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Sample records for interface cell exposure

  1. Exposure of Mammalian Cells to Air-Pollutant Mixtures at the Air-Liquid Interface

    EPA Science Inventory

    It has been widely accepted that exposure of mammalian cells to air-pollutant mixtures at the air-liquid interface is a more realistic approach than exposing cell under submerged conditions. The VITROCELL systems, are commercially available systems for air-liquid interface expo...

  2. A dose-controlled system for air-liquid interface cell exposure and application to zinc oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Engineered nanoparticles are becoming increasingly ubiquitous and their toxicological effects on human health, as well as on the ecosystem, have become a concern. Since initial contact with nanoparticles occurs at the epithelium in the lungs (or skin, or eyes), in vitro cell studies with nanoparticles require dose-controlled systems for delivery of nanoparticles to epithelial cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Results A novel air-liquid interface cell exposure system (ALICE) for nanoparticles in liquids is presented and validated. The ALICE generates a dense cloud of droplets with a vibrating membrane nebulizer and utilizes combined cloud settling and single particle sedimentation for fast (~10 min; entire exposure), repeatable (<12%), low-stress and efficient delivery of nanoparticles, or dissolved substances, to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface. Validation with various types of nanoparticles (Au, ZnO and carbon black nanoparticles) and solutes (such as NaCl) showed that the ALICE provided spatially uniform deposition (<1.6% variability) and had no adverse effect on the viability of a widely used alveolar human epithelial-like cell line (A549). The cell deposited dose can be controlled with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) over a dynamic range of at least 0.02-200 μg/cm2. The cell-specific deposition efficiency is currently limited to 0.072 (7.2% for two commercially available 6-er transwell plates), but a deposition efficiency of up to 0.57 (57%) is possible for better cell coverage of the exposure chamber. Dose-response measurements with ZnO nanoparticles (0.3-8.5 μg/cm2) showed significant differences in mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory (IL-8) and oxidative stress (HO-1) markers when comparing submerged and air-liquid interface exposures. Both exposure methods showed no cellular response below 1 μg/cm2 ZnO, which indicates that ZnO nanoparticles are not toxic at occupationally allowed exposure levels. Conclusion The ALICE

  3. Exposure of silver-nanoparticles and silver-ions to lung cells in vitro at the air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its antibacterial properties, silver (Ag) has been used in more consumer products than any other nanomaterial so far. Despite the promising advantages posed by using Ag-nanoparticles (NPs), their interaction with mammalian systems is currently not fully understood. An exposure route via inhalation is of primary concern for humans in an occupational setting. Aim of this study was therefore to investigate the potential adverse effects of aerosolised Ag-NPs using a human epithelial airway barrier model composed of A549, monocyte derived macrophage and dendritic cells cultured in vitro at the air-liquid interface. Cell cultures were exposed to 20 nm citrate-coated Ag-NPs with a deposition of 30 and 278 ng/cm2 respectively and incubated for 4 h and 24 h. To elucidate whether any effects of Ag-NPs are due to ionic effects, Ag-Nitrate (AgNO3) solutions were aerosolised at the same molecular mass concentrations. Results Agglomerates of Ag-NPs were detected at 24 h post exposure in vesicular structures inside cells but the cellular integrity was not impaired upon Ag-NP exposures. Minimal cytotoxicity, by measuring the release of lactate dehydrogenase, could only be detected following a higher concentrated AgNO3-solution. A release of pro-inflammatory markers TNF-α and IL-8 was neither observed upon Ag-NP and AgNO3 exposures as well as was not affected when cells were pre-stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Also, an induction of mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-8, could only be observed for the highest AgNO3 concentration alone or even significantly increased when pre-stimulated with LPS after 4 h. However, this effect disappeared after 24 h. Furthermore, oxidative stress markers (HMOX-1, SOD-1) were expressed after 4 h in a concentration dependent manner following AgNO3 exposures only. Conclusions With an experimental setup reflecting physiological exposure conditions in the human lung more realistic, the present study indicates that Ag

  4. Growth of airway epithelial cells at an air-liquid interface changes both the response to particle exposure and iron homeostasis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    RATIONALE: We tested the hypothesis that 1) relative to submerged cells, airway epithelial cells grown at an air-liquid interface and allowed to differentiate would have an altered response to particle exposure and 2) that these differences would be associated with indices of iro...

  5. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Cell Exposure Systems for in Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared various in vitro exposure systems for their ability to expose cells to particles and gases. The systems tested use different mechanisms to deliver multi-pollutants to the cells: diffusion, sedimentation, thermophoresis (THP) and electrostatic precipitation (ESP). Vari...

  6. The CULTEX RFS: A Comprehensive Technical Approach for the In Vitro Exposure of Airway Epithelial Cells to the Particulate Matter at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Aufderheide, Michaela; Hochrainer, Dieter

    2013-01-01

    The EU Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) demands the implementation of alternative methods for analyzing the hazardous effects of chemicals including particulate formulations. In the field of inhalation toxicology, a variety of in vitro models have been developed for such studies. To simulate the in vivo situation, an adequate exposure device is necessary for the direct exposure of cultivated lung cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The CULTEX RFS fulfills these requirements and has been optimized for the exposure of cells to atomized suspensions, gases, and volatile compounds as well as micro- and nanosized particles. This study provides information on the construction and functional aspects of the exposure device. By using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, the technical design was optimized to realize a stable, reproducible, and homogeneous deposition of particles. The efficiency of the exposure procedure is demonstrated by exposing A549 cells dose dependently to lactose monohydrate, copper(II) sulfate, copper(II) oxide, and micro- and nanoparticles. All copper compounds induced cytotoxic effects, most pronounced for soluble copper(II) sulfate. Micro- and nanosized copper(II) oxide also showed a dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability, whereby the nanosized particles decreased the metabolic activity of the cells more severely. PMID:23509768

  7. Cellular Dose of Partly Soluble Cu Particle Aerosols at the Air–Liquid Interface Using an In Vitro Lung Cell Exposure System

    PubMed Central

    Cronholm, Pontus; Karlsson, Hanna L.; Midander, Klara; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Möller, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure. Methods In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air–liquid interface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow. Results Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180 nm [geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 105 particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4–2.6 μg/cm2 at pulsed flow and 1.6–7.6 μg/cm2 at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD 80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 107 particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01–0.05 μg/cm2 at pulsed flow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium. Conclusions Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a nonnegligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles. PMID:22889118

  8. Silica nanoparticles are less toxic to human lung cells when deposited at the air–liquid interface compared to conventional submerged exposure

    PubMed Central

    Saathoff, Harald; Leisner, Thomas; Al-Rawi, Marco; Simon, Michael; Seemann, Gunnar; Dössel, Olaf; Mülhopt, Sonja; Paur, Hanns-Rudolf; Fritsch-Decker, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: Investigations on adverse biological effects of nanoparticles (NPs) in the lung by in vitro studies are usually performed under submerged conditions where NPs are suspended in cell culture media. However, the behaviour of nanoparticles such as agglomeration and sedimentation in such complex suspensions is difficult to control and hence the deposited cellular dose often remains unknown. Moreover, the cellular responses to NPs under submerged culture conditions might differ from those observed at physiological settings at the air–liquid interface. Results: In order to avoid problems because of an altered behaviour of the nanoparticles in cell culture medium and to mimic a more realistic situation relevant for inhalation, human A549 lung epithelial cells were exposed to aerosols at the air–liquid interphase (ALI) by using the ALI deposition apparatus (ALIDA). The application of an electrostatic field allowed for particle deposition efficiencies that were higher by a factor of more than 20 compared to the unmodified VITROCELL deposition system. We studied two different amorphous silica nanoparticles (particles produced by flame synthesis and particles produced in suspension by the Stöber method). Aerosols with well-defined particle sizes and concentrations were generated by using a commercial electrospray generator or an atomizer. Only the electrospray method allowed for the generation of an aerosol containing monodisperse NPs. However, the deposited mass and surface dose of the particles was too low to induce cellular responses. Therefore, we generated the aerosol with an atomizer which supplied agglomerates and thus allowed a particle deposition with a three orders of magnitude higher mass and of surface doses on lung cells that induced significant biological effects. The deposited dose was estimated and independently validated by measurements using either transmission electron microscopy or, in case of labelled NPs, by fluorescence analyses

  9. Critical Evaluation of Air-Liquid Interface Exposure Devices for In Vitro Assessment of Atmospheric Pollutants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure of cells to atmospheric pollutants at the air-liquid interface (ALI) is a more realistic approach than exposures of attached cells submerged in liquid medium. However, there is still limited understanding of the ideal ALI device design features that permit reproducible a...

  10. Longitudinal Hierarchy Co3O4 Mesocrystals with High-dense Exposure Facets and Anisotropic Interfaces for Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassen, Diab; El-Safty, Sherif A.; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Shenashen, Mohamed. A.; Sakai, Masaru

    2016-04-01

    Novel electrodes are needed for direct ethanol fuel cells with improved quality. Hierarchical engineering can produce catalysts composed of mesocrystals with many exposed active planes and multi-diffused voids. Here we report a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal method for fabricating Co3O4/carbon/substrate electrodes that provides control over the catalyst mesocrystal morphology (i.e., corn tubercle pellets or banana clusters oriented along nanotube domains, or layered lamina or multiple cantilevered sheets). These morphologies afforded catalysts with a high density of exposed active facets, a diverse range of mesopores in the cage interior, a window architecture, and vertical alignment to the substrate, which improved efficiency in an ethanol electrooxidation reaction compared with a conventional platinum/carbon electrode. On the atomic scale, the longitudinally aligned architecture of the Co3O4 mesocrystals resulted in exposed low- and high-index single and interface surfaces that had improved electron transport and diffusion compared with currently used electrodes.

  11. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1985-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  12. Longitudinal Hierarchy Co3O4 Mesocrystals with High-dense Exposure Facets and Anisotropic Interfaces for Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Diab; El-Safty, Sherif A; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Shenashen, Mohamed A; Sakai, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Novel electrodes are needed for direct ethanol fuel cells with improved quality. Hierarchical engineering can produce catalysts composed of mesocrystals with many exposed active planes and multi-diffused voids. Here we report a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal method for fabricating Co3O4/carbon/substrate electrodes that provides control over the catalyst mesocrystal morphology (i.e., corn tubercle pellets or banana clusters oriented along nanotube domains, or layered lamina or multiple cantilevered sheets). These morphologies afforded catalysts with a high density of exposed active facets, a diverse range of mesopores in the cage interior, a window architecture, and vertical alignment to the substrate, which improved efficiency in an ethanol electrooxidation reaction compared with a conventional platinum/carbon electrode. On the atomic scale, the longitudinally aligned architecture of the Co3O4 mesocrystals resulted in exposed low- and high-index single and interface surfaces that had improved electron transport and diffusion compared with currently used electrodes. PMID:27075551

  13. Longitudinal Hierarchy Co3O4 Mesocrystals with High-dense Exposure Facets and Anisotropic Interfaces for Direct-Ethanol Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hassen, Diab; El-Safty, Sherif A.; Tsuchiya, Koichi; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Elmarakbi, Ahmed; Shenashen, Mohamed. A.; Sakai, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    Novel electrodes are needed for direct ethanol fuel cells with improved quality. Hierarchical engineering can produce catalysts composed of mesocrystals with many exposed active planes and multi-diffused voids. Here we report a simple, one-pot, hydrothermal method for fabricating Co3O4/carbon/substrate electrodes that provides control over the catalyst mesocrystal morphology (i.e., corn tubercle pellets or banana clusters oriented along nanotube domains, or layered lamina or multiple cantilevered sheets). These morphologies afforded catalysts with a high density of exposed active facets, a diverse range of mesopores in the cage interior, a window architecture, and vertical alignment to the substrate, which improved efficiency in an ethanol electrooxidation reaction compared with a conventional platinum/carbon electrode. On the atomic scale, the longitudinally aligned architecture of the Co3O4 mesocrystals resulted in exposed low- and high-index single and interface surfaces that had improved electron transport and diffusion compared with currently used electrodes. PMID:27075551

  14. Film bonded fuel cell interface configuration

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to improved elements for use in fuel cell stacks, and more particularly, to a stack having a corrosion-resistant, electrally conductive, fluid-impervious interface member therein.

  15. Optimization of an air-liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Latvala, Siiri; Hedberg, Jonas; Möller, Lennart; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Karlsson, Hanna L; Elihn, Karine

    2016-10-01

    The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm(-2) ) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min(-1) ) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm(-2) ) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.Copyright © 2016 The Authors Journal of Applied Toxicology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26935862

  16. Interfacing nanostructures to biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Xing; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2012-09-04

    Disclosed herein are methods and materials by which nanostructures such as carbon nanotubes, nanorods, etc. are bound to lectins and/or polysaccharides and prepared for administration to cells. Also disclosed are complexes comprising glycosylated nanostructures, which bind selectively to cells expressing glycosylated surface molecules recognized by the lectin. Exemplified is a complex comprising a carbon nanotube functionalized with a lipid-like alkane, linked to a polymer bearing repeated .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine sugar groups. This complex is shown to selectively adhere to the surface of living cells, without toxicity. In the exemplified embodiment, adherence is mediated by a multivalent lectin, which binds both to the cells and the .alpha.-N-acetylgalactosamine groups on the nanostructure.

  17. Interface mechanisms in CIGS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jayapayalan, A.; Sankaranarayanan, H.; Shankaradas, M.; Panse, P.; Narayanaswamy, R.; Ferekides, C.S.; Morel, D.L.

    1999-03-01

    The role of Ga in CIGS solar cells is complex. In addition to its primary role of alloying agent to increase the band gap we also observe its influence on passivation, transport, trapping and doping. At low levels it can positively influence all of these mechanisms and improve performance. As its level is increased, there are complex tradeoffs among these that must be controlled to maintain good performance. We have applied photocapacitance techniques to study the junction interface region and the role that Ga plays in its formation and operation. We observe a correlation between the defect that provides doping and the recombination centers, which control Voc. The dominant centers are deep in the band gap and are located near the metallurgical junction. It is proposed that a reduction of the correlated doping defect will result in improved interface properties. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Process for making film-bonded fuel cell interfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kaufman, Arthur; Terry, Peter L.

    1990-07-03

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. A multi-layer arrangement for the interface provides bridging electrical contact with a hot-pressed resin filling the void space.

  19. Corrosion protected, multi-layer fuel cell interface

    DOEpatents

    Feigenbaum, Haim; Pudick, Sheldon; Wang, Chiu L.

    1986-01-01

    An improved interface configuration for use between adjacent elements of a fuel cell stack. The interface is impervious to gas and liquid and provides resistance to corrosion by the electrolyte of the fuel cell. The multi-layer configuration for the interface comprises a non-cupreous metal-coated metallic element to which is film-bonded a conductive layer by hot pressing a resin therebetween. The multi-layer arrangement provides bridging electrical contact.

  20. Genome exposure and regulation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Puck, T T; Webb, P; Johnson, R

    1998-09-01

    A method of measurement of exposed DNA (i.e. hypersensitive to DNase I hydrolysis) as opposed to sequestered (hydrolysis resistant) DNA in isolated nuclei of mammalian cells is described. While cell cultures exhibit some differences in behavior from day to day, the general pattern of exposed and sequestered DNA is satisfactorily reproducible and agrees with results previously obtained by other methods. The general pattern of DNA hydrolysis exhibited by all cells tested consists of a curve which at first rises sharply with increasing DNase I, and then becomes almost horizontal, indicating that roughly about half of the nuclear DNA is highly sequestered. In 4 cases where transformed cells (Raszip6, CHO, HL60 and PC12) were compared, each with its more normal homolog (3T3, and the reverse transformed versions of CHO, HL60 and PC12, achieved by dibutyryl cyclic AMP [DBcAMP], retinoic acid, and nerve growth factor [NGF] respectively), the transformed form displayed less genome exposure than the nontransformed form at every DNase I dose tested. When Ca++ was excluded from the hydrolysis medium in both the Raszip6-3T3 and the CHO-DBcAMP systems, the normal cell forms lost their increased exposure reverting to that of the transformed forms. Therefore Ca++ appears necessary for maintenance of the DNA in the more highly exposed state characteristic of the nontransformed phenotype. LiCl increases the DNA exposure of all transformed cells tested. Dextran sulfate and heparin each can increase the DNA exposure of several different cancers. Colcemid prevents the increase of exposure of CHO by DBcAMP but it must be administered before or simultaneously with the latter compound. Measurements on mouse biopsies reveal large differences in exposure in different normal tissues. Thus, the exposure from adult liver cells was greater than that of adult brain, but both fetal liver and fetal brain had significantly greater exposure than their adult counterparts. Exposure in normal human

  1. Exposure of phosphatidylserine on the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Nagata, S; Suzuki, J; Segawa, K; Fujii, T

    2016-06-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is a phospholipid that is abundant in eukaryotic plasma membranes. An ATP-dependent enzyme called flippase normally keeps PtdSer inside the cell, but PtdSer is exposed by the action of scramblase on the cell's surface in biological processes such as apoptosis and platelet activation. Once exposed to the cell surface, PtdSer acts as an 'eat me' signal on dead cells, and creates a scaffold for blood-clotting factors on activated platelets. The molecular identities of the flippase and scramblase that work at plasma membranes have long eluded researchers. Indeed, their identity as well as the mechanism of the PtdSer exposure to the cell surface has only recently been revealed. Here, we describe how PtdSer is exposed in apoptotic cells and in activated platelets, and discuss PtdSer exposure in other biological processes. PMID:26891692

  2. Emitter/absorber interface of CdTe solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Tao; Kanevce, Ana; Sites, James R.

    2016-06-01

    The performance of CdTe solar cells can be very sensitive to the emitter/absorber interface, especially for high-efficiency cells with high bulk lifetime. Performance losses from acceptor-type interface defects can be significant when interface defect states are located near mid-gap energies. Numerical simulations show that the emitter/absorber band alignment, the emitter doping and thickness, and the defect properties of the interface (i.e., defect density, defect type, and defect energy) can all play significant roles in the interface recombination. In particular, a type I heterojunction with small conduction-band offset (0.1 eV ≤ ΔEC ≤ 0.3 eV) can help maintain good cell efficiency in spite of high interface defect density, much like with Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cells. The basic principle is that positive ΔEC, often referred to as a "spike," creates an absorber inversion and hence a large hole barrier adjacent to the interface. As a result, the electron-hole recombination is suppressed due to an insufficient hole supply at the interface. A large spike (ΔEC ≥ 0.4 eV), however, can impede electron transport and lead to a reduction of photocurrent and fill-factor. In contrast to the spike, a "cliff" (ΔEC < 0 eV) allows high hole concentration in the vicinity of the interface, which will assist interface recombination and result in a reduced open-circuit voltage. Another way to mitigate performance losses due to interface defects is to use a thin and highly doped emitter, which can invert the absorber and form a large hole barrier at the interface. CdS is the most common emitter material used in CdTe solar cells, but the CdS/CdTe interface is in the cliff category and is not favorable from the band-offset perspective. The ΔEC of other n-type emitter choices, such as (Mg,Zn)O, Cd(S,O), or (Cd,Mg)Te, can be tuned by varying the elemental ratio for an optimal positive value of ΔEC. These materials are predicted to yield higher voltages and would therefore be

  3. Impedance spectroscopy analysis of cell-electrode interface.

    PubMed

    Jianhui, Lin; Xiaoming, Wu; Pengsheng, Huang; Tianling, Ren; Litian, Liu

    2005-01-01

    Many chronically implanted electrodes suffer sensitivity loss in their applications in brain computer interface systems. It is hard to diagnose the cause of the problem because few measures are available to analyze directly what happened on the cell-electrode interface. In this paper, the impedance characterization of the cell-electrode interface was discussed in detail using equivalent circuit approach, which was used to evaluate the cause of the electrode sensitivity loss. The impedance spectroscopy of the cell-electrode interface acts as a function of several parameters, such as the sealing resistance and the shunt capacitance between the microelectrode and the electrolyte. Changes of the impedance spectroscopy can be traced to the parameter changes of the equivalent circuit, which reflect the status of the cell-electrode interface, such as the cell-electrode gap change, the erosion of microelectrodes, and so on. The circuit impedance simulation results give an important reference for the monitor of the cell-electrode connection, and are also helpful for the improvement of the microelectrode design. PMID:17282042

  4. Graphene-Based Interfaces Do Not Alter Target Nerve Cells.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Scaini, Denis; León, Verónica; Vázquez, Ester; Cellot, Giada; Privitera, Giulia; Lombardi, Lucia; Torrisi, Felice; Tomarchio, Flavia; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bosi, Susanna; Ferrari, Andrea C; Ballerini, Laura; Prato, Maurizio

    2016-01-26

    Neural-interfaces rely on the ability of electrodes to transduce stimuli into electrical patterns delivered to the brain. In addition to sensitivity to the stimuli, stability in the operating conditions and efficient charge transfer to neurons, the electrodes should not alter the physiological properties of the target tissue. Graphene is emerging as a promising material for neuro-interfacing applications, given its outstanding physico-chemical properties. Here, we use graphene-based substrates (GBSs) to interface neuronal growth. We test our GBSs on brain cell cultures by measuring functional and synaptic integrity of the emerging neuronal networks. We show that GBSs are permissive interfaces, even when uncoated by cell adhesion layers, retaining unaltered neuronal signaling properties, thus being suitable for carbon-based neural prosthetic devices. PMID:26700626

  5. Atomic structure of interface states in silicon heterojunction solar cells.

    PubMed

    George, B M; Behrends, J; Schnegg, A; Schulze, T F; Fehr, M; Korte, L; Rech, B; Lips, K; Rohrmüller, M; Rauls, E; Schmidt, W G; Gerstmann, U

    2013-03-29

    Combining orientation dependent electrically detected magnetic resonance and g tensor calculations based on density functional theory we assign microscopic structures to paramagnetic states involved in spin-dependent recombination at the interface of hydrogenated amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction solar cells. We find that (i) the interface exhibits microscopic roughness, (ii) the electronic structure of the interface defects is mainly determined by c-Si, (iii) we identify the microscopic origin of the conduction band tail state in the a-Si:H layer, and (iv) present a detailed recombination mechanism. PMID:23581355

  6. Anisotropic interface kinetics and tilted cells in unidirectional solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. W.; Davis, S. H.; Brattkus, K.

    1987-01-01

    A nonlinear evolution equation is derived which governs the cellular structure of a binary alloy with a small segregation coefficient, including the effects of anisotropic interface kinetics. This equation, applicable to long-wave instabilities of a planar interface, describes the spatial pattern of the growing disturbances. The presence of anisotropy causes the cells to grow at an angle to the normal of the planar front. This transition to a cellular morphology is shown to be a subcritical instability.

  7. Cigarette smoke alters primary human bronchial epithelial cell differentiation at the air-liquid interface

    PubMed Central

    Schamberger, Andrea C.; Staab-Weijnitz, Claudia A.; Mise-Racek, Nikica; Eickelberg, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The differentiated human airway epithelium consists of different cell types forming a polarized and pseudostratified epithelium. This is dramatically altered in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), characterized by basal and goblet cell hyperplasia, and squamous cell metaplasia. The effect of cigarette smoke on human bronchial epithelial cell (HBEC) differentiation remains to be elucidated. We analysed whether cigarette smoke extract (CSE) affected primary (p)HBEC differentiation and function. pHBEC were differentiated at the air-liquid interface (ALI) and differentiation was quantified after 7, 14, 21, or 28 days by assessing acetylated tubulin, CC10, or MUC5AC for ciliated, Clara, or goblet cells, respectively. Exposure of differentiating pHBEC to CSE impaired epithelial barrier formation, as assessed by resistance measurements (TEER). Importantly, CSE exposure significantly reduced the number of ciliated cells, while it increased the number of Clara and goblet cells. CSE-dependent cell number changes were reflected by a reduction of acetylated tubulin levels, an increased expression of the basal cell marker KRT14, and increased secretion of CC10, but not by changes in transcript levels of CC10, MUC5AC, or FOXJ1. Our data demonstrate that cigarette smoke specifically alters the cellular composition of the airway epithelium by affecting basal cell differentiation in a post-transcriptional manner. PMID:25641363

  8. NMR exposure sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ghibelli, L; Cerella, C; Cordisco, S; Clavarino, G; Marazzi, S; De Nicola, M; Nuccitelli, S; D'Alessio, M; Magrini, A; Bergamaschi, A; Guerrisi, V; Porfiri, L M

    2006-03-01

    NMR technology has dramatically contributed to the revolution of image diagnostic. NMR apparatuses use combinations of microwaves over a homogeneous strong (1 Tesla) static magnetic field. We had previously shown that low intensity (0.3-66 mT) static magnetic fields deeply affect apoptosis in a Ca2+ dependent fashion (Fanelli et al., 1999 FASEBJ., 13;95-102). The rationale of the present study is to examine whether exposure to the static magnetic fields of NMR can affect apoptosis induced on reporter tumor cells of haematopoietic origin. The impressive result was the strong increase (1.8-2.5 fold) of damage-induced apoptosis by NMR. This potentiation is due to cytosolic Ca2+ overload consequent to NMR-promoted Ca2+ influx, since it is prevented by intracellular (BAPTA-AM) and extracellular (EGTA) Ca2+ chelation or by inhibition of plasma membrane L-type Ca2+ channels. Three-days follow up of treated cultures shows that NMR decrease long term cell survival, thus increasing the efficiency of cytocidal treatments. Importantly, mononuclear white blood cells are not sensitised to apoptosis by NMR, showing that NMR may increase the differential cytotoxicity of antitumor drugs on tumor vs normal cells. This strong, differential potentiating effect of NMR on tumor cell apoptosis may have important implications, being in fact a possible adjuvant for antitumor therapies. PMID:16528477

  9. Cell placement and guidance on substrates for neurochip interfaces.

    PubMed

    Charrier, Anne; Martinez, Dolores; Monette, Robert; Comas, Tanya; Movileanu, Raluca; Py, Christophe; Denhoff, Mike; Krantis, Anthony; Mealing, Geoff

    2010-02-01

    Interface devices such as integrated planar patch-clamp chips are being developed to study the electrophysiological activity of neuronal networks grown in vitro. The utility of such devices will be dependent upon the ability to align neurons with interface features on the chip by controlling neuronal placement and by guiding cell connectivity. In this paper, we present a strategy to accomplish this goal. Patterned chemical modification of SiN surfaces with poly-d-lysine transferred from PDMS stamps was used to promote adhesion and guidance of cryo-preserved primary rat cortical neurons. We demonstrate that these neurons can be positioned and grown over microhole features which will ultimately serve as patch-clamp interfaces on the chip. PMID:19753615

  10. Effective denitrification at the groundwater surface-water interface: exposure rather than residence time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiffer, Stefan; Frei, Sven

    2014-05-01

    Effective processing of material in aquatic systems, e. g. removal of nitrate upon denitrification, requires sufficient reaction time. This statement sounds trivial albeit its implication for biogeochemistry seems to be not fully recognized. The time teff required for effective processing of nitrate is controlled by the underlying biogeochemical rate law. In the simplest case of a 1st order reaction, teff is often calculated as the time when 63% of the initial concentration is consumed setting teff as 1/kreaction. It may, however, be more appropriate to derive teff,90%or teff,99% from the respective rate law. Hence a minimum time t > teff is required that exposes a specific biogeochemical process to conditions favourable for this process, which is anoxia in case of denitrification. This exposure time τexp is not necessarily identical to the residence time τ of water in the particular system or flow path. Rather, the exposure time can be much shorter and may even fluctuate with time. As a consequence, Damköhler numbers (Da = τexp/teff) for denitrification < 1 may be the consequence even though the age of water may be comparatively high. We therefore argue that the key for understanding denitrification efficiency at the groundwater surface-water interface (or in groundwater systems in general) is the quantification of the exposure time. This contribution therefore aims i) to estimate exposure times required for effective denitrification based on an analysis of rate constants for denitrification, ii) to relate these time scales to typical residence time distributions found at the groundwater surface-water interface and iii) to discuss implications for denitrification efficiencies. References: Oldham, C; Farrow, DE; Peiffer, S (2013): A generalized Damköhler number for classifying material processing in hydrological systems, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 17, 1133-1148 Frei, S; Knorr, KH; Peiffer, S; Fleckenstein, J (2012): Surface micro-topography causes

  11. Programmable cells: Interfacing natural and engineered gene networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Kærn, Mads; Araki, Michihiro; Chung, Kristy; Gardner, Timothy S.; Cantor, Charles R.; Collins, James J.

    2004-06-01

    Novel cellular behaviors and characteristics can be obtained by coupling engineered gene networks to the cell's natural regulatory circuitry through appropriately designed input and output interfaces. Here, we demonstrate how an engineered genetic circuit can be used to construct cells that respond to biological signals in a predetermined and programmable fashion. We employ a modular design strategy to create Escherichia coli strains where a genetic toggle switch is interfaced with: (i) the SOS signaling pathway responding to DNA damage, and (ii) a transgenic quorum sensing signaling pathway from Vibrio fischeri. The genetic toggle switch endows these strains with binary response dynamics and an epigenetic inheritance that supports a persistent phenotypic alteration in response to transient signals. These features are exploited to engineer cells that form biofilms in response to DNA-damaging agents and cells that activate protein synthesis when the cell population reaches a critical density. Our work represents a step toward the development of "plug-and-play" genetic circuitry that can be used to create cells with programmable behaviors. heterologous gene expression | synthetic biology | Escherichia coli

  12. Interface Directed Self Assembly of Cell-Laden Microgels

    PubMed Central

    Zamanian, Behnam; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Nichol, Jason W.; Khabiry, Masoud; Hancock, Matthew J.; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2010-01-01

    Cell-laden hydrogels show great promise for creating engineered tissues. However, a major shortcoming with these systems has been the inability to fabricate structures with controlled microscale features on a biologically relevant length scale. Here we demonstrate a rapid method for creating centimeter-scale, cell-laden hydrogels through the assembly of shape-controlled microgels. This was achieved by using an approach that uses the liquid-air interface of a hydrophobic solution to drive the assembly of microgels. Cell-laden microgels of specific shapes were randomly placed on the surface of a high density, hydrophobic solution and induced to aggregate and were subsequently crosslinked into macroscale tissue-like structures. The resultant assemblies were cell-laden hydrogel sheets consisting of tightly-packed ordered microgel units. In addition, a hierarchical approach created complex multi-gel building blocks which were then assembled into tissues with precise spatial control over the cell distribution. These data demonstrate that forces at an air-liquid interface can be used to self-assemble spatially controllable, co-cultured tissue-like structures. PMID:20358531

  13. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  14. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  15. Multifunctional Fullerene Derivative for Interface Engineering in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaowen; Zhao, Yue; Chen, Qi; Yang, Yang Michael; Liu, Yongsheng; Hong, Ziruo; Liu, Zonghao; Hsieh, Yao-Tsung; Meng, Lei; Li, Yongfang; Yang, Yang

    2015-12-16

    In perovskite based planar heterojunction solar cells, the interface between the TiO2 compact layer and the perovskite film is critical for high photovoltaic performance. The deep trap states on the TiO2 surface induce several challenging issues, such as charge recombination loss and poor stability etc. To solve the problems, we synthesized a triblock fullerene derivative (PCBB-2CN-2C8) via rational molecular design for interface engineering in the perovskite solar cells. Modifying the TiO2 surface with the compound significantly improves charge extraction from the perovskite layer. Together with its uplifted surface work function, open circuit voltage and fill factor are dramatically increased from 0.99 to 1.06 V, and from 72.2% to 79.1%, respectively, resulting in 20.7% improvement in power conversion efficiency for the best performing devices. Scrutinizing the electrical properties of this modified interfacial layer strongly suggests that PCBB-2CN-2C8 passivates the TiO2 surface and thus reduces charge recombination loss caused by the deep trap states of TiO2. The passivation effect is further proven by stability testing of the perovskite solar cells with shelf lifetime under ambient conditions improved by a factor of more than 4, from ∼40 h to ∼200 h, using PCBB-2CN-2C8 as the TiO2 modification layer. This work offers not only a promising material for cathode interface engineering, but also provides a viable approach to address the challenges of deep trap states on TiO2 surface in planar perovskite solar cells. PMID:26592525

  16. Tunable high aspect ratio polymer nanostructures for cell interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckwith, Kai Sandvold; Cooil, Simon P.; Wells, Justin W.; Sikorski, Pawel

    2015-04-01

    Nanoscale topographies and chemical patterns can be used as synthetic cell interfaces with a range of applications including the study and control of cellular processes. Herein, we describe the fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures using electron beam lithography in the epoxy-based polymer SU-8. We show how nanostructure geometry, position and fluorescence properties can be tuned, allowing flexible device design. Further, thiol-epoxide reactions were developed to give effective and specific modification of SU-8 surface chemistry. SU-8 nanostructures were made directly on glass cover slips, enabling the use of high resolution optical techniques such as live-cell confocal, total internal reflection and 3D structured illumination microscopy to investigate cell interactions with the nanostructures. Details of cell adherence and spreading, plasma membrane conformation and actin organization in response to high aspect ratio nanopillars and nanolines were investigated. The versatile structural and chemical properties combined with the high resolution cell imaging capabilities of this system are an important step towards the better understanding and control of cell interactions with nanomaterials.Nanoscale topographies and chemical patterns can be used as synthetic cell interfaces with a range of applications including the study and control of cellular processes. Herein, we describe the fabrication of high aspect ratio nanostructures using electron beam lithography in the epoxy-based polymer SU-8. We show how nanostructure geometry, position and fluorescence properties can be tuned, allowing flexible device design. Further, thiol-epoxide reactions were developed to give effective and specific modification of SU-8 surface chemistry. SU-8 nanostructures were made directly on glass cover slips, enabling the use of high resolution optical techniques such as live-cell confocal, total internal reflection and 3D structured illumination microscopy to investigate cell

  17. Inverters for interfacing of solar cells with the power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanzanis, G. N.; Jackson, R. D.

    In this work, based on a research course in the Engineering Dep. Cambridge University, some non-classical inverter circuits are studied. They can be used for interfacing solar cells with the power grid at low voltage (230V) and at low power level. They are based on d.c. choppers which have a fast switching transistor. Their theoretical efficiency is 100 percent and they provide a satisfactory output current waveform in phase to the a.c. line voltage. The problems of control are also studied using a suitable mathematical model.

  18. Renal cell cancer and exposure to gasoline: a review.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, J K

    1993-01-01

    A review of the epidemiology of renal cell cancer is presented. Risk factors for renal cell cancer such as cigarette smoking, obesity, diet, and use of analgesics and prescription diuretics are examined. Although uncommon, occupational risk factors are also reviewed. Studies examining gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer are evaluated, including investigations recently presented at a meeting on this topic. Overall, most studies find no link between gasoline exposure and renal cell cancer; moreover, the experimental evidence that initiated the health concern is no longer considered relevant to humans. Positive associations, however, reported in two recent studies prevent a firm conclusion of no risk for this exposure. PMID:8020434

  19. Interface engineering for efficient fullerene-free organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shivanna, Ravichandran; Narayan, K. S. E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in; Rajaram, Sridhar E-mail: narayan@jncasr.ac.in

    2015-03-23

    We demonstrate the role of zinc oxide (ZnO) morphology and addition of an acceptor interlayer to achieve high efficiency fullerene-free bulk heterojunction inverted organic solar cells. Nanopatterning of the ZnO buffer layer enhances the effective light absorption in the active layer, and the insertion of a twisted perylene acceptor layer planarizes and decreases the electron extraction barrier. Along with an increase in current homogeneity, the reduced work function difference and selective transport of electrons prevent the accumulation of charges and decrease the electron-hole recombination at the interface. These factors enable an overall increase of efficiency to 4.6%, which is significant for a fullerene-free solution-processed organic solar cell.

  20. Directing cell migration and organization via nanocrater-patterned cell-repellent interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hojeong; Koo, Sangmo; Reese, Willie Mae; Loskill, Peter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-09-01

    Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and pitches, we show that the surfaces altered the cells’ focal-adhesion size and distribution, thus affecting cell morphology, migration and ultimately localization. We also show that nanocrater pitch can disrupt the formation of mature focal adhesions to favour the migration of cells towards higher-pitched regions, which present increased planar area for the formation of stable focal adhesions. Moreover, by designing surfaces with variable pitch but constant nanocrater dimensions, we were able to create circular and striped cellular patterns. Our surface-patterning approach, which does not involve chemical treatments and can be applied to various materials, represents a simple method to control cell behaviour on surfaces.

  1. Apoptosis Induction in Cancer Cells by Ultrasound Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Akihiro; Kawai, Kazuaki; Sato, Toshio; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Kawashima, Norimichi; Takeuchi, Shinichi

    2004-05-01

    The methods of suppressing cancer cell proliferation by ultrasound exposure were investigated to develop a new minimally invasive cancer treatment. A stainless-steel diaphragm with a bolt-clamped Langevin-type transducer (BLT) was attached to the bottom of a water tank in the ultrasound exposure system used in this study. Cancer cells of a mouse T lymphoma (EL-4) in a flask were exposed to ultrasound under various conditions of exposure time, ultrasound frequency, ultrasound waveform, and so forth. The number of cancer cells exposed to ultrasound decreased during the culturing process. In this study, it was proved by electrophoresis, enzyme activity measurement and morphological observation that cancer cell proliferation can be suppressed by apoptosis induction in cancer cells by ultrasound exposure.

  2. Hairy cell leukaemia and occupational exposure to benzene.

    PubMed Central

    Clavel, J; Conso, F; Limasset, J C; Mandereau, L; Roche, P; Flandrin, G; Hémon, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The role of occupational exposures in hairy cell leukaemia (HCL) was investigated through a multicentre, hospital based, case-control study. This paper analyses the role of exposure to benzene in HCL. METHODS: A population of 226 male cases of HCL and 425 matched controls were included in the study. Benzene exposure was evaluated by expert review of the detailed data on occupational exposures generated by case-control interviews. RESULTS: No association was found between HCL and employment in a job exposed to benzene (odds ratio (OR) 0.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.3)). The sample included 125 subjects, 34 cases (15%), and 91 controls (21%) who had been exposed to benzene, as individually assessed by the experts, for at least one hour a month during one of their jobs. Benzene exposure was not associated with a risk of HCL (OR 0.8 (0.5-1.2)). No trend towards an increase in OR was detected for increasing exposures, the percentage of work time involving exposure to > 1 ppm, or the duration of exposure. No findings suggested a particular risk period, when the OR associated with the time since first or last exposure, or since the end of exposure, were examined. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, with the low exposures prevalent in the sample, the study did not show any association between benzene exposure and HCL. PMID:8983464

  3. Multisensory interface for 5D stem cell image volumes.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Michael; Wait, Eric; Winter, Mark; Bjornsson, Chris; Kokovay, Erzsebet; Wang, Yue; Goderie, Susan K; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    Biological imaging of live cell and tissue using 3D microscopy is able to capture time-lapse image sequences showing multiple molecular markers labeling different biological structures simultaneously. In order to analyze this complex multi-dimensional image sequence data, there is a need for automated quantitative algorithms, and for methods to visualize and interact with both the data and the analytical results. Traditional computational human input devices such as the keyboard and mouse are no longer adequate for complex tasks such as manipulating and navigating 3+ dimensional volumes. In this paper, we have developed a new interaction system for interfacing with big data sets using the human visual system together with touch, force and audio feedback. This system includes real-time dynamic 3D visualization, haptic interaction via exoskeletal glove, and tonal auditory components that seamlessly create an immersive environment for efficient qualitative analysis. PMID:25570174

  4. Multisensory Interface for 5D Stem Cell Image Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Koerner, Michael; Wait, Eric; Winter, Mark; Bjornsson, Chris; Kokovay, Erzsebet; Wang, Yue; Goderie, Susan K; Temple, Sally; Cohen, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    Biological imaging of live cell and tissue using 3D microscopy is able to capture time-lapse image sequences showing multiple molecular markers labeling different biological structures simultaneously. In order to analyze this complex multi-dimensional image sequence data, there is a need for automated quantitative algorithms, and for methods to visualize and interact with both the data and the analytical results. Traditional computational human input devices such as the keyboard and mouse are no longer adequate for complex tasks such as manipulating and navigating 3+ dimensional volumes. In this paper, we have developed a new interaction system for interfacing with big data sets using the human visual system together with touch, force and audio feedback. This system includes real-time dynamic 3D visualization, haptic interaction via exoskeletal glove, and tonal auditory components that seamlessly create an immersive environment for efficient qualitative analysis. PMID:25570174

  5. Minimal Peroxide Exposure of Neuronal Cells Induces Multifaceted Adaptive Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Wayne; Zhou, Yu; Park, Sung-Soo; Wang, Liyun; Mitchell, Nicholas; Stone, Matthew D.; Becker, Kevin G.; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative exposure of cells occurs naturally and may be associated with cellular damage and dysfunction. Protracted low level oxidative exposure can induce accumulated cell disruption, affecting multiple cellular functions. Accumulated oxidative exposure has also been proposed as one of the potential hallmarks of the physiological/pathophysiological aging process. We investigated the multifactorial effects of long-term minimal peroxide exposure upon SH-SY5Y neural cells to understand how they respond to the continued presence of oxidative stressors. We show that minimal protracted oxidative stresses induce complex molecular and physiological alterations in cell functionality. Upon chronic exposure to minimal doses of hydrogen peroxide, SH-SY5Y cells displayed a multifactorial response to the stressor. To fully appreciate the peroxide-mediated cellular effects, we assessed these adaptive effects at the genomic, proteomic and cellular signal processing level. Combined analyses of these multiple levels of investigation revealed a complex cellular adaptive response to the protracted peroxide exposure. This adaptive response involved changes in cytoskeletal structure, energy metabolic shifts towards glycolysis and selective alterations in transmembrane receptor activity. Our analyses of the global responses to chronic stressor exposure, at multiple biological levels, revealed a viable neural phenotype in-part reminiscent of aged or damaged neural tissue. Our paradigm indicates how cellular physiology can subtly change in different contexts and potentially aid the appreciation of stress response adaptations. PMID:21179406

  6. Interface and Composition Analysis on Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Matteocci, Fabio; Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Divitini, Giorgio; Cacovich, Stefania; Ducati, Caterina; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2015-12-01

    Organometal halide (hybrid) perovskite solar cells have been fabricated following four different deposition procedures and investigated in order to find correlations between the solar cell characteristics/performance and their structure and composition as determined by combining depth-resolved imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The interface quality is found to be strongly affected by the perovskite deposition procedure, and in particular from the environment where the conversion of the starting precursors into the final perovskite is performed (air, nitrogen, or vacuum). The conversion efficiency of the precursors into the hybrid perovskite layer is compared between the different solar cells by looking at the ToF-SIMS intensities of the characteristic molecular fragments from the perovskite and the precursor materials. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the STEM confirms the macroscopic ToF-SIMS findings and allows elemental mapping with nanometer resolution. Clear evidence for iodine diffusion has been observed and related to the fabrication procedure. PMID:26523427

  7. Dynamics of Metal Partitioning at the Cell-Solution Interface: Implications for Toxicity Assessment under Growth-Inhibiting Conditions.

    PubMed

    Duval, Jérôme F L; Paquet, Nathalie; Lavoie, Michel; Fortin, Claude

    2015-06-01

    Metal toxicity toward microorganisms is usually evaluated by determining growth inhibition. To achieve a mechanistic interpretation of such toxic effects, the intricate coupling between cell growth kinetics and metal partitioning dynamics at the cell-solution interface over time must be considered on a quantitative level. A formalism is elaborated to evaluate cell-surface-bound, internalized, and extracellular metal fractions in the limit where metal uptake kinetics is controlled by internalization under noncomplexing medium conditions. Cell growth kinetics is tackled using the continuous logistic equation modified to include growth inhibition by metal accumulation to intracellular or cell surface sites. The theory further includes metal-proton competition for adsorption at cell-surface binding sites, as well as possible variation of cell size during exposure to metal ions. The formalism elucidates the dramatic impacts of initial cell concentration on metal bioavailability and toxicity over time, in agreement with reported algae bioassays. It further highlights that appropriate definition of toxicity endpoints requires careful inspection of the ratio between exposure time scale and time scale of metal depletion from bulk solution. The latter depends on metal internalization-excretion rate constants, microorganism growth, and the extent of metal adsorption on nonspecific, transporter, and growth inhibitory sites. As an application of the theory, Cd toxicity in the algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata is interpreted from constrained modeling of cell growth kinetics and of interfacial Cd-partitioning dynamics measured under various exposure conditions. PMID:25945520

  8. A Glucose Fuel Cell for Implantable Brain–Machine Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Benjamin I.; Kedzierski, Jakub T.; Sarpeshkar, Rahul

    2012-01-01

    We have developed an implantable fuel cell that generates power through glucose oxidation, producing steady-state power and up to peak power. The fuel cell is manufactured using a novel approach, employing semiconductor fabrication techniques, and is therefore well suited for manufacture together with integrated circuits on a single silicon wafer. Thus, it can help enable implantable microelectronic systems with long-lifetime power sources that harvest energy from their surrounds. The fuel reactions are mediated by robust, solid state catalysts. Glucose is oxidized at the nanostructured surface of an activated platinum anode. Oxygen is reduced to water at the surface of a self-assembled network of single-walled carbon nanotubes, embedded in a Nafion film that forms the cathode and is exposed to the biological environment. The catalytic electrodes are separated by a Nafion membrane. The availability of fuel cell reactants, oxygen and glucose, only as a mixture in the physiologic environment, has traditionally posed a design challenge: Net current production requires oxidation and reduction to occur separately and selectively at the anode and cathode, respectively, to prevent electrochemical short circuits. Our fuel cell is configured in a half-open geometry that shields the anode while exposing the cathode, resulting in an oxygen gradient that strongly favors oxygen reduction at the cathode. Glucose reaches the shielded anode by diffusing through the nanotube mesh, which does not catalyze glucose oxidation, and the Nafion layers, which are permeable to small neutral and cationic species. We demonstrate computationally that the natural recirculation of cerebrospinal fluid around the human brain theoretically permits glucose energy harvesting at a rate on the order of at least 1 mW with no adverse physiologic effects. Low-power brain–machine interfaces can thus potentially benefit from having their implanted units powered or recharged by glucose fuel cells. PMID

  9. Optical modeling of a-Si:H solar cells with rough interfaces: Effect of back contact and interface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, M.; van Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M.; Metselaar, J. W.; Schropp, R. E. I.

    2000-12-01

    An approach to study the optical behavior of hydrogenated amorphous silicon solar cells with rough interfaces using computer modeling is presented. In this approach the descriptive haze parameters of a light scattering interface are related to the root mean square roughness of the interface. Using this approach we investigated the effect of front window contact roughness and back contact material on the optical properties of a single junction a-Si:H superstrate solar cell. The simulation results for a-Si:H solar cells with SnO2:F as a front contact and ideal Ag, ZnO/Ag, and Al/Ag as a back contact are shown. For cells with an absorber layer thickness of 150-600 nm the simulations demonstrate that the gain in photogenerated current density due to the use of a textured superstrate is around 2.3 mA cm-2 in comparison to solar cells with flat interfaces. The effect of the front and back contact roughness on the external quantum efficiency (QE) of the solar cell for different parts of the light spectrum was determined. The choice of the back contact strongly influences the QE and the absorption in the nonactive layers for the wavelengths above 650 nm. A practical Ag back contact can be successfully simulated by introducing a thin buffer layer between the n-type a-Si:H and Ag back contact, which has optical properties similar to Al, indicating that the actual reflection at the n-type a-Si:H/Ag interface is smaller than what is expected from the respective bulk optical parameters. In comparison to the practical Ag contact the QE of the cell can be strongly improved by using a ZnO layer at the Ag back contact or an ideal Ag contact. The photogenerated current densities for a solar cell with a 450 nm thick intrinsic a-Si:H layer with ZnO/Ag and ideal Ag are 16.7 and 17.3 mA cm-2, respectively, compared to 14.4 mA cm-2 for the practical Ag back contact. The effect of increasing the roughness of the contact interfaces was investigated for both superstrate and substrate types

  10. Exposure to tobacco-derived materials induces overproduction of secreted proteinases in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Small-Howard, Andrea; Turner, Helen . E-mail: hturner@queens.org

    2005-04-15

    Mast cells reside at interfaces with the environment, including the mucosa of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. This localization exposes mast cells to inhaled, or ingested, environmental challenges. In the airways of smokers, resident immune cells will be in contact with the condensed components of cigarette smoke. Mast cells are of particular interest due to their ability to promote airway remodeling and mucus hypersecretion. Clinical data show increased levels of mast cell-secreted tryptase and increased numbers of degranulated mast cells in the lavage and bronchial tissue of smokers. Since mast cell-secreted proteinases (MCPTs), including tryptases, contribute to pathological airway remodeling, we investigated the relationship between mast cell proteinases and smoke exposure. We exposed a mast cell line to cigarette smoke condensate (CSC). We show that CSC exposure increases MCPT levels in mast cells using an assay for tryptase-type MCPT activity. We hypothesized that this increase in MCPT activity reflects a CSC-induced increase in the cytosolic pool of proteinase molecules, via stimulation of MCPT transcription. Transcript array data suggested that mRNA changes in response to CSC were limited in number and peaked after 3 h of CSC exposure. However, we noted marked transcriptional regulation of several MCPT genes. CSC-induced changes in the mRNA levels for MCPTs were confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together, our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke up-regulates MCPT levels in mast cells at both the protein and the mRNA level. We suggest that the pathological airway remodeling that has been described in clinical studies of smoke inhalation may be attributable to MCPT overproduction in vivo.

  11. Lineage-specific interface proteins match up the cell cycle and differentiation in embryo stem cells.

    PubMed

    Re, Angela; Workman, Christopher T; Waldron, Levi; Quattrone, Alessandro; Brunak, Søren

    2014-09-01

    The shortage of molecular information on cell cycle changes along embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation prompts an in silico approach, which may provide a novel way to identify candidate genes or mechanisms acting in coordinating the two programs. We analyzed germ layer specific gene expression changes during the cell cycle and ESC differentiation by combining four human cell cycle transcriptome profiles with thirteen in vitro human ESC differentiation studies. To detect cross-talk mechanisms we then integrated the transcriptome data that displayed differential regulation with protein interaction data. A new class of non-transcriptionally regulated genes was identified, encoding proteins which interact systematically with proteins corresponding to genes regulated during the cell cycle or cell differentiation, and which therefore can be seen as interface proteins coordinating the two programs. Functional analysis gathered insights in fate-specific candidates of interface functionalities. The non-transcriptionally regulated interface proteins were found to be highly regulated by post-translational ubiquitylation modification, which may synchronize the transition between cell proliferation and differentiation in ESCs. PMID:25173649

  12. Nanosilver and Nano Zero-Valent Iron Exposure Affects Nutrient Exchange Across the Sediment-Water Interface.

    PubMed

    Buchkowski, Robert W; Williams, Clayton J; Kelly, Joel; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2016-01-01

    To examine how nanoparticles influence biogeochemical cycles in streams, we studied the acute impact of nanosilver (nAg) and nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) exposure on nutrient and oxygen exchange across the sediment-water interface of two streams (agricultural canal and wetland) that differed in their water quality and sediment characteristics. At the agricultural site, nAg increased oxygen consumption and decreased N2 flux rates from that observed in control incubations. nZVI caused sediment-water systems from both streams to go hypoxic within 1.5 h of exposure. N2 flux rates were at least an order of magnitude higher in nZVI treatments as compared to control. Water column nitrate and nitrite concentrations were not impacted by nZVI exposure but total dissolved phosphorus concentrations were higher in cores treated with nZVI. nAg and nZVI exposure to surface water ecosystems can disrupt ecological function across the sediment-water interface. PMID:26611367

  13. Aerosolized ZnO nanoparticles induce toxicity in alveolar type II epithelial cells at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Yumei; Williams, Nolann G.; Tolic, Ana; Chrisler, William B.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Maddux, Bettye L.; Pounds, Joel G.; Laskin, Alexander; Orr, Galya

    2012-01-20

    The majority of in vitro studies characterizing the impact of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on cells that line the respiratory tract were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in suspension. This approach introduces processes that are unlikely to occur during inhaled NP exposures in vivo, such as the shedding of toxic doses of dissolved ions. ZnO NPs are used extensively and pose significant sources for human exposure. Exposures to airborne ZnO NPs can induce adverse effects, but the relevance of the dissolved Zn2+ to the observed effects in vivo is still unclear. Our goal was to mimic in vivo exposures to airborne NPs and decipher the contribution of the intact NP from the contribution of the dissolved ions to airborne ZnO NP toxicity. We established the exposure of alveolar type II epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI), and compared the impact of aerosolized ZnO NPs and NPs in suspension at the same cellular doses, measured as the number of particles per cell. By evaluating membrane integrity and cell viability 6 and 24 hours post exposure we found that aerosolized NPs induced toxicity at the ALI at doses that were in the same order of magnitude as doses required to induce toxicity in submersed cultures. In addition, distinct patterns of oxidative stress were observed in the two exposure systems. These observations unravel the ability of airborne ZnO NPs to induce toxicity without the contribution of dissolved Zn2+ and suggest distinct mechanisms at the ALI and in submersed cultures.

  14. Aerosol generation and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Polk, William W; Sharma, Monita; Sayes, Christie M; Hotchkiss, Jon A; Clippinger, Amy J

    2016-01-01

    Aerosol generation and characterization are critical components in the assessment of the inhalation hazards of engineered nanomaterials (NMs). An extensive review was conducted on aerosol generation and exposure apparatus as part of an international expert workshop convened to discuss the design of an in vitro testing strategy to assess pulmonary toxicity following exposure to aerosolized particles. More specifically, this workshop focused on the design of an in vitro method to predict the development of pulmonary fibrosis in humans following exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Aerosol generators, for dry or liquid particle suspension aerosolization, and exposure chambers, including both commercially available systems and those developed by independent researchers, were evaluated. Additionally, characterization methods that can be used and the time points at which characterization can be conducted in order to interpret in vitro exposure results were assessed. Summarized below is the information presented and discussed regarding the relevance of various aerosol generation and characterization techniques specific to aerosolized MWCNTs exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The generation of MWCNT aerosols relevant to human exposures and their characterization throughout exposure in an ALI system is critical for extrapolation of in vitro results to toxicological outcomes in humans. PMID:27108236

  15. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-γ, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. PMID:24060340

  16. Renal cell carcinoma and occupational exposure to chemicals in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Mao, Y; White, K

    2002-05-01

    This study assesses the effect of occupational exposure to specific chemicals on the risk of renal cell carcinoma in Canada. Mailed questionnaires were used to obtain data on 1279 (691 male and 588 female) newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed renal cell carcinoma cases and 5370 population controls in eight Canadian provinces, between 1994 and 1997. Data were collected on socio-economic status, smoking habit, alcohol use, diet, residential and occupational histories, and years of exposure to any of 17 chemicals. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived using unconditional logistic regression. The study found an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma in males only, which was associated with occupational exposure to benzene; benzidine; coal tar, soot, pitch, creosote or asphalt; herbicides; mineral, cutting or lubricating oil; mustard gas; pesticides; and vinyl chloride. Compared with no exposure to the specific chemical, the adjusted ORs were 1.8 (95% CI = 1.2-2.6), 2.1 (1.3-3.6), 1.4 (1.1-1.8), 1.6 (1.3-2.0), 1.3 (1.1-1.7), 4.6 (1.7-12.5), 1.8 (1.4-2.3) and 2.0 (1.2-3.3), respectively; an elevated risk was also associated with exposure to cadmium salts and isopropyl oil. The risk of renal cell carcinoma increased with duration of exposure to benzene, benzidine, cadmium, herbicides and vinyl chloride. Very few females were exposed to specific chemicals in this study; further research is needed to clarify the association between occupational exposure to chemicals and renal cell carcinoma in females. PMID:12063361

  17. Cell wide responses to low oxygen exposure in Desulfovibriovulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Redding, A.; Joachimiak, M.; Arkin, A.; Borglin, S.; Dehal, P.; Chakraborty, R.; Geller, J.; Hazen, T.; He, Q.; Joyner, D.; Martin, V.; Wall, J.; Yang, Z.; Zhou, J.; Keasling, J.

    2007-03-11

    The responses of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to low oxygen exposure (0.1% O{sub 2}) were monitored via transcriptomics and proteomics. Exposure to 0.1% O{sub 2} caused a decrease in growth rate without affecting viability. A concerted up regulation in the predicted peroxide stress response regulon (PerR) genes was observed in response to the 0.1% O{sub 2} exposure. Several of these candidates also showed increases in protein abundance. Among the remaining small number of transcript changes was the up regulation of the predicted transmembrane tetraheme cytochrome c3 complex. Other known oxidative stress response candidates remained unchanged during this low O{sub 2} exposure. To fully understand the results of the 0.1% O{sub 2} exposure, transcriptomics and proteomics data were collected for exposure to air using a similar experimental protocol. In contrast to the 0.1% O{sub 2} exposure, air exposure was detrimental to both the growth rate and viability and caused dramatic changes at both the transcriptome and proteome levels. Interestingly, the transcripts of the predicted PerR regulon genes were down regulated during air exposure. Our results highlight the differences in the cell wide response to low and high O{sub 2} levels of in D. vulgaris and suggest that while exposure to air is highly detrimental to D. vulgaris, this bacterium can successfully cope with periodic exposure to low O{sub 2} levels in its environment.

  18. Occupational exposure to dusts and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karami, S; Boffetta, P; Stewart, P S; Brennan, P; Zaridze, D; Matveev, V; Janout, V; Kollarova, H; Bencko, V; Navratilova, M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, D; Gromiec, J; Slamova, A; Chow, W-H; Rothman, N; Moore, L E

    2011-01-01

    Background: Occupational exposures to dusts have generally been examined in relation to cancers of the respiratory system and have rarely been examined in relation to other cancers, such as renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Although previous epidemiological studies, though few, have shown certain dusts, such as asbestos, to increase renal cancer risk, the potential for other occupational dust exposures to cause kidney damage and/or cancer may exist. We investigated whether asbestos, as well as 20 other occupational dust exposures, were associated with RCC risk in a large European, multi-center, hospital-based renal case–control study. Methods: General occupational histories and job-specific questionnaires were reviewed by occupational hygienists for subject-specific information. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) between RCC risk and exposures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Among participants ever exposed to dusts, significant associations were observed for glass fibres (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1–3.9), mineral wool fibres (OR: 2.5; 95% CI: 1.2–5.1), and brick dust (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.0–2.4). Significant trends were also observed with exposure duration and cumulative exposure. No association between RCC risk and asbestos exposure was observed. Conclusion: Results suggest that increased RCC risk may be associated with occupational exposure to specific types of dusts. Additional studies are needed to replicate and extend findings. PMID:21540858

  19. Directing cell migration and organization via nanocrater-patterned cell-repellent interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Hojeong; Koo, Sangmo; Reese, Willie Mae; Loskill, Peter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Healy, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although adhesive interactions between cells and nanostructured interfaces have been studied extensively1–6, there is a paucity of data on how nanostructured interfaces repel cells by directing cell migration and cell-colony organization. Here, by using multiphoton ablation lithography7 to pattern surfaces with nanoscale craters of various aspect ratios and pitches, we show that the surfaces altered the cells’ focal-adhesion size and distribution, thus affecting cell morphology, migration and ultimately localization. We also show that nanocrater pitch can disrupt the formation of mature focal adhesions to favour the migration of cells toward higher-pitched regions, which present increased planar area for the formation of stable focal adhesions. Moreover, by designing surfaces with variable pitch but constant nanocrater dimensions, we were able to create circular and striped cellular patterns. Our surface-patterning approach, which does not involve chemical treatments and can be applied to various materials, represents a simple method to control cell behaviour on surfaces. PMID:26213899

  20. Interface Engineering of High Efficiency Organic-Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lixia; Liu, Yaoping; Chen, Wei; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huili; Mei, Zengxia; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Du, Xiaolong

    2016-01-13

    Insufficient interface conformity is a challenge faced in hybrid organic-silicon heterojunction solar cells because of using conventional pyramid antireflection texturing provoking the porosity of interface. In this study, we tested alternative textures, in particular rounded pyramids and inverted pyramids to compare the performance. It was remarkably improved delivering 7.61%, 8.91% and 10.04% efficiency employing conventional, rounded, and inverted pyramids, respectively. The result was interpreted in terms of gradually improving conformity of the Ag/organic/silicon interface, together with the gradually decreasing serial resistance. Altogether, the present data may guide further efforts arising the interface engineering for mastering high efficient heterojunction solar cells. PMID:26701061

  1. Effects of space flight exposure on cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Chen; Tong, Yongqing; Zhou, Guohua; Xie, Pingli; Hu, Jinyue; Li, Guancheng

    2008-12-01

    It is well recognized that harsh outer space environment, consisting of microgravity and radiation, poses significant health risks for human cells. To investigate potential effects of the space environment exposure on cancer cells we examined the biological changes in Caski cells carried by the "Shen Zhou IV" spaceship. After exposure for 7 days in spaceflight, 1440 survival subclonal cell lines were established and 4 cell lines were screened. 44F10 and 17E3 were selected because of their increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, while 48A9 and 31F2 had slower cytological events. Experiments with cell proliferation assay, flow cytometry, soft agar assay, tumorigenesis assay and DNA microarray analysis have shown that selected cell lines presented multiple biological changes in cell morphology, cell growth, tumorigenicity and gene expression. These results suggest that space environment exposure can make significant biological impact on cancer cells and provide an entry point to find the immunological target of tumorigenesis.

  2. Uniform dose atmospheric pressure microplasma exposure of individual bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutherford, David; Mahony, Charles; Spence, Sarah; Perez-Martin, Fatima; Kelsey, Colin; Hamilton, Neil; Diver, Declan; Bennet, Euan; Potts, Hugh; Mariotti, Davide; McDowell, David; Maguire, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Plasma - bacteria interactions have been studied for some time with a view to using plasma exposure for wound healing, sterilization and decontamination. While high efficacy has been demonstrated, important fundamental mechanisms are not understood and may be critical for ultimate acceptance. The dose variation across the exposed population and the impact of non-lethal exposure on subsequent bacterial growth are important issues. We demonstrate that individual bacterial cells can remain viable after exposure to a uniform plasma dose. Each bacteria cell (E coli) is delivered to the atmospheric pressure plasma in an aerosolised droplet (d ~ 10 micron). The estimated plasma density is 1E13 - 1E14 cm-3, gas temperature <400 K, and exposure times vary between 0.04 and 0.1ms. Droplet evaporation in flight is ~2 micron and plasma - cell interactions are mediated by the surrounding liquid (Ringers solution) where plasma-induced droplet surface chemistry and charging is known to occur. We report the cell viability and recovery dynamics of individual exposed cells as well as impact on DNA and membrane components with reference to measured plasma parameters. This research was funded by EPSRC (Grants: EP/K006088/1 & EP/K006142/1).

  3. An application programming interface for CellNetAnalyzer.

    PubMed

    Klamt, Steffen; von Kamp, Axel

    2011-08-01

    CellNetAnalyzer (CNA) is a MATLAB toolbox providing computational methods for studying structure and function of metabolic and cellular signaling networks. In order to allow non-experts to use these methods easily, CNA provides GUI-based interactive network maps as a means of parameter input and result visualization. However, with the availability of high-throughput data, there is a need to make CNA's functionality also accessible in batch mode for automatic data processing. Furthermore, as some algorithms of CNA are of general relevance for network analysis it would be desirable if they could be called as sub-routines by other applications. For this purpose, we developed an API (application programming interface) for CNA allowing users (i) to access the content of network models in CNA, (ii) to use CNA's network analysis capabilities independent of the GUI, and (iii) to interact with the GUI to facilitate the development of graphical plugins. Here we describe the organization of network projects in CNA and the application of the new API functions to these projects. This includes the creation of network projects from scratch, loading and saving of projects and scenarios, and the application of the actual analysis methods. Furthermore, API functions for the import/export of metabolic models in SBML format and for accessing the GUI are described. Lastly, two example applications demonstrate the use and versatile applicability of CNA's API. CNA is freely available for academic use and can be downloaded from http://www.mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de/projects/cna/cna.html. PMID:21315797

  4. Fundamental processes of exciton scattering at organic solar-cell interfaces: One-dimensional model calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Yoshimitsu; Iizuka, Hideyuki; Sato, Kosuke; Nakayama, Takashi

    2016-08-01

    Fundamental processes of exciton scattering at organic solar-cell interfaces were studied using a one-dimensional tight-binding model and by performing a time-evolution simulation of electron–hole pair wave packets. We found the fundamental features of exciton scattering: the scattering promotes not only the dissociation of excitons and the generation of interface-bound (charge-transferred) excitons but also the transmission and reflection of excitons depending on the electron and hole interface offsets. In particular, the dissociation increases in a certain region of an interface offset, while the transmission shows resonances with higher-energy bound-exciton and interface bound-exciton states. We also studied the effects of carrier-transfer and potential modulations at the interface and the scattering of charged excitons, and we found trap dissociations where one of the carriers is trapped around the interface after the dissociation.

  5. Dosimetry considerations in far field microwave exposure of mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Meltz, M.L.; Eagan, P.; Harris, C.R.; Erwin, D.N.

    1988-01-01

    A circulating water bath exposure system has been designed for in vitro radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure studies in the 915 to 2450 MHz range. A Styrofoam float, in which 10 T-25 plastic tissue culture flasks are embedded, is rotated at approximately 20 rpm in a Plexiglas water bath at a distance beneath a rectangular horn. The continuous circular rotation of the flasks is designed to average out the heterogeneity present in stationary flask exposures. The rotation also serves to prevent the establishment of chemical gradients in the medium within the flasks. Several factors have been demonstrated to affect the specific absorption rate (SAR) measured in the medium in the exposed flasks. These factors include: 1) the position of the exposure flasks relative to the long axis of the antenna horn; 2) whether the flasks are exposed while stationary or in rotation; 3) the volume of the medium contained in the flask; and 4) the depth in the medium in the flask at which temperatures for SAR calculation are measured. The presence of cells in the exposure flask (as attached monolayer or cell suspension) did not result in an SAR different from that measured in the same volume of medium without cells present.

  6. Cell deformation at the air-liquid interface induces Ca2+-dependent ATP release from lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ramsingh, Ronaldo; Grygorczyk, Alexandra; Solecki, Anna; Cherkaoui, Lalla Siham; Berthiaume, Yves; Grygorczyk, Ryszard

    2011-04-01

    Extracellular nucleotides regulate mucociliary clearance in the airways and surfactant secretion in alveoli. Their release is exquisitely mechanosensitive and may be induced by stretch as well as airflow shear stress acting on lung epithelia. We hypothesized that, in addition, tension forces at the air-liquid interface (ALI) may contribute to mechanosensitive ATP release in the lungs. Local depletion of airway surface liquid, mucins, and surfactants, which normally protect epithelial surfaces, facilitate such release and trigger compensatory mucin and fluid secretion processes. In this study, human bronchial epithelial 16HBE14o(-) and alveolar A549 cells were subjected to tension forces at the ALI by passing an air bubble over the cell monolayer in a flow-through chamber, or by air exposure while tilting the cell culture dish. Such stimulation induced significant ATP release not involving cell lysis, as verified by ethidium bromide staining. Confocal fluorescence microscopy disclosed reversible cell deformation in the monolayer part in contact with the ALI. Fura 2 fluorescence imaging revealed transient intracellular Ca(2+) elevation evoked by the ALI, which did not entail nonspecific Ca(2+) influx from the extracellular space. ATP release was reduced by ∼40 to ∼90% from cells loaded with the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM and was completely abolished by N-ethylmalemide (1 mM). These experiments demonstrate that in close proximity to the ALI, surface tension forces are transmitted directly on cells, causing their mechanical deformation and Ca(2+)-dependent exocytotic ATP release. Such a signaling mechanism may contribute to the detection of local deficiency of airway surface liquid and surfactants on the lung surface. PMID:21239538

  7. Radiation exposure induces inflammasome pathway activation in immune cells.

    PubMed

    Stoecklein, Veit M; Osuka, Akinori; Ishikawa, Shizu; Lederer, Madeline R; Wanke-Jellinek, Lorenz; Lederer, James A

    2015-02-01

    Radiation exposure induces cell and tissue damage, causing local and systemic inflammatory responses. Because the inflammasome pathway is triggered by cell death and danger-associated molecular patterns, we hypothesized that the inflammasome may signal acute and chronic immune responses to radiation. Using a mouse radiation model, we show that radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in inflammasome activation in macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells, T cells, and B cells as judged by cleaved caspase-1 detection in cells. Time course analysis showed the appearance of cleaved caspase-1 in cells by day 1 and sustained expression until day 7 after radiation. Also, cells showing inflammasome activation coexpressed the cell surface apoptosis marker annexin V. The role of caspase-1 as a trigger for hematopoietic cell losses after radiation was studied in caspase-1(-/-) mice. We found less radiation-induced cell apoptosis and immune cell loss in caspase-1(-/-) mice than in control mice. Next, we tested whether uric acid might mediate inflammasome activation in cells by treating mice with allopurinol and discovered that allopurinol treatment completely blocked caspase-1 activation in cells. Finally, we demonstrate that radiation-induced caspase-1 activation occurs by a Nod-like receptor family protein 3-independent mechanism because radiation-exposed Nlrp3(-/-) mice showed caspase-1 activation profiles that were indistinguishable from those of wild-type mice. In summary, our data demonstrate that inflammasome activation occurs in many immune cell types following radiation exposure and that allopurinol prevented radiation-induced inflammasome activation. These results suggest that targeting the inflammasome may help control radiation-induced inflammation. PMID:25539818

  8. TCDD exposure disrupts mammary epithelial cell differentiation and function

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Loretta L.; Lew, Betina J.; Lawrence, B. Paige

    2011-01-01

    Mammary gland growth and differentiation during pregnancy is a developmental process that is sensitive to the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD is a widespread environmental contaminant and a potent ligand for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). We demonstrate reduced β-casein protein induction in mouse mammary glands and in cultured SCp2 mammary epithelial cells following exposure to TCDD. SCp2 cells exposed to TCDD also show reduced cell clustering and less alveolar-like structure formation. SCp2 cells express transcriptionally active AhR, and exposure to TCDD induces expression of the AhR target gene CYP1B1. Exposure to TCDD during pregnancy reduced expression of the cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin in the mammary gland and decreased phosphorylation of STAT5, a known regulator of β-casein gene expression. These data provide morphological and molecular evidence that TCDD-mediated AhR activation disrupts structural and functional differentiation of the mammary gland, and present an in vitro model for studying the effects of TCDD on mammary epithelial cell function. PMID:19490989

  9. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds: in vitro study on thyroid cells.

    PubMed

    Coperchini, Francesca; Pignatti, Patrizia; Lacerenza, Serena; Negri, Sara; Sideri, Riccardo; Testoni, Claudia; de Martinis, Luca; Cottica, Danilo; Magri, Flavia; Imbriani, Marcello; Rotondi, Mario; Chiovato, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are widely used perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs). Previous studies detected PFOA and PFOS in human tissues including the thyroid gland. There are no studies on the in vitro effects of PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cells. Our study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the in vitro exposure to PFOA and PFOS on thyroid cell proliferation and viability. These objectives were investigated using Fisher rat thyroid line-5 (FRTL-5) cells. FRTL-5 cells cultured in the presence of PFOA and PFOS at concentrations up to 10(4) nM do not display changes in their viability and proliferation rate, while at a concentration of 10(5) nM of either PFCs, a significant inhibition of cell proliferation, mainly due to increased cell death, was found. PFOA and PFOS were detected in FRTL-5 cell pellets after 72 h of incubation with PFCs but not in control cultures. When FRTL-5 were incubated with PFCs then washed in PBS and re-cultured for 72 h without PFCs in the medium, no detectable concentrations of PFOA and PFOS were measured in the cell pellet. This indicates that PFOA and PFOS enter thyroid cells by a gradient-based passive diffusion mechanism. Future studies are required to evaluate the potential toxic effect resulting from prolonged in vivo exposure to even lower concentrations of PFCs. PMID:25182428

  10. Predicting the interface morphologies of silicon films on arbitrary substrates: application in solar cells.

    PubMed

    Jovanov, Vladislav; Xu, Xu; Shrestha, Shailesh; Schulte, Melanie; Hüpkes, Jürgen; Knipp, Dietmar

    2013-08-14

    A three-dimensional model that predicts the interface morphologies of silicon thin-film solar cells prepared on randomly textured substrates was developed and compared to experimental data. The surface morphologies of silicon solar cells were calculated by using atomic force microscope scans of the textured substrates and the film thickness as input data. Calculated surface morphologies of silicon solar cells are in good agreement with experimentally measured morphologies. A detailed description of the solar cell interface morphologies is necessary to understand light-trapping in silicon single junction and micromorph tandem thin-film solar cells and derive optimal light-trapping structures. PMID:23889117

  11. Phosphatidylserine exposure and red cell viability in red cell aging and in hemolytic anemia

    PubMed Central

    Boas, Franz Edward; Forman, Linda; Beutler, Ernest

    1998-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) normally localizes to the inner leaflet of cell membranes but becomes exposed in abnormal or apoptotic cells, signaling macrophages to ingest them. Along similar lines, it seemed possible that the removal of red cells from circulation because of normal aging or in hemolytic anemias might be triggered by PS exposure. To investigate the role of PS exposure in normal red cell aging, we used N-hydroxysuccinimide-biotin to tag rabbit red cells in vivo, then used phycoerythrin-streptavidin to label the biotinylated cells, and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) to detect the exposed PS. Flow cytometric analysis of these cells drawn at 10-day intervals up to 70 days after biotinylation indicated that older, biotinylated cells expose more PS. Furthermore, our data match a simple model of red cell senescence that assumes both an age-dependent destruction of senescent red cells preceded by several hours of PS exposure and a random destruction of red cells without PS exposure. By using this model, we demonstrated that the exposure of PS parallels the rate at which biotinylated red cells are removed from circulation. On the other hand, using an annexin V-FITC label and flow cytometry demonstrates that exposed PS does not cause the reduced red cell life span of patients with hemolytic anemia, with the possible exception of those with unstable hemoglobins or sickle cell anemia. Thus, in some cases PS exposure on the cell surface may signal the removal of red cells from circulation, but in other cases some other signal must trigger the sequestration of cells. PMID:9501218

  12. Long-term durability of the interface in FRP composites after exposure to simulated physiologic saline environments.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M R; Friedman, R J; Del Schutte, H; Latour, R A

    1994-10-01

    Fiber/matrix interfacial bond strength significantly influences the mechanical behavior of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Interfacial bond strength durability is therefore particularly important in the development of FRP composites for implant applications where diffused moisture may potentially weaken the material over time. In this study, the long-term durability of interfacial bonding in carbon fiber/380 grade polyetheretherketone (C/PEEK) and carbon fiber/polysulfone (C/PSF) composites was investigated after exposure to hygrothermal environments. A single fiber pull-out test was used to quantitatively determine the ultimate bond strength (UBS) of the samples following exposure. Samples were tested at three temperatures (37, 65, and 95 degrees C) for six time periods (0-5000 h) and in two environments (dry and physiologic saline-immersed). A mathematical model based on nth order chemical reaction kinetics was applied to describe the long-term durability of the interface. The results of this study indicate that interfacial bond strengths in C/PSF and C/PEEK (380 grade) composites are significantly decreased by exposure to physiologic saline and are functions of both time and temperature. For each material, the kinetics of degradation analysis predicts further bond strength losses following initial saturation, which then stabilizes at temperature-dependent equilibrium bond strength levels. PMID:7829551

  13. Metabolic shift in lung alveolar cell mitochondria following acrolein exposure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein, an α,β unsaturated electrophile, is an environmental pollutant released in ambient air from diesel exhausts and cooking oils. This study examines the role of acrolein in altering mitochondrial function and metabolism in lung-specific cells. RLE-6TN, H441, and primary alveolar type II (pAT2) cells were exposed to acrolein for 4 h, and its effect on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates was studied by XF Extracellular Flux analysis. Low-dose acrolein exposure decreased mitochondrial respiration in a dose-dependent manner because of alteration in the metabolism of glucose in all the three cell types. Acrolein inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, leading to decreased substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN, H441, and pAT2 cells; the reduced GAPDH activity was compensated in pAT2 cells by an increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the regulatory control of the pentose phosphate pathway. The decrease in pyruvate from glucose metabolism resulted in utilization of alternative sources to support mitochondrial energy production: palmitate-BSA complex increased mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN and pAT2 cells. The presence of palmitate in alveolar cells for surfactant biosynthesis may prove to be the alternative fuel source for mitochondrial respiration. Accordingly, a decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and an increase in phospholipase A2 activity were found in the alveolar cells after acrolein exposure. These findings have implications for understanding the decrease in surfactant levels frequently observed in pathophysiological situations with altered lung function following exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:24056970

  14. Arsenic exposure induces the Warburg effect in cultured human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Fei; Severson, Paul; Pacheco, Samantha; Futscher, Bernard W.; Klimecki, Walter T.

    2013-08-15

    Understanding how arsenic exacts its diverse, global disease burden is hampered by a limited understanding of the particular biological pathways that are disrupted by arsenic and underlie pathogenesis. A reductionist view would predict that a small number of basic pathways are generally perturbed by arsenic, and manifest as diverse diseases. Following an initial observation that arsenite-exposed cells in culture acidify their media more rapidly than control cells, the report here shows that low level exposure to arsenite (75 ppb) is sufficient to induce aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) as a generalized phenomenon in cultured human primary cells and cell lines. Expanded studies in one such cell line, the non-malignant pulmonary epithelial line, BEAS-2B, established that the arsenite-induced Warburg effect was associated with increased accumulation of intracellular and extracellular lactate, an increased rate of extracellular acidification, and inhibition by the non-metabolized glucose analog, 2-deoxy-D-glucose. Associated with the induction of aerobic glycolysis was a pathway-wide induction of glycolysis gene expression, as well as protein accumulation of an established glycolysis master-regulator, hypoxia-inducible factor 1A. Arsenite-induced alteration of energy production in human cells represents the type of fundamental perturbation that could extend to many tissue targets and diseases. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenite exposure induces aerobic glycolysis, dubbed the “Warburg effect”. • Arsenite-induced Warburg effect is a general phenomenon in cultured human cells. • HIF-1A may mediate arsenite induced Warburg effect.

  15. DUAL ION EXPOSURE VS. SPLIT-DOSE EXPOSURES IN HUMAN CELL NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION.

    SciTech Connect

    BENNETT, P.V.; CUTTER, N.C.; SUTHERLAND, B.M.

    2006-06-05

    Since radiation fields of space contain many-fold more protons than high atomic number, high energy (HZE) particles, cells in astronaut crews will experience on average several proton hits before an HZE hit. Thus radiation regimes of proton exposure before HZE particle exposure simulate space radiation exposure, and measurement of the frequency of neoplastic transformation of human primary cells to anchorage-independent growth simulates in initial step in cancer induction. Previously our group found that exposure to 20 cGy 1 GeV/n protons followed within about 1 hr by a HZE ion (20 cGy 1 GeV/n Fe or Ti ions) hit gave about a 3-fold increase in transformation frequency ([1]). To provide insight into the H-HZE induced increased transformation frequencies, we asked if split doses of the same ion gave similar increased transformation frequencies. However, the data show that the split dose of 20 cGy plus 20 cGy of either H or HZE ions gave about the same effect as the 40 cGy uninterrupted dose, quite different from the effect of the mixed ion H + HZE irradiation. We also asked if lower proton doses than 20 cGy followed 15 minutes later by 20 cGy of HZE ions gave greater than additive transformation frequencies. Substantial increases in transformation levels were observed for all proton doses tested, including 1 cGy. These results point to the signal importance of protons in affecting the effect of space radiation on human cells.

  16. Defectivity reduction by optimization of 193-nm immersion lithography using an interfaced exposure-track system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Hatakeyama, Shinichi; Nafus, Kathleen; Moerman, Richard; van Dommelen, Youri; Huisman, Peter; Hooge, Joshua; Scheer, Steven; Foubert, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    As the integration of semiconductor devices continues, pattern sizes required in lithography get smaller and smaller. To achieve even more scaling down of these patterns without changing the basic infrastructure technology of current cutting-edge 193-nm lithography, 193-nm immersion lithography is being viewed as a powerful technique that can accommodate next-generation mass productions needs. Therefore this technology has been seriously considered and after proof of concept it is currently entering the stage of practical application. In the case of 193-nm immersion lithography, however, because liquid fills the area between the projection optics and the silicon wafer, several causes of concern have been raised - namely, diffusion of moisture into the resist film due to direct resist-water interaction during exposure, dissolution of internal components of the resist into the de-ionized water, and the influence of residual moisture generated during exposure on post-exposure processing. To prevent these unwanted effects, optimization of the three main components of the lithography system: materials, track and scanner, is required. For the materials, 193nm resist formulation improvements specifically for immersion processing have reduced the leaching and the sensitivity to water related defects, further benefits can be seen by the application of protective top coat materials. For the track component, optimization of the processing conditions and immersion specific modules are proven to advance the progress made by the material suppliers. Finally, by optimizing conditions on the 3 rd generation immersion scanner with the latest hardware configuration, defectivity levels comparable to dry processing can be achieved. In this evaluation, we detail the improvements that can be realized with new immersion specific track rinse modules and formulate a hypothesis for the improvements seen with the rinsing process. Additionally, we show the current status of water induced

  17. Hypopigmented interface T-cell dyscrasia: a form of cutaneous T-cell dyscrasia distinct from hypopigmented mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Magro, Cynthia M; Hagen, Joshua W; Crowson, Arthur N; Liu, Yen Chen; Mihm, Martin; Drucker, Natalie M; Yassin, Aminah H

    2014-07-01

    Hypopigmentation in cutaneous T-cell lymphoproliferative disease should not always be equated with hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (MF). A form of hypopigmented pre-lymphomatous T-cell dyscrasia falling under the designation of the so-called hypopigmented interface variant of T-cell dyscrasia has recently been proposed. The aim of the present study was to establish hypopigmented interface T-cell dyscrasia as its own entity apart from other T-cell dyscrasias and MF using a patient case series. Twenty four cases of hypopigmented interface T-cell dyscrasia were identified in the dermatopathology database of Weill Medical College of Cornell University. There were 17 females and seven males (mean age, 36 years). In children and adolescents, the patients were most commonly of African American extraction. Truncal photo-protected areas manifesting as large solitary patches or multiple smaller macules were characteristic; disease progression to MF occurred in only one patient. The lesions responded to topical steroids and light therapy. The pathology was defined by a cell poor interface associated with degeneration of keratinocytes and melanocytes, and by lymphocytes whose nuclei showed low-grade cerebriform atypia, and which expressed a significant reduction in CD7 and CD62L expression. In 50% of the cases, the implicated cell type was of the CD8 subset. Clonality was not identified. Hypopigmented interface T-cell dyscrasia is a distinct entity separate from and rarely progressive to MF. PMID:24806661

  18. Cell membrane potentials induced during exposure to EMP fields

    SciTech Connect

    Gailey, P.C.; Easterly, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    Internal current densities and electric fields induced in the human body during exposure to EMP fields are reviewed and used to predict resulting cell membrane potentials. Using several different approaches, membrane potentials of about 100 mV are predicted. These values are comparable to the static membrane potentials maintained by cells as a part of normal physiological function, but the EMP-induced potentials persist for only about 10 ns. Possible biological implications of EMP-induced membrane potentials including conformational changes and electroporation are discussed.

  19. The atomistic origin of interface confinement and enhanced conversion efficiency in Si nanowire solar cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yan; Quan, Jun; Ouyang, Gang

    2016-03-14

    The photoelectric properties of Si nanowires (SiNWs) under interface confinement are investigated based on the atomic-bond-relaxation consideration and the detailed balance principle. An analytical model is developed to elucidate the interface confinement and power conversion efficiency (PCE). It is found that the band curvature and surface barrier height decrease with decreasing size. The interface recombination rate and PCE can be determined by the size, shell thickness and local interface conditions. Our theoretical results show evident improvement in the PCE of SiNWs under interface confinement compared to that of a bare nanowire, highlighting the feasibility of the epitaxial layer as a booster for highly efficient SiNW solar cells. PMID:26883245

  20. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl2 (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4+FoxP3+CD25+ (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8+CD223+ T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can result in long term detrimental

  1. Interface oxygen and heat sensitivity of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 and CuGaSe2 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, Shogo; Fons, Paul J.; Yamada, Akimasa; Kamikawa-Shimizu, Yukiko; Shibata, Hajime

    2016-05-01

    Combined oxygen and heat exposure processes after p-CuGaSe2/n-CdS junction formation degrade CuGaSe2 solar cell efficiency, whereas such annealing processes can improve high In content Cu(In,Ga)Se2 device performance. This result is chiefly attributable to different interface structures consisting of oxygen-sensitive CuGaSe2 or relatively oxygen-insensitive Cu(In,Ga)Se2. To reduce CuGaSe2 interfacial recombination, reduction of the process temperature of the front contact layer deposition process is found to be the key. In this work, fill factor values exceeding 0.7 are reproducibly obtained from CuGaSe2 solar cells, though such high fill factor values have been very challenging to demonstrate to date using CuGaSe2 photoabsorber layers.

  2. Different cell responses induced by exposure to maghemite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo, Yurena; Nardecchia, Stefania; Morales, María Puerto; Serrano, M. Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have permitted the development of a wide repertoire of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with extensive promise for biomedical applications. Despite this remarkable potential, many questions still arise concerning the biocompatible nature of NPs when in contact with biological systems. Herein, we have investigated how controlled changes in the physicochemical properties of iron oxide NPs at their surface (i.e., surface charge and hydrodynamic size) affect, first, their interaction with cell media components and, subsequently, cell responses to NP exposure. For that purpose, we have prepared iron oxide NPs with three different coatings (i.e., dimercaptosuccinic acid - DMSA, (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane - APS and dextran) and explored the response of two different cell types, murine L929 fibroblasts and human Saos-2 osteoblasts, to their exposure. Interestingly, different cell responses were found depending on the NP concentration, surface charge and cell type. In this sense, neutral NPs, as those coated with dextran, induced negligible cell damage, as their cellular internalization was significantly reduced. In contrast, surface-charged NPs (i.e., those coated with DMSA and APS) caused significant cellular changes in viability, morphology and cell cycle under certain culture conditions, as a result of a more active cellular internalization. These results also revealed a particular cellular ability to detect and remember the original physicochemical properties of the NPs, despite the formation of a protein corona when incubated in culture media. Overall, conclusions from these studies are of crucial interest for future biomedical applications of iron oxide NPs.Recent advances in nanotechnology have permitted the development of a wide repertoire of inorganic magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with extensive promise for biomedical applications. Despite this remarkable potential, many questions still arise concerning the biocompatible

  3. Effect of background melt flow and interface distortion on the stability of Hall-Heroult cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Zikanov, O.; Finlayson, B. A.

    2005-09-01

    We use the method of linear stability analysis to study the effect of background melt flows and interface deformation on the stability characteristics of Hall-Heroult reduction cells. The linearized perturbation equations are based on a two-dimensional shallow water model. Two kinds of background states are investigated, one with a strong interface deformation and negligible melt flow, and another with strong vortical flows in aluminum and cryolite but a practically flat interface. It is found that the interface deformation with the length scale of the order of the cell size has a strong destabilizing effect. We also confirm earlier predictions that the unstable interfacial wave becomes wall-limited as the electromagnetic instability parameter increases. Tables 3, Figs 5, Refs 18.

  4. Multifunctional Interface Modification of Energy Relay Dye in Quasi-solid Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rui; Cui, Yixiu; Liu, Xiaojiang; Wang, Liduo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) has been used in interface modification of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) with combined effects of retarding charge recombination and Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET). DCJTB interface modification significantly improved photovoltaic performance of DSCs. I–V curves shows the conversion efficiency increases from 4.27% to 5.64% with DCJTB coating. The application of DCJTB with combined effects is beneficial to explore more novel multi-functional interface modification materials to improve the performance of DSCs. PMID:24993900

  5. Operando X-ray Investigation of Electrode/Electrolyte Interfaces in Model Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We employed operando anomalous surface X-ray diffraction to investigate the buried interface between the cathode and the electrolyte of a model solid oxide fuel cell with atomic resolution. The cell was studied under different oxygen pressures at elevated temperatures and polarizations by external potential control. Making use of anomalous X-ray diffraction effects at the Y and Zr K-edges allowed us to resolve the interfacial structure and chemical composition of a (100)-oriented, 9.5 mol % yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) single crystal electrolyte below a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ (LSC) electrode. We observe yttrium segregation toward the YSZ/LSC electrolyte/electrode interface under reducing conditions. Under oxidizing conditions, the interface becomes Y depleted. The yttrium segregation is corroborated by an enhanced outward relaxation of the YSZ interfacial metal ion layer. At the same time, an increase in point defect concentration in the electrolyte at the interface was observed, as evidenced by reduced YSZ crystallographic site occupancies for the cations as well as the oxygen ions. Such changes in composition are expected to strongly influence the oxygen ion transport through this interface which plays an important role for the performance of solid oxide fuel cells. The structure of the interface is compared to the bare YSZ(100) surface structure near the microelectrode under identical conditions and to the structure of the YSZ(100) surface prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. PMID:27346923

  6. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Schafer, Rosana; Barnett, John B.

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspring were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during gestation can

  7. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user. PMID:25856554

  8. Interfacing electrogenic cells with 3D nanoelectrodes: position, shape, and size matter.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Francesca; Dasgupta, Sabyasachi; Schnitker, Jan; Auth, Thorsten; Neumann, Elmar; Panaitov, Gregory; Gompper, Gerhard; Offenhäusser, Andreas

    2014-07-22

    An in-depth understanding of the interface between cells and nanostructures is one of the key challenges for coupling electrically excitable cells and electronic devices. Recently, various 3D nanostructures have been introduced to stimulate and record electrical signals emanating from inside of the cell. Even though such approaches are highly sensitive and scalable, it remains an open question how cells couple to 3D structures, in particular how the engulfment-like processes of nanostructures work. Here, we present a profound study of the cell interface with two widely used nanostructure types, cylindrical pillars with and without a cap. While basic functionality was shown for these approaches before, a systematic investigation linking experimental data with membrane properties was not presented so far. The combination of electron microscopy investigations with a theoretical membrane deformation model allows us to predict the optimal shape and dimensions of 3D nanostructures for cell-chip coupling. PMID:24963873

  9. Phthalate Exposure Changes the Metabolic Profile of Cardiac Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Luther M.; Kay, Matthew W.; Lee, Norman H.; Sarvazyan, Narine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Phthalates are common plasticizers present in medical-grade plastics and other everyday products. They can also act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals and have been linked to the rise in metabolic disorders. However, the effect of phthalates on cardiac metabolism remains largely unknown. Objectives: We examined the effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) on the metabolic profile of cardiomyocytes because alterations in metabolic processes can lead to cell dysfunction. Methods: Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were treated with DEHP at a concentration and duration comparable to clinical exposure (50–100 μg/mL, 72 hr). We assessed the effect of DEHP on gene expression using microarray analysis. Physiological responses were examined via fatty acid utilization, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass, and Western blot analysis. Results: Exposure to DEHP led to up-regulation of genes associated with fatty acid transport, esterification, mitochondrial import, and β-oxidation. The functional outcome was an increase in myocyte fatty acid–substrate utilization, oxygen consumption, mitochondrial mass, PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α) protein expression, and extracellular acidosis. Treatment with a PPARα agonist (Wy-14643) only partially mimicked the effects observed in DEHP-treated cells. Conclusions: Data suggest that DEHP exposure results in metabolic remodeling of cardiomyocytes, whereby cardiac cells increase their dependence on fatty acids for energy production. This fuel switch may be regulated at both the gene expression and posttranscription levels. Our findings have important clinical implications because chronic dependence on fatty acids is associated with an accumulation in lipid intermediates, lactate, protons, and reactive oxygen species. This dependence can sensitize the heart to ischemic injury and ventricular dysfunction. PMID:22672789

  10. Nanowire Nanoelectronics: Building Interfaces with Tissue and Cells at the Natural Scale of Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen-Karni, Itzhaq Tzahi

    The interface between nanoscale electronic devices and biological systems enables interactions at length-scales natural to biology, and thus should maximize communication between these two diverse yet complementary systems. Moreover, nanostructures and nanostructured substrates show enhanced coupling to artificial membranes, cells, and tissue. Such nano-bio interfaces offer better sensitivity and spatial resolution as compared to conventional planar structures. In this work, I will report the electrical properties of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) interfaced with embryonic chicken hearts and cultured cardiomyocytes. I developed a scheme that allows us to manipulate the nanoelectronic to tissue/cell interfaces while monitoring their electrical activity. In addition, by utilizing the bottom-up approach, we extend our work to the sub-cellular regime, and interface cells with the smallest reported device ever and thus exceed the spatial and temporal resolution limits of other electrical recording techniques. The exceptional synthetic control and flexible assembly of nanowires provides powerful tools for fundamental studies and applications in life science, and opens up the potential of merging active transistors with cells such that the distinction between nonliving and living systems is blurred.

  11. Impact of laser-structured biomaterial interfaces on guided cell responses

    PubMed Central

    Fadeeva, Elena; Deiwick, Andrea; Chichkov, Boris; Schlie-Wolter, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    To achieve a perfect integration of biomaterials into the body, tissue formation in contact with the interface has to be controlled. In this connection, a selective cell control is required: fibrotic encapsulation has to be inhibited, while tissue guidance has to be stimulated. As conventional biomaterials do not fulfil this specification, functionalization of the biointerface is under development to mimic the natural environment of the cells. One approach focuses on the fabrication of defined surface topographies. Thereby, ultrashort pulse laser ablation is very beneficial, owing to a large variety of fabricated structures, reduced heat-affected zones, high precision and reproducibility. We demonstrate that nanostructures in platinum and microstructures in silicon selectively control cell behaviour: inhibiting fibroblasts, while stimulating neuronal attachment and differentiation. However, the control of fibroblasts strongly correlates with the created size dimensions of the surface structures. These findings suggest favourable biomaterial interfaces for electronic devices. The mechanisms which are responsible for selective cell control are poorly understood. To give an insight, cell behaviour in dependence of biomaterial interfaces is discussed—including basic research on the role of the extracellular matrix. This knowledge is essential to understand such specific cell responses and to optimize biomaterial interfaces for future biomedical applications. PMID:24501676

  12. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  13. Optimization of Organic Solar Cells: Materials, Devices and Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nanjia

    Due to the increasing demand for sustainable clean energy, photovoltaic cells have received intensified attention in the past decade in both academia and industry. Among the types of cells, organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells offer promise as alternatives to conventional inorganic-type solar cells owning to several unique advantages such as low material and fabrication cost. To maximize power conversion efficiencies (PCEs), extensive research efforts focus on frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy engineering of photoactive materials. Towards this objective, a series of novel donor polymers incorporating a new building block, bithiophene imide (BTI) group are developed, with narrow bandgap and low-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energies to increase short circuit current density, Jsc, and open circuit voltage, Voc.. Compared to other PV technologies, OPVs often suffer from large internal recombination loss and relatively low fill factors (FFs) <70%. Through a combination of materials design and device architecture optimization strategies to improve both microscopic and macroscopic thin film morphology, OPVs with PCEs up to 8.7% and unprecedented FF approaching 80% are obtained. Such high FF are close to those typically achieved in amorphous Si solar cells. Systematic variations of polymer chemical structures lead to understanding of structure-property relationships between polymer geometry and the resulting blend film morphology characteristics which are crucial for achieving high local mobilities and long carrier lifetimes. Instead of using fullerene as the acceptors, an alternative type of OPV is developed employing a high electron mobility polymer, P(NDI2OD-T2), as the acceptor. To improve the all-polymer blend film morphology, the influence of basic solvent properties such as solvent boiling point and solubility on polymer phase separation and charge transport properties is investigated, yielding to a high PCE of 2.7% for all-polymer solar cells

  14. Sliced Magnetic Polyacrylamide Hydrogel with Cell-Adhesive Microarray Interface: A Novel Multicellular Spheroid Culturing Platform.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ke; Zhou, Naizhen; Li, Yang; Ma, Siyu; Guo, Zhaobin; Cao, Meng; Zhang, Qiying; Sun, Jianfei; Zhang, Tianzhu; Gu, Ning

    2016-06-22

    Cell-adhesive properties are of great significance to materials serving as extracellular matrix mimics. Appropriate cell-adhesive property of material interface can balance the cell-matrix interaction and cell-cell interaction and can promote cells to form 3D structures. Herein, a novel magnetic polyacrylamide (PAM) hydrogel fabricated via combining magnetostatic field induced magnetic nanoparticles assembly and hydrogel gelation was applied as a multicellular spheroids culturing platform. When cultured on the cell-adhesive microarray interface of sliced magnetic hydrogel, normal and tumor cells from different cell lines could rapidly form multicellular spheroids spontaneously. Furthermore, cells which could only form loose cell aggregates in a classic 3D cell culture model (such as hanging drop system) were able to be promoted to form multicellular spheroids on this platform. In the light of its simplicity in fabricating as well as its effectiveness in promoting formation of multicellular spheroids which was considered as a prevailing tool in the study of the microenvironmental regulation of tumor cell physiology and therapeutic problems, this composite material holds promise in anticancer drugs or hyperthermia therapy evaluation in vitro in the future. PMID:27258682

  15. Uterine NK cells: active regulators at the maternal-fetal interface

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, Ashley; Colucci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy presents an immunological conundrum because two genetically different individuals coexist. The maternal lymphocytes at the uterine maternal-fetal interface that can recognize mismatched placental cells are T cells and abundant distinctive uterine NK (uNK) cells. Multiple mechanisms exist that avoid damaging T cell responses to the fetus, whereas activation of uNK cells is probably physiological. Indeed, genetic epidemiological data suggest that the variability of NK cell receptors and their MHC ligands define pregnancy success; however, exactly how uNK cells function in normal and pathological pregnancy is still unclear, and any therapies aimed at suppressing NK cells must be viewed with caution. Allorecognition of fetal placental cells by uNK cells is emerging as the key maternal-fetal immune mechanism that regulates placentation. PMID:24789879

  16. Circulating Dendritic Cells, Farm Exposure and Asthma at Early Age.

    PubMed

    Kääriö, H; Nieminen, J K; Karvonen, A M; Huttunen, K; Schröder, P C; Vaarala, O; von Mutius, E; Pfefferle, P I; Schaub, B; Pekkanen, J; Hirvonen, M-R; Roponen, M

    2016-01-01

    Farm environment has been shown to protect from childhood asthma. Underlying immunological mechanisms are not clear yet, including the role of dendritic cells (DCs). The aim was to explore whether asthma and farm exposures are associated with the proportions and functional properties of DCs from 4.5-year-old children in a subgroup of the Finnish PASTURE birth cohort study. Myeloid DCs (mDCs), plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo (n = 100) identified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were analysed using flow cytometry. MDCs and production of interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by mDCs were analysed after 5 h in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (n = 88). Prenatal and current farm exposures (farming, stables, hay barn and farm milk) were assessed from questionnaires. Asthma at age 6 years was defined as a doctor's diagnosis and symptoms; atopic sensitization was defined by antigen-specific IgE measurements. Asthma was positively associated with CD86 expression on mDCs ex vivo [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 4.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.51-15.4] and inversely with IL-6 production in mDCs after in vitro stimulation with LPS (aOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04-0.82). In vitro stimulation with LPS resulted in lower percentage of mDCs in the farm PBMC cultures as compared to non-farm PBMC cultures. Our results suggest an association between childhood asthma and functional properties of DCs. Farm exposure may have immunomodulatory effects by decreasing mDC proportions. PMID:26368653

  17. Organic Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on Donor-Acceptor Interpenetrating Nano-Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Akihiko; Hori, Tetsuro; Moritou, Hiroki; Fukuoka, Naoki; Sakamoto, Junki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-12-23

    Photovoltaic cells with interpenetrating interfaces between a conducting polymer layer and a fullerene layer fabricated by a solvent corrosion method have been investigated. Using a weakly dissoluble combination of a solvent and an underlayer film, we fabricated a ''semi-layered'' structure that was maintaining a bilayer structure and furthermore interpenetrating at the interface of the conducting polymer and the fullerene layers. In these cells, high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) were obtained. The photovoltaic properties have been interpreted by the effective absorption of incident photons around the interface of conducting polymer and fullerene, the interpenetrating fullerene / conducting polymer interface involving the efficient photo-induced charge transfer, and the short distance between the electron-generation region and electrode resulting in the enhancement of the electron collection to the electrode. In these cells, both of the efficient exciton dissociations at the interpenetrating interface and the efficient carrier transports by each continuous pathway for electrons between fullerene molecules and for holes between conducting polymers occur.

  18. Organic Thin-Film Solar Cells Based on Donor-Acceptor Interpenetrating Nano-Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Akihiko; Hori, Tetsuro; Moritou, Hiroki; Fukuoka, Naoki; Sakamoto, Junki; Ozaki, Masanori

    2010-12-01

    Photovoltaic cells with interpenetrating interfaces between a conducting polymer layer and a fullerene layer fabricated by a solvent corrosion method have been investigated. Using a weakly dissoluble combination of a solvent and an underlayer film, we fabricated a "semi-layered" structure that was maintaining a bilayer structure and furthermore interpenetrating at the interface of the conducting polymer and the fullerene layers. In these cells, high external quantum efficiencies (EQE) were obtained. The photovoltaic properties have been interpreted by the effective absorption of incident photons around the interface of conducting polymer and fullerene, the interpenetrating fullerene / conducting polymer interface involving the efficient photo-induced charge transfer, and the short distance between the electron-generation region and electrode resulting in the enhancement of the electron collection to the electrode. In these cells, both of the efficient exciton dissociations at the interpenetrating interface and the efficient carrier transports by each continuous pathway for electrons between fullerene molecules and for holes between conducting polymers occur.

  19. An interface reconstruction method based on an analytical formula for 3D arbitrary convex cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diot, Steven; François, Marianne M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in an interface reconstruction method for 3D arbitrary convex cells that could be used in multi-material flow simulations for instance. We assume that the interface is represented by a plane whose normal vector is known and we focus on the volume-matching step that consists in finding the plane constant so that it splits the cell according to a given volume fraction. We follow the same approach as in the recent authors' publication for 2D arbitrary convex cells in planar and axisymmetrical geometries, namely we derive an analytical formula for the volume of the specific prismatoids obtained when decomposing the cell using the planes that are parallel to the interface and passing through all the cell nodes. This formula is used to bracket the interface plane constant such that the volume-matching problem is rewritten in a single prismatoid in which the same formula is used to find the final solution. The proposed method is tested against an important number of reproducible configurations and shown to be at least five times faster.

  20. Engineering nanoscale stem cell niche: direct stem cell behavior at cell-matrix interface.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Gordon, Andrew; Qian, Weiyi; Chen, Weiqiang

    2015-09-16

    Biophysical cues on the extracellular matrix (ECM) have proven to be significant regulators of stem cell behavior and evolution. Understanding the interplay of these cells and their extracellular microenvironment is critical to future tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, both of which require a means of controlled differentiation. Research suggests that nanotopography, which mimics the local, nanoscale, topographic cues within the stem cell niche, could be a way to achieve large-scale proliferation and control of stem cells in vitro. This Progress Report reviews the history and contemporary advancements of this technology, and pays special attention to nanotopographic fabrication methods and the effect of different nanoscale patterns on stem cell response. Finally, it outlines potential intracellular mechanisms behind this response. PMID:26222885

  1. Ozone exposure of human tracheal epithelial cells inactivates cyclooxygenase and increases 15-HETE production.

    PubMed

    Alpert, S E; Walenga, R W

    1995-12-01

    We assessed the immediate and prolonged effects of ozone on arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism by primary cultured human tracheal epithelial (TE) cells. TE monolayers were exposed at a gas-fluid interface to air or 0.1, 0.25, or 0.5 ppm ozone (15 min air, then 45 min air/ozone), and serially collected effluents were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and/or high-performance liquid chromatography. Release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and AA, but not 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15-HETE) or its metabolites, was detected from cultures prelabeled with [14C]AA. PGE2 production, measured by immunoassay, was nearly constant during air exposure. In contrast, PGE2 increased two- to threefold during the first 15-min exposure to all concentrations of ozone, but then progressively declined to 78 +/- 17, 57 +/- 12 (P < or = 0.05), and 45 +/- 15% (P < or = 0.05) of air controls after exposure to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone. Ozone did not induce a new spectrum of AA metabolites; only PGE2, lesser amounts of PGF2 alpha, and 15-HETE were present in media and cell extracts of air- or ozone-exposed cultures provided with 30 microM exogenous AA. However, cyclooxygenase (CO) activity (PGE2 produced from 30 microM AA) decreased to 82 +/- 9, 53 +/- 8 (P < or = 0.05), and 28 +/- 6% (P < or = 0.05) vs. controls after 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 ppm ozone, whereas 15-HETE production was unimpaired. When cells exposed to 0.5 ppm ozone were maintained for up to 6 h in 5% CO2-air, spontaneous PGE2 production remained decreased and recovery of CO activity was extremely slow. TLC analysis of lipid extracts from [14C]AA-labeled cells revealed a nearly twofold increase in free intracellular 15-HETE, and hydrolysis of phospholipids demonstrated increased esterified 15-HETE. Exposure of human TE cells to ozone leads to a transient increase followed by prolonged decrease in PGE2 production and increased intracellular retention of 15-HETE. Loss of the bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties

  2. Mathematical model for cell competition: Predator-prey interactions at the interface between two groups of cells in monolayer tissue.

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Seiya; Takamatsu, Atsuko; Ohsawa, Shizue; Igaki, Tatsushi

    2016-09-01

    The phenomenon of 'cell competition' has been implicated in the normal development and maintenance of organs, such as in the regulation of organ size and suppression of neoplastic development. In cell competition, one group of cells competes with another group through an interaction at their interface. Which cell group "wins" is governed by a certain relative fitness within the cells. However, this idea of cellular fitness has not been clearly defined. We construct two types of mathematical models to describe this phenomenon of cell competition by considering the interaction at the interface as a predator-prey type interaction in a monolayer tissue such as epithelium. Both of these models can reproduce several typical experimental observations involving systems of mutant cells (losers) and normal cells (winners). By analyzing one of the model and defining an index for the degree of fitness in groups of cells, we show that the fate of each group mainly depends on the relative carrying capacities of certain resources and the strength of the predator-prey interaction at the interface. This contradicts the classical hypothesis in which the relative proliferation rate determines the winner. PMID:27234645

  3. Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles in lung epithelial cells exposed at the air-liquid interface compared with in vivo assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xuefang; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.; Thorne, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity of spark-generated copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) and lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 cells) using an in vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) exposure system. Dose-response results were compared to in vivo inhalation and instillation studies of CuONP. Cells were exposed to particle-free clean air (controls) or spark-generated CuONPs. The number median diameter, geometric standard deviation and total number concentration of CuONPs were 9.2 nm, 1.48 and 2.27×107 particles/cm3, respectively. Outcome measures included cell viability, cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and proinflammatory chemokine production. Exposure to clean air (2 or 4 hr) did not induce toxicity in HBEC or A549 cells. Compared with controls, CuONP exposures significantly reduced cell viability, increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner. A549 cells were significantly more susceptible to CuONP effects than HBEC. Antioxidant treatment reduced CuONP-induced cytotoxicity. When dose was expressed per area of exposed epithelium there was good agreement of toxicity measures with murine in vivo studies. This demonstrates that in vitro ALI studies can provide meaningful data on nanotoxicity of metal oxides. PMID:25575782

  4. Doxycycline inhibits bone resorption by human interface membrane cells from aseptically loose hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Ong, S M; Taylor, G J S

    2003-04-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may have a role in the process of aseptic loosening. Doxycycline has been shown to inhibit MMPs. Our aim was to investigate the potential pharmacological effect of doxycycline on aseptic loosening. We used radiolabelled mouse calvariae cultured with human interface membrane cells from aseptically loosened hips. Bone resorption was confirmed in this model. The effect of doxycycline was assessed by culturing dead radiolabelled bone discs with cells from the interface membrane with doxycycline. The control group consisted of the same culture system without doxycycline. Supernatant 45calcium and the total 45calcium remaining in the bone discs at the completion of the culture were used to measure osteolysis. We found that doxycycline can inhibit osteolysis at the interface membrane of aseptically loosened hips. This may have therapeutic implications for the treatment of patients with aseptic loosening of total joint replacements. PMID:12729128

  5. Topographical guidance of 3D tumor cell migration at an interface of collagen densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeleau, Francois; Tang, Lauren N.; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A.

    2013-12-01

    During cancer progression, metastatic cells leave the primary tumor and invade into the fibrous extracellular matrix (ECM) within the surrounding stroma. This ECM network is highly heterogeneous, and interest in understanding how this network can affect cell behavior has increased in the past several decades. However, replicating this heterogeneity has proven challenging. Here, we designed and utilized a method to create a well-defined interface between two distinct regions of high- and low-density collagen gels to mimic the heterogeneities in density found in the tumor stroma. We show that cells will invade preferentially from the high-density side into the low-density side. We also demonstrate that the net cell migration is a function of the density of the collagen in which the cells are embedded, and the difference in density between the two regions has minimal effect on cell net displacement and distance travelled. Our data further indicate that a low-to-high density interface promotes directional migration and induces formation of focal adhesion on the interface surface. Together, the current results demonstrate how ECM heterogeneities, in the form of interfacial boundaries, can affect cell migration.

  6. Origin of photogenerated carrier recombination at the metal-active layer interface in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Mukesh; Dubey, Ashish; Reza, Khan Mamun; Adhikari, Nirmal; Qiao, Qiquan; Bommisetty, Venkat

    2015-11-01

    The role of the metal-active layer interface in photogenerated recombination has been investigated using nanoscale current sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS) in as-deposited, pre-annealed and post-annealed bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. Aluminum (Al) confined post-annealed BHJ solar cells exhibited a significantly improved device efficiency compared to pre-annealed BHJ solar cells having similar photocarrier harvesting ability in the active layer. The nanoscale topography and CS-AFM results indicate a uniform PCBM rich phase at the metal-active layer interface in the post-annealed cells, but PCBM segregation in the pre-annealed cells. These two different annealing processes showed different carrier dynamics revealed using IMPS under various light intensities. The IMPS results suggest reduced photo generated carrier recombination in uniform PCBM rich post-annealed BHJ solar cells. This study reveals the importance of the metal-bend interface in BHJ solar cells in order to obtain efficient charge carrier extraction for high efficiency. PMID:26431263

  7. Effects of flame made zinc oxide particles in human lung cells - a comparison of aerosol and suspension exposures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Predominantly, studies of nanoparticle (NPs) toxicology in vitro are based upon the exposure of submerged cell cultures to particle suspensions. Such an approach however, does not reflect particle inhalation. As a more realistic simulation of such a scenario, efforts were made towards direct delivery of aerosols to air-liquid-interface cultivated cell cultures by the use of aerosol exposure systems. This study aims to provide a direct comparison of the effects of zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs when delivered as either an aerosol, or in suspension to a triple cell co-culture model of the epithelial airway barrier. To ensure dose–equivalence, ZnO-deposition was determined in each exposure scenario by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Biological endpoints being investigated after 4 or 24h incubation include cytotoxicity, total reduced glutathione, induction of antioxidative genes such as heme-oxygenase 1 (HO–1) as well as the release of the (pro)-inflammatory cytokine TNFα. Results Off-gases released as by-product of flame ZnO synthesis caused a significant decrease of total reduced GSH and induced further the release of the cytokine TNFα, demonstrating the influence of the gas phase on aerosol toxicology. No direct effects could be attributed to ZnO particles. By performing suspension exposure to avoid the factor “flame-gases”, particle specific effects become apparent. Other parameters such as LDH and HO–1 were not influenced by gaseous compounds: Following aerosol exposure, LDH levels appeared elevated at both timepoints and the HO–1 transcript correlated positively with deposited ZnO-dose. Under submerged conditions, the HO–1 induction scheme deviated for 4 and 24h and increased extracellular LDH was found following 24h exposure. Conclusion In the current study, aerosol and suspension-exposure has been compared by exposing cell cultures to equivalent amounts of ZnO. Both exposure strategies differ fundamentally in their dose–response pattern

  8. Oral Gingival Cell Cigarette Smoke Exposure Induces Muscle Cell Metabolic Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Baeder, Andrea C.; Napa, Kiran; Richardson, Sarah T.; Taylor, Oliver J.; Andersen, Samantha G.; Wilcox, Shalene H.; Winden, Duane R.; Reynolds, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoke exposure compromises health through damaging multiple physiological systems, including disrupting metabolic function. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of oral gingiva in mediating the deleterious metabolic effects of cigarette smoke exposure on skeletal muscle metabolic function. Using an in vitro conditioned medium cell model, skeletal muscle cells were incubated with medium from gingival cells treated with normal medium or medium containing suspended cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Following incubation of muscle cells with gingival cell conditioned medium, muscle cell mitochondrial respiration and insulin signaling and action were determined as an indication of overall muscle metabolic health. Skeletal muscle cells incubated with conditioned medium of CSE-treated gingival cells had a profound reduction in mitochondrial respiration and respiratory control. Furthermore, skeletal muscle cells had a greatly reduced response in insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glycogen synthesis. Altogether, these results provide a novel perspective on the mechanism whereby cigarette smoke affects systemic metabolic function. In conclusion, we found that oral gingival cells treated with CSE create an altered milieu that is sufficient to both disrupted skeletal muscle cell mitochondrial function and insulin sensitivity. PMID:27034671

  9. Evaluating the interfacial reaction kinetics of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sikan; Lu, Shanfu; Zhang, Jin; Sui, Pang-Chieh; Xiang, Yan

    2013-07-21

    A reaction kinetic model of the bipolar membrane interface in the bipolar membrane fuel cell (BPMFC) was proposed based on the p-n junction theory and chemical reaction kinetics. It verified the self-humidification feasibility of the BPMFC successfully. PMID:23744271

  10. Compact cell-centered discretization stencils at fine-coarse block structured grid interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletzer, Alexander; Jamroz, Ben; Crockett, Robert; Sides, Scott

    2014-03-01

    Different strategies for coupling fine-coarse grid patches are explored in the context of the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) method. We show that applying linear interpolation to fill in the fine grid ghost values can produce a finite volume stencil of comparable accuracy to quadratic interpolation provided the cell volumes are adjusted. The volume of fine cells expands whereas the volume of neighboring coarse cells contracts. The amount by which the cells contract/expand depends on whether the interface is a face, an edge, or a corner. It is shown that quadratic or better interpolation is required when the conductivity is spatially varying, anisotropic, the refinement ratio is other than two, or when the fine-coarse interface is concave.

  11. Note: Sample cells to investigate solid/liquid interfaces with neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rennie, Adrian R. Hellsing, Maja S.; Lindholm, Eric; Olsson, Anders

    2015-01-15

    The design of sample cells to study solid/liquid interfaces by neutron reflection is presented. Use of standardized components and a modular design has allowed a wide range of experiments that include grazing incidence scattering and conventional small-angle scattering. Features that reduce background scattering are emphasized. Various flow arrangements to fill and replenish the liquid in the cell as well as continuous stirring are described.

  12. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Ngalame, Ntube N. Olive; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-12-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell's ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. - Highlights: • Chronic cadmium exposure induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells. • This provides an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung cell transformation. • This occurred with general and lung specific changes typical for cancer cells. • These findings add insight to the relationship

  13. The dissociation of excitons at indium tin oxide-copper phthalocyanine interface in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. Y.; Song, Q. L.; Wang, M. L.; Ding, X. M.; Hou, X. Y.; Zhou, Z. G.; Li, F. Y.

    2008-11-01

    Exciton dissociation process at indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) interface of ITO/CuPc(370 nm)/Al is studied by transient photovoltage method. A negative-to-positive change in the polarity of photovoltage upon pulsed laser irradiation is observed in CuPc thin film. The polarity change is regarded as a summation of the effect of exciton dissociation at ITO/CuPc interface (fast process) and that of free carrier separation by built-in field (slow process). Further experiments confirm the existence of exciton dissociation at ITO/CuPc interface, and the direction of which is electron injected into ITO, with holes left in CuPc film. This is opposite to that of the interfacial dissociation at donor/acceptor (D/A) interface in single heterojunction cells (ITO/D/A/buffer/Al). 3-nm-thick LiF insulating layer is inserted between ITO and CuPc to inhibit the exciton dissociation at ITO/CuPc interface. Thereby, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency of the single layer cell have been increased by several times.

  14. The complex interface chemistry of thin-film silicon/zinc oxide solar cell structures.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, D; Wimmer, M; Wilks, R G; Félix, R; Kronast, F; Ruske, F; Bär, M

    2014-12-21

    The interface between solid-phase crystallized phosphorous-doped polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si(n(+))) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using spatially resolved photoelectron emission microscopy. We find the accumulation of aluminum in the proximity of the interface. Based on a detailed photoemission line analysis, we also suggest the formation of an interface species. Silicon suboxide and/or dehydrated hemimorphite have been identified as likely candidates. For each scenario a detailed chemical reaction pathway is suggested. The chemical instability of the poly-Si(n(+))/ZnO:Al interface is explained by the fact that SiO2 is more stable than ZnO and/or that H2 is released from the initially deposited a-Si:H during the crystallization process. As a result, Zn (a deep acceptor in silicon) is "liberated" close to the silicon/zinc oxide interface presenting the inherent risk of forming deep defects in the silicon absorber. These could act as recombination centers and thus limit the performance of silicon/zinc oxide based solar cells. Based on this insight some recommendations with respect to solar cell design, material selection, and process parameters are given for further knowledge-based thin-film silicon device optimization. PMID:25363298

  15. Chronic cadmium exposure in vitro induces cancer cell characteristics in human lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Person, Rachel J.; Tokar, Erik J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Orihuela, Ruben; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium is a known human lung carcinogen. Here, we attempt to develop an in vitro model of cadmium-induced human lung carcinogenesis by chronically exposing the peripheral lung epithelia cell line, HPL-1D, to a low level of cadmium. Cells were chronically exposed to 5 μM cadmium, a noncytotoxic level, and monitored for acquired cancer characteristics. By 20 weeks of continuous cadmium exposure, these chronic cadmium treated lung (CCT-LC) cells showed marked increases in secreted MMP-2 activity (3.5-fold), invasion (3.4-fold), and colony formation in soft agar (2-fold). CCT-LC cells were hyperproliferative, grew well in serum-free media, and overexpressed cyclin D1. The CCT-LC cells also showed decreased expression of the tumor suppressor genes p16 and SLC38A3 at the protein levels. Also consistent with an acquired cancer cell phenotype, CCT-LC cells showed increased expression of the oncoproteins K-RAS and N-RAS as well as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition marker protein Vimentin. Metallothionein (MT) expression is increased by cadmium, and is typically overexpressed in human lung cancers. The major MT isoforms, MT-1A and MT-2A were elevated in CCT-LC cells. Oxidant adaptive response genes HO-1 and HIF-1A were also activated in CCT-LC cells. Expression of the metal transport genes ZNT-1, ZNT-5, and ZIP-8 increased in CCT-LC cells culminating in reduced cadmium accumulation, suggesting adaptation to the metal. Overall, these data suggest that exposure of human lung epithelial cells to cadmium causes acquisition of cancer cell characteristics. Furthermore, transformation occurs despite the cell’s ability to adapt to chronic cadmium exposure. PMID:23811327

  16. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Following [13C2]-Acetaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dose-response relationship for biomarkers of exposure (N2-ethylidene-dG adducts) and effect (cell survival and micronucleus formation) was determined across 4.5 orders of magnitude (50nM–2mM) using [13C2]-acetaldehyde exposures to human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for 12h. There was a clear increase in exogenous N 2-ethylidene-dG formation at exposure concentrations ≥ 1µM, whereas the endogenous adducts remained nearly constant across all exposure concentrations, with an average of 3.0 adducts/107 dG. Exogenous adducts were lower than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≤ 10µM and were greater than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≥ 250µM. When the endogenous and exogenous adducts were summed together, statistically significant increases in total adduct formation over the endogenous background occurred at 50µM. Cell survival and micronucleus formation were monitored across the exposure range and statistically significant decreases in cell survival and increases in micronucleus formation occurred at ≥ 1000µM. This research supports the hypothesis that endogenously produced reactive species, including acetaldehyde, are always present and constitute the majority of the observed biological effects following very low exposures to exogenous acetaldehyde. These data can replace default assumptions of linear extrapolation to very low doses of exogenous acetaldehyde for risk prediction. PMID:23425604

  17. Embryonic exposure to excess thyroid hormone causes thyrotrope cell death

    PubMed Central

    Tonyushkina, Ksenia N.; Shen, Meng-Chieh; Ortiz-Toro, Theresa; Karlstrom, Rolf O.

    2013-01-01

    Central congenital hypothyroidism (CCH) is more prevalent in children born to women with hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, suggesting a role for thyroid hormone (TH) in the development of central thyroid regulation. Using the zebrafish embryo as a model for thyroid axis development, we have characterized the ontogeny of negative feedback regulation of thyrotrope function and examined the effect of excess TH on thyrotrope development. We found that thyroid-stimulating hormone β subunit (tshb) and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) are coexpressed in zebrafish thyrotropes by 48 hours after fertilization and that TH-driven negative feedback regulation of tshb transcription appears in the thyroid axis by 96 hours after fertilization. Negative feedback regulation correlated with increased systemic TH levels from the developing thyroid follicles. We used a transgenic zebrafish that expresses GFP under the control of the tshb promoter to follow thyrotrope fates in vivo. Time-lapse imaging revealed that early exposure to elevated TH leads to thyrotrope cell death. Thyrotrope numbers slowly recovered following the removal of excess TH. These data demonstrate that transient TH exposure profoundly impacts the thyrotrope population during a critical period of pituitary development and may have long-term implications for the functional reserve of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) production and the TSH set point later in life. PMID:24316972

  18. Osteochondral interface generation by rabbit bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts coculture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kelei; Teh, Thomas Kok Hiong; Ravi, Sujata; Toh, Siew Lok; Goh, James Cho Hong

    2012-09-01

    Physiological osteochondral interface regeneration is a significant challenge. This study aims to investigate the effect of the coculture of chondrogenic rabbit bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSCs) with rabbit osteoblasts in a specially designed two-dimensional (2D)-three-dimensional (3D) co-interface culture to develop the intermediate osteochondral region in vitro. The 2D-3D coculture system was set up by first independently culturing chondrogenic rBMSCs on a scaffold and osteoblasts in cell culture plates, and subsequently placed in contact and cocultured. As control, samples not cocultured with osteoblasts were used. The regulatory effects exerted by osteoblasts on chondrogenic rBMSCs were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction. To study the effect of coculture on cells located in different parts of the scaffold, samples were separated into two parts and significantly different gene expression patterns were found between them. In comparison with the control group, a significant moderate downregulation of chondrogenic marker genes, such as Collagen II and Aggrecan was observed. However, the Sox-9 and Collagen I expression increased. More importantly, chondrogenic rBMSCs in the coculture system were shown to form the osteochondral interface layer by expressing calcified cartilage zone specific extracellular matrix marker Collagen X and the hypertrophic chondrocyte marker MMP-13, which were not observed in the control group. Specifically, only the chondrogenic rBMSC layer in contact with the osteoblasts expressed Collagen X and MMP-13, indicating the positive influence of the coculture upon interface formation. Biochemical analyses, histology results, and immunohistochemical staining further supported this observation. In conclusion, this study revealed that specific regulatory stimulations from osteoblasts in the 2D-3D interface coculture system could induce the formation of ostochondral interface for the purpose of osteochondral tissue engineering. PMID

  19. Picosecond ultrasonics in single cells: Interface step motion for thin animal cells and Brillouin scattering for thick vegetal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducousso, M.; Dehoux, T.; Audoin, B.; Zouani, O.; Chollet, C.; Durrieu, M. C.

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of the mechanical properties of single biological cells using a picosecond laser-ultrasonic method is proposed. A pump-probe set-up based on ultrafast laser (100 fs pulses) is used to generate and detect acoustic frequencies in the GHz range in a cell on a metallic substrate. The time resolution is about 1 ps and the laser focusing allows a 1 μm lateral resolution. We carry out experiments in both animal and vegetal cells. A semi-analytical simulation model of the physical phenomena involved in experiments is presented. The coupled heat and stress equations are solved including a thermal boundary resistance at the cell/substrate interface and strong acoustic absorption. The optical detection resulting from the interaction between the acoustic wave and the laser light is also modelled. Simulations allow the analysis of experimental signals in both vegetal and animal cells. The results support the potentialities of the non-invasive technique for bioengineering and medical applications.

  20. Elliptical-P cells in the avian perilymphatic interface of the Tegmentum vasculosum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Lee, D. H.; Martin, D. S.

    1995-01-01

    Elliptical cells (E-P) are present at the perilymphatic interface lumen (PIL) of the lagena. The E-P cells often separate from the tegmentum vasculosum (TV) and have touching processes that form a monolayer between the K+ rich perilymph and the Na+ rich endolymph, similar to the mammalian Reissner's membrane. We examined the TV of chicks (Gallus domesticus) and quantitated the expression of anti-S100 alphaalphabetabeta and S100 beta. There was a 30% increase of S100 beta saturation in the light cells facing the PIL when compared to other TV light cells. We show that: (1) the dimer anti- S100 alphaalphabetabeta and the monomer anti-S100 beta are expressed preferentially in the light cells and the E-P cells of TV; (2) expression of S100 beta is higher in light cells facing the PIL than in adjacent cells; (3) the expression of the dimer S100 alphaalphabetabeta and monomer S100 beta overlaps in most inner ear cell types, including the cells of the TV, most S100 alphaalphabetabeta positive cells express S 100 beta, but S100 beta positive cells do not always express S100 alphaalphabetabeta; and (4) the S100 beta expression in light cells, the abundant Na+-K+ ATPase on dark cells of the TV, and previously demonstrated co-localization of S100 beta/GABA in sensory cells suggest that S100 beta could have, in the inner ear, a dual neurotrophic-ionic modulating function.

  1. Human Bronchial Epithelial Cell Response to Heavy Particle Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Michael; Ding, Liang-Hao; Minna, John; Park, Seong-mi; Peyton, Michael; Larsen, Jill

    2012-07-01

    A battery of non-oncogenically immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) are being used to examine the molecular changes that lead to lung carcinogenesis after exposure to heavy particles found in the free space environment. The goal is to ultimately identify biomarkers of radioresponse that can be used for prediction of carcinogenic risk for fatal lung cancer. Our initial studies have focused on the cell line HBEC3 KT and the isogenic variant HBEC3 KTR53, which overexpresses the RASv12 mutant and where p53 has been knocked down by shRNA, and is considered to be a more oncogenically progressed variant. We have previously described the response of HBEC3 KT at the cellular and molecular level, however, the focus here is on the rate of cellular transformation after HZE radiation exposure and the molecular changes in transformed cells. When comparing the two cell lines we find that there is a maximum rate of cellular transformation at 0.25 Gy when cells are exposed to 1 GeV Fe particles, and, for the HBEC3 KTR53 there are multiple pathways upregulated that promote anchorage independent growth including the mTOR pathway, the TGF-1 pathway, RhoA signaling and the ERK/MAPK pathway as early as 2 weeks after radiation. This does not occur in the HBEC3 KT cell line. Transformed HBEC3 KT cells do not show any morphologic or phenotypic changes when grown as cell cultures. HBEC3 KTR53 cells on the other hand show substantial changes in morphology from a cobblestone epithelial appearance to a mesenchymal appearance with a lack of contact inhibition. This epithelial to mesenchymal change in morphology is accompanied by the expression of vimentin and a reduction in the expression of E-cadherin, which are hallmarks of epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, for HBEC3 KT transformed cells there are no mutations in the p53 gene, 2 of 15 clones were found to be heterozygous for the RASV12 mutation, and 3 of 15 clones expressed high levels of BigH3, a TGFB

  2. Alterations in Cell Signaling Pathways in Breast Cancer Cells after Environmental Exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Kulp, K; McCutcheon-Maloney, S M; Bennett, L M

    2003-02-01

    Recent human epidemiological studies suggest that up to 75% of human cancers can be attributed to environmental exposures. Understanding the biologic impact of being exposed to a lifetime of complex environmental mixtures that may not be fully characterized is currently a major challenge. Functional endpoints may be used to assess the gross health consequences of complex mixture exposures from groundwater contamination, superfund sites, biologic releases, or nutritional sources. Such endpoints include the stimulation of cell growth or the induction of a response in an animal model. An environmental exposure that upsets normal cell growth regulation may have important ramifications for cancer development. Stimulating cell growth may alter an individual's cancer risk by changing the expression of genes and proteins that have a role in growth regulatory pathways within cells. Modulating the regulation of these genes and their products may contribute to the initiation, promotion or progression of disease in response to environmental exposure. We are investigating diet-related compounds that induce cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. These compounds, PhIP, Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign}, may be part of an everyday diet. PhIP is a naturally occurring mutagen that is formed in well-cooked muscle meats. PhIP consistently causes dose-dependent breast tumor formation in rats and consumption of well-done meat has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in women. Flor-Essence{reg_sign} and Essiac{reg_sign} herbal tonics are complementary and alternative medicines used by women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer as an alternative therapy for disease treatment and prevention. The long-term goal of this work is to identify those cellular pathways that are altered by a chemical or biologic environmental exposure and understand how those changes correlate with and or predict changes in human health risk. This project addressed this goal by

  3. Nano-Bio Electrochemical Interfacing-Linking Cell Biology and Micro-Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shacham-Diamand, Y.; Popovtzer, R.; Rishpon, Y.

    Integration of biological substance within electronic devices is an innovative and challenging area combining recent progress in molecular biology and micro technology. First, we introduce the concept of integrating living cells with Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). Following a brief overview on "whole cell based biosensors" we describe the design, fabrication, and process of a biocompatible electrochemical "Lab-on-a-Chip" system. Demonstrating the application of electrochemical interfacing based whole cell bio chips, we present two different configurations: a. integration of prokaryotic cells (bacteria) for water toxicity detection, and b. integration of eukaryotic cells (human colon cancer cells) for rapid evaluation of the effectiveness of drug treatments. Both applications, with either microbes or mammalian cells integrated onto MEMS based biochips with liquid volume in the range of 100 nL-1 μL, function well and yield a detectable signal much higher than noise level after few minutes.

  4. Delayed BMP4 exposure increases germ cell differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh; Zarei Fard, Nehleh; Bahmanpour, Soghra; Jaberipour, Mansoureh; Hosseini, Ahmah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Fate mapping studies have revealed that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling has a key role in segregation of primordial germ cells from proximal epiblast. Adding BMP4 to the culture media of embryonic stem (ES) cells could induce expression of germ cell markers; however, to provide a desired number of germ cells has remained a challenge. In the current study, we intended to establish an in vitro system to obtain reliable germ cells derived from ES cells. Differentiation was induced in ES cells via embryoid body (EB) and monolayer culture system. Cells were cultured with BMP4 from the beginning (++BMP4) or after 48 hours (+BMP4) of culturing for five days. The cultures were assessed for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, expression of Oct4, Mvh and c-kit. In EB culture protocol, the expression of Mvh, Oct4 and ALP activity significantly increased in +BMP4 culture condition, but a significant down-regulation in the expression of germ cell markers was shown in ++BMP4 condition compared with the control group. Parallel differentiation experiments using monolayer culture system indicated the number of putative germ cells did not change. In the current study, we compared two differentiation methods (EB and monolayer) to achieve an optimal germ cell production. The EBs with a short exposure time period to BMP4, showing typical characteristics of germ cells. Therefore, our approach provides a strategy for the production of germline cells from ES cells. PMID:24969978

  5. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolay, Nils H.; Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute; Trinh, Thuy; Sisombath, Sonevisay; Debus, Jürgen; Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer; Huber, Peter E.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  6. Photoelectrical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells by an Organic Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    PubMed

    Abdullaeva, Oliya S; Schulz, Matthias; Balzer, Frank; Parisi, Jürgen; Lützen, Arne; Dedek, Karin; Schiek, Manuela

    2016-08-23

    As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor-electrolyte layer is able to trigger a passive response of the neuronal cells under physiological conditions via a capacitive coupling mechanism. We study the dynamics of the capacitive transmembrane currents by patch-clamp recordings and compare them to the dynamics of the photocurrent signal and its spectral responsivity. Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions. PMID:27480642

  7. Modulation of bronchial epithelial cell barrier function by in vitro ozone exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Yu, X Y; Takahashi, N; Croxton, T L; Spannhake, E W

    1994-01-01

    The epithelial cells lining the small, peripheral airways function as important targets for the action of inspired ozone. Loss of epithelial barrier integrity in these regions is a common element in ozone-induced airway inflammation. To investigate the direct effect of ozone on epithelial barrier function, canine bronchial epithelial (CBE) cells grown with an air interface were exposed for 3 hr to 0.2, 0.5, or 0.8 ppm ozone or to air. Mannitol flux, used as an index of paracellular permeability, increased above air controls by 461%, 774%, and 1172% at the three ozone concentrations, respectively. Transcellular electrical resistance exhibited a dose-related decrease. The immediate effect of 0.8 ppm ozone on permeability was significantly inhibited by preincubation for 48 hr in the presence of 1 ng/ml vitamin E (33%) or 1 microM vitamin A (34%). Responses to 0.5 ppm or 0.8 ppm were inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with 0.1 microM of the actin polymerizing agent phalloidin (34% and 25% inhibition, respectively). The increases in permeability induced by 0.2 and 0.5 ppm ozone were attenuated by 54% and 22%, respectively, at 18 hr after exposure, whereas that to 0.8 ppm was further enhanced by 42% at this time. The effects of ozone are modulated by the availability of antioxidants to the cells and appear to be associated with cytoskeletal dysfunction in CBE cells. The data are consistent with a loss of barrier function linked to a direct oxidative effect of ozone on individual CBE cells and indicate that the reversible or progressive nature of this effect is dose dependent. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. PMID:7713019

  8. Cell proliferation and cell death are disturbed during prenatal and postnatal brain development after uranium exposure.

    PubMed

    Legrand, M; Elie, C; Stefani, J; N Florès; Culeux, C; Delissen, O; Ibanez, C; Lestaevel, P; Eriksson, P; Dinocourt, C

    2016-01-01

    The developing brain is more susceptible to neurotoxic compounds than adult brain. It is also well known that disturbances during brain development cause neurological disorders in adulthood. The brain is known to be a target organ of uranium (U) exposure and previous studies have noted that internal U contamination of adult rats induces behavioral disorders as well as affects neurochemistry and neurophysiological properties. In this study, we investigated whether depleted uranium (DU) exposure affects neurogenesis during prenatal and postnatal brain development. We examined the structural morphology of the brain, cell death and finally cell proliferation in animals exposed to DU during gestation and lactation compared to control animals. Our results showed that DU decreases cell death in the cortical neuroepithelium of gestational day (GD) 13 embryos exposed at 40mg/L and 120mg/L and of GD18 fetuses exposed at 120mg/L without modification of the number of apoptotic cells. Cell proliferation analysis showed an increase of BrdU labeling in the dentate neuroepithelium of fetuses from GD18 at 120mg/L. Postnatally, cell death is increased in the dentate gyrus of postnatal day (PND) 0 and PND5 exposed pups at 120mg/L and is associated with an increase of apoptotic cell number only at PND5. Finally, a decrease in dividing cells is observed in the dentate gyrus of PND21 rats developmentally exposed to 120mg/L DU, but not at PND0 and PND5. These results show that DU exposure during brain development causes opposite effects on cell proliferation and cell death processes between prenatal and postnatal development mainly at the highest dose. Although these modifications do not have a major impact in brain morphology, they could affect the next steps of neurogenesis and thus might disrupt the fine organization of the neuronal network. PMID:26506049

  9. Micronucleus formation induced by dielectric barrier discharge plasma exposure in brain cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Uhm, Hansup; Ha Choi, Eun

    2012-02-01

    Induction of micronucleus formation (cytogenetic damage) in brain cancer cells upon exposure of dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been investigated. We have investigated the influence of exposure and incubation times on T98G brain cancer cells by using growth kinetic, clonogenic, and micronucleus formation assay. We found that micronucleus formation rate directly depends on the plasma exposure time. It is also shown that colony formation capacity of cells has been inhibited by the treatment of plasma at all doses. Cell death and micronucleus formation are shown to be significantly elevated by 120 and 240 s exposure of dielectric barrier discharge plasma.

  10. Favorable electronic structure for organic solar cells induced by strong interaction at interface

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shenghao Hao, Xia; Fu, Wei; Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Sakurai, Takeaki; Masuda, Shigeru

    2013-11-14

    To clarify the role of buffer layer in organic solar cells (OSCs), the electronic properties of bathocuproine (BCP)/Mg interface were systematically investigated by using ultraviolet photoemissions spectroscopy, high-resolution X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, angle-resolved X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show there are gap states at the interface, which are caused by the interaction between BCP and Mg. The formation of Mg-N bond was found at the interface. The NEXAFS measurements show that BCP molecules for 1-2 monolayers are lying-down on the substrate, whereas orient randomly for thick BCP layer. It was supposed that the gap states and the highly-ordered orientation of thin BCP layer are the reasons for improving the performance of OSC with BCP buffer layer and low work function metal cathode.

  11. Polarization Energies at Organic-Organic Interfaces: Impact on the Charge Separation Barrier at Donor-Acceptor Interfaces in Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Ryno, Sean M; Fu, Yao-Tsung; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2016-06-22

    We probe the energetic landscape at a model pentacene/fullerene (C60) interface to investigate the interactions between positive and negative charges, which are critical to the processes of charge separation and recombination in organic solar cells. Using a polarizable force field, we find that polarization energy, i.e., the stabilization a charge feels due to its environment, is larger at the interface than in the bulk for both a positive and a negative charge. The combination of the charge being more stabilized at the interface and the Coulomb attraction between the charges results in a barrier to charge separation at the pentacene/C60 interface that can be in excess of 0.7 eV for static configurations of the donor and acceptor locations. However, the impact of molecular motions, i.e., the dynamics, at the interface at room temperature results in a distribution of polarization energies and in charge separation barriers that can be significantly reduced. The dynamic nature of the interface is thus critical, with the polarization energy distributions indicating that sites along the interface shift in time between favorable and unfavorable configurations for charge separation. PMID:27244215

  12. Cell-directed-assembly: Directing the formation of nano/bio interfaces and architectures with living cells

    PubMed Central

    Baca, Helen K.; Carnes, Eric C.; Ashley, Carlee E.; Lopez, DeAnna M.; Douthit, Cynthia; Karlin, Shelly; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Background The desire to immobilize, encapsulate, or entrap viable cells for use in a variety of applications has been explored for decades. Traditionally, the approach is to immobilize cells to utilize a specific functionality of the cell in the system. Scope of Review This review describes our recent discovery that living cells can organize extended nanostructures and nano-objects to create a highly biocompatible nano//bio interface [1]. Major Conclusions We find that short chain phospholipids direct the formation of thin film silica mesophases during evaporation-induced self-assembly (EISA) [2], and that the introduction of cells alter the self-assembly pathway. Cells organize an ordered lipid-membrane that forms a coherent interface with the silica mesophase that is unique in that it withstands drying - yet it maintains accessibility to molecules introduced into the 3D silica host. Cell viability is preserved in the absence of buffer, making these constructs useful as standalone cell-based sensors. In response to hyperosmotic stress, the cells release water, creating a pH gradient which is maintained within the nanostructured host and serves to localize lipids, proteins, plasmids, lipidized nanocrystals, and other components at the cellular surface. This active organization of the bio/nano interface can be accomplished during ink-jet printing or selective wetting - processes allowing patterning of cellular arrays - and even spatially-defined genetic modification. General Significance Recent advances in the understanding of nanotechnology and cell biology encourage the pursuit of more complex endeavors where the dynamic interactions of the cell and host material act symbiotically to obtain new, useful functions. PMID:20933574

  13. In-vitro Cell Exposure Studies for the Assessment of Nanoparticle Toxicity in the Lung - A Dialogue between Aerosol Science and Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Hanns-Rudolf, Paur; Cassee, Flemming R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Fissan, Heinz; Diabate, Silvia; Aufderheide, M.; Kreyling, Wolfgang G.; Hanninen, Otto; Kasper, G.; Riediker, Michael; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Schmid, Otmar

    2011-10-01

    The rapid introduction of engineered nanostructured materials into numerous industrial and consumer products will result in enhanced exposure to engineered nanoparticles. Workplace exposure has been identified as the most likely source of uncontrolled inhalation of engineered aerosolized nanoparticles, but release of engineered nanoparticles may occur at any stage of the lifecycle of consumer products. The dynamic development of new nanomaterials with possibly unknown toxicological effects poses a challenge for the assessment of nanoparticle induced toxicity and safety. In this consensus document from a workshop on in-vitro cell systems for nanotoxicity testing an overview is given of the main issues concerning inhalation exposure to nanoparticles, lung physiology, nanoparticle-related biological mechanisms, in-vitro cell exposure systems for nanoparticles and social aspects of nanotechnology. The workshop participants recognized the large potential of in-vitro cell exposure systems for reliable, high-throughput screening of nanotoxicity. For the investigation of pulmonary nanotoxicity, a strong preference was expressed for air-liquid interface (ALI) cell exposure systems (rather than submerged cell exposure systems) as they closely resemble in-vivo conditions in the lungs and they allow for unaltered and dosimetrically accurate delivery of aerosolized nanoparticles to the cells. The members of the workshop believe that further advances in in-vitro cell exposure studies would be greatly facilitated by a more active role of the aerosol scientists. The technical know-how for developing and running ALI in-vitro exposure systems is available in the aerosol community and at the same time biologists/toxicologists are required for proper assessment of the biological impact of nanoparticles.

  14. Controlled cell adhesion on poly(dopamine) interfaces photopatterned with non-fouling brushes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Preuss, Corinna M; Yameen, Basit; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Bachmann, Michael; Mueller, Jan O; Bruns, Michael; Goldmann, Anja S; Bastmeyer, Martin; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2013-11-13

    Bioinspired poly(dopamine) (PDA) films are merged with antifouling poly(MeOEGMA) brushes utilizing a nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition (NITEC)-based phototriggered surface encoding protocol. The antifouling brushes were photopatterned on PDA surfaces, leading cells to form confluent layers in the non-irradiated sections, while no adhesion occurred on the brushes resulting in a remarkably precise cell pattern. The presented strategy paves the way for the design of tailor-made patterned cell interfaces. PMID:23999835

  15. Tuning back contact property via artificial interface dipoles in Si/organic hybrid solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Sheng, Jiang; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Chen, Shaojie; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun

    2016-07-01

    Back contact property plays a key role in the charge collection efficiency of c-Si/poly(3,4-ethylthiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) hybrid solar cells (Si-HSCs), as an alternative for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic devices. In this letter, we utilize the water soluble poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) to modify the Al/Si interface to be an Ohmic contact via interface dipole tuning, decreasing the work function of the Al film. This Ohmic contact improves the electron collection efficiency of the rear electrode, increasing the short circuit current density (Jsc). Furthermore, the interface dipoles make the band bending downward to increase the total barrier height of built-in electric field of the solar cell, enhancing the open circuit voltage (Voc). The PEO solar cell exhibits an excellent performance, 12.29% power conversion efficiency, a 25.28% increase from the reference solar cell without a PEO interlayer. The simple and water soluble method as a promising alternative is used to develop the interfacial contact quality of the rear electrode for the high photovoltaic performance of Si-HSCs.

  16. Mutations in the Dimer Interface of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Promote Site-specific Oxidative Damages in Yeast and Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Vaubel, Rachael A.; Rustin, Pierre; Isaya, Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) is a multifunctional protein well characterized as the E3 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. Previously, conditions predicted to destabilize the DLD dimer revealed that DLD could also function as a diaphorase and serine protease. However, the relevance of these cryptic activities remained undefined. We analyzed human DLD mutations linked to strikingly different clinical phenotypes, including E340K, D444V, R447G, and R460G in the dimer interface domain that are responsible for severe multisystem disorders of infancy and G194C in the NAD+-binding domain that is typically associated with milder presentations. In vitro, all of these mutations decreased to various degrees dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity, whereas dimer interface mutations also enhanced proteolytic and/or diaphorase activity. Human DLD proteins carrying each individual mutation complemented fully the respiratory-deficient phenotype of yeast cells lacking endogenous DLD even when residual dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity was as low as 21% of controls. However, under elevated oxidative stress, expression of DLD proteins with dimer interface mutations greatly accelerated the loss of respiratory function, resulting from enhanced oxidative damage to the lipoic acid cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and other mitochondrial targets. This effect was not observed with the G194C mutation or a mutation that disrupts the proteolytic active site of DLD. As in yeast, lipoic acid cofactor was damaged in human D444V-homozygous fibroblasts after exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that the cryptic activities of DLD promote oxidative damage to neighboring molecules and thus contribute to the clinical severity of DLD mutations. PMID:21930696

  17. T Cell Chemo-Vaccination Effects after Repeated Mucosal SHIV Exposures and Oral Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kersh, Ellen N.; Adams, Debra R.; Youngpairoj, Ae S.; Luo, Wei; Zheng, Qi; Cong, Mian-er; Aung, Wutyi; Mitchell, James; Otten, Ron; Hendry, R. Michael; Heneine, Walid; McNicholl, Janet; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with anti-viral drugs is currently in clinical trials for the prevention of HIV infection. Induction of adaptive immune responses to virus exposures during anti-viral drug administration, i.e., a “chemo-vaccination” effect, could contribute to PrEP efficacy. To study possible chemo-vaccination, we monitored humoral and cellular immune responses in nine rhesus macaques undergoing up to 14 weekly, low-dose SHIVSF162P3 rectal exposures. Six macaques concurrently received PrEP with intermittent, oral Truvada; three were no-PrEP controls. PrEP protected 4 macaques from infection. Two of the four showed evidence of chemo-vaccination, because they developed anti-SHIV CD4+ and CD8+ T cells; SHIV-specific antibodies were not detected. Control macaques showed no anti-SHIV immune responses before infection. Chemo-vaccination-induced T cell responses were robust (up to 3,940 SFU/106 PBMCs), predominantly central memory cells, short-lived (≤22 weeks), and appeared intermittently and with changing specificities. The two chemo-vaccinated macaques were virus-challenged again after 28 weeks of rest, after T cell responses had waned. One macaque was not protected from infection. The other macaque concurrently received additional PrEP. It remained uninfected and T cell responses were boosted during the additional virus exposures. In summary, we document and characterize PrEP-induced T cell chemo-vaccination. Although not protective after subsiding in one macaque, chemo-vaccination-induced T cells warrant more comprehensive analysis during peak responses for their ability to prevent or to control infections after additional exposures. Our findings highlight the importance of monitoring these responses in clinical PrEP trials and suggest that a combination of vaccines and PrEP potentially might enhance efficacy. PMID:21541293

  18. Interaction and Localization of Synthetic Nanoparticles in Healthy and Cystic Fibrosis Airway Epithelial Cells: Effect of Ozone Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Raemy, David O.; Loader, Joan E.; Kailey, Jenai M; Neeves, Keith B.; White, Carl W.; Ahmad, Aftab; Gehr, Peter; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nanoparticles (NPs) produced by nanotechnology processes have taken the field of medicine by storm. Concerns about safety of these NPs in humans, however, have recently been raised. Although studies of NP toxicity have focused on lung disease the mechanistic link between NP exposure and lung injury remained unclear. This is primarily due to a lack of availability of appropriate airway disease models and sophisticated microscopic techniques to study nano-sized particulate delivery and resulting responses. Methods Air–liquid interface (ALI) cultures of non-cystic fibrosis (CF) and CF airway epithelial cells were exposed to the FITC-labeled NPs using a PennCentury microsprayer™. Uptake of NPs was assessed by FACS. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) was performed and the images were analyzed by an advanced imaging software to study particle deposition and uptake. Results Flow cytometry data revealed that CF cells accumulated increased amounts of NPs. The increased NP uptake could be attributed to the reduced CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function as a similar increased retention/uptake was observed in cells whose CFTR expression was downregulated by antisense oligonucleotide. NPs alone did not induce pro-inflammatory cytokine release or cell death. The cell culture system was sensitive to ozone but exposure to the uncoated synthetic NPs used in this study, did not cause any synergistic or suppressive effects. LSM imaging and subsequent image restoration further indicated particle uptake and intracellular localization. Exposure to ozone increased nuclear uptake in both non-CF and CF cells. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the uptake of NPs using ALI cultures of non-CF and CF airway epithelial cells. The NPs used here were useful in demonstrating uptake by airway epithelial cells without causing adverse effects in presence or absence of ozone. However, to totally exclude toxic effects, chronic studies under in vivo conditions using

  19. Robotics, Stem Cells and Brain Computer Interfaces in Rehabilitation and Recovery from Stroke; Updates and Advances

    PubMed Central

    Boninger, Michael L; Wechsler, Lawrence R.; Stein, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the current state and latest advances in robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces in rehabilitation and recovery for stroke. Design The authors of this summary recently reviewed this work as part of a national presentation. The paper represents the information included in each area. Results Each area has seen great advances and challenges as products move to market and experiments are ongoing. Conclusion Robotics, stem cells, and brain computer interfaces all have tremendous potential to reduce disability and lead to better outcomes for patients with stroke. Continued research and investment will be needed as the field moves forward. With this investment, the potential for recovery of function is likely substantial PMID:25313662

  20. Impact of a small cell on the RF-EMF exposure in a train.

    PubMed

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2015-03-01

    The deployment of a miniature mobile-phone base station or small cell in a train car significantly improves the coverage and the capacity of a mobile network service on the train. However, the impact of the small cell on the passengers' exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is unknown. In this study, we assessed experimentally the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone user who is either connected to the outdoor macrocell network or to an in-train small cell, while traveling on the train, by means of the absorbed-dose concept, which combines the base station downlink exposure with the mobile-phone uplink exposure. For Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 1800 MHz, we found that by connecting to a small cell, the brain exposure of the user could realistically be reduced by a factor 35 and the whole-body exposure by a factor 11. PMID:25734793

  1. Impact of a Small Cell on the RF-EMF Exposure in a Train

    PubMed Central

    Aerts, Sam; Plets, David; Thielens, Arno; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2015-01-01

    The deployment of a miniature mobile-phone base station or small cell in a train car significantly improves the coverage and the capacity of a mobile network service on the train. However, the impact of the small cell on the passengers’ exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is unknown. In this study, we assessed experimentally the RF-EMF exposure of a mobile-phone user who is either connected to the outdoor macrocell network or to an in-train small cell, while traveling on the train, by means of the absorbed-dose concept, which combines the base station downlink exposure with the mobile-phone uplink exposure. For Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) technology at 1800 MHz, we found that by connecting to a small cell, the brain exposure of the user could realistically be reduced by a factor 35 and the whole-body exposure by a factor 11. PMID:25734793

  2. Surface chemistry gradients on silicone elastomers for high-throughput modulation of cell-adhesive interfaces.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Greeshma; Gallant, Nathan D

    2015-06-01

    Combinatorial and high-throughput approaches to screening cell responses to material properties accelerate the speed of discovery and facilitate the identification of cell instructive cues or trends that may be missed by discrete sampling. However, these technologies have not yet been widely applied to materials with tissue-like stiffness. The fabrication of monotonically varying surface chemistry gradients on polydimethylsiloxane, an elastic biomaterial, and the influence of these engineered surfaces on protein adsorption and adherent cell morphology were explored in this study. Crosslinked networks of polydimethylsiloxane were functionalized with a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer and then modified by spatiotemporally regulated ultraviolet ozonolysis to obtain gradients of oxygenated species ranging from ∼10° to ∼100° in water contact angle. Automated microscopy and image analysis of fibroblast cell morphology revealed a strong correlation between cell spreading and hydrophobicity. However, structural and functional analysis of the fibronectin interface indicated a proportional increase in cell spreading with adsorption, but a biphasic relationship with fibronectin conformation, underscoring the complexity of the adhesive interface. This work demonstrates the development of an elastomer surface modification platform that can be extended to future combinatorial studies of biological responses to chemical and mechanical material properties. PMID:25294744

  3. Solar cell radiation response near the interface of different atomic number materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, E. A.; Cappelli, J. R.; Lowe, L. F.; Wall, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The response of cobalt 60 irradiated N/P silicon solar cells was measured as a function of the atomic number of the medium adjacent to the cell and the direction of the gamma ray beam. The interpositioning of various thicknesses of aluminum between the adjacent material and the cell had the effect of moving the cell to various locations in an approximate monatomic numbered medium. Using this technique the solar cell response was determined at various distances from the interface for gold and beryllium. The results were compared with predictions based upon ionization chamber measurements of dose perturbations in aluminum and found to agree within five percent. Ionization chamber data was then used to estimate the influence of various base contact materials.

  4. Can cell proliferation of umbilical cord blood cells reflect environmental exposures?

    PubMed

    Novack, Lena; Manor, Esther; Gurevich, Elena; Yitshak-Sade, Maayan; Landau, Daniella; Sarov, Batia; Hershkovitz, Reli; Dukler, Doron; Vodonos, Tali; Karakis, Isabella

    2015-01-01

    Environmental hazards were shown to have an impact on cell proliferation (CP). We investigated CP of lymphocytes in umbilical cord blood in relation to prenatal environmental exposures in a sample of 346 Arab-Bedouin women giving birth in a local hospital. Information on subjects' addresses at pregnancy, potential household exposures and demographical status was collected in an interview during hospitalization. This population is usually featured by high rates of neonatal morbidity and multiple environmental exposures, originating from the local industrial park (IP), household hazards and frequent male smoking. A geometric mean CP ratio 2.17 (2.06; 2.29), and was high in women residing in a direction of prevailing winds from the local IP (p value = 0.094) and who gave birth during fall-winter season (p value = 0.024). Women complaining on disturbing exposure to noise had lower CP (p value = 0.015), compared to other women. CP was not indicative of neonatal morbidity. However, our findings suggest that CP of umbilical cord might be modified by environmental exposures. A long-term follow-up of the children is required to assess their developmental outcomes. PMID:26217549

  5. Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Multiphase Flow Phenomena and Interface Fluctuation in Aluminum Electrolytic Cell with Innovative Cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Li, Baokuan; He, Zhu; Feng, Naixiang

    2013-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) transient mathematical model has been developed to understand the effect of innovative cathode on molten cryolite (bath)/molten aluminum (metal) interface fluctuation as well as energy-saving mechanism in aluminum electrolytic cell with innovative cathode. Based on the finite element method, the steady charge conservation law, Ohm's law, and steady-state Maxwell's equations were solved in order to investigate electric current field, magnetic field, and electromagnetic force (EMF) field. Then, an inhomogeneous multiphase flow model of three phases including bath, metal, and gas bubbles, based on the finite volume method, was implemented using the Euler/Euler approach to investigate melt motion and bath/metal interface fluctuation. EMF was incorporated into the momentum equations of bath and metal as a source term. Additionally, the interphase drag force was employed to consider different phase interactions. Thus, present work owns three main features: (1) magnetohydrodynamic multiphase flow are demonstrated in detail both in aluminum electrolytic cell with traditional cathode and innovative cathode; (2) bath/metal interface fluctuation due to different driving forces of gas bubbles, EMF, and the combined effect of the two driving forces is investigated, which is critical to the energy saving; and (3) the effect of innovative cathode on melt flow and motion of gas bubbles. A good agreement between the predicated results and measurement is obtained. The velocity difference leading to the melt oscillation decreases due to more uniform flow field. The average velocity of metal in the cell with innovative cathode decreases by approximately 33.98 pct. The gas bubbles in the cell with innovative cathode releases more quickly under the effect of protrusion on the cathode. The average bubble release frequency increases from 1.1 to 1.98 Hz. Hence, the voltage drop caused by gas bubbles would decrease significantly. In addition, the two large vortices

  6. Ionizing Radiation Exposure and Basal Cell Carcinoma Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Changzhao; Athar, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    This commentary summarizes studies showing risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) development in relationship to environmental, occupational and therapeutic exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). BCC, the most common type of human cancer, is driven by the aberrant activation of hedgehog (Hh) signaling. Ptch, a tumor suppressor gene of Hh signaling pathway, and Smoothened play a key role in the development of radiation-induced BCCs in animal models. Epidemiological studies provide evidence that humans exposed to radiation as observed among the long-term, large scale cohorts of atomic bomb survivors, bone marrow transplant recipients, patients with tinea capitis and radiologic workers enhances risk of BCCs. Overall, this risk is higher in Caucasians than other races. People who were exposed early in life develop more BCCs. The enhanced IR correlation with BCC and not other common cutaneous malignancies is intriguing. The mechanism underlying these observations remains undefined. Understanding interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways and those which drive BCC development may be important in unraveling the mechanism associated with this enhanced risk. Recent studies showed that Vismodegib, a Smoothened inhibitor, is effective in treating radiation-induced BCCs in humans, suggesting that common strategies are required for the intervention of BCCs development irrespective of their etiology. PMID:26930381

  7. Atom-probe tomographic study of interfaces of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tajima, S. Asahi, R.; Itoh, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Ohishi, K.; Isheim, D.; Seidman, D. N.

    2014-09-01

    The heterophase interfaces between the CdS buffer layer and the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) absorption layers are one of the main factors affecting photovoltaic performance of CZTS cells. We have studied the compositional distributions at heterophase interfaces in CZTS cells using three-dimensional atom-probe tomography. The results demonstrate: (a) diffusion of Cd into the CZTS layer; (b) segregation of Zn at the CdS/CZTS interface; and (c) a change of oxygen and hydrogen concentrations in the CdS layer depending on the heat treatment. Annealing at 573 K after deposition of CdS improves the photovoltaic properties of CZTS cells probably because of the formation of a heterophase epitaxial junction at the CdS/CZTS interface. Conversely, segregation of Zn at the CdS/CZTS interface after annealing at a higher temperature deteriorates the photovoltaic properties.

  8. Modelling the effects of microgravity on the permeability of air interface respiratory epithelial cell layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dos Santos, Marlise A.; Bosquillon, Cynthia; Russomano, Thais; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Falcão, Felipe; Marriott, Christopher; Forbes, Ben

    2010-09-01

    Although it has been suggested that microgravity might affect drug absorption in vivo, drug permeability across epithelial barriers has not yet been investigated in vitro during modelled microgravity. Therefore, a cell culture/diffusion chamber was designed specifically to accommodate epithelial cell layers in a 3D-clinostat and allow epithelial permeability to be measured under microgravity conditions in vitro with minimum alteration to established cell culture techniques. Human respiratory epithelial Calu-3 cell layers were used to model the airway epithelium. Cells grown at an air interface in the diffusion chamber from day 1 or day 5 after seeding on 24-well polyester Transwell cell culture inserts developed a similar transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) to cells cultured in conventional cell culture plates. Confluent Calu-3 layers exposed to modelled microgravity in the 3D-clinostat for up to 48 h maintained their high TER. The permeability of the paracellular marker 14C-mannitol was unaffected after a 24 h rotation of the cell layers in the 3D-clinostat, but was increased 2-fold after 48 h of modelled microgravity. It was demonstrated that the culture/diffusion chamber developed is suitable for culturing epithelial cell layers and, when subjected to rotation in the 3D-clinostat, will be a valuable in vitro system in which to study the influence of microgravity on epithelial permeability and drug transport.

  9. The effect of interfaces on charge transport and recombination in polymeric solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterbacka, Ronald; Sanden, Simon; Xu, Qian; Sandberg, Oskar; Nyman, Mathias; Smatt, Jan-Henrik; Juska, Gytis

    2013-03-01

    Charge-carrier transport and recombination in hybrid TiO2/P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction solar cells (BHSCs) have been measured using photo-CELIV. We have fabricated hybrid devices in the form of indium tin oxide/titanium dioxide/P3HT:PCBM/Cu) to clarify the impact of the TiO2/P3HT:PCBM interface on the charge transport using the charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage (CELIV) technique. We found that a large equilibrium charge reservoir is accumulated at negative offsets at the TiO2/P3HT:PCBM interface leading to space charge limited extraction current (SCLC) transients. We show analytically the SCLC transient response and compare the experimental data to calculated SCLC in a linearly increasing voltage. The theoretical calculations indicate that the large charge reservoir at negative offset voltages is due to thermally generated charges combined with poor hole extraction at the ITO/TiO2 contact, due to the hole blocking character of TiO2. In this presentation we will discuss how interfaces, both metal-organic but also organic-organic interfaces affect charge carrier transport and recombination measurements. Laboratory of Physical Chemistry

  10. Novel impedance cell for low conductive liquids: determination of bulk and interface contributions.

    PubMed

    Becchi, Marta; Callegaro, Luca; Durbiano, Francesca; D'Elia, Vincenzo; Strigazzi, Alfredo

    2007-11-01

    A plane capacitor cell with variable gap has been designed in order to detect the complex permittivity of low conductive liquids (up to 500 microS/cm) and the impedance of the sample-electrode interface. The novelty of the cell consists of the simultaneous presence of the field uniformity ensured by a guard ring, an adjustable gap between 300 microm and 6.75 mm (the electrode axial motion avoiding any rotation), and the immersion of the capacitor in the sample reservoir. The size of the capacitor electrodes and the gap values have been tested via the capacitance detection of the in-air cell at 1 kHz. The sample measurements have been performed by scanning the frequency range between 15 Hz and 2 MHz at four different capacitor gap values. In the paper a method to directly extract the bulk complex permittivity and the interface impedance versus frequency is presented. It is based on the assumption that the interface contribution is independent of the electrode gap, as confirmed (within the measurement accuracy) from measurements on all samples investigated. As samples of interest, we have chosen two certified electrolytic conductivity standards, KCl aqueous solutions having conductivity traceable to SI units; and two polymer latex aqueous dispersions of microspheres. Regarding KCl solutions, the conductivity measurements are compatible with the reference values within the specified uncertainty; the measured permittivities are consistent with the literature. For all samples, we have recovered the expected result that the interface impedance mainly affects the low frequency range (f<10 kHz). PMID:18052483

  11. Low dose perfluorooctanoate exposure promotes cell proliferation in a human non-tumor liver cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cui, Ruina; Guo, Xuejiang; Hu, Jiayue; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a well-known persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment, wildlife and humans. Medical surveillance and experimental studies have investigated the potential effects of PFOA on human livers, but the hepatotoxicity of PFOA on humans and its underlying mechanism remain to be clarified. We exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50μM PFOA for 48h and 96h, and identified 111 significantly differentially expressed proteins by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 46 proteins were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Through further analysis of the cell cycle, apoptosis and their related proteins, we found that low doses of PFOA (50-100μM) promoted cell proliferation and numbers by promoting cells from the G1 to S phases, whereas high doses of PFOA (200-400μM) led to reduced HL-7702 cell numbers compared with that of the control mainly due to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the promotion of cell cycle progression in human cells following PFOA exposure. PMID:27045622

  12. The Degradation Interface of Magnesium Based Alloys in Direct Contact with Human Primary Osteoblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Laipple, Daniel; Luthringer, Bérengère; Feyerabend, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium alloys have been identified as a new generation material of orthopaedic implants. In vitro setups mimicking physiological conditions are promising for material / degradation analysis prior to in vivo studies however the direct influence of cell on the degradation mechanism has never been investigated. For the first time, the direct, active, influence of human primary osteoblasts on magnesium-based materials (pure magnesium, Mg-2Ag and Mg-10Gd alloys) is studied for up to 14 days. Several parameters such as composition of the degradation interface (directly beneath the cells) are analysed with a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray and focused ion beam. Furthermore, influence of the materials on cell metabolism is examined via different parameters like active mineralisation process. The results are highlighting the influences of the selected alloying element on the initial cells metabolic activity. PMID:27327435

  13. Stem cell progeny contribute to the schistosome host-parasite interface

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James J; Wendt, George R; Iyer, Harini; Newmark, Phillip A

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomes infect more than 200 million of the world's poorest people. These parasites live in the vasculature, producing eggs that spur a variety of chronic, potentially life-threatening, pathologies exacerbated by the long lifespan of schistosomes, that can thrive in the host for decades. How schistosomes maintain their longevity in this immunologically hostile environment is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that somatic stem cells in Schistosoma mansoni are biased towards generating a population of cells expressing factors associated exclusively with the schistosome host-parasite interface, a structure called the tegument. We show cells expressing these tegumental factors are short-lived and rapidly turned over. We suggest that stem cell-driven renewal of this tegumental lineage represents an important strategy for parasite survival in the context of the host vasculature. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12473.001 PMID:27003592

  14. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fangming; Su, Zisheng; Chu, Bei; Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junbo; Zhao, Haifeng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Xingwu; Li, Wenlian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5 G solar illumination at 100 mW/cm(2). Device performance was substantially enhanced by simply inserting thin organic hole transport material into the interface of MoOx and SubPc. The optimized devices realized a 180% increase in PCE of 2.30% and a peak Voc as high as 1.45 V was observed. We found that the improvement is due to the exciton and electron blocking effect of the interlayer and its thickness plays a vital role in balancing charge separation and suppressing quenching effect. Moreover, applying such interface engineering into MoOx/SubPc/C60 based planar heterojunction cells substantially enhanced the PCE of the device by 44%, from 3.48% to 5.03%. Finally, we also investigated the requirements of the interface material for Schottky barrier modification. PMID:27185635

  15. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Fangming; Su, Zisheng; Chu, Bei; Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junbo; Zhao, Haifeng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Xingwu; Li, Wenlian

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5 G solar illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Device performance was substantially enhanced by simply inserting thin organic hole transport material into the interface of MoOx and SubPc. The optimized devices realized a 180% increase in PCE of 2.30% and a peak Voc as high as 1.45 V was observed. We found that the improvement is due to the exciton and electron blocking effect of the interlayer and its thickness plays a vital role in balancing charge separation and suppressing quenching effect. Moreover, applying such interface engineering into MoOx/SubPc/C60 based planar heterojunction cells substantially enhanced the PCE of the device by 44%, from 3.48% to 5.03%. Finally, we also investigated the requirements of the interface material for Schottky barrier modification.

  16. Interface Engineering of Organic Schottky Barrier Solar Cells and Its Application in Enhancing Performances of Planar Heterojunction Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Fangming; Su, Zisheng; Chu, Bei; Cheng, Pengfei; Wang, Junbo; Zhao, Haifeng; Gao, Yuan; Yan, Xingwu; Li, Wenlian

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe the performance of organic Schottky barrier solar cells with the structure of ITO/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)/boron subphthalocyanine chloride (SubPc)/bathophenanthroline (BPhen)/Al. The SubPc-based Schottky barrier solar cells exhibited a short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 2.59 mA/cm2, an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 1.06 V, and a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 0.82% under simulated AM1.5 G solar illumination at 100 mW/cm2. Device performance was substantially enhanced by simply inserting thin organic hole transport material into the interface of MoOx and SubPc. The optimized devices realized a 180% increase in PCE of 2.30% and a peak Voc as high as 1.45 V was observed. We found that the improvement is due to the exciton and electron blocking effect of the interlayer and its thickness plays a vital role in balancing charge separation and suppressing quenching effect. Moreover, applying such interface engineering into MoOx/SubPc/C60 based planar heterojunction cells substantially enhanced the PCE of the device by 44%, from 3.48% to 5.03%. Finally, we also investigated the requirements of the interface material for Schottky barrier modification. PMID:27185635

  17. Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

    2002-11-01

    We report a study of the crucial role of liquid-crystal-polymer interface on photoinduced transport and redistribution of charges in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells that exhibit a photorefractivelike effect. A stationary photocurrent that is 30% of the dark current has been measured for very low power illumination (few mW) and low applied dc electric field (about 0.1 V/mum). The experimental results indicate a clear dependence of the effect on the light wavelength. The absence of photocurrent in cells with only one component, liquid-crystal, or polymer, suggests that both are not intrinsically photoconductive, rules out light-induced charge injection by the electrodes, and indicates the polymer-liquid-crystal interface as the photoactive element in the effect. The photocurrent dynamics indicate the presence of various mechanisms. We suppose that the effect is due to photoinduced carriers injection through the liquid-crystal-polymer interface and recombination process with the counterions present on the opposite side. Different hypotheses are made and discussed.

  18. Nano interfaced biosensor for detection of choline in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Thiagarajan, Vignesh; Madhurantakam, Sasya; Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Balaguru Rayappan, John Bosco; Maheswari Krishnan, Uma

    2016-01-15

    Choline, a type of Vitamin B, is an important nutrient in the human body and is involved in key metabolic pathways. Abnormal levels of choline leads to diseased conditions. The levels of choline and its associated compounds are found to be elevated in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. The choline level ranges from 0.4 to 4.9mmol/kg in TNBC. Thus the detection of choline levels in cells can aid in diagnosing breast cancer. The present work aims to develop a nano-interfaced electrochemical biosensor for the rapid detection of choline in cancer cells. For electrochemical detection, glassy carbon electrode coated with a zinc oxide nano-interface was used as the working electrode. Zinc oxide synthesized by hydrothermal method was characterized using SEM and XRD. The choline oxidase (ChOx) enzyme was immobilized on the nano-interface by drop-casting. Choline oxidase (ChOx) converts choline to betaine and H2O2 in the presence of oxygen. The H2O2 produced was determined amperometrically. The amount of H2O2 produced is directly proportional to concentration of choline present. The sensitivity, selectivity, stability and concentration studies were carried out and quantification of choline in TNBC was also carried out. The results demonstrate that this biosensor has the potential to be developed as a clinical tool for breast cancer detection. PMID:26476202

  19. Surface segregation at the aluminum interface of poly(3-hexylthiophene)/fullerene solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Orimo, Akiko; Masuda, Kohji; Honda, Satoshi; Benten, Hiroaki; Ito, Shinzaburo; Ohkita, Hideo; Tsuji, Hiroshi

    2010-01-25

    The effects of thermal annealing before and after Al deposition on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61} butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blend solar cells were investigated by current density-voltage measurements and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Compared to the preannealed device, the postannealed device exhibited enhanced open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}), which is ascribed to the decrease in the reverse saturation current density J{sub 0}. The XPS measurements demonstrated that P3HT is dominant at the Al interface in the preannealed device while PCBM is instead dominant in the postannealed device. This surface-segregated PCBM formed in the postannealed device can serve as a hole-blocking layer at the Al interface to reduce J{sub 0}, and therefore improve V{sub OC}.

  20. Improvement in efficiency of micromorph tandem silicon solar cells by designing proper interfaces.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangqian; Wang, Qingkang; Wangyang, Peihua; Huang, Kun; Chen, Le; Liu, Daiming

    2015-11-15

    Efficient light management for micromorph tandem solar cells is achieved in this Letter by the combined application of TiO(2) and SiO(x) interlayers. Here, TiO(2) is incorporated into a ZnO/a-Si interface as an antireflection layer and SiO(x) is incorporated into an a-Si/μc-Si interface as an intermediate reflecting layer. Solar cells with such architecture not only increase the light absorption but also reduce the mismatch losses of current between the top and bottom cells. The key results, as evidenced by the spectral response measurements, are that the total photocurrent increases from 22.62 to 24.35 mA/cm(2), as well as the short circuit current density of the two component cells is reached to a delicate balance. The influences of the interlayer thickness and morphology on the improvement have been investigated using an electromagnetic simulation in order to take full advantage of this design. PMID:26565829

  1. A composite hydrogel platform for the dissection of tumor cell migration at tissue interfaces.

    PubMed

    Rape, Andrew D; Kumar, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most prevalent primary brain cancer, is characterized by diffuse infiltration of tumor cells into brain tissue, which severely complicates surgical resection and contributes to tumor recurrence. The most rapid mode of tissue infiltration occurs along blood vessels or white matter tracts, which represent topological interfaces thought to serve as "tracks" that speed cell migration. Despite this observation, the field lacks experimental paradigms that capture key features of these tissue interfaces and allow reductionist dissection of mechanisms of this interfacial motility. To address this need, we developed a culture system in which tumor cells are sandwiched between a fibronectin-coated ventral surface representing vascular basement membrane and a dorsal hyaluronic acid (HA) surface representing brain parenchyma. We find that inclusion of the dorsal HA surface induces formation of adhesive complexes and significantly slows cell migration relative to a free fibronectin-coated surface. This retardation is amplified by inclusion of integrin binding peptides in the dorsal layer and expression of CD44, suggesting that the dorsal surface slows migration through biochemically specific mechanisms rather than simple steric hindrance. Moreover, both the reduction in migration speed and assembly of dorsal adhesions depend on myosin activation and the stiffness of the ventral layer, implying that mechanochemical feedback directed by the ventral layer can influence adhesive signaling at the dorsal surface. PMID:25047626

  2. Investigation into the diffusion and oxidation behavior of the interface between a plasma-sprayed anode and a porous steel support for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shan-Lin; Li, Cheng-Xin; Li, Chang-Jiu; Liu, Meilin; Yang, Guan-Jun

    2016-08-01

    Porous metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have attracted much attention because their potential to dramatically reduce the cost while enhancing the robustness and manufacturability. In particular, 430 ferritic steel (430L) is one of the popular choice for SOFC support because of its superior performance and low cost. In this study, we investigate the oxidation and diffusion behavior of the interface between a Ni-based anode and porous 430L support exposed to a humidified (3% H2O) hydrogen atmosphere at 700 °C. The Ni-GDC (Ce0.8Gd0.2O2-δ) cermet anodes are deposited on the porous 430L support by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). The effect of exposure time on the microstructure and phase structure of the anode and the supports is studied and the element diffusion across the support/anode interface is characterized. Results indicate that the main oxidation product of the 430L support is Cr2O3, and that Cr and Fe will diffuse to the anode and the diffusion thickness increases with the exposure time. The diffusion thickness of Cr and Fe reach about 5 and 2 μm, respectively, after 1000 h exposure. However, the element diffusion and oxidation has little influence on the area-specific resistance, indicating that the porous 430L steel and plasma sprayed Ni-GDC anode are promising for durable SOFCs.

  3. CPV Cell Characterization Following One-Year Exposure in Golden, Colorado: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-08-01

    A CPV module containing 30 III-V multijunction cells was operated on?sun for one year in Golden, Colorado. Each cell was characterized prior to and following exposure. A module power degradation of 10% was observed and found to be a result as an overall decrease in cell short circuit current and the presence of at least one shunted cell. A positive correlation between initial shunt current and an increase in shunt current following exposure was also found. Cell exfoliation was also observed and found to be coincident with the presence of water and/or charring of the cell package due to an off-sun event.

  4. Determinants of cell–material crosstalk at the interface: towards engineering of cell instructive materials

    PubMed Central

    Ventre, Maurizio; Causa, Filippo; Netti, Paolo A.

    2012-01-01

    The development of novel biomaterials able to control cell activities and direct their fate is warranted for engineering functional biological tissues, advanced cell culture systems, single-cell diagnosis as well as for cell sorting and differentiation. It is well established that crosstalk at the cell–material interface occurs and this has a profound influence on cell behaviour. However, the complete deciphering of the cell–material communication code is still far away. A variety of material surface properties have been reported to affect the strength and the nature of the cell–material interactions, including biological cues, topography and mechanical properties. Novel experimental evidence bears out the hypothesis that these three different signals participate in the same material–cytoskeleton crosstalk pathway via adhesion plaque formation dynamics. In this review, we present the relevant findings on material-induced cell response along with the description of cell behaviour when exposed to arrays of signals—biochemical, topographical and mechanical. Finally, with the aid of literature data, we attempt to draw unifying elements of the material–cytoskeleton–cell fate chain. PMID:22753785

  5. In vitro atrazine-exposure inhibits human natural killer cell lytic granule release

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, Alexander M.; Brundage, Kathleen M.; Barnett, John B. . E-mail: jbarnett@hsc.wvu.edu

    2007-06-01

    The herbicide atrazine is a known immunotoxicant and an inhibitor of human natural killer (NK) cell lytic function. The precise changes in NK cell lytic function following atrazine exposure have not been fully elucidated. The current study identifies the point at which atrazine exerts its affect on the stepwise process of human NK cell-mediated lyses of the K562 target cell line. Using intracellular staining of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, it was determined that a 24-h in vitro exposure to atrazine did not decrease the level of NK cell lytic proteins granzyme A, granzyme B or perforin. Thus, it was hypothesized that atrazine exposure was inhibiting the ability of the NK cells to bind to the target cell and subsequently inhibit the release of lytic protein from the NK cell. To test this hypothesis, flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy were employed to analyze NK cell-target cell co-cultures following atrazine exposure. These assays demonstrated no significant decrease in the level of target cell binding. However, the levels of NK intracellular lytic protein retained and the amount of lytic protein released were assessed following a 4-h incubation with K562 target cells. The relative level of intracellular lytic protein was 25-50% higher, and the amount of lytic protein released was 55-65% less in atrazine-treated cells than vehicle-treated cells following incubation with the target cells. These results indicate that ATR exposure inhibits the ability of NK cells to lyse target cells by blocking lytic granule release without affecting the ability of the NK cell to form stable conjugates with target cells.

  6. Measles Virus Transmission from Dendritic Cells to T Cells: Formation of Synapse-Like Interfaces Concentrating Viral and Cellular Components

    PubMed Central

    Koethe, Susanne; Avota, Elita

    2012-01-01

    Transmission of measles virus (MV) to T cells by its early CD150+ target cells is considered to be crucial for viral dissemination within the hematopoietic compartment. Using cocultures involving monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells, we now show that T cells acquire MV most efficiently from cis-infected DCs rather than DCs having trapped MV (trans-infection). Transmission involves interactions of the viral glycoprotein H with its receptor CD150 and is therefore more efficient to preactivated T cells. In addition to rare association with actin-rich filopodial structures, the formation of contact interfaces consistent with that of virological synapses (VS) was observed where viral proteins accumulated and CD150 was redistributed in an actin-dependent manner. In addition to these molecules, activated LFA-1, DC-SIGN, CD81, and phosphorylated ezrin-radixin-moesin proteins, which also mark the HIV VS, redistributed toward the MV VS. Most interestingly, moesin and substance P receptor, both implicated earlier in assisting MV entry or cell-to-cell transmission, also partitioned to the transmission structure. Altogether, the MV VS shares important similarities to the HIV VS in concentrating cellular components potentially regulating actin dynamics, conjugate stability, and membrane fusion as required for efficient entry of MV into target T cells. PMID:22761368

  7. Integrin-fibronectin interactions at the cell-material interface: initial integrin binding and signaling.

    PubMed

    García, A J; Boettiger, D

    1999-12-01

    Integrin receptors mediate cell adhesion to extracellular matrices and provide signals that direct proliferation and differentiation. Integrin binding involves receptor-ligand interactions at the cell-substrate interface and assembly and reorganization of structural and signaling elements at the cytoplasmic face. Using a cross-linking/extraction/reversal method to quantify bound integrins, we demonstrate that the density of alpha5beta1 integrin-fibronectin bonds increases linearly with ligand density, as predicted by simple receptor-ligand equilibrium. This linear relationship is consistent with linear increases in cell adhesion strength with receptor and ligand surface densities. Furthermore, we show that phosphorylation of FAK, a tyrosine kinase involved in early integrin-mediated signaling, increases linearly with the number of integrin-Fn bonds. These linear relationships suggest the absence of cooperative effects in the initial stages of mechanical coupling and adhesion-mediated signaling. PMID:10614947

  8. Occupational and Environmental Exposures Associated with Testicular Germ Cell Tumours: Systematic Review of Prenatal and Life-Long Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Béranger, Rémi; Le Cornet, Charlotte; Schüz, Joachim; Fervers, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are the most common cancers in men aged between 15 and 44 years and the incidence has increased steeply over the past 30 years. The rapid increase in the incidence, the spatial variation and the evolution of incidence in migrants suggest that environmental risk factors play a role in TGCT aetiology. The purpose of our review is to summarise the current state of knowledge on occupational and environmental factors thought to be associated with TGCT. Methods A systematic literature search of PubMed. All selected articles were quality appraised by two independent researchers using the ‘Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale’. Results After exclusion of duplicate reports, 72 relevant articles were selected; 65 assessed exposure in adulthood, 7 assessed parental exposures and 2 assessed both. Associations with occupation was reported for agricultural workers, construction workers, firemen, policemen, military personnel, as well as workers in paper, plastic or metal industries. Electromagnetic fields, PCBs and pesticides were also suggested. However, results were inconsistent and studies showing positive associations tended to had lower quality ranking using the assessment scale (p=0.02). Discussion Current evidence does not allow concluding on existence of any clear association between TGCT and adulthood occupational or environmental exposure. The limitations of the studies may partly explain the inconsistencies observed. The lack of association with adulthood exposure is in line with current hypotheses supporting the prenatal origin of TGCT. Future research should focus on prenatal or early life exposure, as well as combined effect of prenatal and later life exposure. National and international collaborative studies should allow for more adequately powered epidemiological studies. More sophisticated methods for assessing exposure as well as evaluating gene–environment interactions will be necessary to establish

  9. From Morphology to Interfaces to Tandem Geometries: Enhancing the Performance of Perovskite/Polymer Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Thomas

    We have taken a new approach to develop mesoporous lead iodide scaffolds, using the nucleation and growth of lead iodide crystallites in a wet film. A simple time-dependent growth control enabled the manipulation of the mesoporous lead iodide layer quality in a continuous manner. The morphology of lead iodide is shown to influence the subsequent crystallization of methyamoniumleadiodide film by using angle-dependent grazing incidence x-ray scattering. The morphology of lead iodide film can be fine-tuned, and thus the methyamoniumleadiodide film quality can be effectively controlled, leading to an optimization of the perovskite active layer. Using this strategy, perovskite solar cells with inverted PHJ structure showed a PCE of 15.7 per cent with little hysteresis. Interface engineering is critical for achieving efficient solar cells, yet a comprehensive understanding of the interface between metal electrode and electron transport layer (ETL) is lacking. A significant power conversion efficiency (PCE) improvement of fullerene/perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells was achieved by inserting a fulleropyrrolidine interlayer between the silver electrode and electron transport layer. The interlayer was found to enhance recombination resistance, increases electron extraction rate and prolongs free carrier lifetime. We also uncovered a facile solution-based fabrication of high performance tandem perovskite/polymer solar cells where the front sub-cell consists of perovskite and the back sub-cell is a polymer-based layer. A record maximum PCE of 15.96 per cent was achieved, demonstrating the synergy between the perovskite and semiconducting polymers. This design balances the absorption of the perovskite and the polymer, eliminates the adverse impact of thermal annealing during perovskite fabrication, and affords devices with no hysteresis. This work was performed in collaboration with Y. Liu, Z. Page, D. Venkataraman and T. Emrick (UMASS), F. Liu (LBNL) and Q. Hu and R

  10. Temperature-responsive intelligent interfaces for biomolecular separation and cell sheet engineering.

    PubMed

    Nagase, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Okano, Teruo

    2009-06-01

    Temperature-responsive intelligent surfaces, prepared by the modification of an interface with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and its derivatives, have been used for biomedical applications. Such surfaces exhibit temperature-responsive hydrophilic/hydrophobic alterations with external temperature changes, which, in turn, result in thermally modulated interactions with biomolecules and cells. In this review, we focus on the application of these intelligent surfaces to chromatographic separation and cell cultures. Chromatographic separations using several types of intelligent surfaces are mentioned briefly, and various effects related to the separation of bioactive compounds are discussed, including wettability, copolymer composition and graft polymer architecture. Similarly, we also summarize temperature-responsive cell culture substrates that allow the recovery of confluent cell monolayers as contiguous living cell sheets for tissue-engineering applications. The key factors in temperature-dependent cell adhesion/detachment control are discussed from the viewpoint of grafting temperature-responsive polymers, and new methodologies for effective cell sheet culturing and the construction of thick tissues are summarized. PMID:19324682

  11. Temperature-responsive intelligent interfaces for biomolecular separation and cell sheet engineering

    PubMed Central

    Nagase, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Okano, Teruo

    2009-01-01

    Temperature-responsive intelligent surfaces, prepared by the modification of an interface with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and its derivatives, have been used for biomedical applications. Such surfaces exhibit temperature-responsive hydrophilic/hydrophobic alterations with external temperature changes, which, in turn, result in thermally modulated interactions with biomolecules and cells. In this review, we focus on the application of these intelligent surfaces to chromatographic separation and cell cultures. Chromatographic separations using several types of intelligent surfaces are mentioned briefly, and various effects related to the separation of bioactive compounds are discussed, including wettability, copolymer composition and graft polymer architecture. Similarly, we also summarize temperature-responsive cell culture substrates that allow the recovery of confluent cell monolayers as contiguous living cell sheets for tissue-engineering applications. The key factors in temperature-dependent cell adhesion/detachment control are discussed from the viewpoint of grafting temperature-responsive polymers, and new methodologies for effective cell sheet culturing and the construction of thick tissues are summarized. PMID:19324682

  12. Interface Energetics in Organo-Metallic Halide Perovskite-based Photovoltaic Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Philip

    2015-03-01

    In my presentation I will talk about the most recent findings on the electronic structure of methylammonium lead tri-halide (MAPbX3, X =I, Br) perovskite films and their interfaces to adjacent transport layers. Intricate knowledge of the electronic alignment at the contact interfaces in perovskite solar cells is essential for the understanding of the working principle as well as improving design and thus performance of respective devices. In our studies we employ ultra-violet, X-ray and inverse photoemission spectroscopy (UPS, XPS, IPES) to directly determine valence and conduction band offsets. In this way we are able to report a direct measurement of the electronic band gap as well as ionization energy and electron affinity found for perovskite surfaces. Furthermore, our findings indicate that the electronic energy level alignment of adjacent organic hole transport layers, such as spiro-MeOTAD, can limit the maximum attainable open circuit voltage (Voc) in solar cells if the highest occupied molecular orbital of the hole transport material is not well aligned to the valence band maximum of the perovskite layer. Using better suited hole transporters, like CBP, values for Voc larger than 1.5 V could be achieved in the case of MAPbBr3 based devices. More recently, inverted perovskite solar cells based on nickel oxide bottom anodes have been reported to yield viable power conversion efficiencies and stability. We find that the interface between the p-doped NiO surface and the MAPbI3 layer on top lead to p-type perovskite filsm while the same material deposited on TiO2 in the conventional cell geometry turns out to be n-type. A further investigation of a C60 layer deposited on top of p-type perovskite films reveals an ideal alignment between the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital of the organic electron transport materials and the conduction band minimum of the perovskite film underneath. These results explain why the inverted solar cell structure could achieve

  13. Design and Implementation of Functional Nanoelectronic Interfaces With Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissue Using Nanowire Device Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Brian P.; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Tian, Bozhi; Lieber, Charles M.

    2010-01-01

    Nanowire FETs (NWFETs) are promising building blocks for nanoscale bioelectronic interfaces with cells and tissue since they are known to exhibit exquisite sensitivity in the context of chemical and biological detection, and have the potential to form strongly coupled interfaces with cell membranes. We present a general scheme that can be used to assemble NWs with rationally designed composition and geometry on either planar inorganic or biocompatible flexible plastic surfaces. We demonstrate that these devices can be used to measure signals from neurons, cardiomyocytes, and heart tissue. Reported signals are in millivolts range, which are equal to or substantially greater than those recorded with either planar FETs or multielectrode arrays, and demonstrate one unique advantage of NW-based devices. Basic studies showing the effect of device sensitivity and cell/substrate junction quality on signal magnitude are presented. Finally, our demonstrated ability to design high-density arrays of NWFETs enables us to map signal at the subcellular level, a functionality not enabled by conventional microfabricated devices. These advances could have broad applications in high-throughput drug assays, fundamental biophysical studies of cellular function, and development of powerful prosthetics. PMID:21785576

  14. Interface characterization of nanometer scale CdS buffer layer in chalcopyrite solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shih-Hung; Cheng, Tzu-Huan

    2016-06-01

    The buffer layer of a chalcopyrite solar cell plays an important role in optical responses of open circuit voltage (V oc) and short circuit current (J sc). A CdS buffer layer is applicable on the nanometer scale owing to its high carrier concentration and n-type semiconductor behavior in chalcopyrite solar cells. The thin buffer layer also contributes to the passivation of the absorber surface to reduce defect recombination loss. Non-destructive metrological parameters such as photoluminescence (PL) intensity, external quantum efficiency (EQE), and depth-resolved photovoltage are used to characterize the interface quality of CdS/chalcopyrite. The defects and dangling bonds at the absorber surface will cause interface recombination and reduce the cell performance in build-in voltage distribution. Post annealing can improve Cd ion diffusion from the buffer layer to the absorber surface and reduce the density of defects and dangling bonds. After thermal annealing, the EQE, PL intensity, and minority carrier lifetime are improved.

  15. BTEX in vitro exposure tool using human lung cells: trips and gains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Faye F; Peng, Cheng; Ng, Jack C

    2015-06-01

    Cytotoxicity of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to human lung cells was explored using three different exposure methods: Method 1 - in normal 96-well plates using DMSO as a carrier vehicle, we exposed (a) human lung carcinoma A549 cells, (b) A549 cells over-expressed with cytochrome P450 2E1 cells, and (c) normal lung fibroblast LL-24 cells to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene individually and in a mixture which models car exhaust gases for between 1-88 h. We found that the order of the BTEX potency is benzeneCYP2E1 over-expressed A549 cells. A significant difference was found between inter-assay responses for all 24h exposures (P<0.005) suggesting a poor assay repeatability. No sign of potency increase was found from 6 to 72 h exposures. Method 2 - Using sealed vials to expose A549 cells to benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, we observed a twenty-fold increase in their cytotoxicity, but also with no time-course effect. Method 3 - Using air exposed hanging-drop cell culture, we were able to see both an increase of demonstration of toxicity and a time-course effect from 1 to 12h exposure. We conclude that exposing cells in sealed and unsealed media using DMSO as a carrier vehicle was not suitable for BTEX exposure studies. Hanging-drop air exposure has more potential. It should be noted that if there are any changes in their exposure matrixes, its exposure mass distribution in cells could differ. PMID:25754011

  16. Pressure cell for investigations of solid-liquid interfaces by neutron reflectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Martin; Kaltofen, Thomas; Steitz, Roland; Zehnder, Beat H.; Dahint, Reiner

    2011-02-01

    We describe an apparatus for measuring scattering length density and structure of molecular layers at planar solid-liquid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions. The device is designed for in situ characterizations utilizing neutron reflectometry in the pressure range 0.1-100 MPa at temperatures between 5 and 60 °C. The pressure cell is constructed such that stratified molecular layers on crystalline substrates of silicon, quartz, or sapphire with a surface area of 28 cm2 can be investigated against noncorrosive liquid phases. The large substrate surface area enables reflectivity to be measured down to 10-5 (without background correction) and thus facilitates determination of the scattering length density profile across the interface as a function of applied load. Our current interest is on the stability of oligolamellar lipid coatings on silicon surfaces against aqueous phases as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure and temperature but the device can also be employed to probe the structure of any other solid-liquid interface.

  17. Pressure cell for investigations of solid-liquid interfaces by neutron reflectivity.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Martin; Kaltofen, Thomas; Steitz, Roland; Zehnder, Beat H; Dahint, Reiner

    2011-02-01

    We describe an apparatus for measuring scattering length density and structure of molecular layers at planar solid-liquid interfaces under high hydrostatic pressure conditions. The device is designed for in situ characterizations utilizing neutron reflectometry in the pressure range 0.1-100 MPa at temperatures between 5 and 60 °C. The pressure cell is constructed such that stratified molecular layers on crystalline substrates of silicon, quartz, or sapphire with a surface area of 28 cm(2) can be investigated against noncorrosive liquid phases. The large substrate surface area enables reflectivity to be measured down to 10(-5) (without background correction) and thus facilitates determination of the scattering length density profile across the interface as a function of applied load. Our current interest is on the stability of oligolamellar lipid coatings on silicon surfaces against aqueous phases as a function of applied hydrostatic pressure and temperature but the device can also be employed to probe the structure of any other solid-liquid interface. PMID:21361606

  18. Permissive Schwann cell graft/spinal cord interfaces for axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan R; Henao, Martha; Pearse, Damien D; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2015-01-01

    The transplantation of autologous Schwann cells (SCs) to repair the injured spinal cord is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial. In support, this study determined properties of spinal cord/SC bridge interfaces that enabled regenerated brainstem axons to cross them, possibly leading to improvement in rat hindlimb movement. Fluid bridges of SCs and Matrigel were placed in complete spinal cord transections. Compared to pregelled bridges of SCs and Matrigel, they improved regeneration of brainstem axons across the rostral interface. The regenerating brainstem axons formed synaptophysin(+) bouton-like terminals and contacted MAP2A(+) dendrites at the caudal interface. Brainstem axon regeneration was directly associated with glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP(+)) astrocyte processes that elongated into the SC bridge. Electron microscopy revealed that axons, SCs, and astrocytes were enclosed together within tunnels bounded by a continuous basal lamina. Neuroglycan (NG2) expression was associated with these tunnels. One week after injury, the GFAP(+) processes coexpressed nestin and brain lipid-binding protein, and the tips of GFAP(+)/NG2(+) processes extended into the bridges together with the regenerating brainstem axons. Both brainstem axon regeneration and number of GFAP(+) processes in the bridges correlated with improvement in hindlimb locomotion. Following SCI, astrocytes may enter a reactive state that prohibits axon regeneration. Elongation of astrocyte processes into SC bridges, however, and formation of NG2(+) tunnels enable brainstem axon regeneration and improvement in function. It is important for spinal cord repair to define conditions that favor elongation of astrocytes into lesions/transplants. PMID:24152553

  19. Mutations at the Subunit Interface of Yeast Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Reveal a Versatile Regulatory Domain

    PubMed Central

    Halmai, Miklos; Frittmann, Orsolya; Szabo, Zoltan; Daraba, Andreea; Gali, Vamsi K.; Balint, Eva; Unk, Ildiko

    2016-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays a key role in many cellular processes and due to that it interacts with a plethora of proteins. The main interacting surfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae PCNA have been mapped to the interdomain connecting loop and to the carboxy-terminal domain. Here we report that the subunit interface of yeast PCNA also has regulatory roles in the function of several DNA damage response pathways. Using site-directed mutagenesis we engineered mutations at both sides of the interface and investigated the effect of these alleles on DNA damage response. Genetic experiments with strains bearing the mutant alleles revealed that mutagenic translesion synthesis, nucleotide excision repair, and homologous recombination are all regulated through residues at the subunit interface. Moreover, genetic characterization of one of our mutants identifies a new sub-branch of nucleotide excision repair. Based on these results we conclude that residues at the subunit boundary of PCNA are not only important for the formation of the trimer structure of PCNA, but they constitute a regulatory protein domain that mediates different DNA damage response pathways, as well. PMID:27537501

  20. Two-dimensional model of flows and interface instability in aluminum reduction cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zikanov, Oleg; Sun, Haijun; Ziegler, Donald

    2003-11-01

    We derive a two-dimensional model for the melt flows and interface instability in aluminum reduction cells. The model is based on the de St. Venant shallow water equations and incorporates the essential features of the system such as the magnetohydrodynamic instability mechanism and nonlinear coupling between the flows and interfacial waves. The model is applied to verify a recently proposed theory that explains the instability through the interaction between perturbations of horizontal electric currents in the aluminum layer and the imposed vertical magnetic field. We investigate the role of other factors, in particular, background melt flows and magnetic field perturbations.

  1. Functional state of thymus cells following microwave exposure of endocrine glands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogolyubov, V.M.; Zubkova, S.M.; Frenkel, I.D.; Sokolova, Z.A.; Laprun, I.B.

    1988-07-01

    Following local microwave exposure (460 MHz, 120 mW/cm2) of rabbits using fluorescent probes and chemiluminescent analysis, conformational rearrangements in nuclear and cytoplasmic membranes and in thymus cell chromatin of the animals as well as changes in the intensity of the lipid free radical peroxidation were seen. The character of the changes observed depended both on the localization of the exposure and on the number of exposures.

  2. Pb exposure attenuates hypersensitivity in vivo by increasing regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liang; Zhao, Fang; Shen, Xuefeng; Ouyang, Weiming; Liu, Xinqin; Xu, Yan; Yu, Tao; Jin, Boquan; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2012-12-01

    Pb is a common environmental pollutant affecting various organs. Exposure of the immune system to Pb leads to immunosuppression or immunodysregulation. Although previous studies showed that Pb exposure can modulate the function of helper T cells, Pb immunotoxicity remains incompletely understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of Pb exposure on T cell development, and the underlying mechanism of Pb-induced suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to 300 ppm Pb-acetate solution via the drinking water for six weeks, and we found that Pb exposure significantly increased Pb concentrations in the blood by 4.2-fold (p < 0.05) as compared to those in the control rats. In Pb-exposed rats, the amount of thymic CD4{sup +}CD8{sup −} and peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells was significantly reduced, whereas, CD8{sup +} population was not affected. In contrast to conventional CD4{sup +} T cells, Foxp3{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs) were increased in both the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs of Pb-exposed rats. In line with the increase of Tregs, the DTH response of Pb-exposed rats was markedly suppressed. Depletion of Tregs reversed the suppression of DTH response by Pb-exposed CD4{sup +} T cells in an adoptive transfer model, suggesting a critical role of the increased Tregs in suppressing the DTH response. Collectively, this study revealed that Pb-exposure may upregulate Tregs, thereby leading to immunosuppression. -- Highlights: ► Pb exposure impaired CD4{sup +} thymic T cell development. ► Peripheral T lymphocytes were reduced following Pb exposure. ► Pb exposure increases thymic and peripheral Treg cells in rats. ► Tregs played a critical role in Pb-exposure-induced immune suppression.

  3. Probing the PEDOT:PSS/cell interface with conductive colloidal probe AFM-SECM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, P.; Zhang, H.; Kranz, C.; Wallace, G. G.; Higgins, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical information e.g., oxygen reduction can be obtained simultaneously. Conductive colloid AFM-SECM probes modified with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) are used for single cell force measurements in mouse fibroblasts and single cell interactions are investigated as a function of the applied potential.Conductive colloidal probe Atomic Force-Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (AFM-SECM) is a new approach, which employs electrically insulated AFM probes except for a gold-coated colloid located at the end of the cantilever. Hence, force measurements can be performed while biasing the conductive colloid under physiological conditions. Moreover, such colloids can be modified by electrochemical polymerization resulting, e.g. in conductive polymer-coated spheres, which in addition may be loaded with specific dopants. In contrast to other AFM-based single cell force spectroscopy measurements, these probes allow adhesion measurements at the cell-biomaterial interface on multiple cells in a rapid manner while the properties of the polymer can be changed by applying a bias. In addition, spatially resolved electrochemical

  4. Summary of solar cell data from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, David C.; Rose, M. Frank

    1994-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was composed of many separate experiments, some of which contained solar cells. These solar cells were distributed at various positions on the LDEF and, therefore, were exposed to the space environment with an orientational dependence. This report will address the space environmental effects on solar cells and solar cell assemblies (SCA's), including electrical interconnects and associated insulation blankets where flown in conjunction with solar cells.

  5. Radiation exposure as a possible etiologic factor in hairy cell leukemia (leukemic reticuloendotheliosis).

    PubMed

    Stewart, D J; Keating, M J

    1980-10-01

    The frequency of prior occupational, accidental, or therapeutic radiation exposure was significantly higher for hairy cell leukemia patients than for a control group of solid tumor patients (8/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). Hairy cell leukemia patients were also more frequently involved in occupations at high risk of radiation exposure such as chemist, engineer, physicist, and health care facility worker (7/23 vs. 4/56, P < 0.01). The observation that the incidence of thyroid disorders among hairy cell leukemia patients was also unusually high (5/23 vs. 2/56, P < 0.05) was interpreted as further indirect evidence of excessive radiation exposure. It appears that radiation exposure may be an important contribution factor in the development of some case of hairy cell leukemia. PMID:7417955

  6. FETAL DEXAMETHASONE EXPOSURE ACCELERATES DEVELOPMENT OF RENAL FUNCTION: RELATIONSHIP TO DOSE, CELL DIFFERENTIATION AND GROWTH INHIBITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fetal exposure to high doses of glucocorticoids slows cellular development and impairs organ performance, in association with growth retardation. evertheless, low doses of glucocorticoids may enhance cell differentiation and accelerate specific functions. he current study examine...

  7. Short and long-term phototoxicity in cells expressing genetic reporters under nanosecond laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Sven; Estrada, Héctor; Degtyaruk, Oleksiy; Rebling, Johannes; Klymenko, Olena; Rosemann, Michael; Razansky, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Nanosecond-duration laser pulses are exploited in a plethora of therapeutic and diagnostic applications, such as optoacoustic imaging. However, phototoxicity effects of pulsed radiation in living cells, in particular those expressing genetic reporters, are not well understood. We established a three-dimensional fluorescent protein expressing cellular model in order to reliably investigate the extent and major exposure parameters responsible for both photobleaching and phototoxicity under pulsed laser exposure, unveiling a variety of possible effects on living cells, from reversible photobleaching to cytotoxicity and cell death. Significant losses of fluorescence levels were identified when exposing the cells to illumination conditions considered safe under common standards for skin exposure in diagnostic imaging applications. Thus, the use of photolabile fluorescent proteins and their in vivo exposure parameters have to be designed carefully for all applications using pulsed nanosecond radiation. In particular, loss of signal due to bleaching may significantly alter signals in longitudinal measurements, making data quantification challenging. PMID:26280948

  8. Simultaneous Exposure to Multiple Air Pollutants Influences Alveolar Epithelial Cell Ion Transport

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. Air pollution sources generally release multiple pollutants simultaneously and yet, research has historically focused on the source-to-health linkages of individual air pollutants. We recently showed that exposure of alveolar epithelial cells to a combination of particul...

  9. Investigation of engineered bacterial adhesins for opportunity to interface cells with abiotic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrell, Jessica L.; Dong, Hong; Holthoff, Ellen L.; Small, Meagan C.; Sarkes, Deborah A.; Hurley, Margaret M.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2016-05-01

    The convenience of cellular genetic engineering has afforded the power to build `smart' synthetic biological tools with novel applications. Here, we have explored opportunities to hybridize engineered cells with inorganic materials toward the development of 'living' device-compatible systems. Cellular structural biology is engineerable based on the ability to rewrite genetic code to generate recombinant, foreign, or even unnatural proteins. With this capability on the biological end, it should be possible to achieve superior abio-compatibility with the inorganic materials that compose current microfabricated technology. This work investigated the hair-like appendages of Escherichia coli known as Type 1 fimbriae that enable natural adhesion to glycosylated substrates. Sequence alterations within the fimbrial gene cluster were found to be well-tolerated, evidenced by tagging the fimbriae with peptide-based probes. As a further development, fimbriae tips could be reconfigured to, in turn, alter cell binding. In particular, the fimbriae were fused with a genetically optimized peptide-for-inorganics to enable metal binding. This work established methodologies to systematically survey cell adhesion properties across a suite of fimbriae-modified cell types as well as to direct patterned cell adhesion. Cell types were further customized for added complexity including turning on secondary gene expression and binding to gold surfaces. The former demonstrates potential for programmable gene switches and the latter for interfacing biology with inorganic materials. In general, the incorporation of 'programmed' cells into devices can be used to provide the feature of dynamic and automated cell response. The outcomes of this study are foundational toward the critical feature of deliberate positioning of cells as configurable biocomponentry. Overall, cellular integration into bioMEMs will yield advanced sensing and actuation.

  10. A futuristic approach towards interface layer modifications for improved efficiency in inverted organic solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, J. P. E-mail: tiwarijp@mail.nplindia.org; Ali, Farman; Sharma, Abhishek; Chand, Suresh; Pillai, Sriraj; Parakh, Sonal

    2014-01-27

    Inverted polymer Solar Cells of the classical poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C{sub 61}butyric acid methyl ester (PC{sub 61}BM) blend on indium tin oxide substrates were fabricated, which shows improved device performance, by using a facile solution–processed ZnO-polyelectrolytes [poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), Poly (acrylic acid sodium salt) (PAS), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS), and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)] nanocomposite as a cathode interface layer compared to devices using pristine ZnO as cathode buffer layer in ambient conditions. The devices with different combinations of polyelectrolyte with ZnO show different improvements in the device efficiency. The combinations of ZnO with PVP and PDADMAC show highest amount of improvements in the efficiency by a factor of ∼17–19. The improvement of the efficiency may be due to various phenomena, such as the passivation of ZnO surface as well as bulk traps, work function modification, improved energy level alignment, improved electronic coupling of the inorganic/organic interface, improved light harvesting, and decrease of surface as well as bulk charge recombination in the device. The introduction of polyelectrolyte into ZnO inhibits the aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles yielding the large area ZnO nanoclusters; and hence, forming the uniform film of ZnO resulting in the modifications of morphology as well as electronic structure of ZnO-polyelectrolyte nano-composite favouring better electronic coupling between cathode and active layer and hence enhancing the current and, consequently, the efficiency. This simple low temperature ZnO-polyelectrolyte nanocomposite based protocol proposed for cathode interface layer modification may be very much useful for roll to roll industrial manufacturing of organic solar cells.

  11. A futuristic approach towards interface layer modifications for improved efficiency in inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, J. P.; Pillai, Sriraj; Parakh, Sonal; Ali, Farman; Sharma, Abhishek; Chand, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Inverted polymer Solar Cells of the classical poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):(6,6)-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) blend on indium tin oxide substrates were fabricated, which shows improved device performance, by using a facile solution-processed ZnO-polyelectrolytes [poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDADMAC), Poly (acrylic acid sodium salt) (PAS), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PSS), and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)] nanocomposite as a cathode interface layer compared to devices using pristine ZnO as cathode buffer layer in ambient conditions. The devices with different combinations of polyelectrolyte with ZnO show different improvements in the device efficiency. The combinations of ZnO with PVP and PDADMAC show highest amount of improvements in the efficiency by a factor of ˜17-19. The improvement of the efficiency may be due to various phenomena, such as the passivation of ZnO surface as well as bulk traps, work function modification, improved energy level alignment, improved electronic coupling of the inorganic/organic interface, improved light harvesting, and decrease of surface as well as bulk charge recombination in the device. The introduction of polyelectrolyte into ZnO inhibits the aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles yielding the large area ZnO nanoclusters; and hence, forming the uniform film of ZnO resulting in the modifications of morphology as well as electronic structure of ZnO-polyelectrolyte nano-composite favouring better electronic coupling between cathode and active layer and hence enhancing the current and, consequently, the efficiency. This simple low temperature ZnO-polyelectrolyte nanocomposite based protocol proposed for cathode interface layer modification may be very much useful for roll to roll industrial manufacturing of organic solar cells.

  12. Cell-Wide Responses to Low-Oxygen Exposure in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Redding, Alyssa; Joachimiak, Marcin; Arkin, Adam; Borglin, sharon; Dehal, Paramvir; Chakraborty, Romy; Geller, Jil; Hazen, Terry; HE, Qiang; Joyner, Dominique C.; Martin, Vincent; Wall, Judy; Yang, Zamin Koo; Zhou, Jizhong; Keasling, Jay

    2007-08-01

    The responses of the anaerobic, sulfate-reducing organism Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to low-oxygen exposure (0.1% O2) were monitored via transcriptomics and proteomics. Exposure to 0.1% O2 caused a decrease in the growth rate without affecting viability. Concerted upregulation of the predicted peroxide stress response regulon (PerR) genes was observed in response to the 0.1% O2 exposure. Several of the candidates also showed increases in protein abundance. Among the remaining small number of transcript changes was the upregulation of the predicted transmembrane tetraheme cytochrome c3 complex. Other known oxidative stress response candidates remained unchanged during the low-O2 exposure. To fully understand the results of the 0.1% O2 exposure, transcriptomics and proteomics data were collected for exposure to air using a similar experimental protocol. In contrast to the 0.1% O2 exposure, air exposure was detrimental to both the growth rate and viability and caused dramatic changes at both the transcriptome and proteome levels. Interestingly, the transcripts of the predicted PerR regulon genes were downregulated during air exposure. Our results highlight the differences in the cell-wide responses to low and high O2 levels in D. vulgaris and suggest that while exposure to air is highly detrimental to D. vulgaris, this bacterium can successfully cope with periodic exposure to low O2 levels in its environment.

  13. A Janus-paper PDMS platform for air-liquid interface cell culture applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Rahim; Ochoa, Manuel; Donaldson, Amy; Parupudi, Tejasvi; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Khademhosseini, Ali; Ghaemmaghami, Amir; Ziaie, Babak

    2015-05-01

    A commercially available Janus paper with one hydrophobic (polyethylene-coated) face and a hygroscopic/hydrophilic one is irreversibly bonded to a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate incorporating microfluidic channels via corona discharge surface treatment. The bond strength between the polymer-coated side and PDMS is characterized as a function of corona treatment time and annealing temperature/time. A maximum strength of 392 kPa is obtained with a 2 min corona treatment followed by 60 min of annealing at 120 °C. The water contact angle of the corona-treated polymer side decreases with increased discharge duration from 98° to 22°. The hygroscopic/hydrophilic side is seeded with human lung fibroblast cells encapsulated in a methacrylated gelatin (GelMA) hydrogel to show the potential of this technology for nutrient and chemical delivery in an air-liquid interface cell culture.

  14. Continuous Taurocholic Acid Exposure Promotes Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Progression Due to Reduced Cell Loss Resulting from Enhanced Vascular Development

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Sho; Yamamoto, Hiroto; Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Saito, Shota; Hattori, Takanori; Yamamoto, Gaku; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Refluxogenic effects of smoking and alcohol abuse may be related to the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The present study attempts to clarify the effects of continuous taurocholic acid (TCA) exposure, which is neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, on ESCC progression. Methods A squamous carcinoma cell line (ESCC-DR) was established from a tumor induced in a rat model of gastroduodenal reflux. ESCC-DR cells were incubated with 2 mM TCA for ≥2 months. The effects of continuous TCA exposure were evaluated in vitro on cell morphology, growth, and invasion and in vivo on xenograft tumor growth in nude mice. Moreover, the mean level of secreted transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins in cell culture supernatants and mRNA synthesis of TGF-β1 and VEGF-A of ESCC cells were measured. The angiogenic potential was further examined by a migration assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results Continuous TCA exposure induced marked formation of filopodia in vitro. Expression levels of angiogenic factors were significantly higher in the cells treated with TCA than in control cells. Tumor xenografts derived from cells pre-exposed to TCA were larger and more vascularized than those derived from control cells. In addition, TCA exposure increased HUVEC migration. Conclusion Continuous TCA exposure enhanced ESCC progression due to reduced cell loss in vivo. Cell loss was inhibited by TCA-induced vascular endothelial cell migration, which was mediated by TGF-β1 and VEGF-A released from ESCC cells. PMID:24551170

  15. KCN Chemical Etch for Interface Engineering in Cu2ZnSnSe4 Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Marie; Brammertz, Guy; Sahayaraj, Sylvester; Batuk, Maria; Khelifi, Samira; Mangin, Denis; El Mel, Abdel-Aziz; Arzel, Ludovic; Hadermann, Joke; Meuris, Marc; Poortmans, Jef

    2015-07-15

    The removal of secondary phases from the surface of the kesterite crystals is one of the major challenges to improve the performances of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin film solar cells. In this contribution, the KCN/KOH chemical etching approach, originally developed for the removal of CuxSe phases in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 thin films, is applied to CZTSe absorbers exhibiting various chemical compositions. Two distinct electrical behaviors were observed on CZTSe/CdS solar cells after treatment: (i) the improvement of the fill factor (FF) after 30 s of etching for the CZTSe absorbers showing initially a distortion of the electrical characteristic; (ii) the progressive degradation of the FF after long treatment time for all Cu-poor CZTSe solar cell samples. The first effect can be attributed to the action of KCN on the absorber, that is found to clean the absorber free surface from most of the secondary phases surrounding the kesterite grains (e.g., Se0, CuxSe, SnSex, SnO2, Cu2SnSe3 phases, excepting the ZnSe-based phases). The second observation was identified as a consequence of the preferential etching of Se, Sn, and Zn from the CZTSe surface by the KOH solution, combined with the modification of the alkali content of the absorber. The formation of a Cu-rich shell at the absorber/buffer layer interface, leading to the increase of the recombination rate at the interface, and the increase in the doping of the absorber layer after etching are found to be at the origin of the deterioration of the FF of the solar cells. PMID:26039042

  16. A Simple Nanoscale Interface Directs Alignment of a Confluent Cell Layer on Oxide and Polymer Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Patrick E.; Jones, Casey M.; Bandini, Stephen B.; Singh, Shivani; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Schwarzbauer, Jean E.

    2013-01-01

    Templating of cell spreading and proliferation is described that yields confluent layers of cells aligned across an entire two-dimensional surface. The template is a reactive, two-component interface that is synthesized in three steps in nanometer thick, micron-scaled patterns on silicon and on several biomaterial polymers. In this method, a volatile zirconium alkoxide complex is first deposited at reduced pressure onto a surface pattern that is prepared by photolithography; the substrate is then heated to thermolyze the organic ligands to form surface-bound zirconium oxide patterns. The thickness of this oxide layer ranges from 10 to 70 nanometers, which is controlled by alkoxide complex deposition time. The oxide layer is treated with 1,4-butanediphosphonic acid to give a monolayer pattern whose composition and spatial conformity to the photolithographic mask are determined spectroscopically. NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells attach and spread in alignment with the pattern without constraint by physical means or by arrays of cytophilic and cytophobic molecules. Cell alignment with the pattern is maintained as cells grow to form a confluent monolayer across the entire substrate surface. PMID:23936630

  17. Consideration on suppression of cancer cell proliferation by ultrasound exposure using sonochemical and biological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, A.; Nishimura, H.; Kawashima, N.; Takeuchi, S.

    2004-01-01

    The suppression methods of cancer cells proliferation using ultrasound exposure are investigated to develop a new minimally invasive cancer treatment method. A stainless steel vibrating plate with a Langevin type transducer is attached to the bottom of a water tank of the ultrasound exposure system used in this study. Ultrasound was irradiated to cancer cells of mouse T lymphoma (EL-4) in a flask. A decreasing tendency of the number of viable cancer cells exposed to ultrasound of 150 kHz and acoustic intensity ISPTP of 750 mW/cm2 was confirmed in the culturing process. Then, the suppression mechanism of cancer cell proliferation by ultrasound exposure was considered through confirmation of apoptosis and necrosis with the exposed cancer cells by electrophoresis and enzyme activity measurements. It was found that the apoptosis was induced on the cancer cells after ultrasound exposure. We confirmed the generation of hydroxyl radical in water in the water tank by ESR device. When the hydroxyl radicals were scavenged by adding ethanol to the culture medium for cancer cells, the apoptosis was not induced and proliferation was not suppressed. Therefore, we found that generation of activated oxygen in the culturing medium by ultrasound exposure was caused to apoptosis induction and suppression of cancer cell proliferation. We will present the results of above consideration in this conference.

  18. Exposure to inhaled isobutyl nitrite reduces T cell-dependent responsiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Soderberg, L.S.F.; Barnett, J.B. )

    1991-03-11

    Isobutyl nitrite is a drug of abuse popular among male homosexuals and among adolescents. In order to approximate the nitrite exposures of inhalant abusers, mice were treated with 900 ppm isobutyl nitrite in an inhalation chamber for 45 min per day for 14 days. At 72 hr after the last exposure, mice were assayed for immune competence. Under these conditions, mice gained only half the weight of mice exposed to air. The spleens of nitrite exposed mice weighed 15% less and had 24% fewer cells per spleen than controls. Adjusted for equal cell numbers, T cell mitogenic and allogeneic proliferative responses were significantly reduce by 33% and 47%, respectively. Unstimulated spleen cells had elevated levels of IL-2 transcription following exposure to isobutyl nitrite suggesting that nitrite inhalation caused a nonspecific induction of T cells. In contrast, B cell proliferative responses to LPS were unaltered. Exposure to the nitrite reduced the frequency of T-dependent antibody plaque-forming cells (PFC) by 63% and the total number of reduced by 60% after as few as five daily exposures to isobutyl nitrite. Therefore, the data suggest that habitual inhalation of isobutyl nitrite impairs immune competence and that toxicity appears to be directed toward T cell functions.

  19. Photo-oxidation from mode-locked laser exposure to hTERT-RPE1 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael L.; Eikum, Debbie M.; Noojin, Gary D.; Stolarski, David J.; Glickman, Randolph D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2004-07-01

    Human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells (hTERT-RPE1) were used to detect photo-oxidation products generated from chronic NIR (810 nm) laser exposure. Exposure of a discrete area within cell monolayers provided a means of distinguishing fluorescence above background levels. Oxidative stress was detected using the fluorescent dye H2DCF-DA and its analog CM-H2DCF-DA. Fluorescence was detected in cells exposed to mode-locked (76 MHz, ~160 femtoseconds) but not CW laser exposure. Detection of photo-oxidation from the mode-locked laser was dependent upon radiant exposure, but only if irradiance was greater than a threshold value. The CM-H2DCF-DA dye proved a more sensitive indicator of oxidation than H2DCF-DA, and the radiant exposure threshold for detection was dependent upon dye concentration. No oxidation was detected from CW exposures (using the most sensitive fluorescent dye conditions) when using 3 times the irradiance, and 10 times the radiant exposure needed to detect fluorescence from mode-locked exposure.

  20. Electron density profile at the interfaces of bulk heterojunction solar cells and its implication on the S-kink characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusain, Abhay; Singh, Surendra; Chauhan, A. K.; Saxena, Vibha; Jha, P.; Veerender, P.; Singh, Ajay; Varde, P. V.; Basu, Saibal; Aswal, D. K.; Gupta, S. K.

    2016-02-01

    The efficiency of a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell critically depends upon quality of its interfaces. The imperfect interfaces can lead to S-kink in the current-voltage characteristics that reduce the efficiency of BHJ solar cells. In this letter, using PCDTBT:PCBM based BHJ solar cells, we demonstrate that non-destructive X-ray reflectivity is powerful technique to estimate the electron density profile across the BHJ solar cells. A direct correlation is observed between the enhanced electron density at PEDOT:PSS/PCDTBT:PCBM interface and appearance of S-kink in J-V characteristics, which is also supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Kelvin probe measurements.

  1. Tubulin and actin interplay at the T cell and antigen-presenting cell interface.

    PubMed

    Martín-Cófreces, Noa Beatriz; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    T cells reorganize their actin and tubulin-based cytoskeletons to provide a physical basis to the immune synapse. However, growing evidence shows that their roles on T cell activation are more dynamic than merely serving as tracks or scaffold for different molecules. The crosstalk between both skeletons may be important for the formation and movement of the lamella at the immunological synapse by increasing the adhesion of the T cell to the antigen-presenting cells (APC), thus favoring the transport of components toward the plasma membrane and in turn regulating the T-APC intercellular communication. Microtubules and F-actin appear to be essential for the transport of the different signaling microclusters along the membrane, therefore facilitating the propagation of the signal. Finally, they can also be important for regulating the endocytosis, recycling, and degradation of the T cell receptor signaling machinery, thus helping both to sustain the activated state and to switch it off. PMID:22566814

  2. Tubulin and Actin Interplay at the T Cell and Antigen-Presenting Cell Interface

    PubMed Central

    Martín-Cófreces, Noa Beatriz; Alarcón, Balbino; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    T cells reorganize their actin and tubulin-based cytoskeletons to provide a physical basis to the immune synapse. However, growing evidence shows that their roles on T cell activation are more dynamic than merely serving as tracks or scaffold for different molecules. The crosstalk between both skeletons may be important for the formation and movement of the lamella at the immunological synapse by increasing the adhesion of the T cell to the antigen-presenting cells (APC), thus favoring the transport of components toward the plasma membrane and in turn regulating the T-APC intercellular communication. Microtubules and F-actin appear to be essential for the transport of the different signaling microclusters along the membrane, therefore facilitating the propagation of the signal. Finally, they can also be important for regulating the endocytosis, recycling, and degradation of the T cell receptor signaling machinery, thus helping both to sustain the activated state and to switch it off. PMID:22566814

  3. The effects of the band bending caused by interface states in CdTe and CIS solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Youn-Jung; Gray, J.L.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, the effects of interface states in the Z-nO/CdS/CuinSe{sub 2}, and CdS/CdTe solar cells are presented. The effects are investigated through numerical modeling using ADEPT (A Device Emulation Program and Tool). The results show that donor-like interface states have very little effect but acceptor-like interface states at the resistive ZnO/CdS can cause pinning of the bands at the interface, thus leading to non-exponential illuminated I-V curves when the interface state densities are high enough. High density of acceptor-like states between the CdS and In-rich CIS does not result in the two-diode like IV curves. Instead they can significantly lower the fill factor. In the CdS/CdTe solar cells. either donor- or acceptor-like interface states have little effect since almost all the depletion region lies in the CdTe. Thus, the metallurgical junction where the interface states are located is away from the electrical junction where the conductivity type changes.

  4. Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture.

    PubMed

    Lestard, Nathalia R; Capella, Marcia A M

    2016-01-01

    Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it affects us. Since the beginning of this century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. The present study was designed to better understand the direct effects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and nonauditory cells. PMID:27478480

  5. Exposure to Music Alters Cell Viability and Cell Motility of Human Nonauditory Cells in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lestard, Nathalia R.

    2016-01-01

    Although music is part of virtually all cultures in the world, little is known about how it affects us. Since the beginning of this century several studies suggested that the response to music, and to sound in general, is complex and might not be exclusively due to emotion, given that cell types other than auditory hair cells can also directly react to audible sound. The present study was designed to better understand the direct effects of acoustic vibrations, in the form of music, in human cells in culture. Our results suggest that the mechanisms of cell growth arrest and/or cell death induced by acoustic vibrations are similar for auditory and nonauditory cells. PMID:27478480

  6. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  7. Exposure to Carbon Nanotube Material: Assessment of Nanotube Cytotoxicity Using Human Keratinocyte Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shvedova, Anna A.; Castranova, Vincent; Kisin, Elena R.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Murray, Ashley R.; Gandelsman, Vadim Z.; Maynard, Andrew; Baron, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are new members of carbon allotropes similar to fullerenes and graphite. Because of their unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are important for novel applications in the electronics, aerospace, and computer industries. Exposure to graphite and carbon materials has been associated with increased incidence of skin diseases, such as carbon fiber dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, and naevi. We investigated adverse effects of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) using a cell culture of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). After 18 h of exposure of HaCaT to SWCNT, oxidative stress and cellular toxicity were indicated by formation of free radicals, accumulation of peroxidative products, antioxidant depletion, and loss of cell viability. Exposure to SWCNT also resulted in ultrastructural and morphological changes in cultured skin cells. These data indicate that dermal exposure to unrefined SWCNT may lead to dermal toxicity due to accelerated oxidative stress in the skin of exposed workers.

  8. Exposure of human lung fibroblasts to ozone: cell mortality and hyaluronan metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, D.; Branscheid, D. )

    1992-04-01

    Exposure of cultures of human lung fibroblasts to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h resulted in a significant increase in cellular mortality by 29%; after exposure to 2.5 ppm ozone for 4 h, the increase amounted to 74%. A marked difference in sensitivity to ozone was observed between fibroblast lines from different individuals. This variability in resistance to ozone was more evident after exposure to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h, when compared with 2.5 ppm ozone for 4 h. In one fibroblast line, synthesis of hyaluronan was enhanced by exposure to 0.5 ppm ozone for 20 h. The concentrations of hyaluronan in culture media increased in experiments using different fibroblast cell lines, a phenomenon that was obvious both if cell numbers and combined protein concentrations of cells and media are selected as references for hyaluronan concentrations.

  9. Immune Cell Targets of Infection at the Tick-Skin Interface during Powassan Virus Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hermance, Meghan E.; Santos, Rodrigo I.; Kelly, Brent C.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Thangamani, Saravanan

    2016-01-01

    Powassan virus (POWV) is a tick-borne flavivirus that can result in a severe neuroinvasive disease with 50% of survivors displaying long-term neurological sequelae. Human POWV cases have been documented in Canada, the United States, and Russia. Although the number of reported POWV human cases has increased in the past fifteen years, POWV remains one of the less studied human pathogenic flaviviruses. Ixodes ticks are the vectors for POWV, and the virus is transmitted to a host’s skin very early during the tick feeding process. Central to the successful transmission of a tick-borne pathogen are complex interactions between the host immune response and early tick-mediated immunomodulation, all of which initially occur at the skin interface. In our prior work, we examined the cutaneous immune gene expression during the early stages of POWV-infected Ixodes scapularis feeding. The present study serves to further investigate the skin interface by identifying early cell targets of infection at the POWV-infected tick feeding site. An in vivo infection model consisting of POWV-infected ticks feeding on mice for short durations was used in this study. Skin biopsies from the tick feeding sites were harvested at various early time points, enabling us to examine the skin histopathology and detect POWV viral antigen in immune cells present at the tick feeding site. The histopathology from the present study demonstrates that neutrophil and mononuclear cell infiltrates are recruited earlier to the feeding site of a POWV-infected tick versus an uninfected tick. This is the first report demonstrating that macrophages and fibroblasts contain POWV antigens, which suggests that they are early cellular targets of infection at the tick feeding site. These data provide key insights towards defining the complex interactions between the host immune response and early tick-mediated immunomodulation. PMID:27203436

  10. Distinct Roles for Two Gα–Gβ Interfaces in Cell Polarity Control by a Yeast Heterotrimeric G Protein

    PubMed Central

    Strickfaden, Shelly C.

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromones trigger dissociation of a heterotrimeric G protein (Gαβγ) into Gα-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and Gβγ. The Gβγ dimer regulates both mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade signaling and cell polarization. Here, by independently activating the MAP kinase pathway, we studied the polarity role of Gβγ in isolation from its signaling role. MAP kinase signaling alone could induce cell asymmetry but not directional growth. Surprisingly, active Gβγ, either alone or with Gα-GTP, could not organize a persistent polarization axis. Instead, following pheromone gradients (chemotropism) or directional growth without pheromone gradients (de novo polarization) required an intact receptor–Gαβγ module and GTP hydrolysis by Gα. Our results indicate that chemoattractant-induced cell polarization requires continuous receptor–Gαβγ communication but not modulation of MAP kinase signaling. To explore regulation of Gβγ by Gα, we mutated Gβ residues in two structurally distinct Gα–Gβ binding interfaces. Polarity control was disrupted only by mutations in the N-terminal interface, and not the Switch interface. Incorporation of these mutations into a Gβ–Gα fusion protein, which enforces subunit proximity, revealed that Switch interface dissociation regulates signaling, whereas the N-terminal interface may govern receptor–Gαβγ coupling. These findings raise the possibility that the Gαβγ heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. PMID:17978098

  11. Distinct roles for two Galpha-Gbeta interfaces in cell polarity control by a yeast heterotrimeric G protein.

    PubMed

    Strickfaden, Shelly C; Pryciak, Peter M

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromones trigger dissociation of a heterotrimeric G protein (Galphabetagamma) into Galpha-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and Gbetagamma. The Gbetagamma dimer regulates both mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascade signaling and cell polarization. Here, by independently activating the MAP kinase pathway, we studied the polarity role of Gbetagamma in isolation from its signaling role. MAP kinase signaling alone could induce cell asymmetry but not directional growth. Surprisingly, active Gbetagamma, either alone or with Galpha-GTP, could not organize a persistent polarization axis. Instead, following pheromone gradients (chemotropism) or directional growth without pheromone gradients (de novo polarization) required an intact receptor-Galphabetagamma module and GTP hydrolysis by Galpha. Our results indicate that chemoattractant-induced cell polarization requires continuous receptor-Galphabetagamma communication but not modulation of MAP kinase signaling. To explore regulation of Gbetagamma by Galpha, we mutated Gbeta residues in two structurally distinct Galpha-Gbeta binding interfaces. Polarity control was disrupted only by mutations in the N-terminal interface, and not the Switch interface. Incorporation of these mutations into a Gbeta-Galpha fusion protein, which enforces subunit proximity, revealed that Switch interface dissociation regulates signaling, whereas the N-terminal interface may govern receptor-Galphabetagamma coupling. These findings raise the possibility that the Galphabetagamma heterotrimer can function in a partially dissociated state, tethered by the N-terminal interface. PMID:17978098

  12. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  13. Three-Dimensional BC/PEDOT Composite Nanofibers with High Performance for Electrode-Cell Interface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuntao; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qi; Feng, Zhangqi; Zhu, Chunlin; Yu, Yalin; Li, Kangming; Zhao, Mengyao; Yang, Jiazhi; Liu, Jian; Sun, Dongping

    2015-12-30

    There is an increasing need to synthesize biocompatible nanofibers with excellent mechanical and electrical performance for electrochemical and biomedical applications. Here we report a facile approach to prepare electroactive and flexible 3D nanostructured biomaterials with high performance based on bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers. Our approach can coat BC nanofibers with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) by in situ interfacial polymerization in a controllable manner. The PEDOT coating thickness is adjustable by the monomer concentration or reaction time during polymerization, producing nanofibers with a total diameter ranging from 30 to 200 nm. This fabrication process also provides a convenient method to tune different parameters such as the average pore size and electrical conductivity on the demands of actual applications. Our experiments have demonstrated that the 3D BC/PEDOT nanofibers exhibit high specific surface area, excellent mechanical properties, electroactive stability, and low cell cytotoxicity. With electrical stimulation, calcium imaging of PC12 neural cells on BC/PEDOT nanofibers has revealed a significant increase in the percentage of cells with higher action potentials, suggesting an enhanced capacitance effect of charge injection. As an attractive solution to the challenge of designing better electrode-cell interfaces, 3D BC/PEDOT nanofibers promise many important applications such as biosensing devices, smart drug delivery systems, and implantable electrodes for tissue engineering. PMID:26550840

  14. Cellular effects of metolachlor exposure on human liver (HepG2) cells.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Sean; Musah, Sadiatu; Dhanwada, Kavita R

    2013-01-01

    Metolachlor is one of the most commonly used herbicides in the United States. Protein synthesis is inhibited when roots and shoots of susceptible plants absorb this synthetic herbicide. While quite effective in killing weeds, several studies have shown that exposure to metolachlor results in decreased cell proliferation, growth and reproductive ability of non-target organisms. However, the mode of metolachlor action in non-target organisms has not yet been elucidated. The current study assessed effects of metolachlor exposure on immortalized human liver (HepG2) cells. Results from cell proliferation assays showed that a 72-h exposure to 50 parts per billion (ppb) metolachlor significantly inhibited growth of these cells compared to untreated controls while a decrease in the cell division rate required exposure to 500 ppb metolachlor for 48 h. Flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle distribution revealed that 500 ppb metolachlor treatment resulted in fewer HepG2 cells in G2/M phase after 72 h. Real-time PCR analysis showed a significant decrease in the abundance of the cyclin A transcripts after 12h in cells exposed to 300 ppb metolachlor. These results suggest metolachlor may affect progression through the S phase of the cell cycle and entrance into the G2 phase. PMID:23084262

  15. Intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions in alveolar epithelial cells exposed to airborne ZnO nanoparticles at the air-liquid interface

    SciTech Connect

    Mihai, Cosmin; Chrisler, William B.; Xie, Yumei; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Tolic, Ana; Klein, Jessica; Smith, Jordan N.; Tarasevich, Barbara J.; Orr, Galya

    2015-02-01

    Airborne nanoparticles (NPs) that enter the respiratory tract are likely to reach the alveolar region. Accumulating observations support a role for zinc oxide (ZnO) NP dissolution in toxicity, but the majority of in vitro studies were conducted in cells exposed to NPs in growth media, where large doses of dissolved ions are shed into the exposure solution. To determine the precise intracellular accumulation dynamics and fate of zinc ions (Zn2+) shed by airborne NPs in the cellular environment, we exposed alveolar epithelial cells to aerosolized NPs at the air-liquid interface (ALI). Using a fluorescent indicator for Zn2+, together with organelle-specific fluorescent proteins, we quantified Zn2+ in single cells and organelles over time. We found that at the ALI, intracellular Zn2+ values peaked 3 h post exposure and decayed to normal values by 12 h, while in submersed cultures, intracellular Zn2+ values continued to increase over time. The lowest toxic NP dose at the ALI generated peak intracellular Zn2+ values that were nearly 3 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of NPs in submersed cultures, and 8 folds lower than the peak values generated by the lowest toxic dose of ZnSO4 or Zn2+. At the ALI, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ was found in endosomes and lysosomes as early as 1 h post exposure. In contrast, the majority of intracellular Zn2+ following exposures to ZnSO4 was found in other larger vesicles, with less than 10% in endosomes and lysosomes. Together, our observations indicate that low but critical levels of intracellular Zn2+ have to be reached, concentrated specifically in endosomes and lysosomes, for toxicity to occur, and point to the focal dissolution of the NPs in the cellular environment and the accumulation of the ions specifically in endosomes and lysosomes as the processes underlying the potent toxicity of airborne ZnO NPs.

  16. Band alignment measurements at heterojunction interfaces in layered thin film solar cells & thermoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang

    2011-12-01

    Public awareness of the increasing energy crisis and the related serious environmental concerns has led to a significantly growing demand for alternative clean and renewable energy resources. Thin film are widely applied in multiple renewable energy devices owing to the reduced amount of raw materials and increase flexibility of choosing from low-cost candidates, which translates directly into reduced capital cost. This is a key driving force to make renewable technology competitive in the energy market. This thesis is focused on the measurement of energy level alignments at interfaces of thin film structures for renewable energy applications. There are two primary foci: II -VI semiconductor ZnSe/ZnTe thin film solar cells and Bi2Te3/Sb2Te3 thin film structures for thermoelectric applications. In both cases, the electronic structure and energy band alignment at interfaces usually controls the carrier transport behavior and determines the quality of the device. High-resolution photoemission spectroscopy (lab-based XPS & synchrotron-based UPS) was used to investigate the chemical and electronic properties of epitaxial Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thin films, in order to validate the anticipated band alignment at interfaces in Bi 2Te3/Sb2Te3 superlattices as one favoring electron-transmission. A simple, thorough two-step treatment of a chemical etching in dilute hydrochloric acid solution and a subsequent annealing at ˜150°C under ultra-high vacuum environment is established to remove the surface oxides completely. It is an essential step to ensure the measurements on electronic states are acquired on stoichimetric, oxide-free clean surface of Bi 2Te3 and Sb2Te3 films. The direct measurement of valence band offsets (VBO) at a real Sb 2Te3/Bi2Te3 interface is designed based on the Kraut model; a special stacking film structure is prepared intentionally: sufficiently thin Sb2Te3 film on top of Bi2Te 3 that photoelectrons from both of them are collected simultaneously. From a

  17. Necrotic Cells Actively Attract Phagocytes through the Collaborative Action of Two Distinct PS-Exposure Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zao; Venegas, Victor; Nagaoka, Yuji; Morino, Eri; Raghavan, Prashant; Audhya, Anjon; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Zhou, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, a kind of cell death closely associated with pathogenesis and genetic programs, is distinct from apoptosis in both morphology and mechanism. Like apoptotic cells, necrotic cells are swiftly removed from animal bodies to prevent harmful inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, gain-of-function mutations in certain ion channel subunits result in the excitotoxic necrosis of six touch neurons and their subsequent engulfment and degradation inside engulfing cells. How necrotic cells are recognized by engulfing cells is unclear. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important apoptotic-cell surface signal that attracts engulfing cells. Here we observed PS exposure on the surface of necrotic touch neurons. In addition, the phagocytic receptor CED-1 clusters around necrotic cells and promotes their engulfment. The extracellular domain of CED-1 associates with PS in vitro. We further identified a necrotic cell-specific function of CED-7, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, in promoting PS exposure. In addition to CED-7, anoctamin homolog-1 (ANOH-1), the C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase TMEM16F, plays an independent role in promoting PS exposure on necrotic cells. The combined activities from CED-7 and ANOH-1 ensure efficient exposure of PS on necrotic cells to attract their phagocytes. In addition, CED-8, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian Xk-related protein 8 also makes a contribution to necrotic cell-removal at the first larval stage. Our work indicates that cells killed by different mechanisms (necrosis or apoptosis) expose a common “eat me” signal to attract their phagocytic receptor(s); furthermore, unlike what was previously believed, necrotic cells actively present PS on their outer surfaces through at least two distinct molecular mechanisms rather than leaking out PS passively. PMID:26061275

  18. Systemic TLR2 agonist exposure regulates hematopoietic stem cells via cell-autonomous and cell-non-autonomous mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Herman, A C; Monlish, D A; Romine, M P; Bhatt, S T; Zippel, S; Schuettpelz, L G

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is a member of the TLR family of receptors that play a central role in innate immunity. In addition to regulating effector immune cells, where it recognizes a wide variety of pathogen-associated and nonpathogen-associated endogenous ligands, TLR2 is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Its role in HSCs, however, is not well understood. Furthermore, augmented TLR2 signaling is associated with myelodysplastic syndrome, an HSC disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and a high risk of transformation to leukemia, suggesting that aberrant signaling through this receptor may have clinically significant effects on HSCs. Herein, we show that systemic exposure of mice to a TLR2 agonist leads to an expansion of bone marrow and spleen phenotypic HSCs and progenitors, but a loss of HSC self-renewal capacity. Treatment of chimeric animals shows that these effects are largely cell non-autonomous, with a minor contribution from cell-autonomous TLR2 signaling, and are in part mediated by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and tumor necrosis factor-α. Together, these data suggest that TLR2 ligand exposure influences HSC cycling and function via unique mechanisms from TLR4, and support an important role for TLR2 in the regulation of HSCs. PMID:27315114

  19. Animal and plant cell technology: a critical evaluation of the technology/society interface.

    PubMed

    Spier, R E

    1998-10-27

    The rate at which technology progresses is dependent on the nature of the technology/society interface. This is a complex interaction which involves the production of people capable of making technical advances, the physical opportunities for the deployment of those trained individuals in this task as well as cultural and social factors which will motivate the innovators to produce the advances we need to maintain the momentum of our continually improving situation. One particular aspect of the social situation which may be singled out for special attention is that of the ethics of the society in which people make and use the products of the innovation process. The ethical aspects of biotechnological activities has commanded a great deal of attention recently both from the professional and societal stake-holders. This paper, therefore examines in some detail the ethical aspects of the technology/society interface as it applies, in particular, to the development of animal and plant cell biotechnology. It focuses on the role of the regulatory agency and on the need for biotechnologists to acquire professional status so that they may develop a more trustworthy relationship with society. PMID:9828457

  20. Interface Engineering through Atomic Layer Deposition towards Highly Improved Performance of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hao; Tian, Wei; Guo, Jun; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    A composite photoanode comprising ultralong ZnO nanobelts and TiO2 nanoparticles was prepared and its performance in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) was optimized and compared to the photoanode consisting of conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. The ultralong ZnO nanobelts were synthesized in high yield by a facile solution approach at 90 oC followed by annealing at 500 oC. The effect of the ratio of ZnO nanobelts to TiO2 nanoparticles on the light scattering, specific surface area, and interface recombination were investigated. An optimum amount of ZnO nanobelts enhanced the photon-conversion efficiency by 61.4% compared to that of the conventional TiO2 nanoparticles. To further reduce the recombination rate and increase the carrier lifetime, Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) technique was utilized to coat a continuous TiO2 film surrounding the ZnO nanobelts and TiO2 nanoparticles, functioning as a barrier-free access of all electrons to conductive electrodes. This ALD treatment improved the interface contact within the whole photoanode system, finally leading to significant enhancement (137%) in the conversion efficiency of DSSCs. PMID:26238737

  1. Interfacing polymeric scaffolds with primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells to develop 3D cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Claudio; Mota, Carlos; Moscato, Stefania; D’Alessandro, Delfo; Ugel, Stefano; Sartoris, Silvia; Bronte, Vincenzo; Boggi, Ugo; Campani, Daniela; Funel, Niccola; Moroni, Lorenzo; Danti, Serena

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the interactions between human primary cells from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and polymeric scaffolds to develop 3D cancer models useful for mimicking the biology of this tumor. Three scaffold types based on two biocompatible polymeric formulations, such as poly(vinyl alcohol)/gelatin (PVA/G) mixture and poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) (PEOT/PBT) copolymer, were obtained via different techniques, namely, emulsion and freeze-drying, compression molding followed by salt leaching, and electrospinning. In this way, primary PDAC cells interfaced with different pore topographies, such as sponge-like pores of different shape and size or nanofiber interspaces. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence played by the scaffold architecture over cancerous cell growth and function. In all scaffolds, primary PDAC cells showed good viability and synthesized tumor-specific metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-2, and MMP-9. However, only sponge-like pores, obtained via emulsion-based and salt leaching-based techniques allowed for an organized cellular aggregation very similar to the native PDAC morphological structure. Differently, these cell clusters were not observed on PEOT/PBT electrospun scaffolds. MMP-2 and MMP-9, as active enzymes, resulted to be increased in PVA/G and PEOT/PBT sponges, respectively. These findings suggested that spongy scaffolds supported the generation of pancreatic tumor models with enhanced aggressiveness. In conclusion, primary PDAC cells showed diverse behaviors while interacting with different scaffold types that can be potentially exploited to create stage-specific pancreatic cancer models likely to provide new knowledge on the modulation and drug susceptibility of MMPs. PMID:25482337

  2. ALDOSTERONISM AND PERIPHERAL BLOOD MONONUCLEAR CELL ACTIVATION: A NEUROENDOCRINE-IMMUNE INTERFACE

    PubMed Central

    Ahokas, Robert A.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Gerling, Ivan C.; Sun, Yao; Wodi, Linus A.; Herring, Paula A.; Lu, Li; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Postlethwaite, Arnold E.; Weber, Karl T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aldosteronism eventuates in a proinflammatory/fibrogenic vascular phenotype of the heart and systemic organs. It remains uncertain whether peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) are activated prior to tissue invasion by monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes as is the case for responsible pathogenic mechanisms. Uninephrectomized rats, treated for 4 wks with dietary 1%NaCl and aldosterone (0.75 μg/h, ALDOST) ± spironolactone (Spi, 100 mg/kg/daily gavage), were compared to unoperated/-untreated and uninephrectomized/salt-treated controls. Before intramural coronary vascular lesions appeared at wk 4 ALDOST, we found: 1) a reduction of PBMC cytosolic free [Mg2+]i, together with intracellular Mg2+ and Ca2+ loading while plasma and cardiac tissue Mg2+ were no different from controls; 2) increased H2O2 production by monocytes and lymphocytes together with upregulated PBMC gene expression of oxidative stress-inducible tyrosine phosphatase and Mn2+-superoxide dismutase, and the presence of 3-nitrotyrosine in CD4+ and ED-1-positive inflammatory cells that had invaded intramural coronary arteries; 3) B cell activation, including transcription of immunoglobulins, ICAM-1, CC and CXC chemokines and their receptors; 4) expansion of B lymphocyte subset and MHC Class II-expressing lymphocytes; and 5) autoreactivity with gene expression for antibodies to acetylcholine receptors and a downregulation of RT-6.2, which is in keeping with cell activation and associated with autoimmunity. Spi co-treatment attenuated the rise in intracellular Ca2+, the appearance of oxi/nitrosative stress in PBMC and invading inflammatory cells, and alterations in PBMC transcriptome. Thus, aldosteronism is associated with an activation of circulating immune cells induced by iterations in PBMC divalent cations and transduced by oxi/nitrosative stress. ALDO receptor antagonism modulates this neuroendocrine-immune interface. PMID:14576195

  3. The Acute Exposure Effects of Inhaled Nickel Nanoparticles on Murine Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liberda, Eric N; Cuevas, Azita K; Qu, Qingshan; Chen, Lung Chi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The discovery of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) may help to explain observed cardiovascular effects associated with inhaled nickel nanoparticle exposures such as increases in vascular inflammation, generate reactive oxygen species, alter vasomotor tone, and potentiated atherosclerosis in murine species. Methods Following an acute whole body inhalation exposure to 500μg/m3 of nickel nanoparticles for 5 hrs, bone marrow EPCs from C57BL/6 mice were isolated. EPCs were harvested for their RNA or used in a variety of assays including chemotaxis, tube formation, and proliferation. Gene expression was assessed for important receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing using RT-PCR methods. EPCs, circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPCs), circulating endothelial cells (CECs), and endothelial microparticles (EMPs) were quantified on a BD FACSCalibur to examine endothelial damage and repair associated with the exposure. Results and Conclusions Acute exposure to inhaled nickel nanoparticles significantly increased both bone marrow EPCs as well as their levels in circulation (CEPCs). CECs were significantly elevated indicating that endothelial damage occurred due to the exposure. There was no significant difference in EMPs between the two groups. Tube formation and chemotaxis, but not proliferation, of bone marrow EPCs was impaired in the nickel nanoparticle exposed group. These results coincided with a decrease in the mRNA of receptors involved in EPC mobilization and homing. This data provides new insight into how an acute nickel nanoparticle exposure to half of the current Occupational Safety & Health Administration permissible exposure limit may adversely affect EPCs. PMID:25144474

  4. Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of an Alveolar Epithelial Cell Line to Airborne Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface: A Comparison with Conventional, Submerged Cell-Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Anke-Gabriele; Karg, Erwin; Brendel, Ellen; Hinze-Heyn, Helga; Maier, Konrad L.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Stoeger, Tobias; Schmid, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    The biological effects of inhalable nanoparticles have been widely studied in vitro with pulmonary cells cultured under submerged and air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions. Submerged exposures are experimentally simpler, but ALI exposures are physiologically more realistic and hence potentially biologically more meaningful. In this study, we investigated the cellular response of human alveolar epithelial-like cells (A549) to airborne agglomerates of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles at the ALI, compared it to the response under submerged culture conditions, and provided a quantitative comparison with the literature data on different types of particles and cells. For ZnO nanoparticle doses of 0.7 and 2.5 μg ZnO/cm2 (or 0.09 and 0.33 cm2 ZnO/cm2), cell viability was not mitigated and no significant effects on the transcript levels of oxidative stress markers (HMOX1, SOD-2 and GCS) were observed. However, the transcript levels of proinflammatory markers (IL-8, IL-6, and GM-CSF) were induced to higher levels under ALI conditions. This is consistent with the literature data and it suggests that in vitro toxicity screening of nanoparticles with ALI cell culture systems may produce less false negative results than screening with submerged cell cultures. However, the database is currently too scarce to draw a definite conclusion on this issue. PMID:23484138

  5. Estimation of defect activation energy around pn interfaces of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells using impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakakura, Hidenori; Itagaki, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Mutsumi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the defect activation energy around the pn interface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-based solar cells using a simple electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. By applying AC and DC voltages to the solar cells, we observed an “inductive” element around the pn interface, which is ignored in conventional deep-level transient spectroscopy or admittance spectroscopy. A defect model is evaluated by proposing an equivalent circuit that includes a positive/negative constant phase element (CPE) to represent the area around the CdS/CIGS interface. By fitting the impedance data, the CPE index and CPE constant show a relationship with the defect activation energy or defect concentration. This result is significant because it may help reveal the defect properties of CIGS solar cells or any other semiconductor devices.

  6. INHIBITION OF HUMAN NATURAL KILLER CELL ACTIVITY FOLLOWING IN VITRO EXPOSURE TO OZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study we have examined the effect of in vitro ozone exposure on human peripheral blood natural killer (NK) cell activity measured against K562 tumor cells. he data showed that NK activity was nhibited in a time dependent manner with marked suppression observed after 6 hou...

  7. Interface electric properties of Si/organic hybrid solar cells using impedance spectroscopy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dan; Zhu, Juye; Ding, Li; Gao, Pingqi; Pan, Xiaoyin; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun

    2016-05-01

    The internal resistance and capacitance of Si/organic hybrid solar cells (Si-HSC) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Three types of Nyquist plots in Si-HSC are observed firstly at different bias voltages, while suitable equivalent circuit models are established to evaluate the details of interface carrier transfer and recombination. In particular, the carrier transport property of the PEDOT:PSS film responds at a high frequency (6 × 104-1 × 106 Hz) in three-arc spectra. Therefore, EIS could help us deeply understand the electronic properties of Si-HSC for developing high performance devices.

  8. High efficiency solution processed sintered CdTe nanocrystal solar cells: the role of interfaces.

    PubMed

    Panthani, Matthew G; Kurley, J Matthew; Crisp, Ryan W; Dietz, Travis C; Ezzyat, Taha; Luther, Joseph M; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2014-02-12

    Solution processing of photovoltaic semiconducting layers offers the potential for drastic cost reduction through improved materials utilization and high device throughput. One compelling solution-based processing strategy utilizes semiconductor layers produced by sintering nanocrystals into large-grain semiconductors at relatively low temperatures. Using n-ZnO/p-CdTe as a model system, we fabricate sintered CdTe nanocrystal solar cells processed at 350 °C with power conversion efficiencies (PCE) as high as 12.3%. JSC of over 25 mA cm(-2) are achieved, which are comparable or higher than those achieved using traditional, close-space sublimated CdTe. We find that the VOC can be substantially increased by applying forward bias for short periods of time. Capacitance measurements as well as intensity- and temperature-dependent analysis indicate that the increased VOC is likely due to relaxation of an energetic barrier at the ITO/CdTe interface. PMID:24364381

  9. Parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to cells employing nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, Timothy E; Melechko, Anatoli V; Griffin, Guy D; Guillorn, Michael A; Merkulov, Vladimir L; Simpson, Michael L

    2015-03-31

    Systems and methods are described for parallel macromolecular delivery and biochemical/electrochemical interface to whole cells employing carbon nanostructures including nanofibers and nanotubes. A method includes providing a first material on at least a first portion of a first surface of a first tip of a first elongated carbon nanostructure; providing a second material on at least a second portion of a second surface of a second tip of a second elongated carbon nanostructure, the second elongated carbon nanostructure coupled to, and substantially parallel to, the first elongated carbon nanostructure; and penetrating a boundary of a biological sample with at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first tip and the second tip.

  10. Control of Nanostructures and Interfaces of Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Quantum-Dots-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianjun; Cao, Guozhong

    2015-05-21

    Nanostructured metal oxide semiconductors (MOS), such as TiO2 and ZnO, have been regarded as an attractive material for the quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), owing to their large specific surface area for loading a large amount of quantum dots (QDs) and strong scattering effect for capturing a sufficient fraction of photons. However, the large surface area of such nanostructures also provides easy pathways for charge recombination, and surface defects and connections between adjacent nanoparticles may retard effective charge injection and charge transport, leading to a loss of power conversion efficiency. Introduction of the surface modification for MOS or QDs has been thought an effective approach to improve the performance of QDSC. In this paper, the recent advances in the control of nanostructures and interfaces in QDSCs and prospects for the further development with higher power conversion efficiency (PCE) have been discussed. PMID:26263261

  11. Infiltration and Selective Interactions at the Interface in Polymer-Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferragut, R.; Aghion, S.; Moia, F.; Binda, M.; Canesi, E. V.; Lanzani, G.; Petrozza, A.

    2013-06-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy was used to characterize polymer-based hybrid solar cells formed by poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) finely infiltrated in a porous TiO2 skeleton. A step-change improvement in the device performance is enabled by engineering the hybrid interface by the insertion of a proper molecular interlayer namely 4-mercaptopyridine (4-MP). In order to obtain depth-resolved data, positrons were implanted in the sample using a variable-energy positron beam. The characteristics of the partially filled nanoporous structures were evaluated in terms of the depth profile of the positronium yield and the S-parameter. A quantitative evaluation of the pore filling in the deep region is given from the analysis of Coincidence Doppler Broadening taken at fixed implantation energy. We note a remarkable difference in terms of the positronium yield when the 4-MP interlayer is introduced, which means a better covering of P3HT on the porous surface.

  12. Organic Photovoltaic Cells: Engineering of the Interfaces Electrodes/Organic Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernède, J. C.

    2011-10-01

    The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of organic photovoltaic cells (OPV) depends of the efficiency of four steps, exciton generation by light absorption, exciton diffusion to an electron donor/electron acceptor (ED/EA) interface, charge separation giving free holes and electrons and finally, carrier transport and collection. Therefore, in OPV, besides good photoactive materials, the properties of the interfaces between the organic layers and the electrodes are crucial for achieving high carrier collection efficiency and high PCE. Optoelectronic devices require at least one transparent electrode, usually a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). Electrode contacts play a critical role in determining the device efficiencies. Rates of charge collection at the electrodes must be fast and selective. Contact selectivity is often achieved using buffer interlayers interposed between the electrodes and the organic materials. Efficiency of OPV cells, based on organic donor/acceptor heterojunctions can be strongly improved when the transparent conductive anode, is covered by an anode buffer layer (ABL). Currently, indium-tin oxide (ITO) is the most widely used transparent electrode for organic optoelectronic. Here, the effects of different ABLs (0.5 nm of Au, 3 to 4 nm of MoO3 or CuI) onto the ITO anode are studied using electron donors with different HOMO and LUMO levels. The results indicate that a good matching between the work function, of the anode and the HOMO of the organic electron donor, and the value of the anode surface energy, are important factors for an efficient hole transfer. General rules on the ABL efficiency can be deduced from this study.

  13. Long-term exposure of bacterial cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karouia, Fathi; Tirumalai, Madhan R.; Nelman-Gonzalez, Mayra A.; Sams, Clarence F.; Ott, Mark C.; Willson, Richard C.; Pierson, Duane L.; Fox, George E.

    2012-10-01

    Previous space flight experience has demonstrated that microorganisms are just as ubiquitous in space habitats as they are on Earth. Numerous incidences of biofilm formation within space habitats have been reported; some of which were identified only after damage to spacecraft structures and irritation to astronaut's skin occurred. As we increase the duration of spaceflight missions, it becomes legitimate to question the long-term effects of microgravity on bacteria. To begin this assessment, Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 was grown for one thousand generations (1000G) under low shear modeled microgravity. Subsequently, growth kinetics and the presence of biofilm were assessed in the 1000G strain as compared to a strain (1G) briefly exposed to LSMMG. Overall, the analysis revealed that (i) there was no obvious difference in growth kinetics between the 1G and 1000G strains, and (ii) although biofilm formation was not seen in the 1G strain it did in fact occur as exposure time increased. The results suggest that long-term exposure to the space environment likely favors biofilm formation in many organisms.

  14. NeuroArray: a universal interface for patterning and interrogating neural circuitry with single cell resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays of cells without restricting their neurite outgrowth, and thus allows formation of freely designed, well-connected, and spontaneously active neural network. The NeuroArray device was based on a stencil design fabricated using a novel sacrificial-layer-protected PDMS molding method that enables production of through-structures in a thin layer of PDMS with feature sizes as small as 3 µm. Using the NeuroArray along with calcium imaging, we have successfully demonstrated large-scale tracking and recording of neuronal activities, and used such data to characterize the spiking dynamics and transmission within a diode-like neural network. Essentially, the NeuroArray is a universal patterning platform designed for, but not limited to neuron cells. With little adaption, it can be readily interfaced with other interrogation modalities for high-throughput drug testing, and for building neuron culture based live computational devices. PMID:24759264

  15. A cell-phone-based brain-computer interface for communication in daily life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu-Te; Wang, Yijun; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Moving a brain-computer interface (BCI) system from a laboratory demonstration to real-life applications still poses severe challenges to the BCI community. This study aims to integrate a mobile and wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system and a signal-processing platform based on a cell phone into a truly wearable and wireless online BCI. Its practicality and implications in a routine BCI are demonstrated through the realization and testing of a steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based BCI. This study implemented and tested online signal processing methods in both time and frequency domains for detecting SSVEPs. The results of this study showed that the performance of the proposed cell-phone-based platform was comparable, in terms of the information transfer rate, with other BCI systems using bulky commercial EEG systems and personal computers. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate a truly portable, cost-effective and miniature cell-phone-based platform for online BCIs.

  16. NeuroArray: A Universal Interface for Patterning and Interrogating Neural Circuitry with Single Cell Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Xu, Zhen; Huang, Junzhe; Lin, Xudong; Luo, Rongcong; Chen, Chia-Hung; Shi, Peng

    2014-04-01

    Recreation of neural network in vitro with designed topology is a valuable tool to decipher how neurons behave when interacting in hierarchical networks. In this study, we developed a simple and effective platform to pattern primary neurons in array formats for interrogation of neural circuitry with single cell resolution. Unlike many surface-chemistry-based patterning methods, our NeuroArray technique is specially designed to accommodate neuron's polarized morphologies to make regular arrays of cells without restricting their neurite outgrowth, and thus allows formation of freely designed, well-connected, and spontaneously active neural network. The NeuroArray device was based on a stencil design fabricated using a novel sacrificial-layer-protected PDMS molding method that enables production of through-structures in a thin layer of PDMS with feature sizes as small as 3 µm. Using the NeuroArray along with calcium imaging, we have successfully demonstrated large-scale tracking and recording of neuronal activities, and used such data to characterize the spiking dynamics and transmission within a diode-like neural network. Essentially, the NeuroArray is a universal patterning platform designed for, but not limited to neuron cells. With little adaption, it can be readily interfaced with other interrogation modalities for high-throughput drug testing, and for building neuron culture based live computational devices.

  17. Nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells following ultrashort electric pulse exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Caleb C.; Payne, Jason A.; Wilmink, Gerald J.; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2011-03-01

    Ultrashort or nanosecond electrical pulses (USEP) cause repairable damage to the plasma membranes of cells through formation of nanopores. These nanopores are able to pass small ions such as sodium, calcium, and potassium, but remain impermeable to larger molecules like trypan blue and propidium iodide. What remains uncertain is whether generation of nanopores by ultrashort electrical pulses can inhibit action potentials in excitable cells. In this paper, we explored the sensitivity of excitable cells to USEP using Calcium Green AM 1 ester fluorescence to measure calcium uptake indicative of nanopore formation in the plasma membrane. We determined the threshold for nanopore formation in neuroblastoma cells for three pulse parameters (amplitude, pulse width, and pulse number). Measurement of such thresholds will guide future studies to determine if USEP can inhibit action potentials without causing irreversible membrane damage.

  18. Interfacing biomembrane mimetic polymer surfaces with living cells Surface modification for reliable bioartificial liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takami, Utae; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2008-11-01

    The surface design used for reducing nonspecific biofouling is one of the most important issues for the fabrication of medical devices. We present here a newly synthesized a carbohydrate-immobilized phosphorylcholine polymer for surface modification of medical devices to control the interface with living cells. A random copolymer composed of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), n-butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate (LAMA) was synthesized by conventional radical polymerization. The monomer feeding ratio in the copolymer was adjusted to 24/75/1 (MPC/BMA/LAMA). The copolymer (PMBL1.0) could be coated by solvent evaporation from an ethanol solution. Cells of the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2) having asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGPRs) were seeded on PMBL1.0 or poly(BMA) (PBMA)-coated PET plates. On PBMA, many adherent cells were observed and were well spread with monolayer adhesion. HepG2 adhesion was observed on PMBL1.0 because the cell has ASGPRs. Furthermore, some of the cells adhering to PMBL1.0 had a spheroid formation and similarly shaped spheroids were scattered on the surface. According to confocal laser microscopic observation after 96 h cultivation, it was found that albumin production preferentially occurred in the center of the spheroid. The albumin production of the cells that adhered to PBMA was sparse. The amount of albumin production per unit cell that adhered to PMBL1.0 was determined by ELISA and was significantly higher than that which adhered to PBMA. Long-term cultivation of HepG2 was also performed using hollow fiber mini-modules coated with PMBL1.0. The concentration of albumin produced from HepG2 increased continuously for one month. In the mini-module, the function of HepG2 was effectively preserved for that period. On the hollow fiber membrane, spheroid formation of HepG2 cells was also observed. In conclusion, PMBL1.0 can provide a suitable surface for the cultivation of

  19. Functional Interfaces in Polymer-Based Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells: Establishment of a Cluster for Interdisciplinary Research and Training

    SciTech Connect

    Heeger, Alan J; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2009-01-05

    Remarkable scientific progress has been demonstrated toward the creation of a low cost (“printable”) solar cell technology by the interdisciplinary group at UC Santa Barbara. Multi-layer architectures were implemented with clean interfaces were demonstrated; the various interfaces are sharp; there is no evidence of inter-layer mixing. This is indeed remarkable since each of these layers was processed from solution. The use of “Processing Additives” such as the alkanedithiols was demonstrated to increase the power conversion efficiency of BHJ solar cells by a factor of two. Equally important, the mechanism by which these Processing Additives function has been identified.

  20. Oxygen vacancy diffusion across cathode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells: An electrochemical phase-field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Liang; Hu, Jia-Mian; Gerdes, Kirk; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-08-01

    An electrochemical phase-field model is developed to study electronic and ionic transport across the cathode/electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cells. The influences of local current density and interfacial electrochemical reactions on the transport behaviors are incorporated. This model reproduces two electrochemical features. Nernst equation is satisfied through the thermodynamic equilibriums of the electron and oxygen vacancy. The distributions of charged species around the interface induce charge double layer. Moreover, we verify the nonlinear current/overpotential relationship. This model facilitates the exploration of problems in solid oxide fuel cells, which are associated with transport of species and electrochemical reactions at high operating temperature.

  1. High-throughput PBPK and Microdosimetry: Cell-level Exposures in a Virtual Tissue Context (WC9)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicokinetic (TK) models can determine whether chemical exposures produce potentially hazardous tissue concentrations. Tissue microdosimetry TK models relate whole-body chemical exposures to cell-scale concentrations. As a proof of concept, we approximated the micro-anatomic arc...

  2. Biofunctionalization of conductive hydrogel coatings to support olfactory ensheathing cells at implantable electrode interfaces.

    PubMed

    Hassarati, Rachelle T; Marcal, Helder; John, L; Foster, R; Green, Rylie A

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical discrepancies between conventional platinum (Pt) electrodes and neural tissue often result in scar tissue encapsulation of implanted neural recording and stimulating devices. Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a supportive glial cell in the olfactory nervous system which can transition through glial scar tissue while supporting the outgrowth of neural processes. It has been proposed that this function can be used to reconnect implanted electrodes with the target neural pathways. Conductive hydrogel (CH) electrode coatings have been proposed as a substrate for supporting OEC survival and proliferation at the device interface. To determine an ideal CH to support OECs, this study explored eight CH variants, with differing biochemical composition, in comparison to a conventional Pt electrodes. All CH variants were based on a biosynthetic hydrogel, consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) and heparin, through which the conductive polymer (CP) poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) was electropolymerized. The biochemical composition was varied through incorporation of gelatin and sericin, which were expected to provide cell adherence functionality, supporting attachment, and cell spreading. Combinations of these biomolecules varied from 1 to 3 wt %. The physical, electrical, and biological impact of these molecules on electrode performance was assessed. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy demonstrated that the addition of these biological molecules had little significant effect on the coating's ability to safely transfer charge. Cell attachment studies, however, determined that the incorporation of 1 wt % gelatin in the hydrogel was sufficient to significantly increase the attachment of OECs compared to the nonfunctionalized CH. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 104B: 712-722, 2016. PMID:26248597

  3. Dynamic Reorganization and Enzymatic Remodeling of Type IV Collagen at Cell-Biomaterial Interface.

    PubMed

    Coelho, N M; Llopis-Hernández, V; Salmerón-Sánchez, M; Altankov, G

    2016-01-01

    Vascular basement membrane remodeling involves assembly and degradation of its main constituents, type IV collagen (Col IV) and laminin, which is critical during development, angiogenesis, and tissue repair. Remodeling can also occur at cell-biomaterials interface altering significantly the biocompatibility of implants. Here we describe the fate of adsorbed Col IV in contact with endothelial cells adhering on positively charged NH2 or hydrophobic CH3 substrata, both based on self-assembly monolayers (SAMs) and studied alone or mixed in different proportions. AFM studies revealed distinct pattern of adsorbed Col IV, varying from single molecular deposition on pure NH2 to network-like assembly on mixed SAMs, turning to big globular aggregates on bare CH3. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) interact better with Col IV adsorbed as single molecules on NH2 surface and readily rearrange it in fibril-like pattern that coincide with secreted fibronectin fibrils. The cells show flattened morphology and well-developed focal adhesion complexes that are rich on phosphorylated FAK while expressing markedly low pericellular proteolytic activity. Conversely, on hydrophobic CH3 substrata HUVECs showed abrogated spreading and FAK phosphorylation, combined with less reorganization of the aggregated Col IV and significantly increased proteolytic activity. The later involves both MMP-2 and MMP-9, as measured by zymography and FITC-Col IV release. The mixed SAMs support intermediate remodeling activity. Taken together these results show that chemical functionalization combined with Col IV preadsorption provides a tool for guiding the endothelial cells behavior and pericellular proteolytic activity, events that strongly affect the fate of cardiovascular implants. PMID:27567485

  4. Diverse Profiles of Ricin-Cell Interactions in the Lung Following Intranasal Exposure to Ricin

    PubMed Central

    Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Alcalay, Ron; Gal, Yoav; Seliger, Nehama; Sabo, Tamar; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-01-01

    Ricin, a plant-derived exotoxin, inhibits protein synthesis by ribosomal inactivation. Due to its wide availability and ease of preparation, ricin is considered a biothreat, foremost by respiratory exposure. We examined the in vivo interactions between ricin and cells of the lungs in mice intranasally exposed to the toxin and revealed multi-phasic cell-type-dependent binding profiles. While macrophages (MΦs) and dendritic cells (DCs) displayed biphasic binding to ricin, monophasic binding patterns were observed for other cell types; epithelial cells displayed early binding, while B cells and endothelial cells bound toxin late after intoxication. Neutrophils, which were massively recruited to the intoxicated lung, were refractive to toxin binding. Although epithelial cells bound ricin as early as MΦs and DCs, their rates of elimination differed considerably; a reduction in epithelial cell counts occurred late after intoxication and was restricted to alveolar type II cells only. The differential binding and cell-elimination patterns observed may stem from dissimilar accessibility of the toxin to different cells in the lung and may also reflect unequal interactions of the toxin with different cell-surface receptors. The multifaceted interactions observed in this study between ricin and the various cells of the target organ should be considered in the future development of efficient post-exposure countermeasures against ricin intoxication. PMID:26593946

  5. Diverse profiles of ricin-cell interactions in the lung following intranasal exposure to ricin.

    PubMed

    Sapoznikov, Anita; Falach, Reut; Mazor, Ohad; Alcalay, Ron; Gal, Yoav; Seliger, Nehama; Sabo, Tamar; Kronman, Chanoch

    2015-11-01

    Ricin, a plant-derived exotoxin, inhibits protein synthesis by ribosomal inactivation. Due to its wide availability and ease of preparation, ricin is considered a biothreat, foremost by respiratory exposure. We examined the in vivo interactions between ricin and cells of the lungs in mice intranasally exposed to the toxin and revealed multi-phasic cell-type-dependent binding profiles. While macrophages (MΦs) and dendritic cells (DCs) displayed biphasic binding to ricin, monophasic binding patterns were observed for other cell types; epithelial cells displayed early binding, while B cells and endothelial cells bound toxin late after intoxication. Neutrophils, which were massively recruited to the intoxicated lung, were refractive to toxin binding. Although epithelial cells bound ricin as early as MΦs and DCs, their rates of elimination differed considerably; a reduction in epithelial cell counts occurred late after intoxication and was restricted to alveolar type II cells only. The differential binding and cell-elimination patterns observed may stem from dissimilar accessibility of the toxin to different cells in the lung and may also reflect unequal interactions of the toxin with different cell-surface receptors. The multifaceted interactions observed in this study between ricin and the various cells of the target organ should be considered in the future development of efficient post-exposure countermeasures against ricin intoxication. PMID:26593946

  6. Intraamniotic Lipopolysaccharide Exposure Changes Cell Populations and Structure of the Ovine Fetal Thymus

    PubMed Central

    Kuypers, Elke; Wolfs, Tim G. A. M.; Collins, Jennifer J. P.; Jellema, Reint K.; Newnham, John P.; Kemp, Matthew W.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Chorioamnionitis induces preterm delivery and acute involution of the fetal thymus which is associated with postnatal inflammatory disorders. We studied the immune response, cell composition, and architecture of the fetal thymus following intraamniotic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Methods: Time-mated ewes received an intraamniotic injection of LPS 5, 12, or 24 hours or 2, 4, 8, or 15 days before delivery at 125 days gestational age (term = 150 days). Results: The LPS exposure resulted in decreased blood lymphocytes within 5 hours and decreased thymic corticomedullary ratio within 24 hours. Thymic interleukin 6 (IL6) and IL17 messenger RNA (mRNA) increased 5-fold 24 hours post-LPS exposure. Increased toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mRNA and nuclear factor κB positive cells at 24 hours after LPS delivery demonstrated acute thymic activation. Both TLR4 and IL1 mRNA increased by 5-fold and the number of Foxp3-positive cells (Foxp3+ cells) decreased 15 days after exposure. Conclusion: Intraamniotic LPS exposure caused a proinflammatory response, involution, and a persistent depletion of thymic Foxp3+ cells indicating disturbance of the fetal immune homeostasis. PMID:23314960

  7. Effects of particle exposure and particle-elicited inflammatory cells on mutation in rat alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, K E; Deyo, L C; Carter, J M; Howard, B W; Hassenbein, D G; Bertram, T A

    1997-02-01

    To investigate mechanisms underlying development of lung adenomas and carcinomas in rats exposed to poorly soluble particles the relationships between particle exposure, inflammation and mutagenesis in rat alveolar type II cells were characterized. Rats were exposed to saline or saline suspensions of 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz, carbon black or titanium dioxide by intratracheal instillation. Fifteen months after exposure, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells were characterized as to number and type and lung histopathology performed. The alveolar type II cells were isolated and cultured in 6 thioguanine (6TG) containing media to select for mutation in the hprt gene. The potential contribution of lung inflammatory cells to in vivo mutagenic responses, were evaluated by co-culturing BAL cells with the rat alveolar epithelial cell line, RLE-6TN for 24 h and the RLE-6TN cells selected for 6TG resistance. Neutrophilic inflammation was detected in all rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz and carbon black and 100 mg/kg titanium dioxide; epithelial hyperplasia was observed in rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz and 100 mg/kg carbon black. Hprt mutation frequency was increased in alveolar type II cells from rats exposed to 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz, 100 mg/kg carbon black and 100 mg/kg titanium dioxide. In vitro exposure of RLE-6TN cells to BAL cells from rats treated with 10 and 100 mg/kg of alpha-quartz or 100 mg/kg carbon black increased hprt mutant frequency. Both macrophage and neutrophil enriched BAL cell populations were mutagenic to RLE-6TN cells, however, the mutagenic activity appeared greatest for neutrophils. Addition of catalase to BAL cell:RLE-6TN co-cultures inhibited the increase in hprt mutation frequency. These studies demonstrate exposure of rats to doses of particles producing significant neutrophilic inflammation is associated with increased mutation in rat alveolar type II cells. The ability of particle

  8. Endotoxemia-induced cytokine-mediated responses of hippocampal astrocytes transmitted by cells of the brain–immune interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Inaba, Muneo; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Unno, Keiko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation shifts the brain microenvironment towards a proinflammatory state. However, how peripheral inflammation mediates changes in the brain remains to be clarified. We aimed to identify hippocampal cells and cytokines that respond to endotoxemia. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, and examined 1, 4, and 24 h after injection. Tissue cytokine concentrations in the spleens and hippocampi were determined by multiplex assays. Another group of mice were studied immunohistologically. Fourteen cytokines showed an increased concentration in the spleen, and 10 showed an increase in the hippocampus after LPS injection. Cytokines increased at 4 h (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, and interleukin-6) were expressed by leptomeningeal stromal cells, choroid plexus stromal cells, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and hippocampal vascular endothelial cells, all of which were located at the brain–immune interface. Receptors for these cytokines were expressed by astrocytic endfeet. Cytokines increased at 24 h (CCL11, CXCL10, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) were expressed by astrocytes. Cells of the brain–immune interface therefore respond to endotoxemia with cytokine signals earlier than hippocampal parenchymal cells. In the parenchyma, astrocytes play a key role in responding to signals by using endfeet located in close apposition to the interface cells via cytokine receptors. PMID:27149601

  9. Endotoxemia-induced cytokine-mediated responses of hippocampal astrocytes transmitted by cells of the brain-immune interface.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Inaba, Muneo; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Unno, Keiko; Wakabayashi, Keiji; Shimada, Atsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammation shifts the brain microenvironment towards a proinflammatory state. However, how peripheral inflammation mediates changes in the brain remains to be clarified. We aimed to identify hippocampal cells and cytokines that respond to endotoxemia. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline, and examined 1, 4, and 24 h after injection. Tissue cytokine concentrations in the spleens and hippocampi were determined by multiplex assays. Another group of mice were studied immunohistologically. Fourteen cytokines showed an increased concentration in the spleen, and 10 showed an increase in the hippocampus after LPS injection. Cytokines increased at 4 h (CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, and interleukin-6) were expressed by leptomeningeal stromal cells, choroid plexus stromal cells, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and hippocampal vascular endothelial cells, all of which were located at the brain-immune interface. Receptors for these cytokines were expressed by astrocytic endfeet. Cytokines increased at 24 h (CCL11, CXCL10, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor) were expressed by astrocytes. Cells of the brain-immune interface therefore respond to endotoxemia with cytokine signals earlier than hippocampal parenchymal cells. In the parenchyma, astrocytes play a key role in responding to signals by using endfeet located in close apposition to the interface cells via cytokine receptors. PMID:27149601

  10. Imidacloprid Exposure Suppresses Neural Crest Cells Generation during Early Chick Embryo Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Jie; Wang, Guang; Wang, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Meng; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; He, Xiao-Song; Lu, Da-Xiang; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-06-15

    Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide that is widely used in the control pests found on crops and fleas on pets. However, it is still unclear whether imidacloprid exposure could affect early embryo development-despite some studies having been conducted on the gametes. In this study, we demonstrated that imidacloprid exposure could lead to abnormal craniofacial osteogenesis in the developing chick embryo. Cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) are the progenitor cells of the chick cranial skull. We found that the imidacloprid exposure retards the development of gastrulating chick embryos. HNK-1, PAX7, and Ap-2α immunohistological stainings indicated that cranial NCCs generation was inhibited after imidacloprid exposure. Double immunofluorescent staining (Ap-2α and PHIS3 or PAX7 and c-Caspase3) revealed that imidacloprid exposure inhibited both NCC proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, it inhibited NCCs production by repressing Msx1 and BMP4 expression in the developing neural tube and by altering expression of EMT-related adhesion molecules (Cad6B, E-Cadherin, and N-cadherin) in the developing neural crests. We also determined that imidacloprid exposure suppressed cranial NCCs migration and their ability to differentiate. In sum, we have provided experimental evidence that imidacloprid exposure during embryogenesis disrupts NCCs development, which in turn causes defective cranial bone development. PMID:27195532