also on fusion energy. With the decision to build ITER (low-density magnetic confinement) and also continuing research on (high-density) inertial-confinement fusion (cf. the inauguration of the laser fusion facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) prospects of fusion energy have probably entered a new era.

Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

96

Fusion Implementation  

SciTech Connect

If a fusion DEMO reactor can be brought into operation during the first half of this century, fusion power production can have a significant impact on carbon dioxide production during the latter half of the century. An assessment of fusion implementation scenarios shows that the resource demands and waste production associated with these scenarios are manageable factors. If fusion is implemented during the latter half of this century it will be one element of a portfolio of (hopefully) carbon dioxide limiting sources of electrical power. It is time to assess the regional implications of fusion power implementation. An important attribute of fusion power is the wide range of possible regions of the country, or countries in the world, where power plants can be located. Unlike most renewable energy options, fusion energy will function within a local distribution system and not require costly, and difficult, long distance transmission systems. For example, the East Coast of the United States is a prime candidate for fusion power deployment by virtue of its distance from renewable energy sources. As fossil fuels become less and less available as an energy option, the transmission of energy across bodies of water will become very expensive. On a global scale, fusion power will be particularly attractive for regions separated from sources of renewable energy by oceans.

J.A. Schmidt

2002-02-20

97

Assisted fusion  

E-print Network

A model of nuclear fusion consisting of a wave packet impinging into a well located between square one dimensional barriers is treated analytically. The wave function inside the well is calculated exactly for the assisted tunneling induced by a perturbation mimicking a constant electric field with arbitrary time dependence. Conditions are found for the enhancement of fusion.

German Kälbermann

2009-10-19

98

Image fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The topics covered include the following: a system overview of the basic components of a system designed to improve the ability of a pilot to fly through low-visibility conditions such as fog; the role of visual sciences; fusion issues; sensor characterization; sources of information; image processing; and image fusion.

Pavel, M.

1993-01-01

99

Characteristics of Back Muscle Strength in Patients with Scheduled for Lumbar Fusion Surgery due to Symptomatic Lumbar Degenerative Diseases  

PubMed Central

Study Design Cross sectional study. Purpose To evaluate characteristics of back muscle strength in patients scheduled for lumbar fusion surgery. Overview of Literature Little is known regarding muscle strength in patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases who require fusion surgery. Methods Consecutive 354 patients scheduled for posterior lumbar interbody fusion due to symptomatic degenerative diseases were approached for participation. 316 patients were enrolled. Before surgery, muscle strength was assessed by measuring maximal isometric extension strength at seven angular positions (0°, 12°, 24°, 36°, 48°, 60°, and 72°) and mean isometric strength was calculated. The Oswestry Disability Index (0-100) and visual analogue scale (0-100) for back pain were recorded. Muscle strength was compared according to gender, age (<60, 60-70, and ?70 years) and scheduled fusion level (short, <3; long, ?3). Results Isometric strength was significantly decreased compared with previously reported results of healthy individuals, particularly at extension positions (0°-48°, p<0.05). Mean isometric strength was significantly lower in females (p<0.001) and older patients (p<0.05). Differences of isometric strength between short and long level fusion were not significantly different (p>0.05). Isometric strengths showed significant, but weak, inverse correlations with age and Oswestry Disability Index (r<0.4, p<0.05). Conclusions In patients with symptomatic lumbar degenerative diseases, back muscle strength significantly decreased, particularly at lumbar extension positions, and in females and older patients. PMID:25346820

Park, Won Hah; Lee, Chong Suh; Kang, Kyung Chung

2014-01-01

100

Pedicle-Screw-Based Dynamic Systems and Degenerative Lumbar Diseases: Biomechanical and Clinical Experiences of Dynamic Fusion with Isobar TTL  

PubMed Central

Dynamic systems in the lumbar spine are believed to reduce main fusion drawbacks such as pseudarthrosis, bone rarefaction, and mechanical failure. Compared to fusion achieved with rigid constructs, biomechanical studies underlined some advantages of dynamic instrumentation including increased load sharing between the instrumentation and interbody bone graft and stresses reduction at bone-to-screw interface. These advantages may result in increased fusion rates, limitation of bone rarefaction, and reduction of mechanical complications with the ultimate objective to reduce reoperations rates. However published clinical evidence for dynamic systems remains limited. In addition to providing biomechanical evaluation of a pedicle-screw-based dynamic system, the present study offers a long-term (average 10.2 years) insight view of the clinical outcomes of 18 patients treated by fusion with dynamic systems for degenerative lumbar spine diseases. The findings outline significant and stable symptoms relief, absence of implant-related complications, no revision surgery, and few adjacent segment degenerative changes. In spite of sample limitations, this is the first long-term report of outcomes of dynamic fusion that opens an interesting perspective for clinical outcomes of dynamic systems that need to be explored at larger scale. PMID:25031874

Barrey, Cedric; Perrin, Gilles; Champain, Sabina

2013-01-01

101

Fusion Simulation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, kids are able to see with their own eyes how fusion works. The simple experiment requires only Velcro and two strong magnets.The activity begins with a brief overview that introduces students to the science they are about to see. Then, the procedure is laid out in simple step-by-step directions. The activity ends with an explanation that gives students a deeper understanding of how what they've just witnessed relates to fusion.

102

Osteoconductive hydroxyapatite coated PEEK for spinal fusion surgery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) has attracted much interest as biomaterial for interbody fusion cages due to its similar stiffness to bone and good radio-transparency for post-op visualization. Hydroxyapatite (HA) coating stimulates bone growth to the medical implant. The objective of this work is to make an implant consisting of biocompatible PEEK with an osteoconductive HA surface for spinal or orthopedic applications. Highly dense and well-adhered HA coating was developed on medical-grade PEEK using aerosol deposition (AD) without thermal degradation of the PEEK. The HA coating had a dense microstructure with no cracks or pores, and showed good adhesion to PEEK at adhesion strengths above 14.3 MPa. The crystallinity of the HA coating was remarkably enhanced by hydrothermal annealing as post-deposition heat-treatment. In addition, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of PEEK, in terms of cell adhesion morphology, cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone-to-implant contact ratio, were remarkably enhanced by the HA coating through AD.

Hahn, Byung-Dong; Park, Dong-Soo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Ryu, Jungho; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Woo; Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Hyoun-Ee; Yoon, Byung-Ho; Jung, In-Kwon

2013-10-01

103

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion  

E-print Network

RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Image Fusion: Introduction to the Technology Charles A. Pelizzari, Ph.D. Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology The University of Chicago #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion "Fusion and limitations) ·Where do we need to go? (future directions) #12;RSNA 2002: Image Fusion Terminology

Pelizzari, Charles A.

104

Fracto-fusion. Mechanism of cold fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a cold fusion mechanism, a fracto-fusion was investigated by which reacting particles are accelerated by the electric field generated between the crack surfaces in a crystal and the beam fusion occurs. By assuming the possible magnitude of the potential difference the fusion rate and energy multiplication factor were calculated. These results are consistent with cold fusion experiments. On the

Tatsuoki Takeda; Tomonori Takizuka

1989-01-01

105

Kinematic evaluation of the adjacent segments after lumbar instrumented surgery: a comparison between rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization.  

PubMed

The aim of the current study was to evaluate changes in lumbar kinematics after lumbar monosegmental instrumented surgery with rigid fusion and dynamic non-fusion stabilization. A total of 77 lumbar spinal stenosis patients with L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis underwent L4-5 monosegmental posterior instrumented surgery. Of these, 36 patients were treated with rigid fusion (transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion) and 41 with dynamic stabilization [segmental spinal correction system (SSCS)]. Lumbar kinematics was evaluated with functional radiographs preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. We defined the contribution of each segmental mobility to the total lumbar mobility as the percent segmental mobility [(sagittal angular motion of each segment in degrees)/(total sagittal angular motion in degrees) × 100]. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on all patients preoperatively and at final follow-up postoperatively. The discs were classified into five grades based on the previously reported system. We defined the progress of disc degeneration as (grade at final follow-up) - (grade at preoperatively). No significant kinematical differences were shown at any of the lumbar segments preoperatively; however, significant differences were observed at the L2-3, L4-5, and L5-S1 segments postoperatively between the groups. At final follow-up, all of the lumbar segments with rigid fusion demonstrated significantly greater disc degeneration than those with dynamic stabilization. Our results suggest that the SSCS preserved 14% of the kinematical operations at the instrumented segment. The SSCS may prevent excessive effects on adjacent segmental kinematics and may prevent the incidence of adjacent segment disorder. PMID:21301893

Morishita, Yuichiro; Ohta, Hideki; Naito, Masatoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Huang, George; Tatsumi, Masato; Takemitsu, Yoshiharu; Kida, Hirotaka

2011-09-01

106

Anterior lumbar interbody surgery for spondylosis results from a classically-trained neurosurgeon.  

PubMed

Anterior lumbar surgery for degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a relatively novel technique that can prevent damage to posterior osseous, muscular and ligamentous spinal elements. This study reports the outcomes and complications in 286 patients who underwent fusion - with artificial disc implants or combined fusion and artificial disc implants - by a single-operator neurosurgeon, with up to 24 months of follow-up. The visual analogue scale (VAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form 36 (SF36) and prospective log of adverse events were used to assess the clinical outcome. Radiographic assessments of implant position and bony fusion were analysed. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were also recorded. Irrespective of pre-surgical symptoms (back pain alone or back and leg pain combined), workers' compensation status and type of surgical implant, clinically significant improvements in VAS, ODI and SF36 were primarily observed at 3 and/or 6 month follow-up, and improvements were maintained at 24 months after surgery. A 94% fusion rate was obtained; the overall complication was 9.8% which included 3.5% with vascular complications. The anterior lumbar approach can be used for treating DDD for both back pain and back and leg pain with low complication rates. With appropriate training, single-operator neurosurgeons can safely perform these surgeries. PMID:24786717

Chatha, Gurkirat; Foo, Stacy W L; Lind, Christopher R P; Budgeon, Charley; Bannan, Paul E

2014-09-01

107

Cold fusion: Alchemist's dream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalyzed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalyzed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D2 molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice\\/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D2 fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into He-4;

E. D. Clayton

1989-01-01

108

Guideline update for the performance of fusion procedures for degenerative disease of the lumbar spine. Part 3: assessment of economic outcome.  

PubMed

A comprehensive economic analysis generally involves the calculation of indirect and direct health costs from a societal perspective as opposed to simply reporting costs from a hospital or payer perspective. Hospital charges for a surgical procedure must be converted to cost data when performing a cost-effectiveness analysis. Once cost data has been calculated, quality-adjusted life year data from a surgical treatment are calculated by using a preference-based health-related quality-of-life instrument such as the EQ-5D. A recent cost-utility analysis from a single study has demonstrated the long-term (over an 8-year time period) benefits of circumferential fusions over stand-alone posterolateral fusions. In addition, economic analysis from a single study has found that lumbar fusion for selected patients with low-back pain can be recommended from an economic perspective. Recent economic analysis, from a single study, finds that femoral ring allograft might be more cost-effective compared with a specific titanium cage when performing an anterior lumbar interbody fusion plus posterolateral fusion. PMID:24980580

Ghogawala, Zoher; Whitmore, Robert G; Watters, William C; Sharan, Alok; Mummaneni, Praveen V; Dailey, Andrew T; Choudhri, Tanvir F; Eck, Jason C; Groff, Michael W; Wang, Jeffrey C; Resnick, Daniel K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Kaiser, Michael G

2014-07-01

109

Nell-1 Protein Promotes Bone Formation in a Sheep Spinal Fusion Model  

PubMed Central

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are widely used as bone graft substitutes in spinal fusion, but are associated with numerous adverse effects. The growth factor Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1) is mechanistically distinct from BMPs and can minimize complications associated with BMP therapies. This study evaluates the efficacy of Nell-1 combined with demineralized bone matrix (DBM) as a novel bone graft material for interbody spine fusion using sheep, a phylogenetically advanced animal with biomechanical similarities to human spine. Nell-1+sheep DBM or Nell-1+heat-inactivated DBM (inDBM) (to determine the osteogenic effect of residual growth factors in DBM) were implanted in surgical sites as follows: (1) DBM only (control) (n=8); (2) DBM+0.3?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=8); (3) DBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=8); (4) inDBM only (control) (n=4); (5) inDBM+0.3?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=4); (6) inDBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 (n=4). Fusion was assessed by computed tomography, microcomputed tomography, and histology. One hundred percent fusion was achieved by 3 months in the DBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 group and by 4 months in the inDBM+0.6?mg/mL Nell-1 group; bone volume and mineral density were increased by 58% and 47%, respectively. These fusion rates are comparable to published reports on BMP-2 or autograft bone efficacy in sheep. Nell-1 is an independently potent osteogenic molecule that is efficacious and easily applied when combined with DBM. PMID:21128865

Siu, Ronald K.; Lu, Steven S.; Li, Weiming; Whang, Julie; McNeill, Gabriel; Zhang, Xinli; Wu, Benjamin M.; Turner, A. Simon; Seim, Howard B.; Hoang, Paul; Wang, Jeffrey C.; Gertzman, Arthur A.; Ting, Kang

2011-01-01

110

Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream  

SciTech Connect

In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

Clayton, E.D.

1989-09-01

111

Arthrodesis to L5 versus S1 in long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis.  

PubMed

There is a debate regarding the distal fusion level for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. Whether a healthy L5-S1 motion segment should be included or not in the fusion remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal indication for the fusion to the sacrum, and to compare the results of distal fusion to L5 versus the sacrum in the long instrumented fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis. A total of 45 patients who had undergone long instrumentation and fusion for degenerative lumbar scoliosis were evaluated with a minimum 2 year follow-up. Twenty-four patients (mean age 63.6) underwent fusion to L5 and 21 patients (mean age 65.6) underwent fusion to the sacrum. Supplemental interbody fusion was performed in 12 patients in the L5 group and eleven patients in the sacrum group. The number of levels fused was 6.08 segments (range 4-8) in the L5 group and 6.09 (range 4-9) in the sacrum group. Intraoperative blood loss (2,754 ml versus 2,938 ml) and operative time (220 min versus 229 min) were similar in both groups. The Cobb angle changed from 24.7 degrees before surgery to 6.8 degrees after surgery in the L5 group, and from 22.8 degrees to 7.7 degrees in the sacrum group without statistical difference. Correction of lumbar lordosis was statistically better in the sacrum group (P = 0.03). Less correction of lumbar lordosis in the L5 group seemed to be associated with subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration. The change of coronal and sagittal imbalance was not different in both groups. Subsequent advanced L5-S1 disc degeneration occurred in 58% of the patients in the L5 group. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 developed in five patients. Interestingly, the development of adjacent segment disease was not related to the preoperative grade of disc degeneration, which proved minimal degeneration in the five patients. In the L5 group, there were nine patients of complications at L5-S1 segment, including adjacent segment disease at L5-S1 and loosening of L5 screws. Seven of the nine patients showed preoperative sagittal imbalance and/or lumbar hypolordosis, which might be risk factors of complications at L5-S1. For the patients with sagittal imbalance and lumbar hypolordosis, L5-S1 should be included in the fusion even if L5-S1 disc was minimal degeneration. PMID:19165507

Cho, Kyu-Jung; Suk, Se-Il; Park, Seung-Rim; Kim, Jin-Hyok; Choi, Sung-Wook; Yoon, Young-Hyun; Won, Man-Hee

2009-04-01

112

Cold fusion: muon-catalysed fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors put into perspective and further develop their recent work in muon catalysed fusion, with the objective of identifying the key physical processes in the t(d,n) alpha fusion cycle relevant to energy related applications. They begin by discussing the fusion cycle and point out the importance of direct nuclear reactions in the catalysed fusion processes. This is followed by

H. E. Rafelski; D. Harley; G. R. Shin; J. Rafelski

1991-01-01

113

Adjacent segment disease after fusion for cervical spondylosis; myth or reality?  

PubMed

Cervical spondylosis is a common cause of radiculopathy and myelopathy, often treated by discectomy and interbody fusion. However, there has been a recent vogue for the use of artificial disc prostheses to decrease the risk of accelerated degenerative disease at adjacent levels. The short-term results of artificial disc replacements have been encouraging, but the long-term justification for using this new technology hinges on whether the incidence of adjacent segment disease decreases. It will also be necessary to demonstrate that movement at the operated levels is maintained and the incidence of device failure is low. We review the radiological, biomechanical and clinical evidence for adjacent segment disease, and the rationale for using artificial cervical disc replacements. There is presently insufficient evidence to justify the widespread use of artificial disc replacements in the treatment of cervical spondylosis, but neither is there sufficient evidence to criticize their use. Present evidence suggests that adjacent segment disease is partly due to the natural history of spondylotic disease and partly due to cervical fusion. Randomized trials are required to ascertain whether the incidence of adjacent segment disease changes with the use of artificial disc replacements in the long term. Indications for the use of artificial discs are presently unclear, but disc replacements might be recommended for 'young' patients who require an anterior cervical discectomy, with good ranges of neck movements, and an awareness of the satisfactory short-term results, but lack of long-term outcome data, preferably within the limits of a clinical trial. PMID:18348013

Seo, Moonsang; Choi, D

2008-04-01

114

Nuclear Fusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simple and engaging astronomy activity explains nuclear fusion and how radiation is generated by stars, using marshmallows as a model. Learners will explore what cosmic radiation is and where it comes from, and how the elements in the universe are generated. The PDF contains step-by-step instructions, photos, presentation tips, links to background information, and a printable Periodic Table of the Elements.

Pacific, Astronomical S.

2008-01-01

115

Complications of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion using recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2  

PubMed Central

The use of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) in spinal fusion has increased dramatically since an FDA approval for its use in anterior lumbar fusion with the LT cage. There are several reports of its use in transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, posterolateral fusion, and anterior cervical fusion. Reports on adverse effects of rhBMP-2 when used in spinal fusion are scarce in literature. An Institutional Review Board approved retrospective study was conducted in patients undergoing anterior spinal fusion and instrumentation following diskectomy at a single center. Forty-six consecutive patients were included. Twenty-two patients treated with rhBMP-2 and PEEK cages were compared to 24 in whom allograft spacers and demineralized bone matrix was used. Patients filled out Cervical Oswestry Scores, VAS for arm pain, neck pain, and had radiographs preoperatively as well at every follow up visit. Radiographic examination following surgery revealed end plate resorption in all patients in whom rhBMP-2 was used. This was followed by a period of new bone formation commencing at 6 weeks. In contrast, allograft patients showed a progressive blurring of end plate-allograft junction. Dysphagia was a common complication and it was significantly more frequent and more severe in patients in whom rhBMP-2 was used. Post operative swelling anterior to the vertebral body on lateral cervical spine X-ray was significantly larger in the rhBMP-2 group when measured from 1 to 6 weeks after which it was similar. These effects are possibly due to an early inflammatory response to rhBMP-2 and were observed to be dose related. With the parameters we used, there was no significant difference in the clinical outcome of patients in the two groups at 2 years. The cost of implants in patients treated with rhBMP-2 and PEEK spacers was more than three times the cost of allograft spacers and demineralized bone matrix in 1, 2, and 3-level cases. Despite providing consistently good fusion rates, we have abandoned using rhBMP-2 and PEEK cages for anterior cervical fusion, due to the side effects, high cost, and the availability of a suitable alternative. PMID:17387522

Carp, Julia; Sethi, Anil; Bartol, Stephen; Craig, Joseph; Les, Clifford M.

2007-01-01

116

Sagittal Sacropelvic Morphology and Balance in Patients with Sacroiliac Joint Pain Following Lumbar Fusion Surgery  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance of the patients with SIJ pain following lumbar fusion. Methods Among 452 patients who underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion between June 2009 and January 2013, patients with postoperative SIJ pain, being responded to SIJ block were enrolled. For a control group, patients matched for sex, age group, the number of fused level and fusion to sacrum were randomly selected. Patients were assessed radiologic parameters including lumbar lordosis, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT) and sacral slope (SS). To evaluate the sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance, the ratio of PT/PI, SS/PI and PT/SS were analyzed. Results A total of 28 patients with SIJ pain and 56 patients without SIJ pain were assessed. Postoperatively, SIJ pain group showed significantly greater PT (p=0.02) than non-SIJ pain group. Postoperatively, PT/PI and SS/PI in SIJ pain group was significantly greater and smaller than those in non-SIJ pain group respectively (p=0.03, 0.02, respectively) except for PT/SS (p=0.05). SIJ pain group did not show significant postoperative changes of PT/PI and SS/PI (p=0.09 and 0.08, respectively) while non-SIJ pain group showed significantly decrease of PT/PI (p=0.00) and increase of SS/PI (p=0.00). Conclusion This study presents different sagittal sacropelvic morphology and balance between the patients with/without SIJ pain following lumbar fusion surgery. The patients with SIJ pain showed retroversed pelvis and vertical sacrum while the patients without SIJ pain have similar morphologic features with asymptomatic populations in the literature. PMID:24278648

Cho, Dong-Young; Hur, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Kyeong-Sik; Park, Chun-Kun

2013-01-01

117

Health economic evaluation in lumbar spinal fusion: a systematic literature review anno 2005.  

PubMed

The goal of this systematic literature review was to assess the evidence for cost-effectiveness of various surgical techniques in lumbar spinal fusion in conformity with the guidelines provided by the Cochrane Back Review Group. As new technology continuously emerges and divergent directions in clinical practice are present, economic evaluation is needed in order to facilitate the decision-makers' budget allocations. NHS Economic Evaluation Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library were searched. Two independent reviewers (one clinical content expert and one economic content expert) applied the eligibility criteria. A list of criteria for methodological quality assessment was established by merging the criteria recommended by leading health economists with the criteria recommended by the Cochrane Back Review Group. The two reviewers independently scored the selected literature and the disagreement was resolved by means of consensus following discussion. Key data were extracted and the level of evidence concluded. Seven studies were eligible; these studies reflected the diversified choices of economic methodology, study populations (diagnosis), outcome measures and comparators. At the conclusion of quality assessment, the methodological quality of three studies was judged credible. Two studies investigated posteolateral fusion (PLF) +/- instrumentation in different populations: one investigated non-specific low back pain and one investigated degenerative stenosis + spondylolisthesis. Both studies reflected that cost-effectiveness of instrumentation in PLF is not convincing. The third study concerned the question of circumferential vs anterior lumbar interbody fusion and found a non-significant difference between the techniques. In conclusion, the literature is limited and, in view of the fact that the clinical effects are statistically synonymous, it does not support the use of high-cost techniques. There is a great potential for improvement of methodological quality in economic evaluations of lumbar spinal fusion and further research is imperative. PMID:16369828

Soegaard, Rikke; Christensen, Finn B

2006-08-01

118

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center; April 10 Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Fusion Magnets Peer Review, MIT Plasma

119

data fusion 15 June 2012  

E-print Network

real world data fusion Fred Daum 15 June 2012 data fusion Copyright © 2012 Raytheon Company. All fusion fusion of measurements performance fusion of tracks interesting parameter 3 #12;real world multi-sensor data fusion fusion of tracks performance fusion of measurements interesting parameter 4 #12;real world

Dobigeon, Nicolas

120

Fusion Plasmas Martin Greenwald  

E-print Network

of controlled fusion energy into a practical reality (1-3). In fusion reactions, nuclei of light elements join to form heavier elements releasing enormous quantities of energy. Nuclear fusion powers the sun and other of protons and neutrons. The advantages of fusion energy seem clear enough; it offers the prospect

Greenwald, Martin

121

Porous titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium cage has better osseointegration and less micromotion than a poly-ether-ether-ketone cage in sheep vertebral fusion.  

PubMed

Interbody fusion cages made of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) have been widely used in clinics for spinal disorders treatment; however, they do not integrate well with surrounding bone tissue. Ti-6Al-4V (Ti) has demonstrated greater osteoconductivity than PEEK, but the traditional Ti cage is generally limited by its much greater elastic modulus (110?GPa) than natural bone (0.05-30?GPa). In this study, we developed a porous Ti cage using electron beam melting (EBM) technique to reduce its elastic modulus and compared its spinal fusion efficacy with a PEEK cage in a preclinical sheep anterior cervical fusion model. A porous Ti cage possesses a fully interconnected porous structure (porosity: 68?±?5.3%; pore size: 710?±?42??m) and a similar Young's modulus as natural bone (2.5?±?0.2?GPa). When implanted in vivo, the porous Ti cage promoted fast bone ingrowth, achieving similar bone volume fraction at 6 months as the PEEK cage without autograft transplantation. Moreover, it promoted better osteointegration with higher degree (2-10x) of bone-material binding, demonstrated by histomorphometrical analysis, and significantly higher mechanical stability (P?

Wu, Su-Hua; Li, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Quan; Li, Xiao-Kang; Yuan, Chao-Fan; Hao, Yu-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Guo, Zheng

2013-12-01

122

The View From Elsewhere: Perspectives on ALife Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many artié cial life researchers stress the interdisciplinary character of the é eld. Against such a backdrop, this report reviews and discusses artié cial life, as it is depicted in, and as it interfaces with, adjacent disciplines (in particular, philosophy, biology, and linguistics), and in the light of a specié c historical example of interdisciplinary research (namely cybernetics) with which

Michael Wheeler; Seth Bullock; Ezequiel A. Di Paolo; Jason Noble; Mark A. Bedau; Philip Husbands; Simon Kirby; Anil K. Seth

2002-01-01

123

Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"  

E-print Network

Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

Rainer W. Kuehne

2006-04-14

124

Bemerkungen zur "kalten Fusion"  

E-print Network

Steven Jones et al. reported to have observed nuclear fusion at room temperature. They observed this "cold fusion" by electrolyzing heavy water. Later experiments confirmed these observations. These experiments confirmed the generation of strong electric fields within the deuterided metals. These electric fields accelerate the deuterons to keV energies and allow the observed nuclear fusion. Roman Sioda and I suggested a theoretical description of this nuclear fusion. Our "extended micro hot fusion" scenario explains how nuclear fusion can be generated over a long time within deuterided metals. Moreover we predicted the explosion of large pieces of deuterided metals. This article reviews the "cold fusion" work of Steven Jones et al. and discusses the fracto-fusion scenario. I show that the extended micro hot fusion scenario can explain the observed neutron emissions, neutron bursts, and heat bursts.

Kuehne, R W

2006-01-01

125

Review of fusion synfuels  

SciTech Connect

Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high-temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 65% are projected for fusion reactors using high-temperatures blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J.A.

1980-01-01

126

Development and Testing of Manufacturing Methods for a Piezoelectric Composite Stacked Generator to Improve the Success Rate of Interbody Spinal Fusion  

E-print Network

method using silver epoxy. Furthermore, this work investigates potential modes of failure and the ability of the specimen to provide an adequate amount of power for electrical stimulation. Three testing stages were conducted to determine potential failure...

Tobaben, Eric

2014-08-31

127

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2012 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making affordable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based to demonstrate the first fusion system capable of "net gain" 3 years after proof · Validated by leading experts

128

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion  

E-print Network

Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 1 General Fusion #12;Fusion Power Associates, 2011 Annual Meeting 2 General Fusion Making commercially viable fusion power a reality. · Founded in 2002, based in Vancouver, Canada · Plan to demonstrate a fusion system capable of "net gain" within 3 years

129

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz M Point Studies #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division A New on assumed p*/E #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Calibration

130

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division  

E-print Network

MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division J.H. Schultz, P close #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Dimensionally No , Yes No #12;MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center Fusion Technology & Engineering Division Ip

131

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission  

E-print Network

Fusion Energy Sciences Program Mission The Fusion Energy Sciences (FES) program leads the national research effort to advance plasma science, fusion science, and fusion technology--the knowledge base needed for an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source. The National Energy Policy states that fusion

132

Towards cognitive image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. However, the cognitive aspects of multisensor image fusion have not received much attention in the development of these methods. In this study we investigate how humans interpret visual

Alexander Toet; Maarten A. Hogervorst; Stavri G. Nikolov; John J. Lewis; Timothy D. Dixon; David R. Bull; Cedric Nishan Canagarajah

2010-01-01

133

Investigations of image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in

Zhong Zhang

1999-01-01

134

About sponsorship Fusion power  

E-print Network

project to build a nuclear-fusion reactor came a step closer to reality when politicians agreed it should proving step before a commercial fusion reactor is built. It would demonstrate that power can be generated into those alternatives. ITER Part of the reason why commercial fusion reactors have always been 30 years

135

Controlled nuclear fusion apparatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fusion power generating device is disclosed having a relatively small and inexpensive core region which may be contained within an energy absorbing blanket region. The fusion power core region contains apparatus of the toroidal type for confining a high density plasma. The fusion power core is removable from the blanket region and may be disposed and\\/or recycled for subsequent

R. W. Bussard; B. Coppi

1982-01-01

136

Biomechanical comparison of three stand-alone lumbar cages -- a three-dimensional finite element analysis  

PubMed Central

Background For anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), stand-alone cages can be supplemented with vertebral plate, locking screws, or threaded cylinder to avoid the use of posterior fixation. Intuitively, the plate, screw, and cylinder aim to be embedded into the vertebral bodies to effectively immobilize the cage itself. The kinematic and mechanical effects of these integrated components on the lumbar construct have not been extensively studied. A nonlinearly lumbar finite-element model was developed and validated to investigate the biomechanical differences between three stand-alone (Latero, SynFix, and Stabilis) and SynCage-Open plus transpedicular fixation. All four cages were instrumented at the L3-4 level. Methods The lumbar models were subjected to the follower load along the lumbar column and the moment at the lumbar top to produce flexion (FL), extension (EX), left/right lateral bending (LLB, RLB), and left/right axial rotation (LAR, RAR). A 10 Nm moment was applied to obtain the six physiological motions in all models. The comparison indices included disc range of motion (ROM), facet contact force, and stresses of the annulus and implants. Results At the surgical level, the SynCage-open model supplemented with transpedicular fixation decreased ROM (>76%) greatly; while the SynFix model decreased ROM 56-72%, the Latero model decreased ROM 36-91%, in all motions as compared with the INT model. However, the Stabilis model decreased ROM slightly in extension (11%), lateral bending (21%), and axial rotation (34%). At the adjacent levels, there were no obvious differences in ROM and annulus stress among all instrumented models. Conclusions ALIF instrumentation with the Latero or SynFix cage provides an acceptable stability for clinical use without the requirement of additional posterior fixation. However, the Stabilis cage is not favored in extension and lateral bending because of insufficient stabilization. PMID:24088294

2013-01-01

137

Magnetized target fusion and fusion propulsion.  

SciTech Connect

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is a thermonuclear fusion concept that is intermediate between the two mainline approaches, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement fusion (MCF and ICF). MTF incorporates some aspects of each and offers advantages over each of the mainline approaches. First, it provides a means of reducing the driver power requirements, thereby admitting a wider range of drivers than ICF. Second, the magnetic field is only used for insulation, not confinement, and the plasma is wall confined, so that plasma instabilities are traded in for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, the degree of compression required to reach fusion conditions is lower than for ICF, so that hydrodynamic instabilities are much less threatening. The standoff driver innovation proposes to dynamically form the target plasma and a gaseous shell that compresses and confines the target plasma. Therefore, fusion target fabrication is traded in for a multiplicity of plasma guns, which must work in synchrony. The standoff driver embodiment of MTF leads to a fusion propulsion system concept that is potentially compact and lightweight. We will discuss the underlying physics of MTF and some of the details of the fusion propulsion concept using the standoff driver approach. We discuss here the optimization of an MTF target design for space propulsion.

Kirkpatrick, R. C. (Ronald C.)

2001-01-01

138

A polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate composite scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a sheep model.  

PubMed

Titanium (Ti) based spinal fusion cages are frequently used in the clinics for the treatment of spinal degeneration and related diseases, however, their further clinical application is generally harassed by several drawbacks such as stress shielding, non-biodegradability and additional bone grafting procedure. Our earlier work has demonstrated the efficacy of a biodegradable macro-porous polycaprolactone-tricalcium phosphate (PCL-TCP) composite scaffold in promoting bony tissue ingrowth as well as its ability to sustain mechanical loads upon implantation into an orthotopic defect site. In this study, we investigated the use of PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free spinal fusion cage in a preclinical sheep model over 12 months, and compared the fusion efficacy against Ti cages incorporated with autografts. Results showed that despite PCL-TCP scaffold as an autograft-free cage attaining a slower fusion rate at early stage (6 month), it achieved similar degree of spinal fusion efficacy as Ti cages aided with autograft at 12 month post-operation as evidenced by the radiographic and histological evaluation. PCL-TCP cages alone demonstrated better bone ingrowth with 2.6 fold higher bone/interspace ratio (B/I) and more homogeneous bone tissue distribution compared with that of the Ti cages (88.10  ±  3.63% vs. 33.74  ±  2.78%, p < 0.05) as seen from the histological and micro-CT analysis. Moreover, besides the bone tissue ingrowth, a quantitative approach was illustrated to accurately evaluate the osteointegration of fusion cage with surrounding bone tissue, and showed a 1.36 fold higher degree of osteointegration occurred in PCL-TCP cage group than Ti cage group (CS/PC: 79.31  ±  3.15% vs 58.44  ±  2.43%, p < 0.05). Furthermore, biomechanical analysis showed comparable mechanical strength of fused segments in both groups in terms of the range of motion and stiffness at 12 month (p > 0.05). The degradation profile of the PCL-TCP cages was noted to increase in tandem with new bone ingrowth into the pores, while maintaining good structural integrity necessary for supporting the spinal interbody segments. Therefore, with the better osteointegration, more bone tissue ingrowth as well as its favorable biodegradable and radiolucent properties, PCL-TCP cage has been demonstrated to be a promising candidate as an autograft-free fusion cage for clinical application. PMID:24743032

Li, Yi; Wu, Zhi-gang; Li, Xiao-kang; Guo, Zheng; Wu, Su-hua; Zhang, Yong-quan; Shi, Lei; Teoh, Swee-hin; Liu, Yu-chun; Zhang, Zhi-yong

2014-07-01

139

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor  

E-print Network

Investigation into Fusion Feasibility of a Magnetized Target Fusion Reactor Michael Lindstrom fusion en- ergy known as a magnetized target fusion reactor, in which an intense pressure wave the fusion reactor design we have chosen to model. In section 2, we present a simplified model and set

Wetton, Brian

140

Fusion Energy Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The basics of fusion are deceptively simple: the process powers the sun and other stars, and it all takes place when atomic nuclei collide at high speed. But many questions remain. How can humans develop and exploit fusion energy? Is there a way to convert it more efficiently into useful mechanical, electrical, or thermal energy? This intriguing site, created by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, presents an online fusion course designed to teach students and others about how fusion works and how it might be harnessed in the future. Visitors can try out The Guided Tour to get started, or they can click on one of the Main Topics. These include Energy Sources and Conversions, Two Key Fusion Reactions, and Creating the Conditions for Fusion. Each section contains graphics, explanatory text, and various diagrams. The site also includes charts which can be printed out for classroom use.

141

Viral membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infection by viruses having lipid-bilayer envelopes proceeds through fusion of the viral membrane with a membrane of the target cell. Viral 'fusion proteins' facilitate this process. They vary greatly in structure, but all seem to have a common mechanism of action, in which a ligand-triggered, large-scale conformational change in the fusion protein is coupled to apposition and merger of the

Stephen C Harrison

2008-01-01

142

Fusion facility siting considerations  

SciTech Connect

Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion.

Bussell, G.T.

1985-01-01

143

The fusion breeder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the U.S. fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to

Ralph W. Moir

1982-01-01

144

Magnetic fusion reactor economics  

SciTech Connect

An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-12-01

145

Fusion Science Education Outreach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation will focus on education outreach activities at General Atomics that have been expanded to include the general population on science education with a focus on fusion energy. Outreach materials are distributed upon request both nationally and internationally. These materials include a notebook containing copies of DIII--D tour panels, fusion poster, new fusion energy video, new fusion energy brochure, and the electromagnetic spectrum curriculum. The 1996 Fusion Forum (held in the House Caucus Room) included a student/ teacher lunch with Energy Secretary Hazel O'Leary and a private visit to the Forum exhibits. The continuing partnership with Kearny High School includes lectures, job shadowing, internship, equipment donations and an award-winning electric car-racing program. Development of distribution by CD of the existing interactive fusion energy kiosk and a virtual reality tour of the DIII--D facility are underway. The DIII--D fusion education WWW site includes e-mail addresses to ``Ask the Wizard,'' and/or receive GA's outreach materials. Steve Rodecker, a local science teacher, aided by DIII--D fusion staff, won his second Tapestry Award; he also was named the ``1995 National Science Teacher of the Year'' and will be present to share his experiences with the DIII--D educational outreach program.

Danielson, C. A.; DIII-D Education Group

1996-11-01

146

Fusion in the Sun!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates the general conditions necessary to begin fusion in the sun and other stars. You can vary the amount of hydrogen and the temperature in order to start a reaction. Click the "Instructions" button in the top right hand corner for more information on fusion and what the simulation shows. Java is required to use this applet.

Scharein, Rob

2010-03-31

147

Image fusion across bands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of image fusion is to integrate complementary information from multisensor data such that the new image is more suitable for the purpose of human perception and computer processing tasks such as segmentation, feature extraction and object recognition. In this paper, we present an image fusion technique using the concept of information across the bands. This algorithm is relevant

Mohd. Shahid; S. Gupta

2005-01-01

148

Fusion Power Deployment  

SciTech Connect

Fusion power plants could be part of a future portfolio of non-carbon dioxide producing energy supplies such as wind, solar, biomass, advanced fission power, and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. In this paper, we discuss key issues that could impact fusion energy deployment during the last half of this century. These include geographic issues such as resource availability, scale issues, energy storage requirements, and waste issues. The resource needs and waste production associated with fusion deployment in the U.S. should not pose serious problems. One important feature of fusion power is the fact that a fusion power plant should be locatable within most local or regional electrical distribution systems. For this reason, fusion power plants should not increase the burden of long distance power transmission to our distribution system. In contrast to fusion power, regional factors could play an important role in the deployment of renewable resources such as wind, solar and biomass or fossil energy with CO2 sequestration. We examine the role of these regional factors and their implications for fusion power deployment.

J.A. Schmidt; J.M. Ogden

2002-02-06

149

Status of Fusion Technology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The current status of fusion technology is surveyed. Limited reserves of fossil fuel and dangers of proliferation from nuclear reactors have brought into focus the need to develop an optional energy source. Fusion is being looked upon as an optional energ...

A. Mohan

1978-01-01

150

Fusion excitation function revisited  

E-print Network

We report on a comprehensive systematics of fusion-evaporation and/or fusion-fission cross sections for a very large variety of systems over an energy range 4-155 A.MeV. Scaled by the reaction cross sections, fusion cross sections do not show a universal behavior valid for all systems although a high degree of correlation is present when data are ordered by the system mass asymmetry.For the rather light and close to mass-symmetric systems the main characteristics of the complete and incomplete fusion excitation functions can be precisely determined. Despite an evident lack of data above 15A.MeV for all heavy systems the available data suggests that geometrical effects could explain the persistence of incomplete fusion at incident energies as high as 155A.MeV.

Ph. Eudes; Z. Basrak; F. Sébille; V. de la Mota; G. Royer; M. Zori?

2012-09-07

151

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance  

E-print Network

Fusion Plasma Performance Required for Fusion Power The performance achieved on MFE and IFE fusion experiments using DT fuel is compared with the fusion performance required for a Fusion Power Plant. Const. Cost $B Date

152

Investigations of image fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a single image which is more suitable for the purpose of human visual perception or further image processing tasks. In this thesis, a region-based fusion algorithm using the wavelet transform is proposed. The identification of important features in each image, such as edges and regions of interest, are used to guide the fusion process. The idea of multiscale grouping is also introduced and a generic image fusion framework based on multiscale decomposition is studied. The framework includes all of the existing multiscale-decomposition- based fusion approaches we found in the literature which did not assume a statistical model for the source images. Comparisons indicate that our framework includes some new approaches which outperform the existing approaches for the cases we consider. Registration must precede our fusion algorithms. So we proposed a hybrid scheme which uses both feature-based and intensity-based methods. The idea of robust estimation of optical flow from time- varying images is employed with a coarse-to-fine multi- resolution approach and feature-based registration to overcome some of the limitations of the intensity-based schemes. Experiments show that this approach is robust and efficient. Assessing image fusion performance in a real application is a complicated issue. In this dissertation, a mixture probability density function model is used in conjunction with the Expectation- Maximization algorithm to model histograms of edge intensity. Some new techniques are proposed for estimating the quality of a noisy image of a natural scene. Such quality measures can be used to guide the fusion. Finally, we study fusion of images obtained from several copies of a new type of camera developed for video surveillance. Our techniques increase the capability and reliability of the surveillance system and provide an easy way to obtain 3-D information of objects in the space monitored by the system.

Zhang, Zhong

1999-12-01

153

Culham Centre for Fusion Energy Fusion -A clean future  

E-print Network

of producing our energy. Fossil fuels bring atmospheric pollution and the prospect of climate change-term energy source, to complement other low-carbon options such as fission, wind, solar and hydro. FusionCulham Centre for Fusion Energy Fusion - A clean future FUSION REACTION CPS13.755 Designed

154

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Xiangyu Wang  

E-print Network

Up-Fusion: An Evolving Multimedia Decision Fusion Method Xiangyu Wang National Univ. of Singapore multimedia's nature of hav- ing multiple information sources, fusion methods are criti- cal for its data analysis and understanding. However, most of the traditional fusion methods are static with respect to time

Rui, Yong

155

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven  

E-print Network

Alperin's Fusion Theorem and Fusion Systems David A. Craven September 2010 Abstract This short note provides a new and straightforward proof of the original fusion theorem of Alperin, then considers so-called domestic intersections, which are special types of tame intersections that should play a role in fusion

Craven, David A.

156

Fusion-Fission Hybrids Driven By Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a desire to resolve fuel cycle issues for increasing the role of nuclear energy. The recent Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) initiative that builds upon NIF ignition, is likely to rekindle national interest in developing intense, high power ion beam accelerators for fusion energy production and for fusion-fission hybrid concepts that combine an ion beam driven fusion neutron

P. A. Seidl

157

Spherical torus fusion reactor  

DOEpatents

The object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with dramatic simplification of plasma confinement design. Another object of this invention is to provide a compact torus fusion reactor with low magnetic field and small aspect ratio stable plasma confinement. In accordance with the principles of this invention there is provided a compact toroidal-type plasma confinement fusion reactor in which only the indispensable components inboard of a tokamak type of plasma confinement region, mainly a current conducting medium which carries electrical current for producing a toroidal magnet confinement field about the toroidal plasma region, are retained.

Martin Peng, Y.K.M.

1985-10-03

158

Nonelectric Applications of Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the final report of a panel set up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) in response to a charge letter from Dr. James Decker, Acting Director of the DOE Office of Science. In that letter, Dr. Decker asked FESAC to consider "whether the Fusion Energy Sciences program should broaden its scope and activities to include non-electric applications of intermediate-term fusion devices." This report, submitted to FESAC July 31, 2003, and subsequently approved by them (Appendix B), presents FESAC's response to that charge.

McCarthy, Kathryn; Baker, Charles; Cheng, Edward; Kulcinski, Gerald; Logan, Grant; Miley, George; Perkins, John; Petti, Dave; Sheffield, John; Steiner, Don; Stacey, Weston; Waganer, Lester

2002-12-01

159

Fusion research activities in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion program in China has been executed in most areas of magnetic confinement fusion for more than 30 years. Basing on the situation of the power supply requirements of China, the fusion program is becoming an important and vital component of the nuclear power program in China. This paper reviews the status of fusion research and next step plans

Xiwen Deng

1998-01-01

160

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights  

E-print Network

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment Highlights FY 2004 Fusion Ignition Research Experiment #12;Need is critically needed to advance fusion science," and recommended that: "The United States should participate in the U.S. fusion program. The scientific and technological case for adding a burning plasma experiment

161

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1  

E-print Network

Network Fusion Pascal Fradet1 and St´ephane Hong Tuan Ha2 1 INRIA Rh^one-Alpes 655, av. de l composition method which strives to reconcile modularity and efficiency. Our technique, network fusion fusion. Fusion allows to replace internal commu- nications by assignments and alleviates most time

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

Cold Fusion, A Journalistic Investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Author of the recent book, The Rebirth of Cold Fusion, and founder of New Energy Times, Steven B. Krivit presents a summary of cold fusion's, past, present and possible future. This talk will briefly review five highlights of the recent New Energy Times investigation into cold fusion research:1. Analysis of early studies that supposedly disproved cold fusion.2. Key early corroborations

Steven B. Krivit

2005-01-01

163

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is little doubt that humans will attempt to explore and develop the solar system in this century. A large amount of energy will be required for accomplishing this. The need for fusion propulsion is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important thermodynamical attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For human exploration and development of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion can produce exhaust velocity up to about 5 km/s. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the energy to heat a hydrogen propellant increases the exhaust velocity by only a factor of about two. Alternatively the energy can be converted into electricity which is then used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. The necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment, however, increases the mass of the propulsion system for the same jet power by more than two orders of magnitude over chemical system, thus greatly limits the thrust-to-weight ratio attainable. The principal advantage of the fission process is that its development is relatively mature and is available right now. If fusion can be developed, fusion appears to have the best of all worlds in terms of propulsion - it can provide the absolute amount, the propellant exhaust velocity, and the high specific jet power. An intermediate step towards pure fusion propulsion is a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. The technical issues related to fusion for space propulsion are discussed. The technical priorities for developing and applying fusion for propulsion are somewhat different from those for terrestrial electrical power generation. Thus fusion schemes that are initially attractive for electrical power generation might not necessarily be attractive also for propulsion and vice versa, though the underlying fusion science and engineering enjoy much overlap. Parallel efforts to develop these qualitatively differently fusion schemes for the two applications could benefit greatly from each other due to the synergy in the underlying physics and engineering. Pulsed approaches to fusion have not been explored to the same degree as steady-state or long-pulse approaches to fusion in the fusion power research program. The concerns early on were several. One was that the pulsed power components might not have the service lifetimes meeting the requirements of a practical power generating plant. Another was that, for many pulsed fusion schemes, it was not clear whether the destruction of hardware per pulse could be minimized or eliminated or recycled to such an extent as to make economical electrical power generation feasible, Significant development of the underlying pulsed power component technologies have occurred in the last two decades because of defense and other energy requirements. The state of development of the pulsed power technologies are sufficiently advanced now to make it compelling to visit or re-visit pulsed fusion approaches for application to propulsion where the cost of energy is not so demanding a factor as in the case of terrestrial power application. For propulsion application, the overall mass of the fusion system is the critical factor. Producing fusion reactions require extreme states of matter. Conceptually, these extreme states of matter are more readily realizable in the pulsed states, at least within appropriate bounds, than in the steady states. Significant saving in system mass may result in such systems. Magnetic fields are effective in confining plasma energy, whereas inertial compression is an effective way of heating and containing the plasma. Intensive research in developing magnetic energy containme

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

164

Spectral Label Fusion  

E-print Network

We present a new segmentation approach that combines the strengths of label fusion and spectral clustering. The result is an atlas-based segmentation method guided by contour and texture cues in the test image. This offers ...

Wachinger, Christian

165

Fusion-breeder program  

SciTech Connect

The various approaches to a combined fusion-fission reactor for the purpose of breeding /sup 239/Pu and /sup 233/U are described. Design aspects and cost estimates for fuel production and electricity generation are discussed. (MOW)

Moir, R.W.

1982-11-19

166

Fusion: The Hydrogen Bomb  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Just after World War II, nuclear scientists turned their attention from fission to fusion. This video segment adapted from AMERICAN EXPERIENCE looks at the beginnings of thermonuclear power generation.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2004-02-20

167

Presented by Information Fusion  

E-print Network

of light-water reactors � Fusion of ultrasonic and infra-red sensors for robotics applications, Forecasting: Bates and Granger showed better forecasts can be made by combining different forecast methods

168

Fusion Energy Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the US Department of Energy, the Office of Science contains the Fusion Energy Sciences program, whose mission is to advance plasma science and fusion science technology. The program "supports research to understand the physics of plasmas; to identify and explore innovative and cost-effective development paths to fusion energy; and as a partner in international efforts, to advance the science and technology of energy-producing plasmas." Visitors to the Fusion Energy Sciences Web site will find current news related to the program, a program highlights document, several informative published papers, additional links, and more. If you're interested in energy, physics, or other related sciences, you'll definitely enjoy learning about the cutting edge science being undertaken within the department.

1969-12-31

169

Laser-Driven Fusion.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

Gibson, A. F.

1980-01-01

170

Fusion product spectra  

SciTech Connect

Accurate fusion product data is required for most fusion plasma simulations. The energy broadening of reaction products is demonstrated to be more complicated than the usual Gaussian broadening. The accurate integrals are performed to obtain , , and for all binary reactions in the four- and five-nucleon systems. Reaction cross sections were developed using R-Matrix models that include most recent measurements.

Talley, T.L.; Hale, G.M.

1988-01-01

171

Cold nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibility that negative muons could catalyze nuclear fusion was suggested on theoretical grounds by F.C. Frank and A.D. Sakharov in the late 1940s; the first experimental observations of the process followed serendipitously a decade later, in experiments at Berkeley by L.W. Alvarez. The fastest mechanism for muon-catalyzed, or 'cold' fusion, was suggested by Vesman (1967); it depends on a

Johann Rafelski; Steven E. Jones

1987-01-01

172

Fusion ignition research experiment  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

Dale Meade

2000-07-18

173

Glossary of fusion energy  

SciTech Connect

The Glossary of Fusion Energy is an attempt to present a concise, yet comprehensive collection of terms that may be beneficial to scientists and laymen who are directly or tangentially concerned with this burgeoning energy enterprise. Included are definitions of terms in theoretical plasma physics, controlled thermonuclear fusion, and some related physics concepts. Also, short descriptions of some of the major thermonuclear experiments currently under way in the world today are included.

Whitson, M.O. (ed.)

1985-02-01

174

Fusion power development pathways  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the national fusion program Technical Planning Activity (TPA) led by Argonne National Laboratory, it was proposed that a systematic activity be initiated called Development Pathways Analysis. This activity was defined as {open_quotes}developing and applying methodologies for assessing the cost, risk, and schedule impacts of differing approaches to fusion development.{close_quotes} The TPA report states that an {open_quotes}important objective is to

Stephen O. Dean

1993-01-01

175

Solar Fusion Cross Sections  

E-print Network

We review and analyze the available information for nuclear fusion cross sections that are most important for solar energy generation and solar neutrino production. We provide best values for the low-energy cross-section factors and, wherever possible, estimates of the uncertainties. We also describe the most important experiments and calculations that are required in order to improve our knowledge of solar fusion rates.

E. Adelberger; S. Austin; J. Bahcall; A. Balantekin; G. Bogaert; L. Brown; L. Buchmann; F. Cecil; A. Champagne; L. de Braeckeleer; C. Duba; S. Elliott; S. Freedman; M. Gai; G. Goldring; C. Gould; A. Gruzinov; W. Haxton; K. Heeger; E. Henley; C. Johnson; M. Kamionkowski; R. Kavanagh; S. Koonin; K. Kubodera; K. Langanke; T. Motobayashi; V. Pandharipande; P. Parker; R. Robertson; C. Rolfs; R. Sawyer; N. Shaviv; T. Shoppa; K. Snover; E. Swanson; R. Tribble; S. Turck-Chieze; J. Wilkerson

1998-05-12

176

Cold nuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect

Recent accelerator experiments on fusion of various elements have clearly demonstrated that the effective cross-sections of these reactions depend on what material the target particle is placed in. In these experiments, there was a significant increase in the probability of interaction when target nuclei are imbedded in a conducting crystal or are a part of it. These experiments open a new perspective on the problem of so-called cold nuclear fusion.

Tsyganov, E. N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@utsouthwestern.edu [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas (United States)

2012-02-15

177

ITER Fusion Energy  

ScienceCinema

ITER (in Latin ?the way?) is designed to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. Fusion is the process by which two light atomic nuclei combine to form a heavier over one and thus release energy. In the fusion process two isotopes of hydrogen ? deuterium and tritium ? fuse together to form a helium atom and a neutron. Thus fusion could provide large scale energy production without greenhouse effects; essentially limitless fuel would be available all over the world. The principal goals of ITER are to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with a fusion power multiplication factor, Q, of at least 10. Q ? 10 (input power 50 MW / output power 500 MW). The ITER Organization was officially established in Cadarache, France, on 24 October 2007. The seven members engaged in the project ? China, the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States ? represent more than half the world?s population. The costs for ITER are shared by the seven members. The cost for the construction will be approximately 5.5 billion Euros, a similar amount is foreseen for the twenty-year phase of operation and the subsequent decommissioning.

Dr. Norbert Holtkamp

2010-01-08

178

Magnetized Target Fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized target fusion (MTF) is under consideration as a means of building a low mass, high specific impulse, and high thrust propulsion system for interplanetary travel. This unique combination is the result of the generation of a high temperature plasma by the nuclear fusion process. This plasma can then be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Fusion is initiated by a small traction of the energy generated in the magnetic coils due to the plasma's compression of the magnetic field. The power gain from a fusion reaction is such that inefficiencies due to thermal neutrons and coil losses can be overcome. Since the fusion reaction products are directly used for propulsion and the power to initiate the reaction is directly obtained from the thrust generation, no massive power supply for energy conversion is required. The result should be a low engine mass, high specific impulse and high thrust system. The key is to successfully initiate fusion as a proof-of-principle for this application. Currently MSFC is implementing MTF proof-of-principle experiments. This involves many technical details and ancillary investigations. Of these, selected pertinent issues include the properties, orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the target plasma's behavior under compression and the convergence and mixing of the gun plasma are under investigation. This work is to focus on the gun characterization and development as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability.

Griffin, Steven T.

2002-01-01

179

Biomechanical evaluation of an endplate-conformed polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite intervertebral fusion graft and its comparison with a typical nonconformed cortical graft.  

PubMed

In the thoracolumbar region, between 7% and 30% of spinal fusion failures are at risk for pseudarthrosis. From a biomechanical perspective, the nonconformity of the intervertebral graft to the endplate surface could contribute to pseudarthrosis, given suboptimal stress distributions. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of endplate-graft conformation on endplate stress distribution, maximum Von Mises stress development, and stability. The study design used an experimentally validated finite element (FE) model of the L4-L5 functional spinal unit to simulate two types of interbody grafts (cortical bone and polycaprolactone (PCL)-hydroxyapatite (HA) graft), with and without endplate-conformed surfaces. Two case studies were completed. In Case Study I, the endplate-conformed grafts and nonconformed grafts were compared under without posterior instrumentation condition, while in Case Study II, the endplate-conformed and nonconformed grafts were compared with posterior instrumentation. In both case studies, the results suggested that the increased endplate-graft conformity reduced the maximum stress on the endplate, created uniform stress distribution on endplate surfaces, and reduced the range of motion of L4-L5 segments by increasing the contact surface area between the graft and the endplate. The stress distributions in the endplate suggest that the load sharing is greater with the endplate-conformed PCL-HA graft, which might reduce the graft subsidence possibility. PMID:23699717

Agarwal, Aakash; Palepu, Vivek; Agarwal, Anand K; Goel, Vijay K; Yildirim, Eda D

2013-06-01

180

Fusion, magnetic confinement  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of the principles of magnetic confinement of plasmas for the purpose of achieving controlled fusion conditions. Sec. 1 discusses the different nuclear fusion reactions which can be exploited in prospective fusion reactors and explains why special technologies need to be developed for the supply of tritium or {sup 3}He, the probable fuels. In Sec. 2 the Lawson condition, a criterion that is a measure of the quality of confinement relative to achieving fusion conditions, is explained. In Sec. 3 fluid equations are used to describe plasma confinement. Specific confinement configurations are considered. In Sec. 4 the orbits of particle sin magneti and electric fields are discussed. In Sec. 5 stability considerations are discussed. It is noted that confinement systems usually need to satisfy stability constraints imposed by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The paper culminates with a summary of experimental progress in magnetic confinement. Present experiments in tokamaks have reached the point that the conditions necessary to achieve fusion are being satisfied.

Berk, H.L.

1992-08-06

181

Myoblast fusion in Drosophila  

SciTech Connect

The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)] [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

2010-11-01

182

Fusion ProgramFusion Program Overview at Los Alamos  

E-print Network

) Facilities: ·Magnetized Target Fusion FRX-L plasma ·Inertial Electrostatic Confinement IEC POPs plasma: ·General information on Fusion Energy Sciences Program at LANL ·HighlightsHighlights ·Magneto Inertial

183

Ceramics for fusion applications  

SciTech Connect

Ceramics are required for a variety of uses in both near-term fusion devices and in commercial powerplants. These materials must retain adequate structural and electrical properties under conditions of neutron, particle, and ionizing irradiation; thermal and applied stresses; and physical and chemical sputtering. Ceramics such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MgAl/sub 2/O/sub 4/, BeO, Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ and SiC are currently under study for fusion applications, and results to date show widely-varying response to the fusion environment. Materials can be identified today which will meet initial operating requirements, but improvements in physical properties are needed to achieve satisfactory lifetimes for critical applications.

Clinard, F.W. Jr.

1986-01-01

184

Heavy ion inertial fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics. The very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at.

Keefe, D.; Sessler, A. M.

1980-07-01

185

CRYOGENICS FOR FUSION  

SciTech Connect

Fusion of Hydrogen to produce energy is one of the technologies under study to meet the mankind raising need in energy and as a substitute to fossil fuels for the future. This technology is under investigation for more than 30 years already, with, for example, the former construction of the experimental reactors Tore Supra, DIII-D and JET. With the construction of ITER to start, the next step to 'fusion for energy' will be done. In these projects, an extensive use of cryogenic systems is requested. Air Liquide has been involved as cryogenic partner in most of former and presently constructed fusion reactors. In the present paper, a review of the cryogenic systems we delivered to Tore Supra, JET, IPR and KSTAR will be presented.

Dauguet, P.; Bonneton, M.; Fauve, E.; Bernhardt, J. M.; Beauvisage, J.; Andrieu, F. [Air Liquide Advanced Technology Division BP15, ZI Les Engenieres, 38360 Sassenage (France); Gistau-Baguer, G. M.; Boissin, J. C. [Consultants, Grenoble (France)

2008-03-16

186

HEAVY ION INERTIAL FUSION  

SciTech Connect

Inertial fusion has not yet been as well explored as magnetic fusion but can offer certain advantages as an alternative source of electric energy for the future. Present experiments use high-power beams from lasers and light-ion diodes to compress the deuterium-tritium (D-T) pellets but these will probably be unsuitable for a power plant. A more promising method is to use intense heavy-ion beams from accelerator systems similar to those used for nuclear and high-energy physics; the present paper addresses itself to this alternative. As will be demonstrated the very high beam power needed poses new design questions, from the ion source through the accelerating system, the beam transport system, to the final focus. These problems will require extensive study, both theoretically and experimentally, over the next several years before an optimum design for an inertial fusion driver can be arrived at.

Keefe, D.; Sessler, A.M.

1980-07-01

187

Simulation of Fusion Plasmas  

ScienceCinema

The upcoming ITER experiment (www.iter.org) represents the next major milestone in realizing the promise of using nuclear fusion as a commercial energy source, by moving into the ?burning plasma? regime where the dominant heat source is the internal fusion reactions. As part of its support for the ITER mission, the US fusion community is actively developing validated predictive models of the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. In this talk, I will describe how the plasma community is using the latest high performance computing facilities to develop and refine our models of the nonlinear, multiscale plasma dynamics, and how recent advances in experimental diagnostics are allowing us to directly test and validate these models at an unprecedented level.

Chris Holland

2010-01-08

188

U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Fusion Program Leaders  

E-print Network

.......................................................................................................................................266,947 287,644 318,950 +31,306 Science Laboratories InfrastructureU.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program Fusion Program Leaders Conference Call February 6, 2006.ofes.fusion.doe.gov #12;Office of Science FY 2007 Congressional Budget Request FY 2005 Approp. FY 2006 Approp. FY 2007

189

Osteoclast fusion is based on heterogeneity between fusion partners.  

PubMed

Bone-resorbing osteoclasts are formed through fusion of mononucleated precursors. Their choice of partners during the fusion process remains unclear. We hypothesized that osteoclasts are selective in their choice of fusion partner and that this selectivity is based on heterogeneity among the cells with respect to their maturation stage and their expression and cellular organization of fusion factors. Support for this hypothesis was found from immunofluorescence staining of the osteoclast fusion factors CD47, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and syncytin-1. These stainings revealed heterogeneous localization patterns of all three factors within a given culture of osteoclasts. CD47 was found to be localized primarily in small osteoclasts and preosteoclasts, which were also positive for DC-STAMP but negative for cathepsin K expression. A role of CD47 in the early osteoclast fusion steps was also suggested from experiments with a CD47 blocking antibody, which resulted in an inhibition of the fusion of small osteoclasts. Conversely, blocking of connexin 43 affected the fusion of larger osteoclasts with four or more nuclei. The suggestion that different fusion factors function at different stages of osteoclast fusion supports the idea of heterogeneity in the osteoclast population; our results suggest that osteoclast fusion is indeed based on heterogeneity. Considering the in vivo environment in which osteoclasts develop and fuse, our findings seem very applicable and provide novel, important insight into key issues in bone and fusion research. PMID:24862648

Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

2014-07-01

190

FUSION SIMULATION PROJECT Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems  

E-print Network

#12;FUSION SIMULATION PROJECT Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems Final report of the FESAC ISOFS Subcommittee ISOFS (Integrated Simulation & Optimization of Fusion Systems) Subcommittee plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased

191

Fusion Electricity A roadmap to the realisation of fusion energy  

E-print Network

Fusion Electricity A roadmap to the realisation of fusion energy #12;28 European countries signed Physique des Plasmas SWITZERLAND Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research THE NETHERLANDS UNITED. China, for example, is launching an aggressive programme aimed at fusion electricity production well

192

Fusion project decision delayed ITER -NUCLEAR FUSION PROJECT  

E-print Network

-free energy - but the reactor will take 10 years to build. Pros and cons Member countries of the InternationalFusion project decision delayed ITER - NUCLEAR FUSION PROJECT The project is estimated to cost $5bn before a commercial reactor is built A decision on where to site the world's first big nuclear fusion

193

Fusion cross-sections for inertial fusion energy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of selective resonant tunneling model is extended from d 1 t fusion to other light nucleus fusion reactions, such as d 1 d fusion and d 1 3 He. In contrast to traditional formulas, the new formula for the cross-section needs only a few parameters to fit the experimental data in the energy range of interest. The features

XING ZHONG LI; BIN LIU; SI CHEN; QING MING WEI; HEINRICH HORA

2004-01-01

194

Intense fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

2010-04-01

195

Fusion technology status and requirements  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the status of fusion technology and discusses the requirements to be met in order to build a demonstration fusion plant. Strategies and programmatic considerations in pursuing engineering feasibility are also outlined.

Thomassen, K.I.

1982-01-26

196

Multisensor data fusion algorithm development  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a two-year LDRD research effort into multisensor data fusion. We approached the problem by addressing the available types of data, preprocessing that data, and developing fusion algorithms using that data. The report reflects these three distinct areas. First, the possible data sets for fusion are identified. Second, automated registration techniques for imagery data are analyzed. Third, two fusion techniques are presented. The first fusion algorithm is based on the two-dimensional discrete wavelet transform. Using test images, the wavelet algorithm is compared against intensity modulation and intensity-hue-saturation image fusion algorithms that are available in commercial software. The wavelet approach outperforms the other two fusion techniques by preserving spectral/spatial information more precisely. The wavelet fusion algorithm was also applied to Landsat Thematic Mapper and SPOT panchromatic imagery data. The second algorithm is based on a linear-regression technique. We analyzed the technique using the same Landsat and SPOT data.

Yocky, D.A.; Chadwick, M.D.; Goudy, S.P.; Johnson, D.K.

1995-12-01

197

Fusion Energy Educational Web Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a collection of resources about nuclear fusion. It provides a large set of definitions for the terms most commonly used in fusion research, and a course developed in conjunction with the Contemporary Physics Education Project.

Laboratory, Princeton P.; Laboratory, Lawrence L.

2003-10-10

198

Fusion welding process  

DOEpatents

A process for the fusion welding of nickel alloy steel members wherein a ferrite containing pellet is inserted into a cavity in one member and melted by a welding torch. The resulting weld nugget, a fusion of the nickel containing alloy from the members to be welded and the pellet, has a composition which is sufficiently low in nickel content such that ferrite phases occur within the weld nugget, resulting in improved weld properties. The steel alloys encompassed also include alloys containing carbon and manganese, considered nickel equivalents.

Thomas, Kenneth C. (Export, PA); Jones, Eric D. (Salem, PA); McBride, Marvin A. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

1983-01-01

199

Fusion for Space Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The need for fusion propulsion for interplanetary flights is discussed. For a propulsion system, there are three important system attributes: (1) The absolute amount of energy available, (2) the propellant exhaust velocity, and (3) the jet power per unit mass of the propulsion system (specific power). For efficient and affordable human exploration of the solar system, propellant exhaust velocity in excess of 100 km/s and specific power in excess of 10 kW/kg are required. Chemical combustion obviously cannot meet the requirement in propellant exhaust velocity. Nuclear fission processes typically result in producing energy in the form of heat that needs to be manipulated at temperatures limited by materials to about 2,800 K. Using the fission energy to heat a low atomic weight propellant produces propellant velocity of the order of 10 kinds. Alternatively the fission energy can be converted into electricity that is used to accelerate particles to high exhaust velocity. However, the necessary power conversion and conditioning equipment greatly increases the mass of the propulsion system. Fundamental considerations in waste heat rejection and power conditioning in a fission electric propulsion system place a limit on its jet specific power to the order of about 0.2 kW/kg. If fusion can be developed for propulsion, it appears to have the best of all worlds - it can provide the largest absolute amount of energy, the propellant exhaust velocity (> 100 km/s), and the high specific jet power (> 10 kW/kg). An intermediate step towards fusion propulsion might be a bimodal system in which a fission reactor is used to provide some of the energy to drive a fusion propulsion unit. There are similarities as well as differences between applying fusion to propulsion and to terrestrial electrical power generation. The similarities are the underlying plasma and fusion physics, the enabling component technologies, the computational and the diagnostics capabilities. These physics and engineering capabilities have been demonstrated for a fusion reactor gain (Q) of the order of unity (TFTR: 0.25, JET: 0.65, JT-60: Q(sub eq) approx. 1.25). These technological advances made it compelling for considering fusion for propulsion.

Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schmidt, George R.; Santarius, John F.; Turchi, Peter J.; Siemon, Richard E.; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

200

Magnetically Catalyzed Fusion  

E-print Network

We calculate the reaction cross-sections for the fusion of hydrogen and deuterium in strong magnetic fields as are believed to exist in the atmospheres of neutron stars. We find that in the presence of a strong magnetic field ($B \\gsim 10^{12}$G), the reaction rates are many orders of magnitude higher than in the unmagnetized case. The fusion of both protons and deuterons are important over a neutron star's lifetime for ultrastrong magnetic fields ($B \\sim 10^{16}$G). The enhancement may have dramatic effects on thermonuclear runaways and bursts on the surfaces of neutron stars.

Jeremy S. Heyl; Lars Hernquist

1996-08-25

201

Cell Fusion and Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Differentiation, self-renewal and the ability to readily undergo cell fusion are properties of adult and embryonic stem cells.\\u000a Spontaneous fusion between stem cells, and fusion of stem cells with various differentiated cell types, has been observed\\u000a in many in vitro and in vivo contexts. Stem cell fusion is implicated in many crucial functions during normal development\\u000a and is increasingly being

Alain Silk; Anne E. Powell; Paige S. Davies; Melissa H. Wong

202

The Fusion Machine (extended abstract)  

E-print Network

The Fusion Machine (extended abstract) Philippa Gardner Cosimo Laneve Lucian Wischik March 27, 2002. In particular, we describe a dis- tributed abstract machine called the fusion machine. In it, only channels exist at runtime. It uses a form of concurrent constraints called fusions--equations on channel names

Gardner, Philippa

203

Physics in Action: Fusion Machines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article from Physics Central provides a description of fusion machines and plasma power. The process and challenges to producing a sustained fusion reaction that could lead to electric power generation are explained. Current research being conducted with fusion machines is also presented along with links to additional information.

2007-04-26

204

Human-Centered Fusion Framework  

SciTech Connect

In recent years the benefits of fusing signatures extracted from large amounts of distributed and/or heterogeneous data sources have been largely documented in various problems ranging from biological protein function prediction to cyberspace monitoring. In spite of significant progress in information fusion research, there is still no formal theoretical framework for defining various types of information fusion systems, defining and analyzing relations among such types, and designing information fusion systems using a formal method approach. Consequently, fusion systems are often poorly understood, are less than optimal, and/or do not suit user needs. To start addressing these issues, we outline a formal humancentered fusion framework for reasoning about fusion strategies. Our approach relies on a new taxonomy for fusion strategies, an alternative definition of information fusion in terms of parameterized paths in signature related spaces, an algorithmic formalization of fusion strategies and a library of numeric and dynamic visual tools measuring the impact as well as the impact behavior of fusion strategies. Using a real case of intelligence analysis we demonstrate that the proposed framework enables end users to rapidly 1) develop and implement alternative fusion strategies, 2) understand the impact of each strategy, 3) compare the various strategies, and 4) perform the above steps without having to know the mathematical foundations of the framework. We also demonstrate that the human impact on a fusion system is critical in the sense that small changes in strategies do not necessarily correspond to small changes in results.

Posse, Christian; White, Amanda M.; Beagley, Nathaniel

2007-05-16

205

Objective image fusion performance measure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A measure for objectively assessing the pixel level fusion performance is defined. The proposed metric reflects the quality of visual information obtained from the fusion of input images and can be used to compare the performance of different image fusion algorithms. Experimental results clearly indicate that this metric is perceptually meaningful

C. S. Xydeas; V. Petrovic

2000-01-01

206

Image fusion using complex wavelets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fusion of images is the process of combining two or more images into a single image retaining important features from each. Fusion is an impor- tant technique within many disparate fields such as remote sensing, robotics and medical applications. Wavelet based fusion techniques have been rea- sonably effective in combining perceptually important image features. Shift invariance of the wavelet

Paul R. Hill; Nishan Canagarajah; David R. Bull

2002-01-01

207

Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments & Modeling  

E-print Network

Spectroscopy Ablator Characterization #12;What is Fusion? Fusion is the joining together of small, light nuclei-drive ICF delivers the energy of a laser (or ion beam) not directly to the fuel capsule, but ratherInertial Confinement Fusion Experiments & Modeling Using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Thin

Cohen, David

208

Physics (selected articles). [Nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled nuclear fusion as a new energy source was investigated. It will be possible in the 1980's to obtain thermal nuclear ignition, and in the early 2000's nuclear fusion may be used to supplement the energy shortage. It is predicted that in the 2000's nuclear fusion will occupy an important position as a global source of energy.

Z. Shiyao; C. Zesheng; X. Xiaolung; H. Qiang

1982-01-01

209

Cryogenic engineering and fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the consumption of power for the magnets of a fusion power plant to acceptable proportions, it is necessary that fusion reactors must use either cryogenically cooled or superconducting coils. The cryogenic aspects of reactor design are discussed. It is found that the most difficult cryogenic engineering problems of fusion reactors are mainly those caused by the

C. E. Taylor

1974-01-01

210

Fusion power plant availability study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consideration of fusion as an alternative energy source will need to demonstrate that Fusion Power Plant (FPP) design, operating and maintenance characteristics meet the electrical market requirements forecast for the second half of this century. Until now, fusion has been developed in the framework of research and development programmes following natural technological trends. To bring a greater sense of

D. Ladra; G. P. Sanguinetti; E. Stube

2001-01-01

211

U. S. Fusion Energy Future  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion implementation scenarios for the US have been developed. The dependence of these scenarios on both the fusion development and implementation paths has been assessed. A range of implementation paths has been studied. The deployment of CANDU fission reactors in Canada and the deployment of fission reactors in France have been assessed as possible models for US fusion deployment. The

John A. Schmidt; Dan Jassby; Scott Larson; Maria Pueyo; Paul H. Rutherford

2000-01-01

212

Riccardo Betti Fusion Science Center  

E-print Network

iP n T nT nT= + 3.5MeV Fusion reactivity ion particle density Energy confinement time Plasma that the alpha-particle heating of the hot spot exceeds all the energy losses FSC #12;Fusion reactivityRiccardo Betti Fusion Science Center Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester

213

Wavelets and image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an approach to image fusion using the wavelet transform. When images are merged in wavelet space, we can process different frequency ranges differently. For example, high frequency information from one image can be combined with lower frequency information from another, for performing edge enhancement. We have built a prototype system that allows experimentation with various wavelet array

Laure J. Chipman; Timothy M Orr; Lewis N. Graham

1995-01-01

214

Hierarchical image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A hierarchical image fusion scheme is presented that preserves those details from the input images that are most relevant to visual perception. Results show that fused images present a more detailed representation of the scene and provide information that cannot be obtained by viewing the input images separately. Detection, recognition, and search tasks may therefore benefit from this fused image

Alexander Toet

1989-01-01

215

Fusion Energy Workshop  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technology and public policy related to magnetic fusion research and development in the United States are discussed. Physics issues which must be addressed are identified and examined. International cooperation and the types of reactors being developed in other countries are considered as well as program characteristics, risk levels, and management approaches in the United States.

216

Mars manned fusion spaceship  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

1991-01-01

217

Compact fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power are proposed to improve economic viability through the use of less-advanced technology in systems of considerably reduced scale. The rationale for and the means by which these systems can be achieved are discussed, as are unique technological problems.

Krakowski, R.A.; Hafenson, R.L.

1983-09-01

218

Bubble fusion: Preliminary estimates  

SciTech Connect

The collapse of a gas-filled bubble in disequilibrium (i.e., internal pressure {much_lt} external pressure) can occur with a significant focusing of energy onto the entrapped gas in the form of pressure-volume work and/or acoustical shocks; the resulting heating can be sufficient to cause ionization and the emission of atomic radiations. The suggestion that extreme conditions necessary for thermonuclear fusion to occur may be possible has been examined parametrically in terms of the ratio of initial bubble pressure relative to that required for equilibrium. In this sense, the disequilibrium bubble is viewed as a three-dimensional ``sling shot`` that is ``loaded`` to an extent allowed by the maximum level of disequilibrium that can stably be achieved. Values of this disequilibrium ratio in the range 10{sup {minus}5}--10{sup {minus}6} are predicted by an idealized bubble-dynamics model as necessary to achieve conditions where nuclear fusion of deuterium-tritium might be observed. Harmonic and aharmonic pressurizations/decompressions are examined as means to achieve the required levels of disequilibrium required to create fusion conditions. A number of phenomena not included in the analysis reported herein could enhance or reduce the small levels of nuclear fusions predicted.

Krakowski, R.A.

1995-02-01

219

Compact fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Compact, high-power-density approaches to fusion power are proposed to improve economic viability through the use of less-advanced technology in systems of considerably reduced scale. The rationale for and the means by which these systems can be achieved are discussed, as are unique technological problems.

Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

1983-01-01

220

Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven  

E-print Network

Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems David A. Craven March 2009 Abstract In this article, we consider control of fusion, quotients, and p-soluble fusion systems. For control of fusion, we for fusion systems. We move on to p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us

Craven, David A.

221

Stau-catalyzed Nuclear Fusion  

E-print Network

We point out that the stau may play a role of a catalyst for nuclear fusions if the stau is a long-lived particle as in the scenario of gravitino dark matter. In this letter, we consider d d fusion under the influence of stau where the fusion is enhanced because of a short distance between the two deuterons. We find that one chain of the d d fusion may release an energy of O(10) GeV per stau. We discuss problems of making the stau-catalyzed nuclear fusion of practical use with the present technology of producing stau.

K. Hamaguchi; T. Hatsuda; T. T. Yanagida

2006-07-24

222

Enhanced image capture through fusion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Image fusion may be used to combine images from different sensors, such as IR and visible cameras, to obtain a single composite with extended information content. Fusion may also be used to combine multiple images from a given sensor to form a composite image in which information of interest is enhanced. We present a general method for performing image fusion and show that this method is effective for diverse fusion applications. We suggest that fusion may provide a powerful tool for enhanced image capture with broad utility in image processing and computer vision.

Burt, Peter J.; Hanna, Keith; Kolczynski, Raymond J.

1993-01-01

223

Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A division of the Princeton Plasma Research Laboratory (described in the July 1, 1994 Scout Report for Science & Engineering), the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) aims "to attain, explore, understand and optimize alpha-dominated plasmas to provide knowledge for the design of attractive Magnetic Fusion systems." Up-to-date, downloadable reports (.pdf and MS Word formats) contain background information and reviews of US fusion policy, Snowmass Fusion Summer Study working group summaries, FIRE reports on physics and engineering design considerations, and an engineering appendix. Clearly displayed, this site harbors a wealth of dense information for researchers interested in the design of magnetic fusion systems.

224

Directions for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Conceptual fusion reactor studies over the past 10 to 15 years have projected systems that may be too large, complex, and costly to be of commercial interest. One main direction for improved fusion reactors points towards smaller, higher-power-density approaches. First-order economic issues (i.e., unit direct cost and cost of electricity) are used to support the need for more compact fusion reactors. A generic fusion physics/engineering/costing model is used to provide a quantiative basis for these arguments for specific fusion concepts.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Delene, J.G.

1986-01-01

225

Economics of less invasive spinal surgery: an analysis of hospital cost differences between open and minimally invasive instrumented spinal fusion procedures during the perioperative period  

PubMed Central

Background There is great debate about the costs and benefits of technology-driven medical interventions such as instrumented lumbar fusion. With most analyses using charge data, the actual costs incurred by medical institutions performing these procedures are not well understood. The object of the current study was to examine the differences in hospital operating costs between open and minimally invasive spine surgery (MIS) during the perioperative period. Methods Data were collected in the form of a prospective registry from a community hospital after specific Institutional Review Board approval was obtained. The analysis included consecutive adult patients being surgically treated for degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine, with either an MIS or open approach for two-level instrumented lumbar fusion. Patient outcomes and costs were collected for the perioperative period. Hospital operating costs were grouped by hospitalization/operative procedure, transfusions, reoperations, and residual events (health care interactions). Results One hundred and one open posterior lumbar interbody fusion (Open group) and 109 MIS patients were treated primarily for stenosis coupled with instability (39.6% and 59.6%, respectively). Mean total hospital costs were $27,055.53 for the Open group and $24,320.16 for the MIS group. This represents a statistically significant cost savings of $2,825.37 (10.4% [95% confidence interval: $522.51–$5,128.23]) when utilizing MIS over traditional Open techniques. Additionally, residual events, complications, and blood transfusions were significantly more frequent in the Open group, compared to the MIS group. Conclusions/level of evidence Utilizing minimally invasive techniques for instrumented spinal fusion results in decreased hospital operating costs compared to similar open procedures in the early perioperative period. Additionally, patient benefits of minimally invasive techniques include significantly less blood loss, shorter hospital stays, lower complication rate, and a lower number of residual events. Long-term outcome comparisons are needed to evaluate the efficacy of the two treatments. Level of evidence: III Clinical relevance This work represents a true cost-of-operating comparison between open and MIS approaches for lumbar spine fusion, which has relevance to surgeons, hospitals and payers in medical decision-making. PMID:22952415

Lucio, John C; VanConia, R Brent; DeLuzio, Kevin J; Lehmen, Jeffrey A; Rodgers, Jody A; Rodgers, WB

2012-01-01

226

Research on fusion neutron sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. "Fusion for Neutrons" (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P.

2012-06-01

227

Research on fusion neutron sources  

SciTech Connect

The use of fusion devices as powerful neutron sources has been discussed for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable operation combined with the high efficiency required to make electricity production economic, the alternative approach to advancing the use of fusion is free of many of complications connected with the requirements for economic power generation and uses the already achieved knowledge of Fusion physics and developed Fusion technologies. 'Fusion for Neutrons' (F4N), has now been re-visited, inspired by recent progress achieved on comparably compact fusion devices, based on the Spherical Tokamak (ST) concept. Freed from the requirement to produce much more electricity than used to drive it, a fusion neutron source could be efficiently used for many commercial applications, and also to support the goal of producing energy by nuclear power. The possibility to use a small or medium size ST as a powerful or intense steady-state fusion neutron source (FNS) is discussed in this paper in comparison with the use of traditional high aspect ratio tokamaks. An overview of various conceptual designs of compact fusion neutron sources based on the ST concept is given and they are compared with a recently proposed Super Compact Fusion Neutron Source (SCFNS), with major radius as low as 0.5 metres but still able to produce several MW of neutrons in a steady-state regime.

Gryaznevich, M. P. [Tokamak Solutions UK, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OXON, OX133DB (United Kingdom)

2012-06-19

228

The path to fusion power.  

PubMed

Fusion is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially limitless power. It should be possible to build viable fusion power stations, and it looks as if the cost of fusion power will be reasonable. But time is needed to further develop the technology and to test in power station conditions the materials that would be used in their construction. Assuming no major adverse surprises, an orderly fusion development programme could lead to a prototype fusion power station putting electricity into the grid within 30 years, with commercial fusion power following some 10 or more years later. In the second half of the century, fusion could therefore be an important part of the portfolio of measures that are needed to cope with rising demand for energy in an environmentally responsible manner. In this paper, we describe the basics of fusion, its potential attractions, the status of fusion R&D, the remaining challenges and how they will be tackled at the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor and the proposed International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, and the timetable for the subsequent commercialization of fusion power. PMID:17272246

Llewellyn Smith, Chris; Ward, David

2007-04-15

229

The Need for Fusion Propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. In this talk those arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

Cassibry, Jason

2005-01-01

230

Fusion pumped laser  

DOEpatents

The apparatus of this invention may comprise a system for generating laser radiation from a high-energy neutron source. The neutron source is a tokamak fusion reactor generating a long pulse of high-energy neutrons and having a temperature and magnetic field effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10/sup 15/ neutrons/cm/sup 2//center dot/s. Conversion means are provided adjacent the fusion reactor at a location operable for converting the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. A lasing medium is spaced about and responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Pappas, D.S.

1987-07-31

231

Experiments in cold fusion  

SciTech Connect

The work of Steve Jones and others in muon-catalyzed cold fusion of deuterium and hydrogen suggests the possibility of such fusion catalyzed by ions, or combinations of atoms, or more-or-less free electrons in solid and liquid materials. A hint that this might occur naturally comes from the heat generated in volcanic action in subduction zones on the earth. It is questionable whether the potential energy of material raised to the height of a midocean ridge and falling to the depth of an ocean trench can produce the geothermal effects seen in the volcanoes of subduction zones. If the ridge, the trench, the plates, and the asthenosphere are merely visible effects of deeper density-gradient driven circulations, it is still uncertain that observed energy-concentration effects fit the models.

Palmer, E.P.

1986-03-28

232

Solar fusion cross sections  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review and analyze the available information on the nuclear-fusion cross sections that are most important for solar energy generation and solar neutrino production. We provide best values for the low-energy cross-section factors and, wherever possible, estimates of the uncertainties. We also describe the most important experiments and calculations that are required in order to improve our knowledge of solar

Eric G. Adelberger; Sam M. Austin; John N. Bahcall; A. B. Balantekin; Gilles Bogaert; Lowell S. Brown; Lothar Buchmann; F. Edward Cecil; Arthur E. Champagne; Ludwig de Braeckeleer; Charles A. Duba; Steven R. Elliott; Stuart J. Freedman; Moshe Gai; G. Goldring; Christopher R. Gould; Andrei Gruzinov; Wick C. Haxton; Karsten M. Heeger; Ernest Henley; Calvin W. Johnson; Marc Kamionkowski; Ralph W. Kavanagh; Steven E. Koonin; Kuniharu Kubodera; Karlheinz Langanke; Tohru Motobayashi; Vijay Pandharipande; Peter Parker; R. G. Robertson; Claus Rolfs; R. F. Sawyer; N. Shaviv; T. D. Shoppa; K. A. Snover; Erik Swanson; Robert E. Tribble; Sylvaine Turck-Chièze; John F. Wilkerson

1998-01-01

233

Teachers Debate Cold Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What follows is a collection of messages about cold fusion from teachers. The messages were posted on the internet discussion list, Phys-L, or were sent to me in private. They illustrate a wide range of opinion. Phys-L is a list dedicated to learning and teaching physics with 700 subscribers from over 35 countries, the majority of whom are physics educators. <>.

Kowalski, Ludwik

2005-12-01

234

Inertial Confinement fusion targets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

Hendricks, C. D.

1982-01-01

235

Fusion development and technology  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

Montgomery, D.B.

1992-01-01

236

(Fusion energy research)  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

1988-01-01

237

Pulsed nuclear fusion reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This invention relates to a nuclear fusion power plant for producing useful electrical energy by nuclear combustion of deuterium and lithium to helium. A large concentric plate capacitor is discharged rapidly through a mass of molten lid1-xtx (O

1980-01-01

238

Cold fusion prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The requirements for cold fusion may include, but are not limited to the following: a nuclear mass-energy resonance with an excitation level in the compound nucleus or in two output nuclei; very high density; a large neutron capture cross-section isotope and a neutron-rich isotope; overlapping de Broglie interaction wavelengths; nuclear spin and polarizability compatibility; and\\/or catalytic action by a passing

1989-01-01

239

Cluster-impact fusion: Bridge between hot and cold fusion?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beams of D2O clusters with 10~1000 eV per deuterium yield unexpectly high fusion rates. This is an energy range intermediate between hot and cold fusion, and as such may serve as a link bridgin the two regimes. We present a theoretical model capable of explaining apparently conflicting experimental results with beams of D2O clusters in which fusion rates higher than

M. Rabinowitz; Y. E. Kim; R. A. Rice; G. S. Chulick

1991-01-01

240

Fusion Policy Advisory Committee FINAL REPORT  

E-print Network

Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC) FINAL REPORT September 1990 Report of the Technical Panel on Magnetic Fusion of the Energy Research Advisory Board Washington, D .C. 20585 #12;#12;Fusion Policy of your Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. It presents a fusion policy that the Committee believes

241

MMMMaaaaggggnnnneeeettttiiiicccc FFFFuuuussssiiiioooonnnn EEEEnnnneeeerrrrggggyyyy MAGNETIC FUSION ENERGY  

E-print Network

FusionPlasma ScienceandTechnology Attractive Fusion Energy Previous Strategy Basic Plasma Science Innovative Concepts Science of Magnetic Fusion · The Magnetic Fusion Energy Portfolio · Science and Technology Spin Advanced Tokamaks Tokamaks NEW FUSION PROGRAM STRATEGY Portfolio of innovative concepts, including inertial

242

Sensor fusion for synthetic vision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Display methodologies are explored for fusing images gathered by millimeter wave sensors with images rendered from an on-board terrain data base to facilitate visually guided flight and ground operations in low visibility conditions. An approach to fusion based on multiresolution image representation and processing is described which facilitates fusion of images differing in resolution within and between images. To investigate possible fusion methods, a workstation-based simulation environment is being developed.

Pavel, M.; Larimer, J.; Ahumada, A.

1991-01-01

243

Performance Assessment of Image Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Performances evaluation method that can compare and analyze different fusion techniques is an essential part of image fusion\\u000a techniques. In this paper we propose a performance assessment method for image fusion techniques based on accurate measurement\\u000a of general relationship among a image set. Numerical verifications, using data constructed from four kinds of typical relations\\u000a and multi-variable time series generated from

Qiang Wang; Yi Shen

2006-01-01

244

More searches for cold fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the announcement of cold nuclear fusion being observed in electrochemical cells by Fleischmann and Pons1 and by Jones,2 we have searched for the characteristic radiations of thed+d andp+d fusion reactions in cells similar to those described in Refs. 1 and 2. No fusion product neutrons or gamma rays have been observed from either palladium or titanium cathodes. From measured

R. A. Henderson; K. R. Czerwinski; H. L. Hall; K. T. Lesko; E. B. Norman; B. Sur; D. C. Hoffman

1990-01-01

245

The path to fusion power†  

PubMed Central

The promise, status and challenges of developing fusion power are outlined. The key physics and engineering principles are described and recent progress quantified. As the successful demonstration of 16?MW of fusion in 1997 in the Joint European Torus showed, fusion works. The central issue is therefore to make it work reliably and economically on the scale of a power station. We argue that to meet this challenge in 30 years we must follow the aggressive programme known as the ‘Fast Track to Fusion’. This programme is described in some detail. PMID:20123748

Smith, Chris Llewellyn; Cowley, Steve

2010-01-01

246

EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006 Explanation of the JET n = 0 chirping mode Nucl. Fusion 46 S888-97 Urano H. et al 2006 Confinement degradation with beta for ELMy HH-mode plasmas in JT-60U tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 781-7 Izzo V.A. et al 2006 A numerical investigation of the effects of impurity penetration depth on disruption mitigation by massive high-pressure gas jet Nucl. Fusion 46 541-7 Inagaki S. et al 2006 Comparison of transient electron heat transport in LHD helical and JT-60U tokamak plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 133-41 Watanabe T.-H. et al 2006 Velocity-space structures of distribution function in toroidal ion temperature gradient turbulence Nucl. Fusion 46 24-32 2010 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2010 award, the papers published in the 2007 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, all of which are magnetic confinement experiments and theory. Rice J.E. et al 2007 Inter-machine comparison of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks Nucl. Fusion 47 1618-24 Lipschultz B. et al 2007 Plasma-surface interaction, scrape-off layer and divertor physics: implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 1189-205 Loarer T. et al 2007 Gas balance and fuel retention in fusion devices Nucl. Fusion 47 1112-20 Garcia O.E et al 2007 Fluctuations and transport in the TCV scrape-off layer Nucl. Fusion 47 667-76 Zonca F. et al 2007 Electron fishbones: theory and experimental evidence Nucl. Fusion 47 1588-97 Maggi C.F. et al 2007 Characteristics of the H-mode pedestal in improved confinement scenarios in ASDEX Upgrade, DIII-D, JET and JT-60U Nucl. Fusion 47 535-51 Yoshida M. et al 2007 Momentum transport and plasma rotation profile in toroidal direction in JT-60U L-mode plasmas Nucl. Fusion 47 856-63 Zohm H. et al 2007 Control of MHD instabilities by ECCD: ASDEX Upgrade results and implications for ITER Nucl. Fusion 47 228-32 Snyder P.B. et al 2007 Stability and dynamics of the edge pedestal in the low collisionality regime: physics mechanisms for steady-state ELM-free operation Nucl. Fusion 47 961-8 Urano H. et al 2007 H-mode pedestal structure in the variation of toroidal rotation and toroidal f

Kikuchi, M.

2011-01-01

247

Muon-catalyzed fusion: a new direction in fusion research  

SciTech Connect

In four years of intensive research, muon-catalyzed fusion has been raised from the level of a scientific curiosity to a potential means of achieving clean fusion energy. This novel approach to fusion is based on the fact that a sub-atomic particle known as a ''muon'' can induce numerous energy-releasing fusion reactions without the need for high temperatures or plasmas. Thus, the muon serves as a catalyst to facilitate production for fusion energy. The success of the research effort stems from the recent discovery of resonances in the reaction cycle which make the muon-induced fusion process extremely efficient. Prior estimates were pessimistic in that only one fusion per muon was expected. In that case energy balance would be impossible since energy must be invested to generate the muons. However, recent work has gone approximately half-way to energy balance and further improvements are being worked on. There has been little time to assess the full implications of these discoveries. However, various ways to use muon-catalyzed fusion for electrical power production are now being explored.

Jones, S.E.

1986-01-01

248

General Atomics Fusion Group Educational Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the General Atomics Energy Group features a collection of educational resources on fusion. Both naturally occuring fusion and fusion as an energy source are included. Resources for teachers to use in the classroom are included.

2010-03-31

249

Inertial Fusion: Strategy and Economic Potential.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide conv...

J. H. Nuckolls

1983-01-01

250

Helium Find Thaws the Cold Fusion Trail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported is a study of cold fusion in which trace amounts of helium, possible evidence of an actual fusion reaction, were found. Research methodology is detailed. The controversy over the validity of experimental results with cold fusion are reviewed. (CW)

Pennisi, E.

1991-01-01

251

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam.

Jassby, Daniel L. (Princeton, NJ)

1988-01-01

252

The modified Lapidus fusion.  

PubMed

Due to its proximal correction site and long lever arm, the Lapidus fusion, modified or not, is a powerful technique to correct hallux valgus deformities. The disadvantages are a high complication rate and a long postoperative rehabilitation period. It is only performed in 5% to 10% of all hallux valgus deformity corrections but remains, however, an important procedure, especially in moderate to severe deformities with intermetatarsal angles more than 14°, hypermobility of the first ray, arthritis of the first tarsometatarsal joint, and recurrent deformities. This article provides an overview of the procedure with special focus on the surgical technique. PMID:24878411

Schmid, Timo; Krause, Fabian

2014-06-01

253

Peregrinations on cold fusion  

SciTech Connect

Attention is focused on the possibility of resonance-enhanced deuteron Coulomb barrier penetration. Because of the many-body nature of the interactions of room-temperature deuterons diffusing through a lattice possessing deuterons in many of the interstitial positions, the diffusing deuterons can resonate on the atomic scale in the potential wells bounded by the ascending walls of adjacent Coulomb barriers and thereby penetrate the Coulomb barriers in a fashion vastly underestimated by two-body calculations in which wells for possible resonance are absent. Indeed, perhaps the lack of robust reproducibility in cold fusion originates from the narrowness of such transmission resonances. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Turner, L.

1989-01-01

254

Physics of Fusion Welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Applicabilities and limitations of three techniques analyzed. NASA technical memorandum discusses physics of electron-beam, gas/ tungsten-arc, and laser-beam welding. From comparison of capabilities and limitations of each technique with regard to various welding conditions and materials, possible to develop criteria for selecting best welding technique in specific application. All three techniques classified as fusion welding; small volume of workpiece melted by intense heat source. Heat source moved along seam, leaving in wake solid metal that joins seam edges together.

Nunes, A. C., Jr.

1986-01-01

255

Systematics of fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions  

E-print Network

The fusion probability in "hot" fusion reactions leading to the synthesis of super-heavy nuclei is investigated systematically. The quasi-fission barrier influences the formation of the super-heavy nucleus around the "island of stability" in addition to the shell correction. Based on the quasi-fission barrier height obtained with the Skyrme energy-density functional, we propose an analytical expression for the description of the fusion probability, with which the measured evaporation residual cross sections can be reproduced acceptably well. Simultaneously, some special fusion reactions for synthesizing new elements 119 and 120 are studied. The predicted evaporation residual cross sections for 50Ti+249Bk are about 10-150fb at energies around the entrance-channel Coulomb barrier. For the fusion reactions synthesizing element 120 with projectiles 54Cr and 58Fe, the cross sections fall to a few femtobarns which seems beyond the limit of the available facilities.

Ning Wang; Junlong Tian; Werner Scheid

2011-12-28

256

Fusion algebra of critical percolation  

E-print Network

We present an explicit conjecture for the chiral fusion algebra of critical percolation considering Virasoro representations with no enlarged or extended symmetry algebra. The representations we take to generate fusion are countably infinite in number. The ensuing fusion rules are quasi-rational in the sense that the fusion of a finite number of these representations decomposes into a finite direct sum of these representations. The fusion rules are commutative, associative and exhibit an sl(2) structure. They involve representations which we call Kac representations of which some are reducible yet indecomposable representations of rank 1. In particular, the identity of the fusion algebra is a reducible yet indecomposable Kac representation of rank 1. We make detailed comparisons of our fusion rules with the recent results of Eberle-Flohr and Read-Saleur. Notably, in agreement with Eberle-Flohr, we find the appearance of indecomposable representations of rank 3. Our fusion rules are supported by extensive numerical studies of an integrable lattice model of critical percolation. Details of our lattice findings and numerical results will be presented elsewhere.

Jorgen Rasmussen; Paul A. Pearce

2007-06-19

257

Plasma Physics for Nuclear Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book focuses on the properties of gaseous plasmas needed in the attainment of controlled fusion reactions. The first five chapters develop the fundamentals of plasma physics and present the conditions of nuclear fusion reactions. The next four provide a magnetohydrodynamic description of plasmas, followed by four chapters that explain wave phenomena and instabilities by means of a kinetic model.

K. Miyamoto; Robert L. Dewar

1980-01-01

258

Automated targeting data fusion (ATDF)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated all source data fusion primarily fuses analyst generated messages. The Automated Targeting Data Fusion (ATDF) effort created an application that rapidly associated very diverse information sources automatically. In recent military conflict situations, enormous amounts of multi-source data have been made available to war-fighters. These data include imagery, signals intelligence, acoustic information, input from human analysts, and other sources. The

Randy K. Young; Peter S. Wyckoff; James H. Wise

2003-01-01

259

Enhanced image capture through fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an extension to the pyramid approach to image fusion. The modifications address problems that were encountered with past implementations of pyramid-based fusion. In particular, the modifications provide greater shift invariance and immunity to video noise, and provide at least a partial solution to the problem of combining components that have roughly equal salience but opposite contrasts. The

Peter J. Burt; Raymond J. Kolczynski

1993-01-01

260

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques. 16 figs.

Shoseyov, O.; Yosef, K.; Shpiegl, I.; Goldstein, M.A.; Doi, R.H.

1998-02-17

261

Laser Based Fusion Test Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Fusion Test Facility (FTF) is a high repetition rate ignition facility that would bridge the gap between single shot facilities (such as NIF and LMJ) and a fully functioning laser fusion power plant. It would allow development of science and technolog...

A. J. Schmitt, J. D. Sethian, S. P. Obenschain

2008-01-01

262

Scalable data fusion using Astrolabe  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dramatic growth of computer networks creates both an opportunity and a daunting distributed computing problem for users seeking to perform data fusion and data mining. The problem is that data often resides on large numbers of devices and evolves rapidly. Systems that collect data at a single location scale poorly and suffer from single-point-failures. Astrolabe performs data fusion in

Kenneth P. Birman; Robbert van Renesse; Werner Vogels

2002-01-01

263

Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF)  

E-print Network

Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) ­ Motivation, Role, Required Capabilities YK Martin Peng;1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the Department of Energy Example: fusion nuclear-nonnuclear coupling effects-composites; Nano-structure alloy; PFC designs, etc. · Nuclear-nonnuclear coupling in PFC: - Plasma ion flux induces

264

Objective Image Fusion Performance Characterisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion as a way of combining multiple image signals into a single fused image has in recent years been extensively researched for a variety of multisensor applications. Choosing an optimal fusion approach for each application from the plethora of algorithms available however, remains a largely open issue. A small number of metrics proposed so far provide only a rough,

Vladimir S. Petrovic; Costas S. Xydeas

2005-01-01

265

Cultural Fusion University Helps to  

E-print Network

2 Cultural Fusion University Helps to Protect South China's Architectural Heritage Cultural Fusion University Helps to Protect South China's Architectural Heritage Volume 6 Number 2 January 31, 2005, but rather there is a linear correlation between maternal age and pregnancy complications. Professor Terence

Tam, Vincent W. L.

266

Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins  

DOEpatents

A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

Shoseyov, Oded (Karmey Yosef, IL); Shpiegl, Itai (Rehovot, IL); Goldstein, Marc A. (Davis, CA); Doi, Roy H. (Davis, CA)

1998-01-01

267

Fusion Energy 101 Jeff Freidberg  

E-print Network

Questions · How do we hold a plasma together? · How do we heat it to 15 keV 21 #12;Hold a plasma together reactions: · Fission ­ split heavy atoms (Uranium) · Fusion ­ fuse light atoms (Deuterium) 10 #12;The temperature: (air x million) · Holding its heat for a long enough time: · For a sustained fusion plasma

268

Radioactive wastes from fusion reactors.  

PubMed

Calculation of the amount of tritium released from a hypothetical fusion reactor shows that it is 2 x 10(5) the amount released by generation of an equivalent amount of electricity by a fission reactor. Release of the tritium generated by a power economy, if the nuclear power were all fusion, would result in unacceptable worldwide dosages by the year 2000. PMID:17737473

Parkfr, F L

1968-01-01

269

Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)  

SciTech Connect

This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

Not Available

1990-09-01

270

newsletternewsletter EUROPEAN FUSION DEVELOPEMENT AGREEMENT  

E-print Network

Institute for Nuclear Power Plants, Trnava Slovenia Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana httpnewsletternewsletter EUROPEAN FUSION DEVELOPEMENT AGREEMENT Issued by the EFDA Close Support Unit page 8 http://www.efda.org EU Enlargement: New Partnerships in Fusion Vol 2004 / 3 June 15, 2004 News 1

271

The future with fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several projects for obtaining power from nuclear fusion are discussed. The Fusion Energy Corporation of Princeton, N.J. has been developing a technique whereby an ordered arrangement of high-energy self-colliding ion beams - called a migma - are confined in a single enclosure. In an axially symmetric single enclosure with an appropriate magnetic field the ions will precess about the center

F. Hirschfeld

1977-01-01

272

Warming up to cold fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that tabletop equipment at room temperature could produce nuclear fusion was widely rejected five years ago by the scientific community. Nevertheless, recent results from numerous labs show that a novel phenomena of some kind may indeed be occurring, though theorist are still groping for an explanation. Many aspects of the cold fusion effect are now reproducible if known

Storms

2009-01-01

273

Utility requirements for fusion  

SciTech Connect

This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

Vondrasek, R.J.

1982-02-01

274

Glycoprotein interactions in paramyxovirus fusion  

PubMed Central

The Paramyxoviridae are enveloped, negative-stranded RNA viruses, some of which recognize sialic acid-containing receptors, while others recognize specific proteinaceous receptors. The major cytopathic effect of paramyxovirus infection is membrane fusion-induced syncytium formation. Paramyxoviruses are unusual in that the receptor-binding and fusion-promoting activities reside on two different spike structures, the attachment and fusion glycoproteins, respectively. For most paramyxoviruses, this distribution of functions requires a mechanism by which the two processes can be linked for the promotion of fusion. This is accomplished by a virus-specific interaction between the two proteins. An increasing body of evidence supports the notion that members of this family of viruses utilize this glycoprotein interaction in different ways in order to mediate the regulation of the fusion protein activation, depending on the type of receptor utilized by the virus. PMID:20161127

Iorio, Ronald M; Melanson, Vanessa R; Mahon, Paul J

2009-01-01

275

Magnetic fusion energy and computers  

SciTech Connect

The application of computers to magnetic fusion energy research is essential. In the last several years the use of computers in the numerical modeling of fusion systems has increased substantially. There are several categories of computer models used to study the physics of magnetically confined plasmas. A comparable number of types of models for engineering studies are also in use. To meet the needs of the fusion program, the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center has been established at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A large central computing facility is linked to smaller computer centers at each of the major MFE laboratories by a communication network. In addition to providing cost effective computing services, the NMFECC environment stimulates collaboration and the sharing of computer codes among the various fusion research groups.

Killeen, J.

1982-01-01

276

Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review Panel  

E-print Network

Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1999 Report of the FEAC Inertial Fusion Energy Review. S. Department of Energy Fusion Energy Advisory Committee (FEAC) review of its Inertial Fusion Energy of California at San Diego. KEY WORDS: Fusion; fusion science; fusion energy; inertial fusion energy. I. SUMMARY

Abdou, Mohamed

277

Initial size and dynamics of viral fusion pores are a function of the fusion protein mediating membrane fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background information. Protein-mediated merger of biological membranes, membrane fusion, is an important process. To investigate the role of fusogenic proteins in the initial size and dynamics of the fusion pore (a narrow aqueous pathway, which widens to finalize membrane fusion), two different fusion proteins expressed in the same cell line were investigated: the major glycoprotein of baculovirus Autographa californica (GP64)

Ilya Plonsky; Afshin Rashtian; Joshua Zimmerberg

2008-01-01

278

Fusion reactor pumped laser  

DOEpatents

A nuclear pumped laser capable of producing long pulses of very high power laser radiation is provided. A toroidal fusion reactor provides energetic neutrons which are slowed down by a moderator. The moderated neutrons are converted to energetic particles capable of pumping a lasing medium. The lasing medium is housed in an annular cell surrounding the reactor. The cell includes an annular reflecting mirror at the bottom and an annular output window at the top. A neutron reflector is disposed around the cell to reflect escaping neutrons back into the cell. The laser radiation from the annular window is focused onto a beam compactor which generates a single coherent output laser beam. 10 figs.

Jassby, D.L.

1987-09-04

279

Fusion pumped laser  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of laser radiation. A tokamak fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The tokamak design provides a temperature and a magnetic field which is effective to generate a neutron flux of at least 10.sup.15 neutrons/cm.sup.2.s. A conversion medium receives neutrons from the tokamak and converts the high-energy neutrons to an energy source with an intensity and an energy effective to excite a preselected lasing medium. The energy source typically comprises fission fragments, alpha particles, and radiation from a fission event. A lasing medium is provided which is responsive to the energy source to generate a population inversion which is effective to support laser oscillations for generating output radiation.

Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1989-01-01

280

Fusion Power Demonstration III  

SciTech Connect

This is the third in the series of reports covering the Fusion Power Demonstration (FPD) design study. This volume considers the FPD-III configuration that incorporates an octopole end plug. As compared with the quadrupole end-plugged designs of FPD-I and FPD-II, this octopole configuration reduces the number of end cell magnets and shortens the minimum ignition length of the central cell. The end-cell plasma length is also reduced, which in turn reduces the size and cost of the end cell magnets and shielding. As a contiuation in the series of documents covering the FPD, this report does not stand alone as a design description of FPD-III. Design details of FPD-III subsystems that do not differ significantly from those of the FPD-II configuration are not duplicated in this report.

Lee, J.D. (ed.)

1985-07-01

281

Muon catalyzed fusion  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an overview of the program and results of our experiment performed by a European-American collatoration at the Swiss Institute of Nuclear Research. Systematic investigations of the low temperature region (23K to 300K) reveal a surprisingly rich physics of mesoatomic and mesomolecular processes, unparalleled in other systems of isotopic hydrogen mixtures. A dramatic density dependence of the reaction rates is found. The rich structure in the time spectra of the fusion neutrons observed at low gas density yields first evidence for new effects, most likely strong contributions from reactions of hot muonic atoms. The important question of muon losses due to He sticking is investigated by different methods and over a wide range of tritium concentrations.

Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Naegele, N.; Pawlek, P.; Scrinzi, A.; Werner, J.; Zmeskal, J.; Bistirlich, J.; Crowe, K.M.

1986-01-01

282

Advanced spheromak fusion reactor  

SciTech Connect

The spheromak has no toroidal magnetic field coils or other structure along its geometric axis, and is thus more attractive than the leading magnetic fusion reactor concept, the tokamak. As a consequence of this and other attributes, the spheromak reactor may be compact and produce a power density sufficiently high to warrant consideration of a liquid `blanket` that breeds tritium, converts neutron kinetic energy to heat, and protects the reactor vessel from severe neutron damage. However, the physics is more complex, so that considerable research is required to learn how to achieve the reactor potential. Critical physics problems and possible ways of solving them are described. The opportunities and issues associated with a possible liquid wall are considered to direct future research.

Fowler, T.K. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Hooper, E.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1996-06-19

283

Soldier systems sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

Brubaker, Kathryne M.

1998-08-01

284

Prospects for bubble fusion  

SciTech Connect

In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

1995-09-01

285

Fusion Simulation Project Workshop Report  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mission of the Fusion Simulation Project is to develop a predictive capability for the integrated modeling of magnetically confined plasmas. This FSP report adds to the previous activities that defined an approach to integrated modeling in magnetic fusion. These previous activities included a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee panel that was charged to study integrated simulation in 2002. The report of that panel [Journal of Fusion Energy 20, 135 (2001)] recommended the prompt initiation of a Fusion Simulation Project. In 2003, the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences formed a steering committee that developed a project vision, roadmap, and governance concepts [Journal of Fusion Energy 23, 1 (2004)]. The current FSP planning effort involved 46 physicists, applied mathematicians and computer scientists, from 21 institutions, formed into four panels and a coordinating committee. These panels were constituted to consider: Status of Physics Components, Required Computational and Applied Mathematics Tools, Integration and Management of Code Components, and Project Structure and Management. The ideas, reported here, are the products of these panels, working together over several months and culminating in a 3-day workshop in May 2007.

Kritz, Arnold; Keyes, David

2009-03-01

286

Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion  

SciTech Connect

The study of poxvirus entry and membrane fusion has been invigorated by new biochemical and microscopic findings that lead to the following conclusions: (1) the surface of the mature virion (MV), whether isolated from an infected cell or by disruption of the membrane wrapper of an extracellular virion, is comprised of a single lipid membrane embedded with non-glycosylated viral proteins; (2) the MV membrane fuses with the cell membrane, allowing the core to enter the cytoplasm and initiate gene expression; (3) fusion is mediated by a newly recognized group of viral protein components of the MV membrane, which are conserved in all members of the poxvirus family; (4) the latter MV entry/fusion proteins are required for cell to cell spread necessitating the disruption of the membrane wrapper of extracellular virions prior to fusion; and furthermore (5) the same group of MV entry/fusion proteins are required for virus-induced cell-cell fusion. Future research priorities include delineation of the roles of individual entry/fusion proteins and identification of cell receptors.

Moss, Bernard [Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-0445 (United States)]. E-mail: bmoss@nih.gov

2006-01-05

287

Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )  

E-print Network

Fusion Laser preheated magnetized fuel LASNEX simulations indicate interesting yields Z p Merging plasma jets for remote standoff ZBL U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC

288

Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries  

SciTech Connect

This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

None

1980-12-01

289

Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

Fusion Development Path Panel Preliminary Report Summary for NRC BPAC Panel (Focus on MFE of a demonstration power plant in approximately 35 years. The plan should recognize the capabilities of all fusion facilities around the world, and include both magnetic fusion energy (MFE) and inertial fusion energy (IFE

290

2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary  

E-print Network

2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary 31 July 2002 #12;page 2 of 15 2002 Fusion Summer Study Executive Summary The 2002 Fusion Summer Study was conducted from July 8-19, 2002, in Snowmass, CO, and carried out a critical assessment of major next-steps in the fusion energy sciences program in both

291

Fusion Protein Products Screen Purify Detect Cleave  

E-print Network

Fusion Protein Products · Screen · Purify · Detect · Cleave Fusion Protein Products · Screen researchers look to plasmid vectors to express fusion proteins, they find themselves in need of methods proteins is also included for those fusion proteins that may have an inaccessible tag. Pierce offers a host

Lebendiker, Mario

292

Fusion Energy: Visions of the Future  

E-print Network

Scale, Terrapower, Areva Nat'l Ignition Facility, Iter, General Fusion TriAlpha, Polywell, LPP #12;DeuteriumFusion Energy: Visions of the Future Dec. 10-11, 2013 FOCUS FUSION Cheap, Clean, Safe & Unlimited Energy #12;Controlled Nuclear Fusion With a Dense Plasma Focus Device Running on Aneutronic Fuel What

293

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011  

E-print Network

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class temperature. #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear Fusion 2. There are a few different energy scales

Militzer, Burkhard

294

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011  

E-print Network

Temperature & Nuclear Fusion 4 October 2011 Goals · Review temperature in stars · Practice using the important energy scales for nuclear fusion Temperature 1. For each relation we regularly use in class-Boltzmann equation: L = 4R2 T4 . (d) In fusion energy generation: T . #12;temperature & nuclear fusion 2 Nuclear

Militzer, Burkhard

295

Information Representation for Image Fusion Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The considerable number of image fusion algorithms available today vary widely in terms of fusion performance and robust fusion assessment tools have become a target of considerable research. Based on a variety of localised or global evaluations of image statistics and structure between the inputs and the fused image, available objective fusion evaluation metrics use a number of different information

V. Petrovic; T. Cootes

2006-01-01

296

White Paper on Magnetic Fusion Program Strategies  

E-print Network

production of over IO MW of fusion power in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at Princeton University of the international fusion program, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is now halfwayWhite Paper on Magnetic Fusion Program Strategies Prepared for The President's Committee

297

ERDA-76/110/l FUSION POWER  

E-print Network

of fusion reactors will occur through a developing fusion vendor industry working with Government, national promising approach to fusion and is closer to achieving a demonstration reactor for commer- cial applicationERDA-76/110/l UC-20 FUSION POWER BY MAGNETIC CONFINEMENT PROGRAMPLAN VOLUME I SUMMARY JULY 1976

298

EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work,

B. N. Kolbasov

2007-01-01

299

Safety aspects of fusion power plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10–13 July 2006.Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share

B. N. Kolbasov

2007-01-01

300

Cold fusion catalyzed by muons and electrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alternative methods have been suggested to produce fusion power at low temperature. The first, muon catalyzed fusion or MCF, uses muons to spontaneously catalyze fusion through the muon mesomolecule formation. Unfortunately, this method fails to generate enough fusion energy to supply the muons, by a factor of about ten. The physics of MCF is discussed, and a possible approach

Kulsrud

1990-01-01

301

Enhancement of cold fusion reaction rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although major controversy still remains as to the source of the excess thermal power output reported from diverse successful cold fusion calorimetry experiments, considerable independent evidence does exist that low-level, deuterium fueled, cold fusion reactions can occur based upon reported neutron and tritium measurements. Because the specific fusion power output may be very low in present cold fusion experiments, there

Gary M. Sandquist; Vern C. Rogers

1990-01-01

302

Fusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre  

E-print Network

, cleaner ways of powering itself. Nuclear fusion ­ the process that provides the sun's energy ­ can play process that provides the energy in the sun and other stars. To utilise fusion reactions as an energyFusion -Aclean future Research at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy #12;Increasing energy demands

303

FUSION FRAMES AND THEORETICAL APPLICATIONS: FOR THE FUSION FRAME WEB PAGE  

E-print Network

FUSION FRAMES AND THEORETICAL APPLICATIONS: FOR THE FUSION FRAME WEB PAGE PETER G. CASAZZA The deepest and most difficult question in Fusion Frame Theory is the construction of fusion frames with added that they do not show how to construct the frames. Recently, Casazza and Fickus [4] have developed a Fusion

Casazza, Pete

304

(MS WORD TEMPLATE for Submission in Fusion Engineering and Design) Security on the US Fusion Grid  

E-print Network

(MS WORD TEMPLATE for Submission in Fusion Engineering and Design) Security on the US Fusion Grid J magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions

Thompson, Mary R.

305

Detecting Sensor Failures in a Multi-Sensor Data Fusion SystemData Fusion System  

E-print Network

Detecting Sensor Failures in a Multi-Sensor Data Fusion SystemData Fusion System Thomas Pfister 21 · Introduction · Realization sensor fusion · Failure detection methods · Simulation results Detecting Sensor Failures in a Multi-Sensor Data Fusion System #12;Introduction Multi-Sensor Data Fusion · Problem

Berns, Karsten

306

CPS October 2005 A Fast Track Approach to FusionA Fast Track Approach to Fusion  

E-print Network

WHAT IS FUSION ?WHAT IS FUSION ? Magnetic Fusion Energy uses a "magnetic bottle" called a tokamak in burning fossil fuels a 1 GW fusion power station would use 1 Kg of D + T in a day, compared to 10 of working economically Outline of rest of talk: · What would a fusion power plant look like? · Advantages

307

Fusion power - The transition from fundamental science to fusion reactor engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basics of nuclear fusion are reviewed, with emphasis on fusion reactions. Quantitative requirements for fusion power - the Lawson criterion and the problems of plasma pressure and fusion power density - are discussed. Certain scientific, technological and engineering issues concerning controlled fusion are considered, in reference to the Tokamak, theta-pinch, mirror-machine, and stellarator approaches

R. F. Post

1975-01-01

308

Developments in inertial fusion energy and beam fusion at magnetic confinement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 70-year anniversary of the first nuclear fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes by Oliphant, Harteck, and Rutherford is an opportunity to realize how beam fusion is the path for energy production, including both branches, the magnetic confinement fusion and the inertial fusion energy (IFE). It is intriguing that Oliphant's basic concept for igniting controlled fusion reactions by beams has made

Heinrich Hora

2004-01-01

309

Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2006 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

community. Benefits Fusion is the energy source that powers the sun and stars. In the fusion process, formsScience/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2006 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile Adjustments FY 2005 Comparable Appropriation FY 2006 Request Fusion Energy Sciences Science

310

Nuclear fusion: Fast heating scalable to laser fusion ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid heating of a compressed fusion fuel by a short-duration laser pulse is a promising route to generating energy by nuclear fusion, and has been demonstrated on an experimental scale using a novel fast-ignitor geometry. Here we describe a refinement of this system in which a much more powerful, pulsed petawatt (1015 watts) laser creates a fast-heated core plasma that

R. Kodama; H. Shiraga; K. Shigemori; Y. Toyama; S. Fujioka; H. Azechi; H. Fujita; H. Habara; T. Hall; Y. Izawa; T. Jitsuno; Y. Kitagawa; K. M. Krushelnick; K. L. Lancaster; K. Mima; K. Nagai; M. Nakai; H. Nishimura; T. Norimatsu; P. A. Norreys; S. Sakabe; K. A. Tanaka; A. Youssef; M. Zepf; T. Yamanaka

2002-01-01

311

Wrist fusion versus limited carpal fusion in advanced kienbock's disease  

PubMed Central

We treated 18 patients with advanced Kienbock's disease surgically. Six had total wrist fusions and 12 had limited carpal fusions. The average age was 39.6 yrs and the average follow up was 61.8 months and 66.8 months respectively. The visual analogue pain scores, the patient satisfaction scores and the SF 12 were better in the total wrist fusion group. The DASH (Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand) scores, the range of movement and the grip strengths were better in the limited carpal fusions group but this was not statistically significant. Four patients with limited carpal fusions had a non-union that required revising. We believe that total wrist fusion should be offered earlier to patients with advanced stages of the disease, as there are less surgical failures, more satisfied patients, better post operative pain scores and consistent long-term results with less potential for further deterioration with time as compared to other treatment methods. PMID:16205959

Trail, I. A.; Stanley, J. K.

2005-01-01

312

Rabies Virus-Induced Membrane Fusion Pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of rabies virus with membranes is triggered at low pH and is mediated by the viral glyco- protein (G). The rabies virus-induced fusion pathway was studied by investigating the effects of exogenous lipids having various dynamic molecular shapes on the fusion process. Inverted cone-shaped lysophosphatidyl- cholines (LPCs) blocked fusion at a stage subsequent to fusion peptide insertion into the

Yves Gaudin

2000-01-01

313

Binocular vision and fusion movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The previous chapter begins with a discussion of the relation between binocular vision and fusion movement based on one's own interpretation built upon the ideas of many writers and one's own opinions.

F. P. Fischer; J. W. Wagenaar

1954-01-01

314

Image fusion for tactical applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multispectral sensors are increasingly being employed in military applications. Just as in satellite imagery of the earth, multispectral data is required in order to extract the maximum amount of information from a scene. The advantages of image fusion have been postulated for navigation, surveillance, fire control, and missile guidance to improve accuracy and contribute to mission success. The fusion process is a critical element of each of these applications. Imagery from various sensors must be calibrated, enhanced and spatially registered in order to achieve the desired 'fusion' of information into a single 'picture' for rapid assessment. In a tactical military environment this fusion of data must be presented to the end user in a timely and ergonomical fashion. The end user (e.g., a combat pilot) may already be operating at maximum sensory input capacity. Does he or she really need another cockpit display?

McDaniel, Robert V.; Scribner, Dean A.; Krebs, William K.; Warren, Penny R.; Ockman, Norman; McCarley, Jason

1998-10-01

315

Overview of fusion reactor safety  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of deuterium-tritium fusion reactors requires examination of several major safety and environmental issues: (1) tritium inventory control; (2) neutron activation of structural materials, fluid streams and reactor hall environment; (3) release of radioactivity from energy sources including lithium spill reactions, superconducting magnet stored energy release, and plasma disruptions; (4) high magnetic and electromagnetic fields associated with fusion reactor superconducting magnets and radio frequency heating devices; and (5) handling and disposal of radioactive waste. Early recognition of potential safety problems with fusion reactors provides the opportunity for improvement in design and materials to eliminate or greatly reduce these problems. With an early start in this endeavor, fusion should be among the lower risk technologies for generation of commercial electrical power.

Cohen, S.; Crocker, J. G.

316

Laser fusion monthly -- August 1980  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the monthly progress for the laser fusion research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. First it gives facilities report for both the Shiva and Argus projects. Topics discussed include; laser system for the Nova Project; the fusion experiments analysis facility; optical/x-ray streak camera; Shiva Dante System temporal response; 2{omega}{sub 0} experiment; and planning for an ICF engineering test facility.

Ahlstrom, H.G. [ed.

1980-08-01

317

Dynamic image fusion performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of objective evaluation of dynamic, multi-sensor image fusion. For this purpose an established static image fusion evaluation framework, based on gradient information preservation between the inputs and the fused image, is extended to deal with additional scene and object motion information present in multi-sensor sequences. In particular formulations for dynamic, multi-sensor information preservation models

V. Petrovic; T. Cootes; R. Pavlovic

2007-01-01

318

Cell Fusion and Tissue Regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cell fusion is a natural process implicated in normal development, immune response, tissue formation, and with a prominent\\u000a role in stem cell plasticity. The discovery that bone marrow stem cells fuse with several cell types, under normal condition\\u000a or after an injury, introduces new possibilities in regenerative medicine and genetic repair. Cell fusion has been shown to\\u000a be implicated in

Manuel Álvarez-Dolado; Magdalena Martínez-Losa

319

Fusion genes in breast cancer  

E-print Network

Fusion genes in breast cancer Elizabeth M. Batty Clare College, University of Cambridge A dissertation submitted to the University of Cambridge in candidature for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy November 2010 ii... is the outcome of work done in collaboration except where specifically indicated in the text. It has not been submitted whole or in part for any other qualification at any other University. iii Summary Fusion genes in breast cancer Elizabeth Batty...

Batty, Elizabeth

2012-02-07

320

The path to fusion power  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion, which powers the sun and stars, is potentially an environmentally responsible and intrinsically safe source of essentially\\u000a limitless energy. The Joint European Torus (JET) has produced 16 MW of fusion power, and construction of a power station sized\\u000a device called ITER (International Tokamak Experimental Reactor), which should produce at least 500 MW, is about to begin.\\u000a Further work on

C. Llewellyn Smith

2009-01-01

321

Cold fusion—Engineering perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable heat was liberated from a palladium-deuterium (Pd-D) system and this was attributed to cold nuclear fusion of deuterium within the palladium lattice.1 The primary source of heat in cold fusion was proposed to be the work-of-fracture of cracks in the Pd electrodes, and the mechanism for crack initiation and propagation was identified as deuterium or hydrogen embrittlement.2 In this

Ali F. AbuTaha

1990-01-01

322

Cold fusion in condensed matter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model for cold fusion in condensed matter is proposed (cold fusion of deuterons in palladium). It is assumed that the palladium-deuterium system forms an alloy, i.e., it is assumed that Pd ions as well as d\\/sup +\\/ ions are embedded in an uniform background of negative charge (conduction electrons). The model is based on an interaction potential for deuterons

W. Schommers; C. Politis

1989-01-01

323

The scientific status of fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of fusion energy has been a large-scale scientific undertaking of broad interest. The magnetic plasma containment in tokamaks and the laser-drive ignition of microfusion capsules appear to be scientifically feasible sources of energy. These concepts are bounded by questions of required intensity in magnetic field and plasma currents or in drive energy and, for both concepts, by issues of plasma stability and energy transport. The basic concept and the current scientific issues are described for magnetic fusion and for the interesting, but likely infeasible, muon-catalyzed fusion concept. Inertial fusion is mentioned, qualitatively, to complete the context. Fusion appears to release energy in rather large quantities (about 1000 MW) and significant new devices are needed to make progress. For magnetic fusion, the required net energy production within the plasma may be accomplished soon, but the more useful goal of self-sustained plasma ignition requires a new device of somewhat uncertain (factor of 2) cost and size.

Crandall, D. H.

1989-07-01

324

Prospects for improved fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

Ideally, a new energy source must be capable of displacing old energy sources while providing both economic opportunities and enhanced environmental benefits. The attraction of an essentially unlimited fuel supply has generated a strong impetus to develop advanced fission breeders and, even more strongly, the exploitation of nuclear fusion. Both fission and fusion systems trade a reduced fuel charge for a more capital-intensive plant needed to utilize a cheaper and more abundant fuel. Results from early conceptual designs of fusion power plants, however, indicated a capital intensiveness that could override cost savings promised by an inexpensive fuel cycle. Early warnings of these problems appeared, and generalized routes to more economically attractive systems have been suggested; specific examples have also recently been given. Although a direct reduction in the cost (and mass) of the fusion power core (FPC, i.e., plasma chamber, first wall, blanket, shield, coils, and primary structure) most directly reduces the overall cost of fusion power, with the mass power density (MPD, ratio of net electric power to FPC mass, kWe/tonne) being suggested as a figure-of-merit in this respect, other technical, safety/environmental, and institutional issues also enter into the definition of and direction for improved fusion concepts. These latter issues and related tradeoffs are discussed.

Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.; Hagenson, R.L.

1986-01-01

325

Conformal nets III: fusion of defects  

E-print Network

Conformal nets provides a mathematical model for conformal field theory. We define a notion of defect between conformal nets, formalizing the idea of an interaction between two conformal field theories. We introduce an operation of fusion of defects, and prove that the fusion of two defects is again a defect, provided the fusion occurs over a conformal net of finite index. There is a notion of sector (or bimodule) between two defects, and operations of horizontal and vertical fusion of such sectors. Our most difficult technical result is that the horizontal fusion of the vacuum sectors of two defects is isomorphic to the vacuum sector of the fused defect. Equipped with this isomorphism, we construct the basic interchange isomorphism between the horizontal fusion of two vertical fusions and the vertical fusion of two horizontal fusions of sectors.

Arthur Bartels; Christopher L. Douglas; André Henriques

2013-10-30

326

Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion  

SciTech Connect

The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

Guo Xiaoming [Physics and Computer Science Department, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3C5 (Canada)

2012-09-26

327

Kinetic advantage of controlled intermediate nuclear fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dominated process of controlled fusion is to let nuclei gain enough kinetic energy to overcome Coulomb barrier. As a result, a fusion scheme can consider two factors in its design: to increase kinetic energy of nuclei and to alter the Coulomb barrier. Cold Fusion and Hot fusion are all one-factor schemes while Intermediate Fusion is a twofactors scheme. This made CINF kinetically superior. Cold Fusion reduces deuteron-deuteron distance, addressing Coulomb barrier, and Hot Fusion heat up plasma into extreme high temperature, addressing kinetic energy. Without enough kinetic energy made Cold Fusion skeptical. Extreme high temperature made Hot Fusion very difficult to engineer. Because CIFN addresses both factors, CIFN is a more promising technique to be industrialized.

Guo, Xiaoming

2012-09-01

328

Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries  

SciTech Connect

This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

Not Available

1993-10-01

329

The Path to Magnetic Fusion Energy  

SciTech Connect

When the possibility of fusion as an energy source for electricity generation was realized in the 1950s, understanding of the plasma state was primitive. The fusion goal has been paced by, and has stimulated, the development of plasma physics. Our understanding of complex, nonlinear processes in plasmas is now mature. We can routinely produce and manipulate 100 million degree plasmas with remarkable finesse, and we can identify a path to commercial fusion power. The international experiment, ITER, will create a burning (self-sustained) plasma and produce 500 MW of thermal fusion power. This talk will summarize the progress in fusion research to date, and the remaining steps to fusion power.

Prager, Stewart (PPPL) [PPPL

2011-05-04

330

A Model for Membrane Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

Ngatchou, Annita

2010-01-01

331

Depth fusion for antipersonnel landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we introduce the concept of depth fusion for anti-personnel landmine detection. Depth fusion is an extension of common sensor-fusion techniques for landmine detection. The difference lies within the fact that fusion of sensor data is performed in different physical depth layers. In order to do so, it requires a sensor that provides depth information for object detections. Our ground-penetrating radar fulfills this requirement. Depth fusion is then taken as the combination of the output of sensor fusion of all layers. The underlying idea is that sensor fusion for the surface layer has a different weighing of the sensors when compared with the sensor fusion in the deep layers because of apparent sensor characteristics. For example, a thermal IR sensor hardly adds information to the sensor fusion in the deep layers. Furthermore, GPR has difficulties suppressing clutter in the surface layer. As such, the surface fusion should emphasize on the TIR sensor, whereas sensor fusion in the deep layers should have a higher weighing of the GPR. This a priori information can be made explicit by choosing for a depth-fusion approach. Experimental results form measurements at the TNO-FEL test facility are presented that validate our depth-fusion concepts.

Schavemaker, John G. M.; den Breejen, Eric; Cremer, Frank; Schutte, Klamer; Benoist, Koen W.

2001-10-01

332

!http://www.c3.lanl.gov/rocha/alife.html !Life as it could be  

E-print Network

important for evolution? Initial Conditions Self-Organizing Agent! Both peptide [Ghadiri et al] and nucleic acid chains are capable of template replication. Only a small fraction of peptide sequences can though

Rocha, Luis

333

(Meeting on fusion reactor materials)  

SciTech Connect

During his visit to the KfK, Karlsruhe, F. W. Wiffen attended the IEA 12th Working Group Meeting on Fusion Reactor Materials. Plans were made for a low-activation materials workshop at Culham, UK, for April 1991, a data base workshop in Europe for June 1991, and a molecular dynamics workshop in the United States in 1991. At the 11th IEA Executive Committee on Fusion Materials, discussions centered on the recent FPAC and Colombo panel review in the United States and EC, respectively. The Committee also reviewed recent progress toward a neutron source in the United States (CWDD) and in Japan (ESNIT). A meeting with D. R. Harries (consultant to J. Darvas) yielded a useful overview of the EC technology program for fusion. Of particular interest to the US program is a strong effort on a conventional ferritic/martensitic steel for fist wall/blanket operation beyond NET/ITER.

Jones, R.H. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Klueh, R.L.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Wiffen, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Loomis, B.A. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

1990-11-01

334

Fusion power from lunar resources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is shown that the moon contains an enormous energy source in He-3 deposited by the solar wind. Fusion of only 100 kg of He-3 with deuterium (D) in thermonuclear fusion power plants can produce more than 1000 MW(e) years of electrical energy, and the lunar resource base is estimated at 1 billion kg of He-3. This fuel can supply more than 1000 years of terrestrial electrical energy demand. The methods for extracting this fuel and the other solar wind volatiles are described. Alternate uses of D-He-3 fusion in direct thrust rockets will enable more ambitious deep space missions to be conducted. The capability of extracting hydrogen, water, nitrogen, and other carbon-containing molecules will open up the moon to a much greater level of human settlement than previously thought.

Kulcinski, G. L.; Schmitt, H. H.

1990-10-01

335

Fusion power for space propulsion.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Principles of operation, interplanetary orbit-to-orbit mission capabilities, technical problems, and environmental safeguards are examined for thermonuclear fusion propulsion systems. Two systems examined include (1) a fusion-electric concept in which kinetic energy of charged particles from the plasma is converted into electric power (for accelerating the propellant in an electrostatic thrustor) by the van de Graaf generator principle and (2) the direct fusion rocket in which energetic plasma lost from the reactor has a suitable amount of added propellant to obtain the optimum exhaust velocity. The deuterium-tritium and the deuterium/helium-3 reactions are considered as suitable candidates, and attention is given to problems of cryogenic refrigeration systems, magnet shielding, and high-energy particle extraction and guidance.

Roth, R.; Rayle, W.; Reinmann, J.

1972-01-01

336

Laser fusion experiments at LLL  

SciTech Connect

These notes present the experimental basis and status for laser fusion as developed at LLL. Two other chapters, one authored by K.A. Brueckner and the other by C. Max, present the theoretical implosion physics and laser plasma interaction physics. The notes consist of six sections. The first is an introductory section which provides some of the history of inertial fusion and a simple explanation of the concepts involved. The second section presents an extensive discussion of diagnostic instrumentation used in the LLL Laser Fusion Program. The third section is a presentation of laser facilities and capabilities at LLL. The purpose here is to define capability, not to derive how it was obtained. The fourth and fifth sections present the experimental data on laser-plasma interaction and implosion physics. The last chapter is a short projection of the future.

Ahlstrom, H.G.

1980-06-16

337

Approaches to Validation of Information Fusion Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We motivate and offer a formal definition of validation as it applies to information fusion systems. Common definitions of validation compare the actual state of the world with that derived by the fusion process. This definition conflates properties of th...

A. Kott, W. Milks

2009-01-01

338

Image fusion for a nighttime driving display  

E-print Network

An investigation into image fusion for a nighttime driving display application was performed. Most of the image fusion techniques being investigated in this application were developed for other purposes. When comparing the ...

Herrington, William Frederick

2005-01-01

339

Role of atomic collisions in fusion  

SciTech Connect

Atomic physics issues have played a large role in controlled fusion research. A general discussion of the present role of atomic processes in both magnetic and inertial controlled fusion work is presented.

Post, D.E.

1982-04-01

340

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01

341

Fusion bonding and alignment fixture  

DOEpatents

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all the components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2000-01-01

342

Electromagnetic computations for fusion devices  

SciTech Connect

Among the difficulties in making nuclear fusion a useful energy source, two important ones are producing the magnetic fields needed to drive and confine the plasma, and controlling the eddy currents induced in electrically conducting components by changing fields. All over the world, researchers are developing electromagnetic codes and employing them to compute electromagnetic effects. Ferromagnetic components of a fusion reactor introduce field distortions. Eddy currents are induced in the vacuum vessel, blanket and other torus components of a tokamak when the plasma current disrupts. These eddy currents lead to large forces, and 3-D codes are being developed to study the currents and forces. 35 refs., 6 figs.

Turner, L.R.

1989-09-01

343

Influenza Virus-Membrane Fusion Triggered by Proton Uncaging for Single Particle Studies of Fusion Kinetics  

E-print Network

Influenza Virus-Membrane Fusion Triggered by Proton Uncaging for Single Particle Studies of Fusion for studying membrane fusion, focusing on influenza virus fusion to lipid bilayers, which provides high of material across membranes. For example, in virus infection, membrane-enveloped viruses, such as influenza

Daniel, Susan

344

Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges and Facilities  

E-print Network

Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges these issues. 2 #12;FNST is the science, engineering, technology and materials Fusion Nuclear Science & Technology (FNST) FNST is the science, engineering, technology and materials for the fusion nuclear

Abdou, Mohamed

345

Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges and Facilities  

E-print Network

Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST)Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology (FNST) Challenges on MFE Roadmapping in the ITER Era Princeton, NJ 7-10 September 2011 1 #12;Fusion Nuclear Science never done any experiments on FNST in a real fusion nuclear environment we must be realistic on what

Abdou, Mohamed

346

FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxxxxx  

E-print Network

FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxx­xxx Recent progress.07.087 #12;FUSION-3792; No.of Pages15 2 F. Najmabadi, A.R. Raffray / Fusion Engineering and Design xxx (2006) xxx­xxx of any stellarator configuration represents a large number of trade-offs among physics

Raffray, A. René

347

Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2011 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2011 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile FY 2010 Current Appropriation FY 2011 Request Fusion Energy Sciences Science 163,479 +57,399 182, Fusion Energy Sciences 394,518b +91,023 426,000 380,000 Public Law Authorizations: Public Law 95

348

Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2007 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences  

E-print Network

Science/Fusion Energy Sciences FY 2007 Congressional Budget Fusion Energy Sciences Funding Profile Adjustments FY 2006 Current Appropriation FY 2007 Request Fusion Energy Sciences Science,182 Total, Fusion Energy Sciences........... 266,947b 290,550 -2,906 287,644 318,950 Public Law

349

HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates  

E-print Network

HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Decreases Bending Energy and Promotes Curved Fusion Intermediates Stephanie show that the energy that it requires of the fusion protein machinery to bring the HIV envelope in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fusion between the viral envelope and the T

Nagle, John F.

350

A Fusion Test Facility for Inertial Fusion Presented by Stephen Obenschain  

E-print Network

Sub-megaJoule laser energy Goal of ~150 MW fusion power High flux neutron source Development path that require reduced laser energy NRL Laser Fusion Sample 1-dimensional calculation shows substantial gain (79A Fusion Test Facility for Inertial Fusion Presented by Stephen Obenschain U.S. Naval Research

351

2002 Summer Fusion Study 1 July 19, 2002 2002 Fusion Summer Study  

E-print Network

fuel, or plasma, is strongly self-heated by fusion energy as in the sun and stars. An integrated, 2002 For Immediate Release Fusion energy shows great promise to contribute to securing the energy the major next steps in fusion energy science research. The development of practical fusion power is one

352

Laser Fusion Research at NRL Fusion Power Associates Meeting  

E-print Network

F light would help mitigate physics challenges of laser fusion and would increase target performance. #12 physics. The NRL program helps develop the basic physics of ICF using its Nike laser facility, theory Presented by Steve Obenschain Laser Plasma Branch Plasma Physics Division U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

353

Magneto-Inertial Fusion (Magnetized Target Fusion)( g g )  

E-print Network

. In this Talk: ·Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) demonstration, FRCHX at AFRL in Albuquerque ·Some MIF-IFE reactor/Target Combinations are possible Los Alamos / AFRL Field Reversed Configuration Shiva Star FRCHX U. Rochester LLE. White, H. Wood Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117, USA D

354

Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*  

E-print Network

the equivalent of "scientific breakeven" using the tokamak magnetic confinement concept and we can, with high the program has experienced. Scientific achievements have never been sufficient, in and of themselves, to create a major and sustained upturn in support for the quest for fusion energy. The program's scientific

355

Revisions to the JDL data fusion model  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Joint Directors of Laboratories {(JDL)} Data Fusion Group's Data Fusion Model is the most widely used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This model is modified to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi-sensor\\/multi-source systems. Proposed modifications include broadening of the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion

A. N. Steinberg; C. L. Bowman; F. E. White

1999-01-01

356

Dinuclear systems in complete fusion reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation and evolution of dinuclear systems in reactions of complete fusion are considered. Based on the dinuclear system concept, the process of compound nucleus formation is studied. Arguments confirming the validity of this concept are given. The main problems of describing the complete fusion in adiabatic approximation are listed. Calculations of evaporation residue cross sections in complete fusion reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei are shown. Isotopic trends of the cross sections of heavy nuclei formation in complete fusion reactions are considered.

Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.

2014-09-01

357

Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment study  

SciTech Connect

The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of a fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The resulting cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 100 MWe.

Dudziak, D.J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

1986-07-01

358

Empirical analysis of generalised uncertainty measures with dempster shafer fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data fusion within the evidential reasoning framework is a well established, robust and conservative technique to fuse uncertain information from multiple sensors. A number of fusion methods within this formalism were introduced including Dempster-Shafer theory (DST) fusion, Dezert Samarandche fusion (DSmT), and Smets' transferable belief model (TBM) based fusion. However, the impact of fusion on the level of uncertainty within

Peter Pong; Subhash Challa

2007-01-01

359

Fusion safety regulations in the United States: Progress and trends  

SciTech Connect

This paper explores the issue of regulations as they apply to current and future fusion experimental machines. It addresses fusion regulatory issues, current regulations used for fusion, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor experience with regulations, and future regulations to achieve fusion`s safety and environmental potential.

DeLooper, J.

1994-07-01

360

www.postersession.com Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion for Spacecraft  

E-print Network

Laboratory, Fusion Power and Propulsion Group Nuclear fusion has been identified as a potentially abundant for fusion energy is focused on two primary means of achieving fusion energy: magnetically confined fusion Fusion Power and Propulsion Group (FPPG) views the probability of this sort of space activity as quite

de Weck, Olivier L.

361

Fusion engines for multimodal input: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion engines are fundamental components of multimodal inter-active systems, to interpret input streams whose meaning can vary according to the context, task, user and time. Other surveys have considered multimodal interactive systems; we focus more closely on the design, specification, construction and evaluation of fusion engines. We first introduce some terminology and set out the major challenges that fusion engines

Denis Lalanne; Laurence Nigay; Philippe A. Palanque; Peter Robinson; Jean Vanderdonckt; Jean-françois Ladry

2009-01-01

362

Plasma Physics. Basic Theory with Fusion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plasma Physics - Basic Theory with Fusion Applications presents a thorough treatment of plasma physics, beginning at an introductory level and including an extensive discussion of its applications in thermonuclear fusion research. The physics of fusion plasmas is explained mainly in relation to recent progress in tokamak research, but other plasma confinement schemes, such as stellarators and inertial confinement, are

Kyoji Nishikawa; Masahiro Wakatani

1994-01-01

363

Plasma Physics. Basic Theory with Fusion Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning at an introductory level, this text presents a thorough treatment of plasma physics, including an extensive discussion of its applications in thermonuclear fusion research. A novel feature of this book is its comprehensive description of the various concepts and formulas widely used in fusion theory based on the fundamental equations of the plasma fluid. The physics of fusion plasmas

Kyoji Nishikawa; Masashiro Wakatani

1990-01-01

364

University of Wisconsin Fusion Technology Institute  

E-print Network

show similar trends #12;University of Wisconsin ­ Fusion Technology Institute Experimental ProcedureUniversity of Wisconsin ­ Fusion Technology Institute Analysis of Liquid Cryogen-Water Experiments with the MELCOR Code University of Wisconsin ­Madison Department of Engineering Physics Fusion Technology

California at Los Angeles, University of

365

FUSION CATEGORIES AND MODULE CATEGORIES EVAN JENKINS  

E-print Network

FUSION CATEGORIES AND MODULE CATEGORIES EVAN JENKINS k is an algebraically closed field of bilinear functors C Ã? D E. 2. Fusion categories Definition. Let C be a tensor/monoidal category. C is called a fusion category if (1) Every object has a left and right dual (2) 1 is simple. Examples (G

Proudfoot, Nicholas

366

Exotic fusion systems over 2-groups  

E-print Network

Exotic fusion systems over 2-groups Bob Oliver joint with Kasper Andersen and Joana Ventura The fusion category of a finite group G encodes the conjugacy relations within a Sylow p-subgroup S of GFS(G)(P, Q) = HomG(P, Q). 1 #12;The notion of an abstract fusion system is due to Puig. The definitions we

Thévenaz, Jacques

367

Remote computing using the National Fusion Grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The National Fusion Collaboratory (http:\\/\\/www.fusiongrid.org) uses grid technology to implement remote computing on the National Fusion Grid. The motivations are to reduce the cost of computing resources, shorten the software deployment cycle, and simplify remote computing for the user community. The National Fusion Collaboratory has successfully demonstrated remote access as a grid service to the TRANSP transport analysis code for

J. R. Burruss; S Flanagan; K Keahey; C Ludescher; D. C McCune; Q Peng; L Randerson; D. P Schissel; M Thompson

2004-01-01

368

The National Fusion Collaboratory Project Presented by  

E-print Network

early deployment of these tools." #12;SUCCESSFUL GRID COMPUTING FOR FUSION SCIENCE "This is a success fusion science meetings -- Both user education and user feedback to the NFC team l FusionGrid usedGrid -- Considerably less time to grid-enable the second code #12;SUCCESSFUL EDUCATION AND FEEDBACK ON POTENTIAL

369

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications  

E-print Network

Image Fusion: Principles, Methods, and Applications Tutorial EUSIPCO 2007 Lecture Notes Jan Flusser in several domains. The goal of image fusion (IF) is to integrate complementary multisensor, multitemporal. Image fusion has been used in many application areas. In remote sensing and in astronomy, multisensor

Sroubek, Filip

370

A wavelet-based image fusion tutorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of image fusion is to combine information from multiple images of the same scene. The result of image fusion is a new image which is more suitable for human and machine perception or further image-processing tasks such as segmentation, feature extraction and object recognition. Di4erent fusion methods have been proposed in literature, including multiresolution analysis. This paper is

Gonzalo Pajares; Jesús Manuel De La Cruz

2004-01-01

371

HUMAN EXPERTS FUSION FOR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION  

E-print Network

HUMAN EXPERTS FUSION FOR IMAGE CLASSIFICATION Arnaud MARTIN and Christophe OSSWALD Abstract and we study the possible decisions with these models. Keywords: Experts fusion, DST, DSmT, image enough, and experts fusion is required. Image classification is generally done on a local part

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

Photographing paintings by image fusion Gloria Haro  

E-print Network

Photographing paintings by image fusion Gloria Haro Dept. of Information and Communications a quality photograph of a painting by multi-image fusion methods. The problem is particularly challenging, and compensating optical distortion in the registration process. This image fusion method is applicable

373

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

374

Nuclear Fusion Energy Research Ghassan Antar  

E-print Network

Nuclear Fusion Energy Research at AUB Ghassan Antar Physics Department American University: http://aub.edu.lb/physics/lpfd #12;Dr. G. Antar 3 Outline 1. A brief introduction to Magnetic Fusion: Disruptions, Plasma Facing Components #12;Dr. G. Antar 4 Fusion Occurs when Two Nuclei Unite to Form One

Shihadeh, Alan

375

Inertial fusion: strategy and economic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inertial fusion must demonstrate that the high target gains required for practical fusion energy can be achieved with driver energies not larger than a few megajoules. Before a multi-megajoule scale driver is constructed, inertial fusion must provide convincing experimental evidence that the required high target gains are feasible. This will be the principal objective of the NOVA laser experiments. Implosions

Nuckolls

1983-01-01

376

Funding for nuclear fusion Expensive Iteration  

E-print Network

Funding for nuclear fusion Expensive Iteration A huge international fusion-reactor project faces funding difficulties Jul 22nd 2010 VIABLE nuclear fusion has been only 30 years away since the idea-third of the shortfall would come from cash earmarked for other research, the rest from unspent agricultural funds

377

FUSION POWER PLANTS GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES  

E-print Network

FUSION POWER PLANTS ­ GOALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES Farrokh Najmabadi Dept. of Electrical for fusion power plants is given and their economic, safety, and environmental features are explored. Concep- tual design studies predict that fusion power plants will be capital intensive and will be used

Najmabadi, Farrokh

378

Tritiated water processing for fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tritiated water represents a source of occupational exposure and environmental emissions for fusion and fission reactors. Fusion reactors must operate within stringent radionuclide emission limits. A range of tritiated water concentrations can be generated in fusion reactors, mostly in the form of tritiated light water. In contrast, tritium removal plants have been built in Canada and France to remove tritium

S. K. Sood; K. M. Kalyanam

1995-01-01

379

Laser Fusion Energy The High Average Power  

E-print Network

Laser Fusion Energy and The High Average Power Program John Sethian Naval Research Laboratory Dec for Inertial Fusion Energy with lasers, direct drive targets and solid wall chambers Lasers DPPSL (LLNL) Kr posters Snead Payne #12;Laser(s) Goals 1. Develop technologies that can meet the fusion energy

380

Image fusion experiment for information content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in image fusion have produced a variety of approaches like image overlay, image sharpening, and image cueing through pixel, feature, or region\\/shape combinations. The applicability of these approaches and techniques differ on the image content, contextual information, and generalized metrics of image fusion gain. An image fusion gain can be assessed relative to information gain or entropy reduction.

Karthik P. Ramesh; Shruti Gupta; Erik P. Blasch

2007-01-01

381

An overview of image fusion metrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Performance evaluation method that can compare and analyze different fusion techniques is an essential part in the development of image fusion techniques. This paper mainly discusses the applications and restrictions of performance evaluation metrics such as statistics feature related, information theory related, correlation information entropy, information deviation and etc. Accurate and effective assessment of the performances of image fusion techniques

Qiang Wang; Daren Yu; Yi Shen

2009-01-01

382

Image Fusion Quality Metrics by Directional Projection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion has been over-studied recently. Nevertheless, few works aim to how to evaluate the performance of image fusion algorithms. In this paper, we extend the work in image quality evaluation to a novel metric for objective evaluation of image fusion. Firstly the input images and the result image are converted into local sensitive intensity (LSI) by Radon transform. Then

Richang Hong; Yan Song; Jinhui Tang; Jianxin Pang

2009-01-01

383

Fusion Lecture Summary Eugene S. Evans  

E-print Network

Fusion Lecture Summary Eugene S. Evans Physics H190, University of California, Berkeley March 31" by Edward I. Moses (Principle Associate Director, National Ignition Facility and Photon Science) Eugene S Fusion Engine (LIFE) Final Thoughts 5 Acknowledgements Eugene S. Evans (2010) Fusion Lecture Summary

Budker, Dmitry

384

Recurrent gene fusions in prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of recurrent gene fusions in a majority of prostate cancers has important clinical and biological implications in the study of common epithelial tumours. Gene fusion and chromosomal rearrangements were previously thought to be primarily the oncogenic mechanism of haematological malignancies and sarcomas. The prostate cancer gene fusions that have been identified thus far are characterized by 5? genomic

Chandan Kumar-Sinha; Scott A. Tomlins; Arul M. Chinnaiyan

2008-01-01

385

MAST Upgrade Advancing compact fusion sources  

E-print Network

to the drive towards commercial fusion power. 1. Making the case for a fusion Component Test Facility (CTF). A CTF would allow crucial verification of fusion engineering and technology systems for the DEMO for a CTF ­ looking at start-up, current drive, steady state behaviour, handling of high heat flux, plasma

386

LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates  

E-print Network

LIFE Power Plant Fusion Power Associates December 14, 2011 Mike Dunne LLNL #12;NIf-1111-23714.ppt LIFE power plant 2 #12;LIFE delivery timescale NIf-1111-23714.ppt 3 #12;Timely delivery is enabled fusion options exist. NIF/LIFE allows timely integrated demonstration. · Fusion performance based

387

COMMENTARIES ON CRITICISMS OF MAGNETIC FUSION  

E-print Network

Engineering Heat Transfer Limits for D-T Fusion Reactors. p16 Technical Annex 2 Advanced Tokamak Modes--there is no CO2 produced, and decommissioned fusion reactor materials should qualify as low fusion reactors are within less than a factor of two of costs projected for other energy sources, without

388

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA FUSION REACTOR DESIGN IV  

E-print Network

CONFERENCES AND SYMPOSIA FUSION REACTOR DESIGN IV Report on the Fourth IAEA Technical Committee; 7.3. Recommendations; 8. Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactors; 8.1. Status; 8.2. Progress of fusion power reactor development is to bring to the world a new source of unlimited energy. While

Abdou, Mohamed

389

the fusion trend line Stan Milora (ORNL)  

E-print Network

conditions, PMI, nuclear effects on materials and structures, and harnessing fusion power. ­ "Cap this line: Greenwald report on Priorities, Gaps and Opportunities identifies glaring gaps in materials, fusion nuclear ­materials and fusion nuclear science and technology ReNeW findings VLT Virtual Laboratory for Technology

390

Summary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction  

E-print Network

and design concepts for fusion nuclear components worldwide (focus on power extraction and tritium fuel cycleSummary of Topic1 Fusion Power Extraction and Tritium Fuel Cycle Mohamed Abdou with Takeo Muroga and Neil Morley 1st IAEA DEMO Workshop UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA October, 2012 #12;Topic 1: Fusion Power

Abdou, Mohamed

391

Fusion power development—The next decade  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses the present status and future directions of fusion development. The author suggests looking at nuclear technologies for fusion, where they stand, and what will be needed in the move to new facilities which start generating not just physics but fusion energy engineering. The author also suggests examining the present state of commercial reactor designs, and recognizing that

Stephen O. Dean

1985-01-01

392

Fusion Energy Without Strong Nuclear Radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional quantum mechanics calculation shows that fusion energy without strong nuclear radiation is feasible, because this is the nature of sub-barrier nuclear fusion. When the Coulomb barrier is relatively thin and low, the resonant tunneling would select the fusion reaction with strong neutron and Gamma radiation. On the other hand, if the Coulomb barrier is thick and high, the resonant

Xing Z. Li; Jian Tian; Ming Y. Mei

1999-01-01

393

Study of Nuclear Physics for Nuclear Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the concept of “damp matching” [1] and the famous d + t fusion data, a conventional quantum mechanics calculation shows that the plasma fusion, muon-catalyzed fusion, and the low-energy nuclear reaction are essentially same in the sense of resonant tunneling through the Coulomb barrier. The good agreement between theory and experimental data justifies the selectivity in resonant tunneling,

Xing Z. Li; Bing Liu; Xian Z. Ren; Jian Tian; Wei Z. Yu; Dong X. Cao

2000-01-01

394

Study on Physical Basis of Cold Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand questions about the study on cold fusion in these years, we have studied physical basis of cold fusion. Results show that even though the cold fusion is feasible theoretically in the view of physics, but its reaction ratio is too small to be detected, so that it has no prospect for practical usage at present. However,

Jia-quan Li; Li-ru Shen; Guo-sheng Li; Jiong Li

2002-01-01

395

Overview of ORNL Fusion Program  

E-print Network

Sciences 4 Leadership Computing Facility 5 Fusion Energy Div. 6 Measurement Science and Systems Div. 7, new R&D facilities Magnets : 20 QPS vs. 50 W7-X (lower cost) #12;· Pursue near term applications Manager Brad Nelson Pellet injection system Combs ICH transmission lines & tuners Goulding ECH

396

Synthetic fuels from fusion reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technical, environmental, and economic features of a synthetic fuels economy based on fusion reactors are evaluated. Analyses of alternate possible U.S. energy systems for 2020 AD indicate that CTR's can deliver synthetic fuels based on electrolytic hydrogen (H2 gas, H2 liquid, and methanol) at costs competitive with natural fossil fuels and synthetic fuels derived from coal. With less conservative

J. R. Powell; F. J. Salzano; W. Sevian; P. Bezler; G. R. Hopkins; B. Yalof

1974-01-01

397

Distribution Category: Magnetic Fusion Energy  

E-print Network

Potential 30 5. Sensitivity to Data Uncertainties 32 6. Recommended Effort 40 7. Nuclear Data Needs 44 Effect of fractional burnup and doubling time upon required breeding ratio 12 5 Vertical cross section in Fusion Power Reactors 31 XI Description of Two Blanket Concepts for Sensitivity (Analysis performed

Abdou, Mohamed

398

Power Exhaust in Fusion Plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Magnetized plasma physics; 3. Magnetized plasma equilibrium; 4. Magnetized plasma stability; 5. Collisional transport in magnetized plasmas; 6. Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas; 7. Tokamak plasma boundary and power exhaust; 8. Outlook: power exhaust in fusion reactors; Appendix A. Maxwellian distribution; Appendix B. Curvilinear co-ordinates; References; Index.

Fundamenski, Wojciech

2014-07-01

399

Laser Inertial Fusion-based  

E-print Network

injector parameters satisfy fratricide constraints: ­ Injector nozzle ~15 m from chamber center ­ Two mean laser beam propagation for the next shot · Base case design is robust with respect to chamber design: -- 120 MJ fusion yield @ 15 Hz -- 4 m radius -- 2.5 µg/cc xenon · Chamber design trades-off: -- First

400

Quantum tunneling in nuclear fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent theoretical advances in the study of heavy-ion fusion reactions below the Coulomb barrier are reviewed. Particular emphasis is given to new ways of analyzing data (such as studying barrier distributions), new approaches to channel coupling (such as the path-integral and Green's function formalisms), and alternative methods to describe nuclear structure effects (such as those using the interacting boson model).

A. B. Balantekin; N. Takigawa

1998-01-01

401

HEDL magnetic fusion energy programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress is described in three HEDL programs supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Division of Magnetic Fusion Energy. They are: (1) irradiation effects analysis, (2) mechanical performance of MFE materials, and (3) preparation and presentation of design data. Helium production cross sections for isotopes of Fe, Ni, and Cr, calculated with the HAUSER 4 code, are tabulated at 15

D. G. Doran

1978-01-01

402

Information Fusion in Fingerprint Authentication  

E-print Network

Information Fusion in Fingerprint Authentication By Arun Abraham Ross A Dissertation Submitted Authentication By Arun Abraham Ross Although the problem of automatic fingerprint matching has been extensively systems that rely on a single source of information. #12;c Copyright 2003 by Arun Abraham Ross All Rights

Ross, Arun Abraham

403

Fusion Test Facilities John Sheffield  

E-print Network

Fusion Test Facilities John Sheffield ISSE - University of Tennessee FPA meeting Livermore December Stambaugh, and their colleagues #12;Destructive Testing · It is common practice to test engineered components to destruction prior to deployment of a system e.g., - Automobile crash tests - Airplane wing

404

University Fusion Association General Meeting  

E-print Network

, UCSD #12;UFA Activity for 2007 Expect a new FESAC charge to develop a plan for the US fusion program President OFES Program Steve Eckstrand, DOE/OFES NRC/NAS Plasma 2010 Study Update Steven Cowley, UCLA US over the next ten-years prior to ITER operation including identification of possible major new

405

Proton Collimators for Fusion Reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Proton collimators have been proposed for incorporation into inertial-electrostatic-confinement (IEC) fusion reactors. Such reactors have been envisioned as thrusters and sources of electric power for spacecraft and as sources of energetic protons in commercial ion-beam applications.

Miley, George H.; Momota, Hiromu

2003-01-01

406

RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS State of fusion  

E-print Network

to provide an effectively limitless source of safe,clean energy seemed just around the corner.Fifty years on for continued optimism. Nuclear fusion power relies on the energy released when two light atomic nuclei fuse and tritium nuclei.But to ensure that this reaction proceeds at a rate that is self

Loss, Daniel

407

Light ion-beam fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Technological University of Nagaoka and the Institute of Plasma Physics at Nagoya University report on experimental and theoretical studies in inertial confinement fusion by using an intense pulsed light-ion beam (LIB). The main efforts are made in the production, focusing, and transport of the LIB and the development of several diagnostic techniques, while fewer efforts are made to study

K. Yatsui; T. Tazima

1983-01-01

408

Interface Model of Cold Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interface theory of cold fusion is a variant of Ion Band State (IBS) Theory.1 It models Bloch symmetry deuterons in a 2-dimensional metal lattice instead of the 3-dimensional metal lattice first used. Both IBS variants recognize that the required lattice symmetry has limited extent, with the reactive deuterons being bound inside a closed volume like a box. The reactive

Talbot A. Chubb

409

Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) review  

SciTech Connect

During its 1996 winter study JASON reviewed the DOE Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program. This included the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and proposed studies. The result of the review was to comment on the role of the ICF program in support of the DOE Science Based Stockpile Stewardship program.

Hammer, D.; Dyson, F.; Fortson, N.; Novick, B.; Panofsky, W.; Rosenbluth, M.; Treiman, S.; York, H.

1996-03-01

410

Magnetic fusion: progress -> stagnation -> degradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

``The theory of the failure of magnetic fusion,'' created in 2004 and presented to APS-2007 introduced the notion of the ``difficult'' and ``complicated'' stages of the program and described them details. At the first phase the emerging fusion science was created under strong leadership. Progress was visible on year to year basis, and the program was easy to manage. The complicated phase started in the late 1980s, when the plasma physics appeared to be incapable to implement the mission of ITER to test nuclear components of a fusion reactor. Then, the failure of TFTR (PPPL, USA) and JET (Culham, UK) in the mid 1990 to demonstrate QDT=1 and the blindness of their leaders to already visible means to resolve the problem, were a clear indication of an irreversible stagnation. In fact, right after 2007, it became clear that in the case of a large system of human ``particles'' (scientists) two phases have a continuation. The internal degrees of freedom, otherwise protected from external perturbations by a strong dedication to the scientific method, are now eroding and collapsing. The loss of science in addressing confinement, stability, power extraction, fueling, stationary regimes issues makes the current program irrelevant to fusion energy. A fresh approach should be taken.

Zakharov, Leonid

2012-10-01

411

Fusion neutron energies and spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of two Maxwellian distributions of particles will differ from the interaction of the two particles at their respective Maxwell averages if the strength of the interaction varies significantly with energy over the widths of the distributions. This effect is considered here in particular for fusion (both D-T and D-D) for the mean energy of the reacting particles as

H. Brysk

1973-01-01

412

Third Edition, Gene Fusion System  

E-print Network

Third Edition, Revision 2 18-1123-20 GST Gene Fusion System #12;PROTEIN DATA BANK ADVISORY NOTICE Library of Medicine, and the United States Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02- 76CH00016. Any, the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Energy, the U.S. Government, BNL or its Operator

Lai, Zhi-Chun

413

Cold fusion — The heat mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that deuterium, and not palladium, is the fuel in the Pons-Fleischmann experiments led to high expectations of cold nuclear fusion. The conversion of mechanical energy to heat was neglected in studying the phenomenon. Considerable strain energy is stored in metals when processed from the ore. The initiation, growth, and propagation of cracks in the bulk disturb the energy

Ali F. AbuTaha

1990-01-01

414

The status of `cold fusion'  

Microsoft Academic Search

The questions raised by reports of nuclear reactions at low energies, so called `cold fusion', are not yet answered to the satisfaction of many scientists. Further experimental investigations of these and related questions seems desirable, at least for scientific if not practical reasons. Properly conducted, such investigations would be indistinguishable from normal research. They would yield information germane to accepted

David J. Nagel

1998-01-01

415

Revision open anterior approaches for spine procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background contextAnterior exposure has become an increasingly popular procedure for the general and vascular surgeon due to the increased use of anterior lumbar interbody fusion and artificial disc replacement for the treatment of many spinal problems.

Andrew A. Gumbs; Scott Hanan; James J. Yue; Rahul V. Shah; Bauer Sumpio

2007-01-01

416

Surgical Outcome of a Zero-profile Device Comparing with Stand-alone Cage and Anterior Cervical Plate with Iliac Bone Graft in the Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Objective A Zero-profile device is a cervical stand-alone cage with integrated segmental fixation device. We characteristically evaluated the radiological changes as well as clinical outcomes in the application of Zero-profile devices compared with stand-alone cages and anterior cervical plates with iliac bone grafts for the cervical disease. Methods Retrospectively, total 60 patients at least more than one year follow-up were enrolled. Twenty patients were treated with Zero-profile devices (Group A), twenty patients with stand-alone cages (Group B) and twenty patients with anterior cervical plates and iliac bone grafts (Group C) for a single level cervical disease. The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Odom's criteria and Bazaz-Yoo dysphagia index. The radiologic parameters were by subsidence and the changes of the midpoint interbody height (IBH), the segmental kyphotic angle (SKA), the overall kyphotic angle (OKA) in index level. Results Although there was no significant clinical difference according to the Odom's criteria among them(p=0.766), post-operative dysphagia was significantly decreased in the Group A and B compared with the Group C (p=0.04). From the immediate postoperative to the last follow-up time, the mean change of IBH decrement and SKA increment were significant in the Group B compared with the Group A (p=0.025, p=0.033) and the Group C (p=0.001, p=0.000). The subsidence rate was not significant among all groups (p=0.338). Conclusion This Zero-profile device is a valuable alternative to the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with a low incidence of postoperative dysphagia and without segmental kyphotic change. PMID:25346764

Shin, Jae Sik; Cho, Pyoung Goo

2014-01-01

417

Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact toroids called Field-Reversed Configurations. As reported earlier, it appears that the existing pulsed-power Shiva Star facility at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Albuquerque, NM can satisfy the heating requirements by means of imploding a thin metal cylinder (called a "liner") surrounding an FRC of the type presently being developed. The proposed next step is an integrated liner-on-plasma experiment in which an FRC would be heated to 10 keV by the imploding liner.

Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

418

Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has adopted: achieving a fusion gain of 1 as  

E-print Network

Scientific Breakeven for Fusion Energy For the past 40 years, the IFE fusion research community has adopted: achieving a fusion gain of 1 as the demonstration of scientific breakeven, where gain was defined as fusion energy produced divided the external energy incident on the fusion reaction chamber. Typical

419

Security on the US Fusion Grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justin R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

420

Data security on the national fusion grid  

SciTech Connect

The National Fusion Collaboratory project is developing and deploying new distributed computing and remote collaboration technologies with the goal of advancing magnetic fusion energy research. This work has led to the development of the US Fusion Grid (FusionGrid), a computational grid composed of collaborative, compute, and data resources from the three large US fusion research facilities and with users both in the US and in Europe. Critical to the development of FusionGrid was the creation and deployment of technologies to ensure security in a heterogeneous environment. These solutions to the problems of authentication, authorization, data transfer, and secure data storage, as well as the lessons learned during the development of these solutions, may be applied outside of FusionGrid and scale to future computing infrastructures such as those for next-generation devices like ITER.

Burruss, Justine R.; Fredian, Tom W.; Thompson, Mary R.

2005-06-01

421

Fusion energy calorimeter for the tokamak fusion test reactor  

SciTech Connect

One and two-dimensional neutronic analyses treating the transport and scattering of neutrons and the production and transport of gamma rays in the TFTR demonstrate that the fusion energy production in a D-T pulse in the TFTR can be determined with an uncertainty of +- 15% or less, simply by integrating the measured profile of temperature increase along the central radial axis of a large hydrocarbon moderator that fills the bay between adjacent toroidal-field coils, just outside the vacuum vessel. Limitations in thermopile temperature measurements dictate a minimum fusion-neutron fluence at the vacuum vessel of the order of 10/sup 12/ n/cm/sup 2/ per pulse (a source strength of 10/sup 18/ n/pulse in TFTR), in order that this simple calorimeter can provide useful accuracy.

Jassby, D.L.; Imel, G.R.

1981-04-01

422

Review of Japanese fusion program and role of inertial fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high compression of 600 times liquid density and the recent fast heating of a compressed core to 1-keV temperature have provided proof-of-principle of the fast ignition concept, and these results have significantly contributed to approve first phase of the Fast Ignition Realization EXperiment (FIREX) project. The goal of FIREX-I is to demonstrate fast heating of a fusion fuel up to the ignition temperature of 5-10 keV. Although the fuel size of FIREX-I is too small to ignite, sufficient heating will provide the scientific viability of ignition-and-burn by increasing the laser energy thereby the fuel size. Based on the result of FIREX-I, the decision of the start of FIREX-II to achieve ignition-and-burn can be made. The FIREX program is under the collaboration of the Institute of Laser Engineering and the National Institute for Fusion Science.

Motojima, O.

2007-08-01

423

THE FUSION HYBRID, A NEW (OLD ) IDEA FOR FUSION DEVELOPMENT  

E-print Network

ITER APPORVED ~ $11B TOTAL COST WHAT DO WE GET FOR THIS $11B? ASSUMPTIONS: COMES ON LINE T~2025-2030 OPERATES AS A POWER PLANT (400 MW) AT ITS OPERATING COST FOR 30 YEARS. CONSTRUCTION AND DISMANTLING COSTS.0 · Mined Uranium Burner 300 0 · Mined Uranium Breeder 45,000 0 · Thorium Breeder 135,000 0 · DT fusion* 16

424

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

SciTech Connect

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage ({approx}100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, 7011 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boris, D. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, South West, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Piefer, G. R. [Phoenix Nuclear Labs, 2555 Industrial Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53713 (United States)

2013-03-15

425

Measuring time of flight of fusion products in an inertial electrostatic confinement fusion device for spatial profiling of fusion reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new diagnostic has been developed that uses the time of flight (TOF) of the products from a nuclear fusion reaction to determine the location where the fusion reaction occurred. The TOF diagnostic uses charged particle detectors on opposing sides of the inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) device that are coupled to high resolution timing electronics to measure the spatial profile of fusion reactions occurring between the two charged particle detectors. This diagnostic was constructed and tested by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion Group in the IEC device, HOMER, which accelerates deuterium ions to fusion relevant energies in a high voltage (˜100 kV), spherically symmetric, electrostatic potential well [J. F. Santarius, G. L. Kulcinski, R. P. Ashley, D. R. Boris, B. B. Cipiti, S. K. Murali, G. R. Piefer, R. F. Radel, T. E. Radel, and A. L. Wehmeyer, Fusion Sci. Technol. 47, 1238 (2005)]. The TOF diagnostic detects the products of D(d,p)T reactions and determines where along a chord through the device the fusion event occurred. The diagnostic is also capable of using charged particle spectroscopy to determine the Doppler shift imparted to the fusion products by the center of mass energy of the fusion reactants. The TOF diagnostic is thus able to collect spatial profiles of the fusion reaction density along a chord through the device, coupled with the center of mass energy of the reactions occurring at each location. This provides levels of diagnostic detail never before achieved on an IEC device.

Donovan, D. C.; Boris, D. R.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F.; Piefer, G. R.

2013-03-01

426

Fission Fusion Hybrids: a nearer term application of Fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant. For waste incineration, hybrids burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs). The number of hybrids needed is 5-10 times less than the corresponding number of fast reactors (FRs). The highly sub-critical hybrids, with a thermal/epithermal spectrum, incinerate > 95% of the waste in decades rather than the centuries needed for FRs. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for 3-4 times as many LWRs with no fuel reprocessing. Thorium fuel rods exposed to neutrons in the hybrid reach fissile concentrations that enable efficient burning in LWR without the proliferation risks of reprocessing. The proliferation risks of this method are far less than other fuel breeding approaches, including today's gas centrifuge. With this cycle, US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ˜ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

2011-11-01

427

Fusion technologies for Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy (LIFE) engine design builds upon on going progress at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and offers a near-term pathway to commercial fusion. Fusion technologies that are critical to success are reflected in the design of the first wall, blanket and tritium separation subsystems. The present work describes the LIFE engine-related components and technologies. LIFE utilizes a thermally robust indirect-drive target and a chamber fill gas. Coolant selection and a large chamber solid-angle coverage provide ample tritium breeding margin and high blanket gain. Target material selection eliminates the need for aggressive chamber clearing, while enabling recycling. Demonstrated tritium separation and storage technologies limit the site tritium inventory to attractive levels. These key technologies, along with the maintenance and advanced materials qualification program have been integrated into the LIFE delivery plan. This describes the development of components and subsystems, through prototyping and integration into a First Of A Kind power plant. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Kramer, K. J.; Latkowski, J. F.; Abbott, R. P.; Anklam, T. P.; Dunne, A. M.; El-Dasher, B. S.; Flowers, D. L.; Fluss, M. J.; Lafuente, A.; Loosmore, G. A.; Morris, K. R.; Moses, E.; Reyes, S.

2013-11-01

428

Trust metrics in information fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trust is an important concept for machine intelligence and is not consistent across many applications. In this paper, we seek to understand trust from a variety of factors: humans, sensors, communications, intelligence processing algorithms and human-machine displays of information. In modeling the various aspects of trust, we provide an example from machine intelligence that supports the various attributes of measuring trust such as sensor accuracy, communication timeliness, machine processing confidence, and display throughput to convey the various attributes that support user acceptance of machine intelligence results. The example used is fusing video and text whereby an analyst needs trust information in the identified imagery track. We use the proportional conflict redistribution rule as an information fusion technique that handles conflicting data from trusted and mistrusted sources. The discussion of the many forms of trust explored in the paper seeks to provide a systems-level design perspective for information fusion trust quantification.

Blasch, Erik

2014-05-01

429

Overview of advanced fuel fusion  

SciTech Connect

The status and issues related to the development of advanced fuel fusion are discussed. D-{sup 3}He is a key advanced fuel since it has the potential of igniting in a variety of confinement concepts. However, to obtain a plentiful source of {sup 3}He, either lunar mining or breeding becomes necessary. Highly non-Maxwellian plasmas, such as might occur in beam-beam fusion concepts, are necessary to address fuels like p-{sup 11}B which have the added advantages of a more aneutronic character and plentiful fuel supply. Such plasmas appear very difficult to achieve but several possible approaches such as electrostatic confinement are noted. 52 refs., 13 figs, 5 tabs.

Miley, G.H.

1989-01-01

430

Membrane fusion and inverted phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found a correlation between liposome fusion kinetics and lipid phase behavior for several inverted phase forming lipids. N-Methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-Me), or mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), will form an inverted hexagonal phase (HII) at high temperatures (above TH), a lamellar phase (L alpha) at low temperatures, and an isotropic\\/inverted cubic phase at intermediate temperatures, which is

Harma Ellens; David P. Siegel; Dennis Alford; Philip L. Yeagle; Lawrence Boni; Leonard J. Lis; Peter J. Quinn; Joe Bentz

1989-01-01

431

Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program  

SciTech Connect

A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K{sup +} injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented.

Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.W.

1993-05-01

432

Light-ion-beam fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inertial confinement fusion program with light ion drivers is developing high-intensity ion-beam-driver technology on PBFA 1. That technology is to be used to study implosion hydrodynamics of small fuel masses on PBFA 2. Power concentration is the key issue. The research on beam production and focusing is interpreted to given guidelines for future research in the ICF Program. Progress

J. P. Vandevender

1983-01-01

433

Tally of Cold Fusion Papers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented. Purpose This report presents some background and a breakdown of the items in two databases of

Jed Rothwell

2009-01-01

434

Heavy Ion Fusion Injector Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A program is underway to construct a 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion. The Electrostatic Quadrupole (ESQ) injector configuration consists of a zeolite source, a diode of up to 1 MV, together with several electrostatic quadrupole units to simultaneously focus and accelerate the beam to 2 MV. The key issues of source technology, high voltage breakdown, beam aberrations, and transient effects will be discussed. Results from ongoing experiments and simulations will be presented.

Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

1993-05-01

435

Probabilistic fusion of ATR results  

SciTech Connect

The problem of combining multi-source information in applications related to automatic target recognition (ATR) is addressed. A mathematical approach is proposed for fusing the (possibly dependent) outputs of multiple ATR systems or algorithms. The method is derived from statistical principles, and the fused decision takes the form of an hypothesis test. The distribution of the test statistic is approximated as gamma, with parameters estimated from available training data. In a brief simulation study, the proposed method outperforms several alternative fusion techniques.

Simonson, K.M.

1998-08-01

436

Prospects for spheromak fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

The reactor study of Hagenson and Krakowski demonstrated the attractiveness of the spheromak as a compact fusion reactor, based on physics principles confirmed in CTX experiments in many respects. Most uncertain was the energy confinement time and the role of magnetic turbulence inherent in the concept. In this paper, a one-dimensional model of heat confinement, calibrated by CTX, predicts negligible heat loss by magnetic turbulence at reactor scale.

Fowler, T.K.; Hua, D.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1995-06-01

437

Fusion power economy of scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next 50 yr, the world will need to develop hundreds of gigawatts of non-fossil-fuel energy sources for production of electricity and fuels. Nuclear fusion can probably provide much of the required energy economically, if large single-unit power plants are acceptable. Large power plants are more common than most people realize: There are already many multiple-unit power plants producing

Dolan

1993-01-01

438

Nuclear Fusion in Dense Matter  

SciTech Connect

The standard theory of nuclear fusion rates in strongly interacting plasmas can be (correctly) derived only when the energy release Q is large compared to other energies in the problem. We exhibit a result for rates that provides a basis for calculating the finite Q corrections. Crude estimates indicate a significant defect in the conventional results for some regions of high density and strong plasma coupling. We also lay some groundwork for a path integral calculation of the new effects.

Sawyer, R. F. [Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

2010-05-14

439

ACE Mission - Fusion and Nucleosynthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational brief explains the idea that nuclear fusion is thought to be the mechanism by which virtually all of the elements around us are created. Topics include the proton-proton cycle, the carbon-nitrogen-oxygen cycle, and endothermic reactions in supernova explosions. There is also a discussion of the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), a spacecraft intended to study the origin and evolution of the elements produced by our Sun.

440

Fission fusion hybrids- recent progress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fission-fusion hybrids enjoy unique advantages for addressing long standing societal acceptability issues of nuclear fission power, and can do this at a much lower level of technical development than a competitive fusion power plant- so it could be a nearer term application. For waste incineration, hybrids can burn intransigent transuranic residues (with the long lived biohazard) from light water reactors (LWRs) with far fewer hybrid reactors than a comparable system within the realm of fission alone. For fuel production, hybrids can produce fuel for ˜4 times as many LWRs with NO fuel reprocessing. For both waste incineration or fuel production, the most severe kind of nuclear accident- runaway criticality- can be excluded, unlike either fast reactors or typical accelerator based reactors. The proliferation risks for hybrid fuel production are, we strongly believe, far less than any other fuel production method, including today's gas centrifuges. US Thorium reserves could supply the entire US electricity supply for centuries. The centerpiece of the fuel cycle is a high power density Compact Fusion Neutron Source (major+minor radius ˜ 2.5-3.5 m), which is made feasible by the super-X divertor.

Kotschenreuther, M.; Valanju, P.; Mahajan, S.; Covele, B.

2012-03-01

441

Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion propulsion experiment is currently being constructed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test the feasibility of this particular type of fusion device. Because of the open magnetic field line configuration of mirror fusion devices, they are particularly well suited for propulsion system applications since they allow for the easy ejection of thrust producing plasma. Currently, the MSFC GDM is constructed in three segments. The vacuum chamber mirror segment, the plasma injector mirror segment, and the main plasma chamber segment. Enough magnets are currently available to construct up to three main plasma chamber segments. The mirror segments are also segmented such that they can be expanded to accommodate new end plugging strategies with out requiring the disassembly of the entire mirror segment. The plasma for the experiment is generated in a microwave cavity located between the main magnets and the mirror magnets. Ion heating is accomplished through ambipolar diffusion. The objective of the experiment is to investigate the stability characteristics of the gasdynamic mirror and to map a region of parameter space within which the plasma can be confined in a stable steady state configuration. The mirror ratio, plasma density, and plasma "b" will be varied over a range of values and measurements subsequently taken to determine the degree of plasma stability.

Emrich, Bill; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

442

Paramyxovirus fusion: Real-time measurement of parainfluenza virus 5 virus-cell fusion  

SciTech Connect

Although cell-cell fusion assays are useful surrogate methods for studying virus fusion, differences between cell-cell and virus-cell fusion exist. To examine paramyxovirus fusion in real time, we labeled viruses with fluorescent lipid probes and monitored virus-cell fusion by fluorimetry. Two parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) isolates (W3A and SER) and PIV5 containing mutations within the fusion protein (F) were studied. Fusion was specific and temperature-dependent. Compared to many low pH-dependent viruses, the kinetics of PIV5 fusion was slow, approaching completion within several minutes. As predicted from cell-cell fusion assays, virus containing an F protein with an extended cytoplasmic tail (rSV5 F551) had reduced fusion compared to wild-type virus (W3A). In contrast, virus-cell fusion for SER occurred at near wild-type levels, despite the fact that this isolate exhibits a severely reduced cell-cell fusion phenotype. These results support the notion that virus-cell and cell-cell fusion have significant differences.

Connolly, Sarah A. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States); Lamb, Robert A. [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States) and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Cell Biology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208-3500 (United States)]. E-mail: ralamb@northwestern.edu

2006-11-25

443

Fusion Nuclear Science Pathways Assessment  

SciTech Connect

With the strong commitment of the US to the success of the ITER burning plasma mission, and the project overall, it is prudent to consider how to take the most advantage of this investment. The production of energy from fusion has been a long sought goal, and the subject of several programmatic investigations and time line proposals [1]. The nuclear aspects of fusion research have largely been avoided experimentally for practical reasons, resulting in a strong emphasis on plasma science. Meanwhile, ITER has brought into focus how the interface between the plasma and engineering/technology, presents the most challenging problems for design. In fact, this situation is becoming the rule and no longer the exception. ITER will demonstrate the deposition of 0.5 GW of neutron heating to the blanket, deliver a heat load of 10-20 MW/m2 or more on the divertor, inject 50-100 MW of heating power to the plasma, all at the expected size scale of a power plant. However, in spite of this, and a number of other technologies relevant power plant, ITER will provide a low neutron exposure compared to the levels expected to a fusion power plant, and will purchase its tritium entirely from world reserves accumulated from decades of CANDU reactor operations. Such a decision for ITER is technically well founded, allowing the use of conventional materials and water coolant, avoiding the thick tritium breeding blankets required for tritium self-sufficiency, and allowing the concentration on burning plasma and plasma-engineering interface issues. The neutron fluence experienced in ITER over its entire lifetime will be ~ 0.3 MW-yr/m2, while a fusion power plant is expected to experience 120-180 MW-yr/m2 over its lifetime. ITER utilizes shielding blanket modules, with no tritium breeding, except in test blanket modules (TBM) located in 3 ports on the midplane [2], which will provide early tests of the fusion nuclear environment with very low tritium production (a few g per year).

C.E. Kessel, et. al.

2012-02-23

444

EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential importance for the fusion power plant research programmes. The objective of this Technical Meeting was to examine in an integrated way all the safety aspects anticipated to be relevant to the first fusion power plant prototype expected to become operational by the middle of the century, leading to the first generation of economically viable fusion power plants with attractive S&E features. After screening by guest editors and consideration by referees, 13 (out of 28) papers were accepted for publication. They are devoted to the following safety topics: power plant safety; fusion specific operational safety approaches; test blanket modules; accident analysis; tritium safety and inventories; decommissioning and waste. The paper `Main safety issues at the transition from ITER to fusion power plants' by W. Gulden et al (EU) highlights the differences between ITER and future fusion power plants with magnetic confinement (off-site dose acceptance criteria, consequences of accidents inside and outside the design basis, occupational radiation exposure, and waste management, including recycling and/or final disposal in repositories) on the basis of the most recent European fusion power plant conceptual study. Ongoing S&E studies within the US inertial fusion energy (IFE) community are focusing on two design concepts. These are the high average power laser (HAPL) programme for development of a dry-wall, laser-driven IFE power plant, and the Z-pinch IFE programme for the production of an economically-attractive power plant using high-yield Z-pinch-driven targets. The main safety issues related to these programmes are reviewed in the paper `Status of IFE safety and environmental activities in the US' by S. Reyes et al (USA). The authors propose future directions of research in the IFE S&E area. In the paper `Recent accomplishments and future directions in the US Fusion Safety & Environmental Program' D. Petti et al (USA) state that the US fusion programme has long recognized that the S&E potential of fusion can be attained by prudent materials selecti

Kolbasov, B. N.

2007-07-01

445

Microfluidic Control of Cell Pairing and Fusion  

PubMed Central

Cell fusion has been used for many different purposes, including generation of hybridomas and reprogramming of somatic cells. The fusion step represents the key event in initiation of these procedures. Standard fusion techniques, however, provide poor and random cell contact, leading to low yields. We present here a microfluidic device to trap and properly pair thousands of cells. Using this device we were able to pair different cell types, including fibroblasts, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and myeloma cells, achieving pairing efficiencies up to 70%. The device is compatible with both chemical and electrical fusion protocols. We observed that electrical fusion was more efficient than chemical fusion, with membrane reorganization efficiencies of up to 89%. We achieved greater than 50% properly paired and fused cells over the entire device, 5× greater than a commercial electrofusion chamber, and were able to observe reprogramming in hybrids between mESCs and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. PMID:19122668

Skelley, Alison M.; Kirak, Oktay; Suh, Heikyung; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Voldman, Joel

2011-01-01

446

Signaling Mechanisms in Mammalian Myoblast Fusion  

PubMed Central

Myoblast fusion is a critical process that contributes to the growth of muscle during development and to the regeneration of myofibers upon injury. Myoblasts fuse with each other as well as with multinucleated myotubes to enlarge the myofiber. Initial studies demonstrated that myoblast fusion requires extracellular calcium and changes in cell membrane topography and cytoskeletal organization. More recent studies have identified several cell-surface and intracellular proteins that mediate myoblast fusion. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests that myoblast fusion is also regulated by the activation of specific cell-signaling pathways that lead to the expression of genes whose products are essential for the fusion process and for modulating the activity of molecules that are involved in cytoskeletal rearrangement. Here, we review the roles of the major signaling pathways in mammalian myoblast fusion. PMID:23612709

Hindi, Sajedah M.; Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Kumar, Ashok

2013-01-01

447

Cold fusion iced at APS Meeting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low-level fusion in the laboratory like that suggested to occur inside Earth is unlikely but possible, according to most physicists who spoke at a national meeting May 2-3. But opinion was nearly unanimous that the massive, heat-producing fusion claimed by two chemists at the University of Utah is the result of incorrect and flawed science.There were 40 speakers at an impromptu two-night session on cold fusion at the American Physical Society meeting in Baltimore, and nearly all reported attempts to confirm or disprove nuclear fusion in deuterium-filled palladium at room temperature. Stanley Pons of the University of Utah in Salt Lake City and Martin Fleischmann of Southampton University in England have announced that they achieved large amounts of fusion, while Steven Jones, a physicist at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah, says that he detected fusion in palladium, but at a rate a billion times lower than Pons and Fleischmann report.

Maggs, William Ward

448

Can 250 fusions per muon be achieved  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear fusion of hydrogen isotopes can be induced by negative muons ( ) in reactions such as: + d + t + n + . This reaction is analagous to the nuclear fusion reaction achieved in stars in which hydrogen isotopes (such as deuterium, d, and tritium, t) at very high temperatures first penetrate the Coulomb repulsive barrier and then fuse together to produce an alpha particle ( ) and a neutron (n), releasing energy. The muon in general reappears after inducing fusion so that the reaction can be repeated many (N) times. Thus, the muon may serve as an effective catalyst for nuclear fusion. Muon-catalozed fusion is unique in that it proceeds rapidly in deuterium-tritium mixtures at relatively cold temperatures, e.g., room temperature. The need for plasma temperatures to initiate fusion is overcome by the presence of the muon.

Jones, S.E.

1987-01-01

449

Fusion: an energy source for synthetic fuels  

SciTech Connect

The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets. Fusion/coal symbiotic systems appear economically promising for the first generation of commercial fusion synfuels plants. Coal production requirements and the environmental effects of large-scale coal usage would be greatly reduced by a fusion/coal system. In the long term, there could be a gradual transition to an inexhaustible energy system based solely on fusion.

Fillo, J A; Powell, J; Steinberg, M

1980-01-01

450

Incomplete fusion dynamics by spin distribution measurements  

SciTech Connect

Spin distributions for various evaporation residues populated via complete and incomplete fusion of {sup 16}O with {sup 124}Sn at 6.3 MeV/nucleon have been measured, using charged particles (Z=1,2)-{gamma} coincidence technique. Experimentally measured spin distributions of the residues produced as incomplete fusion products associated with 'fast'{alpha}- and 2{alpha}-emission channels observed in the 'forward cone' are found to be distinctly different from those of the residues produced as complete fusion products. Moreover, 'fast'{alpha}-particles that arise from larger angular momentum in the entrance channel are populated at relatively higher driving input angular momentum than those produced through complete fusion. The incomplete fusion residues are populated in a limited, higher-angular-momentum range, in contrast to the complete fusion products, which are populated over a broad spin range.

Singh, D.; Ali, R.; Ansari, M. Afzal; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Sharma, M. K.; Singh, B. P. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202 002 (India); Babu, K. Surendra [Department of Physics, G. B. Pant University, Pantnagar 263 145 (India); Sinha, Rishi K. [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Bhowmik, R. K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

2010-02-15

451

FUSION SYSTEMS FOR PROFINITE GROUPS RADU STANCU AND PETER SYMONDS  

E-print Network

FUSION SYSTEMS FOR PROFINITE GROUPS RADU STANCU AND PETER SYMONDS Abstract. We introduce the notion of a pro-fusion system on a pro-p group, which generalizes the notion of a fusion system on a finite p-group. We also prove a version of Alperin's Fusion Theorem for pro-fusion systems. 1. Introduction Profinite

Symonds, Peter

452

Fusion Frames Peter G. Casazza and Gitta Kutyniok  

E-print Network

Chapter 1 Fusion Frames Peter G. Casazza and Gitta Kutyniok Abstract Novel technological advances. Fusion frames, which can be regarded as frames of subspaces, do satisfy exactly those needs. They analyze, distributed processing, fusion coherence, fusion frame, fusion frame potential, isoclinic subspaces, mutually

Kutyniok, Gitta

453

M. Abdou April 2013 Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology  

E-print Network

M. Abdou April 2013 Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Challenges and Required R&D Mohamed Fusion Nuclear Science and Technology Challenges and Required R&D Presentation Outline Introduction to the Fusion Nuclear Environment and Fusion Nuclear Components FNST R&D Challenges Need for Fusion Nuclear

Abdou, Mohamed

454

The study on the image fusion for multisource image  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering evaluation of multisource image fusion performance, various methods of subjective & quantitative and objective & qualitative assessments of multisource image fusion are discussed in this paper. Based on the relationship and individual characteristics of these measures, the synthetic evaluation system and criterions of multisource image fusion are formed. Using these evaluation criteria, the fusion performance of multisource image fusion

Baosen Song; Yongqing Fu

2010-01-01

455

Shared chain mutual information measure for image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image fusion is becoming one of the hottest techniques in image processing. The paper proposes a shared chain mutual information concept to quantitatively and objectively evaluate the performances of difference image fusion techniques. Furthermore, the performances of two widely used image fusion techniques, i.e. wavelet transform based fusion and pyramid transform based fusion operating on a typical hyperspectral image set,

Qiang Wang; Yi Shen

2008-01-01

456

Research on fusion neutron sources M. P. Gryaznevich  

E-print Network

in reactor relevant neutral beam heated fusion plasmas Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D916 (2012) Full toroidal for decades. Whereas the successful route to a commercial fusion power reactor demands steady state stable in a steady-state regime. Keywords: Fusion, fusion reactor, fusion-fission, spherical tokamak, neutron source

457

Fusion\\/Astrophysics Teacher Research Academy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to engage California high school science teachers in the area of plasma physics and fusion research, LLNL's Fusion Energy Program has partnered with the UC Davis Edward Teller Education Center, ETEC (http:\\/\\/etec.ucdavis.edu), the Stanford University Solar Center (http:\\/\\/solar-center.stanford.edu) and LLNL's Science \\/ Technology Education Program, STEP (http:\\/\\/education.llnl.gov). A four-level ``Fusion & Astrophysics Research Academy'' has been designed to

Donald Correll

2005-01-01

458

Pseudorabies Virus Glycoprotein M Inhibits Membrane Fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A transient transfection-fusion assay was established to investigate membrane fusion mediated by pseudo- rabies virus (PrV) glycoproteins. Plasmids expressing PrV glycoproteins under control of the immediate-early 1 promoter-enhancer of human cytomegalovirus were transfected into rabbit kidney cells, and the extent of cell fusion was quantitated 27 to 42 h after transfection. Cotransfection of plasmids encoding PrV glycoproteins B (gB), gD,

BARBARA G. KLUPP; RALF NIXDORF; THOMAS C. METTENLEITER

2000-01-01

459

A comparative analysis of image fusion methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many image fusion methods that can be used to produce high-resolution multispectral images from a high-resolution panchromatic image and low-resolution multispectral images. Starting from the physical principle of image formation, this paper presents a comprehensive framework, the general image fusion {(GIF)} method, which makes it possible to categorize, compare, and evaluate the existing image fusion methods. Using the

Zhijun Wang; Djemel Ziou; Costas Armenakis; Deren Li; Qingquan Li

2005-01-01

460

A1.5 Fusion Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis and radiation hydrodynamics simulations for expected high-gain fusion target performance on a demonstration 1-GWe Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) power plant in the mid-2030s timeframe are presented. The required laser energy driver is 2.2 MJ at a 0.351-μm wavelength, and a fusion target gain greater than 60 at a repetition rate of 16 Hz is the design goal for

Amendt

2011-01-01

461

Fusion plasma research and education in Japan  

SciTech Connect

Japanese fusion plasma research and education is reviewed by focusing on the activities promoted by the Ministry of Education, Science, Culture, and Sports (MOE). University fusion research is pursued by the academic interest and student education. A hierarchical structure of budget and manpower arrangement is observed. The small research groups of universities play the role of recruiting young students into the fusion and plasma society. After graduating the master course, most students are engaged by industries.

Inoue, N. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-12-31

462