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  1. Etude des phenomenes chimiques au contact entre le bloc cathodique et la barre collectrice d'une cellule d'electrolyse d'aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    La production d'aluminium est une industrie importante au Québec. Les propriétés de ce métal le vouent à de multiples usages présents et futurs dans le cadre d'une économie moderne durable. Toutefois, le procédé Hall-Héroult est très énergivore et des progrès demeurent donc nécessaires pour en diminuer les coûts financiers et environnementaux. Parmi les améliorations envisageables de la cellule d'électrolyse se trouve le contact entre la cathode et la barre collectrice, qui doit offrir une faible résistivité au passage du courant électrique. En cours d'opération de la cellule, ce contact a tendance à se dégrader, générant des pertes énergétiques significatives. Les causes de cette dégradation, pouvant provenir de phénomènes chimiques, thermiques, mécaniques et/ou électriques, demeurent mal comprises. Le but du présent projet était donc d'étudier les phénomènes chimiques se produisant au contact bloc-barre de la cellule d'électrolyse Hall-Héroult. En premier lieu, un aspect crucial à considérer est la pénétration du bain électrolytique dans la cathode, car des composés de bain atteignent éventuellement la barre collectrice et peuvent y réagir. A cet effet, une méthode novatrice a été développée afin d'étudier les cathodes et la pénétration du bain dans celles-ci à l'aide de la microtomographie à rayons X. Cette méthode rapide et efficace s'est avérée fort utile dans le projet et a un potentiel important pour l'étude future des cathodes et des phénomènes qui s'y produisent. Ensuite, une cellule d'électrolyse rectangulaire à petite échelle a été développée. Plusieurs phénomènes observés 'en industrie sur des autopsies de cellules post-opération et rapportés dans la littérature ont été reproduis avec succès à l'aide de cette cellule expérimentale. Puis, des tests sans électrolyse, ciblant l'effet du bain électrolytique sur l'acier, ont aussi été conçus et complétés afin de s

  2. Soviet bloc, energy, and Western security

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    The Soviet Union and its Eastern European allies face difficult economic-policy decisions on energy. In order to reduce the energy intensities of the bloc economies, Moscow must bring about either a marked improvement in energy-use efficiencies or a structural change away from fuel- and materials-intensive processes and sectors. The author examines why the Soviet bloc lacks the capability or willingness to effect such changes, and what the implications of this indecision portend for both the East bloc and the West. Using primary source material in translation, he concentrates on the entire energy sector and not just on oil. His analysis covers contradictory Soviet fuel choices and personnel problems, the natural gas market in Europe, and the dispute between the US Defense Intelligence Agency and the Central Intelligence Agency on the degree of seriousness of the Soviet energy dilemma. The analysis concludes with positive recommendations on how the alliance can repair the discord of the pipeline controversy. The author raises questions about the institutional viability of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization to meet the Eastern bloc's energy challenges, and warns that a failure to thoroughly examine a number of other policy issues could imperil the future of the West. 184 references, 3 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  4. Amelioration de l'efficacite energetique du procede d'electrolyse de l'aluminium conception d'un nouveau bloc cathodique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, Mathieu

    Au Quebec, les alumineries sont de grandes consommatrices d'energie electrique, soit pres de 14 % de la puissance installee d'Hydro-Quebec. Dans ce contexte, des petits gains en efficacite energetique des cuves d'electrolyse pourraient avoir un impact important sur la reduction globale de la consommation d'electricite. Le projet de maitrise decrit dans cette etude repond a la problematique suivante : comment l'optimisation de la geometrie d'un bloc cathodique en vue d'uniformiser la densite de courant peut augmenter l'efficacite energetique et la duree de vie de la cuve d'aluminium? Le but premier du projet est de modifier la geometrie en vue d'ameliorer le comportement thermoelectrique des blocs cathodiques et d'accroitre par le fait meme l'efficacite energetique du procede de production d'aluminium. La mauvaise distribution de la densite de courant dans la cuve est responsable de certains problemes energetiques ayant des impacts negatifs sur l'economie et l'environnement. Cette non-uniformite de la distribution du courant induit une usure prematuree de la surface de la cathode et contribue a reduire la stabilite magnetohydrodynamique de la nappe de metal liquide. Afin de quantifier les impacts que peut avoir l'uniformisation de la densite de courant a travers le bloc cathodique, un modele d'un bloc cathodique d'une cuve de la technologie AP-30 a ete concu et analyse par elements finis. A partir de son comportement thermoelectrique et de donnees experimentales d'une cuve AP-30 tirees de la litterature, une correlation entre le profil de densite de courant a la surface du bloc et le taux d'erosion local au meme endroit a ete creee. Cette relation correspond au modele predictif de la duree de vie de tout bloc du meme materiau a partir de son profil de densite de courant. Ensuite, une programmation a ete faite incorporant dans une meme fonction cout les impacts economiques de la duree de vie, de la chute de voltage cathodique et de l'utilisation de nouveaux materiaux

  5. BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 regulate VAMP7 cycling to and from melanosomes via distinct tubular transport carriers.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Megan K; Delevoye, Cédric; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Hurbain, Ilse; Romao, Maryse; Hesketh, Geoffrey G; Goff, Philip S; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Luzio, J Paul; Galli, Thierry; Owen, David J; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Endomembrane organelle maturation requires cargo delivery via fusion with membrane transport intermediates and recycling of fusion factors to their sites of origin. Melanosomes and other lysosome-related organelles obtain cargoes from early endosomes, but the fusion machinery involved and its recycling pathway are unknown. Here, we show that the v-SNARE VAMP7 mediates fusion of melanosomes with tubular transport carriers that also carry the cargo protein TYRP1 and that require BLOC-1 for their formation. Using live-cell imaging, we identify a pathway for VAMP7 recycling from melanosomes that employs distinct tubular carriers. The recycling carriers also harbor the VAMP7-binding scaffold protein VARP and the tissue-restricted Rab GTPase RAB38. Recycling carrier formation is dependent on the RAB38 exchange factor BLOC-3. Our data suggest that VAMP7 mediates fusion of BLOC-1-dependent transport carriers with melanosomes, illuminate SNARE recycling from melanosomes as a critical BLOC-3-dependent step, and likely explain the distinct hypopigmentation phenotypes associated with BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 deficiency in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome variants. PMID:27482051

  6. En Bloc Resection of Solitary Functional Secreting Spinal Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, C Rory; Clarke, Michelle J; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Fisher, Charles; Laufer, Ilya; Weber, Michael H; Sciubba, Daniel M

    2016-05-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective Functional secretory tumors metastatic to the spine can secrete hormones, growth factors, peptides, and/or molecules into the systemic circulation that cause distinct syndromes, clinically symptomatic effects, and/or additional morbidity and mortality. En bloc resection has a limited role in metastatic spine disease due to the current paradigm that systemic burden usually determines morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to review the literature for studies focused on en bloc resection of functionally active spinal metastasis as the primary indication. Methods A review of the PubMed literature was performed to identify studies focused on functional secreting metastatic tumors to the spinal column. We identified five cases of patients undergoing en bloc resection of spinal metastases from functional secreting tumors. Results The primary histologies of these spinal metastases were pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumor, choriocarcinoma, and a fibroblast growth factor 23-secreting phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Although studies of en bloc resection for these rare tumor subtypes are confined to case reports, this surgical treatment option resulted in metabolic cures and decreased clinical symptoms postoperatively for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis. Conclusion Although the ability to formulate comprehensive conclusions is limited, case reports demonstrate that en bloc resection may be considered as a potential surgical option for the treatment of patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastatic tumors. Future prospective investigations into clinical outcomes should be conducted comparing intralesional resection and en bloc resection for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis. PMID:27099819

  7. En Bloc Resection of Solitary Functional Secreting Spinal Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, C. Rory; Clarke, Michelle J.; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; Fisher, Charles; Laufer, Ilya; Weber, Michael H.; Sciubba, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective Functional secretory tumors metastatic to the spine can secrete hormones, growth factors, peptides, and/or molecules into the systemic circulation that cause distinct syndromes, clinically symptomatic effects, and/or additional morbidity and mortality. En bloc resection has a limited role in metastatic spine disease due to the current paradigm that systemic burden usually determines morbidity and mortality. Our objective is to review the literature for studies focused on en bloc resection of functionally active spinal metastasis as the primary indication. Methods A review of the PubMed literature was performed to identify studies focused on functional secreting metastatic tumors to the spinal column. We identified five cases of patients undergoing en bloc resection of spinal metastases from functional secreting tumors. Results The primary histologies of these spinal metastases were pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumor, choriocarcinoma, and a fibroblast growth factor 23–secreting phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor. Although studies of en bloc resection for these rare tumor subtypes are confined to case reports, this surgical treatment option resulted in metabolic cures and decreased clinical symptoms postoperatively for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis. Conclusion Although the ability to formulate comprehensive conclusions is limited, case reports demonstrate that en bloc resection may be considered as a potential surgical option for the treatment of patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastatic tumors. Future prospective investigations into clinical outcomes should be conducted comparing intralesional resection and en bloc resection for patients diagnosed with solitary functional secretory spinal metastasis. PMID:27099819

  8. Postoperative Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Associated With Total En Bloc Spondylectomy.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Noriaki; Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takayoshi; Igarashi, Takashi; Fang, Xiang; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2015-07-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is a serious postoperative complication associated with total en bloc spondylectomy. The authors examined the risk factors for CSF leakage after this procedure. A total of 72 patients underwent total en bloc spondylectomy at the authors' institution between May 2010 and April 2013. Postoperative CSF leakage was observed in 17 of the 72 patients (23.6%). The results of univariate analysis suggested that age 54 years or older, preoperative surgical site irradiation, resection of 3 or more vertebral bodies, and dural injury were significant risk factors for postoperative CSF leakage after total en bloc spondylectomy. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative surgical site irradiation was the only significant risk factor for postoperative CSF leakage (adjusted odds ratio, 5.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-26.45, P=.046). The authors also assessed the course of treatment for postoperative CSF leakage in each patient. Of 17 patients with postoperative CSF leakage, 13 recovered without further complications, but 4 required reoperation (2 for wound dehiscence, 1 for surgical site infection, and 1 for severe intracranial hypotension). All 4 patients who required reoperation had a history of surgical site irradiation. Thus, this study suggests that careful consideration should be given to postoperative CSF leakage in patients with a history of surgical site irradiation. These findings may contribute to the management of postoperative CSF leakage associated with total en bloc spondylectomy and supplement the information given to the patient in the process of obtaining informed consent. PMID:26186316

  9. Theses on the Latino Bloc: A Critical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rosaura; Pita, Beatrice

    2006-01-01

    Increasing anxieties about the growing Latina/o population in the United States have fueled virulent xenophobia toward immigrants. This essay proposes the need to forge strategic political alliances by constructing this population as a bloc, a nexus of diverse groups that differ at the level of national origin, race, residential status, class,…

  10. Corruption Hierarchies in Higher Education in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2009-01-01

    Corruption in higher education is known but not described theoretically. Decentralization and privatization of higher education and the increasing scale and scope of corruption in higher education in the former Soviet Bloc, as well as numerous other countries, urges better understanding of the problem within the context of socio-economic…

  11. Total En Bloc Spondylectomy for Primary and Metastatic Spine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Mesfin, Addisu; El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Jain, Amit; Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-11-01

    This study reports the surgical and clinical outcomes of spinal tumors managed with total en bloc spondylectomy. The authors searched their prospectively maintained database for patients undergoing total en bloc spondylectomy between 2001 and 2013. Ten patients (9 men, 1 woman; average age, 50.7 years; range, 42-68 years) were identified. The authors obtained demographic information, surgical outcomes (estimated blood loss, complications), and clinical outcomes (recurrence, survival). All patients had pain and were classified as American Spinal Injury Association grade E. The lesions were located in the thoracic (8 patients) and lumbar (2 patients) spine. Anterior column reconstruction was performed with strut allograft (7 patients), mesh cage (2 patients), and polymethyl methacrylate (1 patient). An average of 2.3 (range, 2-4) of 6 portions of the vertebrae were involved, according to the Kostuik classification. Mean estimated blood loss, operative time, and hospital stay were 3.5 L, 500 minutes, and 7.8 days, respectively. Perioperative complications included pleural tear (2 patients) and aortic tear, vena cava tear, retained sponge, pulmonary embolism, urinary tract infection, pneumothorax, anterior column support failure, and prominent instrumentation requiring removal (1 patient each). Postoperatively, all patients remained classified as American Spinal Injury Association grade E. Two patients had recurrence at distant spinal segments, and 1 had a new lesion in the thigh. Five patients had died (mean, 34.5 months after surgery), and 5 were alive a mean of 19.6 months after surgery (range, 6-48 months). Total en bloc spondylectomy is challenging, but in appropriately selected patients, it can be used to treat primary and metastatic spinal lesions. PMID:26558680

  12. En-bloc liver-pancreas transplant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Mehdi, Seyed Haider; Aliakbarian, Mohsen; Kazemi, Kourosh; Shamsaeefar, Alireza; Bahreini, Amin; Gholami, Siavash; Malekhosseini, Seyed Ali

    2014-09-01

    Liver transplant can be challenging in cirrhotic patients with diabetes mellitus. In chronic liver disease, the glucose metabolism is altered; uncontrolled diabetes negatively influences the outcome of liver transplantation and poses difficulty in the management of immediate post transplantation period. Simultaneous liver-pancreas transplantation is an option to prevent early complications due to diabetes and also to improve the quality of life after transplantation in patients with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) and chronic liver disease. We report the first en-bloc liver-pancreas transplant done in the transplant history of Iran. We describe the technical details of the procedure as well as the short term outcome after transplantation. In this case report, we also discuss in some details, the surgical, medical and immunological advantages of combined liver-pancreas transplantation as opposed to separate implantation of both organs. PMID:25204483

  13. The pathogenic mechanism of dysbindin-1B toxic aggregation: BLOC-1 and intercellular vesicle trafficking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhu, Chunyan; Shen, Yan; Xu, Qi

    2016-10-01

    DTNBP1, which encodes dysbindin-1, is associated with cognitive impairment. Genetic evidence indicates that the C allele of rs117610176 leads to an increase in DTNBP-1b mRNA splicing in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. In addition, dysbindin-1B, rather than dysbindin-1A/C, exhibits a tendency toward toxic aggregation. In postmortem brains, dysbindin-1B not only aggregates with itself, it also co-aggregates with proteins that interact with it. However, the pathogenic mechanism underlying dysbindin-1B toxic aggregation remains unknown. In the brain, dysbindin-1 is primarily found as a subunit of biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1), which plays a role in intracellular vesicle trafficking. Therefore, we hypothesized that dysbindin-1B might impair the cognitive function of schizophrenia patients by co-aggregating with BLOC-1 subunits and disturbing the function of BLOC-1. In this study, we investigated the dominant-negative effect of dysbindin-1B on the BLOC-1 complex. We found that in multiple brain areas in Dys1B(+/+) mice, the expression levels of soluble functional BLOC-1 subunits were decreased. Meanwhile, BLOC-1 subunits co-aggregated with dysbindin-1B-myc. Functional studies in primary cortical neurons further revealed the malfunction of BLOC-1 in intercellular vesicle trafficking in Dys1B(+/+) mice. In addition, we used the Morris water maze task to investigate the effects of dysbindin-1B aggregation on cognition. The results demonstrated that Dys1B(+/+) mice exhibited spatial learning and memory deficits, which were accompanied by the shrinkage of apical and basal dendritic branches and the loss of dendritic spines in hippocampal CA1 neurons, as demonstrated by Golgi staining. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that dysbindin-1B toxic aggregation might impair cognition through a dominant-negative effect on BLOC-1. PMID:27421225

  14. Prolongation anormale d'un bloc fémoral analgésique: cas Clinique

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Joseph; Bensghir, Mustapha; Boutayeb, El Houcine; Haimeur, Charki

    2015-01-01

    La prolongation anormale d'un bloc nerveux peut être définie comme un dépassement du délai habituel de récupération sensitive ou motrice. A travers un cas clinique d'une prolongation anormale d'un bloc analgésique et une revue de la littérature, les auteurs discutent les facteurs de risque et les moyens de prévention de cette complication. PMID:26918085

  15. Health situation in former communist bloc is dire, says Unicef.

    PubMed

    Ciment, J

    1999-11-20

    The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) disclosed the dreadful health situation in the former Soviet Bloc. According to the report, "After the Fall: The Human Impact of Ten Years Transition," women and children in the former communist republic have suffered hard from both economic and social problems. Findings on health are particularly upsetting, especially with the re-emergence of the virtually eliminated "poverty diseases" such as diphtheria, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including HIV infection. Cases of diphtheria in Russia and Ukraine increased to 43,000 in 1998 from 1900 in 1990. Western parts of the former Soviet Union are now suffering from the reappearance of tuberculosis (10% affecting children), syphilis (221 cases per 100,000 population), and STDs, while HIV infection rates were as high as 270,000 by the end of 1998. On the other hand, economic depression has given rise to increasing drug misuse, alcoholism, injury, and suicide among the young population. Patrick McCormick, a spokesperson of the UNICEF Research Center in Florence, which published the report, said "there is freedom now, but the children are paying high for that freedom and they are not in the position to benefit from it". PMID:10567131

  16. Functional interactions between OCA2 and the protein complexes BLOC-1, BLOC-2, and AP-3 inferred from epistatic analyses of mouse coat pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, Diego J; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Imilce A; Dell'angelica, Esteban C

    2011-04-01

    The biogenesis of melanosomes is a multistage process that requires the function of cell-type-specific and ubiquitously expressed proteins. OCA2, the product of the gene defective in oculocutaneous albinism type 2, is a melanosomal membrane protein with restricted expression pattern and a potential role in the trafficking of other proteins to melanosomes. The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. We have tested for genetic interactions between mutant alleles causing deficiency in OCA2 (pink-eyed dilution unstable), AP-3 (pearl), BLOC-1 (pallid), and BLOC-2 (cocoa) in C57BL/6J mice. The pallid allele was epistatic to pink-eyed dilution, and the latter behaved as a semi-dominant phenotypic enhancer of cocoa and, to a lesser extent, of pearl. These observations suggest functional links between OCA2 and these three protein complexes involved in melanosome biogenesis. PMID:21392365

  17. BLOC-2 targets recycling endosomal tubules to melanosomes for cargo delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Megan K.; Mantegazza, Adriana R.; Snir, Olivia L.; Tenza, Danièle; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Delevoye, Cédric; Zorger, Richard; Sitaram, Anand; de Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Ravichandran, Keerthana; Rux, John; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of disorders characterized by the malformation of lysosome-related organelles, such as pigment cell melanosomes. Three of nine characterized HPS subtypes result from mutations in subunits of BLOC-2, a protein complex with no known molecular function. In this paper, we exploit melanocytes from mouse HPS models to place BLOC-2 within a cargo transport pathway from recycling endosomal domains to maturing melanosomes. In BLOC-2–deficient melanocytes, the melanosomal protein TYRP1 was largely depleted from pigment granules and underwent accelerated recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane and to the Golgi. By live-cell imaging, recycling endosomal tubules of wild-type melanocytes made frequent and prolonged contacts with maturing melanosomes; in contrast, tubules from BLOC-2–deficient cells were shorter in length and made fewer, more transient contacts with melanosomes. These results support a model in which BLOC-2 functions to direct recycling endosomal tubular transport intermediates to maturing melanosomes and thereby promote cargo delivery and optimal pigmentation. PMID:26008744

  18. En bloc resection of the temporal bone and temporomandibular joint for advanced temporal bone carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kutz, Joe Walter; Mitchell, Derek; Isaacson, Brandon; Roland, Peter S; Allen, Kyle P; Sumer, Baran D; Barnett, Sam; Truelson, John M; Myers, Larry L

    2015-03-01

    Advanced skin malignancies involving the temporal bone can involve the temporomandibular joint and glenoid fossa. Many of these tumors can be removed with a lateral temporal bone resection; however, extensive involvement of the glenoid fossa should include an en bloc resection of the temporal bone, glenoid fossa, and condyle. We describe a novel surgical approach that is an extension of a temporal bone resection that includes the glenoid fossa and condyle in an en bloc resection with the temporal bone. This procedure has been performed in 7 patients with advanced carcinoma of the temporal bone involving the glenoid fossa. There were no short-term complications as a result of the surgical approach. The addition of a middle fossa craniotomy and inclusion of the glenoid fossa and condyle as part of an en bloc resection of the temporal bone can be performed safely. PMID:25616770

  19. Posterior high sacral segmental disconnection prior to anterior en bloc exenteration for recurrent rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, K G M; Solomon, M J; Austin, K K S; Lee, P J; Stalley, P

    2016-06-01

    This article describes a novel technique for en bloc resection of locally recurrent rectal cancer that invades the high sacral bone (above S3). The involved segment of the sacrum is mobilised with osteotomes during an initial posterior approach before an anterior abdominal phase where the segment of sacral bone is delivered with the specimen. This allows en bloc resection of the involved sacrum while preserving uninvolved distal and contralateral sacral bone and nerve roots. The goal is to obtain a clear bony margin and offer a chance of cure while improving functional outcomes by maintaining pelvic stability and minimising neurological deficit. PMID:27000857

  20. En bloc staining with hydroquinone treatment for block face imaging.

    PubMed

    Togo, Akinobu; Ohta, Keisuke; Higashi, Ryuhei; Nakamura, Kei-Ichiro

    2014-11-01

    IntroductionBecause recent three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructural reconstruction techniques such as serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM), obtain their images directly from the flat surface of specimens via material contrast[1], specimens should be strongly stained with heavy metals prior to resin embedding in order to obtain higher material contrast using backscattered electrons (BSEs). To enhance membrane contrast for block face imaging (BFI), we usually stain specimens using the method published by Deerinck[2], and the images obtained show TEM-like contrast.However, recently, our research subjects have required reconstruction of a much larger volume, increasing the total image acquisition time. To reduce the total acquisition time, both high sensitivity detectors and a new specimen preparation method that provides much higher contrast are required. Takahashi et al.[3] have reported that hydroquinone (HQ) treatment during traditional electro-conductive staining increases specimen conductivity and drastically reduces the charge problem for SEM observation. They concluded that HQ treatment might increase the efficiency of secondary electron (SE) generation. Because BFI can be performed using SE as well as BSE, we examined whether addition of HQ treatment to en bloc staining protocols increased the contrast for BFI using SE. Materials & methodsMouse liver tissue was used. Mice were deeply anesthetized by diethyl ether and sodium pentobarbital, and tissues were fixed by transcardial perfusion of 2% paraformaldehyde and 2.5% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer (pH 7.4) through the left ventricle, followed by heparin-containing saline. After perfusion, liver tissues were removed and cut into small cubes approximately 1 mm(3) in the fixative, and were further fixed in the same fixative for 2 h at 4°C. Subsequently, en blocstaining was performed as follows: the specimens were treated using a reduced-OTO staining method (1.5% potassium

  1. Human Capital--Economic Growth Nexus in the Former Soviet Bloc

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osipian, Ararat L.

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the role and impact of higher education on per capita economic growth in the Former Soviet Bloc. It attempts to estimate the significance of educational levels for initiating substantial economic growth that now takes place in these two countries. This study estimates a system of linear and log-linear equations that account for…

  2. BLOC-1 Brings Together the Actin and Microtubule Cytoskeletons to Generate Recycling Endosomes.

    PubMed

    Delevoye, Cédric; Heiligenstein, Xavier; Ripoll, Léa; Gilles-Marsens, Floriane; Dennis, Megan K; Linares, Ricardo A; Derman, Laura; Gokhale, Avanti; Morel, Etienne; Faundez, Victor; Marks, Michael S; Raposo, Graça

    2016-01-11

    Recycling endosomes consist of a tubular network that emerges from vacuolar sorting endosomes and diverts cargoes toward the cell surface, the Golgi, or lysosome-related organelles. How recycling tubules are formed remains unknown. We show that recycling endosome biogenesis requires the protein complex BLOC-1. Mutations in BLOC-1 subunits underlie an inherited disorder characterized by albinism, the Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome, and are associated with schizophrenia risk. We show here that BLOC-1 coordinates the kinesin KIF13A-dependent pulling of endosomal tubules along microtubules to the Annexin A2/actin-dependent stabilization and detachment of recycling tubules. These components cooperate to extend, stabilize and form tubular endosomal carriers that function in cargo recycling and in the biogenesis of pigment granules in melanocytic cells. By shaping recycling endosomal tubules, our data reveal that dysfunction of the BLOC-1-KIF13A-Annexin A2 molecular network underlies the pathophysiology of neurological and pigmentary disorders. PMID:26725201

  3. A comparison of cyst wall curettage and en bloc excision in the treatment of aneurysmal bone cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The recurrence rate after aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) treatment is quite high despite its benign nature. In ABC therapy, curettage is the treatment of choice; en bloc excision results in a lower recurrence rate, but more extensive reconstructive surgery is needed with associated morbidity. The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of the two treatment options. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 26 patients treated for ABCs: 16 by curettage and 10 by en bloc excision. Each lesion was classified according to Enneking and patients were followed up for a mean time of 9.2 years. On follow-up, radiological examination and functional assessment (range of motion, muscle strength) were performed. Recurrence was defined as the presence of an osteolytic lesion, especially one with a tendency to grow. Results On follow-up, the following symptoms were more prevalent in the en bloc excision group compared to the curettage group: pain (en bloc 20% versus curettage 6.25%), limb length differences (en bloc 20% versus curettage 12.5%), reduced range of motion (en bloc 20% versus curettage 6.25%) and muscle strength impairment (en bloc 50% versus curettage 31.2%); however, the differences were not statistically significant (P >0.05). In the curettage group, two cases of postoperative complications and two cases of recurrence were seen, while in the en bloc excision group one case of complications was noted. Conclusions Curettage is a standard procedure in ABC management. En bloc excision is another option, albeit more technically demanding, that may be considered in recurrent lesions with extensive bone destruction or for cysts in an expendable location. PMID:23701661

  4. Validity and reliability of the Greek version of Brown's locus of control scale (BLOCS).

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, Vicky; Tyrovola, Konstantina; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2012-12-01

    Studies in different research fields have shown that locus of control is a meaningful concept. A translated measurement of locus of control in Greece is the Brown locus of control scale (BLOCS), but the translation has not been yet validated. Construct validity and reliability of the BLOCS Greek version was investigated in a sample of employees in five public institutions. Three dimensions identified in the original study were observed. A reduced scale of 20 items showed better psychometric properties: Cronbach's alphas were for the total scale .76 (McDonald's omega = .72), and internal .76, external social .73, and external other .73, comparable to the original and improved if 5 items are removed. PMID:23402054

  5. High contrast en bloc staining of neuronal tissue for field emission scanning electron microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Juan C.; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Hayworth, Kenneth; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Smith, Stephen J; Buchanan, JoAnn

    2013-01-01

    Conventional heavy metal post staining methods on thin sections lend contrast but often cause contamination. To avoid this problem, we tested several en bloc staining techniques to contrast tissue in serial sections mounted on solid substrates for examination by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). Because FESEM section imaging requires that specimens have higher contrast and greater electrical conductivity than transmission electron microscope (TEM) samples, our technique utilizes osmium impregnation (OTO) to make the samples conductive while heavily staining membranes for segmentation studies. Combining this step with other classic heavy metal en bloc stains including uranyl acetate, lead aspartate, copper sulfate and lead citrate produced clean, highly contrasted TEM and SEM samples of insect, fish, and mammalian nervous system. This protocol takes 7–15 days to prepare resin embedded tissue, cut sections and produce serial section images. PMID:22240582

  6. High-contrast en bloc staining of neuronal tissue for field emission scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Juan Carlos; Kasthuri, Narayanan; Hayworth, Kenneth J; Schalek, Richard; Lichtman, Jeff W; Smith, Stephen J; Buchanan, JoAnn

    2012-02-01

    Conventional heavy metal poststaining methods on thin sections lend contrast but often cause contamination. To avoid this problem, we tested several en bloc staining techniques to contrast tissue in serial sections mounted on solid substrates for examination by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). Because FESEM section imaging requires that specimens have higher contrast and greater electrical conductivity than transmission electron microscopy (TEM) samples, our technique uses osmium impregnation (OTO) to make the samples conductive while heavily staining membranes for segmentation studies. Combining this step with other classic heavy metal en bloc stains, including uranyl acetate (UA), lead aspartate, copper sulfate and lead citrate, produced clean, highly contrasted TEM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) samples of insect, fish and mammalian nervous systems. This protocol takes 7-15 d to prepare resin-embedded tissue, cut sections and produce serial section images. PMID:22240582

  7. En Bloc Retroperitoneoscopic Removal of Horseshoe Kidney for End-stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, David; Budzyn, Brian; Steinhardt, George F; Barber, Theodore D

    2015-10-01

    Horseshoe kidney (HSK) is the most common renal fusion anomaly. There have been reports of an association of HSKs with medical renal disease. We report a case of a child with nephrotic-range proteinuria and a HSK. As the patient was on peritoneal dialysis, the entire HSK was removed en bloc via a retroperitoneoscopic approach with early postoperative reinitiation of peritoneal dialysis. PMID:26254173

  8. Risk factors for local recurrence after en bloc endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Yup; Cho, Kwang Bum; Kim, Eun Soo; Park, Kyung Sik; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lee, Yoon Suk; Jang, Byoung Kuk; Chung, Woo Jin; Hwang, Jae Seok

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate factors related to recurrence following en bloc resection using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). METHODS: A total of 1121 patients (1215 lesions) who had undergone ESD for gastric neoplasia between April 2003 and May 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Data from 401 patients (415 lesions) were analyzed, following the exclusion of those who underwent piecemeal resection, with deep resection margin invasion or lateral margin infiltration, and diagnosed with benign lesions. RESULTS: Local recurrence after en bloc ESD was found in 36 cases (8.7%). Unclear resection margins, long procedure times, and narrow safety margins were identified as risk factors for recurrence. Lesions located in the upper third of the stomach showed a higher rate of recurrence than those located in the lower third of the stomach (OR = 2.9, P = 0.03). The probability of no recurrence for up to 24 mo was 79.9% in those with a safety resection margin ≤ 1 mm and 89.5% in those with a margin > 1 mm (log-rank test, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Even in cases in which en bloc ESD is performed for EGC, local recurrence still occurs. To reduce local recurrences, more careful assessment will be needed prior to the implementation of ESD in cases in which the tumor is located in the upper third of the stomach. In addition, clear identification of tumor boundaries as well as the securing of sufficient safety resection margins will be important. PMID:27076871

  9. Quantitative Proteomic and Genetic Analyses of the Schizophrenia Susceptibility Factor Dysbindin Identify Novel Roles of the BLOC-1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Gokhale, Avanti; Larimore, Jennifer; Werner, Erica; So, Lomon; De Luca, Andres Moreno; Lese-Martin, Christa; Lupashin, Vladimir V.; Smith, Yoland; Faundez, Victor

    2012-01-01

    The Biogenesis of Lysosome-Related Organelles Complex 1 (BLOC-1) is a protein complex containing the schizophrenia susceptibility factor dysbindin, which is encoded by the gene DTNBP1. However, mechanisms engaged by dysbindin defining schizophrenia susceptibility pathways have not been quantitatively elucidated. Here, we discovered prevalent and novel cellular roles of the BLOC-1 complex in neuronal cells by performing large-scale Stable Isotopic Labeling of Cells in Culture quantitative proteomics (SILAC) combined with genetic analyses in dysbindin-null mice (Mus musculus) and the genome of schizophrenia patients. We identified 24 proteins that associate with the BLOC-1 complex many of which were altered in content/distribution in cells or tissues deficient in BLOC-1. New findings include BLOC-1 interactions with the COG complex, a Golgi apparatus tether, and antioxidant enzymes peroxiredoxins 1-2. Importantly, loci encoding eight of the 24 proteins are affected by genomic copy number variation in schizophrenia patients. Thus, our quantitative proteomic studies expand the functional repertoire of the BLOC-1 complex and provide insight into putative molecular pathways of schizophrenia susceptibility. PMID:22423091

  10. Large-volume en-bloc staining for electron microscopy-based connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Yunfeng; Laserstein, Philip; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale connectomics requires dense staining of neuronal tissue blocks for electron microscopy (EM). Here we report a large-volume dense en-bloc EM staining protocol that overcomes the staining gradients, which so far substantially limited the reconstructable volumes in three-dimensional (3D) EM. Our protocol provides densely reconstructable tissue blocks from mouse neocortex sized at least 1 mm in diameter. By relaxing the constraints on precise topographic sample targeting, it makes the correlated functional and structural analysis of neuronal circuits realistic. PMID:26235643

  11. Fungating carcinoma of the stomach: en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed Central

    Chu, K. M.; Lai, D. T.; Stern, H. S.; Sheldon, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    A patient with carcinoma of the stomach invading multiple adjacent organs and fungating through the anterior abdominal wall was treated by en bloc multiple organ resection and abdominal wall reconstruction. The patient is alive and well at the time of writing, six months after the operation. The rationale for embarking on multiple organ resection for gastric cancer is discussed. However, such an aggressive surgical approach should only be applied to carefully selected patients who are medically fit and have no evidence of widespread systemic metastases. Images Figure PMID:7596940

  12. Laparoscopic Transvesical Resection of an En Bloc Bladder Cuff and Distal Ureter during Nephroureterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Toufas, George; Dimitriadis, Charalampos; Giannopoulos, Stavros; Kalaitzis, Christos; Bantis, Athanasios; Patris, Emmanuel; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The most appropriate technique for excising the distal ureter and bladder cuff during laparoscopic nephroureterectomy is still debated. We report our experience with a pure laparoscopic transvesical method that duplicates the long-standing open transvesical approach. Materials and Methods. Seven men and three women diagnosed with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma were treated with this procedure. Three intravesical ports were inserted, and pneumovesicum was established at 12 mmHg. Transvesical laparoscopic circumferential detachment of the bladder cuff and en bloc mobilization of the last centimeters of the distal ureter were performed, followed by the closure of the bladder defect. Subsequently, a nephrectomy was performed either laparoscopically or using an open flank approach. Results. The median age was 68.5 years. The procedure was completed uneventfully in all cases. The median operating time for distal ureter excision was 82.5 minutes (range 55–120). No complications directly related to the pneumovesicum method were recorded. The median follow-up period was 31 months (range 12–55). During the follow-up period, two patients (20%) died from the disease, and a bladder tumor developed in three cases (30%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic transvesical resection of the en bloc bladder cuff and distal ureter is a reliable, effective, and oncologically safe technique, at least in the midterm. PMID:23049475

  13. En bloc temporal bone resections in squamous cell carcinoma of the ear. Technique, principles, and limits.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Antonio; Zanoletti, Elisabetta; Marioni, Gino; Martini, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    Conclusions En bloc resection should always be primarily considered in ear carcinoma, also in advanced tumors growing beyond the walls of the external auditory canal, because it achieves a full specimen for histopathological evaluation and allows a correlation between clinical, pathological features, and outcomes. Objective and methods Dismal outcome of surgical and radiotherapic therapies for advanced ear carcinoma required a critical discussion of the oncological principles of treatment. Our analysis involved preliminarily a detailed description of surgical technique including the contribution of modern skull base microsurgery. Results Evident limits in diagnostic protocols, surgical treatment and outcome evaluation modalities pointed to the need of a new approach towards an accurate definition of pre-operative tumor location, size, and behavior. En bloc resection achieved a specimen for a final pathological evaluation and an adjunctive piecemeal excision was necessary only whenever resection was not felt falling in safe, tumor-free tissue. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy should be considered in selected cases for adjuvant treatment. PMID:26824405

  14. Results of en bloc resection for hepatocellular carcinoma extending to adjacent organs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Sui, Cheng-Jun; Li, Bin; Xu, Feng; Kan, Tong; Yang, Jia-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Background To curatively resect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with adjacent organ extension, the combined resection of these organs is inevitable. We analyzed the safety and effectiveness of en bloc resection for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Methods From December 2002 to May 2006, we compared the surgical outcomes of patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs with those of closely matched, randomly selected patients with HCC without adjacent organ extension. Results We included 42 patients whose HCC extended to adjacent organs and 126 patients whose HCC did not extend to adjacent organs. There was no significant difference in survival, operative morbidity or mortality between the groups. In patients with HCC extending to adjacent organs, histopathological examination of the specimen revealed true tumour invasion in 13 and adhesion in 29 patients. Those with tumour invasion were more likely to have a high incidence of capsule infiltration, microvascular invasion and early intrahepatic recurrence (≤ 1 yr after hepatectomy). The 5-year overall survival of patients with tumour invasion was 11.5%, whereas that of patients with tumour adhesion was 38.1% (p = 0.033). Conclusion En bloc resection is a safe and effective therapy for HCC extending to adjacent organs. Tumour invasion to adjacent organs exhibits a more aggressive clinical behaviour and is associated with worse survival than tumour adhesion. PMID:22617536

  15. Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection: The third way for en bloc resection of colonic lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Radaelli, Franco; Spinzi, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Background Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection without submucosal injection has been described for removing large flat colorectal lesions. Objective We aim to evaluate the reproducibility of this technique in terms of ease of implementation, safety and efficacy. Methods A prospective observational study of consecutive underwater endoscopic mucosal resection in a community hospital was performed. Results From September 2014 to April 2015, 25 flat or sessile colorectal lesions (median size 22.8 mm, range 10–50 mm; 18 placed in the right colon) were removed in 25 patients. Two of the lesions were adenomatous recurrences on scar of prior resection and one was a recurrence on a surgical anastomosis. The resection was performed en bloc in 76% of the cases. At the pathological examination, 14 lesions (56%) had advanced histology and seven (28%) were sessile serrated adenomas (two with high-grade dysplasia). Complete resection was observed in all the lesions removed en bloc. Intra-procedural bleeding was observed in two cases; both were managed endoscopically and were uneventful. No major adverse events occurred. Conclusion Underwater endoscopic mucosal resection appears to be an easy, safe and effective technique in a community setting. Further studies evaluating the efficacy of the technique (early and late recurrence), as well as comparing it with traditional mucosal resection, are warranted. PMID:27536370

  16. Pediatric En Bloc Kidney Transplants: Clinical and Immediate Postoperative US Factors Associated with Vascular Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Tse, Gary; Corwin, Michael T; Santhanakrishnan, Chandrasekar; Perez, Richard V; McGahan, John P; Stewart, Susan; Troppmann, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To evaluate clinical and immediate postoperative ultrasonographic (US) risk factors associated with vascular thrombosis of pediatric en bloc kidney grafts. Materials and Methods This institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant retrospective study consisted of 195 recipients of pediatric en bloc kidney grafts throughout a 10-year period. The average recipient and donor age was 45 years (range, 7-74 years) and 9 months (range, 0-84 months), respectively. Clinical factors and immediate postoperative US findings were assessed. Categorical variables were evaluated by using the Fisher exact test and linear models with generalized estimating equations. Results Seventeen patients (23 kidneys) experienced thrombotic events. In six patients (eight kidneys), thrombosis occurred intraoperatively. The remaining 11 patients (15 kidneys) received a diagnosis of thrombosis on postoperative days 1-13. Recipients more than 40 years old had a higher incidence of arterial thrombosis than did younger recipients (eight of 62 vs three of 133, respectively; P < .01). Recipients were more likely to develop thrombosis with donor weight less than 5 kg (10 of 52 vs seven of 140 with donor weight of ≥ 5 kg; P < .01), with intraoperative perfusional concern (10 of 21 vs seven of 174 without; P < .01), or with right-sided allograft placement (10 of 64 vs seven of 131 left sided; P = .03). At US of the 15 postoperative thrombotic events, the incidence of thrombosis was greater when donor arterial velocity was less than 100 cm/sec (seven of 56 vs four of 126 with velocity ≥ 100 cm/sec; P = .04). An intrarenal arterial resistive index of less than 0.6 was associated with higher incidence of arterial thrombosis (nine of 123 vs zero of 217, respectively; P = .01). A resistive index greater than 0.8 was associated with a higher incidence of venous thrombosis (four of 13 vs one of 217, respectively; P = .04). Conclusion Clinical factors and immediate US findings can help stratify

  17. Developing Management Education in the Countries of the Former Soviet Bloc: Critical Issues for Ensuring Academic Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Colin

    2006-01-01

    If the countries of the former Soviet bloc are to move towards establishing successful market economies it is essential that their universities are able to design and deliver the highest quality management education. This education should stimulate innovative and independent thought along with developing skills that can be applied to the practical…

  18. Anatomical liver resection of segment 4a en bloc with the caudate lobe.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, Nicola; Coppola, Alessandro; Ardito, Francesco; Nuzzo, Gennaro; Giuliante, Felice

    2016-05-01

    Anatomical segmentectomy is the complete resection of an area supplied by a segmental portal branch. Among segmentectomies, isolated segmentectomy 4 is a technically demanding procedure because there are two transection planes: on the left side along the umbilical fissure and, on the right side, along the middle hepatic vein. Although there are several reports on anatomic segmentectomies, only few regard the anatomic segmentectomy 4a. We report here the case of a 60-year-old man who underwent anatomical segmentectomy 4a en bloc with the caudate lobe to resect a colorectal liver metastasis located in segment 4a and involving the paracaval portion of the caudate lobe. This type of procedure was planned in order to maximize the postoperative functional hepatic reserve, thereby reducing the risk of postoperative liver failure and ultimately allowing the possibility for future repeat hepatectomy in case of recurrence. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:665-667. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26891129

  19. Concomitant reconstruction of infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava after en bloc resection of retroperitoneal rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ayala, Javier E; Cheema, Zulfiqar F; Davies, Mark G; Lumsden, Alan B; Reardon, Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Adult paratesticular rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) with invasion of the retroperitoneum and involvement of the infrarenal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) is rare. We describe a 23-year-old male diagnosed with PRMS in 2008, previously treated with right orchiectomy, chemotherapy, and radiation, who presented with new onset of lower back pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a 4.8 × 4.2 cm mass involving both the infrarenal aorta and the IVC. We resected the tumor en bloc with in situ reconstruction of the aorta utilizing a Dacron graft and the IVC with a bovine pericardium roll graft. His postoperative period was uneventful, and he was discharged on postoperative day 6 in stable condition. At 2-month follow-up, the patient recovered well from the surgery, patent grafts on CT scan with no clinical signs of lower extremity ischemia or edema, and he continues to receive cycles of chemotherapy. PMID:21914678

  20. Evidence for bloc rotation tectonics in the seismic Cheliff basin (northern Algeria) from paleomagnetic investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-M. Derder, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Amenna, Mohamed; Bayou, Boualem; Maouche, Said; Besse, Jean; Ayache, Mohamed; Abtout, Abdeslam

    2010-05-01

    The seismic activity in the Western Mediterranean area is mainly concentrated in northern Africa, particularly in northern Algeria, as it was shown by the 21 May 2003 Boumerdes and the 10 October 1980 El Asnam earthquakes (of moment magnitudes Mw =6.9, and Ms= 7.3 respectively), which were among the strongest recent ones recorded in the western Mediterranean area. This seismicity is due to the convergence between Africa and Eurasia plates since at least the Oligocene. This convergence involves a transpression tectonic with N-S to NNW-SSE direction of shortening, which is expressed by active deformations along the boundary of these two plates. In Algeria, the seismicity is focused in a coastal zone (the Tell Atlas) in the northern part of the country. Active structures define there NE-SW trending folds and NE-SW sinistral transpressive faults, which affect the intermountain and coastal basins of Neogene to Quaternary age (e.g. " Cheliff "basin, " Mitidja "basin). These reverse faults are coupled with NW-SE to E-W trending strike-slip deep faults. The active deformation in northern Algeria could thus be explained by a kinematic model of bloc rotation: the transpression tectonics with NNW-SSE direction of convergence defines NE-SW oriented blocs, which have been possibly subjected to clockwise rotation. The aim of this study is to look for such blocks rotation in the "Cheliff" basin (northern Algeria), by using the paleomagnetic tool. A paleomagnetic study has been thus conducted on the midlle Miocene, Tortonian, Messinian and Pliocene sedimentary rocks cropping out on the eastern part of this basin. The study is still in progress, but despite the very weak intensity of the Natural Remanent Magnetization (NRM) measured on the samples, and the frequently observed magnetization instability during the thermal demagnetization, the preliminary results show that clockwise rotations have affected different sites of the studied area. The magnitude of these rotations varies

  1. Transvaginal specimen extraction in a laparoscopic anterior resection of a sigmoid colon neoplasia with en bloc right salpingo-oophorectomy.

    PubMed

    García Flórez, L J; Argüelles, J; Quijada, B; Alvarez, V; Galarraga, M A; Graña, J L

    2010-06-01

    Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has well-known benefits. However, an abdominal incision, albeit much smaller than conventional surgery, is still needed. A transvaginal extraction of a sigmoid colon neoplasia with en bloc salpingo-oophorectomy and colorectal mechanical anastomosis is described. The technique is feasible and safe. The excellent recovery of the 86-year-old patient shows the potential future of the natural orifices endoscopic surgery. PMID:20135188

  2. I and C modernization for VVER reactors. [Eastern bloc pressurized water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gangloff, W.C.; Werner, C.L. )

    1993-08-01

    Many countries of the former Eastern Bloc are now looking westward for the introduction, absorption, and widespread application of modern technology in many areas. One such area is the nuclear power industry, where an infusion of western technology is desired to improve both plant production economics and long term plant safety. Modern digital I and C systems are sought for upgrading the existing Soviet designed reactor plants to levels of safety and reliability consistent with western standards. This paper describes the functional and physical design of the distributed microprocessor based protection, control and plant information systems to be used in Czechoslovakia for the modernization of the Temelin units (VVER-1,000). The modernization incorporates not only new hardware, but also a new functional design based on a safety analysis performed to western standards. The new systems will reduce the maintenance requirements and costs and provide such enhancements as online testability and automated surveillance testing. The technology is directly applicable to both new reactor designs under construction and to retrofits for the older reactors. It is expected to find many applications in eastern and central Europe as well as in the former Soviet Union for improving the safety and reliability of their vital nuclear power stations.

  3. Case Report: En Bloc Resection of Pancoast Tumor with Adjuvant Aortic Endograft and Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Tony; Fischer, Uwe M.; Marco, Rex A.; Naoum, Joseph J.; Reardon, Michael J.; Lumsden, Alan B.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Davies, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    “Pancoast” tumors frequently require a multidisciplinary approach to therapy and are still associated with high morbidity and mortality. Due to their sensitive anatomic location, complex resections and chemoradiation regimens are typically required for treatment. Those with signs of aortic invasion pose an even greater challenge, given the added risks of cardiopulmonary bypass for aortic resection and interposition. Placement of an aortic endograft can facilitate resection if the tumor is in close proximity to or is invading the aorta. Prophylactic endografting to prevent radiation-associated aortic rupture has also been described. This case describes a 60-year-old female who presented with a stage IIIa left upper lobe undifferentiated non-small-cell carcinoma encasing the subclavian artery with thoracic aorta and bony invasion. Following carotid-subclavian bypass with Dacron, en bloc resection of the affected lung, ribs, and vertebral bodies was performed. The aorta was prophylactically reinforced with a Gore TAG thoracic endograft prior to adjuvant chemoradiation. The patient remains disease-free at more than 5 years follow-up after completing her treatment course. Endovascular stenting with subsequent chemoradiation may prove to be a viable alternative to palliation or open operative management and prevention of aortic injury during tumor resection and/or adjuvant therapy in select patients with aortic involvement. PMID:26306134

  4. En Bloc Multivisceral and Kidney Transplantation in an HIV Patient: First Case Report.

    PubMed

    Koval, C E; Khanna, A; Pallotta, A; Spinner, M; Taege, A J; Eghtesad, B; Fujiki, M; Hashimoto, K; Rodriguez, B; Morse, G; Bennett, A; Abu-Elmagd, K

    2016-01-01

    The continual improvement in outcome with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and visceral transplantation for gut failure stimulated our interest in lifting HIV infection as a contraindication for intestinal and multivisceral transplantation. This report is the first to describe visceral transplantation in a patient with HIV infection. A HAART regimen was introduced in the setting of short-gut syndrome with successful suppression of HIV viral load. The indication for en bloc multivisceral and kidney transplantation was end-stage liver failure with portomesenteric venous thrombosis and chronic renal insufficiency. The underlying hepatic pathology was alcoholic and home parenteral nutrition-associated cirrhosis. Surgery was complicated due to technical difficulties with excessive blood loss and long operative time. The complex posttransplant course included multiple exploratory laparotomies due to serious intra-abdominal and systemic infections. Heavy immunosuppression was required to treat recurrent episodes of severe allograft rejection. Posttransplant oral HAART successfully sustained undetectable viral load. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to sepsis 3 months posttransplant. With new insights into the biology of gut immunity, mechanisms of allograft tolerance, and HIV-associated immune dysregulation, successful outcome is anticipated, particularly in patients who are in need of isolated intestinal and less-organ-contained visceral allografts. PMID:26437326

  5. Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma: intracranial and extracranial en bloc resection.

    PubMed

    Marsh, J L; Wise, D M; Smith, M; Schwartz, H

    1981-10-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the lacrimal gland is a rare tumor, although it is the malignancy most frequently arising in the gland. Treatment has been unsuccessful generally, with a 15-year survival of less than 20 percent. Our experience with this tumor in a 61-year-old woman has led to a proposal for therapeutic management based on awareness of the lesion's natural history, an understanding of regional anatomy, and familiarity with therapies reported in the literature. The feasibility of adequate tumor ablation is determined from preoperative evaluation, including CT scan, initial exploratory craniotomy, and frozen-section examination of the cranial nerves transversing the orbit. Once resectability is confirmed, "curative" intracranial and extracranial en bloc resection is performed, including the tumor, the lacrimal gland, and all contiguous structures. The defect is immediately resurfaced with and "ice cream cone" forehead flap in anticipation of adjuvant radiotherapy. An orbital prosthesis is fitted as soon as the radiation reaction subsides, and a postablative CT scan is obtained as the baseline for follow-up. It remains to be seen whether this application of the technology of CT scanning and the techniques of craniofacial surgery will improve the prognosis for adenoid cystic carcinoma arising in the lacrimal gland. PMID:6269133

  6. Anterior-only Partial Sacrectomy for en bloc Resection of Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Roldan, Hector; Perez-Orribo, Luis F.; Plata-Bello, Julio M.; Martin-Malagon, Antonio I.; Garcia-Marin, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report. Objective The usual procedure for partial sacrectomies in locally advanced rectal cancer combines a transabdominal and a posterior sacral route. The posterior approach is flawed with a high rate of complications, especially infections and wound-healing problems. Anterior-only approaches have indirectly been mentioned within long series of rectal cancer surgery. We describe a case of partial sacrectomy for en bloc resection of a locally advanced rectal cancer with invasion of the low sacrum through a combined transabdominal and perineal approach without any posterior incision. Methods Through a midline laparotomy, the tumor was dissected and the sacral osteotomy was performed. Once the sacrum was mobile, the muscular attachments to its posterior wall were cut through the perineal approach. This latter route was also used to remove the whole specimen. Results The postoperative period was uneventful in terms of infection and wound healing, but the patient developed right foot dorsiflexion paresis that completely disappeared in 1 month. Resection margins were negative. After a follow-up of 18 months, the patient has no local recurrence but presented lung and liver metastases. Conclusion In cases of rectal cancer involving the low sacrum, the combination of a transabdominal and a perineal route to carry out the partial sacrectomy is a feasible approach that avoids changes of surgical positioning and the morbidity related to posterior incisions. This strategy should be considered when deciding on undertaking partial sacrectomy in locally advanced rectal cancer. PMID:25396109

  7. A Germline Mutation in BLOC1S3/Reduced Pigmentation Causes a Novel Variant of Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome (HPS8)

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Neil V.; Pasha, Shanaz; Johnson, Colin A.; Ainsworth, John R.; Eady, Robin A. J.; Dawood, Ban; McKeown, Carole; Trembath, Richard C.; Wilde, Jonathan; Watson, Steve P.; Maher, Eamonn R.

    2006-01-01

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is genetically heterogeneous, and mutations in seven genes have been reported to cause HPS. Autozygosity mapping studies were undertaken in a large consanguineous family with HPS. Affected individuals displayed features of incomplete oculocutaneous albinism and platelet dysfunction. Skin biopsy demonstrated abnormal aggregates of melanosomes within basal epidermal keratinocytes. A homozygous germline frameshift mutation in BLOC1S3 (p.Gln150ArgfsX75) was identified in all affected individuals. BLOC1S3 mutations have not been previously described in patients with HPS, but BLOC1S3 encodes a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1). Mutations in other BLOC-1 subunits have been associated with an HPS phenotype in humans and/or mouse, and a nonsense mutation in the murine orthologue of BLOC1S3 causes the reduced pigmentation (rp) model of HPS. Interestingly, eye pigment formation is reported to be normal in rp, but we found visual defects (nystagmus, iris transilluminancy, foveal hypoplasia, reduced visual acuity, and evidence of optic pathway misrouting) in affected individuals. These findings define a novel form of human HPS (HPS8) and extend genotype-phenotype correlations in HPS. PMID:16385460

  8. Simplifying Laparoscopic Nephrectomy: The Inferior Approach with En Bloc Stapling of the Renal Hilum

    PubMed Central

    Nadu, Andrei; Lindner, Uri; Ramon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) is likely the most common laparoscopic procedure performed by general urologists without formal laparoscopic training. The traditional technique is cumbersome because it entails making an early approach to the hilum with the risk of bleeding and need for conversion. We perform a different technique that we believe is simpler to learn and to teach. It consists of a complete dissection of the inferior and posterior aspects of the kidney, followed by en bloc stapling of the renal hilum. The present report is a detailed description of our technique including outcomes and complications. Materials and Methods: Perioperative data of 129 consecutive patients who underwent LN between November 2003 and September 2007 were prospectively collected and retrospectively reviewed. Complications were reported using the Clavien classification system, and follow-up was performed according to our institution's protocol and included physical examination, blood count, blood chemistry, and renal function tests at every visit, in addition to abdominal computed tomography scan six months after surgery. Additional imaging was scheduled according to disease stage and grade. Results: Mean patient age, tumor size, and operative time were 63 ± 15.6 years, 6.3 ± 2.4 cm, and 128 ± 41.4 minutes, respectively. Median estimated blood loss was 0 mL (0.200). Conversion to open surgery occurred in 3.1% of patients, and 8% of the patients had a blood transfusion. Complications were recorded in 26% of the patients; 91% of them had Clavien grade scores of 1 or 2. Conclusion: We present a standardized technique for LN. Its main advantage is that postpones any manipulation of the hilum to a later step during the procedure when it is easy to identify and control. This decreases early bleeding and main vascular complications. PMID:25392654

  9. Invasiveness Reduction of Recent Total En Bloc Spondylectomy: Assessment of the Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hideki; Demura, Satoru; Kato, Satoshi; Yoshioka, Katsuhito; Fujii, Moriyuki; Igarashi, Takashi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Case-control study. Purpose To evaluate the surgical magnitude and learning curve of "second-generation" total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). Overview of Literature In June 2010, we developed second-generation TES combined with tumor-induced cryoimmunology, which does not require autograft harvesting. Methods TES was performed in 63 patients between June 2010 and September 2013. Three groups of patients were evaluated: 20 undergoing surgery in the first year of development of second-generation TES (group I), 20 in the second year (group II), and 23 in the third year (group III). Patient backgrounds showed no remarkable differences. Operating time, intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and postoperative C-reactive protein and creatine phosphokinase were compared among the groups. Results Mean±standard deviation operating time was 486±130 minutes in group I, 441±85 minutes in group II, and 396±75 minutes in group III. The time was significantly shorter in group III than in group I (p<0.05). Intraoperative blood loss was 901±646 mL in group I, 433±177 mL in group II, and 411±167 mL in group III. Blood loss was significantly lower in groups II and III than in group I (p<0.01). Transfusion was not required in 20 of 23 patients in group III, and mean C-reactive protein levels on postoperative day 3 were significantly lower in this group than in group I (6.12 mg/L vs. 10.07 mg/L; p<0.05). Postoperative creatine phosphokinase levels did not differ among the groups. Conclusions TES is associated with a significant learning curve. Thus, second-generation TES can no longer be considered highly invasive. PMID:27340533

  10. Two-stage, combined, three-level en bloc spondylectomy for a recurrent post-radiation sarcoma of the lumbar spine.

    PubMed

    Casadei, Roberto; Mavrogenis, Andreas F; De Paolis, Massimiliano; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2013-07-01

    En bloc or extralesional resection means resection of the tumor in one piece together with a layer of healthy tissue: the margin is either marginal or wide. The prerequisite for an en bloc or extralesional spondylectomy is a tumor involvement of no more than one side of the posterior structures, so that a corridor can be created through which the spinal cord is released. This article presents a two-stage, combined anterior and posterolateral, three-level en bloc spondylectomy, and local flap wound coverage for a patient with a recurrent post-radiation sarcoma of the lumbar spine and infected wound after intralesional treatment. The patient had radiation therapy for an L4 Hodgkin's lymphoma 5 years before the development of the post-radiation sarcoma. Two-stage, three-level en bloc spondylectomy was done through a combined anterior and posterolateral approach. The resection margins were microscopically negative. Dural tear occurred intraoperatively because of tightly adherent dense scar tissue. Two years after spondylectomy, there was no evidence of tumor or infection recurrence; however, the patient died from her lymphoma. In surgically difficult spinal resections, we recommend the two-stage, combined anterior and posterolateral approach for en bloc spondylectomy. The staged procedure may provide for reduced perioperative complications and mortality, and meticulous dissection in the irradiated area, especially if infected. The combined approach provides for easier and safer dissection of the tumor and the spine from the anterior elements under direct visual control, and wide tumor resection. PMID:23412305

  11. [Effect of surgical trauma on NK cell activity in esophageal carcinoma after transmediastinal dissection vs. transthoracic en bloc resection].

    PubMed

    Bruns, C; Schäfer, H; Wolfgarten, B; Pichlmaier, H

    1996-01-01

    In order to assess the impact of surgical trauma involved in the therapy of esophageal carcinoma on the cellular immune system, a perspective study was performed involving perioperative hematological parameters. The activity of natural killer cells and the serum concentrations of interleukin-2, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were measured in 12 cases of transmediastinal dissection and 10 cases of transthoracic en bloc esophageal resection and compared to values of a control group of thoracic and abdominal surgical patients with non-malignant maladies. Natural killer cells assume a central role in the non-specific immunological response in tumor patients. Their main function is the destruction of tumor cells via cytotoxic activities amplified by the release of interleukin-2 and TNF-alpha. Natural killer cell activity was measured prior to surgery and on postoperative days 4 and 10 using a standardized europium chloride release assay, utilizing K562 target cells. Lymphokines interleukin-2, interleukin-6, and TNF-alpha were also measured on postoperative days 1 and 7 using standardized ELISA assays. The activity of natural killer cells in our patient group sank significantly (P < 0.05) on postoperative day 4 and likewise in the control group and both study groups, activity sank to the original values. In the control group, natural killer cell activity averaged 45% of preoperative values, in comparison with an average of 63% following transmediastinal esophageal carcinoma resection (one cavity procedure), and transthoracic en bloc resection (two cavity procedure). On postoperative day 10, all groups displayed a significant reacceleration of natural killer cell activity (P < 0.05). Whereas transthoracic en bloc resection patients only reached 61% of preoperative values, transmediastinal dissection patients assumed 75%, and 77% was achieved by control group members. Transthoracic en bloc resection of the esophagus led to a more extreme reduction in cytotoxic cellular

  12. Modified Kraske Procedure with Mid-Sacrectomy and Coccygectomy for En Bloc Excision of Sacral Giant Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Álvaro; Gíria, João; Carvalho, Nuno; Parreira, José; Cunha e Sá, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Sacral giant cell tumors are rare neoplasms, histologically benign but potentially very aggressive due to the difficulty in achieving a complete resection, their high recurrence rate, and metastization capability. Although many treatment options have been proposed, en bloc excision with tumor-free margins seems to be the most effective, being associated with long term tumor control, improved outcome, and potential cure. An exemplifying case of a 29-year-old female with progressive complaints of pain and paresthesias in the sacral and perianal regions, constipation, and weight loss for 6 months is presented. The surgical technique for en bloc excision of a large sacral giant cell tumor through a modified Kraske procedure with mid-sacrectomy and coccygectomy is described. Complete resection with wide tumor-free margins was achieved. At 5 years of follow-up the patient is neurologically intact, without evidence of local recurrence on imaging studies. A multidisciplinary surgical procedure is mandatory to completely remove sacral tumors. In the particular case of giant cell tumors, it allows minimizing local recurrence preserving neurovascular function, through a single dorsal and definitive approach. PMID:25386379

  13. Results after En Bloc Lateral Wall Decompression Surgery with Orbital Fat Resection in 111 Patients with Graves' Orbitopathy

    PubMed Central

    Fichter, Nicole; Guthoff, Rudolf F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect of en bloc lateral wall decompression with additional orbital fat resection in terms of exophthalmos reduction and complications. Methods. A retrospective, noncomparative case series study from 1999 to 2011 (chart review) in Graves' orbitopathy (GO) patients. The standardized surgical technique involved removal of the lateral orbital wall including the orbital rim via a lid crease approach combined with additional orbital fat resection. Exophthalmos, diplopia, retrobulbar pressure sensation, and complications were analyzed pre- and postoperatively. Results. A total of 111 patients (164 orbits) with follow-up >3 months were analysed. Mean exophthalmos reduction was 3.05mm and preoperative orbital pressure sensation resolved or improved in all patients. Visual acuity improved significantly in patients undergoing surgery for rehabilitative or vision threatening purposes. Preoperative diplopia improved in 10 patients (9.0%) but worsened in 5 patients (4.5%), necessitating surgical correction in 3 patients. There were no significant complications; however, one patient had slight hollowing of the temporalis muscle around the scar that did not necessitate revision, and another patient with a circumscribed retraction of the scar itself underwent surgical correction. Conclusions. The study confirms the efficiency of en bloc lateral wall decompression in GO in a large series of patients, highlighting the low risk of disturbance of binocular functions and of cosmetic blemish in the temporal midface region. PMID:26221142

  14. Transurethral En Bloc Resection of Bladder Tumor Using an Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Technique: Preliminary Results in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Morizane, Shuichi; Sejima, Takehiro; Iwamoto, Hideto; Masago, Toshihiko; Honda, Masashi; Ikebuchi, Yuichiro; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Ueki, Masaru; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Background Transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) technique has been considered the routine method for removing most bladder tumors for decades. In contrast, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is the gold-standard treatment for gastrointestinal superficial tumors. We investigated the effectiveness and applicability of a new technique for en bloc bladder tumor resection using ESD procedure. Methods Four Landrace Large White Duroc female pigs were anesthetized with isoflurane prior endoscopic resection using a large-caliber prototype fiber bronchoscope. After local infiltration of the submucosa with sodium hyaluronate using an injector needle, a section of the target area (1.0–2.0 cm diameter circular area) was cut with the Dual Knife. Results In total, seven target sections were resected from the pigs. The median size of the resected sections was 1.8 cm (range 1.0–2.5 cm) and the median time taken to perform the resection of one section was 20 min (range 4–35 min). These target sections were completely resected en bloc. Although the small bladder perforations occurred on two occasions, no other short-term complications such as uncontrollable bleeding were observed. Conclusion This procedure is a slightly difficult in the pigs with thin bladder walls. However, this procedure with the slim flexible cystoscope may allow us to be able to remove bladder tumors using only light sedation, especially for cases when small tumor recurrence is observed during routine cystoscopy for the patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. PMID:27493485

  15. L4 and L5 Spondylectomy for En Bloc Resection of Giant Cell Tumor and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Dieppa, David R.; Hwang, Lee S.; Bydon, Ali; Gokaslan, Ziya L.; McCarthy, Edward F.; Witham, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Case report and review of the literature. Objective We present the case of a two-level lumbar spondylectomy at L4 and L5 for en bloc resection of a giant cell tumor (GCT) and lumbopelvic reconstruction. Methods A 58-year-old woman presented with a 7-month history of progressive intractable back and leg pain secondary to a biopsy-proven Enneking stage III GCT of the L4 and L5 vertebrae. The patient underwent a successful L4–L5 spondylectomy and lumbopelvic reconstruction using a combined posterior and anterior approach over two operative stages. Results Postoperative complications included a deep wound infection and a cerebrospinal fluid leak; however, following surgical debridement and long-term antibiotic treatment, the patient was neurologically intact with minimal pain and there was no evidence of tumor recurrence or instrumentation failure at more than 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion Spondylectomy that achieves en bloc resection is a viable and effective treatment option that can be curative for Enneking stage III GCTs involving the lower lumbar spine. The lumbosacral junction represents a challenging anatomic location for spinal reconstruction after spondylectomy with unique technical considerations. PMID:25364329

  16. [Curative en-bloc resection (lung, diaphragm, liver, adrenal gland and thoracic wall) for echinococcus multilocularis. Report of an unusual disease course].

    PubMed

    Lampl, L; Hamperl, W D

    1992-01-01

    Report concerning an en-bloc-resection of right lower lobe of the lung, diaphragm, right lobe of the liver, right adrenal gland, parts of the chestwall and a fistula for alveolar echinococcus. Combined postoperative treatment with mebendazol. More than 4 years postoperatively no evidence of a recurrency. PMID:1583984

  17. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Goomany, Anand; Timothy, Jake; Robson, Craig; Rao, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach. PMID:26933363

  18. En bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma is possible using minimally invasive anterior access: An 8-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Goomany, Anand; Timothy, Jake; Robson, Craig; Rao, Abhay

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic spine chordomas are a rare clinical entity and present several diagnostic and management challenges. Posterior debulking techniques are the traditional approach for the resection of thoracic tumors involving the vertebral body. Anterior approaches to the thoracic spine enable complete tumor resection and interbody fusion. However, this approach has previously required a thoracotomy incision, which is associated with significant perioperative morbidity, pain, and the potential for compromised ventilation and subsequent respiratory sequelae. The extreme lateral approach to the anterior spine has been used to treat degenerative disorders of the lower thoracic and lumbar spine, and reduces the potential complications compared with the anterior transperitoneal/transpleural approach. However, such an approach has not been utilized in the treatment of thoracic chordomas. We describe the first case of an en bloc resection of a thoracic chordoma via a minimally invasive eXtreme lateral interbody fusion approach. PMID:26933363

  19. [Curative Left Pulmonary Resection Combined with Total En Bloc Spondylectomy for Lung Cancer Invading the Second and Third Thoracic Vertebral Bodies].

    PubMed

    Endoh, Makoto; Oizumi, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hirohisa; Suzuki, Jun; Watarai, Hikaru; Hamada, Akira; Suzuki, Katsuyuki; Nakahashi, Kenta; Funata, Toshiko; Takahashi, Ai; Sadahiro, Mitsuaki

    2016-09-01

    Introduction of spinal surgery into the operation of lung cancer has made extensive surgical treatment feasible with acceptable long-term survival. We report our experience on total en bloc total spondylectomy for lung cancer invading the spine. A 60-year-old man was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma of the apicodorsal segment of the left lobe with invasion of the 2nd and 3rd thoracic vertebral bodies. After induction chemoradiotherapy, we performed en bloc resection through a posterolateral thoracotomy in the right decubitus position and a posterior median approach in the prone position. The thoracic manipulation was done earlier, making it useful for the dissection of the prevertebral plane from the posterior mediastinum at the upper thoracic level in addition to confirmation of non-N2 disease. Vertebral stabilization was achieved with rod fixation and placement of a titanium mesh cage between the remaining vertebral bodies. PMID:27586310

  20. MeCP2 Regulates the Synaptic Expression of a Dysbindin-BLOC-1 Network Component in Mouse Brain and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Larimore, Jennifer; Ryder, Pearl V.; Kim, Kun-Yong; Ambrose, L. Alex; Chapleau, Christopher; Calfa, Gaston; Gross, Christina; Bassell, Gary J.; Pozzo-Miller, Lucas; Smith, Yoland; Talbot, Konrad; Park, In-Hyun; Faundez, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Clinical, epidemiological, and genetic evidence suggest overlapping pathogenic mechanisms between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia. We tested this hypothesis by asking if mutations in the ASD gene MECP2 which cause Rett syndrome affect the expression of genes encoding the schizophrenia risk factor dysbindin, a subunit of the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1), and associated interacting proteins. We measured mRNA and protein levels of key components of a dysbindin interaction network by, quantitative real time PCR and quantitative immunohistochemistry in hippocampal samples of wild-type and Mecp2 mutant mice. In addition, we confirmed results by performing immunohistochemistry of normal human hippocampus and quantitative qRT-PCR of human inducible pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived human neurons from Rett syndrome patients. We defined the distribution of the BLOC-1 subunit pallidin in human and mouse hippocampus and contrasted this distribution with that of symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice. Neurons from mutant mice and Rett syndrome patients displayed selectively reduced levels of pallidin transcript. Pallidin immunoreactivity decreased in the hippocampus of symptomatic Mecp2 mutant mice, a feature most prominent at asymmetric synapses as determined by immunoelectron microcopy. Pallidin immunoreactivity decreased concomitantly with reduced BDNF content in the hippocampus of Mecp2 mice. Similarly, BDNF content was reduced in the hippocampus of BLOC-1 deficient mice suggesting that genetic defects in BLOC-1 are upstream of the BDNF phenotype in Mecp2 deficient mice. Our results demonstrate that the ASD-related gene Mecp2 regulates the expression of components belonging to the dysbindin interactome and these molecular differences may contribute to synaptic phenotypes that characterize Mecp2 deficiencies and ASD. PMID:23750231

  1. Urachal-sigmoid fistula managed by laparoscopic assisted high anterior resection, primary anastomosis and en bloc resection of the urachal cyst and involved bladder.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Shinichiro; Grundy, Joshua; Naidu, Sanjeev; Gillespie, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Sigmoid-urachal fistula is exceedingly rare in adults and only a few cases have been reported in the world literature. We present the case of a 54-year-old man with symptomatic sigmoid-urachal fistula managed successfully with a laparoscopic assisted high anterior resection, primary anastomosis and an en bloc resection of the urachal cyst and the involved cuff of bladder. PMID:27217193

  2. Laparoscopic en bloc excision of gastrointestinal stromal tumors of the rectum after neoadjuvant imatinib therapy: anteriorly extended intersphincteric resection combined with partial resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Ueki, T; Nagayoshi, K; Manabe, T; Maeyama, R; Yokomizo, A; Yamamoto, H; Oda, Y; Tanaka, M

    2015-04-01

    We herein present a novel technique for laparoscopic en bloc excision involving anteriorly extended intersphincteric resection with partial resection of the posterior lobe of the prostate for large rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). The sequence of neoadjuvant imatinib therapy and this less invasive surgery for marginally resectable rectal GISTs has the potential to obviate the need for urinary reconstruction and permanent stomas without jeopardizing the tumor margin status. PMID:25550117

  3. Distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection for pancreatic body-tail cancer: Is it justified?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Li, Xiu-Dong; Liu, Xiao-Bin; Wu, Lu-Peng; Li, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) for pancreatic body-tail cancer. Material/Methods The medical records of 12 patients who underwent DP-CAR for pancreatic body-tail cancer were retrospectively studied, together with a literature review of studies including at least 3 cases of DP-CAR. Results There were no deaths among our 12 cases. Postoperative morbidity developed in 9 cases and was successfully managed by non-surgical treatment. No patients developed ischemic complications. Median overall survival was 10 months. A total of 19 studies involving 203 patients who underwent DP-CAR were included in the literature review. The overall morbidity and mortality rates were 50.2% and 3.0%, respectively. The overall median survival after surgery ranged from 9.3 to 26 months. Conclusions DP-CAR is a safe and effective treatment for patients with locally advanced pancreatic body-tail cancer. PMID:24382572

  4. Quantification of the Young's modulus of the primary plant cell wall using Bending-Lab-On-Chip (BLOC).

    PubMed

    Nezhad, Amir Sanati; Naghavi, Mahsa; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Bhat, Rama; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-07-01

    Biomechanical and mathematical modeling of plant developmental processes requires quantitative information about the structural and mechanical properties of living cells, tissues and cellular components. A crucial mechanical property of plant cells is the mechanical stiffness or Young's modulus of its cell wall. Measuring this property in situ at single cell wall level is technically challenging. Here, a bending test is implemented in a chip, called Bending-Lab-On-a-Chip (BLOC), to quantify this biomechanical property for a widely investigated cellular model system, the pollen tube. Pollen along with culture medium is introduced into a microfluidic chip and the growing pollen tube is exposed to a bending force created through fluid loading. The flexural rigidity of the pollen tube and the Young's modulus of the cell wall are estimated through finite element modeling of the observed fluid-structure interaction. An average value of 350 MPa was experimentally estimated for the Young's modulus in longitudinal direction of the cell wall of Camellia pollen tubes. This value is in agreement with the result of an independent method based on cellular shrinkage after plasmolysis and with the mechanical properties of in vitro reconstituted cellulose-callose material. PMID:23571308

  5. Utility of a Computed Tomography-Based Navigation System (O-Arm) for En Bloc Partial Vertebrectomy for Lung Cancer Adjacent to the Thoracic Spine: Technical Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Yokoi, Kohei; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    We describe successful vertebrectomy from a posterior approach using a computed tomography (CT)-based navigation system (O-arm) in a 53-year-old man with adenocarcinoma of the posterior apex of the right lung with invasion of the adjacent rib, thoracic wall, and T2 and T3 vertebral bodies. En bloc partial vertebrectomy for lung cancer adjacent to the thoracic spine was planned using O-arm. First, laminectomy was performed from right T2 to T3, and pedicles and transverse processes of T2 to T3 were resected. O-arm was used to confirm the location of the cutting edge in the T2 to 3 right vertebral internal body, and osteotomy to the anterior cortex was performed with a chisel. Next, the patient was placed in a left decubitus position. The surgical specimen was extracted en bloc. This case shows that O-arm can be used reliably and easily in vertebrectomy from a posterior approach and can facilitate en bloc resection. PMID:27114780

  6. Primary malignant bone tumors and solitary metastases of the thoracolumbar spine: results by management with total en bloc spondylectomy

    PubMed Central

    Melcher, Ingo; Khodadadyan-Klostermann, Cyrus; Tohtz, Stefan; Smolny, Mirko; Stöckle, Ulrich; Haas, Norbert P.; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Primary malignant spinal tumors and solitary vertebral metastases of selected tumor entities in the thoracolumbar spine are indications for total en bloc spondylectomy (TES). This study aimed to describe our oncological and surgical management and to analyze the treatment results by management with TES for extra- and intracompartmental solitary spinal metastases and primary malignant vertebral bone tumors. In 15 patients (3 malignant bone tumors and 12 solitary metastases), tumors were distributed in the thoracic (n = 8) and lumbar (n = 7) spine. Tumors were classified as intra- (n = 8) and extracompartmental (n = 7). All patients underwent TES via a laterally extended posterior approach followed by dorsoventral reconstruction. Function and quality of life were assessed by Oswestry disability index (ODI) and SF-36 score. At follow-up (100%; mean: 33 ± 22 months), 11 patients had no evidence of disease. Two patients were alive with the disease and two were dead of the disease (no primary bone tumors). Histology revealed negative margins (R0) in all patients with wide (n = 11) and marginal (n = 4) resections. Two patients developed pulmonal metastases of which they died at 4 and 16 months of survival. No local recurrence was observed. Major complications did not occur. TES resulted in an acceptable outcome in the quality of life and function. TES is a demanding procedure reaching wide to marginal resections in a curative approach. In conjunction with multimodal therapies, local recurrences can effectively be prevented while control of distant disease needs to be improved. Proper selection of adequate patients combined with careful surgical planning are prerequisites for low complication rates, acceptable function and improved overall prognosis. PMID:17252218

  7. Locally aggressive aneurysmal bone cyst of C4 vertebra treated by total en bloc excision and anterior plus posterior cervical instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Parmar, Himanshu N.; Agrawal, Vinod A.; Shah, Munjal S.; Nanda, Saurav N.

    2015-01-01

    We are presenting a case of cervical (C4) aneurysmal bone cyst in a 13-year-old girl, came to the outpatient department with neck pain and stiffness since 6 months and normal neurology. We did an en bloc excision of locally aggressive tumor through anterior plus posterior approach and stabilization by lateral mass screw fixation and anterior cervical instrumentation. Involvement of several adjacent cervical vertebrae by an aneurysmal bone cyst is rare, and conventional treatment with curettage and bone grafting is most likely to carry a high rate of recurrence and spinal instability. We recommend complete excision of the tumor and instrumentation in a single stage to avoid instability. PMID:26288549

  8. Le Indeterminacy in Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, David William

    The standard treatment of object pronouns in Latin American Spanish assigns a direct-object function to "lo" and "la" and an indirect-object function to "le." This study challenges this descriptive attribution in light of the contradictory and refractory evidence in Spanish morphosyntax. It is suggested that more detailed research, especially…

  9. Le Figaro. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Linda

    These instructional materials are designed for students with some French reading skills and vocabulary in late beginning or early intermediate senior high school French. The objectives are to introduce students to a French newspaper, "Le Figaro," and develop reading skills for skimming, gathering specific information, and relying on cognates. The…

  10. Single vs dual (en bloc) kidney transplants from donors ≤ 5 years of age: A single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shraideh, Yousef; Farooq, Umar; El-Hennawy, Hany; Farney, Alan C; Palanisamy, Amudha; Rogers, Jeffrey; Orlando, Giuseppe; Khan, Muhammad; Reeves-Daniel, Amber; Doares, William; Kaczmorski, Scott; Gautreaux, Michael D; Iskandar, Samy S; Hairston, Gloria; Brim, Elizabeth; Mangus, Margaret; Stratta, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare outcomes between single and dual en bloc (EB) kidney transplants (KT) from small pediatric donors. METHODS: Monocentric nonprospective review of KTs from pediatric donors ≤ 5 years of age. Dual EB KT was defined as keeping both donor kidneys attached to the inferior vena cava and aorta, which were then used as venous and arterial conduits for the subsequent transplant into a single recipient. Donor age was less useful than either donor weight or kidney size in decision-making for kidney utilization as kidneys from donors < 8 kg or kidneys < 6 cm in length were not transplanted. Post-transplant management strategies were standardized in all patients. RESULTS: From 2002-2015, 59 KTs were performed including 34 dual EB and 25 single KTs. Mean age of donors (17 mo vs 38 mo, P < 0.001), mean weight (11.0 kg vs 17.4 kg, P = 0.046) and male donors (50% vs 84%, P = 0.01) were lower in the dual EB compared to the single KT group, respectively. Mean cold ischemia time (21 h), kidney donor profile index (KDPI; 73% vs 62%) and levels of serum creatinine (SCr, 0.37 mg/dL vs 0.49 mg/dL, all P = NS) were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. Actuarial graft and patient survival rates at 5-years follow-up were comparable. There was one case of thrombosis resulting in graft loss in each group. Delayed graft function incidence (12% dual EB vs 20% single KT, P = NS) was slightly lower in dual EB KT recipients. Initial duration of hospital stay (mean 5.4 d vs 5.6 d) and the one-year incidences of acute rejection (6% vs 16%), operative complications (3% vs 4%), and major infection were comparable in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively (all P = NS). Mean 12 mo SCr and abbreviated MDRD levels were 1.17 mg/dL vs 1.35 mg/dL and 72.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 vs 60.5 mL/min per 1.73 m2 (both P = NS) in the dual EB and single KT groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: By transplanting kidneys from young pediatric donors into adult recipients, one can

  11. En Bloc Resection of Desmoplastic Neurotropic Melanoma with Perineural Invasion of the Intracranial Trigeminal and Intraparotid Facial Nerve: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Erkan, Serkan; Acharya, Aanand N.; Savundra, James; Lewis, Stephen B.; Rajan, Gunesh P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) is a rare, highly malignant, and locally invasive form of cutaneous melanoma with a tendency for perineural invasion (PNI). Methods We report a case of a 61-year-old man presenting with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and progressive facial paresis due to the PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve and the intraparotid facial nerve from DNM. We also present a review of the literature with six cases of DNM with PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve identified. Results The combined transtemporal-infratemporal fossa approach was performed to achieve total en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). After 24 months of follow-up, the patient remains disease free with no signs of recurrence on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion We recommend the en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by PORT for the management of DNM with PNI. A high index of suspicion for PNI as a cause of cranial neuropathies is essential for the early detection and treatment of patients with known melanoma. PMID:26929895

  12. En Bloc Resection of Desmoplastic Neurotropic Melanoma with Perineural Invasion of the Intracranial Trigeminal and Intraparotid Facial Nerve: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Serkan; Acharya, Aanand N; Savundra, James; Lewis, Stephen B; Rajan, Gunesh P

    2016-03-01

    Background Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM) is a rare, highly malignant, and locally invasive form of cutaneous melanoma with a tendency for perineural invasion (PNI). Methods We report a case of a 61-year-old man presenting with right-sided trigeminal neuralgia and progressive facial paresis due to the PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve and the intraparotid facial nerve from DNM. We also present a review of the literature with six cases of DNM with PNI of the intracranial trigeminal nerve identified. Results The combined transtemporal-infratemporal fossa approach was performed to achieve total en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). After 24 months of follow-up, the patient remains disease free with no signs of recurrence on magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusion We recommend the en bloc resection of the tumor mass followed by PORT for the management of DNM with PNI. A high index of suspicion for PNI as a cause of cranial neuropathies is essential for the early detection and treatment of patients with known melanoma. PMID:26929895

  13. Le mouvement du pôle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bizouard, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Les variations de la rotation terrestre. En conditionnant à la fois notre vie quotidienne, notre perception du ciel, et bon nombre de phénomènes géophysiques comme la formation des cyclones, la rotation de la Terre se trouve au croisement de plusieurs disciplines. Si le phenomena se faisait uniformément, le sujet serait vite discuté, mais c'est parce que la rotation terrestre varie, même imperceptiblement pour nos sens, dans sa vitesse angulaire comme dans la direction de son axe, qu'elle suscite un grand intérêt. D'abord pour des raisons pratiques : non seulement les aléas de la rotation terrestre modi_ent à la longue les pointés astrométriques à un instant donné de la journée mais in_uencent aussi les mesures opérées par les techniques spatiales ; en consequence l'exploitation de ces mesures, par exemple pour déterminer les orbites des satellites impliqués ou pratiquer le positionnement au sol, nécessite une connaissance précise de ces variations. Plus fondamentalement, elles traduisent les propriétés globales de la Terre comme les processus physiques qui s'y déroulent, si bien qu'en analysant les causes des fluctuations observées, on dispose d'un moyen de mieux connaître notre globe. La découverte progressive des fluctuations de la rotation de la Terre a une longue histoire. Sous l'angle des techniques d'observation, trois époques se pro-celle du pointé astrométrique à l'oeil nu, à l'aide d'instruments en bois ou métalliques (quart de cercle muraux par exemple). À partir du XVIIe siècle débute l'astrométrie télescopique dont les pointés sont complétés par des datations de plus en plus précises grâce à l'invention d'horloges régulées par balancier. Cette deuxième époque se termine vers 1960, avec l'avènement des techniques spatiales : les pointés astrométriques sont délaissés au profit de la mesure ultra-précise de durées ou de fréquences de signaux électromagnétiques, grâce à l'invention des horloges

  14. Distal Pancreatectomy With En Bloc Celiac Axis Resection for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Gong, Haibing; Ma, Ruirui; Gong, Jian; Cai, Chengzong; Song, Zhenshun; Xu, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac resection (DP-CAR) is used to treat locally advanced pancreatic cancer, the advantages and disadvantages of this surgical procedure remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate its clinical safety and efficacy.Studies regarding DP-CAR were retrieved from the following databases: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Chinese electronic databases. Articles were selected according to predesigned inclusion criteria, and data were extracted according to predesigned sheets. Clinical, oncologic, and survival outcomes of DP-CAR were systematically reviewed by hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratio (OR) using fixed- or random-effects models.Eighteen studies were included. DP-CAR had a longer operating time and greater intraoperative blood loss compared to distal pancreatectomy (DP). A high incidence of vascular reconstruction occurred in DP-CAR: 11.53% (95%CI: 6.88-18.68%) for artery and 33.28% (95%CI: 20.45-49.19%) for vein. The pooled R0 resection rate of DP-CAR was 72.79% (95% CI, 46.19-89.29%). Higher mortality and morbidity rates were seen in DP-CAR, but no significant differences were detected compared to DP; the pooled OR was 1.798 for mortality (95% CI, 0.360-8.989) and 2.106 for morbidity (95% CI, 0.828-5.353). The pooled incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was 31.31% (95%CI, 23.69-40.12%) in DP-CAR, similar to that of DP (OR = 1.07; 95%CI, 0.52-2.20). The pooled HR against DP-CAR was 5.67 (95%CI, 1.48-21.75) for delayed gastric emptying. The pooled rate of reoperation was 9.74% (95%CI, 4.56-19.59%) in DP-CAR. The combined 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates in DP-CAR were 65.22% (49.32-78.34%), 30.20% (21.50-40. 60%), and 18.70% (10.89-30.13%), respectively. The estimated means and medians for survival time in DP-CAR patients were 24.12 (95%CI, 18.26-29.98) months and 17.00 (95%CI, 13.52-20.48) months, respectively. There were no significant differences regarding

  15. Bloc tectonic rotations recorded in the Neogene and Quaternary magmatic rocks from Northwestern Algeria: preliminary paleomagnetic results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Messaoud Derder, Mohamed; Robion, Philippe; Maouche, Said; Bayou, Boualem; Amenna, Mohamed; Henry, Bernard; Missenard, Yves; Ouabadi, Aziouz; Bestandji, Rafik; Ayache, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    area. M.E.M. DERDER, B. HENRY, H. DJELLIT, C. DORBATH, H. YMEL, S. GHARBI, M. GUEMACHE AND A. ABTOUT : Bloc rotation tectonics in northern Algeria revealed by paleomagnetic investigations in the "Mitidja" basin (Algiers area, Algeria), "International Earthquake Symposium Kocaeli 2009". 17-19 August 2009 M.E.M., DERDER, B. HENRY, M. AMENNA, B. BAYOU, S. MAOUCHE, J. BESSE, A. ABTOUT, H. BOUKERBOUT, M. BESSEDIK, S. BOUROUIS AND M. AYACHE : "Tectonic Evolution of the Active "Chelif" Basin (Northern Algeria) from Paleomagnetic and Magnetic Fabric Investigations", in " New Frontiers in Tectonic Research at the Midst of Plate Convergence "Intech Publisher" book, pp: 3-26, Intech Publisher, ISBN 978-953-307-594-5, 2011. M.E.M. DERDER, B. HENRY, S. MAOUCHE, B. BAYOU ,M. AMENNA, J. BESSE, M. BESSEDIK, D. BELHAI AND M. AYACHE: Transpressive tectonics along a major E-W crustal structure on the Algerian continental margin: blocks rotations revealed by a paleomagnetic analysis. Tectonophysics, 593 (2013) 183-192

  16. Reconstruction of the Midfoot Using a Free Vascularized Fibular Graft After En Bloc Excision for Giant Cell Tumor of the Tarsal Bones: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hitomi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Onishi, Yasuo; Fujioka, Hiroyuki; Nishida, Kotaro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Akisue, Toshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old Japanese female with a giant cell tumor of bone involving multiple midfoot bones. Giant cell tumors of bone account for approximately 5% of all primary bone tumors and most often arise at the ends of long bones. The small bones, such as those of the hands and feet, are rare sites for giant cell tumors. Giant cell tumors of the small bones tend to exhibit more aggressive clinical behavior than those of the long bones. The present patient underwent en bloc tumor excision involving multiple tarsals and metatarsals. We reconstructed the longitudinal arch of the foot with a free vascularized fibular graft. At the 2-year follow-up visit, bony union had been achieved, with no tumor recurrence. PMID:26213165

  17. Laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration using transanal minimal invasive surgery technique with en bloc bilateral lymph node dissection for advanced rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kengo; Kotake, Masanori; Kakiuchi, Daiki; Yamada, Sho; Hada, Masahiro; Kato, Yosuke; Hiranuma, Chikashi; Oyama, Kaeko; Hara, Takuo

    2016-12-01

    A 59-year-old man presenting with fecal occult blood visited our hospital. He was diagnosed with advanced lower rectal cancer, which was contiguous with the prostate and the left seminal vesicle. There were no metastatic lesions with lymph nodes or other organs. We performed laparoscopic total pelvic exenteration (LTPE) using transanal minimal invasive surgery technique with bilateral en bloc lateral lymph node dissection for advanced primary rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. The total operative time was 760 min, and the estimated blood loss was 200 ml. LTPE is not well established technically, but it has many advantages including good visibility of the surgical field, less blood loss, and smaller wounds. A laparoscopic approach may be an appropriate choice for treating locally advanced lower rectal cancer, which requires TPE. PMID:27460130

  18. Mental health of immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc: a future problem for primary health care in the enlarged European Union? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Blomstedt, Yulia; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Background Enlargement of the European Union has caused worries about the possibility of increased migration from its new members, the former Soviet countries, and consequently increased demands on the health care systems of the host countries. This study investigated whether or not earlier immigrants from the former Soviet Bloc have poorer self-reported mental health, measured as self-reported psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, than the host population in Sweden. It also examined the particular factors which might determine the self-reported mental health of these immigrants. Methods The cross-sectional national sample included 25–84-year-old Swedish-born persons (n = 35,459) and immigrants from Poland (n = 161), other East European countries (n = 164), and the former Soviet Union (n = 60) who arrived in Sweden after 1944 and were interviewed during 1994–2001. Unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used in the analyses. Results The findings indicated that the country of birth had a profound influence on self-reported mental health. Polish and other East European immigrants in general had a twofold higher odds ratio of reporting psychiatric illness and psychosomatic complaints, which fact could not be explained by adjustments for the demographic and socioeconomic variables. However, immigrants from the former Soviet Union had odds similar to those of the Swedish-born reference group. Adjustments for migration-related variables (language spoken at home and years in Sweden) changed the association between the country of birth and the outcomes only to a limited extent. Conclusion Since poor mental health may hinder acculturation, the mental health of immigrants from Poland and other East European countries should be acknowledged, particularly with the expansion of the European Union and inclusion of nine former Soviet Bloc countries by 2007. PMID:17328817

  19. NEP facilities (LeRC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrone, Robert H.

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the Electric Propulsion Research Building (no. 16) the Electric Power Laboratory (BLDG. 301); the Tank 6 Vacuum Facility; and test facilities for electric propulsion and LeRC.

  20. Le bégaiement

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Hector R.; Stoeckle, James H.

    2016-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Fournir une mise à jour sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental. Qualité des données Une recherche d’études récentes ou non portant sur l’épidémiologie, l’hérédité, la physiopathologie, le diagnostic et le traitement du bégaiement développemental a été effectuée dans les bases de données MEDLINE et Cochrane. La plupart des recommandations s’appuient sur des études de petite envergure, des données probantes de qualité limitée ou des consensus. Message principal Le bégaiement est un trouble d’élocution fréquent chez les personnes de tous âges, il altère la fluidité verbale normale et l’enchaînement du discours. Le bégaiement a été lié à des différences de l’anatomie, du fonctionnement et de la régulation dopaminergique du cerveau qui seraient de source génétique. Il importe de poser le diagnostic avec attention et de faire les recommandations qui conviennent chez les enfants, car de plus en plus, le consensus veut que l’intervention précoce par un traitement d’orthophonie soit cruciale chez les enfants bègues. Chez les adultes, le bégaiement est lié à une morbidité psychosociale substantielle, dont l’anxiété sociale et une piètre qualité de vie. Les traitements pharmacologiques ont soulevé l’intérêt depuis quelques années, mais les données cliniques sont limitées. Le traitement des enfants et des adultes repose sur l’orthophonie. Conclusion De plus en plus de recherches ont tenté de lever le voile sur la physiopathologie du bégaiement. La meilleure solution pour les enfants et les adultes bègues demeure la recommandation à un traitement d’orthophonie.

  1. Le pompage optique naturel dans le milieu astrophysique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecker, J.-C.

    The title of this lecture abstracts only a part of it : the importance in astrophysics of the study of non-LTE situations has become considerable, as well in the stellar atmospheres as, still more, in the study of fortuitous coincidences as a mechanism of formation of emission line nebular spectra, or of molecular interstellar « masers ». Another part of this talk underlines the role of Kastler in his time, and describes his warm personality through his public reactions in front of the nuclear armement, of the Viet-Nam and Algerian wars, of the problems of political refugees... Kastler was a great scientist ; he was also a courageous humanist. 1976 : Les accords nucléaires du Brésil : allocution d'ouverture (19 mars). Colloque sur le sujet ci-dessus. 1976 : La promotion de la culture dans le nouvel ordre économique international, allocution à l'occasion d'une table ronde sur ce thème par l'UNESCO (23-27 juin 1976) ; « Sciences et Techniques », octobre 1976. 1979 : La bête immonde (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Matin », 20 mars. 1979 : Appel à nos ministres (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 13 décembre. 1979 : Le flou, le ténébreux, l'irrationnel (avec J.-C. Pecker), « Le Monde », 14 septembre. 1980 : Education à la paix, Préface, in : Publ. UNESCO. 1981 : Le vrai danger, « Le Monde », 6 août 1981. 1982 : Nucléaire civil et militaire, « Le Monde », 1er juin 1982. 1982 : Les scientifiques face à la perspective d'holocauste nucléaire (texte inédit). Le titre de cette communication en résume seulement une partie : l'importance prise en astrophysique par l'analyse des situations hors ETL est devenue considérable, qu'il s'agisse des atmosphères stellaires, ou plus encore, des coïncidences fortuites de la formation des spectres d'émission nébulaires, ou des « masers » moléculaires interstellaires. Une autre partie de cet exposé souligne lele de Kastler dans son époque, et décrit sa personnalité généreuse à travers ses r

  2. Electrophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography to guide decisions regarding permanent occlusion of major radicular arteries in patients undergoing total en bloc spondylectomy.

    PubMed

    Salame, Khalil; Maimon, Shimon; Regev, Gilad J; Kimchi, Tali Jonas; Korn, Akiva; Mangel, Laurence; Lidar, Zvi

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Preoperative embolization is performed before spine tumor surgery when significant intraoperative hemorrhage is anticipated. Occlusion of radicular and segmental arteries may result in spinal ischemia. The goal of this study was to check whether neurophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography in patients scheduled for total en bloc spondylectomy (TES) of spine tumors improves the safety of vessel occlusion. METHODS This was a case series study of patients who underwent tumor embolization under somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) and motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring in preparation for TES in treating spine tumors. The angiography findings, the embolized vessels, and the results are presented. RESULTS Five patients whose ages ranged from 33 to 75 years and who had thoracic spine tumors are reported. Four patients suffered from primary tumor and 1 patient had a metastatic tumor. Radicular arteries at the tumor level, 1 level above, and 1 level below were permanently occluded when SSEPs and MEPs were preserved during temporary occlusion. No complications were encountered during or after the angiography procedure and embolization. CONCLUSIONS Temporary occlusion with electrophysiological monitoring during preoperative angiography may improve the safety of permanent radicular artery occlusion, including the artery of Adamkiewicz in patients undergoing TES for the treatment of spine tumors. PMID:27476843

  3. An Electrosurgical Endoknife with a Water-Jet Function (Flushknife) Proves Its Merits in Colorectal Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection Especially for the Cases Which Should Be Removed En Bloc

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29–0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04–0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933

  4. An electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function (flushknife) proves its merits in colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection especially for the cases which should be removed en bloc.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Shimokawa, Toshio; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Hanaoka, Noboru; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya

    2013-01-01

    Background. Previously, we reported that the Flushknife (electrosurgical endoknife with a water-jet function) could reduce the operation time of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) however, suitable situation for the Flushknife was obscure. This subgroup analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial was aimed to investigate the suitable situation for the Flushknife. Methods. A total of 48 superficial colorectal neoplasms that underwent ESD using either the Flexknife or the Flushknife in a referral center were enrolled. The differences of operation time between the Flexknife and the Flushknife groups in each subgroup (tumor size, location, and macroscopic type) were analyzed. Results. Median (95% CI) operation time calculated using survival curves was significantly shorter in the Flushknife group than in the Flexknife group (55.5 min [41, 78] versus 74.0 [57, 90] min; P = 0.039, Hazard Ratio HR: 0.53; 95% CI (0.29-0.97)). In particular, the HR in patients with laterally spreading tumors-nongranular type (LST-NG) in the Flushknife group was significantly smaller than in the Flexknife group (HR: 0.165→0.17; 95% CI (0.04-0.66)). There was a trend of decreasing HRs according to larger lesion size. Conclusions. The Flushknife proved its merits in colorectal ESD especially for the lesions which should be removed en bloc (LST-NG and large lesion). PMID:24174933

  5. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War. PMID:27325060

  6. Le LHC, un tunnel cosmique

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Et si la lumière au bout du tunnel du LHC était cosmique ? En d?autres termes, qu?est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter dans la connaissance de l?Univers ? Car la montée en énergie des accélérateurs de particules nous permet de mieux appréhender l?univers primordial, chaud et dense. Mais dans quel sens dit-on que le LHC reproduit des conditions proches du Big bang ? Quelles informations nous apporte-t-il sur le contenu de l?Univers ? La matière noire est-elle détectable au LHC ? L?énergie noire ? Pourquoi l?antimatière accumulée au CERN est-elle si rare dans l?Univers ? Et si le CERN a bâti sa réputation sur l?exploration des forces faibles et fortes qui opèrent au sein des atomes et de leurs noyaux, est-ce que le LHC peut nous apporter des informations sur la force gravitationnelle qui gouverne l?évolution cosmique ? Depuis une trentaine d?années, notre compréhension de l?univers dans ses plus grandes dimensions et l?appréhension de son comportement aux plus petites distances sont intimement liées : en quoi le LHC va-t-il tester expérimentalement cette vision unifiée ? Tout public, entrée libre / Réservations au +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  7. Le Planetaire (Around the World)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebouillet, Andre; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This section, "Le Planetaire," contains an interview with Anne Slack on the American Association of Teachers of French and contemporary French culture, a review of a dictionary of familiar French for students, dates to remember, events of interest to French teachers and a general bibliography. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  8. Continental block collision in the eastern arm of Sulawesi (Indonesia). Structure and geodynamic interpretationCollision de blocs continentaux dans le bras est de Sulawesi (Indonésie). Structure et interprétation géodynamique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, Michel; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Gunawan, Wahyu; Janin, Marie-Christine; Butterlin, Jacques; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Samodra, Hanang

    2000-03-01

    Recent investigations in East Indonesia lead us to consider the eastern arm of Sulawesi as the result of a collision between two continental blocks: the Tokala block to the west and the Banggai-Sula block to the east. The Tokala block results from the Oligocene obduction of an ophiolitic Asiatic basin onto the passive margin of a Gondwanian block (Banda block), with collision with the Asiatic active margin (western arm of Sulawesi) near the end of the Oligocene or at the beginning of the Miocene. The Tokala Block was then collided by the Irian Jaya derived Banggai-Sula block in the Early to Middle Pliocene times or later.

  9. Histoire de l'exhumation de l'Altun Shan: indications sur l'âge de la subduction du bloc du Tarim sous le système de l'Altyn Tagh (Nord Tibet)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolivet, Marc; Roger, Françoise; Arnaud, Nicolas; Brunel, Maurice; Tapponnier, Paul; Seward, Diane

    1999-11-01

    The Altun Shan is a tectonic block to the south of the Tarim basin, North Tibet, bounded to the south by the Altyn Tagh fault. U/Pb crystallisation ages on zircons are 441 ± 9 Ma. 40Ar/ 39Ar analysis on muscovite yields an age of 383 ± 7 Ma. Both indicate a cooling rate of 7.3 ± 0.6 °C·Ma -1 from 441 to 383 Ma. Further cooling, probably due to exhumation, began at this time and continued at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.3 °C·Ma -1 From three apatite fission-track analyses, cooling rate increased to 8 ± 2 °C·Ma -1 at 10 Ma.

  10. In re LePage.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Court Decision: 18 Pacific Reporter, 3d Series 1177; 2001 Mar 8 (date of decision). The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that the state Department of Health was not authorized to inquire about the sincerity of a mother's religious beliefs when determining whether her daughter was exempt from a public school immunization requirement. Susan LePage submitted a request to the Department of Health seeking to exempt her daughter from receiving the hepatitis B vaccination. The Department of Health inquired into the sincerity of LePage's religious beliefs against vaccination and determined that her objections were of a personal or philosophical nature and not on religious grounds. The Department of Health denied LePage's request. The Supreme Court of Wyoming held that state law requires the Department of Health to grant an exemption upon the submission of a written objection and does not allow the Department of Health to make an inquiry into the sincerity of the requestor's religious beliefs. The court balanced a valid state interest in protecting schoolchildren from disease with the relatively low number of requests for exemption and its confidence in parents to make decisions in the best interest of their children's physical and spiritual health. Since there was no justification within the statute to allow a religious inquiry, the court held that the Department of Health had exceeded its authority with LePage. Furthermore, state law did not require a religious waiver to exempt a child from this particular vaccine. The lower court's holding was reversed. PMID:16479706

  11. Le Fevre [Le Fèvre; LeFebvre], Jean (1652-1706)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Born in Lisieux, France, became an associate of JEAN PICARD and PHILIPPE DE LA HIRE, became a member of the Académie des Sciences and worked on rather routine work calculating ephemeredes, and surveying. Le Fevre accused La Hire of stealing his tables after Philippe de La Hire published Tabulae Astronomicae in 1687. In 1701, resentful at not having been named official publisher of ephemerides to ...

  12. Differential recognition of a dileucine-based sorting signal by AP-1 and AP-3 reveals a requirement for both BLOC-1 and AP-3 in delivery of OCA2 to melanosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sitaram, Anand; Dennis, Megan K.; Chaudhuri, Rittik; De Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Tenza, Danièle; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi; Wood, Christopher S.; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Bonifacino, Juan S.; Marks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Cell types that generate unique lysosome-related organelles (LROs), such as melanosomes in melanocytes, populate nascent LROs with cargoes that are diverted from endosomes. Cargo sorting toward melanosomes correlates with binding via cytoplasmically exposed sorting signals to either heterotetrameric adaptor AP-1 or AP-3. Some cargoes bind both adaptors, but the relative contribution of each adaptor to cargo recognition and their functional interactions with other effectors during transport to melanosomes are not clear. Here we exploit targeted mutagenesis of the acidic dileucine–based sorting signal in the pigment cell–specific protein OCA2 to dissect the relative roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in transport to melanosomes. We show that binding to AP-1 or AP-3 depends on the primary sequence of the signal and not its position within the cytoplasmic domain. Mutants that preferentially bound either AP-1 or AP-3 each trafficked toward melanosomes and functionally complemented OCA2 deficiency, but AP-3 binding was necessary for steady-state melanosome localization. Unlike tyrosinase, which also engages AP-3 for optimal melanosomal delivery, both AP-1– and AP-3–favoring OCA2 variants required BLOC-1 for melanosomal transport. These data provide evidence for distinct roles of AP-1 and AP-3 in OCA2 transport to melanosomes and indicate that BLOC-1 can cooperate with either adaptor during cargo sorting to LROs. PMID:22718909

  13. Portevin-Le chatelier effect

    PubMed

    Franklin; Mertens; Marder

    2000-12-01

    Aluminum subjected to smooth mechanical loading does not often deform in a correspondingly smooth manner. Typically it deforms inhomogeneously through the propagation of deformation fronts that slowly traverse the sample. These are called Portevin-Le Chatelier fronts; what determines their velocity has been somewhat mysterious. We present a phenomenological theory for deformation fronts that centers on a nonlocal rate dependence of the flow stress. In a one-dimensional idealization the equations can be solved exactly, and compared directly with experiment. Many significant features of deformation fronts are captured, including a well-known transition from hopping to continuous front motion. The phenomenology's predictions are confirmed by our experiments. PMID:11138118

  14. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2008-09-01

    Fragmentation et astéroïdes binaires; Astéroïde géocroiseur triple; Rosetta sort de son hibernation; Messenger; Transit lunaire vu par Deep Impact; Titan; Phobos; Phoenix; Einstein avait raison; Le ballet des taches rouges; Le poids des lentilles;

  15. Le syndrome d'apert

    PubMed Central

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2013-01-01

    Le syndrome d'Apert est une affection congénitale rare, caractérisée par une sténose cranio-faciale associée à une syndactylie des mains et des pieds. Sa prise en charge doit être précoce et multidisciplinaire. Sa gravité réside dans la coexistence de plusieurs malformations avec un risque d'hypertension intracrânienne chronique responsable d'une cécité et d'une débilité mentale. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation à travers laquelle ils illustrent les aspects cliniques et évolutifs ainsi que les difficultés thérapeutiques de cette affection. PMID:23565313

  16. Intraday LeBaron effects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Simone; Corsi, Fulvio; Renò, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    We study the relation at intraday level between serial correlation and volatility of the Standard and Poor (S&P) 500 stock index futures returns. At daily and weekly levels, serial correlation and volatility forecasts have been found to be negatively correlated (LeBaron effect). After finding a significant attenuation of the original effect over time, we show that a similar but more pronounced effect holds by using intraday measures, by such as realized volatility and variance ratio. We also test the impact of unexpected volatility, defined as the part of volatility which cannot be forecasted, on the presence of intraday serial correlation in the time series by employing a model for realized volatility based on the heterogeneous market hypothesis. We find that intraday serial correlation is negatively correlated to volatility forecasts, whereas it is positively correlated to unexpected volatility.

  17. Profil épidémiologique des femmes enceintes cardiaques dans le centre de maternité de Tunis: expérience du service A

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Khaled; Jenayah, Amel Achour; Boudaya, Fethia; Hamdi, Asma; Meskhi, Souad; Sfar, Ezzeddine; Chelli, Dalenda

    2015-01-01

    Nous rapportons dans ce travail, le profil épidémiologique des femmes enceintes porteuses d'une cardiopathie ayant accouché dans le service «A» du centre de maternité de Tunis. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective descriptive sur 3 ans, de janvier 2010 à décembre 2012, portant sur les dossiers des parturientes cardiaques suivies et ayant accouché dans notre service, à l'exclusion des cardiopathies hypertensives. Les paramètres analysés étaient la gestité et parité des parturientes, le type de la cardiopathie, le mode d'accouchement et le pronostic foetal. Cinquante six cas sur 19655 accouchements avaient été recrutés, soit une incidence de 1 pour 351 accouchements (0,285%). L’âge moyen de nos parturientes était de 30,89±5,3 ans avec des extrêmes allant de 21 à 42 ans. 23 (41,07%) avaient une cardiopathie congénitale, 35 (62,5%) une valvulopathie, 6 (10,71%) un trouble du rythme, 3 (5,35%) un trouble de la conduction à type de bloc auriculo-ventriculaire et 3 (5,35%) une cardiopathie ischémique. Cinquante deux parturientes (92,85%) avaient accouché à un terme dépassant les 37 semaines d'aménorrhée (SA). L'accouchement s'est déroulé par les voies naturelles chez 22 (39,28%) patientes et par césarienne chez 34 (60,71%). Le poids moyen des nouveaux nés à la naissance était de 3341,25 grammes. 3 transferts néonataux en unité de réanimation étaient réalisés avec un seul cas de décès néonatal. La grossesse et l'accouchement chez la femme cardiaque constituent un haut risque materno-foetal dépendant du type, mais surtout du stade de la cardiopathie, nécessitant une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de la parturiente. PMID:26327977

  18. LeSTIG1, an extracellular binding partner for the pollen receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2, promotes pollen tube growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihua; Kelley, Dior; Ezcurra, Inés; Cotter, Robyn; McCormick, Sheila

    2004-08-01

    As pollen tubes grow through the pistil they are thought to perceive and respond to diverse signals. The tomato pollen-specific receptor kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 might participate in signaling during pollen tube growth. We previously showed that the extracellular domain of LePRK2 interacts with a pollen protein, LAT52, before but not after pollen germination. To determine whether LePRK2 might have different binding partner(s) after pollen germination, we characterized two more proteins that, like LAT52, were identified in yeast two-hybrid screens using the extracellular domains of LePRK1 and LePRK2 as baits. We show that LeSHY, a leucine-rich repeat protein from pollen, and LeSTIG1, a small cysteine-rich protein from pistil, can bind the extracellular domains of both LePRK1 and LePRK2 in vitro. In vitro binding assays with the extracellular domain of LePRK2 suggested that LeSTIG1 could displace binding of LAT52, consistent with the idea that LePRK1 and LePRK2 might interact with different ligands at different stages of pollen tube growth. Exogenous LeSTIG1 promotes pollen tube growth in vitro. The interaction of these pollen kinases with LeSTIG1 supports the notion that LePRK1 and LePRK2 are involved in mediating pollen-pistil interactions. PMID:15255864

  19. Fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information: une approche nanodamascene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick

    Les transistors mono-electroniques (SETs) sont des dispositifs ayant un grand potentiel d'applications, comme la detection de charge ultra-sensible, la logique a basse consommation de puissance, la memoire ou la metrologie. De plus, la possibilite de pieger un seul electron et de manipuler son etat de spin pourrait permettre des applications en informatique quantique. Le silicium est un materiau interessant pour fabriquer l'ilot d'un SET. Son gap semi-conducteur permet le fonctionnement du dispositif dans le regime a un seul electron ou trou et pourrait permettre d'etendre la plage d'operation du SET en temperature en augmentant l'energie d'addition du diamant central de la valeur du gap. En outre, le silicium beneficie de plus de quarante annees d'expertise en microfabrication et d'une compatibilite avec la technologie metal--oxyde--semi-conducteur complementaire (CMOS). Cependant, la fabrication de ces dispositifs fait face a de serieuses limitations a cause de la taille nanometrique requise pour l'ilot. A ce jour, les procedes de fabrication proposes permettant l'operation a la temperature ambiante sont trop peu reproductibles pour permettre des applications a grande echelle. Dans ce memoire de maitrise, la fabrication de transistors mono-electroniques en silicium (Si-SETs) pour le traitement classique et quantique de l'information est realisee avec un procede nanodamascene. Le polissage chimico-mecanique (CMP) est introduit comme etape clef de la fabrication du transistor, permettant le controle au nanometre pres (nanodamascene) de l'epaisseur du transistor. Cet outil permet la fabrication de dispositifs ayant une geometrie auparavant impossible a realiser et ouvre la porte a l'innovation technologique. De plus, un procede de gravure du silicium par plasma a couplage inductif (ICP) est developpe pour permettre la fabrication de nanostructures de silicium sur une nanotopographie alliant le nano et le 3D. Les Si-SETs fabriques sont caracterises a basse

  20. Jan Potocki et le "Gothic Novel"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finne, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    Establishes a parallel between the supernatural and fantastic qualities of Le Comte Jan Potocki's literary works, and the English gothic novels by comparing the elements of terror, mysterious atmosphere, and the supernatural beings involved. (DS)

  1. Faut-il continuer à infiltrer le scalp par un anesthésique local pour une craniotomie?

    PubMed Central

    Doumiri, Mouhssine; Motiaa, Youssef; Razine, Rachid; Amor, Morad; Moussaoui, Abdelmajid; Kabbaj, Saad; Maazouzi, Wajdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le maintien de la stabilité hémodynamique est un objectif primordial de l'anesthésie pour craniotomie. Peu d’études ont prouvé l'efficacité de l'infiltration du scalp par un anesthésique local pour le maintien de la stabilité hémodynamique après l'incision. L'objectif de notre travail est d’évaluer l'influence de l'infiltration de la ligne d'incision du scalp par la lidocaïne à 0,5% adrénalinée sur les paramètres hémodynamiques après incision pour craniotomie supratentorielle. Méthodes Étude prospective en double aveugle réalisée au bloc opératoire de l'hôpital des spécialités de Rabat sur une période d'une année incluant 80 malades programmés pour craniotomie supratentorielle. Les malades étaient randomisés par tirage au sort en 2 groupes: Le groupe 1 était infiltré par 40 ml du sérum salé adrénaliné (1/200 000) et le groupe 2 était infiltré par 40 ml de la lidocaïne 0,5% adrénalinée (1/200 000). Le critère de jugement principal était la pression artérielle moyenne (PAM) après l'incision. L’étude statistique a fait appel aux tests t de student et l'U- mann-whitney. Une valeur de p <0.05 était considérée significative. Résultats L’étude a inclus 80 patients (40 hommes et 40 femmes). L’âge moyen était 42,33±14,76 ans. Le poids moyen était 71,58 ±10 kg. Le 3/4 des patients était ASA 1, seulement 25% étaient ASA2. La durée moyenne de la chirurgie était de 252,06±38,62 mn. Les deux groupes étaient comparables concernant l’âge, le sexe, le poids, la durée d'intervention, le type d'abord chirurgical, la dose totale du fentanyl reçue jusqu'a l'incision, ainsi que les paramètres hémodynamiques avant l'incision. Après l'incision la FC moyenne a augmenté dans les deux groupes: 80,53±7,72 bpm dans le groupe contrôle et 76,85±8,52 bpm dans le groupe lidocaïne. La différence d'augmentation de la FC entre les deux groupes était statistiquement significative (p = 0,047). L

  2. Entrevue avec le Dr Charley Zeanah

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Le Dr Charles Zeanah est titulaire de la chaire de psychiatrie Mary K. Sellars-Polchow, professeur de pédiatrie clinique et vice-président de la pédopsychiatrie au département de psychiatrie et des sciences du comportement de la faculté de médecine de l’Université Tulane, à la Nouvelle-Orléans. Il est également directeur général de l’institut de la santé mentale des nourrissons et des jeunes enfants de Tulane. Il est récipiendaire de nombreux prix, notamment le prix de prévention Irving Phillips (AACAP), la mention élogieuse présidentielle pour sa recherche et son leadership exceptionnels en santé mentale des nourrissons (American Orthopsychiatric Association), le prix d’excellence clinique Sarah Haley Memorial (International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies), le prix de recherche en pédopsychiatrie Blanche F. Ittelson (APA), et le prix Serge Lebovici Award soulignant les contributions internationales à la santé mentale des nourrissons (World Association for Infant Mental Health). Le Dr Zeanah est fellow distingué de l’AACAP, fellow distingué de l’APA et membre du conseil d’administration de Zero to Three. Il est l’éditeur scientifique de Handbook of Infant Mental Health (3e édition) qui est considéré comme étant le manuel de pointe et la référence de base du domaine de la santé mentale des nourrissons.

  3. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2014-06-01

    Future lune ? - L'âge de la Lune - Des volcans actifs sur Vénus - Un lac dans le cratère Gusev ? - Météorites et atmosphère martiennes - L’hexagone de Saturne - Pluton - Exo-Terre - Bêta Pictoris b - Cérès et Vesta depuis Mars - Naine froide - Parallaxes par Hubble - L2 Puppis et le sort du Soleil - Supernova et lentille gravitationnelle - Champ magnétique galactique - L’objet de Sakurai - Fermi et la matière noire - Lentille naine

  4. Robotic suture of a large caval injury caused by endo-GIA stapler malfunction during laparoscopic wedge resection of liver segments VII and VIII en-bloc with the right hepatic vein.

    PubMed

    Boggi, Ugo; Moretto, Carlo; Vistoli, Fabio; D'Imporzano, Simone; Mosca, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Primary endo-GIA stapler malfunction occurred during robotic wedge resection of liver segments VII and VIII en-bloc with the right hepatic vein, in an obese woman diagnosed with single liver metastasis from a previous carcinoid tumour. Haemorrhage was soon controlled by clamping the vena cava below the injury using two wristed forceps angled at 90 degrees . With the two instruments locked in the holding position the ensuing operative strategy was discussed between surgeon and anaesthesia teams. Using the third robotic arm the caval injury was repaired laparoscopically with interrupted polypropylene sutures. The patient was transfused with two units of packed red blood cells, recovered uneventfully, and was discharged on post-operative day five. We conclude that even the most advanced technologies can fail and that surgeons should be fully aware of the consequences of these malfunctions and be prepared for repair. From this point of view, the da Vinci surgical system seems to have some advantages over classical laparoscopic methods including the ability to lock the wristed instruments in the holding position, the use of three arms by the same operating surgeon, and the extreme facilitation of intracorporeal suturing and knot-tying in deep and narrow spaces, extremely difficult if not impossible with conventional laparoscopic instruments. PMID:19707931

  5. 23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING OPERATING MACHINERY, DOWSTREAM GATES, UPSTREAM SIDE - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  6. 20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (19211925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF LE CLAIRE LOCK (1921-1925), SHOWING UPSTREAM GATES, DOWNSTREAM SIDE AND SOUTH LOCKWALL - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  7. 30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING EAST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  8. 29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INTERIOR VIEW OF MISSISSIPPI RIVER RECREATION OFFICE BUILDING, LE CLAIRE BASE COMPOUND, LOOKING WEST - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 14, Upper Mississippi River, Le Claire, Scott County, IA

  9. Restart function of the LE-5 engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Kunio; Koyari, Yukio; Yanagawa, Koji; Katsuta, Hideaki; Taniguchi, Hirofumi; Torii, Yoshihiro

    1993-10-01

    This report presents the restart function of the LE-5 (Liquid Engine-5). The development of a de/anti-ice system and a sufficient pump precooling system was key in establishing this function. To ensure high reliability, a contingency device was also adopted. The functions were proved through actual flights.

  10. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  11. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  12. Le Chatelier's principle in replicator dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E.; Galstyan, Aram

    2011-10-01

    The Le Chatelier principle states that physical equilibria are not only stable, but they also resist external perturbations via short-time negative-feedback mechanisms: a perturbation induces processes tending to diminish its results. The principle has deep roots, e.g., in thermodynamics it is closely related to the second law and the positivity of the entropy production. Here we study the applicability of the Le Chatelier principle to evolutionary game theory, i.e., to perturbations of a Nash equilibrium within the replicator dynamics. We show that the principle can be reformulated as a majorization relation. This defines a stability notion that generalizes the concept of evolutionary stability. We determine criteria for a Nash equilibrium to satisfy the Le Chatelier principle and relate them to mutualistic interactions (game-theoretical anticoordination) showing in which sense mutualistic replicators can be more stable than (say) competing ones. There are globally stable Nash equilibria, where the Le Chatelier principle is violated even locally: in contrast to the thermodynamic equilibrium a Nash equilibrium can amplify small perturbations, though both types of equilibria satisfy the detailed balance condition.

  13. A Colorful Demonstration of Le Chbtelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Last, Arthur M.; Slade, Peter W.

    1997-01-01

    Le Chbtelier's Principle states that, when a system at equilibrium is subjected to stress, the system will respond in such a way as to minimize the effect of the stress. Describes a lecture demonstration that illustrates shifts in the position of equilibrium caused by a variety of factors. The equilibrium mixture contains iron (III) and…

  14. Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens (Le(a), monosialosyl-Le(a), disialosyl-Le(a), Le(b), and H) in normal and malignant human endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ravn, V; Mandel, U; Svenstrup, B; Dabelsteen, E

    1994-01-01

    Type-1 chain histo-blood group antigens such as the Lewis (Le)a, monosialosyl-Le(a), Le(b) and H antigens show an increased expression in endometrial carcinomas. However, the possibility that these antigens are expressed under genetic or hormonal influence in endometrial carcinomas has not been considered. In the present study, the expression of type-1 chain carbohydrate antigens in normal and malignant endometrium was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and related to both genetic and hormonal factors. The glands of normal, non-secretory endometria expressed, in contrast with surface epithelial cells, Le(a), Le(b), disialosyl-Le(a), and H determinants infrequently. Adenomatous hyperplasias and endometrial carcinomas showed an increased expression of type-1 chain carbohydrates that was qualitatively influenced by the erythrocyte Lewis phenotype and the secretor status. Whereas Le(a+b-) non-secretors mainly accumulated Le(a) antigen, and only limited amounts of Le(b) antigen, Le(a-b+) secretors expressed H, Le(b) and Le(a) antigens. The expression of type-1 chain antigens showed no association with the serum-oestrogen level or to the hormone-receptor status. Thus the Lewis secretor status has a qualitative influence on the increased expression of type-1 chain antigens, which, however, seem to be unrelated to hormonal factors. Our findings suggest an increased activity of the Se-gene-defined or a closely related fucosyl-transferase in neoplastic endometrial epithelial cells. PMID:8032530

  15. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    L’alcool est un tératogène physique et comportemental. Le syndrome d’alcoolisme foetal (SAF) est un trouble courant mais encore sous-diagnostiqué découlant de la consommation d’alcool par la mère pendant la grossesse. Bien qu’il puisse être prévenu, le SAF est également invalidant. Même si le SAF est présent dans tous les groupes socioéconomiques du Canada, sa prévalence est élevée dans certaines communautés inuites et des Premières nations du Canada. Le présent énoncé porte sur la prévention, le diagnostic, le dépistage précoce et la prise en charge du SAF par les professionnels de la santé. La prévention du SAF doit s’effectuer à deux échelons. La prévention primaire consiste à éliminer le SAF par une formation en classe ou dans la collectivité et à inciter les femmes à éviter de consommer de l’alcool avant la conception et pendant la grossesse. La prévention secondaire consiste à repérer les femmes qui boivent pendant leur grossesse et à réduire leur consommation. Le présent énoncé décrit plusieurs stratégies de dépistage, dont la stratégie T-ACE (tolérance-agacement, réduction, éveil). Les dispensateurs de soins devraient recommander l’abstinence dès la première visite prénatale. Un envoi rapide en consultation en vue de traiter l’alcoolisme est recommandé pour les femmes enceintes incapables d’arrêter de boire. Le présent énoncé décrit le diagnostic de SAF, de SAF partiel ou atypique, d’anomalies congénitales et de troubles neurodéveloppementaux reliés à l’alcool. En cas d’exposition à l’alcool in utero, un diagnostic de SAF devrait être envisagé en présence d’un retard de croissance courant ou antérieur, de certaines anomalies faciales touchant la lèvre supérieure et les yeux et d’anomalies neurodéveloppementales. Ces caractéristiques sont mieux quantifiées au moyen d’une méthode diagnostique à quatre chiffres. Des stratégies de dépistage précoce des

  16. [R0 Resection by Distal Pancreatectomy with En Bloc Celiac Axis Resection after Down-Staging by FOLFIRINOX Therapy in a Case of Pancreas Cancer--Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Makino, Hironobu; Kametaka, Hisashi; Fukada, Tadaomi; Seike, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takashi; Hasegawa, Akio

    2015-11-01

    The patient, a 55-year-old man, was diagnosed elsewhere as having cancer of the tail of the pancreas and was referred to our hospital. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a remarkably large tumor, 90 mm in diameter, in the tail of the pancreas, with invasion of the adjacent spleen, stomach, left adrenal gland, diaphragm, and celiac artery; metastasis to the liver; and peritoneal dissemination. The serum levels of the tumor markers CEA and CA19-9 were elevated (21.2 ng/mL and 9,530 U/mL, respectively). Since surgery was not considered to be feasible in this condition, the patient was started on FOLFIRINOX therapy. Adverse events, including Grade 3 decreased neutrophil count, anorexia, diarrhea, and hyperkalemia occurred; however, the patient was able to receive 10 cycles of therapy with downward adjustments of the dosage. In response to the therapy, the tumor marker levels fell rapidly, and on CT, the tumor shrank to 40 mm in diameter; however, resection was still scheduled because positron emission tomography (PET)-CT revealed suspected remnants of the disease in the pancreatic tail. After preoperative transcatheter embolization of the common hepatic artery and the left gastric artery, distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) was performed. Intraoperative ultrasonography revealed no metastatic lesions in the liver. Histopathologically, the resected sites were found to be almost totally replaced with fibrous scar tissue, and only trace evidence of moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma components were seen in the pancreatic tail, gastric submucosa, and left adrenal gland. Therefore, R0 resection had been achieved. The patient remains alive, showing no signs of recurrence at 18 months after the initial treatment and 11 months after the tumor resection. The results in this case suggest that FOLFIRINOX therapy can increase the radical curability of pancreatic cancer via down-staging and eventually improve the prognosis. PMID

  17. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2013-06-01

    Une binaire remarquable; Collision de galaxies; La nébuleuse planétaire C1295; ALMA (suite); Couple massif; Astéroïdes lointains; L’eau de Jupiter; Occultation par Pluton; Super-Terres; Première image d’une planète massive autour d’une étoile double; Tempête au pôle de Saturne

  18. Les Troubles Respiratoires Chez Le Brule

    PubMed Central

    Fassi Fihri, J.; Ezzoubi, M.; Boukind, E.H.

    2010-01-01

    Summary A travers une revue de la littérature, cet article se propose d'exposer les particularités des troubles respiratoires chez le brûlé. Ces troubles sont liés à un mécanisme direct, lorsque l'arbre respiratoire est lésé par le transfert d'énergie thermique du à la brûlure et/ou par un mécanisme indirect, lorsque la fonction respiratoire et ventilatoire du poumon est perturbée par les phénomènes loco-régionaux ou généraux du brûlé. Ces troubles respiratoires sont aggravés par l'inhalation des gaz contenus dans la fumée d'incendie. Le diagnostic de ces troubles est clinique et paraclinique. Il doit être précoce et continu. Les patients nécessitent de différents moyens thérapeutiques tels que l'oxygénothérapie, la libération des voies respiratoires, l'amélioration de la mécanique ventilatoire et de la fonction respiratoire, l'antibiothérapie ou la chirurgie des séquelles. Cette prise en charge doit nécessairement être multidisciplinaire. PMID:21991224

  19. Etudes optiques de nouveaux materiaux laser: Des orthosilicates dopes a l'ytterbium: Le yttrium (lutetium,scandium) pentoxide de silicium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denoyer, Aurelie

    mecanisme d'excitation de l'Yb3+ par le Tm3+ (impurete presente dans le materiau). Ces transferts sont plutot nefastes pour la fabrication d'un laser mais sont interessants pour l'optique non lineaire (doublage de frequence, memoires optiques). Enfin, plusieurs elements (le couplage magnetique de paire, le couplage electron-phonon et l'emission cooperative) nous ont permis de conclure sur le caractere covalent de la matrice. Nous avons d'ailleurs demontre ici le role de la covalence dans l'emission cooperative, transition habituellement attribuee aux interactions multipolaires electriques.

  20. Le déficit immunitaire humoral: mieux le connaître pour mieux le prendre en charge

    PubMed Central

    El Bakkouri, Jalila; Aadam, Zahra; Ailal, Fatima; Alj, Hanane Salih; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Les déficits immunitaires humoraux (DIH) sont des maladies hétérogènes allant des formes asymptomatiques rencontrés lors des déficits sélectifs en immunoglobulines A (IgA) et en sous-classes d'IgG aux formes graves des agammaglobulinémies congénitales. Les patients atteints de DIH présentent souvent des infections ORL ou des voies respiratoires récidivantes ou sévères. Ces patients peuvent présenter un certain nombre de complications non infectieuses, telles que des manifestations auto-immunes et des entéropathies, qui pourraient être le seul symptôme clinique révélateur. Les formes sévères des DIH sont facilement diagnostiquées grâce au dosage des IgG totaux, des IgA et des IgM. La thérapie substitutive par les immunoglobulines reste le traitement de choix chez ces patients. PMID:25489366

  1. Le transfert de connaissances entre les mathematiques et les sciences. Une etude exploratoire aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samson, Ghislain

    2003-06-01

    Au moment ou dans plusieurs pays on travaille a refondre les programmes d'etudes, tant au primaire qu'au secondaire, l'interet pour le transfert renait. Un des concepts fondamentaux en apprentissage consiste en l'habilete a reutiliser de facon consciente et efficace un acquis d'une situation a une autre situation. Cette recherche emane de preoccupations professionnelles au moment ou le chercheur etait enseignant au secondaire. Au cours de ces annees, il lui a ete possible de constater que plusieurs eleves percevaient difficilement les liens presents entre les disciplines mathematiques et scientifiques. Des travaux en psychologie cognitive et plus particulierement selon une perspective du traitement de l'information ont servi de cadre de reference pour evaluer et analyser les capacites de transfert aupres d'eleves de 4e secondaire. Ce cadre de reference permet de formuler le principal objectif qui est de mieux comprendre le processus de transfert chez des eleves en situation de resolution de problemes scientifiques. Cette these s'interesse donc au transfert en tant que phenomene important du processus d'apprentissage au sens de l'integration. La methode de recherche choisie, de nature qualitative, est principalement axee sur l'evaluation de la capacite a transferer des connaissances lors d'une epreuve et d'un entretien. Pour evaluer ce potentiel de transfert, nous avons elabore deux outils: une epreuve en mathematiques et en sciences et un guide d'entretien. Pour la passation de l'epreuve, le chercheur a pu compter sur la collaboration de 130 sujets provenant de deux ecoles. L'entretien complete la prise de donnees avec 13 sujets ayant accepte de poursuivre l'etude. Les donnees recueillies par ces instruments font ensuite l'objet d'une analyse de contenu. En premier lieu, les verbatims de l'epreuve et de l'entretien ont ete transcrits, puis codifies. La correction des reponses fournies pour les problemes resolus s'est faite a partir d'une grille d

  2. Lele de l’omalizumab dans le traitement de l’asthme allergique grave

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Kenneth R; Cartier, André; Hébert, Jacques; McIvor, R Andrew; Schellenberg, R Robert

    2006-01-01

    CONTEXTE : Un nouveau traitement anti-immunoglobuline E (anti-IgE) contre l’asthme, l’omalizumab, a été approuvé au Canada. OBJECTIF : Passer en revue les données fondamentales et cliniques sur l’omalizumab et examiner lele possible de ce médicament dans la prise en charge de l’asthme au Canada. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans MEDLINE afin de repérer les études menées de 1960 à 2006 sur l’omalizumab. La recherche a également porté sur les résumés de réunions scientifiques récentes dans le domaine des maladies respiratoires et des allergies; par ailleurs, toute donnée non publiée a été demandée au fabricant. Après avoir revu et résumé les données, un comité mixte constitué de spécialistes des maladies respiratoires et des allergies a rédigé un ensemble de recommandations relatives à l’utilisation de l’omalizumab. RÉSULTATS : L’omalizumab est un anticorps monoclonal humanisé qui se lie au domaine C epsilon 3 de la molécule d’IgE pour former des complexes immuns solubles qui sont éliminés par le système réticulo-endothélial. L’administration d’injections sous-cutanées espacées de deux ou de quatre semaines à la dose recommandée entraîne une diminution rapide des taux d’IgE circulantes libres. Lors de deux essais cliniques de phase III menés auprès de 1 405 adultes et adolescents atteints d’asthme modéré à grave qui recevaient des doses moyennes stables de corticostéroïdes en inhalation (CSI), l’omalizumab a diminué les taux d’exacerbation par rapport au placebo et a été associé à une amélioration des symptômes ainsi qu’à une épargne plus importante des corticostéroïdes. Dans un essai mené auprès de 419 patients atteints d’asthme grave non maîtrisé malgré l’utilisation de doses élevées de CSI et de la prise concomitante d’agonistes bêta-2 à action prolongée, les exacerbations graves étaient de 50 % moins fréquentes chez

  3. Intracranial subdural hygroma after Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William L; Lee, Michael; MacIntosh, Robert Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Various intra- and postoperative complications have been well-documented after Le Fort I osteotomies; however, an intracranial subdural hygroma has not yet been reported in oral and maxillofacial studies. We report a unique case of an intracranial subdural hygroma requiring neurosurgical intervention after Le Fort I advancement. PMID:25631863

  4. The Use of Le by L1 Chinese Speakers and the Acquisition of Le by L2 Chinese Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bredeche, Chi Chen

    2011-01-01

    The perfective marker V-"le" is claimed to be one of the most problematic items in the acquisition of L2 Chinese, perhaps because no unified and comprehensive treatment of it exists in the literature. Although much has been written on this topic, the semantic and pragmatic functions of V-"le" have remained elusive. While linguists and grammarians…

  5. Energy levels, wavelengths, and radiative transition probabilities for the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Zhang; Qiren Zhu; Shoufu Pan )

    1992-11-01

    The investigation by Z.-Q Zhang et al. (Acta Optica Sinica 11, 193, 1991) shows that it is possible to realize soft X-ray lasing in the water window 23.3-43.8 [Angstrom] with the Na-like recombination scheme, which requires a lower pumping power at a high-power laser facility than that with other schemes. The fine-structure levels with n [le] 15 and l [le] 6 in Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 45 and the probabilities for radiative transitions between these levels are calculated using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock approach. The calculations show that the wavelengths of the anticipated laser transitions 6 f-4d and 6g-4f in the Na-like ions with 38 [le] Z [le] 43 and 5f-4d and 5g-4f in the Na-like ions with 40 [le] Z [le] 45 lie in the region of the water window.

  6. Le contrôle des infections au cabinet du pédiatre

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ La transmission des infections au cabinet du pédiatre est de plus en plus préoccupante. Le présent document expose les voies de transmission des infections et les principes sous-jacents aux mesures actuelles pour contrôler les infections. Pour prévenir les infections, il faut bien concevoir le cabinet et adopter des politiques administratives et de triage convenables, de même que des pratiques de base pour les soins de tous les patients (p. ex., hygiène des mains, port de gants, de masques, de lunettes de protection et d’une blouse d’hôpital pour des interventions précises; nettoyage, désinfection et stérilisation convenables des surfaces et du matériel, y compris les jouets, et techniques d’asepsie en cas d’interventions effractives) et des précautions additionnelles en cas d’infections précises. Le personnel doit avoir reçu les vaccins pertinents, et les personnes infectées doivent respecter les politiques de restriction au travail.

  7. Les Hemorragies Gastroduodenales de Stress Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Fouadi, F.E.; Ababou, K.; Nassim Sabah, T.; Ihrai, I.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Les Auteurs rapportent trois observations d'hémorragies gastroduodénales de stress chez le brûlé grave. Ils rappellent l'importance des mesures thérapeutiques qui doivent être prises chez le brûlé grave, comme le traitement du choc, du sepsis, des plaies et de la douleur, la nutrition entérale précoce et l'oxygénothérapie. Tout cela permet de réduire les facteurs de risque de survenue d'une hémorragie gastroduodénale de stress. PMID:21991137

  8. Automated Verification of Design Patterns with LePUS3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Jonathan; Gasparis, Epameinondas; Eden, Ammon H.; Kazman, Rick

    2009-01-01

    Specification and [visual] modelling languages are expected to combine strong abstraction mechanisms with rigour, scalability, and parsimony. LePUS3 is a visual, object-oriented design description language axiomatized in a decidable subset of the first-order predicate logic. We demonstrate how LePUS3 is used to formally specify a structural design pattern and prove ( verify ) whether any JavaTM 1.4 program satisfies that specification. We also show how LePUS3 specifications (charts) are composed and how they are verified fully automatically in the Two-Tier Programming Toolkit.

  9. Impact de la varicocèle sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques

    PubMed Central

    Benazzouz, Mohamed Hicham; Essatara, Younes; El Sayegh, Hachem; Iken, Ali; Benslimane, Lounis; Nouini, Yassine

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La varicocèle est une pathologie masculine fréquente dont l'incidence est encore plus importante dans dans la population des hommes infertiles. Si ses mécanismes sont à ce jour incomplètement expliqués il semble acquis que la varicocèle peut être associée a une dysfonction testiculaire avec diminution du volume testiculaire et de la concentration en spermatozoïde de l’éjaculat. Méthodes Dans un premier temps nous exposons les résultats d'une étude rétrospective sur 5 ans (de Mars 2009 à Mars 2014), réalisée au service d'urologie A de l'hôpital Ibn Sina de Rabat et ayant comme objectif d’évaluer l'impact de la varicocèle palpable sur le volume testiculaire et les paramètres spermatiques. Tous les patients inclus dans notre étude avaient une varicocèle palpable. Dans un deuxième temps, et à travers une revue de la littérature nous discutons l'impact du traitement de la varicocèle sur la fertilité. Résultats 39 patients ont été inclus dans notre étude. L’âge moyen était de 29,71 ans et la varicocèle siégeait dans 89,74% des cas du coté gauche. Une atrophie testiculaire homolatérale à la varicocèle était retrouvée dans 7% des cas alors que des anomalies du spermogramme se voyaient dans 69,23% des cas. Conclusion L'impact de la varicocèle sur l'altération des paramètres spermatiques a été clairement établi bien que sa physio pathogénie ne soit pas bien élucidée. Le traitement chirurgical de la varicocèle semble indiqué chez les hommes infertiles présentant une varicocèle clinique et une altération significative du sperme. PMID:25918574

  10. Development status of LE-7 fuel turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, T.; Nagao, R.; Ohta, T.; Warashina, S.; Watanabe, H.; Oguchi, H.

    The liquid hydrogen turbopump (LH2 T/P) for the LE-7 engine has been developed since 1984. The component PDR was held in June 1988 and the basic troubles occurred at the development test were solved. Next, the component CDR-1 was held in December 1989 in order to feed back the test results of prototype LH2 T/P model to the design of qualification phase T/P. So, the production of these turbopumps was admitted. Recently, the component CDR-2 was held in February 1992 to reflect the counterparts adopted for some troubles (impeller and turbine blade cracks and so on) in long-time engine tests to the design of qualification phase T/P. In the qualification phase, the hydraulic characteristics and strength in the engine operating range were examined at the LH2 T/P component test, and its endurance confirmed at the engine tests. The LH2 turbopump component test was held at NASDA Kakuda and the engine test at Tashiro and Tanegashima. This paper describes the development status of LH2 T/P, containing the design description and the content of some troubles and its counterplans.

  11. L'astronomie dans le monde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manfroid, J.

    2007-09-01

    Anions interstellaires; S Orionis; Altaîr; Courants stellaires; Etoiles jeunes; 2MASSW J1207334-393254; Alpha Andromède; Etoiles à neutrons (1); LH54-425; AGNs invisibles; Deux supernovae; Les GRBs seon Swift; Peser les trous noirs; Formation de trous noirs; Trou noir; ondes gravitationnelles : Virgo entre dans sa phase d'exploitation scientifique; Amas de galaxies actifs; Amas de galaxies; Galaxies actives d'amas; L'univers statique: le retour; Macho; Exoplanètes; Exoplanètes habitables?; Exoplanètes habitables? (suite); Une année d'un an; Une année de 31 heures; Valse des Jupiters; Disque de HD 15115; Impact majeur; Planètes isolées; Super-Jupiter; Impact et mini-extinction; L'effet Pioneer; Toungouska; Spéléo martienne; Autres lunes dactives; Encelade; Hypérion; Pluton dépassé; Satellites d'Uranus; Titan

  12. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  13. Transmaxillary Sinus Approach for Le Fort II Osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Shinji; Fukawa, Toshihiko; Hirakawa, Takashi; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro

    2016-02-01

    The Le Fort II osteotomy is a relatively rare operation. The posterior wall osteotomy of the maxillary sinus (MS) is often difficult for Le Fort III. We developed the transmaxillary sinus approach (TSA) for the Le Fort II osteotomy that cuts the posterior wall of the MS directly. This report illustrates this easy-to-use procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy in syndromic craniosynostosis. This procedure was performed in an 18-year-old patient with Apert syndrome and a 15-year-old patient with Pfeiffer syndrome. The thin anterior walls of the MS were removed through an intraoral approach to look inside the MS. Then, the posterior walls were cut by chisel under direct vision using light. The other osteotomy was performed as usual. Distraction osteogenesis with internal and external devices was used in combination. The advantages of TSA are the direct posterior wall osteotomy of the MS with no down fracture and minimal invasiveness to the mucosa of the MS under direct vision. However, the disadvantage is that TSA becomes a blind procedure in a case with no MS or hypoplasia. We developed the TSA for the Le Fort II osteotomy, which could provide direct observation and perform the posterior wall osteotomy of the MS without down fracture. We believe that TSA is an effective surgical procedure for the Le Fort II osteotomy. PMID:27014548

  14. Three-dimensional Nasolabial Morphologic Alterations Following Le Fort I

    PubMed Central

    DeSesa, Christopher R.; Metzler, Philip; Sawh-Martinez, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Le Fort I osteotomy imparts significant changes to the nasolabial region. Past studies have relied on 2-dimensional data and have not delineated differences among various Le Fort I subtypes. The purpose of this study is to 3-dimensionally analyze Le Fort I–induced nasal and lip changes comparing advancement alone versus widening alone [surgically assisted maxillary expansion (SAME)] versus advancement and widening. We hypothesize that the combination of maxillary advancement with widening will result in the most profound changes. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed. Included Le Fort I patients were grouped as: (1) nonsegmental straight advancement, (2) widening without advancement, and (3) segmental advancement and widening. Pre- and postoperative 3-dimensional photogrammetry (Canfield) were analyzed. Anthropometric landmarks were placed and measured by 2 independent observers. Statistics involved both paired and unpaired t tests (significance = P < 0.05). Results: One hundred eight photogrammetric data sets were analyzed, including 46 single-piece, 26 SAME, and 36 segmental. Significant postoperative nasal changes were observed within each intragroup analysis. The most dramatic changes were seen after segmental Le Fort I with advancement and widening, which included alar base width, alar width, nostril width, and soft triangle angle, all P < 0.05. Conclusions: Le Fort I osteotomy results in significant alteration of the nasolabial morphology. This is the first study to 3-dimensionally analyze nasal changes that occur comparing maxillary advancement alone versus widening alone (SAME) versus advancement with widening. These objective data permit improved patient counseling and surgical planning. PMID:27622116

  15. Lactobacillus equigenerosi Strain Le1 Invades Equine Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Marlie; Botes, Marelize; Loos, Ben; Smith, Carine

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus equigenerosi strain Le1, a natural inhabitant of the equine gastrointestinal tract, survived pH 3.0 and incubation in the presence of 1.5% (wt/vol) bile salts for at least 2 h. Strain Le1 showed 8% cell surface hydrophobicity, 60% auto-aggregation, and 47% coaggregation with Clostridium difficile C6. Only 1% of the cells adhered to viable buccal epithelial cells and invaded the cells within 20 min after contact. Preincubation of strain Le1 in a buffer containing pronase prevented adhesion to viable epithelial cells. Preincubation in a pepsin buffer delayed invasion from 20 min to 1 h. Strain Le1 did not adhere to nonviable epithelial cells. Administration of L. equigenerosi Le1 (1 × 109 CFU per 50 kg body weight) to healthy horses did not increase white blood cell numbers. Differential white blood cell counts and aspartate aminotransferase levels remained constant. Glucose, lactate, cholesterol, and urea levels remained constant during administration with L. equigenerosi Le1 but decreased during the week after administration. PMID:22504808

  16. Searching the animal psyche with Charles Le Brun.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah R

    2010-07-01

    Around 1670 the French court painter and Academician Charles Le Brun produced a series of drawings featuring naturalistic animal heads, as well as imaginary heads in which he refashioned various nonhuman animal species to make humanoid physiognomies. What were the purpose and significance of these unusual works? I argue that they show Le Brun's interest in what we today would call animal psychology: focusing upon the sensory organs and their connections with the animal's brain, Le Brun studied his animals as conscious protagonists of the natural realm. One source that may have served him in this project was Marin Cureau de La Chambre's De la Connoissance des bestes of 1645, in which the physician argued that animals possess a conscious soul grounded in the senses. However, Le Brun's animal-humans have no clear place in the artist's taxonomy--nor, indeed, in any seventeenth-century understandings of species. It is rather John Locke, at his most skeptical, who offers the best parallel in the realm of natural philosophy to Le Brun's unsettling animal-humans. Probably without meaning to, Le Brun demonstrated through his eerie, boundary-crossing creatures the limits of visual classification. PMID:20853815

  17. Le Point sur la Pharmacologie des Agents Anesthesiques Chez le Brule Grave

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Ababou, K.; Benziane, H.; El Jaoudi; Bensghir, M.; Bakali, H.; El Wali, A.; Ihrai, I.; Drissi, N.K.

    2008-01-01

    Summary La pharmacologie des agents anesthésiques chez le brûlé est variable et imprévisible. Dans les premières 48 h, il y a une hypovolémie avec chute du débit cardiaque et des fuites plasmatiques. Après 48 h, il y a une hypervolémie avec augmentation du débit cardiaque, hypermétabolisme et la clearance des médicaments est augmentée. Parmi les facteurs de déséquilibre, on retrouve les variations des protéines plasmatiques. Deux protéines sont importantes chez le brûlé grave : l'albumine et l'alpha 1- glycoprotéine. Leur taux varie beaucoup au cours de l'évolution de la brûlure. Les agents anesthésiques dont la liaison avec ces deux protéines est prédominante verront leur pharmacocinétique modifiée. L'anesthésiste-réanimateur du service des brûlés va maîtriser ces notions pharmacologiques pour utiliser à bon escient les agents anesthésiques. PMID:21991108

  18. Synthesis of a BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate and recognition of Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1: the identification of a non-cross reactive analogue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jo-Wen; Asnani, Ari; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle

    2010-10-15

    A Le(x) trisaccharide functionalized with a cysteamine arm was prepared and this synthesis provided additional information on the reactivity of N-acetylglucosamine O-4 acceptors when they are glycosylated with trichloroacetimidate donors activated with excess BF(3)·OEt(2). In turn, this trisaccharide was conjugated to BSA lysine side chains through a squarate-mediated coupling. This BSA-Le(x) glycoconjugate displayed 35 Le(x) haptens per BSA molecule. The relative affinity of the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody SH1 for the Le(x) antigen and analogues of Le(x) in which the D-glucosamine, L-fucose or D-galactose residues were replaced with D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-glucose, respectively, was measured by competitive ELISA experiments. While all analogues were weaker inhibitors than the Le(x) antigen, only the analogue of Le(x) in which the galactose residue was replaced by a glucose unit showed no binding to the SH1 mAb. To confirm that the reduced or loss of recognition of the Le(x) analogues by the anti-Le(x) mAb SH1 did not result from different conformations adopted by the analogues when compared to the native Le(x) antigen, we assessed the conformational behavior of all trisaccharides by a combination of stochastic searches and NMR experiments. Our results showed that, indeed, the analogues adopted the same stacked conformation as that identified for the Le(x) antigen. The identification of a trisaccharide analogue that does not cross-react with Le(x) but still retains the same conformation as Le(x) constitutes the first step to the design of a safe anti-cancer vaccine based on the dimeric Le(x) tumor associated carbohydrate antigen. PMID:20843695

  19. Un exemple de transfert de technologie dans le domaine des polymères conducteurs : le projet ``HYRA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parneix, J. P.; Miane, J. L.; Colin, T.; Ruffie, G.; Mege, J.

    1998-06-01

    The HYRA project is a response to the restructuration of local companies : these are purveyors of high technology military and spatial especially in the radars business. Furthermore, the development of mobile communications needs devices and materials in the millimeter range (from 20 to 100Ghz). The aim of the HYRA project is the development of materials with specific properties - particularly conducting materials - in the millimeter wave range. The results obtained on thermoplastic/conducting polymer composites are presented. Le projet HYRA répond à des préoccupations régionales liées à des restructurations industrielles : les industries régionales fournissant les marchés militaires et spatiaux disposent de techniques très performantes mais coûteuses, en particulier dans le domaine des radars. Par ailleurs le développement des communications mobiles a besoin de dispositifs et de matériaux dans tout le domaine millimétrique (de 20 à 100 Ghz). Le projet HYRA a pour but le développement de matériaux à propriétés spécifiques - en particulier conducteurs - dans ce domaine de fréquence. Les résultats obtenus sur des composites thermoplastiques/polymères conducteurs sont présentés.

  20. Transitions de phase dans le oxyde de yttrium vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberge, Benoit

    Dans le mémoire qui suit, les ordres structural, magnétiques et orbital dans le YVO3 sont étudiés avec l'aide de la diffraction des rayons X,de la spectroscopie Raman et de la technique de la cavité résonnante hyperfréquence. L'objectif premier consiste à observer l'évolution de ces ordres en fonction de la température. Le mémoire met ensuite en évidence le couplage entre les différents ordres cohabitants dans le YVO3 . Les mesures effectuées par la diffraction des rayons X permettent de mesurer le caractère polycrystallin des échantillons du YVO 3. Une comparaison de nos mesures avec des mesures de diffraction des rayons X faites sur la poudre de YVO3 indique la faible présence de maclage. Les mesures effectuées avec la technique de résonnance hyperfréquence permettent de suivre l'évolution de la constante diélectrique en fonction de la température. Les changements impliquant l'ordre orbital se manifestent de manière évidente dans la constante diélectrique à 200 K et à 77 K. La transition diélectrique détectée à 77 K est une transition de premier ordre. Un couplage entre les propriétés diélectriques et magnétiques est observable à la température de Néel à 114 K. L'effet d'un champ magnétique fixe sur la température de transition de l'ordre orbital survenant à 77 K est également remarquable. Cela indique un couplage magnétodiélectrique démontrant ainsi le caractère multiferroïque du YVO 3. Finalement, l'observation d'un mécanisme de relaxation pouvant être modélisé par le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami est observé en dessous de 77 K. En utilisant le modèle d'Arrhénius et le modèle d'Havriliak-Negami, on peut caractériser le mécanisme avec son énergie d'activation et son temps de relaxation. Les mesures effectuées en spectroscopie Raman permettent de suivre l'évolution de la structure du YVO3 en fonction de la température. Les deux changements structuraux survenant à 200 K et 77 K sont observés. Le

  1. Lele de métrologie de SOLEIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idir, M.; Brochet, S.; Delmotte, A.; Lagarde, B.; Mercere, P.; Moreno, T.; Polack, F.; Thomasset, M.

    2006-12-01

    Lele de METROLOGIE de SOLEIL a pour objet de créer sur le synchrotron SOLEIL, une plateforme constituée : - une ligne de lumière utilisant le rayonnement synchrotron (métrologie dite à la longueur d'onde) - d'un laboratoire de métrologie associé (métrologie dite ll classique gg ) Ces deux types de Métrologie sont l'une et l'autre indispensables pour soutenir l'activité de recherche instrumentale en optique X et X-UV. Ce projet de pôle de METROLOGIE ne répondra pas seulement aux besoins des groupes chargés de l'équipement du synchrotron SOLEIL en optiques et détecteurs mais aussi pour préparer, tester et mettre au point les postes expérimentaux, ce qui concerne déjà une large communauté d'utilisateurs. Il sera aussi largement ouvert, dès sa mise en service, à l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique concernée par l'instrumentation X et XUV en Ile de France, en France, voire même en Europe si la demande continue de croître plus vite que l'offre dans ce domaine. Ligne de lumière Métrologie à la longueur d'onde La ligne de lumière sera équipée de plusieurs stations permettant de mesurer, dans la plus grande partie du spectre couvert par le synchrotron, les paramètres photométriques qui caractérisent les éléments optiques, tels que : la réflectivité de surfaces, l'efficacité de diffraction des réseaux, la diffusion des surfaces ou l'efficacité des détecteurs X et X-UV et la calibration absolue. Cette installation pourra servir également à développer des instruments et des diagnostics nécessaires à la caractérisation des faisceaux de rayons X (intensité, taille, degré de cohérence, polarisation etc.) Métrologie Classique La métrologie des surfaces optiques est devenue une nécessité critique pour les laboratoires et les industries qui utilisent les photons X et X-UV (synchrotrons, centres laser, etc. .). En effet, les progrès de calcul et de conception des systèmes optiques pour ces longueurs d'onde (optiques

  2. Expression of blood group antigens H-2, Le(y), and sialylated-Le(a) in human colorectal carcinoma. An immunohistochemical study using double-labeling techniques.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, H. S.; Malecha, M. J.; Bass, C.; Fagel, P. L.; Steplewski, Z.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, double-labeling immunohistochemistry was used to gain insight into the coexpression or interrelationship between blood group antigens (BGA) that are differentiation antigens in the normal colon, and BGA that are sequential moieties in the same synthetic pathway. Paired-wise Sialylated-Le(a)/Le(y) and H-2/Le(y) was studied. The Sialylated-Le(a) and Le(y) are synthesized from type 1 and type 2 backbones, respectively. In the normal colon, the Le(y) and Sialylated-Le(a) are expressed by cells at the base and surface of the crypt, respectively, representing undifferentiated and differentiated enterocytes. The H-2 is considered oncofetal in nature, and is considered to be the immediate precursor in the synthesis of Le(y). In individual cancers. Sialylated-Lea and Le(y) were detected in different cancer cells within the same malignant glands, separately in different glands, and in different subcellular compartments of the same cell. Both H-2 and Le(y) were coexpressed in the same individual cells in 92% of cancers expressing both these BGA. In 50% of the cancers, the H-2 and Le(y) also were expressed separately in different malignant glands within individual tumors. These findings indicate that, in colorectal cancers, differentiation antigens (Sialylated Le(a) and Le(y)) are expressed by different individual cells within the same malignant gland somewhat, recapitulating the normal colon crypt. Antigens of different backbones occasionally may be expressed in the same cells but within different subcellular compartments. Precursor accumulation is common in cancers, and antigens in the same synthetic pathway are coexpressed in the same cell. The expression of H-2 and Le(y) in different glands (lack of coexpression) may be explained possibly by aberrant synthesis of Le(y) by an alternate pathway. Images Figure 1 PMID:1987759

  3. Trigeminocardiac reflex and haemodynamic changes during Le Fort I osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Kiani, M T; Tajik, G; Ajami, M; Fazli, H; Kharazifard, M J; Mesgarzadeh, A

    2016-05-01

    The Le Fort I osteotomy is performed under general anaesthesia and specific haemodynamic conditions, i.e. hypotensive general anaesthesia. This study assessed the incidence of the trigeminocardiac reflex (TCR) during the different stages of the Le Fort I osteotomy. Forty-seven patients requiring a Le Fort I osteotomy were included. General anaesthesia was induced. In terms of haemodynamic changes, each patient's oxygen saturation (SpO2), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored by SADAAT Monitoring System and recorded during the different stages of osteotomy: before the induction of anaesthesia, before osteotomy cuts, after finishing the right pterygoid plate osteotomy, after finishing the left pterygoid plate osteotomy, and after performing down-fracture of the maxilla. No significant alteration in haemodynamic values was seen at the different stages of Le Fort I osteotomy. One patient showed arrhythmia with non-sinus junction rhythm after sinus bradycardia and two premature atrial contractions in the down-fracture stage, which led to the abrupt cessation of the procedure by the surgeon. This study showed no significant alterations in haemodynamic values during the different stages of Le Fort I osteotomy. Halting the procedure momentarily was sufficient to allow spontaneous normalization of the HR, blood pressure, and dysrhythmia. PMID:26794400

  4. Le lipome para testiculaire: à propos d'un cas rare

    PubMed Central

    Lasri, Abdelouahed; Lamchahab, Hamza; Lahyani, Mounir; Karmouni, Tarik; Elkhader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Andaloussi, Ahmed Ibn Attya

    2015-01-01

    Les tumeurs para testiculaires sont des tumeurs rares et complexes qui ont une symptomatologie insidieuse et pauvre. Les formes bénignes représentent 70%. Le lipome para testiculaire étant le type le plus fréquent. L'examen clinique est peu spécifique. L'examen échographique est la pierre angulaire pour assoir le diagnostic. Le traitement chirurgical s'impose en cas de tumeur symptomatique, l'histologie étant habituellement typique permet la confirmation diagnostique. Le pronostic est bon malgré d’éventuelles récidives. PMID:26175802

  5. Pterygoid Plate Fractures: Not Limited to Le Fort Fractures.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Alsheik, Nila H; Afifi, Ahmed M; Gentry, Lindell R

    2015-09-01

    Pterygoid plate fractures are often described in the setting of Le Fort fractures. The goal of this study was to define other craniofacial fracture patterns causing injury to the pterygoid plates. A retrospective review of computed tomography (CT) scans obtained on craniofacial trauma patients over a 5-year period revealed 209 patients with pterygoid plate fractures. Pterygoid plate fractures in 78 patients (37.3%) were unrelated to Le Fort fractures. Common causes included sphenotemporal buttress fractures in 26 patients (33.3%), temporal bone fractures in 18 patients (23.1%), zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures in 17 patients (21.8%), and displaced mandible fractures in 14 patients (17.9%). These findings indicate that approximately one third of pterygoid plate fractures do not result from Le Fort pattern injuries and that the craniofacial surgeon should have a broad differential for causes of pterygoid plate fractures when reviewing trauma imaging. PMID:26147022

  6. Le zona ophtalmique: une dermatose rare chez l'enfant

    PubMed Central

    Zakia, Douhi; Meziane, Marieme; Salim, Gallouj; Zahra, Mernissi Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Le zona est dû a une réactivation du virus varicelle-zona (VZV) qui reste quiescent dans les ganglions sensitifs dorsaux après la varicelle. Le zona de l'enfant est rare et particulièrement la forme ophtalmique, qui peut être responsable de complications oculaires graves nécessitant une prise en charge adéquate et précoce. Il est parfois associé à des douleurs post-zostériennes dont le traitement est difficile. L'aciclovir per os administré dans les 72 heures après l’éruption a prouvé son efficacité dans la prévention des complications oculaires. Nous en rapportant un nouveaux cas chez un garçon immunocompétent de 9 ans, sans notion de varicelle antérieure. PMID:26955408

  7. Ursula LeGuin's Magical World of Earthsea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jan M.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how Ursula LeGuin's Earthsea Trilogy reflects her belief in Taoist philosophy as well as her skill in telling stories of magic and adventure. Notes that the three books can be described as coming-of-age novels in which three separate individuals struggle to become mature, responsible, whole adults. (RS)

  8. Le Dernier Cartoucherie: Refuge and the Performance of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisek, Emine

    2008-01-01

    In 2003, the Paris-based theatre company Theatre du Soleil launched "Le Dernier Caravanserail: Odyssees", a collaborative creation based on stories that company members had collected from refugees at the Sangatte refugee camp outside Calais, among other locations. Scenes of moral reasoning dotted the six-hour spectacle, calling to mind the…

  9. LeRC in-house experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Valerie J.

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: LeRC in-house experimental research; combustion concepts; schedule for in-house experiments; lean premixed prevaporized combustion; comparisons of low NO(x) lean premixed/prevaporized data; rich burn/quick quench/lean burn (RQL); RQL combustion; fuel rich catalytic combustion; advanced diagnostics; and ceramic matrix liner test rig.

  10. Restorative Justice Scripts in Ursula K. Le Guin's "Voices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oziewicz, Marek C.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines restorative justice scripting in "Voices", the second volume of Ursula K. Le Guin's "Annals of the Western Shore." Narrated by a rape-child, "Voices" is the story of an occupied city-state and of how the conquered and the conquerors negotiate a formula for peaceful coexistence. They are able to do so by enacting a restorative…

  11. Decolonizing the Choctaws: Teaching LeAnne Howe's "Shell Shaker"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollrah, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    "Shell Shaker" (2001) by LeAnne Howe (Choctaw) is a novel that gives students an opportunity to learn that the history and culture of the Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma are alive today. Winner of the Before Columbus Foundation American Book Award in 2002, the novel deals with two parallel stories that converge in the present, one about the eighteenth…

  12. LHC, le Big Bang en éprouvette

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    Notre compréhension de l?Univers est en train de changer? Bar des Sciences - Tout public Débat modéré par Marie-Odile Montchicourt, journaliste de France Info. Evenement en vidéoconférence entre le Globe de la science et de l?innovation, le bar le Baloard de Montpellier et la Maison des Métallos à Paris. Intervenants au CERN : Philippe Charpentier et Daniel Froideveaux, physiciens au CERN. Intervenants à Paris : Vincent Bontemps, philosophe et chercheur au CEA ; Jacques Arnould, philosophe, historien des sciences et théologien, Jean-Jacques Beineix, réalisateur, producteur, scénariste de cinéma. Intervenants à Montpellier (LPTA) : André Neveu, physicien théoricien et directeur de recherche au CNRS ; Gilbert Moultaka, physicien théoricien et chargé de recherche au CNRS. Partenariat : CERN, CEA, IN2P3, Université MPL2 (LPTA) Dans le cadre de la Fête de la science 2008

  13. MoLeNET Mobile Learning Conference 2009: Research Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guy Parker, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The Mobile Learning Network (MoLeNET) is a unique collaborative approach to encouraging, supporting, expanding and promoting mobile learning, primarily in English post-14 education and training, via supported shared cost mobile learning projects. Collaboration at national level involves participating institutions and the Learning and Skills…

  14. Le syndrome d'embolie graisseuse post traumatique

    PubMed Central

    Berdai, Adnane Mohamed; Shimi, Abdelkarim; Khatouf, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome d'embolie graisseuse est une complication grave des fractures des os longs, il est la conséquence de la dissémination des particules graisseuses dans la microcirculation. L'objectif de ce travail est de déterminer le profil épidémiologique, la présentation clinique et paraclinique de ce syndrome et sa prise en charge thérapeutique. Notre étude porte sur 11 cas de syndrome d'embolie graisseuse colligés au service de réanimation A1 au centre hospitalier universitaire Hassan II de Fès, de Janvier 2009 à Juin 2012. Le diagnostic positif est basé sur les critères de Gurd. Les cas collectés se caractérisent par la prédominance du sexe masculin, d'un âge inférieur à 40 ans, présentant une fracture fémorale. Ce syndrome survient souvent dans les 72 heures après le traumatisme. La présentation clinique est dominée par l'hypoxémie et les troubles de conscience. Sur le plan biologique: l'anémie et la thrombopénie sont les manifestations les plus fréquentes. La prise en charge est symptomatique, 63% des patients ont nécessité l'intubation et la ventilation. L’évolution n'est pas toujours bénigne. Nos résultats confirme le polymorphisme de la présentation clinique et paraclinique du syndrome d'embolie graisseuse. Le diagnostic de ce syndrome se base sur des critères cliniques, mais reste essentiellement un diagnostic d’élimination. La prise en charge est symptomatique. La prévention de ce syndrome est essentielle et se base sur une fixation précoce des fractures des os longs. PMID:25452829

  15. Connecting Instructional and Cognitive Aspects of an LE: A Study of the Global Seminar Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savelyeva, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    My research problem is based on the lack of unifying conceptual cohesion between the discourses concerning cognitive and instructional aspects of learning environments (LE). I contrast that lack with practical developments of LE studies connected at the level of practical implementation and evaluation. Next, I briefly review the LE boundaries,…

  16. Le traitement familial des enfants et des adolescents anorexiques : Des lignes directrices pour le médecin communautaire

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, S; Pinzon, J; Taddeo, D; Katzman, DK

    2010-01-01

    L’anorexie mentale (AM) est une maladie grave qui met la vie en danger et qui fait généralement son apparition pendant l’adolescence. Les données probantes au sujet du traitement optimal de l’AM chez les enfants et les adolescents sont en croissance, mais il reste beaucoup à apprendre. Même si les démarches thérapeutiques actuelles varient au Canada et ailleurs, les données jusqu’à présent indiquent que le traitement familial (TF) est le plus efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents anorexiques. Un élément essentiel du modèle de TF, c’est que les parents sont investis de la responsabilité de rétablir la santé physique de leur enfant et de s’assurer de la reprise complète de son poids. Le médecin qui comprend les principes fondamentaux et la philosophie du TF peut mettre en place les éléments de cette intervention fondée sur des faits probants auprès des jeunes patients anorexiques et de leur famille.

  17. The scope of the LeChatelier Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George M., Lady; Quirk, James P.

    2007-07-01

    LeChatelier [Comptes Rendus 99 (1884) 786; Ann. Mines 13 (2) (1888) 157] showed that a physical system's “adjustment” to a disturbance to its equilibrium tended to be smaller as constraints were added to the adjustment process. Samuelson [Foundations of Economic Analysis, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1947] applied this result to economics in the context of the comparative statics of the actions of individual agents characterized as the solutions to optimization problems; and later (1960), extended the application of the Principle to a stable, multi-market equilibrium and the case of all commodities gross substitutes [e.g., L. Metzler, Stability of multiple markets: the hicks conditions. Econometrica 13 (1945) 277-292]. Refinements and alternative routes of derivation have appeared in the literature since then, e.g., Silberberg [The LeChatelier Principle as a corollary to a generalized envelope theorem, J. Econ. Theory 3 (1971) 146-155; A revision of comparative statics methodology in economics, or, how to do comparative statics on the back of an envelope, J. Econ. Theory 7 (1974) 159-172], Milgrom and Roberts [The LeChatelier Principle, Am. Econ. Rev. 86 (1996) 173-179], W. Suen, E. Silberberg, P. Tseng [The LeChatelier Principle: the long and the short of it, Econ. Theory 16 (2000) 471-476], and Chavas [A global analysis of constrained behavior: the LeChatelier Principle ‘in the large’, South. Econ. J. 72 (3) (2006) 627-644]. In this paper, we expand the scope of the Principle in various ways keyed to Samuelson's proposed means of testing comparative statics results (optimization, stability, and qualitative analysis). In the optimization framework, we show that the converse LeChatelier Principle also can be found in constrained optimization problems and for not initially “conjugate” sensitivities. We then show how the Principle and its converse can be found through the qualitative analysis of any linear system. In these terms, the Principle and

  18. Ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole. Evidence for a LE precursor and dual LE + ICT fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Galievsky, Victor A; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Mayer, Peter; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara A; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2010-12-01

    The photophysics of N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (NP4CN) was investigated by using absorption and fluorescence spectra, picosecond fluorescence decays, and femtosecond transient absorption. In the nonpolar n-hexane as well as in the polar solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), a locally excited (LE) state is detected, as a precursor for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. A LE → ICT reaction time τ(2) at 22 °C of 0.95 ps in ethyl cyanide (EtCN) and 0.32 ps in MeCN is determined from the decay of the LE excited state absorption (ESA) maximum around 620 nm. In the ESA spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at a pump-probe delay time of 100 ps, an important contribution of the LE band remains alongside the ICT band, in contrast to what is observed in EtCN and MeCN. This shows that a LE ⇄ ICT equilibrium is established in this solvent and the ICT reaction time of 0.5 ps is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of the forward and backward ICT rate constants 1/(k(a) + k(d)). In the photostationary S(0) → S(n) absorption spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane and MeCN, an additional CT absorption band appears, absent in the sum of the spectra of its electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) subgroups carbazole and benzonitrile. This CT band is located at an energy of ∼4000 cm(-1) lower than for N-phenylcarbazole (NPC), due to the larger electron affinity of the benzonitrile moiety of NP4CN than the phenyl subunit of NPC. The fluorescence spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at 25 °C mainly consists of a structured LE emission, with a small ICT admixture, indicating that a LE → ICT reaction just starts to occur under these conditions. In di-n-pentyl ether (DPeE) and di-n-butyl ether (DBE), a LE emission is found upon cooling at the high-energy edge of the ICT fluorescence band, caused by the onset of dielectric solvent relaxation. This is not the case in more polar solvents, such as diethyl ether (DEE) and MeCN, in which a structureless ICT emission band fully overlaps the strongly quenched LE

  19. LeCroy MQT300A - charge to time converter

    SciTech Connect

    Yamrone, B.; Roberts, K.; Kelly, J.

    1997-12-31

    The MQT300A was developed to offer high resolution (12 bit) and wide dynamic range (18 bit) with reasonable cost, high density and fast conversion time (< 10 {mu}s). The reduced conversion time has allowed its first users the option to choose whether or not to develop a fast clear strategy as part of their trigger system. It can also be used for chamber-mounted applications allowing compact digital data cabling to the remote TDC. The MQT300A is a custom development produced in collaboration with the BELLE collaboration at KEK and the CLEO group at Cornell. In this collaboration Cornell and KEK were partners with LeCroy in both the specification and evaluation of the first prototypes. LeCroy has been responsible for the remainder of the project. The MQT300A is available in LeCroy modules and also as a separate monolithic. The MQT300A was designed to take advantage of the latest generation of multi-hit TDCs, for example the LeCroy 1877S FASTBUS ADC. The 1877S was specifically optimized to improve conversion time and to intelligently minimize the data record size for the MQT300A application. A prototype part was designed and fabricated using a custom bipolar process. Though fully functional it did not meet several important performance specifications. A reiteration with significant redesign of two sections resulted in a part that meets all specifications. The unique encoding algorithm used to provide auto-ranging has had a U.S. patent allowed. The part is now commercially available in production volumes.

  20. Airborne pollen and spores of León (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-González, Delia; Suarez-Cervera, María; Díaz-González, Tomás; Valencia-Barrera, Rosa María

    1993-06-01

    A qualitative and quantitative analysis of airborne pollen and spores was carried out over 2 years (from September 1987 to August 1989) in the city of León. Slides were prepared daily using a volumetric pollen trap, which was placed on the Faculty of Veterinary Science building (University of León) 12m above ground-level. Fifty-one pollen types were observed; the most important of these were: Cupressaceae during the winter, Pinus and Quercus in spring, and Poaceae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiaceae in the summer. The results also showed the existence of a rich mould spore assemblage in the atmosphere. The group of Amerospores ( Penicillium, Aspergillus and Cladosporium) as well as Dictyospores ( Alternaria) were the most abundant; Puccinia was common in the air in August. Fluctuations in the total pollen and spores m3 of air were compared with meteorological parameters (temperature, relative humidity and rainfall). From the daily sampling of the atmosphere of León, considering the maximum and minimum temperature and duration of rainfall, the start of the pollen grain season was observed generally to coincide with a rise in temperature in the absence of rain.

  1. Le sumatriptan intranasal pour la migraine chez les enfants

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Ran D.; Meckler, Garth D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Je vois de plus en plus d’enfants et d’adolescents qui souffrent de céphalées pouvant se classer dans la catégorie des migraines. J’ai fait des lectures sur le sumatriptan par voie intranasale comme thérapie abortive. Est-ce un traitement efficace? Réponse La migraine aiguë chez les enfants et les adolescents est fréquente et difficile à traiter. Le sumatriptan intranasal est une option sûre et généralement efficace pour les enfants et les adolescents. La dose actuellement recommandée est de 20 mg pour les enfants qui pèsent plus de 40 kg et de 10 mg pour ceux dont le poids se situe entre 20 et 39 kg. Il faudrait faire des études de plus grande envergure pour contrecarrer les limitations des échantillons de petite taille et mieux comprendre la faible concentration plasmique et les effets placebo observés dans les études jusqu’à présent.

  2. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique: une localisation exceptionnelle

    PubMed Central

    Hamdane, Mohamed Moncef; Bougrine, Fethi; Msakni, Issam; Dhaoui-Ghozzi, Amen; Bouziani, Ammar

    2011-01-01

    L’ hydatidose est une anthropo-zoonose due au développement chez l'homme de la forme larvaire du taenia Echinococcus granulosis. La plupart des kystes hydatiques se localisent dans le foie et les poumons. Le kyste hydatique du cordon spermatique est extrêmement rare avec seulement 4 cas rapportés dans la littérature. Les auteurs rapportent dans cet article un nouveau cas d'hydatidose du cordon spermatique. Il s'agissait d'un homme de 40 ans qui consultait pour des douleurs scrotales évoluant depuis huit mois. L'examen clinique a mis en évidence une tuméfaction mobile, inguino-scrotale, droite. L’échographie testiculaire a objectivé une hernie inguinale droite associée à deux kystes épididymaires bilatéraux. Le patient a été opéré pour cure de son hernie avec découverte en per-opératoire d'un kyste du cordon spermatique qui a été réséqué. L'examen anatomopathologique a conclu à une hydatidose du cordon spermatique. PMID:22384304

  3. Le tetanos chez le grand enfant dans un hôpital pédiatrique à Yaoundé, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Ntoto Njiki Kinkela, Mina; Nguefack, Félicitée; Mbassi Awa, Hubert; Chelo, David; Enyama, Dominique; Mbollo Kobela, Marie; Koki Ndombo, Paul Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Le tétanos est évitable par la vaccination, mais peut survenir en cas d'une immunisation incomplète. Nous avons mené une étude sur les dossiers médicaux des enfants admis pour tétanos entre 2008-2009 au Centre Mère et Enfant de la Fondation Chantal BIYA à Yaoundé. Le but était d'analyser les circonstances de survenue et les manifestations cliniques du tétanos chez le grand enfant, afin de proposer des stratégies de prévention adaptées au contexte camerounais. Le statut vaccinal était inconnu chez un patient, les autres (80%) n'avaient pas reçu de rappel vaccinal. Les portes d'entrée étaient les plaies aux membres, l'une était secondaire à une injection médicamenteuse. Tous ont présenté le tétanos généralisé. Le décès était survenu chez un patient. Le tétanos n'est pas rare chez le grand enfant au Cameroun. Il se dégage ainsi la problématique des rappels vaccinaux. PMID:22514771

  4. Le médicament générique au Maroc: le point de vue du consommateur

    PubMed Central

    Zaoui, Sanaa; Hakkou, Farid; Filali, Houda; Khabal, Youssef; Tazi, Illias; Mahmal, Lahoucine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Le médicament générique est souvent une origine de préjugés négatifs et de méfiance chez les professionnels de santé et les patients. Ceci pourrait être dû à plusieurs facteurs entre autre le manque des connaissances du patient sur ces médicaments. Le but de notre étude était d’évaluer l'information du consommateur sur les médicaments génériques et apprécier leur utilisation de ces médicaments. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale réalisée de Janvier à Mars 2010 auprès de 251 sujets. Un questionnaire comprenant dix questions fermées a été utilisé. Les questions concernaient l’évaluation des connaissances sur les médicaments génériques, les sources d'information, le degré de confiance et d'information des patients sur ces médicaments. Une analyse descriptive simple des différentes variables a été réalisée. Résultats Dans notre étude, 126 sujets (50,2%) ont répondu connaître les médicaments génériques. Parmi eux, 52,3% les utilisaient et 67,4% estimaient qu'ils étaient insuffisamment informés sur ces médicaments. Les cadres supérieurs et les étudiants ont représenté la catégorie qui utilisait le plus les médicaments génériques (respectivement dans 40,9% et 25,7%) et qui était la mieux informée (respectivement dans 61,9% et 23,81%). Le faible coût a été la principale motivation d'utilisation du médicament générique (93,9%). Les médias ont représenté la première source d'information (59,5%). Après sensibilisation, 88,8% des sujets qui ne connaissaient pas le médicament générique ont été favorable à son utilisation. Conclusion Une promotion efficace par une politique d'information soutenue auprès des consommateurs et par des mesures incitatrices à la prescription et à la délivrance du générique par les médecins et les pharmaciens, pourront améliorer l'utilisation de ces médicaments dans notre pays. PMID:24009794

  5. La prévention des infections par le virus respiratoire syncytial

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, JL

    2011-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ L’infection par le virus respiratoire syncytial (VRS) est la principale cause d’infections des voies respiratoires inférieures chez les jeunes enfants. Le palivizumab, un anticorps monoclonal anti-VRS, réduit le taux d’hospitalisation des enfants à haut risque mais est très coûteux. Le présent document de principes remplace les trois précédents documents de principes de la Société canadienne de pédiatrie sur le sujet et est mis à jour principalement pour traiter des récentes modifications aux lignes directrices de l’American Academy of Pediatrics dans le contexte canadien. Il contient une analyse des publications ainsi que des recommandations au sujet de l’utilisation du palivizumab chez les enfants à haut risque

  6. Le consentement libre et éclairé aux soins en psychiatrie

    PubMed Central

    Neilson, Grainne; Chaimowitz, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Le patient a le droit d’être informé sur les soins de santé qui lui sont proposés et de participer activement à la prise de décisions relativement à ces soins. Le respect de la dignité et de l’autonomie de la personne passe par le respect de son droit de prendre des décisions à propos de ses soins psychiatriques, notamment de refuser un traitement, pour autant qu’elle soit apte à prendre des décisions. Il importe que le psychiatre connaisse les fondements éthiques du consentement libre et éclairé et les exigences prévues par le droit en cette matière, y compris la jurisprudence. Le consentement n’est pas immuable, pouvant changer avec le temps, au fil de l’évolution des conditions et des circonstances. Par conséquent, le consentement doit être un processus continu.

  7. Le gingembre contre la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Lindblad, Adrienne J.; Koppula, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Question clinique Le gingembre peut-il traiter la nausée et les vomissements de la grossesse? Résultats Durant le premier trimestre, le gingembre soulagerait la nausée et les vomissements de quelque 4 points sur une échelle de 40 points, ou éliminerait les vomissements chez 1 femme sur 3 au jour 6. L’étude la plus vaste ne laisse croire à aucune hausse des malformations congénitales ou de la mortinatalité, mais les études de moins grande envergure laissent croire le contraire.

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 DETAIL OF WINDOW BREAKING INTO PEDIMENT. - First Congregational Church, 301 Benefit Street, Providence, Providence County, RI

  9. The JPL 'long ephemeris', DE102/LE51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Standish, E. M., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications exist in astronomical research for planetary and lunar ephemerides covering an extended length of time. This paper discusses such a set of ephemerides, DE102/LE51, produced at JPL, covering the time 1411 B.C. to 3001 A.D. The ephemerides are dynamically self-consistent, in that the equations of motion were integrated simultaneously. They also represent the most accurately known positions covering such a time span. They have already been used by a number of different users in a variety of different applications.

  10. Snow in Castile-León: trends and variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; Campos, L.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Sánchez, J. L.; Marcos, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2012-04-01

    The location of Castile and León, inside the Iberian Peninsula, in the Northwestern quadrant, determines, in large measure, the climatic conditions of its territory, granting it very characteristic traits, mostly in the mountainous areas. It is important to note that during a large part of the year, the region is under the influence of Jet Stream, and thus, gives way to very diverse dynamic situations, which turn into different and heterogeneous types of weather. So, in many areas of the region, especially in the most elevated areas, these synoptic and mesoscale situations generate snow precipitation. We should point out that snowfall is one of the principal meteorological risks of Castile and León. Thus, on average, in some mountainous areas there are more than 40 events of snowfall registered annually, with the month of January being the month in which the highest frequency of snowfall appears. The social repercussions of this snowfall are represented in the isolation of places, essentially mountainous, highways being blocked, increase in traffic accidents, etc. As proof of this, it is this type of episode that receives ample coverage by the media, which has a linear relationship with the social perception of risk. As such, the objective of the current work is to analyze the annual trend of days with snow in the different meteorological stations pertaining to AEMET placed in the Community. The period of study is from 1960-2010. Additionally, we have also evaluated trends in annual days of freezing temperature and annual absolute minimum temperature, with the objective of facilitating a meteorological interpretation of the trends obtained on days with snowfall. Finally, the results show that in the majority of stations, a significant negative trend in days with snowfall and annual days with freezing temperatures, and a positive trend in annual absolute minimum temperatures. However, we observed variability in the different regions in the area of study

  11. Le genre Tunga Jarocki, 1838 (Siphonaptera : Tungidae). I – Taxonomie, phylogénie, écologie, rôle pathogène

    PubMed Central

    Beaucournu, J.-C.; Degeilh, B.; Mergey, T.; Muñoz-Leal, S.; González-Acuña, D.

    2012-01-01

    Pour la première fois, les 12 espèces actuellement décrites dans le genre Tunga sont étudiées sur le plan de la taxonomie et de la répartition. Divers aspects de leur biologie et leur rôle pathogène sont également envisagés, et en particulier leur phylogénie, leur chorologie, leur phénologie, leur sexe-ratio et leurs dermecos. PMID:23193514

  12. Characterization of a new bacteriocin from Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn.

    PubMed

    Amortegui, Jairo; Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Rodríguez, Deicy; Carrascal, Ana K; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Melendez, Adelina del P; Sánchez, Oscar F

    2014-04-01

    Bacteriocins are low molecular peptides with antimicrobial activity, which are of great interest as food bio-preservatives and for treating diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we present the characterization of bacteriocins produced by Lactobacillus plantarum LE5 and LE27 isolated from ensiled corn. Bacteriocins were purified through ammonium sulfate precipitation and double dialysis by using 12- and 1-kDa membranes. Bacteriocins showed activity against Listeria innocua, Listeria monocytogenes, and Enteroccocus faecalis. Molecular weight was estimated through Tricine-SDS-PAGE and overloading the gel onto Mueller-Hinton agar seeded with L. monocytogenes, showing an inhibition zone between 5 and 10 kDa. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the identification of UPF0291 protein (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Q88VI7), which is also presented in other lactic acid bacteria without assigned function. Ab initio modeling showed it has an α-helix-rich structure and a large positive-charged region. Bacteriocins were stable between 4 and 121 °C and pH 2 and 12, and the activity was inhibited by SDS and proteases. Mode of action assay suggests that the bacteriocin causes of target microorganism. Taken together, these results describe a possible new class IIa bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum, which has a wide stability to physicochemical conditions, and that could be used as an alternative for the control of foodborne diseases. PMID:24532444

  13. MODeLeR: A Virtual Constructivist Learning Environment and Methodology for Object-Oriented Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, John W.; Koonce, Robert

    2008-01-01

    This article contains a description of the organization and method of use of an active learning environment named MODeLeR, (Multimedia Object Design Learning Resource), a tool designed to facilitate the learning of concepts pertaining to object modeling with the Unified Modeling Language (UML). MODeLeR was created to provide an authentic,…

  14. Use of Mobile Testing System PeLe for Developing Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    One of the objectives of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical impact of both the mobile testing system PeLe (Norway, HiST) and the enquiry-based learning approach on language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted learning. The research aims to work out a methodological framework of PeLe implementation into the language…

  15. CoLeMo: A Collaborative Learning Environment for UML Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiqin; Pedersen, Roger Heggernes; Pettersen, Oystein

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of a distributed collaborative UML modelling environment, CoLeMo. CoLeMo is designed for students studying UML modelling. It can also be used as a platform for collaborative design of software. We conducted formative evaluations and a summative evaluation to improve the environment and…

  16. Understanding the recognition of Lewis X by anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moore, Christopher J; Auzanneau, France-Isabelle

    2013-10-24

    The recognition of the Le(x) antigen by the anti-Le(x) monoclonal antibody (mAb) SH1 was studied by ELISA using a panel of 4″-modified Le(x) analogues. We confirmed that these analogues maintained the stacked conformation adopted by natural Le(x) antigen using 1D ROESY experiments and measuring intramolecular distances. Our binding studies show that the 4-OH″ of galactose behaves as an H-bond donor to an electronegative amino acid side chain in the SH1 binding site. While removal of this H-bond leads to reduced inhibition, disturbing the hydrophobic α face of the β-galactosyl residue leads to complete loss of binding to SH1. We compared our results to the crystal structure of the Fab fragment of anti-Le(x) mAb 291-2G3-A complexed with Le(x) (PDB entry 1UZ8 ). While no H-bond involving the 4-OH″ was described, hydrophobic interactions between a tryptophan residue and the β-galactoside α face are observed. We conclude that the hydrophobic α face that is uniquely displayed by β-galactosyl residues is essential to the recognition of the Le(x) antigen by anti-Le(x) antibodies. PMID:24059473

  17. Design of Multidimensional Shinnar-Le Roux RF Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chao; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To generalize the conventional Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) method for the design of multidimensional RF pulses. Methods Using echo-planar gradients, the multidimensional RF pulse design problem was converted into a series of 1D polynomial design problems. Each of the 1D polynomial design problems was solved efficiently. B0 inhomogeneity compensation and design of spatial-spectral pulses were also considered. Results The proposed method was used to design 2D excitation and refocusing pulses. The results were validated through Bloch equation simulation and experiments on a 3.0 T scanner. Large-tip-angle, equiripple-error, multidimensional excitation was achieved with ripple levels closely matching the design specifications. Conclusion The conventional SLR method can be extended to design multidimensional RF pulses. The proposed method achieves almost equiripple excitation errors, allows easy control of the tradeoff among design parameters, and is computationally efficient. PMID:24578212

  18. An Overview-NASA LeRC Structures Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    1997-01-01

    The Structures and Acoustics Division of the NASA Lewis Research Center has its genesis dating back to 1943. It has been an independent Division at Lewis since 1979. Its two primary capabilities are performance and life analysis of static and dynamic systems such as those found in aircraft and spacecraft propulsion systems and experimental verification of these analyses. Research is conducted in-house, through university grants and contracts, and through cooperative programs with industry. Our work directly supports NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST), Smart Green Engine, Fast Quiet Engine, High-Temperature Materials and Processing (HiTEMP), Hybrid Hyperspeed Propulsion, Rotorcraft, High-Speed Research (HSR), and Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). A general overview is given discussing these programs and other technologies that are being developed at NASA LeRC.

  19. The NASA-LeRC wind turbine sound prediction code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1981-01-01

    Since regular operation of the DOE/NASA MOD-1 wind turbine began in October 1979 about 10 nearby households have complained of noise from the machine. Development of the NASA-LeRC with turbine sound prediction code began in May 1980 as part of an effort to understand and reduce the noise generated by MOD-1. Tone sound levels predicted with this code are in generally good agreement with measured data taken in the vicinity MOD-1 wind turbine (less than 2 rotor diameters). Comparison in the far field indicates that propagation effects due to terrain and atmospheric conditions may be amplifying the actual sound levels by about 6 dB. Parametric analysis using the code has shown that the predominant contributions to MOD-1 rotor noise are: (1) the velocity deficit in the wake of the support tower; (2) the high rotor speed; and (3) off column operation.

  20. The ERDA/LeRC Photovoltaic Systems Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forestieri, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    The ERDA/LeRC Photovoltaic Systems Test Facility (STF) provides a vital support function to the overall ERDA National Solar Photovoltaic Program. It allows preliminary investigation and checkout of components, subsystems, and complete photovoltaic systems before installation in actual service. The STF can also be used to determine optimum system configurations and operating modes. A facility description is presented, taking into account the solar cell array, the energy storage equipment, the power conditioning equipment, electric utility distribution network and loads, and instrumentation and data acquisition systems. Safety procedures which have been set up for maintenance and inspection of the solar array are discussed. Attention is also given to a number of investigations regarding the effect of environmental factors on solar cell array operation.

  1. Neptune's Discovery: Le Verrier, Adams, and the Assignment of Credit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William

    2011-01-01

    As one of the most significant achievements of 19th century astronomy, the discovery of Neptune has been the subject of a vast literature. A large part of this literature--beginning with the period immediately after the optical discovery in Berlin--has been the obsession with assigning credit to the two men who attempted to calculate the planet's position (and initially this played out against the international rivalry between France and England). Le Verrier and Adams occupied much different positions in the Scientific Establishments of their respective countries; had markedly different personalities; and approached the investigation using different methods. A psychiatrist and historian of astronomy tries to provide some new contexts to the familiar story of the discovery of Neptune, and argues that the personalities of these two men played crucial roles in their approaches to the problem they set themselves and the way others reacted to their stimuli. Adams had features of high-functioning autism, while Le Verrier's domineering, obsessive, orderly personality--though it allowed him to be immensely productive--eventually led to serious difficulties with his peers (and an outright revolt). Though it took extraordinary smarts to calculate the position of Neptune, the discovery required social skills that these men lacked--and thus the process to discovery was more bumbling and adventitious than it might have been. The discovery of Neptune occurred at a moment when astronomy was changing from that of heroic individuals to team collaborations involving multiple experts, and remains an object lesson in the sociological aspects of scientific endeavor.

  2. Dysfonctionnements radio-induits du transport colique chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, A.; Lebrun, F.; Ksas, B.; Aigueperse, J.; Gourmelon, P.; MacNaughton, W. K.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptom commonly associated with whole body irradiation is diarrhoea, a still quite obscure phenomenon, which leads to decreased chance of cure of irradiated people. The aim of this study was to provide evidence for dysfunction of intestinal water and electrolyte transport regulation by the enteric nervous system after exposure to ionising radiation. This study shows decreased capacity of enteric nervous system to influence colonic transport 3days after irradiation, correlated to a diminished response to a neurotransmitter: serotonin. Radio-induced diarrhea may result from epithelial structural injury but also from impaired regulatory processes of intestinal transport. L'un des symptômes majeurs d'une irradiation corporelle totale ou abdominale est l'apparition de diarrhées, dont les causes sont encore mal connues, et qui mettent en jeu le pronostique vital de l'individu irradié. Cette étude vise à mettre en évidence l'atteinte de la régulation du transport intestinal d'eau et d'électrolytes par les rayonnements ionisants. On observe une diminution de la capacité du système nerveux entérique à influencer le transport colique 3jours après irradiation, corrélée à une diminution de la réponse épithéliale à un neurotransmetteur : la sérotonine. Les diarrhées radio-induites résulteraient d'une atteinte structurelle de l'épithélium mais également des processus de régulation du transport intestinal.

  3. Overexpression of the tomato pollen receptor kinase LePRK1 rewires pollen tube growth to a blebbling mode

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tubular growth of a pollen tube cell is crucial for the sexual reproduction of flowering plants. LePRK1 is a pollen-specific and plasma membrane–localized receptor-like kinase from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). LePRK1 interacts with another receptor, LePRK2, and with KINASE PARTNER PROTEIN (KPP...

  4. Piecemeal Versus En Bloc Resection of Large Rectal Adenomas

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-10

    Colorectal Adenoma With Mild Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenoma With Severe Dysplasia; Colorectal Adenomatous Polyp; Colorectal Low Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia; Colorectal High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia

  5. Les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose praseodyme-cerium-oxyde de cuivre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renaud, Jacques

    Ce travail etudie les fluctuations supraconductrices dans le compose supraconducteur a haute temperature critique dope aux electrons Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. La technique utilisee pour sonder ces fluctuations est le transport electrique DC dans le plan ab. Il s'agit, a notre connaissance, de la premiere etude de ce type dans la classe generale des supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique dopes aux electrons et, plus particulierement, dans Pr2-xCe xCuO4+delta. De plus, l'etude est effectuee pour trois regimes de dopage, soit sous-dope x = 0.135, dopage optimal x = 0.15 et surdope x = 0.17. Les echantillons etudies sont des couches minces d'epaisseur plus grande que 100 nm crues par ablation laser. Les mesures electriques DC effectuees dans ce travail sont la resistance en reponse lineaire et les courbes IV en reponse non lineaire en fonction de la temperature. La mise en oeuvre experimentale de ces mesures a necessite une grande attention au filtrage et aux effets de chauffage a haut courant. Nous montrons que, sans cette attention, les donnees experimentales sont toujours erronees dans le regime pertinent pour nos echantillons. Les resultats pour le dopage optimal x = 0.15 sont expliques de facon tres convaincante dans le cadre de fluctuations purement 2D. D'abord, le regime des fluctuations gaussiennes est tres bien decrit par le modele d'Aslamazov-Larkin en deux dimensions. Ensuite, le regime de fluctuations critiques, se trouvant a plus basse temperature que le regime gaussien, est tres bien decrit par la physique 2D de Kosterlitz-Thouless. Dans cette analyse, les deux regimes ont des temperatures critiques coherentes entre elles, ce qui semble confirmer ce scenario 2D. Une analyse des donnees dans le cadre de fluctuations 3D est exploree mais donne des conclusions incoherentes. Les resultats pour les autres dopages sont qualitativement equivalents avec le dopage optimal et permettent donc une explication purement 2D. Par contre, contrairement au dopage optimal

  6. Approximation auto-coherente a deux particules, pseudogap et supraconductivite dans le modele de Hubbard attractif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Steve

    2000-10-01

    Dans cette these nous presentons une nouvelle methode non perturbative pour le calcul des proprietes d'un systeme de fermions. Notre methode generalise l'approximation auto-coherente a deux particules proposee par Vilk et Tremblay pour le modele de Hubbard repulsif. Notre methode peut s'appliquer a l'etude du comportement pre-critique lorsque la symetrie du parametre d'ordre est suffisamment elevee. Nous appliquons la methode au probleme du pseudogap dans le modele de Hubbard attractif. Nos resultats montrent un excellent accord avec les donnees Monte Carlo pour de petits systemes. Nous observons que le regime ou apparait le pseudogap dans le poids spectral a une particule est un regime classique renormalise caracterise par une frequence caracteristique des fluctuations supraconductrices inferieure a la temperature. Une autre caracteristique est la faible densite de superfluide de cette phase demontrant que nous ne sommes pas en presence de paires preformees. Les resultats obtenus semblent montrer que la haute symetrie du parametre d'ordre et la bidimensionalite du systeme etudie elargissent le domaine de temperature pour lequel le regime pseudogap est observe. Nous argumentons que ce resultat est transposable aux supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique ou le pseudogap apparait a des' temperatures beaucoup plus grandes que la temperature critique. La forte symetrie dans ces systemes pourraient etre reliee a la theorie SO(5) de Zhang. En annexe, nous demontrons un resultat tout recent qui permettrait d'assurer l'auto-coherence entre les proprietes a une et a deux particules par l'ajout d'une dynamique au vertex irreductible. Cet ajout laisse entrevoir la possibilite d'etendre la methode au cas d'une forte interaction.

  7. LE135, a retinoid acid receptor antagonist, produces pain through direct activation of TRP channels

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Shijin; Luo, Jialie; Qian, Aihua; Yu, Weihua; Hu, Hongzhen

    2014-01-01

    Background and PurposeRetinoids, through their activation of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors, regulate diverse cellular processes, and pharmacological intervention in their actions has been successful in the treatment of skin disorders and cancers. Despite the many beneficial effects, administration of retinoids causes irritating side effects with unknown mechanisms. Here, we demonstrate that LE135 [4-(7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-5,7,7,10,10-pentamethyl-5H-benzo[e]naphtho[2,3-b][1,4]diazepin-13-yl)benzoic acid], a selective antagonist of RARβ, is a potent activator of the capsaicin (TRPV1) and wasabi (TRPA1) receptors, two critical pain-initiating cation channels. Experimental ApproachWe performed to investigate the excitatory effects of LE135 on TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels expressed in HEK293T cells and in dorsal root ganglia neurons with calcium imaging and patch-clamp recordings. We also used site-directed mutagenesis of the channels to determine the structural basis of LE135-induced activation of TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels and behavioural testing to examine if pharmacological inhibition and genetic deletion of the channels affected LE135-evoked pain-related behaviours. Key ResultsLE135 activated both the capsaicin receptor (TRPV1) and the allyl isothiocyanate receptor (TRPA1) heterologously expressed in HEK293T cells and endogenously expressed by sensory nociceptors. Mutations disrupting the capsaicin-binding site attenuated LE135 activation of TRPV1 channels and a single mutation (K170R) eliminated TRPA1 activity evoked by LE135. Intraplantar injection of LE135 evoked pain-related behaviours. Both TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels were involved in LE135-elicited pain-related responses, as shown by pharmacological and genetic ablation studies. Conclusions and ImplicationsThis blocker of retinoid acid signalling also exerted non-genomic effects through activating the pain-initiating TRPV1 and TRPA1 channels. PMID:24308840

  8. Synthesis, characterization, phase diagrams and superconducting and normal state magnetic properties of La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.08) and electrochemically oxidized La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} (0 {le} x {le} 0.33, 0 {le} {delta} {le} 0.12)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, F.

    1993-08-01

    La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.15) can all be intercalated with oxygen by a novel electrochemical oxidation method. Bulk superconductivity is found with an onset {Tc} {approx} 40 K for the whole range 0.01 {le} x {le} 0.15; for x = 0.25 and 0.33, the electrochemical oxidation did not improve the superconducting properties. The magnetic susceptibility {chi}(T = 50--320 K) data for La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4.11} and La{sub 1.92}Sr{sub 0.08}CuO{sub 4.07} are nearly identical with those of conventionally prepared La{sub 1.85}Sr{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4}, indicating that the hole doping level (p) in the CuO{sub 2} planes of the three compounds is nearly the same. Combined thermogravimetric analysis and iodometric titration experiments indicate that part of the intercalated oxygen has a formal valence close to {minus}1. The maximum doped-hole concentration in the CuO{sub 2} planes that can be achieved from combined Sr-doping and electrochemical oxygen doping for 0 {le} x {le} 0.15 is p {approx} 0.16 holes/formula unit. Oxygen can also intercalate into single crystal La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4} through a slow electrochemical oxidation process. The required low current and long time for the charging process reflects that the oxygen intercalation for a single crystal is limited by its small specific surface area and long diffusion distance. The anisotropic superconducting, magnetic and transport properties are summarized and compared with those of polycrystalline La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} as well as of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} and La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} single crystals. The single crystal La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4+{delta}} has a maximum {Tc} {approx} 40 K, which is lower than that ({Tc} {approx} 42--45) of the corresponding polycrystalline samples. The magnetic phase diagram of La{sub 2{minus}x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} in the antiferromagnetic (AF) regime (0 {le} x {le} 0.02) has been derived from {sup 139}La NQR studies from 4 to 250 K.

  9. STIL, a peculiar molecule from styles, specifically dephosphorylates the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2 and stimulates pollen tube growth in vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: LePRK1 and LePRK2 are two pollen receptor kinases localized to the plasma membrane, where they are present in a high molecular weight complex (LePRK complex). LePRK2 is phosphorylated in mature and germinated pollen, but is dephosphorylated when pollen membranes are incubated with tomato...

  10. An Overhead Demonstration of Some Descriptive Chemistry of the Halogens and LeChatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Robert C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a demonstration procedure using controlled reduction potentials to predict observed color changes which are then experimentally verified. Demonstrates the usefulness of this procedure in helping students understand LeChatelier's principle and the solubilit rule "like dissolves like." (CW)

  11. General parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux pulse design algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kuan J

    2007-06-01

    The magnetization ripple amplitudes from a pulse designed by the Shinnar-Le Roux algorithm are a non-linear function of the Shinnar-Le Roux A and B polynomial ripples. In this paper, the method of Pauly et al. [J. Pauly, P. Le Roux, D. Nishimura, A. Macovski, Parameter relations for the Shinnar-Le Roux selective excitation pulse design algorithm, IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 10 (1991) 56-65.] has been extended to derive more general parameter relations. These relations can be used for cases outside the five classes considered by Pauly et al., in particular excitation pulses for flip angles that are not small or 90 degrees. Use of the new relations, together with an iterative procedure to obtain polynomials with the specified ripples from the Parks-McClellan algorithm, are shown to give simulated slice profiles that have the desired ripple amplitudes. PMID:17408999

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Arthur W. LeBoeuf, Photographer, 1937 DETAIL OF MANTEL. - John Mason House (Mantel), Weybosset Street (moved to Rhode Island School of Design), Providence, Providence County, RI

  13. 5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Former P&LE tracks (now CSXT) adjacent to trestle towards west. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Y Trestle, South side of Monongahela River between Thirty-fourth & Twenty-ninth Streets, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  14. A Multistep Equilibria-Redox-Complexation Demonstration to Illustrate Le Chatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Tomas G.; Mellon, Edward K.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a process that can be used to illustrate a number of chemical principles including Le Chatelier's principle, redox chemistry, equilibria versus steady state situations, and solubility of species. (JRH)

  15. Le volvulus gastrique idiopathique aigu: à propos d'une nouvelle observation

    PubMed Central

    Abdelilah, Mouhsine; Jihad, Anzaoui; Rachid, Bouchentouf

    2013-01-01

    Le volvulus gastrique est une rotation anormale de l'estomac autour de son axe. La forme aiguë constitue une urgence chirurgicale. Le diagnostic est souvent retardé en raison d'une symptomatologie fréquemment non spécifique. Des signes respiratoires tels la dyspnée et le hoquet peuvent révéler cette pathologie. Les auteurs rapportent une nouvelle observation de volvulus gastrique aigu chez un adolescent de 17 ans, diagnostiqué par la tomodensitométrie, et confirmé par une intervention chirurgicale. Le traitement est chirurgical et consiste à détordre et fixer l'estomac pour prévenir la récidive. PMID:23503200

  16. Portevin-Le Chatelier effect and Tsallis nonextensive statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iliopoulos, A. C.; Nikolaidis, N. S.; Aifantis, E. C.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we estimate Tsallis' entropic index q ≡qstat (stat denotes stationary states) for various stress serration time series of Cu-15%Al alloys corresponding to different deformation temperatures and types (A, B, C) of Portevin-Le Chatelier (PLC) bands. Tsallis statistical analysis is also conducted on experimental data derived from correlation diagrams focusing on PLC type C bands' spatial organization at the surface of various specimens. The results concerning the stress serrations analysis reveal the non-Gaussian (Tsallis q-Gaussian), nonextensive, sub-additive, character of the underlying dynamics of the PLC type-A bands (q > 1) indicating dynamics at the edge of chaos, with global long range correlations and power law scaling. Similarly, for PLC type B bands, a Tsallis q-Gaussian, non-extensive, super-additive, statistical profile was found with q < 1, while for the PLC type C bands, a near Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical character was verified indicating Gaussian dynamics with short (weak) range correlations. Finally, Tsallis q-index for the spatial data of PLC type C bands was found above unity (q > 1) indicating that type C bands are not randomly nucleated in the specimen (e.g. yielding a Gaussian distribution) but there exist spatial coupling and long range deformation correlations in the PLC type C bands spatial localization.

  17. [Mr. Wang Le-ting: a master of acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Niu, Xue-Song; Wang, Fan

    2012-11-01

    Mr. WANG Le-ting attaches great importance to accurate differentiation of syndromes, strict selection of acupoints, technique and direction of needle insertion, clear reinforcing and reducing methods after the appearance of needling sensations, proper opportunities of manipulations as well as needle withdrawal techniques, and reasonable application of acupuncture and moxibustion respectively. The above mentioned principles are known as his "5 agreements". He emphasizes that the selection of acupoints should be "in accordance with both the meridians and the accurate location of the points", and "needling sensation is necessary for each point". He holds that the back-shu points of the five-zang organs and Geshu (BL 17) can be adopted for patient with deficiency of qi, blood, yin and yang. In the aspect of acupoint theory, he insists the accurate location of Xuanzhong (GB 39). He also adjusts the locations of Huatuo Jiaji (EX-B 2) points, and finds the location of the new Dubi (ST 35). For easier applications, he divides the functions of acupoints into different schools of qi, blood, cold, heat, deficiency, excess, wind and dampness. And 41 combinations of acupoints are also invented as innovation. He is always strict to his students, instructing and influencing them by his own words and deeds. He is always conscientious and meticulous, which benefit immensely his followers, and remains a lot of precious experiences for the later generations. PMID:23214000

  18. Le Fort's procedure--an option for the aged.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Nilanjana; Sen, Mainak

    2011-03-01

    The changing demographics of the world's population will result in an increasing prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse and consequently a greater demand for healthcare services related to it. The objective of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of partial colpocleisis (Le Fort's operation) in a selected group of patients who are: (a) Not desirous of sexual function, (b) very elderly medically fragile, hence not fit for anaesthesia, (c) not fit for prolonged lithotomy position. After careful selection of cases 10 patients were included in the study from August 2005 to March 2006. USG(TVS) and cervical cytology were done to exclude any pathology. Partial colpocleisis was done under local anaesthesia with delayed absorbable sutures which closed the vagina from inside leaving drainage tracts on either side for egress of blood and cervicovaginal secretions postoperatively. A levator plication and high perineorrhaphy was also done. All patients(100%) had symptomatic relief. Only one patient (10%) had postoperative bleeding. Rest all had uneventful recovery. No recurrence of prolapse or SUI has developed till date. Operative time on average was 15 minutes. Hospital stay was 24 hours. Peroperative bleeding was negligible. Partial colpocleisis is an excellent operation for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) for very selective group of patients. The advantage of the procedure lies in its simple technique, permanent cure, symptomatic relief and minimal surgical risk. Hence it can be done as a day care procedure at a very low cost. PMID:22010590

  19. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  20. 'Le roi le veult'.

    PubMed

    Sholl, W T

    1997-06-14

    Following the fiftieth anniversary of the National Health Service Act 1946, I make the case in this article that professional provision of health care must remain the property of the citizen under common law and must not become a commodity that is bought and sold by third parties, including the state. PMID:9217334

  1. Facteurs déterminants le regret après ligature tubaire

    PubMed Central

    Boufettal, Houssine; Mahdaoui, Sakher; Samouh, Naïma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction La ligature tubaire peut générer regret. Le but de cette étude est d’étudier le vécu après la stérilisation ainsi que le regret et ses facteurs de risque. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective chez 52 femmes stérilisées entre 2004 et 2010. Résultats Vingt cinq (48%) femmes avaient regretté la réalisation de la ligature tubaire. La moyenne d’âge était de 40,5 ans. Le temps consacré aux explications était très court dans tous les cas. Trois quart des femmes n’était pas au courant des complications de la ligature tubaire. Le regret était dû au facteur religieux (23%), aux algies pelviennes (11,5%), au désir d'autres enfants (9,6%) ou à la prise de connaissance d'autres moyens contraceptifs (3,9%). Conclusion Un certains nombre de facteurs de risque de regret de la ligature tubaire sont retrouvés dans la littérature, comme dans notre série, dont l’âge, le désir de procréer, l'information incomplète, le délai de réflexion et le facteur religieux. PMID:25309644

  2. La tuberculose pulmonaire et le tabac: à propos de 100 cas

    PubMed Central

    Janah, Hicham; Souhi, Hicham; Kouissmi, Hatim; Marc, Karima; Zahraoui, Rachida; Benamor, Jouda; Soualhi, Mona; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    Le tabagisme et la tuberculose sont deux enjeux majeurs de santé publique au niveau mondial, en particulier dans les pays émergents. Pour déterminer les particularités cliniques, radiologiques, bactériologiques et thérapeutiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire chez les sujets tabagiques nous avons mené une étude prospective au service de phtisiologie de l'hôpital Moulay Youssef sur une période de 10 mois, portant sur 100 nouveaux cas de tuberculose pulmonaire, répartis en 2 groupes, 50 patients tabagiques: Groupe A et 50 patients non tabagiques: Groupe B. Tous nos patients étaient de sexe masculin, l’âge moyen était de 41 ans ± 12 chez le groupe A et de 36 ans ± 16 chez le groupe B. Le délai de consultation était plus long chez les tabagiques, la médiane était de 60j (30; 98) contre 40j (30; 60), la symptomatologie clinique était variable chez les deux groupes, dominée par les expectorations chez les tabagiques 96% contre 60%. Les lésions radiologiques étaient similaires chez les deux groupes ainsi que la charge bacillaire. Tous les patients ont été mis sous traitement antituberculeux. Après un mois du traitement, la Bacilloscopie était négative chez 50% du groupe A contre 66% chez le groupe B. la régression des lésions radiologiques était similaire chez les deux groupes. Le retard diagnostique et le retard de négativation des frottis sont les principales particularités de la tuberculose pulmonaire du sujet tabagique. Le sevrage tabagique doit faire partie intégrante de la prise en charge des patients atteints de tuberculose. PMID:25821545

  3. [LE cells in synovial fluid: prevalence and diagnostic usefulness in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Puszczewicz, Mariusz; Białkowska-Puszczewicz, Grazyna

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of LE cells in synovial fluid and their importance for the diagnosis of rheumatic disease. Synovial fluid was obtained from 631 patients: 31 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 337 with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 4 with Still's disease, 9 with systemic scleroderma (SS), 27 with the overlap syndrome (RA/SLE), 132 with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), 57 with Reiter's syndrome, and 34 with psoriatic arthritis (PA). The fluid was centrifuged, precipitate smears were done and were May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained for cytologic assessment. The supernatant was collected for antinuclear antibody (ANA) testing. Physicochemical and serologic properties of the synovial fluid were routinely determined. All synovial fluids demonstrated signs of inflammation. The presence of LE cells was ascertained in five patients with SLE and nine patients with the overlap syndrome. In these cases, LE cells were accompanied by ANA. In addition, hematoxylin bodies were revealed in SLE patients. LE cells were observed in 2.6% of patients with RA but were not accompanied by ANA. Patients with SS, Still's disease, AS, Reiter's syndrome, and PA tested negative for LE cells. It appears from these results that LE cells are rarely present in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatic diseases. In contrast, they occur in more than 40% of patients with the overlap syndrome and may thus be regarded as important for the diagnosis of this condition. PMID:21365954

  4. SCRaMbLE generates designed combinatorial stochastic diversity in synthetic chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yue; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Wang, Yun; Yang, Kun; Mitchell, Leslie A; Xue, Yaxin; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Tai; Dymond, Jessica S; Kang, Kang; Gong, Jianhui; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yongfen; Li, Yingrui; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D; Bader, Joel S

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic chromosome rearrangement and modification by loxP-mediated evolution (SCRaMbLE) generates combinatorial genomic diversity through rearrangements at designed recombinase sites. We applied SCRaMbLE to yeast synthetic chromosome arm synIXR (43 recombinase sites) and then used a computational pipeline to infer or unscramble the sequence of recombinations that created the observed genomes. Deep sequencing of 64 synIXR SCRaMbLE strains revealed 156 deletions, 89 inversions, 94 duplications, and 55 additional complex rearrangements; several duplications are consistent with a double rolling circle mechanism. Every SCRaMbLE strain was unique, validating the capability of SCRaMbLE to explore a diverse space of genomes. Rearrangements occurred exclusively at designed loxPsym sites, with no significant evidence for ectopic rearrangements or mutations involving synthetic regions, the 99% nonsynthetic nuclear genome, or the mitochondrial genome. Deletion frequencies identified genes required for viability or fast growth. Replacement of 3' UTR by non-UTR sequence had surprisingly little effect on fitness. SCRaMbLE generates genome diversity in designated regions, reveals fitness constraints, and should scale to simultaneous evolution of multiple synthetic chromosomes. PMID:26566658

  5. SCRaMbLE generates designed combinatorial stochastic diversity in synthetic chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yue; Stracquadanio, Giovanni; Wang, Yun; Yang, Kun; Mitchell, Leslie A.; Xue, Yaxin; Cai, Yizhi; Chen, Tai; Dymond, Jessica S.; Kang, Kang; Gong, Jianhui; Zeng, Xiaofan; Zhang, Yongfen; Li, Yingrui; Feng, Qiang; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Boeke, Jef D.; Bader, Joel S.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic chromosome rearrangement and modification by loxP-mediated evolution (SCRaMbLE) generates combinatorial genomic diversity through rearrangements at designed recombinase sites. We applied SCRaMbLE to yeast synthetic chromosome arm synIXR (43 recombinase sites) and then used a computational pipeline to infer or unscramble the sequence of recombinations that created the observed genomes. Deep sequencing of 64 synIXR SCRaMbLE strains revealed 156 deletions, 89 inversions, 94 duplications, and 55 additional complex rearrangements; several duplications are consistent with a double rolling circle mechanism. Every SCRaMbLE strain was unique, validating the capability of SCRaMbLE to explore a diverse space of genomes. Rearrangements occurred exclusively at designed loxPsym sites, with no significant evidence for ectopic rearrangements or mutations involving synthetic regions, the 99% nonsynthetic nuclear genome, or the mitochondrial genome. Deletion frequencies identified genes required for viability or fast growth. Replacement of 3′ UTR by non-UTR sequence had surprisingly little effect on fitness. SCRaMbLE generates genome diversity in designated regions, reveals fitness constraints, and should scale to simultaneous evolution of multiple synthetic chromosomes. PMID:26566658

  6. Architectural Kansei of ‘Wall’ in The Façade Design by Le Corbusier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sendai, Shoichiro

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the modern architect Le Corbusier's architectural Kansei (sensibility) on wall in site environment through the analysis of his façade design, using Œuvres complètes (1910-1965, 8 vols., Les éditions d'architecture, Artemis, Zurich) and Le Corbusier Archives (1982-1984, 32 vols., Garland Publishing, Inc. and Fondation Le Corbusier, New York, London, Paris). At first, I arrange five façade types, according to the explanation by Le Corbusier ; ‘fenêtre en longueur (strip window)’, ‘pan de verre (glass wall)’, ‘brise-soleil (sun-breaker)’, ‘loggia’ and ‘claustra’. Through the analysis of the relationship between these types and the design process of each building, we find that Le Corbusier's façade design includes the affirmation and the negation of the ‘wall’ at the same time. In fact, the nature of façade modification during design process is divers: increase in transparency, decrease in transparency and spatialization of façade. That means, Le Corbusier studied the environmental condition by these façade types, and tried to realize the phenomenal openness. This trial bases on the function of architectural Kansei as correspondence between body and environment beyond the physical design.

  7. Lymphome et grossesse: le point de vue de l'obstétricien, à propos de 2 cas

    PubMed Central

    Amourak, Sarah; Alaoui, Fatimazahra Fdili; Jayi, Sofia; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2014-01-01

    L'association lymphome et grossesse est une situation rare, mais non exceptionnelle, relevant de la coïncidence. Le lymphome vient en 4ème position des cancers rencontrés chez la femme enceinte, La clinique est trompeuse et inconstante, le diagnostic reste histologique et on distingue 2 types: lymphome malin hodgkinien (LMH) et le lymphome malin non hodgkinien (LMNH). Malgré le contexte de véritable urgence hématologique, la décision d'initier ou de différer le traitement est délicate, influencée par le type de lymphome, son extension et sa localisation, la répercussion organique, le degré de maturation f'tale, les risques obstétricaux et les valeurs éthiques, culturelles et religieuses de la patiente. Le traitement consiste essentiellement à une chimiothérapie. Le LH durant la grossesse est relativement moins agressif et d’évolution plus favorable que le LMNH. PMID:25883744

  8. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  9. Évolution des lignes directrices sur le traitement de la dyslipidémie

    PubMed Central

    John Bosomworth, N.

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Comprendre comment les nouvelles lignes directrices sur la prise en charge du risque cardiovasculaire publiées par l’American Heart Association et l’American College of Cardiology (AHA-ACC) peuvent être interprétées et utilisées dans le contexte canadien. Sources des données Les lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC ont été examinées, de même que toutes les références. Des recherches indépendantes dans PubMed ont été effectuées pour inclure l’ajout aux statines d’autres antihyperlipidémiants et l’emploi de calculatrices médicales visant à aider le patient à comprendre. Message principal Les nouvelles lignes directrices de l’AHA-ACC s’appuient sur les meilleures données probantes disponibles actuellement en matière de traitement de la dyslipidémie. Cela inclut le risque cardiovasculaire (CV) sur 10 ans comme seuil thérapeutique au lieu du taux de cholestérol des lipoprotéines de faible densité, de même que l’abandon des cibles thérapeutiques de lipoprotéines de faible densité. On met de plus en plus l’accent sur les interventions alimentaires et l’exercice, avec l’amorce d’un effort pour quantifier l’effet de ces interventions. Les statines constituent la principale intervention pharmacologique, et l’ajout d’autres médicaments pour accentuer la baisse lipidique n’est plus recommandé. En ce qui concerne l’application au Canada, les tables de risque de Framingham sont plus appropriées pour évaluer le risque que les équations de cohortes regroupées utilisées aux États-Unis. Les calculatrices du risque de maladie cardiovasculaire (MCV) devraient contenir de l’information sur l’âge cardiovasculaire et devraient pouvoir illustrer le risque et les interventions de rechange afin d’aider le patient à comprendre et de favoriser la prise de décision éclairée. Conclusion L’attention sur les meilleures données probantes concernant le risque CV peut simplifier le traitement de la

  10. le de l'hydrogène dans le procédé de purification du silicium par plasma thermique inductif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erin, J.; Morvan, D.; Amouroux, J.

    1993-03-01

    The use of the thermal process for purification of silicon led to a material with the chemical purity required for phototovoltaic applications. In this paper, the various properties of ArH2 plasma mixtures are briefly reviewed and the effect of hydrogen percentage in an argon plasma used for melting and purifying silicon is pointed out. Physico-chemical analysis of the purified silicon showed that hydrogen diffused in the material and could passivate crystal defects by formation of stable chemical bonds such as Si-H. La technique de purification du silicium sous plasma thermique permet d'aboutir à un matériau de pureté chimique requise pour l'industrie photovoltaïque. Dans ce travail, nous soulignerons lele de l'hydrogène intervenant dans les propriétés du plasma en rappelant les caractéristiques des plasmas Ar-H2 utilisés pour fondre et purifier le silicium. Les caractéristiques physico-chimiques du silicium purifié montrent que l'hydrogène diffuse dans le matériau et est en mesure de cicatriser les défauts cristallins par formation de liaisons chimiques stables de type Si-H.

  11. Tumeur de vessie chez le sujet jeune: à propos de 36 cas

    PubMed Central

    Statoua, Mouad; El Ghanmi, Jihad; Karmouni, Tarik; El Khader, Khalid; Koutani, Abdellatif; Attya, Ahmed Iben

    2014-01-01

    Les tumeurs de vessie sont rares avant 40 ans et ne représentent que 1 à 4% de l'ensemble de ces tumeurs. Notre étude s'est intéressée au profil épidémiologique, caractère histologique ainsi que le profil évolutif. Nous avons réalisé une étude retrospective sur une durée de 10 ans entre mars 2004 et mars 2014, nous avons traité 850 patients pour tumeur de vessie dont 36 était âgé de moins de 40 ans. Le diagnostic était posé devant des arguments cliniques, radiologiques et endoscopiques, la cystoscopie avec résection tumorale a précisé la nature histologique et son grading ainsi que le degré d'infiltration. 23 patients avaient une tumeur de vessie non infiltrant le muscle et 13 avaient une tumeur infiltrant le muscle. Le taux de récidive global est de l'ordre de 36,4%, 22% pour la tranche d’âge 20-30 ans et 46% pour la tranche d’âge 31-40 ans. Le risque de progression et de décès est respectivement de 8% et de 6,1%. Il ressort que les tumeurs superficielles ont une meilleure évolution chez les sujets de moins de 30 ans. Les tumeurs infiltrantes sont plus fréquentes et souvent évoluées suggérant un potentiel évolutif particulier. Leur pronostic est fonction du stade tumoral, sans corrélation avec l’âge. PMID:26113886

  12. A novel sialyl LeX expression score as a potential prognostic tool in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Treatment decisions in colorectal cancer subsequent to surgery are based mainly on the TNM system. There is a need to establish novel prognostic markers based on the molecular characterization of tumor cells. Evidence exists that sialyl LeX expression is correlated with an unfavorable outcome in colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish a simple sialyl LeX staining score and to determine a potential correlation with the prognosis in a series of advanced colorectal carcinoma patients. Methods In order to implement routine use of sialyl LeX immunohistology, we established a new, easily reproducible score and defined a cutoff which discriminated groups with better or worse outcome, respectively. We then correlated sialyl LeX expression of 215 UICC stage III and IV patients with disease-free and cancer-related survival. Results A five-stage score could be established based on automated immunohistochemical stainings. Using a statistical model, we calculated a cutoff to discriminate between weak and strong staining positivity of sialyl LeX. Patients with strong positive specimens had a worse cancer-related survival (P = 0.004) but no difference was observed for disease-free survival (P = 0.352). Conclusions These results demonstrate a strong correlation between high sialyl LeX-expression in colorectal carcinomas and cancer-related survival. Our highly standardized and easy-to-use staining score is suitable for routine use and hence it could be recommended to evaluate sialyl LeX-expression as part of the standard histopathological analysis of colorectal carcinomas and to validate the score prospectively based on a larger population. PMID:22621806

  13. Effets du stress familial lié au diabète sur le contrôle glycémique chez les jeunes diabétiques de type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tsiouli, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C.; Stefanaki, Charikleia; Darviri, Christina; Chrousos, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectif Examiner la façon dont le stress familial influence le contrôle glycémique chez les patients diabétiques de moins de 18 ans. Sources des données Une recherche des études pertinentes publiées depuis 1990 a été réalisée dans PubMed et Scopus à l'aide des mots-clés suivants en anglais: diabetes type 1, glycemic control, family stress, family conflict et family function. Sélection des études La recension initiale a permis de cerner un total de 1 478 articles. La synthèse finale portrait sur 6 études de cohortes, 3 études transversales et 1 étude qualitative dans lesquelles le stress familial était évalué à l'aide d'instruments de mesure des conflits spécifiquement reliés au diabète et le contrôle glycémique était mesuré en fonction de l'hémoglobine glycosylée. Synthèse Dans la plupart des études, il existait une corrélation négative entre le stress familial et le contrôle glycémique des patients. Le bon fonctionnement familial était fortement relié à un bon contrôle glycémique des patients, tandis que les conflits familiaux étaient associés à un mauvais contrôle glycémique. Les familles dont la situation socioéconomique était défavorisée, celles ayant des adolescents atteints de diabète et les familles monoparentales étaient plus enclines à vivre un stress relié au diabète et étaient, par conséquent, plus susceptibles de connaître un moins bon contrôle glycémique. Conclusion Les interventions psychologiques thérapeutiques et les programmes éducatifs peuvent aider à atténuer le stress familial relié au diabète et amélioreront probablement le contrôle glycémique.

  14. Pertinence de l'implantation de la filiere granule de bois pour le Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Stephan

    Les spécialistes avancent que le marché mondial de l'énergie en forte demande et en offre limitée nécessitera bientôt toutes les formes d'énergie disponibles. Le granulé de bois est une forme de bioénergie principalement utilisée pour le chauffage des bâtiments et pourrait être davantage considéré dans l'offre énergétique du Québec. Comme le Québec est un territoire où il fait froid et donc susceptible de pouvoir se tourner vers cette forme d'énergie, l'objectif de ce mémoire est d'en analyser les avantages. Pour ce faire, nous commencerons par démontrer la croissance des besoins énergétiques sur les plans national et international et dresser un portrait des différentes formes d'énergies consommées au Québec. Puisque la majorité des Québécois chauffent leurs bâtiments à l'hydroélectricité, nous analyserons à travers le plan d'approvisionnement d'Hydro-Québec le portrait de la production et de la consommation de cette forme d'énergie renouvelable. Cela nous permettra de constater le défi face à la gestion de surplus importants, sauf pendant la période hivernale, et ce faisant, l'obligation de la société d'État d'utiliser davantage ses centrales au gaz ou de se tourner vers l'importation de l'électricité. Dans la même lignée, un regard sera porté sur les perspectives d'utilisation de l'hydroélectricité sur les plans de la production d'aluminium, de l'exportation et de l'utilisation dans l'électrification des transports au Québec. Cette analyse se fera dans l'objectif de s'interroger sur la pertinence d'utiliser cette source d'énergie dans le chauffage plutôt que dans des secteurs plus créateurs de richesse. Nous poserons ensuite l'hypothèse que le granulé de bois pourrait être un bon substitut à une autre forme d'énergie utilisée dans le chauffage, soit le mazout. Avant de dresser un portrait de ce combustible fossile, nous ferons celui de la production et de la consommation de granulés sur les plans r

  15. Le naevus bleu cellulaire atypique du poignet: à propos d'un cas et revue de la literature

    PubMed Central

    Boussakri, Hassan; Roux, Jean Luc; Durand, Luc; Elibrahimi, Abdelhalim; Elmrini, Abdelmajid

    2014-01-01

    Le naevus bleu cellulaire atypique est une entité pathologique rare et sa localisation au niveau du poignet est exceptionnelle. Il est Considéré comme une Variante à des caractéristiques intermédiaires entre le naevus bleu cellulaire typique et le naevus bleu malin, dont l’évolution est incertaine. Le but de notre travail est d'attirer l'attention sur cette variété lésionnelle rare et de discuter les diagnostiques différentiels, ainsi que décrire les aspects histologique et les options thérapeutiques possibles. PMID:25426206

  16. Modelisation frequentielle de la permittivite du beton pour le controle non destructif par georadar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdi, Taoufik

    Le georadar (Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)) constitue une technique de controle non destructif (CND) interessante pour la mesure des epaisseurs des dalles de beton et la caracterisation des fractures, en raison de ses caracteristiques de resolution et de profondeur de penetration. Les equipements georadar sont de plus en plus faciles a utiliser et les logiciels d'interpretation sont en train de devenir plus aisement accessibles. Cependant, il est ressorti dans plusieurs conferences et ateliers sur l'application du georadar en genie civil qu'il fallait poursuivre les recherches, en particulier sur la modelisation et les techniques de mesure des proprietes electriques du beton. En obtenant de meilleures informations sur les proprietes electriques du beton aux frequences du georadar, l'instrumentation et les techniques d'interpretation pourraient etre perfectionnees plus efficacement. Le modele de Jonscher est un modele qui a montre son efficacite dans le domaine geophysique. Pour la premiere fois, son utilisation dans le domaine genie civil est presentee. Dans un premier temps, nous avons valide l'application du modele de Jonscher pour la caracterisation de la permittivite dielectrique du beton. Les resultats ont montre clairement que ce modele est capable de reproduire fidelement la variation de la permittivite de differents types de beton sur la bande de frequence georadar (100 MHz-2 GHz). Dans un deuxieme temps, nous avons montre l'interet du modele de Jonscher en le comparant a d'autres modeles (Debye et Debye-etendu) deja utilises dans le domaine genie civil. Nous avons montre aussi comment le modele de Jonscher peut presenter une aide a la prediction de l'efficacite de blindage et a l'interpretation des ondes de la technique GPR. Il a ete determine que le modele de Jonscher permet de donner une bonne presentation de la variation de la permittivite du beton dans la gamme de frequence georadar consideree. De plus, cette modelisation est valable pour differents

  17. Le modele de Hubbard bidimensionnel a faible couplage: Thermodynamique et phenomenes critiques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sebastien

    Une etude systematique du modele de Hubbard en deux dimensions a faible couplage a l'aide de la theorie Auto-Coherente a Deux Particules (ACDP) dans le diagramme temperature-dopage-interaction-sauts permet de mettre en evidence l'influence des fluctuations magnetiques sur les proprietes thermodynamiques du systeme electronique sur reseau. Le regime classique renormalise a temperature finie pres du dopage nul est marque par la grandeur de la longueur de correlation de spin comparee a la longueur thermique de de Broglie et est caracterisee par un accroissement drastique de la longueur de correlation de spin. Cette croissance exponentielle a dopage nul marque la presence d'un pic de chaleur specifique en fonction de la temperature a basse temperature. Une temperature de crossover est alors associee a la temperature a laquelle la longueur de correlation de spin est egale a la longueur thermique de de Broglie. C'est a cette temperature caracteristique, ou est observee l'ouverture du pseudogap dans le poids spectral, que se situe le maximum du pic de chaleur specifique. La presence de ce pic a des consequences sur l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage lorsque l'uniformite thermodynamique est respectee. Les contraintes imposees par les lois de la thermodynamique font en sorte que l'evolution du potentiel chimique avec le dopage est non triviale. On demontre entre autres que le potentiel chimique est proportionnel a la double occupation qui est reliee au moment local. Par ailleurs, une derivation de la fonction de mise a l'echelle de la susceptibilite de spin a frequence nulle au voisinage d'un point critique marque sans equivoque la presence d'un point critique quantique en dopage pour une valeur donnee de l'interaction. Ce point critique, associe a une transition de phase magnetique en fonction du dopage a temperature nulle, induit un comportement non trivial sur les proprietes physiques du systeme a temperature finie. L'approche quantitative ACDP permet de

  18. Quatrième conférence consensuelle sur le diagnostic et le traitement de la démence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Ainsley; Patterson, Christopher; Lee, Linda; Vedel, Isabelle; Bergman, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Revoir les stratégies diagnostiques de la maladie d’Alzheimer, actualiser les recommandations concernant le traitement des symptômes de démence et proposer une approche thérapeutique à la démence d’apparition précoce et d’évolution rapide. Composition du comité Des spécialistes et des délégués de diverses régions du Canada et représentant diverses disciplines pertinentes ont discuté et se sont mis d’accord sur les révisions à apporter aux lignes directrices de 2006. Méthodologie On a eu recours au système GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) pour évaluer le consensus concernant les recommandations, lequel était défini comme suit : lorsque 80 % ou plus des participants ont voté en faveur de la recommandation. La cote des données probantes est rapportée lorsque cela est possible. Rapport important pour les médecins de famille, malgré les progrès effectués dans les domaines des biomarqueurs liquidiens et de la neuro-imagerie, le diagnostic de démence au Canada demeure fondamentalement clinique. De nouveaux critères cliniques essentiels de diagnostic de la maladie d’Alzheimer en reconnaissent dorénavant les formes moins fréquentes et non amnestiques. La démence précoce, une affection rare, mais importante, devrait inciter les médecins à aiguiller les patients vers un spécialiste ayant accès à des conseillers en génétique. La démence d’évolution rapide, mal définie dans la littérature, faciliterait le dépistage de cette affection rare, mais importante. Les inhibiteurs de la cholinestérase sont maintenant indiqués pour le traitement d’affections autres que la maladie d’Alzheimer. Des lignes directrices concernant l’arrêt du traitement, lesquelles n’existaient pas auparavant, sont également apparues. De nouvelles données probantes sur le recours à la mémantine, aux antidépresseurs et à d’autres agents psychotropes dans le traitement de la

  19. Hypertension during chronic exposure to cold: Comparison between Sprague Dawley (SD) and Long Evans (LE) strains

    SciTech Connect

    Riesselmann, A.; Baron, A.; Fregly, M.J. )

    1991-03-11

    Hypertension accompanies chronic exposure of SD rats to cold (5-6C), including elevation of systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures and cardiac hypertrophy. The renin-angiotensin system may play an important role. Earlier studies suggested that the LE strain may have a decrease in angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Measurement of ACE activity in plasmas of SE and LE strains revealed that basal activity of ACE in the plasma of the LE strain was significantly less than that of the SD strain. A second study was carried out in which both strains were exposed to cold for 7 weeks. There were clear differences between strains. Rats of the SD strain had a significant elevation in their blood pressure; a significantly increased urinary output of norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E); and significant increases in weights of heart, kidneys, adrenals, and brown adipose tissue (IBAT) compared to their controls maintained at 26C. In contrast, rats of the LE strain were less responsive to cold in that blood pressure failed to rise as sharply and to attain as high a level; NE and E outputs, as well as weights of heart and IBAT were significantly less than those of rats of the cold-treated SD strain. Thus, the lower ACE activity in plasma of LE strain, as well as a reduced secretion of catecholamines, may protect these rats against the rise of blood pressure characteristically observed when rats of the SD strain are exposed to cold.

  20. LeCDJ1, a chloroplast DnaJ protein, facilitates heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Kong, Fanying; Deng, Yongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Jieru; Liang, Xiaoqing; Meng, Qingwei

    2014-01-01

    The roles of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein (LeCDJ1) were investigated using wild-type (WT) and sense transgenic tomatoes. The LeCDJ1 expression was upregulated by 38 °C, 42 °C, 45 °C, NaCl, PEG, methyl viologen (MV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but not by 30 °C and 35 °C. Meanwhile, LeCDJ1 was involved in the response of plants to abscisic acid (ABA). Under heat stress, the sense plants showed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and relative electrical conductivity (REC), and also less PSII photoinhibition than WT. Interestingly, the sense plants treated with streptomycin (SM), an inhibitor of organellar translation, still showed higher maximum photochemistry efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and D1 protein levels than the SM-untreated WT, suggesting that the protective effect of LeCDJ1 on PSII was, at least partially, independent of D1 protein synthesis. Furthermore, the relatively lower superoxide radical (O2(•-)) and H2O2 levels in the sense plants were considered to be due to the higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, which seemed unlikely dependent on their transcription level. These results indicated that LeCDJ1 overexpression facilitated heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes. PMID:24148796

  1. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A.; Smith, Geoffrey R.; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  2. Amphibians and Reptiles of the state of Nuevo León, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lemos-Espinal, Julio A; Smith, Geoffrey R; Cruz, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We compiled a check list of the herpetofauna of Nuevo León. We documented 132 species (23 amphibians, 109 reptiles), representing 30 families (11 amphibians, 19 reptiles) and 73 genera (17 amphibians, 56 reptiles). Only two species are endemic to Nuevo León. Nuevo León contains a relatively high richness of lizards in the genus Sceloporus. Overlap in the herpetofauna of Nuevo León and states it borders is fairly extensive. Of 130 native species, 102 are considered species of Least Concern in the IUCN red list, four are listed as Vulnerable, five are listed as Near Threatened, and four are listed as Endangered. According to SEMARNAT, 78 species are not of conservation concern, 25 are subject to Special Protection, 27 are Threatened, and none are listed as in Danger of Extinction. Given current threats to the herpetofauna, additional efforts to understand the ecology and status of populations in Nuevo León are needed. PMID:27408562

  3. Le syndrome d'Othello: un cas observé à Ouagadougou

    PubMed Central

    Kaboré, Bawindsongré Jean; Napon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Les auteurs rapportent le premier cas de délire de jalousie encore décrit sous l'acronyme de syndrome d'Othello, à Ouagadougou. Il s'est agit d'un patient qui au décours d'un accident vasculaire cérébral ischémique constitué, a développé un délire de jalousie. Une revue de la littérature permet de comprendre que l'affection, rarement rapportée est de plus en plus décrite au décours de maladies neurologiques aigues ou chroniques, et que le lobe frontal joue vraisemblablement un rôle majeur. PMID:24570777

  4. Le conflit fémoro-acétabulaire et la coxarthrose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Charlie; Li, Linda; Forster, Bruce B.; Kopec, Jacek A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Halai, Lalji; Cibere, Jolanda; Esdaile, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectif Expliquer la présentation clinique, les observations à l’examen physique, les critères diagnostiques et les options de prise en charge du conflit fémoroacétabulaire (CFA). Sources des données Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans PubMed pour trouver des articles pertinents sur la pathogenèse, le diagnostic, le traitement et le pronostic du CFA. Message principal Depuis les dernières années, on reconnaît de plus en plus que le CFA est un précurseur potentiel et une étiologie importante des douleurs à la hanche dans la population adulte et de la coxarthrose idiopathique plus tard dans la vie. Le conflit fémoro-acétabulaire désigne un ensemble d’anomalies morphologiques osseuses de l’articulation de la hanche qui se traduit par un contact anormal durant le mouvement. Le CFA par effet came concerne une proéminence osseuse non sphérique du col fémoral proximal ou de la jonction tête-col. Le CFM par effet tenaille désigne une couverture acétabulaire excessive par-dessus la tête du fémur, qui peut se produire en raison de diverses variantes morphologiques. Les patients qui ont un CFA présentent une douleur inguinale antérieure chronique, profonde ou lancinante, le plus souvent en position assise, durant ou après une activité. Les patients peuvent aussi ressentir des douleurs occasionnelles aiguës durant l’activité. Il faut procéder à une anamnèse approfondie portant notamment sur l’incidence de traumatismes ou la fréquence de l’exercice. Il faut aussi faire un examen physique complet des hanches, de la région lombaire et de l’abdomen pour évaluer d’autres causes de douleurs inguinales antérieures. Le diagnostic de CFA est confirmé par radiographie. Le conflit fémoro-acétabulaire peut être pris en charge selon une approche conservatrice comportant du repos, la modification des activités, des médicaments et de la physiothérapie ou encore être traité par intervention chirurgicale. Conclusion

  5. "Panic": the impact of Le Bon's crowd psychology on U.S. military thought.

    PubMed

    Bendersky, Joseph W

    2007-01-01

    The controversial crowd psychology of Gustave Le Bon has been both praised as an incisive contribution to social theory and also condemned as a doctrine of irrationality and mass manipulation associated with fascism. New archival documentation now demonstrates that Le Bon exercised significant influence on U.S. military thinking and practice through World War II. Army writings and officer training on morale, leadership, and battlefield psychology rested substantially on his theory of crowds, particularly regarding races and panic. Le Bon's racial psychology took on additional importance when the African-American 92 nd Infantry Division panicked during combat in Italy. This new evidence offers an excellent case study of the direct and enduring impact of a peculiar type of social psychology on the institutional culture of the army from the classrooms at the Army War College to the battlefield itself. PMID:17623871

  6. Aristides Leão: a birth centennial homage with comments on his spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Eliasz; Gomes, Marleide da Mota

    2015-06-01

    The year of 2014 is the birth centenary of Aristides Azevedo Pacheco Leão (1914-1993), and also marks seventy years of the publication of his discovery of the novel electrophysiological phenomenon, named by him "spreading depression" (SD), soon designated "Leão's wave" or "Leão's spreading depression". This was a remarkable scientific milestone, and the author must be celebrated for this achievement, as the studies he triggered proceeded worldwide, with new concepts, as spreading depolarization, until the present days. Robust experimental and clinical evidence emerged to suggest that these and related electrophysiological phenomena are involved in the mechanisms of migraine aura, acute cerebrovascular diseases, traumatic brain injury, transient global amnesia, epileptic seizures, and their pathophysiological characteristics come to offer new therapeutic perspectives. He was a remarkable and complex personality, and the authors remit the readers to a paper where his personal life is contemplated. PMID:26083892

  7. Professor Aristides Leão. Much more than spreading depression.

    PubMed

    Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Vincent, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    Professor Leão described cortical spreading depression (CSD) in 1944 and changed the way migraine pathophysiology is scientifically conceived. This Brazilian professor and researcher developed his career in Rio de Janeiro. Because of him, the city once became the CSD world capital, attracting scientists from many laboratories around the globe. Aristides Leão was first and foremost a naturalist, a man genuinely interested in birds, fishes, plants, shells, and neuroscience. He could easily fascinate whoever would come for a chat, leaving no question without answers. He was born in 1914 and died in 1993. This report focuses on his life, family, habits, and hobbies, describing a little of Leão apart from CSD and the year of 1944. PMID:18647182

  8. Oxygen Isotopic Analyses of Water in Bjurböle Matrix and Chondrules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunn, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Past oxygen isotopic analyses of the Bjurböle meteorite have been limited to whole rock and chondrule studies. We present here the first oxygen isotopic measurements of water contained in the matrix and chondrules of the L4 equilibrated ordinary chondrite Bjurböle. Water was extracted by vacuum pyrolysis from samples of separated matrix and chondrules from Bjurböle. A new, low volume, ultra low blank system was built specifically for these measurements. Each fraction was pumped overnight on a vacuum line to remove as much adsorbed terrestrial water as possible before heating step-wise to 150, 350, 600 and 1000°C. While heating, evaporated volatiles were collected in a liquid nitrogen cold trap. Water was quantitatively converted to molecular oxygen with bromine pentafluoride. Isotopic abundances were measured on a double-collecting isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The Δ 17O values obtained from direct fluorination of Bjurböle chondrules and whole rock and UV laser probe analyses of individual Bjurböle chondrules all cluster around one [1, 2]. Compared to these data, water extracted from the Bjurböle matrix and chondrules is isotopically light (Δ 17O = 0.5 and 0.7, respectively), presumably reflecting different equilibration histories of water and oxygen-bearing minerals in each component. Additionally, the proximity of Δ 17O values of water extracted at lower temperatures to zero indicates low-temperature heating is necessary to remove all adsorbed terrestrial water and obtain the true isotopic signature of extraterrestrial water.

  9. Oncoplastie avec conservation mammaire dans le traitement du cancer du sein: à propos de 16 cas

    PubMed Central

    Bouzoubaa, Wail; Laadioui, Meryam; Jayi, Sofia; Alaoui, Fatime Zahra Fdili; Bouguern, Hakima; Chaara, Hikmat; Melhouf, Moulay Abdelilah

    2015-01-01

    Le cancer du sein est actuellement le cancer le plus fréquent chez la femme, et pose un véritable problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. Le dépistage des lésions à un stade de plus en plus précoce, a permis une extension des indications du traitement conservateur radiochirurgical, qui était initialement limitées aux tumeurs de moins de 3 cm, unifocales, non inflammatoires. Par ailleurs, l'utilisation de traitements préopératoires permet d’étendre les indications du traitement conservateur à des tumeurs plus volumineuses. Parallèlement à cette extension des indications de conservation mammaire, on a observé le développement de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques notamment la chirurgie oncoplastique, technique du ganglion sentinelle et chirurgie stéréotaxique, dont les résultats initiaux sont très encouragent. A travers cette étude réalisée dans le service de gynécologie et obstétrique II du CHU HASSAN II de FES au MAROC, après l'analyse rétrospective de 16 patientes traitées par traitement conservateur et oncoplastie, nous avons voulus montrer notre aptitude a réalisé ses techniques chirurgicales et a bien prendre en charge ces patientes, mais aussi évaluer ces techniques en termes de résultat carcinologique et de résultat esthétique, aussi en terme de survie globale, survie sans métastase et en termes de récidive locale entre les plasties mammaires et les traitements usuels: mastectomie et traitement conservateur classique. PMID:26430477

  10. Infection par le virus de l’hépatite E durant la grossesse

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, Shahnaz A.; Verma, Natasha; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Plusieurs de mes patientes sont originaires de l’Asie du Sud-Est où le virus de l’hépatite E est assez commun. Quelles précautions puis-je leur suggérer de prendre avant de voyager dans cette région et quels sont les risques d’une infection par le VHE durant la grossesse? Réponse L’hépatite E est un pathogène présent dans l’eau qui se transmet par voie oro-fécale. Afin de réduire le risque de contracter le VHE lors de voyages dans des régions endémiques, il est important de maintenir des pratiques d’hygiène telles que se laver les mains avec de l’eau potable, particulièrement avant de manipuler de la nourriture, éviter de boire de l’eau ou d’utiliser des glaçons de pureté inconnue et ne pas manger de fruits ou de légumes non pelés. Actuellement, il n’existe aucun vaccin disponible au Canada pour le VHE. Une infection à l’hépatite E durant la grossesse, surtout durant le troisième trimestre, se caractérise par une infection plus sévère qui se transforme parfois en hépatite fulminante, augmentant ainsi les risques de mortalité et de morbidité maternelles et fœtales.

  11. Testing QCD at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders: 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.

    1996-01-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities for making precise tests of Quantum Chromodynamics at high energy e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} colliders operating at center-of-mass energies in the range 0.5 {le} Q {le} 2 TeV. Throughout, the acronym HLC, representing High energy Linear e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collider, will be used to denote the set of colliders comprising NLC, JLC, CLIC, TESLA and VLEPP that have been proposed by the respective geo-political consortia to confront the supra-national physics. It is assumed that the collider will be designed to deliver an integrated luminosity of 50 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 500 GeV, and 100 fb{sup {minus}1} per year of running at 1 TeV.

  12. le de la radiothérapie dans le traitement de l'améloblastome: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    El Mazghi, Abderrahman; Bouhafa, Touria; El Kacemi, Hanan; Loukili, Kaoutar; Chbani, Laila; Kebdani, Taieb; Hassouni, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    L'améloblastome est une tumeur odontogène bénigne mais à pouvoir agressif et invasif local important. C'est une tumeur rare, elle représente 1% des tumeurs des maxillaires. Lele de la radiothérapie dans son traitement est actuellement démontré pour les tumeurs inopérables. Nous rapportons 2 cas d'améloblastomes mandibulaires chez deux patients qui ont bénéficié d'une radiothérapie externe à la dose de 60 Gy. L’évolution a été marquée par une rémission complète de la maladie dans les deux cas avec un recul de 2 et 5 ans. PMID:25722762

  13. Le glaucome congénitale et la neurofibromatose type 1

    PubMed Central

    Tzili, Nazih; El Orch, Hamza; Bencherifa, Fatiha; Chefchaouni, Mohammed Charif; Abdallah, El Hassan; Berraho, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Le glaucome congénital constitue une complication ophtalmologique dans la neurofibromatose type 1 ou maladie de von Recklinghausen. Nous rapportons un cas de glaucome congénitale dans le cadre d'une neurofibromatose de type 1, à travers lequel on va discuter les mécanismes étiopathogénique, les difficultés thérapeutiques et les facteurs pronostiques du glaucome congénital au cours la maladie de von Recklinghausen avec revue de la littérature. PMID:26405492

  14. Interpretation des donnees de flux de chaleur et de gravite dans le bouclier Canadien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Li Zhen

    2000-10-01

    Le champ geothermique du Bouclier Canadien est caracterise par un flux moyen de 41 mW·m-2, qui suggere une production de chaleur moyenne dans la croute comprise entre 0.7 et 0.8 muW·m-3. Le flux de chaleur relativement faible favorise la stabilite du bouclier et lui a permis de resister a la deformation tectonique. Les variations du flux de chaleur a la surface sont dominees par la composition de la croute. Un flux eleve implique generalement une composition felsique et il est d'autant plus faible que la croute devient plus mafique. La production de chaleur en surface n'est pas representative de la production moyenne de la croute. Le flux de chaleur dans le Boucher Canadien ne depend donc pas de la production de chaleur en surface, mais depend de la composition principale de la croute. L'interpretation combinee des donnees geophysiques nous permet de determiner les variations de composition d'echelle crustale a partir desquelles il est possible d'etablir la structure de la croute. L'etude detaillee de l'Orogene de Trans-Hudson et de la Sous-province d'Abitibi a montre que le flux de chaleur, la gravite et la sismique lorsqu'elles sont combinees fournissent des contraintes efficaces pour determiner l'architecture crustale. En general, la croute est trop resistante pour se deformer par fluage, excepte tres localement. Le mode de deformation de la lithosphere continentale depend de la composition et du gradient geothermique. Nous montrons que la lithosphere du Bouclier Canadien demeure principalement fragile jusqu'a une profondeur de plus de 150 km. Une deformation ductile pourrait cependant etre possible localement a la base de la, croute, comme dans la ceinture de Thompson par exemple. Si l'on admet que la lithosphere peut resister a des contraintes allant jusqu'a 20 MPa (taux de deformation 3˙ < 10-15 s-1), l'epaisseur de la lithosphere est de l'ordre de 300 km pour la ceinture de Thompson et est superieure a 300 km pour la sous-province d'Abitibi. La resistance

  15. Conductivite dans le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel a faible couplage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic

    Le modele de Hubbard bi-dimensionnel (2D) est souvent considere comme le modele minimal pour les supraconducteurs a haute temperature critique a base d'oxyde de cuivre (SCHT). Sur un reseau carre, ce modele possede les phases qui sont communes a tous les SCHT, la phase antiferromagnetique, la phase supraconductrice et la phase dite du pseudogap. Il n'a pas de solution exacte, toutefois, plusieurs methodes approximatives permettent d'etudier ses proprietes de facon numerique. Les proprietes optiques et de transport sont bien connues dans les SCHT et sont donc de bonne candidates pour valider un modele theorique et aider a comprendre mieux la physique de ces materiaux. La presente these porte sur le calcul de ces proprietes pour le modele de Hubbard 2D a couplage faible ou intermediaire. La methode de calcul utilisee est l'approche auto-coherente a deux particules (ACDP), qui est non-perturbative et inclue l'effet des fluctuations de spin et de charge a toutes les longueurs d'onde. La derivation complete de l'expression de la conductivite dans l'approche ACDP est presentee. Cette expression contient ce qu'on appelle les corrections de vertex, qui tiennent compte des correlations entre quasi-particules. Pour rendre possible le calcul numerique de ces corrections, des algorithmes utilisant, entre autres, des transformees de Fourier rapides et des splines cubiques sont developpes. Les calculs sont faits pour le reseau carre avec sauts aux plus proches voisins autour du point critique antiferromagnetique. Aux dopages plus faibles que le point critique, la conductivite optique presente une bosse dans l'infrarouge moyen a basse temperature, tel qu'observe dans plusieurs SCHT. Dans la resistivite en fonction de la temperature, on trouve un comportement isolant dans le pseudogap lorsque les corrections de vertex sont negligees et metallique lorsqu'elles sont prises en compte. Pres du point critique, la resistivite est lineaire en T a basse temperature et devient

  16. Systèmes d'imagerie à haute résolution dans le domaine des Rayons X pour le Laser Mégajoule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champeaux, J.-Ph.; Troussel, Ph.; Boutin, J.-Y.; Lidove, G.; Marmoret, R.; Soullié, G.; Rosch, R.

    2006-12-01

    Le principe de la fusion par confinement inertiel consiste à faire imploser une cible sphérique de petite taille, millimétrique, remplie d'un mélange de deutérium et de tritium sous l'action des 240 faisceaux lasers impulsionnels de très grande puissance du LMJ. Les études de cette physique d'implosion (mise en vitesse, symétrie d'implosion, instabilités hydrodynamiques) et de l'allumage (traceurs, point chaud) font appel aux techniques de l'imagerie et de la radiographie à haute résolution spatiale (μm) et temporelle (ps) avec sélection spectrale dans le domaine d'énergie de photons comprise entre 100 eV et 20 keV. Plusieurs Systèmes d'Imagerie X (SIX), à haute résolution spatiale, ont donc été développés par le CEA-DIF et mis en œuvre sur la Ligne d'Intégration Laser (LIL) implantée au CEA-CESTA. Dans cet article nous présentons les principaux SIX, à base de microscopes à miroirs. Un exemple de microscope prototype nommé PIXEL (Plasma Imageur X pour les Expériences Lasers) développé pour le LMJ est présenté. Nous portons l'accent sur les problèmes technologiques liés à l'environnement LMJ.

  17. Le conte: Mille et une facons de dire... (The Story: A Thousand and One Ways to Say...).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazaux, Henri

    1996-01-01

    A teacher/storyteller recommends story creation by students to encourage creativity and pleasure in developing language skills. Suggested exercises include combining random nouns (e.g., "le fer et le bois") and creating a proverb about them, creating a story using names of consumer products, and developing a story using only body-language idioms…

  18. LeCPK1, a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase from Tomato. Plasma Membrane Targeting and Biochemical Characterization1

    PubMed Central

    Rutschmann, Frank; Stalder, Urs; Piotrowski, Markus; Oecking, Claudia; Schaller, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    The cDNA of LeCPK1, a calcium-dependent protein kinase, was cloned from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). LeCPK1 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified from bacterial extracts. The recombinant protein was shown to be a functional protein kinase using a synthetic peptide as the substrate (syntide-2, Km = 85 μm). Autophosphorylation of LeCPK1 was observed on threonine and serine residues, one of which was identified as serine-439. Kinase activity was shown to be Ca2+ dependent and required the C-terminal, calmodulin-like domain of LeCPK1. Two classes of high- and low-affinity Ca2+-binding sites were observed, exhibiting dissociation constants of 0.6 and 55 μm, respectively. LeCPK1 was found to phosphorylate the regulatory C-terminal domain of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in vitro. A potential role in the regulation of proton pump activity is corroborated by the apparent colocalization of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase and LeCPK1 in vivo. Upon transient expression in suspension-cultured cells, a C-terminal fusion of LeCPK1 with the green fluorescent protein was targeted to the plasma membrane. Myristoylation of the LeCPK1 N terminus was found to be required for plasma membrane targeting. PMID:12011347

  19. The Center for Learning Technologies in Urban Schools (LeTUS) Program[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The "LeTUS" program is a three-year, project-based, technology-integrated middle school science curriculum for grades 6-8. The "LeTUS" program is composed of multiple units, each lasting between eight and ten weeks. Topics include global warming, water and air quality, force and motion, communicable diseases, and ecological systems. The units are…

  20. Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania chagasi/Le. infantum in an endemic area of Guarico State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    De Lima, H; Rodríguez, N; Feliciangeli, M D; Barrios, M A; Sosa, A; Agrela, I; Sánchez, E; Lopez, O

    2009-07-01

    This study reports cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania chagasi/Le. infantum in Venezuela, with some atypical characteristics. Out of 63 cases of CL in the suburbs of Altagracia de Orituco, Guarico State, Venezuela, 30 presented clinical, parasitological, immunological and epidemiological features different from those of the classical CL known in the country. The initial lesion was small and nodular, which, if not treated, might progress to a superficial ulcer. No secondary infection was observed. The identification of the isolates was carried out by molecular techniques. Twelve species of phlebotomine sandflies were caught, the most abundant being Lutzomyia evansi and Lu. longipalpis s.l., known vectors of Le. chagasi/Le. infantum. The existence of Le. chagasi/Le. infantum and its vectors in an endemic area of CL has implications and we suggest that epidemiological studies should be carried out to obtain a clearer picture of the extent of this CL form in Venezuela. PMID:19150102

  1. Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Lai, Tongfei; Manning, Kenneth; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Ying; Qin, Cheng; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; He, Meiling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Gu, Mei; Yang, Xin; Mahammed, Atef; Li, Chunyang; Osman, Toba; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Jackson, Stephen; Liu, Yule; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato. PMID:25597857

  2. "Ambivalence to Technology in Jeunet's" Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rick Clifton

    2006-01-01

    Although at one level Jean-Pierre Jeunets "Le Fabuleux Destin d'Amelie Poulain" is a sweet, attractive film about a young Parisian doing good deeds, it also offers a compelling analysis of the role of technology in our modern lives. The film paints a world where machines and a mechanistic worldview are appealing because humans have a desire to…

  3. The Ammonia Synthesis Reaction: An Exception to the Le Chatelier Principle and Effects of Nonideality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uline, Mark J.; Corti, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Le Chatelier's principle states that the further addition of a particular component will cause the reaction to shift in the direction that reduces the total number of moles of the system. However, the addition of one reactant [N[subscript 2

  4. Molecular and cellular characterization of the tomato pollen profilin, LePro1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profilin is an actin-binding protein involved in the dynamic turnover and restructuring of the actin cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells. We previously cloned a profilin gene, designated as LePro1 from tomato pollen. To investigate its biological role, in the present study, We investigated the tem...

  5. Le syndrome de Stewart-Treves compliquant un lymphœdème chronique idiopathique

    PubMed Central

    Safini, Fatima; Naim, Asmaa; Bouchbika, Zineb; Benchakroun, Nadia; Jouhadi, Hassan; Tawfiq, Nezha; Sahraoui, Souha; Benider, Abdellatif

    2014-01-01

    Le syndrome de Stewart-Treves (SST) est une entité rare, correspondant à un angiosarcome cutané compliquant un lymphoedème chronique. Il est de mauvais pronostic. Stewart et Treves ont rapportés en 1948, les premiers cas d'angiosarcome secondaire à un traitement du cancer du sein. Ce terme s'est généralisé pour regrouper l'ensemble des cas de lymphangiosarcome sur lymphoedème d'origine congénital héréditaire ou non héréditaire, post-traumatique ou post-infectieux. Le SST sur un lymphoedème idiopathique reste exceptionnel. Nous rapportons le cas rare d'une patiente présentant un lymphoedème chronique primitif idiopathique des quatre membres évoluant depuis l'adolescence et qui a développé un SST du membre supérieur droit. Elle a subi une amputation à mi- bras vu le caractère très évolué de la tumeur PMID:25883738

  6. Tested Demonstrations: Thermodynamic Changes, Kinetics, Equilibrium, and LeChatelier's Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, George L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Procedures for demonstrating thermodynamic changes, kinetics and reaction mechanisms, equilibrium, and LeChatelier's principle are presented. The only materials needed for these demonstrations are beakers, water, assorted wooden blocks of varying thickness, assorted rubber tubing, and a sponge. The concepts illustrated in each demonstration are…

  7. The Potassium-Argon Laser Experiment (KarLE): In Situ Geochronology for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The search for life in the solar system depends upon discovering the right moments in planetary evolution: when habitable environments existed, when they declined, and when geologic processes operated to preserve traces of life after death. However, an incomplete knowledge of absolute Martian geochronology limits our ability to understand the timing of Martian evolutionary milestones, major climate changes, and stratigraphic epochs [1, 2]. Absolute dating relates these habitability markers to planetarywide geologic, atmospheric, and climate history places, and ties their occurrence to the history of the solar system, especially the Earth-Moon system and the timescale of evolution of life on Earth. KArLE is being developed to anchor the relative timeline of geological events to an absolute chronology that puts Mars into a wider solar system context. KArLE makes its measurements on rock samples that can be obtained by landers or rovers and inserted into a small, mechanically simple chamber. KArLE interrogates the samples using laser-induced breakdown spectrocopy (LIBS), mass spectrometry, and optical imaging. The KArLE experiment is flexible enough to accommodate any partner providing these instrument components, a creative approach that extends the ability of mission payloads to accomplish an additional highly-desirable science measurement for low cost and risk and minimal extra hardware.

  8. Geomorphic evolution of the Le Sueur River, Minnesota, USA, and implications for current sediment loading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gran, K.B.; Belmont, P.; Day, S.S.; Jennings, C.; Johnson, Aaron H.; Perg, L.; Wilcock, P.R.

    2009-01-01

    There is clear evidence that the Minnesota River is the major sediment source for Lake Pepin and that the Le Sueur River is a major source to the Minnesota River. Turbidity levels are high enough to require management actions. We take advantage of the well-constrained Holocene history of the Le Sueur basin and use a combination of remote sensing, fi eld, and stream gauge observations to constrain the contributions of different sediment sources to the Le Sueur River. Understanding the type, location, and magnitude of sediment sources is essential for unraveling the Holocene development of the basin as well as for guiding management decisions about investments to reduce sediment loads. Rapid base-level fall at the outlet of the Le Sueur River 11,500 yr B.P. triggered up to 70 m of channel incision at the mouth. Slope-area analyses of river longitudinal profi les show that knickpoints have migrated 30-35 km upstream on all three major branches of the river, eroding 1.2-2.6 ?? 109 Mg of sediment from the lower valleys in the process. The knick zones separate the basin into an upper watershed, receiving sediment primarily from uplands and streambanks, and a lower, incised zone, which receives additional sediment from high bluffs and ravines. Stream gauges installed above and below knick zones show dramatic increases in sediment loading above that expected from increases in drainage area, indicating substantial inputs from bluffs and ravines.

  9. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Pierre LeBoutillier and Trusten M. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, Pierre LeBoutillier and Trusten M. Baldwin, Photographers, April, 1960 INTERIOR DETAIL, NORTHEAST AND SOUTHEAST PARLORS, ORIGINAL MANTEL (LEFT - RADIATOR COVERED). - King of Prussia Inn, U.S. Route 202 (Upper Merion Township), King of Prussia, Montgomery County, PA

  10. The Adverse Effects of Le Chatelier's Principle on Teacher Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Derek

    2009-01-01

    Although the scientific inadequacy of Le Chatelier's principle has long been documented in the literature, the principle is still treated as a central concept of chemical equilibrium by textbook writers and teachers in many countries. In the past, researchers' interest has focused on student misconceptions about chemical equilibrium and has…