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Sample records for interferon alfa-2a interleukin-2

  1. Safety and tolerance of recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A) in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jones, G J; Itri, L M

    1986-04-15

    Recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, NJ) has been evaluated in clinical trials of more than 1300 patients with a broad spectrum of oncologic disease. Patients with either solid tumors or hematologic malignancies were treated with daily or three-times-weekly intramuscular injections for induction periods ranging from 8 to 16 weeks. Doses ranged from 1 X 10(6) units to 124 X 10(6) units per injection. When administered in low daily doses (approximately 3 X 10(6) units), Roferon-A was well tolerated, and dose attenuation was rarely required. Change to three-times-weekly treatment regimen at the same dose was usually sufficient to control toxicity when it occurred in this group of low-dose patients. Those patients receiving higher doses frequently required dose attenuation to 50% of the starting dose to improve clinical tolerance. Virtually all patients treated with Roferon-A experienced some degree of acute toxicity manifested as fever, chills, myalgia, and/or headache. These reactions usually occurred with initial dosing and frequently improved spontaneously with continued administration of the drug. Acetaminophen pretreatment was generally useful in ameliorating these symptoms. Common adverse experiences occurring after repeated dosing included fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss. Serious adverse reactions including cardiovascular and neurologic toxicity have occurred infrequently, primarily at higher doses. Hematologic toxicity and elevations in liver function parameters were also observed, but rarely required dose attenuation. Adverse effects were usually reversible after dose reduction or discontinuation of therapy. Approximately 27% of all patients developed antibodies to rHuIFN-alpha 2A during treatment. No adverse clinical sequelae have been associated with antibody development to date. PMID:3948143

  2. Lichen planus induced by pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy in a patient monitored for delta hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Safak; Arslan, Eyup; Baysal, Birol; Baykara, Sule Nergiz; Uzun, Ozlem Ceren; Kaya, Sehmuz

    2015-01-01

    Interferons are used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B. They can induce or exacerbate some skin disorders, such as lichen planus. In this study, as we know, we presented the first case developing lichen planus while receiving interferon treatment due to delta hepatitis. A 31-year-old male patient presented to our outpatient clinic with HBsAg positivity. With his analyses, HBV DNA was negative, anti-delta total was positive, ALT was 72 U/L (upper limit 41 U/L), and platelet was 119 000/mm(3). He was therefore started on subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy at 180 mcg/week for delta hepatitis. At month 4 of therapy, the patient developed diffuse eroded lace-like lesions in oral mucosa, white plaques on lips, and itchy papular lesions in the hands and feet. Lichen planus was considered by the dermatology clinic and topical treatment (mometasone furoate) was given. The lesions persisted at month 5 of therapy and biopsy samples were obtained from oral mucosal lesions and interferon dose was reduced to 135 mcg/week. Biopsy demonstrated nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; epithelial acanthosis, spongiosis, and apoptotic bodies were observed in the epidermis and therefore lichen planus was considered. At month 6 of therapy, lesions did not improve and even progressed and interferon treatment was therefore discontinued. PMID:25821612

  3. Pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy during therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Kazuaki; Konndo, Takeshi; Okada, Shunichi; Enchi, Machiko

    2010-09-27

    We report a case of pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with biological signs of a lupus-like syndrome due to pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy during treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The patient developed moderate weakness in the lower limbs and dyspnea. He was hospitalized for congestive heart failure. An electrocardiogram showed gradual ST-segment elevation in leads V(1) through V(6) without coronary artery disease. A transthoracic cardiac ultrasonographic study revealed moderate pericardial effusion with normal left ventricular function. Anti-DNA antibody and antids DNA IgM were positive. Neurological examination revealed a symmetrical predominantly sensory polyneuropathy with impairment of light touch and pin prick in globe and stoking-like distribution. Treatment with prednisolone improved the pericarditis and motor nerve disturbance and the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:21161021

  4. Pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy during therapy with pegylated interferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Nishio, Kazuaki; Konndo, Takeshi; Okada, Shunichi; Enchi, Machiko

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of pericarditis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with biological signs of a lupus-like syndrome due to pegylated interferon alfa-2a therapy during treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The patient developed moderate weakness in the lower limbs and dyspnea. He was hospitalized for congestive heart failure. An electrocardiogram showed gradual ST-segment elevation in leads V1 through V6 without coronary artery disease. A transthoracic cardiac ultrasonographic study revealed moderate pericardial effusion with normal left ventricular function. Anti-DNA antibody and antids DNA IgM were positive. Neurological examination revealed a symmetrical predominantly sensory polyneuropathy with impairment of light touch and pin prick in globe and stoking-like distribution. Treatment with prednisolone improved the pericarditis and motor nerve disturbance and the treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin improved the sensory nerve disturbance. PMID:21161021

  5. Unmasking of myasthenia gravis during pegylated Alfa 2 a interferon and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ayesha

    2016-05-01

    Over last few decades, hepatitis C has emerged as a serious infection that has threatened the health and budgets of millions in the world. The objective of health professionals to treat it with recommended therapy of Alfa interferon and Ribavirin combination presents certain risks. One of the alarms is the ability of interferon to stimulate the production of autoantibodies in the body resulting in expression of autoimmune diseases in few who develop these antibodies. The case presented here is about unmasking of myasthenia gravis in a patient who received alfa interferon therapy for her chronic hepatitis C. Alfa interferon probably plays an important role in manifestation of the diseases in susceptible patients and all autoimmune diseases cannot be taken as mere side effects of the therapy. Clinicians need to be alert to pick up these diseases earlier so that the prompt management is possible. PMID:27183950

  6. Interferon Stimulated Gene Expression in HIV/HCV Coinfected Patients Treated with Nitazoxanide/Peginterferon-Alfa-2a and Ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Tess; Lee, Yu-Jin; Osinusi, Anu; Amorosa, Valerianna K; Wang, Crystal; Kang, Minhee; Matining, Roy; Zhang, Xiao; Dou, Diana; Umbleja, Triin; Kottilil, Shyam; Peters, Marion G

    2016-07-01

    A combination of nitazoxanide (NTZ), peginterferon (PegIFN), and ribavirin (RBV) may result in higher sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) monoinfected patients. This study evaluated the effect of NTZ on interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in vitro and in vivo among HIV/HCV genotype-1 (GT-1) treatment-naive patients. The ability of NTZ to enhance host response to interferon (IFN) signaling using the HCV cell culture system was initially evaluated. Second, ISG expression in 53 patients with treatment outcomes [21 SVR and 32 nonresponders (NR)] in the ACTG A5269 trial, a phase-II study (4-week lead in of NTZ 500 mg daily followed by 48 weeks of NTZ, PegIFN, and weight-based RBV), was assessed. The relative expression of 48 ISGs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was measured at baseline, week 4, and week 8 of treatment in a blinded manner. In vitro NTZ produced a direct and additive antiviral effect with IFN-alfa, with pretreatment of NTZ resulting in maximal HCV suppression. NTZ augmented IFN-mediated ISG induction in PBMCs from relapsers and SVRs (p < 0.05), but not NR. In ACTG A5269, baseline expression of most ISGs was similar between NR and SVR. NTZ minimally induced 17 genes in NR and 13 genes in SVR after 4 weeks of therapy. However, after initiation of PegIFN and RBV, ISG induction was predominantly observed in the SVR group and not NR group. NTZ treatment facilitates IFN-induced suppression of HCV replication. Inability to achieve SVR with IFN-based therapy in this clinical trial is associated with diminished ISG response to therapy that is refractory to NTZ. PMID:26974581

  7. Co-treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and entecavir for hepatitis D: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Zaigham; Memon, Mohammad Sadik; Umer, Muhammad Amir; Abbas, Minaam; Shazi, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa (PEG-IFNα) therapy with and without entecavir in patients with chronic hepatitis D. METHODS: Forty hepatitis D virus (HDV) RNA positive patients were randomized to receive either PEG-IFNα-2a 180 μg weekly in combination with entecavir 0.5 mg daily (n = 21) or PEG-IFNα alone (n =19). Patients who failed to show 2 log reduction in HDV RNA level at 24 wk of treatment, or had detectable HDV RNA at 48 wk of therapy were considered as treatment failure. Treatment was continued for 72 wk in the rest of the patients. All the patients were followed for 24 wk post treatment. Intention to treat analysis was performed. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 26.7 ± 6.8 years, 31 were male. Two log reduction in HDV RNA levels at 24 wk of therapy was achieved in 9 (43%) patients receiving combination therapy and 12 (63%) patients receiving PEG-IFNα alone (P = 0.199). Decline in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) levels was insignificant. At the end of treatment, HDV RNA was negative in 8 patients (38%) receiving combination therapy and 10 patients (53%) receiving PEG-IFNα-2a alone. Virological response persisted in 7 (33%) and 8 (42%) patients, respectively at the end of the 24 wk follow-up period. One responder patient in the combination arm lost HBsAg and became hepatitis B surface antibody positive. Six out of 14 baseline hepatitis B e antigen reactive patients seroconverted and four of these seroconverted patients had persistent HDV RNA clearance. CONCLUSION: Administration of PEG-IFNα-2a with or without entecavir, resulted in persistent HDV RNA clearance in 37% of patients. The addition of entecavir did not improve the overall response. PMID:27190579

  8. Phase II trial of fluorouracil and recombinant interferon alfa-2a in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma: an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group study.

    PubMed

    Wadler, S; Lembersky, B; Atkins, M; Kirkwood, J; Petrelli, N

    1991-10-01

    In a pilot clinical trial, treatment of patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma with the combination of fluorouracil (5FU) and recombinant interferon alfa-2a (IFN) resulted in objective tumor regression in 62% of patients. To confirm these findings in a multiinstitutional setting, a phase II clinical trial was initiated by the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) in 1989. The treatment regimen was identical to that used in the earlier study: 5FU 750 mg/m2/d for 5 days as a continuous infusion followed by weekly outpatient bolus therapy and IFN 9MU subcutaneously beginning day 1 and administered three times per week. Doses were modified for gastrointestinal, hematologic, and neurologic toxicity and for fatigue, similarly to those used in the previous pilot trial. Thirty-eight patients were registered; 36 are evaluable for response (one lost to follow-up and one with nonmeasurable disease). All patients had metastatic or locally recurrent disease beyond the scope of resection; 31 of 38 had liver metastases, and 20 of 38 had two or more sites of involvement. Eight patients had grade 4 toxicities, including sepsis (nonneutropenic) (one), watery diarrhea (two), and granulocytopenia (six). Grade 3 neurologic toxicities were observed in two (5%) patients and included slurred speech and gait disturbance. Objective response was 42% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 27% to 58%), including one clinical complete responder and 14 partial responders. Among the responding patients, the median time to treatment failure was 8 months. Two patients remain on treatment at 10+ and 16+ months: median survival has not been reached. The results of this multiinstitutional trial suggest that the addition of IFN to 5FU enhances the objective response rates achieved in patients with advanced colorectal carcinoma and that the toxicities of this regimen are acceptable. PMID:1919631

  9. Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a Yields High Rates of Hematologic and Molecular Response in Patients With Advanced Essential Thrombocythemia and Polycythemia Vera

    PubMed Central

    Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso; Kantarjian, Hagop; Manshouri, Taghi; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Estrov, Zeev; Pierce, Sherry; Richie, Mary Ann; Borthakur, Gautam; Konopleva, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose We conducted a phase II study of pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α-2a) in patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythemia vera (PV). Patients and Methods Seventy-nine patients (40 with PV and 39 with ET) have been treated. Median time from diagnosis to PEG-IFN-α-2a was 54 months in patients with PV and 33 months in patients with ET. Eighty-one percent of patients had received prior therapy. The first three patients received PEG-IFN-α-2a at 450 μg weekly. As a result of poor tolerance, this dose was decreased in a stepwise manner to a current starting dose of 90 μg weekly. Seventy-seven patients are evaluable and have been observed for a median of 21 months. Results The overall hematologic response rate was 80% in PV and 81% in ET (complete in 70% and 76% of patients, respectively). The JAK2V617F mutation was detected in 18 patients with ET and 38 patients with PV; sequential measurements by a pyrosequencing assay were available in 16 patients with ET and 35 patients with PV. The molecular response rate was 38% in ET and 54% in PV, being complete (undetectable JAK2V617F) in 6% and 14%, respectively. The JAK2V617F mutant allele burden continued to decrease with no clear evidence for a plateau. The tolerability of PEG-IFN-α-2a at 90 μg weekly was excellent. Conclusion PEG-IFN-α-2a resulted in remarkable clinical activity, high rates of molecular response, and acceptable toxicity in patients with advanced ET or PV. The ability of PEG-IFN-α-2a to induce complete molecular responses suggests selective targeting of the malignant clone. PMID:19826111

  10. The Efficacy of Add-on Telbivudine Versus Switching to Pegylated Interferon Alfa-2a in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients With Poor Responses to Adefovir

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin; Fan, Chao; Zhou, Yun; Kang, Wenzhen; Wang, Jiuping; Sun, Li; Wang, Linxu; Peng, Meijuan; Lian, Jianqi; Jia, Zhansheng; Hao, Chunqiu

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are limited options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who have poor responses to adefovir (ADV). Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of adding on telbivudine (LdT) or switching to pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN-α2a) as alternative rescue therapies for patients with poor responses to the initial ADV treatments. Patients and Methods: Ninety-seven CHB patients with HBV DNA > 2 log10 copies/mL 48 weeks after ADV monotherapy were included in this study. Fifty-nine of these patients were treated with a combination of LdT plus ADV (LdT + ADV) daily, while thirty-eight patients were switched to PEG-IFN-α2a subcutaneous injections weekly for 48 weeks. Results: Both rescue strategies were proven to be safe and the majority of patients tolerated the therapies well. LdT + ADV led to more rapid reductions in viral loads than PEG-IFN-α2a monotherapy, with 2.14 (LdT + ADV) and 0.98 (PEG-IFN-α2a) log10 copies/mL decreases 48 weeks after rescue treatments, respectively (P < 0.00001). The rates corresponding to virological and biochemical responses were also elevated in patients who received the LdT + ADV combination therapy at the end of the observation period (88.1 vs. 68.4% for virological response, P = 0.017; 83.3 vs. 47.2%, P = 0.00045). However, the decline in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was more pronounced in PEG-IFN-α2a treated patients. Moreover, the cumulative rates of serological responses were higher in patients who switched to the PEG-IFN-α2a therapy. Conclusions: Both add-on LdT and switching to PEG-IFN-α2a were satisfactory and optimal treatments for CHB patients with poor responses to ADV. Both rescue strategies resulted in significant reductions in serum viral load and ALT levels, and were associated with high rate of serological outcomes in our hospital. PMID:27110255

  11. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... interferons. Peginterferon is a combination of interferon and polyethylene glycol, which helps the interferon stay active in ... alpha interferons, any other medications, benzyl alcohol, or polyethylene glycol (PEG). Ask your doctor if you are ...

  12. Triple combination of thymalfasin, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior interferon and ribavirin treatment: 24-week interim results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Avila, F; Kershenobich, D; García-Samper, X; Gongora, J; Uribe, M

    2004-12-01

    Despite steady progress in antiviral treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), many patients still have detectable serum HCV RNA levels by the end of interferon-based treatment and are known as virological non-responders. Re-treatment of these patients not responding to previous therapy remains challenging. Studies of the dynamics of the HCV population show a marked decline in new cases since 1996; however, the relative proportion of non-responders is expected to increase over time and, similarly, the number of patients eligible for first-line treatment is expected to decrease. The current standard of care for treatment involves the use of pegylated interferons in combination with ribavirin. However, many difficult-to-treat groups still have low response rates. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups: one such triple therapy regimen is peginterferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and thymalfasin, which was given to 23 previously non-responder patients. Viral response was 60.8% at week 12 and 47.8% at week 24. These preliminary results encourage further evaluation of this promising combination. PMID:15546256

  13. Triple combination of thymalfasin, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C who have failed prior interferon and ribavirin treatment: 24-week interim results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Poo, Jorge Luis; Sánchez-Avila, F; Kershenobich, D; García-Samper, X; Gongora, J; Uribe, M

    2004-12-01

    Despite steady progress in antiviral treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C virus(HCV), many patients still have detectable serum HCV RNA levels by the end of interferon-based treatment and are known as virological non-responders. Re-treatment of these patients not responding to previous therapy remains challenging. Studies of the dynamics of the HCV population show a marked decline in new cases since 1996; however, the relative proportion of non-responders is expected to increase over time and, similarly, the number of patients eligible for first-line treatment is expected to decrease. The current standard of care for treatment involves the use of pegylated interferons in combination with ribavirin. However, many difficult-to-treat groups still have low response rates. Newer combinations are being investigated to optimize chances of attaining a sustained response in these groups: one such triple therapy regimen is peginterferon alfa-2a, ribavirin and thymalfasin, which was given to 23 previously non-responder patients. Viral response was 60.8% at week 12 and 47.8% at week 24. These preliminary results encourage further evaluation of this promising combination. PMID:15641210

  14. A randomized phase II trial of interleukin 2 and interleukin 2-interferon alpha in advanced renal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Jayson, G. C.; Middleton, M.; Lee, S. M.; Ashcroft, L.; Thatcher, N.

    1998-01-01

    A randomized phase II trial was performed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of interleukin 2 (IL-2) with an IL-2 and interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) regimen for the treatment of metastatic renal carcinoma. Sixty patients with recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) who had previously undergone a nephrectomy were randomized to receive three cycles of IL-2 or IL-2 with IFN-alpha2b. Eighteen MU of IL-2 were administered subcutaneously on Mondays-Fridays for 3 weeks out of 4. Those patients randomized to receive the combination received the same regimen of IL-2 with 9 MU of IFN-alpha2b subcutaneously on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays for 3 weeks out of 4. Thirty patients were randomized to receive each arm. Twenty-nine were evaluable in each arm. Twenty-two patients received three cycles of IL-2 but only 14 patients received three cycles of IL-2/IFN-alpha because of the greater toxicity of the combination. The principal toxicities included nausea, fatigue and fever. There were no complete responses in either arm and only two patients who were treated with IL-2 attained a partial response. Twelve patients in each arm had stable disease and 15 patients in the IL-2 arm and 16 patients in the IL-2/IFN-alpha arm progressed through treatment. There were no significant differences in survival. Ten patients who received IL-2 are alive with a median follow-up of 266 days, whereas six patients who received IL-2/IFN-alpha are alive after a median of 278 days. The median survival from the time of identification of metastatic disease is 444 days in the IL-2 arm and 381 days in the IL-2/IFN-alpha arm. The IL-2/IFN-alpha combination is more toxic than IL-2 alone and this resulted in a reduced number of cycles of treatment. However, the median survival of the two groups was the same, suggesting that further evaluation of the IL-2/IFN-alpha combination should be confined to large prospective randomized clinical trials. PMID:9703284

  15. HBsAg seroconversion after pegylated interferon alfa 2a rescue in a lamivudine-resistant patient with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B and favourable IL28-B genotype.

    PubMed

    Stanzione, Maria; Stornaiuolo, Gianfranca; Rizzo, Viviana; Pontarelli, Agostina; Gaeta, Giovanni Battista

    2016-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) seroconversion to anti-HBs antibody is the best final objective for all available chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatments. Unfortunately, this goal is rarely achieved with the currently applied therapeutic approaches. Here we describe the case of an anti-HBe-positive CHB patient who was successfully treated with a particular therapeutic schedule. The patient was initially treated with lamivudine (LAM) for nine years. Breakthrough was observed after eight years of LAM therapy. HBV-DNA was 3x10E4 IU/mL and LAM resistance mutations were present. Subcutaneous pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa 2a, 180 mcg/week, was added to LAM and after 4 weeks LAM was discontinued and PEG-IFN alone was continued up to week 52. HBV-DNA became undetectable at week 4 of therapy; serum HBsAg started to decline from week 4 and became undetectable at week 36, with the subsequent appearance of anti-HBs antibodies. IL28-B was genotyped at the polymorphic site rs12979860 and the CC allele was detected. Rescue therapy with Peg-IFN may be an option for selected patients with resistance to nucleos(t)ide analogues. PMID:27367326

  16. Rheumatoid arthritis following PEG-interferon-alfa-2a plus ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The combination of Pegylated Interferon-alpha (PEG-IFN-α) and ribavirin is the current standard of care for the treatment of HCV infection. Unfortunately, IFN-α may lead to the induction or exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, such as psoriasis, thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus and, rarely, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Case presentation We report the case of a man affected with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) due to HCV genotype 3a infection, who developed RA after a complete course of PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin. Nine weeks after cessation of antiviral treatment, the patient developed symmetrical polyarthritis, with pain and edema in the wrists, knees, shoulders and metacarpophalangeal joints; magnetic resonance imaging detected initial bone erosions with juxta-articular osteopenia in wrist, knee and hand joints. Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies were positive. Conclusions Autoimmune diseases, including RA, may occur when treating chronic hepatitis C with PEG-IFN-α and ribavirin; therefore, a close surveillance for the occurrence of autoimmune phenomena should be suggested in the setting of HCV management. PMID:24171974

  17. Anti-colorectal cancer effect of interleukin-2 and interferon-β fusion gene driven by carcinoembryonic antigen promoter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Mengchun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the antitumor effects of combined interleukin-2/interferon-β-based gene therapy in colorectal cancer. Transfection of the fusion gene expression plasmid induced significant apoptosis of Lovo cells. Additionally, the fusion gene exhibited strong inhibitory activity against tumor growth and apoptosis when being injected into the nude mice implanted with human colon cancer cells. Furthermore, the tail-vein injection showed a more notable effect than direct injection into tumor. These results suggest that the combined interleukin-2/interferon-β-based gene therapy with the carcinoembryonic antigen promoter might be an effective antitumor strategy. PMID:27313471

  18. Arctigenin from Arctium lappa inhibits interleukin-2 and interferon gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (Niubang), a Chinese herbal medicine, is used to treat tissue inflammation. This study investigates the effects of arctigenin (AC), isolated from A. lappa, on anti-CD3/CD28 Ab-stimulated cell proliferation and cytokine gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes. Methods Cell proliferation was determined with enzyme immunoassays and the tritiated thymidine uptake method. Cytokine production and gene expression were analyzed with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results AC inhibited primary human T lymphocytes proliferation activated by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Cell viability test indicated that the inhibitory effects of AC on primary human T lymphocyte proliferation were not due to direct cytotoxicity. AC suppressed interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, AC decreased the IL-2 and IFN-γ gene expression in primary human T lymphocytes induced by anti-CD3/CD28 Ab. Reporter gene analyses revealed that AC decreased NF-AT-mediated reporter gene expression. Conclusion AC inhibited T lymphocyte proliferation and decreased the gene expression of IL-2, IFN-γ and NF-AT. PMID:21435270

  19. Interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha-2a outpatient therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lipton, A; Harvey, H; Givant, E; Hopper, K; Lawler, J; Matthews, Y; Hirsh, M; Zeffren, J

    1993-02-01

    The combination of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-alpha-2a (IFN-alpha-2a) has synergistic bioactivity in numerous preclinical model systems. Thirty-nine patients with metastatic renal cell cancer were treated with continuous intravenous infusion IL-2 for 4-5 days plus intramuscular IFN-alpha-2a 2-3 days a week for 4 consecutive weeks. A 2- to 4-week rest period was permitted after each 4 weeks of treatment. Thirty-one of the 39 patients were assessable for response determination. Response rate (six complete+seven partial remissions) was 33.3% for all patients, or 41.9% when the analysis was restricted to the 31 evaluable patients. Three patients were unable to tolerate treatment due to anorexia, weight loss, and severe fatigue. This therapy was relatively well tolerated in the outpatient setting in the other patients despite fever, chills, fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss. There was no correlation of response with site of metastases or bulk of disease. PMID:8318497

  20. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for treating chronic hepatitis C virus infection: analysis of Mexican patients included in a multicenter international clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Bosques-Padilla, Francisco; Trejo-Estrada, Rafael; Campollo-Rivas, Octaivio; Cortez-Hernández, Carlos; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita; Maldonado-Garza, Héctor; Pérez-Gómez, Rául; Cabrera-Valdespino, Armando

    2003-01-01

    Treatment with polyethylene glycol-modified interferon alfa-2a (peginterferon) alone produces significantly higher sustained antiviral responses than treatment with interferon alfa-2a alone in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We compared the efficacy and safety of peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin, interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin, and peginterferon alfa-2a alone in the initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Thirty-two patients were randomly assigned to treatment, and received at least one dose of medication consisting of 180 microg of peginterferon alfa-2a once weekly plus daily ribavirin (1,000 or 1,200 mg, depending on body weight) (n = 14), weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus daily placebo (n = 6), or three million units of interferon alfa-2b thrice weekly plus daily ribavirin for 48 weeks (n = 12). More patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin had a sustained virologic response (defined as the absence of detectable HCV RNA 24 weeks after cessation of therapy) than patients who received interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin (7/14 vs. 4/12) or peginterferon alfa-2a plus placebo (0/6). The overall safety profiles of the three treatment regimens were similar. In conclusion, for patients with chronic hepatitis C, once-weekly peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin was tolerated as well as interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin and produced significant improvements in the rate of sustained viral reduction compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin or peginterferon alfa-2a alone. PMID:15115965

  1. Subcutaneous administration of interleukin 2 and interferon-alpha-2b in advanced renal cell carcinoma: a confirmatory study.

    PubMed Central

    Facendola, G.; Locatelli, M. C.; Pizzocaro, G.; Piva, L.; Pegoraro, C.; Pallavicini, E. B.; Signaroldi, A.; Meregalli, M.; Lombardi, F.; Beretta, G. D.

    1995-01-01

    Recent clinical studies have suggested that the combination of subcutaneous recombinant human interleukin 2 (rIL-2) and interferon alpha (rIFN-alpha) is especially promising in advanced renal cell carcinoma. We assessed the safety, activity and toxicity of home therapy with these two agents in 50 patients. Each treatment cycle consisted of a 2 day pulse phase, with 9 x 10(6) IU m-2 of rIL-2 being given subcutaneously every 12 h, followed by a 6 week maintenance phase during which rIL-2 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2 was administered subcutaneously every 12 h on days 1-5 and rIFN-alpha 2b 5 x 10(6) IU m-2 once a day on days 1, 3 and 5. Objective responses (CR+PR) occurred in 9/50 (18%) patients, six of whom (12%) achieved a complete response. Disease stabilisation was observed in 17 cases (34%) and 18 patients progressed during therapy. In the other six cases, treatment was interrupted early for toxicity or patient refusal. One patient died of myocardial infarction during the second cycle. The overall median survival was 12 months. Home therapy with subcutaneous rIL-2 + rIFN-alpha 2b proved to be active, feasible and moderately toxic, but serious adverse events can sometimes occur. PMID:8519672

  2. Interleukin-2 protects neonatal mice from lethal herpes simplex virus infection: a macrophage-mediated, gamma interferon-induced mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kohl, S; Loo, L S; Drath, D B; Cox, P

    1989-02-01

    Administration of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) protected neonatal mice from a lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. Protection was not associated with viral antibody production, enhanced natural killer cell cytotoxicity, or intrinsic resistance of macrophages to viral infection. Protection was associated with increased macrophage-mediated antiviral antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Spleen cells from IL-2-treated neonatal mice and from neonatal mice that were treated in vitro with IL-2 transferred protection to neonatal mice. These cells, by adherence, silica, and asialo GM 1 antibody treatment, were shown to be macrophages. IL-2 treatment in vitro enhanced the neonatal macrophages' ADCC function and superoxide release. Similar protection was induced by gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-treated spleen cells. Antibody to IFN-gamma ablated both IFN-gamma- and IL-2-induced protection by adherent spleen cells. Thus, IL-2-mediated protection against murine neonatal HSV infection was affected by stimulated macrophage activity, via helper T cell-produced IFN-gamma. PMID:2492588

  3. Effect of various mouthwashes on the levels of interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma in chronic gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shivalal; Saimbi, C S; Koirala, Bandana; Shukla, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this double blind study was to evaluate the effect of various mouthwashes: Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract, and Povidone iodine on gingival tissue interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) levels in patients with chronic gingivitis. A total of 8O patients (42 boys, 38 girls; mean age 16.0 +/- 1.8 years) were included in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into four groups of 20 each: Group I--Azadirachta indica (Neem) extract, Group II--Essential oil, Group III--Povidone iodine, and Group IV--Chlorhexidine. They were instructed to use these mouthwashes for two weeks. Plaque and gingival indices scores, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma levels in the gingival tissues were measured at baseline and after two weeks of mouthwash use. Results showed the reduction of plaque and gingival indices, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma level with Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, and Povidone iodine, which were found to be statistically significant. Although Neem reduced the level of plaque and gingival indices, and IL-2 and IFN-gamma to a certain level, it was not statistically significant. Therefore, Chlorhexidine, Essential oil, and Povidone iodine mouthwashes can be used as an adjunct to oral prophylaxis in reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-2 and IFN-gamma in patients with chronic gingivitis. PMID:18389675

  4. Chemokine gene expression in the murine renal cell carcinoma, RENCA, following treatment in vivo with interferon-alpha and interleukin-2.

    PubMed Central

    Sonouchi, K.; Hamilton, T. A.; Tannenbaum, C. S.; Tubbs, R. R.; Bukowski, R.; Finke, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    The expression of three chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) messenger (m)RNAs in the murine renal cell carcinoma (RENCA) from mice treated with a combination of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interleukin-2 was examined and related to tumor infiltration by inflammatory leukocytes. Using a semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, mRNAs encoding the KC, JE, and IP-10 genes were all elevated in tumor tissue from mice treated systemically with IFN-alpha/interleukin-2 for 4 days. Similarly, the mRNA for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also increased in tumors from treated as compared to control animals. The same tumors showed a significant increase in Mac-1+ leukocytes, which correlated well with the increase in chemokine and TNF-alpha gene expression. The renal cell carcinoma tumor itself may be responsible for the expression of chemokine genes in the tumor bed following cytokine therapy. Cultures of freshly explanted RENCA cells expressed significant levels of chemokine mRNAs when stimulated in vitro with IFN alpha, IFN gamma, and/or interleukin-2, demonstrating that this tumor cell has potential for expression of these genes in vivo. In contrast, TNF-alpha expression was not detected in cultured tumor cells. Thus TNF-alpha may be expressed by infiltrating monocytes following exposure to recombinant cytokine therapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:8160774

  5. Survival in renal cell carcinoma-a randomized evaluation of tamoxifen vs interleukin 2, alpha-interferon (leucocyte) and tamoxifen.

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, R.; Nilsson, S.; Colleen, S.; Wersäll, P.; Helsing, M.; Zimmerman, R.; Engman, K.

    1998-01-01

    Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a poor prognosis. Conventional treatment strategies, including chemotherapy and hormonal therapy, have limited value. Although encouraging results have been achieved in terms of objective response using immunological manipulations, no conclusive studies yet exist with a controlled comparative evaluation of survival. Therefore, the present study was undertaken, which compared one of the present (and presumed best) treatments, interleukin 2/interferon-alpha (IL-2/IFN-alpha) and tamoxifen, with a control arm of tamoxifen only. Tamoxifen has been shown to potentiate in vivo anti-tumour activity of IL-2, and because of its non-toxic behaviour it was included in both groups. The study was open, randomized and included seven institutions in Sweden. The patients were stratified according to the different centres involved. An interim analysis was planned when a minimum of 100 patients were evaluable. The 128 patients finally included had a histologically documented metastatic RCC, with a life expectancy of more than 3 months, a performance status WHO 0-2 and no prior chemo- or immunotherapy. Informed consent was obtained from each patient. The patients randomized to the control arm (n = 63) received only tamoxifen 40 mg p.o. daily for at least 1 year or until progression. The patients (n = 65) randomized to biotherapy received subcutaneous recombinant IL-2, leucocyte IFN-alpha in a treatment cycle of 42 days, as well as tamoxifen p.o. In the absence of undue toxicity or disease progression, these patients received one additional treatment cycle of 42 days followed by maintenance treatment, consisting of 5 days therapy every 4 weeks, for 1 year, or until proven progression. Only two patients in the tamoxifen-only group received immunotherapy when the disease progressed, but without any beneficial effect. All patients received appropriate local treatment when indicated. The interim analysis demonstrated no survival advantage for

  6. A phase II trial of concomitant human interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha-2a in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, R P; Figlin, R; Citron, M L; Pfile, J; Moldawer, N; Patel, D; Jones, G; Levitt, D; Zeffren, J

    1993-02-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and alpha-interferon have each shown antitumor activity in patients with disseminated malignant melanoma. Because animal studies suggest enhanced activity for the combination over each agent used alone, this trial using a relatively low-dose outpatient regimen was undertaken. IL-2 at a dose of 2 x 10(6) U/m2/day (Roche units) was given by continuous intravenous infusion for 4 days a week with interferon-alpha-2a at a dose of 6 x 10(6) U/m2/day given by s.c. or i.m. injection on days 1 and 4 of each treatment week. One cycle consisted of 4 consecutive weeks of treatment followed by a 2-week rest period. Fourteen patients were entered in this study. No complete or partial responses were seen. One patient required dose reduction because of grade 3 diarrhea and two patients had interruption of treatment because of central-line-related sepsis. Fatigue was common in all patients. This low-dose combination regimen of IL-2 and alpha-interferon does not appear to be better than the single agents used alone in optimal dosage. PMID:8318496

  7. Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with peginterferon alfa-2a for chronic hepatitis C: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Niazi, Mumtaz A; Azhar, Ashaur; Tufail, Kashif; Feyssa, Eyob L; Penny, Stephen F; McGregory, Marlene; Araya, Victor; Ortiz, Jorge A

    2010-01-01

    The recommended therapy for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is the combination of a Pegylated interferon and Ribavirin. Almost all such patients on combination therapy experience one or more adverse events during the course of treatment. Significant neurological side effects are rare. A few cases of Bell’s Palsy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and even one case of acute demyelinating polyneuropathy with atypical features for Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) associated with Interferon therapy have been reported but no report of GBS with typical features has been published. We present a case report of typical GBS associated with Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin used for treatment of CHC infection. PMID:21160989

  8. Thyroid function abnormalities associated with the chronic outpatient administration of recombinant interleukin-2 and recombinant interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, E L; Clare-Salzler, M J; Chopra, I J; Figlin, R A

    1991-12-01

    We prospectively examined thyroid function during and following chronic, outpatient therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) and Roferon-A (rIFN-alpha 2a). Twenty-two of 30 patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated on a phase II open pilot study of concomitant rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a were included. Serum levels of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, free thyroxine index, thyrotropin, antithyroid antibodies, and thyrotropin (TSH) receptor binding antibodies were measured before therapy and after every other cycle. Selected patients underwent studies after every cycle and following completion of therapy. Twenty patients (91%) developed laboratory evidence of thyroid dysfunction, 11 (50%) developed hypothyroidism, five (23%) had a biphasic pattern, and four (18%) had hyperthyroidism. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction increased with increased number of treatment cycles. Transient hyperthyroidism was noted in six of the 11 patients studied after the first cycle and persisted after cycle three in only two patients. Hypothyroidism was not observed after cycle 1, but became increasingly frequent between cycles 2 (56%) and 6 (90%). Thyroid function normalized following therapy in nine of 12 patients tested. Antithyroid antibodies were identified pretherapy in five patients (23%) and de novo in none; TSH receptor binding antibodies were not detected. This study demonstrates a remarkably high frequency of reversible thyroid dysfunction in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma treated with repeated cycles of rIL-2 plus rIFN-alpha 2a. We conclude that chronic therapy with rIL-2 and rIFN-alpha 2a produces thyroid dysfunction in virtually all patients most likely secondary to a nonspecific, nonautoimmune, toxic manifestation of prolonged treatment. IL-2 therapy may, therefore, produce thyroid dysfunction by more than one mechanism. PMID:1768679

  9. Subcellular fractions of Brucella ovis distinctively induce the production of interleukin-2, interleukin-4, and interferon-γ in mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 3 Brucella ovis subcellular protein fractions: Outer membrane (OMP), inner membrane (IMP), and cytoplasm (CP), on cellular immune response by in vitro production of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and interferon (IFN)-γ. Each fraction was inoculated 3 times into Balb/c mice, primary cultures of mice spleen cells were done, and these were then stimulated with the fractions. Culture supernatants were collected at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h postinoculation. Cytokine concentration was measured by Duoset-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The OMP fraction induced highest cellular immune response of 1000 pg/mL of IL-2 at 24 h, which decreased to < 100 pg/mL by 96 h. The IL-2 response for the IMP fraction was low at 24 h, but exceeded that of the OMP fraction at 72, 96, and 120 h. The CP showed a poor IL response. Regarding the IFN-γ production, OMP and IMP induced a high response at 120 h. These results open the possibility for the use of B. ovis outer and inner membrane proteins as a subcellular vaccine. PMID:15745223

  10. Francisella tularensis-induced in vitro gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin 2 responses appear within 2 weeks of tularemia vaccination in human beings.

    PubMed Central

    Karttunen, R; Surcel, H M; Andersson, G; Ekre, H P; Herva, E

    1991-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity is essential for protection against the intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis, which causes tularemia. Positive in vitro T-cell responses in the form of lymphocyte proliferation and lymphokine interleukin 2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) secretion are found in memory immunity. Studies on the secretion of lymphokines with regard to the developing immunity to F. tularensis have not been published. Therefore, 14 subjects with no clinical history of tularemia were vaccinated with a live F. tularensis vaccine strain. The in vitro responses of five subjects (antigen-induced mononuclear cell and whole blood culture DNA synthesis and cytokine secretion) were measured twice a week throughout the period from 0 to 35 days after vaccination, and the peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations of nine subjects were determined between days 0 and 14. Positive reactions, i.e., responses exceeding those on day 0, were reached on day 10 with regard to the whole blood culture DNA synthesis response and IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion and on day 14 with regard to the mononuclear cell DNA synthesis response and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) secretion. No measurable IL-4 was found in either the immune or nonimmune supernatants. Since the secretion of TNF-alpha was related to immunization, this points to the specificity of the phenomenon, even though the type of secreting cell is not yet known. If it is shown later that specific T cells produce it, the TNF-alpha response and the negative IL-4 finding may speak for the importance of the Th1-like pattern in immunity to F. tularensis. PMID:1909711

  11. Risk and outcome in metastatic malignant melanoma patients receiving DTIC, cisplatin, BCNU and tamoxifen followed by immunotherapy with interleukin 2 and interferon alpha2a.

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, R.; Müller, I.; Neuber, K.; Lassmann, S.; Buer, J.; Probst, M.; Oevermann, K.; Franzke, A.; Kirchner, H.; Ganser, A.; Atzpodien, J.

    1998-01-01

    Combined chemo-/immunotherapy has shown high objective response rates and a significant though small proportion of long-term complete responders in metastatic malignant melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine response rates, freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and overall survival in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma treated with combined chemo-/immunotherapy, and to determine the value of a prognostic model for prediction of treatment outcome, FFTF and survival. Sixty-nine patients with metastatic malignant melanoma received combined chemo-/immunotherapy consisting of up to four cycles of DTIC (220 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), cisplatin (35 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), BCNU (150 mg m(-2) i.v. day 1, cycles 1 and 3 only) and tamoxifen (20 mg orally, daily). Two cycles of chemotherapy were followed by 6 weeks of outpatient immunotherapy with combined interleukin 2 (20 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 3-5, weeks 1 and 4; 5 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6) and interferon-alpha (6 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. day 1, weeks 1 and 4; days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6). All patients were evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis. Of 69 patients entered in the study, seven achieved complete remissions and 20 reached partial remissions with an objective response rate of 39% (95% confidence interval 28-52%). Median survival was 11 months, median FFTF was 5 months. Seven patients achieved ongoing long-term remissions, with maximum survival of 58 + months, and maximum FFTF of 58 + months. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and two-proportional Cox regression analysis, pretreatment performance status and serum lactic dehydrogenase were statistically significant and independent predictors of survival; risk groups could be defined as (a) the absence of both or (b) the presence of either one or both of these risk factors. Whereas survival and response were significantly influenced by patient risk, no influence could be demonstrated for FFTF. This combined

  12. Risk and outcome in metastatic malignant melanoma patients receiving DTIC, cisplatin, BCNU and tamoxifen followed by immunotherapy with interleukin 2 and interferon alpha2a.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, R; Müller, I; Neuber, K; Lassmann, S; Buer, J; Probst, M; Oevermann, K; Franzke, A; Kirchner, H; Ganser, A; Atzpodien, J

    1998-10-01

    Combined chemo-/immunotherapy has shown high objective response rates and a significant though small proportion of long-term complete responders in metastatic malignant melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine response rates, freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) and overall survival in patients with advanced metastatic malignant melanoma treated with combined chemo-/immunotherapy, and to determine the value of a prognostic model for prediction of treatment outcome, FFTF and survival. Sixty-nine patients with metastatic malignant melanoma received combined chemo-/immunotherapy consisting of up to four cycles of DTIC (220 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), cisplatin (35 mg m(-2) i.v. days 1-3), BCNU (150 mg m(-2) i.v. day 1, cycles 1 and 3 only) and tamoxifen (20 mg orally, daily). Two cycles of chemotherapy were followed by 6 weeks of outpatient immunotherapy with combined interleukin 2 (20 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 3-5, weeks 1 and 4; 5 x 10(6) IU m(-2) days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6) and interferon-alpha (6 x 10(6) IU m(-2) s.c. day 1, weeks 1 and 4; days 1, 3, 5, weeks 2, 3, 5, 6). All patients were evaluated on an intention-to-treat basis. Of 69 patients entered in the study, seven achieved complete remissions and 20 reached partial remissions with an objective response rate of 39% (95% confidence interval 28-52%). Median survival was 11 months, median FFTF was 5 months. Seven patients achieved ongoing long-term remissions, with maximum survival of 58 + months, and maximum FFTF of 58 + months. By Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and two-proportional Cox regression analysis, pretreatment performance status and serum lactic dehydrogenase were statistically significant and independent predictors of survival; risk groups could be defined as (a) the absence of both or (b) the presence of either one or both of these risk factors. Whereas survival and response were significantly influenced by patient risk, no influence could be demonstrated for FFTF. This combined

  13. Biological modifiers (etretinate (changed from etetrinate) and alfa 2a) in the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Guzmán, R; García, E L; Díaz-Maqueo, J C

    1996-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and toxicity of biological modifiers in combination etetrinate, 0.8 mg/kg/day, po and interferon alfa 2a 9.0 MU, three times at week) in the treatment of refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTLC) we began a clinical study on 12 heavily treated patients. After 1 year on treatment 10/12 patients (83%) achieved complete response. Two patients were considered failures with disease progression. After a median follow-up of 3 years, seven patients (56%) remained in complete remission. Toxicity was mild. All patients received 93% of the planned dose of etetrinate and interferon. We feel that biological modifiers, as etetrinate and interferons, are agents with limited hematological toxicity even in higher doses. The combination of two agents, with different mechanisms of action, could improve the outcome in patients with refractory CTCL. Controlled trials are necessary to define the roles of this type of therapy as first line of treatment. PMID:10851517

  14. Age-related differences in response to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    PubMed Central

    Roeder, Claudia; Jordan, Sabine; Schulze zur Wiesch, Julian; Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Heike; Hueppe, Dietrich; Mauss, Stefan; Zehnter, Elmar; Stoll, Sabine; Alshuth, Ulrich; Lohse, Ansgar W; Lueth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin therapy in elderly patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. METHODS: Patients characteristics, treatment results and safety profiles of 4859 patients with hepatitis c virus (HCV) infection receiving treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin were retrieved from a large ongoing German multicentre non-interventional study. Recommended treatment duration was 24 wk for GT 2 and GT 3 infection and 48 wk for GT 1 and GT 4 infection. Patients were stratified according to age (< 60 years vs ≥ 60 years). Because of limited numbers of liver biopsies for further assessment of liver fibrosis APRI (aspartate aminotransferase - platelet ratio index) was performed using pre-treatment laboratory data. RESULTS: Out of 4859 treated HCV patients 301 (6.2%) were ≥ 60 years. There were more women (55.8% vs 34.2%, P < 0.001) and predominantly GT 1 (81.4% vs 57.3%, P < 0.001) infected patients in the group of patients aged ≥ 60 years and they presented more frequently with metabolic (17.6% vs 4.5%, P < 0.001) and cardiovascular comorbidities (32.6% vs 6.7%, P < 0.001) and significant fibrosis and cirrhosis (F3/4 31.1% vs 14.0%, P = 0.0003). Frequency of dose reduction and treatment discontinuation were significantly higher in elderly patients (30.9% vs 13.7%, P < 0.001 and 47.8% vs 30.8%, P < 0.001). Main reason for treatment discontinuation was “virological non-response” (26.6% vs 13.6%). Sustained virological response (SVR) rates showed an age related difference in patients with genotype 1 (23.7% vs 43.7%, P < 0.001) but not in genotype 2/3 infections (57.7% vs 64.6%, P = 0.341). By multivariate analysis, age and stage of liver disease were independent factors of SVR. CONCLUSION: Elderly HCV patients differ in clinical characteristics and treatment outcome from younger patients and demand special attention from their practitioner. PMID:25152602

  15. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) monotherapy: a novel agent for chronic hepatitis C therapy.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, S; Heathcote, J E; Martin, N; Nieforth, K; Modi, M

    2001-12-01

    Current therapy for hepatitis C remains far from optimal. The modification of IFN by the attachment of a polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety has produced long-lasting IFNs. A 40 kDa branched peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kDa) (PEG-IFN alfa-2a) has unique pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. PEG-IFN alfa-2a is absorbed in a sustained manner and its clearance is reduced substantially compared with IFN alfa-2a, resulting in sustained serum drug concentrations. These constant serum drug levels stay above the EC(50) values (effective concentration 50%) needed for antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory actions. Sustained virological responses were significantly greater in patients who received PEG-IFN alfa-2a versus IFN alfa-2a, with a similar side effect profile. Histological improvements were seen in patients who achieved sustained virological responses and were frequently observed among patients who did not achieve a virological response. The advantages of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were also seen in patients with cirrhosis or hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1. PMID:11772316

  16. Species difference in reactivity to lignin-like enzymatically polymerized polyphenols on interferon-γ synthesis and involvement of interleukin-2 production in mice.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Daisuke; Ishibashi, Ken-Ichi; Adachi, Yoshiyuki; Ohno, Naohito

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that lignin-like polymerized polyphenols can activate innate immune systems. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether these polymerized polyphenols could activate leukocytes from different murine strains. Splenocytes from 12 mouse strains were investigated. Our results revealed species differences in reactivity to phenolic polymers on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release. Mice that possessed the H2(a) or H2(k) haplotype antigens were the highly responsive strains. To clarify these different points in soluble factors, multiplex cytokine profiling analysis was carried out and we identified interleukin (IL)-2 as a key molecule for IFN-γ induction by polymerized polyphenols. Furthermore, inhibition of IL-2 and IL-2Rα by neutralizing antibodies significantly decreased cytokine production in the highly responsive mice strains. Our results indicate that species difference in reactivity to phenolic polymers is mediated by adequate release of IL-2 and its receptor, IL-2Rα. PMID:27376855

  17. Pheophytin a and chlorophyll a identified from environmentally friendly cultivation of green pepper enhance interleukin-2 and interferon-γ in Peyer's patches ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Myoung-Yun; Park, Bo-kyung; Choi, Jeong June; Yang, Mihi; Yang, Hyun Ok; Cha, Jin Wook; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Kim, In Seon; Lee, Hyang Burm; Jin, Mirim

    2013-01-01

    The oral consumption of capsicum has been reported to increase interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ production in Peyer's patches (PP); however, the active components responsible for these effects have not been completely identified. The beneficial biological effects of green peppers cultivated under environmentally friendly farming conditions (ECP), without the use of chemical pesticides, have rarely been compared with those of green peppers cultivated under conventional farming conditions (CCP). Oral administration of ECP extract significantly induced the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ in concanavalin A-treated cells from PP ex vivo; their levels were much higher than those in the CCP extract-treated group. A comparative analysis of the HPLC profiles indicated a 1.7-fold increase of a peak, named EF-1, at 415 nm in the ECP extract. The major component of EF-1 was identified as pheophytin a, which is a chlorophyll a molecule lacking a central Mg(2+) ion, as determined from NMR data. Intake of pheophytin a and chlorophyll a significantly increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production, and the percentage of IL-2- and IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T-cells in PP. Taken together, our data suggest that ECPs produce a higher content of pheophytin a than CCPs, and pheophytin a and chlorophyll a are immune-modulating components in green vegetables. PMID:24189419

  18. Combined Antigen-Specific Interferon-γ and Interleukin-2 Release Assay (FluoroSpot) for the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chesov, Dumitru; Lange, Christoph; Daduna, Franziska; Crudu, Valeriu; Preyer, Rosemarie; Ernst, Martin; Kalsdorf, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background To evaluate interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ secreting T-cells in parallel for the differentiation of latent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) from active tuberculosis. Methods Following ex-vivo stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens early secretory antigenic target (ESAT)-6 and culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10, immune responses were assessed by enzyme-linked immunospot IFN-γ release assay (EliSpot-IGRA) and a novel dual cytokine detecting fluorescence-linked immunospot (FluoroSpot) in 18 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 10 persons with previously cured tuberculosis, 25 individuals with LTBI and 16 healthy controls. Results Correlation of IFN- γ+ spot-forming cells in EliSpot-IGRA and FluoroSpot were R2 = 0.67 for ESAT-6 and R2 = 0.73 for CFP-10. The number of IL-2- IFN- γ+ producing cells was higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with past tuberculosis (CFP-10-induced p = 0.0068) or individuals with LTBI (ESAT-6-induced p = 0.0136). A cutoff value of >16 CFP-10-induced IFN-γ+ secreting cells/200.000 PBMC in the EliSpot-IGRA discriminated with highest sensitivity and specificity (89% and 76%, respectively). However, overlap in cytokine responses precludes distinction between the cohorts on an individual basis. Conclusions Combined analysis of IFN-γ and IL-2 secretion by antigen specific T-cells does not allow a reliable differentiation between different states of M. tuberculosis infection in clinical practice. PMID:25785445

  19. Phase I trial with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2): immune activation by rIL-2 alone or following pretreatment with recombinant interferon-gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Farace, F; Mathiot, C; Brandely, M; Tursz, T; Dorval, T; Pouillart, P; Triebel, F; Hercend, T; Fridman, W H

    1990-01-01

    Alterations of immunological parameters were analysed in patients with advanced malignancies during a phase I trial with rIL-2. Five-day infusions of rIL-2 at doses from 1 x 10(6) to 24 x 10(6) biological response modifiers program (BRMP) U/m2 per day were given to 29 patients, with a minimum of three patients per dose. The dose of 24 x 10(6) U/m2 per day was the maximal tolerated dose (MTD). Immunological parameters were analyzed at days 0, 8 and 11 of the rIL-2 courses. Following a leucopenia during rIL-2 infusion, a lymphocytosis was found in all patients except one. The lymphocytosis peaked at day 8 and was detected at doses of rIL-2 as low as 1 x 10(6) U/m2 per day, reaching a plateau at a dose of 16 x 10(6) U/m2 per day. Although all lymphocyte subsets were increased in patients receiving rIL-2, some patients had predominant T cells (CD3+, NKH1(CD56)-), others had predominant natural killer (NK) cells (CD3-, NKH1 (CD56)+), and yet others showed a mixed profile. A strong induction of cells cytotoxic for K562 targets was found in all patients at days 8 and 11. Eighteen patients received, 1 month later, a second treatment in which infusion of rIL-2 was preceded by a course of 5 days infusion of 2 x 10(6) U/m2 per day recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma). The infusion of rIFN-gamma prior to rIL-2 had no effect on the rIL-2-induced alterations of immunological parameters. Taken together, our results suggest that immune stimulation by rIL-2 occurs even at low doses and is maximal at a dose below the MTD; and that pretreatment with low-dose rIFN-gamma does not modify the immune stimulation by rIL-2. PMID:2122928

  20. Hepatitis B surface antigen clearance in inactive hepatitis B surface antigen carriers treated with peginterferon alfa-2a

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Hui; Xie, Yao; Zhang, Lu; Lu, Yao; Shen, Ge; Wu, Shu-Ling; Chang, Min; Mu, Cai-Qin; Hu, Lei-Ping; Hua, Wen-Hao; Song, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Shu-Feng; Cheng, Jun; Xu, Dao-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the association between interferon (IFN) therapy and loss of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in inactive HBsAg carriers. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study in inactive HBsAg carriers, who were treatment-naive, with a serum HBsAg level < 100 IU/mL and an undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level (< 100 IU/mL). All the 20 treated patients received subcutaneous PEG-IFN alfa-2a 180 μg/wk for 72 wk and were then followed for 24 wk. There were 40 untreated controls matched with 96 wk of observation. Serum HBsAg, HBV DNA, and alanine aminotransferases were monitored every 3 mo in the treatment group and every 3-6 mo in the control group. RESULTS: Thirteen (65.0%) of 20 treated patients achieved HBsAg loss, 12 of whom achieved HBsAg seroconversion. Mean HBsAg level in treated patients decreased to 6.69 ± 13.04 IU/mL after 24 wk of treatment from a baseline level of 26.22 ± 33.00 IU/mL. Serum HBV DNA level remained undetectable (< 100 IU/mL) in all treated patients during the study. HBsAg level of the control group decreased from 25.72 ± 25.58 IU/mL at baseline to 17.11 ± 21.62 IU/mL at week 96 (P = 0.108). In the control group, no patient experienced HBsAg loss/seroconversion, and two (5.0%) developed HBV reactivation. CONCLUSION: IFN treatment results in HBsAg loss and seroconversion in a considerable proportion of inactive HBsAg carriers with low HBsAg concentrations. PMID:27239256

  1. Adjuvant treatment with interleukin-2- and interferon-alpha2a-based chemoimmunotherapy in renal cell carcinoma post tumour nephrectomy: Results of a prospectively randomised Trial of the German Cooperative Renal Carcinoma Chemoimmunotherapy Group (DGCIN)

    PubMed Central

    Atzpodien, J; Schmitt, E; Gertenbach, U; Fornara, P; Heynemann, H; Maskow, A; Ecke, M; Wöltjen, H H; Jentsch, H; Wieland, W; Wandert, T; Reitz, M

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a prospectively randomised clinical trial to investigate the role of adjuvant outpatient immunochemotherapy administered postoperatively in high-risk patients with renal cell carcinoma. In total, 203 renal carcinoma patients' status post radical tumour nephrectomy were stratified into three risk groups: patients with tumour extending into renal vein/vena cava or invading beyond Gerota's fascia (pT3b/c pN0 or pT4pN0), patients with locoregional lymph node infiltration (pN+), and patients after complete resection of tumour relapse or solitary metastasis (R0). Patients were randomised to undergo either (A) 8 weeks of outpatient subcutaneous interleukin-2 (sc-rIL-2), subcutaneous interferon-alpha2a (sc-rIFN-α2a), and intravenous 5-fluorouracil (iv-5-FU) according to the standard Atzpodien regimen (Atzpodien et al, 2004) or (B) observation. Two-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates were 81, 58, and 58% in the treatment arm, and 91, 76, and 66% in the observation arm (log rank P=0.0278), with a median follow-up of 4.3 years. Two, 5-, and 8-year relapse-free survival rates were calculated at 54, 42, and 39% in the treatment arm, and at 62, 49, and 49% in the observation arm (log rank P=0.2398). Stage-adapted subanalyses revealed no survival advantages of treatment over observation, as well. Our results established that there was no relapse-free survival benefit and the overall survival was inferior with an adjuvant 8-week-outpatient sc-rIL-2/sc-rIFN-α2a/iv-5-FU-based immunochemotherapy compared to observation in high-risk renal cell carcinoma patients following radical tumour nephrectomy. PMID:15756254

  2. Potentiation of human natural killer cell cytotoxicity by Salmonella bacteria is an interferon- and interleukin-2-independent process that utilizes CD2 and CD18 structures in the effector phase.

    PubMed Central

    Tarkkanen, J; Saksela, E

    1991-01-01

    Incubation of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) with glutaraldehyde-fixed bacteria stimulated in the supernatant the production of interferon (IFN), which proved to be mainly IFN-gamma. Even though IFN-gamma was produced upon exposure of LGL to bacteria, anti-IFN-gamma antibodies failed to interfere with induction of cytotoxicity by bacterial contact. Anti-IFN-gamma receptor antibodies had no effect on the induction of activated killing by bacterial contact either. We also tested the effect of anti-IFN-alpha antibody, but it failed to interfere with induction of cytotoxicity by bacterial contact. No interleukin-2 (IL-2) was detected in the culture supernatant of bacterially activated LGL by the mouse HT2 cell assay, nor did we detect any IL-2 mRNA in bacterially activated LGL by Northern RNA blot assay. Neutralizing anti-IL-2 antiserum had no effect on the induction of activated killing by bacterial contact, and recombinant IL-4 did not interfere with the induction of activated killing. We then studied the membrane structures involved in bacterially activated killing. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibody did not interfere with the induction phase of bacterially activated killing. However, both anti-CD18 and anti-CD2 antibodies inhibited the effector phase of bacterially activated killing. The effector pathways utilized by activated LGL depended on the mode of activation in that even though bacterially activated LGL were sometimes blocked by anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody, recombinant-IL-2-stimulated LGL were not. In conclusion, our present results suggest that there may be mediators other than exogenously secreted IFNs and IL-2 which are responsible for the induction of activated killing after bacterial contact. CD18 and CD2 structures were shown to be involved in the effector phase of bacterially activated killing. PMID:1713200

  3. Elimination of IgE regulatory rat CD8+ T cells in vivo differentially modulates interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma but not interleukin-2 production by splenic T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Sanchez, D; Noble, A; Staynov, D Z; Lee, T H; Kemeny, D M

    1993-01-01

    Intraperitoneal immunization of Hooded Lister rats with a soluble antigen such as bee venom phospholipase A2 (PLA2), or ovalbumin (OVA) together with the toxic lectin, ricin, eliminates a population of early-activated CD8+ T cells which regulate IgE production. These early-activated CD8+ T cells are eliminated because they bear increased ricin-binding glycoproteins on their surface. This immunization regimen produces a vigorous and long-lived IgE response. The effect of this treatment on the capacity of splenic T cells to secrete interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to generate IL-4 RNA message was assessed. IFN-gamma production by phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)- or ionomycin and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-stimulated splenocytes or purified splenic T cells from animals immunized with antigen and ricin was substantially reduced as compared with animals which were given saline or antigen alone (P < 0.001 Student's t-test). At the height of the primary IgE response IFN-gamma production by PHA-stimulated splenocytes was positively correlated with the number of CD8+ T cells (r = 0.90, P < 0.001) and inversely related to the level of serum IgE (r = -0.77, P < 0.020); serum IgE was inversely related to the number of CD8+ T cells (r = -0.92, P < 0.001). The reduced capacity of spleen cells from ricin and antigen immunized rats to produce IFN-gamma was first seen 7 days after immunization. The fall in the ability of splenocytes to secrete IFN-gamma closely paralleled the rise in serum IgE. IL-2 was assayed using an IL-2-dependent cell line which responded to rat IL-2 but not IL-4. Production of IL-2 by splenocytes taken from rats immunized with ricin+antigen was not significantly different to that produced by comparable cells obtained from animals immunized with antigen alone or saline. However, the levels of IL-4 mRNA, detected in ionomycin and PMA-stimulated splenocytes using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure, were three- to

  4. Adjuvant low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable renal cell carcinoma (RCC): a phase III, randomized, multicentre trial of the Italian Oncology Group for Clinical Research (GOIRC).

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Rodolfo; Caminiti, Caterina; Buti, Sebastiano; Porta, Camillo; Camisa, Roberta; Braglia, Luca; Tomasello, Gianluca; Vaglio, Augusto; Labianca, Roberto; Rondini, Ermanno; Sabbatini, Roberto; Nastasi, Giuseppe; Artioli, Fabrizio; Prati, Andrea; Potenzoni, Michele; Pezzuolo, Debora; Oliva, Elena; Alberici, Federico; Buzio, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    There is currently no standard therapy to reduce the recurrence rate after surgery for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of adjuvant treatment with low doses of interleukin-2 (IL-2)+interferon-α (IFN-α) in operable RCC. The patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a 4-week cycle of low-dose IL-2+IFN-α or observation after primary surgery for RCC. Treatment cycles were repeated every 4 months for the first 2 years and every 6 months for the subsequent 3 years. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS); safety; and overall survival (OS) were secondary endpoints. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number was NCT00502034. 303/310 randomized patients (156 in the immunotherapy arm and 154 in the observation group) were evaluable at the intention-to-treat analyses. The 2 arms were well balanced. At a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 12-151 mo), RFS, and OS were similar, with an estimated hazard ratio (HR) of 0.84 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-1.31; P=0.44] and of 1.07 (95% CI, 0.64-1.79; P=0.79), respectively in the 2 groups. Unplanned, subgroup analysis showed a positive effect of the treatment for patients with age 60 years and younger, pN0, tumor grades 1-2, and pT3a stage. Among patients with the combined presence of ≥ 2 of these factors, immunotherapy had a positive effect on RFS (HR=0.44; 95% CI, 0.24-0.82; P ≤ 0.01), whereas patients with <2 factors in the treatment arm exhibited a significant poorer OS (HR=2.27; 95% CI, 1.03-5.03 P=0.037). Toxicity of immunotherapy was mild and limited to World Health Organization grade 1-2 in most cases. Adjuvant immunotherapy with IL-2+IFN-α showed no RFS or OS improvement in RCC patients who underwent radical surgery. The results of subset analysis here presented are only hypothesis generating. PMID:25304727

  5. Sustained Virologic Response to a Dual Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin in Treating Chronic hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Sitt, Than; Aung, Aye TD; Aung, Kyan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In Myanmar, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection prevalence is 2%. A combination therapy of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (PEG-IFNa/RBV) is a standard treatment, but the effect of this antiviral therapy needs evaluation as to determine the efficacy and safety of dual PEG-IFNa/RBV therapy in treating patients infected with HCV in Myanmar. This was a retrospective analysis of data from a single clinic exclusively for gastrointestinal diseases in Yangon, Myanmar. We assessed treatment responses at the defined time points and stratified by genotypes of HCV. We also determined incidences of adverse events (AEs). We investigated independent predictors of sustained virologic response (SVR) in the participants. A total of 362 HCV-infected cases were included in this study. The majority were females (51.7%) with mean age of 47.12 years (±11.6) and noncirrhosis patients (82%). Rapid virologic response (RVR), early virologic response (EVR), end of treatment response (ETR), and SVR 24 weeks after completion of the dual treatment were 50.3% (178/362), 88% (314/357), 80.1% (286/357), and 85.6% (167/195), respectively. The most frequently reported AEs were nausea/anorexia (72.8%) and flu-like symptoms (62.4%). In multivariate analysis, 4 factors were independently associated with SVR; SVR to genotype 3 (odds ratio [OR] 2.4, 95% CI: 1.24–4.62), EVR (OR 0.54, 95% CI: 0.3–0.95), and duration of treatment (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.18–1.98). Study limitations were acknowledged. The efficacy and safety of the dual therapy in treating HCV-infected patient in Myanmar was acceptable. We recommend a prospective randomized control trial looking at duration of therapy and rates of achieving SVR, which could significantly impact the care of HCV-infected patients in Myanmar and perhaps other countries as well. PMID:26222859

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treatment with peginterferon-alfa-2a versus peginterferon-alfa-2b for patients with chronic hepatitis C under the public payer perspective in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic hepatitis C affects approximately 170 million people worldwide, and thus being one of the main causes of chronic liver disease. About 20% of patients with chronic hepatitis C will develop cirrhosis over 20 years, and present an increased risk of developing hepatic complications. Sustained virological response (SVR) is associated with a better prognosis compared to untreated patients and treatment failures. The objective of this analysis was to compare treatment costs and outcomes of pegylated interferon-alfa-2a versus pegylated interferon-alfa-2b, both associated with ribavirin, in the therapeutic scheme of 24 weeks and 48 week for hepatitis C genotypes 2/3 and genotype 1, respectively, under the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) scenario. Methods To project disease progression, a Markov model was built based on clinical stages of chronic disease. A Delphi panel was conducted to evaluate medical resources related to each stage, followed by costing of related materials, services, procedures and pharmaceutical products. The evaluation was made from a public payer perspective. The source used for costing was government reimbursement procedures list (SAI/SIH–SUS). Drug acquisition costs were obtained from the Brazilian Official Gazette and “Banco de Preços em Saúde” (government official source). It was assumed a mean patient weight of 70 kg. Costs were reported in 2011 Brazilian Reais (US$1 ≈ $Brz1.80). A systematic review followed by a meta-analysis of the 7 identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which compared pegylated interferons, was conducted for obtaining relative efficacy of both drugs: for genotype 2/3, mean rate of SVR was 79.2% for peginterferon-alfa-2a and 73.8% for peginterferon-alfa-2b. For genotype 1, SVR mean rate was 42.09% versus 33.44% (peginterferon-alfa-2a and peginterferon-alfa-2b respectively). Time horizon considered was lifetime. Discount rate for costs and outcomes was 5%, according to Brazilian

  7. Modification of soluble immunological parameters during treatment with interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Abbate, I; Correale, M; Musci, M D; Guida, M; Dragone, C D; De Santis, M; De Lena, M

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we tested numerous soluble immunological parameters (soluble Interleukin 2 receptor, Beta 2 microglobulin, Neopterin, soluble CD8 antigen, gamma Interferon and alpha Tumor Necrosis Factor) in sera obtained from 18 advanced cancer patients during subcutaneous treatment with recombinant Interleukin 2. The treatment cycles consisted of a dose of 9 x 10(6) IU/m2 twice daily for 2 days followed by 1.8 x 10(6) IU/m2 twice daily for 5 days/week during 6 weeks. Even before therapy, neoplastic patients had higher levels of soluble Interleukin 2 receptor than a group of healthy subjects. Moreover, basal soluble CD8 antigen levels showed significant differences (p < 0.01) in patients with different clinical responses (responders and non-responders). During treatment we observed a fast increase (in the first or second week) of all parameters considered; soluble Interleukin 2 receptor and soluble CD8 antigen were the markers that were best related to the course of immunotherapy. In conclusion, monitoring recombinant Interleukin 2 immunotherapy with immunological parameters in serum seems to be of interest. However, more data are necessary to confirm the real value of the single markers. PMID:8138662

  8. Interleukin-2 dependent cytotoxic T-cell clones

    SciTech Connect

    Palladino, M.

    1987-07-28

    A method is described of stimulating production of the lymphokines ..cap alpha..-interferon and ..beta..-interferon by interleukin-2 dependent cytotoxic cultured T-cell lines comprising administering to a T-cell line selected from the group consisting of T-cell lines CTLL-RP (CRL 8201), CTLL-R8 (CRL 8202), CTLL-R9 (CRL 8203), CTLL-R11 (CRL 8204), and CTLL-R12 (CRL 8205). An amount of an antigen selected from the group consists of Newcastle Disease Virus and Sendai Virus sufficient to cause stimulation of production of the lymphokines.

  9. Identification of a set of genes associated with response to interleukin-2 and interferon-α combination therapy for renal cell carcinoma through genome-wide gene expression profiling

    PubMed Central

    MIZUMORI, OSAMU; ZEMBUTSU, HITOSHI; KATO, YOICHIRO; TSUNODA, TATSUHIKO; MIYA, FUYUKI; MORIZONO, TAKASHI; TSUKAMOTO, TAIJI; FUJIOKA, TOMOAKI; TOMITA, YOSHIHIKO; KITAMURA, TADAICHI; OZONO, SEIICHIRO; MIKI, TSUNEHARU; NAITO, SEIJI; AKAZA, HIDEYUKI; NAKAMURA, YUSUKE

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-α combination therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) improves the prognosis for a subset of patients, while some patients suffer from severe adverse drug reactions with little benefit. To establish a method to predict responses to this combination therapy (approximately 30% response rate), the gene expression profiles of primary RCCs were analyzed using an oligoDNA microarray consisting of 38,500 genes or ESTs, after enrichment of the cancer cell population by laser micro-beam microdissection. The analysis of 10 responders and 18 non-responders identified 24 genes that exhibited significant differential expression between the two groups. In addition, the patients whose tumors did not express HLA-DQA1 or HLA-DQB1 molecules demonstrated poor clinical response. Exclusion of patients with tumors lacking either of these two genes is likely to improve the response rate to IL-2 and IFN-α combination therapy from 30 to 67%, indicating that a simple pretreatment test provides useful information with which to subselect patients with renal cancer in order to improve the efficacy of this treatment and reduce unnecessary medical costs. PMID:22993625

  10. PHOENIX: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Peginterferon Alfa-2a Plus Ribavirin as a Prophylactic Treatment After Liver Transplantation for Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bzowej, Natalie; Nelson, David R.; Terrault, Norah A.; Everson, Gregory T.; Teng, Lichen L.; Prabhakar, Avinash; Charlton, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy, tolerability, and safety of the prophylactic treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) after liver transplantation (LT) with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin are not known. LT recipients with HCV were randomized to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin treatment or observation 10 to 26 weeks post-LT. Prophylaxis patients received peginterferon alfa-2a (135 μg/week for 4 weeks and then 180 μg/week for 44 weeks) plus ribavirin (the initial dose of 400 mg/day was escalated to 1200 mg/day). Observation patients received the same regimen only upon significant HCV recurrence (histological activity index ≥ 3 and/or fibrosis score ≥ 2). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with histological evidence of significant HCV recurrence 120 weeks after randomization. In all, 115 patients were randomized (prophylaxis arm, n = 55; observation arm, n = 60). Sustained virological response was achieved by 12 of 54 prophylaxis patients (22.2%) and by 3 of 14 observation patients who switched to treatment (21.4%). On an intent-to-treat basis, significant HCV recurrence at 120 weeks was similar in the prophylaxis (61.8%) and observation arms (65.0%, P = 0.725). The patient and graft survival rates and the rates of biopsy-proven acute cellular rejection were similar in the 2 study arms. Approximately 70% of the treated patients in both arms had at least one dose reduction for safety reasons. The most common adverse event leading to treatment withdrawal was anemia. Because of the safety profile of peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin and the lack of a clear benefit in terms of HCV recurrence and patient or graft survival, this study does not support the routine use of prophylactic antiviral therapy. PMID:21506241

  11. A Predictive Model for Selecting Patients with HCV Genotype 3 Chronic Infection with a High Probability of Sustained Virological Response to Peginterferon Alfa-2a/Ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Asselah, Tarik; Thompson, Alex J.; Flisiak, Robert; Romero-Gomez, Manuel; Messinger, Diethelm; Bakalos, Georgios; Shiffman, Mitchell L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) is restricted in some settings; thus, the European Association for the Study of the Liver recommends dual peginterferon/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) therapy wherever DAAs are unavailable. HCV genotype (GT) 3 infection is now the most difficult genotype to eradicate and PegIFN/RBV remains an effective option. The goal of this study was to devise a simple predictive score to identify GT3 patients with a high probability of achieving a sustained virologic response (SVR) with PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. Methods Relationships between baseline characteristics and SVR were explored by multiple logistic regression models and used to develop a simple scoring system to predict SVR using data from 1239 treatment-naive GT3 patients who received PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV for 24 weeks in two large observational cohort studies. Results The score was validated using a database of 473 patients. Scores were assigned for six factors as follows: age (years) (≤40: 2 points; >40 but ≤55: 1); bodyweight (kg) (<70: 2; ≥70 but <90: 1); no cirrhosis/transition to cirrhosis (2); ALT ≤2.5 x ULN (1); platelets (109/L) (>200: 2; ≥100 but <200: 1); HCV RNA (<400,000 IU/mL: 1). The points are summed to arrive at a score ranging from 0‒10 where higher scores indicate higher chances of SVR; 141, 123, 203, 249, 232, and 218 patients had total scores of 0‒4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9–10, respectively, among whom SVR rates were 45%, 62%, 72%, 76%, 84%, and 89%. Among 622 patients who had scores of 6‒10 and HCV RNA <50 IU/mL by treatment week 4 the SVR rate was 86% (532/622). Conclusions A simple baseline scoring system involving age, bodyweight, cirrhosis status, ALT level, platelet count and HCV RNA level can be used to identify treatment-naive Caucasian patients with HCV GT3 infection with a high probability of SVR with PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. PMID:26991780

  12. CONSORT: Effects of adding adefovirdipivoxil to peginterferon alfa-2a at different time points on HBeAg-positivepatients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ka; Cao, Hong; Liang, Jiayi; Shu, Xin; Sun, Haixia; Li, Gang; Xu, Qihuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aims of this study were to compare the efficacy and safety of the addition of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV) (started at different time points) to pegylated interferon alpha-2a (PEG-INF-α2a) and PEG-INF-α2a monotherapy. This prospective, randomized study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the combination of PEG-INF-α2a and ADV at different time points.120 patients were randomized into groups that received PEG-INF-α2a as monotherapy (group A) or in combination with ADV started at week 0 (group B), 12 (group C), or 24 (group D). All patients were followed for 48 weeks. Efficacy and safety analyses were performed. Methods: Patients in group a received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a by subcutaneous injection once weekly for 48 weeks. Patients in the ADV add-on group received 135 μg of PEG-INF-α2a subcutaneously once weekly and received 10 mg of ADV administered once daily for 48 weeks. HBV DNA, HBsAg, HBeAg, and hepatitis B e antibody levels were determined. Responses were determined at week 12 (ADV add-on), the end of treatment for PEG-INF-α2a (48weeks) and ADV (EOT) and at the end of 96 weeks of follow-up (EOF). Results: The rate of HBV DNA loss were higher in the combination groups than group A at the week 12, week 48, the EOT and EOF (P < 0.05). The rates of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss were similar among the treatment groups (P>0.05). The alanineaminotransferase (ALT) normalization rate was higher in the combination group than group A only at the EOT (P = 0.007). By the EOF, the patients with ADV added at week 12 achieved higher rates of HBV DNA loss (71.9%), HBeAg seroconversion (50.0%), HBsAg loss (15.6%), and ALT normalization (78.1%). Conclusions: PEG-INF-α2a plus ADV combination therapy is safe and superior to PEG-INF-α2amonotherapyfor decreasing serum HBV DNA and normalizing the ALT level but has no significant impact on the rate of HBeAg seroconversion and HBsAg loss. Adding ADV at week 12 may be an

  13. Enhancement of interleukin-2 activity by liposomes.

    PubMed

    Joffret, M L; Morgeaux, S; Laclerc, C; Oth, D; Zanetti, C; Sureau, P; Perrin, P

    1990-08-01

    The present report demonstrates that liposomes increase the interleukin-2 (IL-2) dependent proliferation of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte line (CTLL) cells used for the measurement of IL-2 activity. This effect was better observed with suboptimal doses of IL-2 and low concentrations of lipids. The increased IL-2 dependent proliferation is not due to a direct effect of liposomes on CTLL cells but rather to an interaction between IL-2 and liposomes. An interaction between IL-2 and components of fetal calf serum is also demonstrated. The results indicate that liposomes may interfere with IL-2 bioassay but also show the possibility of potentiating IL-2 activity for therapeutic purposes. PMID:2396476

  14. Peginterferon Alfa-2a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications to treat chronic (long-term) hepatitis C infection (swelling of the liver caused by a ... Peginterferon works by decreasing the amount of hepatitis C virus (HCV) or hepatitis B virus (HBV) in ...

  15. Benefit of Treatment Individualization in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Receiving Peginterferon Alfa-2a and Ribavirin in a Large Noninterventional Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Wolf Peter; Mauss, Stefan; Lutz, Thomas; Schober, Andreas; Böker, Klaus; Moog, Gero; Baumgarten, Axel; Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Heike; Alshuth, Ulrich; Hüppe, Dietrich; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Manns, Michael P.; Schott, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Individualization of treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C showed benefit in controlled trials and was implemented in treatment guidelines to increase response rates and to reduce side effects and costs. However, it is unknown whether individualization was adopted in routine daily practice and whether it translated into improved outcomes. Methods From a large noninterventional cohort study, clinical and virologic response data of 10,262 HCV patients who received peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011 were analyzed. To account for treatment individualization, a matched-pair analysis (2,997 matched pairs) was performed. Variation in treatment duration and dosing of ribavirin were analyzed as indicators for individualization. Results Sustained virological response (SVR) rates were similar between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011 (62.0% vs. 63.7%). Patients with comorbidities were more abundant in the later period, (44.3% vs. 57.1%). The subsequent matched-pair analysis demonstrated higher SVR rates in the 2008-2011 period (64.3%) than in the 2003-2007 period (61.2%, p=0.008). More patients received abbreviated or extended treatment regimens in the later than the earlier period as an indicator of treatment individualization. To the same end, ribavirin doses were higher in the later period (12.6 versus 11.6 mg/kg/day). Factors independently associated with SVR included HCV genotype, low baseline viral load, younger age, route of infection, absence of concomitant diseases, lower APRI score, normal gamma-GT, higher ribavirin doses, no substitution for drug abuse, treatment duration, and treatment in the 2008-2011 period. Conclusions Treatment individualization with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin was implemented in daily routine between 2003-2007 and 2008-2011, SVR rates improved in the same period. These findings may be most relevant in resource-limited settings. PMID:26230998

  16. Impaired production of interleukin-2 after surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Akiyoshi, T; Koba, F; Arinaga, S; Miyazaki, S; Wada, T; Tsuji, H

    1985-01-01

    The capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2) was studied serially before and following operation in patients undergoing various surgical procedures. In patients who had major surgery, significant decrease in IL-2 activity was observed 1, 3 and 6 days after operation as compared to that before surgery, although there was no significant change throughout the post-operative course in patients undergoing minor surgery. IL-2 activity returned to the pre-operative level by the 8th post-operative day. However, it remained significantly depressed 8 days after surgery in patients who had undergone major surgical procedures of more increasing severity. Distribution of T cell subsets, especially OKT4 positive cells, did not differ significantly from the pre-operative value throughout the post-operative course. However, the depressed production of IL-2 3 days after surgery could be abolished when adherent cells were removed from PBM by plastic adherence procedures. These results indicated that adherent cells, but not quantitative change in T cell subsets, might be responsible for the depression of IL-2 production after surgery. PMID:3871677

  17. Production of interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 inhibitor in patients with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, T; Kobayashi, M; Ishii, Y; Nagashima, M

    1987-01-01

    We studied production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-2 inhibitor from peripheral blood of patients with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP). Nineteen patients were divided into two groups: those with and those without arthro-osteitis. Although IL-2 production in both groups of patients was within normal limits, those with arthro-osteitis showed greater fluctuation in relation to the disease activity. The IL-2 production of five PPP patients with arthro-osteitis was greatly enhanced in the inactive stage compared with the active stage. Sera from two patients treated with a combination of etretinate and colchicine contained extremely low levels of IL-2 inhibitory activity. The increased IL-2 production in the inactive stage may be due in part to the depletion of IL-2 inhibitor-producing cells by the treatment. PMID:2448994

  18. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor α and interleukin-2 serum levels in patients with basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Ewa; Zablotna, Monika; Sokolowska-Wojdylo, Malgorzata; Sikorska, Monika; Lange, Magdalena; Nowicki, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is an immunogenic neoplasm and the imbalance in Th1/Th2 cytokines expression seems to play the major role in pathogenesis and clinical behaviour of the tumour. Aim To investigate the association of soluble interleukin 2α receptor (sIL-2Rα) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) serum concentrations with BCC. Material and methods The study involved 110 individuals with BCC and 60 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα and IL-2 were measured using ELISA test. Results We found significantly (p = 0.027) increased sIL-2Rα serum levels in BCC patients, in comparison to healthy controls. Statistically (p = 0.04) higher sIL-2Rα levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. Serum levels of sIL-2Rα showed a significant linear (r = 0.24, p = 0.018) correlation with tumour size. The average IL-2 serum levels in BCC patients were statistically (p = 0.039) decreased compared to controls. Significantly (p = 0.0454) lower median IL-2 levels were observed in patients with more advanced tumours. A negative correlation between sIL-2Rα and IL-2 serum concentrations was revealed (r = –0.22; p = 0.027). Conclusions Our results testify to the importance of the IL-2/sIL-2Rα signalling pathway in pathogenesis of BCC, suggesting that IL-2 and sIL-2Rα might be considered as potential markers of disease and targets for immunotherapy in BCC patients. PMID:27605896

  19. Immunohistochemical correlates of response to recombinant interleukin-2-based immunotherapy in humans.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J T; Elwood, L J; Rosenberg, S A; Lotze, M T

    1989-12-15

    We have evaluated immunohistochemical characteristics of tumors and the infiltrating cells in patients treated with various immunotherapy regimens. Forty-eight patients with advanced malignancies were treated with high dose i.v. recombinant interleukin-2 alone or in combination with cyclophosphamide, recombinant tumor necrosis factor, recombinant interferon-alpha, antimelanoma antibody 9.2.27, adoptively transferred tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, or lymphokine-activated killer cells. Thirty-four patients with metastatic melanoma and two patients with breast carcinoma underwent excision of one or more s.c. metastases either before, during, or after treatment. Twelve patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent pretreatment nephrectomy and these tumors were also studied. Tumor cells were evaluated for class I (HLA-A,B,C) and II (HLA-DR) antigen expression and the mononuclear infiltrate was characterized using an avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase technique. All melanomas were class I antigen positive. Fifty-three % of biopsied metastatic melanoma lesions, 58% of primary renal cell carcinomas, and neither of the two breast carcinomas expressed class II antigen prior to therapy. The pretreatment expression of class II antigens by a tumor was not predictive of a clinical response to recombinant interleukin 2-based therapy. After treatment, however, seven of seven biopsied regressing individual metastases intensely expressed DR antigen on over fifty percent of the cells while only three of ten nonresponding lesions did so. Regressing lesions were permeated with macrophages and both CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets. There were no CD1 or NKH-1 positive infiltrating cells detected in any lesion. The response to recombinant interleukin 2-based immunotherapy is associated with T-cell as well as macrophage infiltration. DR antigen expression by tumor cells and T-cell infiltrate appear in individual lesions to be associated with this response. PMID:2582450

  20. Mericitabine and Either Boceprevir or Telaprevir in Combination with Peginterferon Alfa-2a plus Ribavirin for Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 1 Infection and Prior Null Response: The Randomized DYNAMO 1 and DYNAMO 2 Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wedemeyer, Heiner; Forns, Xavier; Hézode, Christophe; Lee, Samuel S.; Scalori, Astrid; Voulgari, Athina; Le Pogam, Sophie; Nájera, Isabel; Thommes, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Most patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection who have had a previous null response (<2-log10 reduction in HCV RNA by treatment week 12) to peginterferon/ribavirin (PegIFN/RBV) do not achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) when re-treated with a first-generation HCV protease inhibitor (PI) administered in combination with PegIFN/RBV. We studied the incremental benefits associated with adding mericitabine (nucleoside analog inhibitor of HCV polymerase) to PI plus PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV-based therapy in two double-blind randomized multicenter phase 2 trials (with boceprevir in DYNAMO 1, and with telaprevir in DYNAMO 2). The primary endpoint in both trials was SVR, defined as HCV RNA <25 IU/mL 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Overall, the addition of mericitabine to PI plus PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy resulted in SVR12 rates of 60–70% in DYNAMO 1 and of 71–96% in DYNAMO 2. SVR12 rates were similar in patients infected with HCV genotype 1a and 1b in both trials. The placebo control arms in both studies were stopped because of high rates of virological failure. Numerically lower relapse rates were associated with longer treatment with mericitabine (24 versus 12 weeks), telaprevir-containing regimens, and regimens that included 48 weeks of PegIFN alfa-2a/RBV therapy. No mericitabine resistance mutations were identified in any patient in either trial. The addition of mericitabine did not add to the safety burden associated with either telaprevir or boceprevir-based regimens. These studies demonstrate increased SVR rates and reduced relapse rates in difficult-to-treat patients when a nucleoside polymerase inhibitor with intermediate antiviral potency is added to regimens containing a first-generation PI. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01482403 and ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01482390 PMID:26752189

  1. Efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin in the daily routine treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis C in Germany: the PRACTICE study.

    PubMed

    Witthoeft, T; Hueppe, D; John, C; Goelz, J; Heyne, R; Moeller, B; Teuber, G; Wollschlaeger, S; Baumgarten, A; Simon, K-G; Moog, G; Dikopoulos, N; Mauss, S

    2010-07-01

    In randomized clinical trials, treatment with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV) results in a sustained virological response (SVR) in around half of hepatitis C virus genotype 1-infected and 80% of genotype 2/3-infected individuals. This study aimed to evaluate efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV compared with peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in routine clinical practice. The intent-to-treat cohort consisted of 3414 patients treated with either peginterferon alfa-2a plus RBV (Group A) or peginterferon alfa-2b plus RBV (Group B) in 23 centres participating in the large, multicentre, observational PRACTICE study. Collected data included baseline characteristics, treatment regimen, RBV dose and outcome. Rates of early virological response, end of treatment response and SVR were 76.6%, 75.7% and 52.9% in Group A, and 70.2%, 65.6% and 50.5% in Group B, respectively. In patients matched by baseline parameters, 59.9% of patients in Group A and 55.9% in Group B achieved an SVR (P < or = 0.051). In genotype 1-infected patients matched by baseline parameters and cumulative RBV dose, SVR rates were 49.6% and 43.7% for Group A and Group B, respectively (P < or = 0.047); when matched by baseline parameters and RBV starting dose, SVR rates were 49.9% and 44.6%, respectively (P = 0.068). Overall, 21.8% of group A and 29.6% of group B patients discontinued treatment (P < or = 0.0001). The efficacy and tolerability of peginterferon plus RBV in this large cohort of patients treated in routine daily practice was similar to that in randomized clinical trials. In matched pairs analyses, more patients achieved an SVR with peginterferon alfa-2a compared with peginterferon alfa-2b. PMID:20158603

  2. Regulation of the human interleukin-2/interleukin-2 receptor system: A role for immunosuppression

    SciTech Connect

    Kaempfer, R.

    1994-12-31

    The strength of the cellular immune response is regulated to a large extent by the amount of interleukin-2 (IL-2) produced in response to a stimulus. The ability of lymphocytes and other cells to respond to IL-2 depends upon the expression of cell surface IL-2 receptors. Formation of a high-affinity IL-2 receptor is regulated primarily through induction of its {alpha} subunit, IL-2R{alpha}. Once formed, the IL-2R{alpha} chain turns over rapidly, rendering expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors during the immune response dependent upon continuous activity of the IL-2R{alpha} gene. The induced expression of both human IL-2 and IL-2R{alpha} chains is sensitive to cell-mediated suppression by CD8 cells; depletion of CD8 cells leads to extensive superinduction. This coupled suppression of IL-2 and IL-2R{alpha} genes greatly increases the extend of control, and strongly limits the strength, of the signal transduced by this ligand/receptor system during an immune response. 29 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Interleukin-2 in rheumatoid arthritis: production of and response to interleukin-2 in rheumatoid synovial fluid, synovial tissue and peripheral blood.

    PubMed Central

    Combe, B; Pope, R M; Fischbach, M; Darnell, B; Baron, S; Talal, N

    1985-01-01

    Several aspects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) generation and function were studied employing mononuclear cells from synovial fluid (SF), synovial tissue (ST) and peripheral blood (PB) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Decreased PHA stimulated IL-2 production by lymphocytes from rheumatoid ST, SF (P less than 0.02), and PB (P less than 0.01) was observed when compared to normal blood and SF of patients with gout. The proliferative response of rheumatoid lymphocyte blasts exposed to exogenous IL-2 was also defective (P less than 0.05-0.001). This defect was greater in SF than in rheumatoid PB (P less than 0.05-0.001). In addition to the proliferative response, the effect of IL-2 on interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production was also examined. Rheumatoid lymphocytes from both PB and SF produced less IFN-gamma after overnight treatment with IL-2 than did normal PB lymphocytes. This decreased IFN-gamma induction was discordant with the excellent enhancement by IL-2 of natural killer activity. Removal of adherent cells in synovial fluid did not correct this deficit. Abnormalities in the biology of IL-2 and IFN-gamma suggest that impaired T cell function could contribute to the immunopathogenesis of RA. PMID:3921298

  4. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor, interleukin-2 and interleukin-4 in sera and supernatants from patients with progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Famularo, G; Procopio, A; Giacomelli, R; Danese, C; Sacchetti, S; Perego, M A; Santoni, A; Tonietti, G

    1990-01-01

    We studied the sera of patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS) for elevated levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-4 (IL-4). We also measured IL-2, IL-4 and B cell growth factor (BCGF) activity in supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the same patients. The finding of elevated serum sIL-2R and IL-2, and the increased levels of IL-2, IL-4 and BCGF activity in culture supernatants indicates that T lymphocyte hyperactivity likely play a major role in PSS. The failure to detect under our experimental conditions a direct proliferative effect of recombinant IL-2 on enriched normal B cells might suggest that IL-4 is the cytokine mainly responsible of the BCGF activity recovered in PSS supernatants. PMID:2397608

  5. Interleukin-2 Plus Interferon Alfa in Treating Adults With Metastatic Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-05-10

    Chronic Myeloproliferative Disorders; Leukemia; Lymphoma; Multiple Myeloma and Plasma Cell Neoplasm; Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Precancerous/Nonmalignant Condition; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  6. Interleukin-2 therapy reverses some immunosuppressive effects of skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, Jason W.; Balch, Signe; Chapes, Stephen K.

    1994-01-01

    Using antiorthostatic suspension, we characterized hematopoietic changes that may be responsible for the detrimental effect of skeletal unloading on macrophage development. Skeletally unloaded mice had suppressed macrophage development in unloaded and loaded bones, which indicated a systemic effect. Bone marrow cells from unloaded mice secreted less macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-6 than control mice. Additionally, T-lymphocyte proliferation was reduced after skeletal unloading. We show that polyethylene glycol-interleukin-2 therapy reversed the effects of skeletal unloading on macrophage development and cell proliferation.

  7. Continuous infusion interleukin-2 and antihistamines in metastatic kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Walker, Paul R; Khuder, Sadik A; Quan, Walter D Y

    2005-10-01

    A prior randomized trial suggested a possible survival advantage favoring the combination of histamine and subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2), compared to IL-2 alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. It has been postulated previously that antihistamines may, therefore, actually be antagonistic to IL-2 and thus interfere with its antitumor activity. We have previously shown no such antagonistic effect in patients with melanoma receiving IL-2 and antihistamines when reviewing the known literature. We sought to determine whether there was any negative effect of the combination in patients with metastatic kidney cancer. A PubMed literature search between 1985 and 2005 was done. High-dose continuous (or constant) infusion (CIV) interleukin-2 was used as the reference therapy because of the relatively constant IL-2 levels generated by this approach. Studies in which cimetidine, ranitidine, or famotidine were regularly scheduled and administered concurrently with IL-2 were included. Thirteen studies were identified. A total of 47 patients responded to therapy. Total response rate = 22%; 95%; Confidence Interval: 17%-28%. Eleven complete responses were noted. Complete response rate = 5%; 95% Confidence Interval: 3%-9%. These response rates are consistent with previously noted IL-2 response rates. In this study of CIV IL-2 and antihistamines, this combination appears to be active in metastatic kidney cancer. There appears to be no negative effect of antihistamine on the CIV IL-2 response rate in this disease. PMID:16248764

  8. A humanized antibody that binds to the interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Queen, C; Schneider, W P; Selick, H E; Payne, P W; Landolfi, N F; Duncan, J F; Avdalovic, N M; Levitt, M; Junghans, R P; Waldmann, T A

    1989-01-01

    The anti-Tac monoclonal antibody is known to bind to the p55 chain of the human interleukin 2 receptor and to inhibit proliferation of T cells by blocking interleukin 2 binding. However, use of anti-Tac as an immunosuppressant drug would be impaired by the human immune response against this murine antibody. We have therefore constructed a "humanized" antibody by combining the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) of the anti-Tac antibody with human framework and constant regions. The human framework regions were chosen to maximize homology with the anti-Tac antibody sequence. In addition, a computer model of murine anti-Tac was used to identify several amino acids which, while outside the CDRs, are likely to interact with the CDRs or antigen. These mouse amino acids were also retained in the humanized antibody. The humanized anti-Tac antibody has an affinity for p55 of 3 x 10(9) M-1, about 1/3 that of murine anti-Tac. Images PMID:2513570

  9. Plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor in patients with primary myelofibrosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Wang, A

    1994-02-01

    Using en enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, the level of soluble Tac peptide, one chain of the human interleukin-2 receptor, was measured in the plasma of 26 patients with primary myelofibrosis (MF), seven patients with polycythaemia vera and 11 normal controls. The plasma soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) was found to be significantly elevated in patients with primary MF compared to polycythaemia vera or controls (P < 0.001), while the plasma sIL-2R of patients with polycythaemia vera also was found to be significantly elevated compared to controls (P < 0.01). The significantly elevated value of sIL-2R seen in primary MF may be secondary to T cell activation resulting from autoimmune phenomena, and myeloblast activation with release of sIL-2R may also be a contributing factor. In primary MF, plasma sIL-2R levels were also found to be correlated to survival, circulating blast cell counts, and thrombocytopenia, but not to white blood cell counts, LDH levels, degree of marrow fibrosis, or degree of splenomegaly. Patients with primary MF with higher titre of plasma sIL-2R had a shorter survival. Further studies involving more patients and longer follow-up may substantiate that plasma sIL-2R is an important prognostic indicator in primary MF. PMID:8199029

  10. [Interleukin 2 revival: a revisited model and new therapeutic applications].

    PubMed

    Jacques, Yannick; Mortier, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-2, a cytokine identified as T-cell growth factor, has long been regarded as central to the development and effector activities of immune responses. Several gene knockout mouse studies and observations in humans, however, have undermined that vision, and the discovery of regulatory T cells showed that IL-2, in contrast to the accepted dogma, has the essential function of promoting (1) homeostasis and (2) the function of these T regulator cells the which, limit the action of the effector cells, in particular to prevent the autoimmune reaction drifts. This new paradigm has major implications on the use of IL-2 in therapy, and creates new strategies to manipulate the Teffectors/Tregulators balance. PMID:27406772

  11. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  12. Pure Red Cell Aplasia Following Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dutcher, Janice P.; Fan, Wen; Wiernik, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    A 61-year-old woman with metastatic renal cell carcinoma underwent systemic treatment with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). Anemia requiring transfusion of 1 unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) was required during the second week of IL-2 therapy. One month following completion of high-dose IL-2 treatment, she was hospitalized for severe, symptomatic anemia and received 5 units of PRBCs. She was referred back for evaluation. A complete hematologic evaluation was performed including antiviral serology, evaluation for hemolysis, complete iron studies, and finally bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The diagnosis was pure red cell aplasia, and no inciting viral cause could be ascertained. She required PRBCs for 5 months following IL-2 therapy. It was concluded that IL-2 was the cause of her red cell aplasia. This subsequently resolved spontaneously, and she had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, 1 and 2 years after treatment. PMID:27144182

  13. Effect of spaceflight on lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Patricia V.; Konstantinova, Irina V.; Fuchs, Boris B.; Rakhmilevich, Alexandr L.; Lesniak, A. T.; Mastro, Andrea M.

    1992-01-01

    In this study, inguinal lymp node lymphocytes from rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission were tested for proliferation and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. Cells cultured with mitogenic lectins, phorbol ester, and calcium ionophore, or T-cell mitogen and lymphokine, were assayed for DNA synthesis by (H-3) thymidine incorporation. Lymphocytes incubated with a T-cell mitogen alone also were tested for IL-2 production. Proliferation of lymphocytes from flight rats was not significantly different from controls for any of the mitogens tested. Furthermore, lymph node lymphocytes from control and flown rats produced similar amounts of IL-23. Thus microgravity may act on lymphocytes in a tissue-specific manner, a new finding that could impact on the evaluation of spaceflight effects on immunocompetence.

  14. Type I Diabetes-Associated Tolerogenic Properties of Interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; Gaudreau, Simon; Nguyen, Alex; Sabha, Mahmoud; Amrani, Abdelaziz; ElGhazali, Geyhad

    2011-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) results from insulin-producing beta cells destruction by diabetogenic T lymphocytes in humans and nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The breakdown of tolerance has been associated with a defect in the number and the function of naturally occurring regulatory T cells (nTreg) that are the master player in peripheral tolerance. Gene knockout experiments in mouse models have shown a nonredundant activity of IL-2 related to its critical role in inducing nTreg and controlling peripheral T cell tolerance. Whereas strong evidence has suggested that IL-2 is critically required for nTreg-mediated T1D control, several fundamental questions remain to be addressed. In this paper, we highlight the recent findings and controversies regarding the tolerogenic properties of IL-2 mediated through nTreg. We further discuss a potential link between the immunomodulatory role of interleukin-2 and the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. PMID:21647403

  15. Enhancement of interleukin-2 immunotherapy with L-arginine.

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, M D; Nishioka, K; Redmond, H P; Daly, J M

    1992-01-01

    Nutrient substrates have been shown to enhance cell-mediated immunity, but their role as adjuvants to immunotherapy has not been previously determined. This study evaluated L-arginine as an essential substrate for optimal generation of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells. This experiment also assessed supplemental dietary L-arginine as a means to potentiate the host antitumor response to interleukin-2 (IL-2) in a murine neuroblastoma (NRB) model. A/J mice received 1% arginine or isonitrogenous 1.7% glycine in addition to a regular diet 14 days before subcutaneous inoculation with C1300 NRB cells. Twenty-four hours later, animals received low (1 x 10(6) U/kg three times a day) or high (3 x 10(6) U/kg three times a day) doses of IL-2 or saline intraperitoneally for 4 days. On days 4 and 10 post-C1300 NRB inoculation, mice were killed for assessment of natural killer cell and tumor specific cytotoxicity. Remaining animals were followed for tumor incidence, tumor growth, and duration of host survival. Interleukin-2 therapy in mice receiving dietary arginine compared with those receiving glycine resulted in significantly augmented natural killer cell cytotoxicity (day 4) and generation of specific tumoricidal mechanisms (day 10). The addition of dietary arginine to low-dose IL-2 therapy significantly diminished C1300 NRB engraftment (p less than 0.05) and growth (p less than 0.001) and prolonged the duration of host survival (p less than 0.05) compared with the glycine treatment group. In vitro studies demonstrated that L-arginine is an essential substrate for optimal generation of LAK cells. Thus, supplemental dietary L-arginine enhances lymphocyte cytotoxic mechanisms and potentiates IL-2 immunotherapy. PMID:1546902

  16. Human Interleukin-2 and Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Screening for Bacteriolytic Activity against Various Bacterial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Levashov, P. A.; Ovchinnikova, E. D.; Morozova, O. A.; Matolygina, D. A.; Osipova, H. E.; Cherdyntseva, T. A.; Savin, S. S.; Zakharova, G. S.; Alekseeva, A. A.; Belogurova, N. G.; Smirnov, S. A.; Tishkov, V. I.; Levashov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and hen egg white lysozyme against 34 different species of microorganisms has been studied. It was found that 6 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of interleukin-2. All interleukin-2-sensitive microorganisms belong either to the Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae, or the Lactobacillaceae family. It was also found that 12 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of lysozyme, and 16 species of microorganisms are lysed in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The bacteriolytic activity of interleukin-2 and lysozyme was studied at various pH values. PMID:27099789

  17. Dexamethasone inhibits human interleukin 2 but not interleukin 2 receptor gene expression in vitro at the level of nuclear transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Boumpas, D T; Anastassiou, E D; Older, S A; Tsokos, G C; Nelson, D L; Balow, J E

    1991-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids have an inhibitory effect on the expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) and interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) genes. To determine the mechanisms of this inhibition, human T lymphocytes were stimulated with mitogens in the presence of dexamethasone. Nuclear transcription run-off assays showed that high doses of dexamethasone inhibited the transcription of the IL-2 gene but not that of the IL-2R gene. Post-transcriptionally, high doses of dexamethasone (10(-4) M) were required to inhibit IL-2R mRNA levels by 50%, whereas lower doses (10(-6) M) inhibited by greater than 70% the accumulation of IL-2 mRNA. IL-2 mRNA half-life decreased in the presence of dexamethasone (10(-6) M) by approximately 50%. At the protein product level, dexamethasone inhibited both IL-2 production, as well as cell surface and soluble forms of IL-2R. IL-2R gene expression was inhibited for at least 72 h after exposure of cells to dexamethasone. In the presence of exogenous IL-2, dexamethasone failed to exert a significant effect on the production of IL-2R protein. These data indicate that dexamethasone has a greater effect on the expression of the IL-2 gene than on the IL-2R gene. Dexamethasone both inhibits transcription of the IL-2 gene and decreases the stability of IL-2 mRNA. The effect of dexamethasone on the IL-2R gene is post-transcriptional and may result indirectly from decreased IL-2 production. Images PMID:2022743

  18. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  19. HLA association with response and toxicity in melanoma patients treated with interleukin 2-based immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Marincola, F M; Venzon, D; White, D; Rubin, J T; Lotze, M T; Simonis, T B; Balkissoon, J; Rosenberg, S A; Parkinson, D R

    1992-12-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 146 patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing interleukin 2 (IL-2)-based immunotherapy were characterized for HLA A, B, Cw, DR, DQw, and DRw specificities. Patients had been enrolled into sequential treatment protocols with either IL-2 alone (28) or in combination with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) (86), alpha-interferon (26), lymphokine-activated killer cells (16), radiation therapy (7), cyclophosphamide (3), tumor necrosis factor (1), and interleukin 4 (1) for a total of 168 courses of therapy. HLA phenotype was then correlated with response rate and toxicity to IL-2. We noted: (a) a significant difference in the frequency of A11 (20.5% versus 10.2%; P < 0.05) allele between melanoma patients and the North American Caucasian population; (b) a significantly higher frequency of A11 phenotype among responders (40.5%) than in the melanoma patient population (20.5%; P < 0.01), which was even more obvious among patients responding to TIL therapy (47.4% versus 22.1%; P < 0.05); within TIL patients, responders also had an increased frequency of A19 (42.1% versus 25.6%; P < 0.05); (c) a correlation between the number of TILs received and response rate (P < 0.005); and (d) an association between DR4 haplotype and decreased tolerance to IL-2 among the patients receiving TILs (P = 0.01). These results suggest that, in melanoma patients, some HLA Class I specificities may predict for a greater likelihood of response to IL-2-based therapy, while HLA Class II phenotype correlates with tolerance to the combination of TIL and IL-2 therapy. PMID:1423301

  20. Clinical significance of serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Kawatani, T; Endo, A; Tajima, F; Ooi, S; Kawasaki, H

    1997-02-01

    Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were determined in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPD): 18 with chronic myelogenous leukemia in chronic phase (CML in CP), seven with CML in accelerated phase (AP) or blastic crisis (BC), six with polycythemia vera (PV), eight with essential thrombocythemia (ET), one with primary myelofibrosis (PMF), and 50 controls. The mean (+/-S.E.M.) levels were higher in CMPD than in controls (CML in AP or BC, 2693 +/- 694 U/ml, P < 0.0001; CML in CP, 792 +/- 63 U/ml, P < 0.0001; PV 553 +/- 89 U/ml, P < 0.05; ET, 449 +/- 56 U/ml; PMF, 628 U/ml vs. controls, 395 +/- 25 U/ml). Patients with CML in CP had significantly higher serum sIL-2R levels than patients with ET (P < 0.005), and levels were markedly elevated in AP and BC (P < 0.001). Serum sIL-2R levels were positively correlated with WBC count and lactic dehydrogenase in CMPD, and in CML in CP. Serum sIL-2R levels in CMPD were negatively correlated with RBC and platelet counts. Serum sIL-2R levels were significantly lower in patients with CML in CP who showed a cytogenetic response after interferon (IFN) therapy than in those who showed no response (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that a high serum sIL-2R level reflects the leukocyte growth in CMPD and is useful both for differentiating CML from other CMPD and for predicting the response to IFN therapy in CML. PMID:9071816

  1. Interferon treatment for chronic hepatitis C infection in hemophiliacs--influence of virus load, genotype, and liver pathology on response.

    PubMed

    Hanley, J P; Jarvis, L M; Andrew, J; Dennis, R; Hayes, P C; Piris, J; Lee, R; Simmonds, P; Ludlam, C A

    1996-03-01

    In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of interferon treatment in 31 hemophiliacs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Interferon alfa-2a (3 MU three times weekly) was administered for 6 months. Response was assessed by both serial alanine transaminase (ALT) and HCV RNA levels measured by a sensitive semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. HCV genotype was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and evidence of changing genotypes during interferon therapy was sought. Severity of liver disease was assessed by both noninvasive and invasive methods, including laparoscopic liver inspection and biopsy. Sustained normalization of ALT levels occurred in eight patients (28%), and seven (24%) became nonviremic as assessed by PCR (<80 HCV/mL). Responders universally cleared HCV RNA within 2 months of starting interferon. Genotype 3a was associated with a favorable response to interferon. No evidence was found for a change in circulating genotype in patients who failed to respond to interferon or who relapsed. This study confirms that response rates to interferon are low in hemophiliacs as compared with other groups with chronic HCV infection. We have also demonstrated that virus load measurement over the first 8 to 12 weeks of treatment is an extremely useful method to identify responders at an early stage. PMID:8634415

  2. Continuous infusion interleukin-2 and intravenous famotidine in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Milligan, Karen S; Quan, Francine M; Cuenca, Rosa E; Khan, Nawazish; Liles, Darla K; Walker, Paul R

    2006-12-01

    Lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) cytotoxicity against tumor cells is induced by the use of high-dose infusional interleukin-2 (IL-2). LAK cytotoxicity against neoplastic cells may be augmented by famotidine. Twelve (12) patients have been treated with continuous infusion IL-2 (18 MIU/m2/24 hours) for 72 hours and famotidine 20 mg IVPB twice per day. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. These patients were of median age--67 years (range, 25-79), had a median performance status of 1 (range, 0-1), and had metastatic sites, including lung, lymph node, subcutaneous/soft tissue, and liver. The most common toxicities of this regimen were fever, rigors, nausea/emesis, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia. Three (3) partial responses have been seen (25% response rate). One (1) of these responders has undergone complete surgical resection and is disease-free at 15+ months. Four (4) patients are alive at a median of > 25 months. The median survival for all patients is 13 months. This combination of infusional IL-2 with famotidine is active in metastatic melanoma. PMID:17257076

  3. Continuous infusion interleukin-2 and famotidine in metastatic kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Quan, Francine M; Khan, Nawazish; Liles, Darla K; Walker, Paul R

    2006-10-01

    Infusional interleukin-2 (IL-2) is able to elicit lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) cytotoxicity against kidney cancer in vitro and in vivo. Famotidine may be able to augment LAK cytotoxicity against neoplastic cells. Fifteen (15) patients were treated with continuous-infusion IL-2 (9-18 MIU/m2/24 hours) for 72 hours and famotidine 20 mg intravenously twice per day. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. These patients had a median age of 60 years (range, 29-72), had a median performance status of 1 (range, 0-1), and had metastatic sites, including lung, bone, lymph node, and liver. The most common toxicities of this regimen were hypophosphatemia, fever, nausea/emesis, rigors, elevated creatinine, and hypomagnesemia. One (1) complete and 6 partial responses have been seen (47% response rate). The median duration of response is 9 months. The median survival for all patients is 20 months. Five (5) patients are alive at a median of 36+ months. This combination of infusional IL-2 with famotidine is active in metastatic kidney cancer. PMID:17105423

  4. Soluble serum interleukin 2 receptor levels in leprosy patients

    PubMed Central

    Tung, K. S. K.; Umland, Edith; Matzner, P.; Nelson, K.; Schauf, Victoria; Rubin, L.; Wagner, D.; Scollard, D.; Vithayasai, Prakong; Vithayasai, Vicharn; Worobec, Sophie; Smith, T.; Suriyanond, Vinai

    1987-01-01

    Soluble interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R) in sera of leprosy patients from Chiang Mai, Thailand, were quantified with a solid phase enzyme immunoassay using two monoclonal antibodies to the IL-2R. The IL-2R levels of untreated lepromatous, borderline lepromatous or midborderline patients and treated lepromatous and borderline lepromatous or treated borderline tuberculoid and tuberculoid patients were comparable to those of the Thai household or nonhousehold contacts; and they were significantly higher than the levels of USA control subjects. In contrast, IL-2R of untreated tuberculoid or borderline tuberculoid patients were significantly reduced. Patients with ongoing reversal reaction had very high circulating IL-2R, the levels of which correlated with fever and extent of skin lesions. Although erythrema nodosum leprosum patients also had elevated IL-2R levels, they were significantly below those of patients with reversal reaction. When treated with corticosteroid, precipitous reduction of IL-2R was noted in all patients with reversal reaction but not in patients with erythema nodosum leprosum. PMID:3115652

  5. Modeling interleukin-2-based immunotherapy in AIDS pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Joly, Marcel; Odloak, Darci

    2013-10-21

    In this paper, we sought to identify the CD4(+) T-cell dynamics in the course of HIV infection in response to continuous and intermittent intravenous courses of interleukin-2 (IL-2), the principal cytokine responsible for progression of CD4(+) T-lymphocytes from the G1 to the S phase of the cell cycle. Based on multivariate regression models, previous literature has concluded that the increase in survival of CD4(+) T-cell appears to be the critical mechanism leading to sustained CD4(+) T-cell levels in HIV-infected patients receiving intermittent IL-2 therapy. Underscored by comprehensive mathematical modeling, a major finding of the present work is related to the fact that, rather than due to any increase in survival of CD4(+) T-cells, the expressive, selective and sustained CD4(+) T-cell expansions following IL-2 administration may be related to the role of IL-2 in modulating the dynamics of Fas-dependent apoptotic pathways, such as activation-induced cell death (AICD) or HIV-specific apoptotic routes triggered by viral proteins. PMID:23806696

  6. Interleukin 2 maintains biologic stability and sterility over prolonged time.

    PubMed

    Safar, M; Junghans, R P

    2000-09-01

    The FDA approved interleukin 2 (IL2) for clinical use in 1992 in a high-dose bolus intravenous infusion schedule. IL2 administered by continuous low- and intermediate-dose infusion can result in a variety of immunologic effects including the expansion of the Natural Killer (NK) cell pool and immune reconstitution in immune-deficient hosts. These immune modifications are essential for augmentation of both currently available and evolving immunotherapies. The manufacturer's data indicate stability of the IL2 for a period of 6 days. This time frame is not practical for prolonged infusional schemes necessitating frequent changes of drug depots. We tested the biologic stability and sterility of the commercially available recombinant IL2 preparation (aldesleukin; Proleukin, Chiron) under clinical conditions for up to 30 days. Our results confirm that IL2 retains its biologic activity and sterility under these conditions for prolonged periods. This information will simplify IL2 outpatient regimens, allowing for convenient intervals for drug depot renewal, leading to improved patient compliance and conserved health care expenditures. PMID:10996039

  7. Structural and functional characterisation of ferret interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Bin; McKinstry, William J; Pham, Tam; Newman, Janet; Layton, Daniel S; Bean, Andrew G; Chen, Zhenjun; Laurie, Karen L; Borg, Kathryn; Barr, Ian G; Adams, Timothy E

    2016-02-01

    While the ferret is a valuable animal model for a number of human viral infections, such as influenza, Hendra and Nipah, evaluating the cellular immune response following infection has been hampered by the lack of a number of species-specific immunological reagents. Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is one such key cytokine. Ferret recombinant IL-2 incorporating a C-terminal histidine tag was expressed and purified and the three-dimensional structure solved and refined at 1.89 Å by X-ray crystallography, which represents the highest resolution and first non-human IL-2 structure. While ferret IL-2 displays the classic cytokine fold of the four-helix bundle structure, conformational flexibility was observed at the second helix and its neighbouring region in the bundle, which may result in the disruption of the spatial arrangement of residues involved in receptor binding interactions, implicating subtle differences between ferret and human IL-2 when initiating biological functions. Ferret recombinant IL-2 stimulated the proliferation of ferret lymph node cells and induced the expression of mRNA for IFN-γ and Granzyme A. PMID:26472619

  8. Interleukin 2 signaling involves the phosphorylation of Stat proteins.

    PubMed

    Frank, D A; Robertson, M J; Bonni, A; Ritz, J; Greenberg, M E

    1995-08-15

    One of the most important cytokines involved in immune response regulation is interleukin 2 (IL-2), a potent activator of the proliferation and function of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells. The mechanisms by which the effects of IL-2 are propagated within cells are not understood. While the binding of IL-2 to its receptor was recently shown to lead to the activation of two kinases, Jak-1 and Jak-3, subsequent steps in the signaling pathway to the nucleus that lead to the activation of specific genes had not been characterized. Since many cytokines that activate Jak kinases also lead to the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of members of the Stat family of transcription factors, the ability of IL-2 to trigger Stat phosphorylation was examined. Exposure of activated human T lymphocytes or of a natural killer cell line (NKL) to IL-2 leads to the phosphorylation of Stat1 alpha, Stat1 beta, and Stat3, as well as of two Stat-related proteins, p94 and p95. p94 and p95 share homology with Stat1 at the phosphorylation site and in the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, but otherwise are immunologically distinct from Stat1. These Stat proteins were found to translocate to the nucleus and to bind to a specific DNA sequence. These findings suggest a mechanism by which IL-2 binding to its receptor may activate specific genes involved in immune cell function. PMID:7544001

  9. An Anti-Interleukin-2 Receptor Drug Attenuates T- Helper 1 Lymphocytes-Mediated Inflammation in an Acute Model of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Navea, Amparo; Almansa, Inmaculada; Muriach, María; Bosch-Morell, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory efficacy of Daclizumab, an anti-interleukin-2 receptor drug, in an experimental uveitis model upon a subcutaneous injection of lipopolysaccharide into Lewis rats, a valuable model for ocular acute inflammatory processes. The integrity of the blood-aqueous barrier was assessed 24 h after endotoxin-induced uveitis by evaluating two parameters: cell count and protein concentration in aqueous humors. The histopathology of all the ocular structures (cornea, lens, sclera, choroid, retina, uvea, and anterior and posterior chambers) was also considered. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of the aqueous humor samples were performed to quantify the levels of the different chemokine and cytokine proteins. Similarly, a biochemical analysis of oxidative stress-related markers was also assessed. The inflammation observed in the anterior chamber of the eyes when Daclizumab was administered with endotoxin was largely prevented since the aqueous humor protein concentration substantially lowered concomitantly with a significant reduction in the uveal and vitreous histopathological grading. Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon-γ, also significantly reduced with related anti-oxidant systems recovery. Daclizumab treatment in endotoxin-induced uveitis reduced Th1 lymphocytes-related cytokines, such as Interleukin-2 and Interferon gamma, by about 60–70% and presented a preventive role in endotoxin-induced oxidative stress. This antioxidant protective effect of Daclizumab may be related to several of the observed Daclizumab effects in our study, including IL-6 cytokine regulatory properties and a substantial concomitant drop in INFγ. Concurrently, Daclizumab treatment triggered a significant reduction in both the uveal histopathological grading and protein concentration in aqueous humors, but not in cellular infiltration. PMID:24595020

  10. Myelostimulatory activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Talmadge, J.E.; Schneider, M.; Keller, J.; Ruscetti, F.; Longo, D.; Pennington, R.; Bowersox, O.; Tribble, H.

    1989-05-01

    In a series of studies designed to extend our understanding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and to study the effect of biologic response modifiers on bone marrow, we observed that administering recombinant human (rH) IL-2 to normal mice resulted in an increase in the frequency of colony-forming units-culture (CFU-C) in bone marrow. In addition, rH IL-2 was able to accelerate host recovery from cyclophosphamide (CTX)- or radiation-induced bone marrow depression and peripheral blood leukopenia. Not only can rH IL-2 accelerate, in a dose-dependent manner, the return of bone marrow, peripheral blood cellularity, and CFU-C frequency to normal levels following cytoreduction by CTX or irradiation, but it also significantly increases CFU-C frequency to greater than normal levels. Furthermore, rH IL-2 can significantly prolong survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of irradiation or CTX. Thus, multiple mechanisms are responsible for the synergistic therapeutic activity associated with rH IL-2 and CTX. rH IL-2 does not act only as an immunomodulatory agent in the presence or absence of suppressor T cells, but also accelerates host recovery from cytoreductive agents, resulting in decreased leukopenia and perhaps resistances to secondary infection. Thus, rH IL-2 plus chemotherapy may increase therapeutic activity against neoplastic disease, not only by adding immune stimulation to the direct antitumor effect of the drug but also by allowing delivery of higher, more effective doses of chemotherapy.

  11. [Biological properties and therapeutic use of interleukin 2 (IL-2)].

    PubMed

    Robak, T

    1995-01-01

    A cytokine produced by the subpopulation of activated helper lymphocytes T has been called interleukin-2 (IL-2). The obtaining of recombinant cytokine has facilitated the study of its biological properties and its application in the treatment of certain neoplastic and infectious diseases. IL-2 affects the target cells by means of a receptor of great affinity consisting of three independent chains: alpha, beta, gamma. The cytokine is the most important growth factor of lymphocytes T, conditioning their clonal expansion. Antigen stimulation is the condition for the expression of IL-2 does not, however, affect resting lymphocytes T. The expression of the receptor for this cytokine on NK cells is, however, continuous in character but only a very small percentage of these cells has receptors of great affinity. IL-2 plays a great role in adoptive immunotherapy consisting in intravenous administration of cells with cytotoxic properties. Cells obtained from peripheral blood and grown in vitro are called LAK cells (lymphocyte activated killer cells), while cells obtained from neoplasms and grown in similar conditions are named TIL cells (tumor infiltrated lymphocytes). LAK and TIL cells reveal a similar antineoplastic activity in vivo. At present, however, recombinant IL-2 alone is used more often, either intravenously or subcutaneously. The cytokine is effective in the treatment of patients with disseminate cancer of the kidney and melanoma, and in adjuvant therapy of acute myeloid leukemia. Attempts have been made to apply it in the treatment of AIDS and leprosy. The toxic effect of IL-2 depends on the dose and the mode of administration. In the majority of patients parainfluenza symptoms appear. Most undesirable effects are connected with multisystemic syndrome of capillary vessels hyperpermeability leading to the increased fluid retention into extravascular spaces, oedema, hypotonia and oliguria. PMID:8657637

  12. Increasing Regulatory T Cells With Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-2 Antibody Complexes Attenuates Lung Inflammation and Heart Failure Progression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Hou, Lei; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Xu, Xin; Chen, Angela; Chen, Wei; Blazar, Bruce R; Xu, Yawei; Hall, Jennifer L; Ge, Jun-Bo; Bache, Robert J; Chen, Yingjie

    2016-07-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is associated with an increase of leukocyte infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, and fibrosis in the heart and lung. Regulatory T cells (Tregs, CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+)) suppress inflammatory responses in various clinical conditions. We postulated that expansion of Tregs attenuates CHF progression by reducing cardiac and lung inflammation. We investigated the effects of interleukin-2 (IL-2) plus IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 complexes (IL2/JES6-1) on induction of Tregs, transverse aortic constriction-induced cardiac and lung inflammation, and CHF progression in mice. We demonstrated that end-stage CHF caused a massive increase of lung macrophages and T cells, as well as relatively mild left ventricular (LV) leukocyte infiltration. Administration of IL2/JES6-1 caused an ≈6-fold increase of Tregs within CD4(+) T cells in the spleen, lung, and heart of mice. IL2/JES6-1 treatment of mice with existing transverse aortic constriction-induced LV failure markedly reduced lung and right ventricular weight and improved LV ejection fraction and LV end-diastolic pressure. Mechanistically, IL2/JES6-1 treatment significantly increased Tregs; suppressed CD4(+) T-cell accumulation; dramatically attenuated leukocyte infiltration, including decreasing CD45(+) cells, macrophages, CD8(+) T cells, and effector memory CD8(+); and reduced proinflammatory cytokine expressions and fibrosis in the lung of mice. Furthermore, IL2/JES6-1 administered before transverse aortic constriction attenuated the development of LV hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice. Our data indicate that increasing Tregs through administration of IL2/JES6-1 effectively attenuates pulmonary inflammation, right ventricular hypertrophy, and further LV dysfunction in mice with existing LV failure, suggesting that strategies to properly expand Tregs may be useful in reducing CHF progression. PMID:27160197

  13. Interleukin-2/Anti-Interleukin-2 Immune Complex Expands Regulatory T Cells and Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Aortic Stiffening.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Beenish; Tawinwung, Supannikar; Eberson, Lance S; Secomb, Timothy W; Larmonier, Nicolas; Larson, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive immune function is implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disease. Inhibition of T-lymphocyte function has been shown to reduce hypertension, target-organ damage, and vascular stiffness. To study the role of immune inhibitory cells, CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), on vascular stiffness, we stimulated the proliferation of Treg lymphocytes in vivo using a novel cytokine immune complex of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and anti-IL-2 monoclonal antibody clone JES6-1 (mAbCD25). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with IL-2/mAbCD25 concomitantly with continuous infusion of angiotensin type 1 receptor agonist, [Val(5)]angiotensin II. Our results indicate that the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex effectively induced Treg phenotype expansion by 5-fold in the spleens with minimal effects on total CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-lymphocyte numbers. The IL-2/mAbCD25 complex inhibited angiotensin II-mediated aortic collagen remodeling and the resulting stiffening, analyzed with in vivo pulse wave velocity and effective Young's modulus. Furthermore, the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex suppressed angiotensin II-mediated Th17 responses in the lymphoid organs and reduced gene expression of IL-17 as well as T cell and macrophage infiltrates in the aortic tissue. This study provides data that support the protective roles of Tregs in vascular stiffening and highlights the use of the IL-2/mAbCD25 complex as a new potential therapy in angiotensin II-related vascular diseases. PMID:25258681

  14. The interleukin 2 gene is expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast of the human placenta

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, K.D.; Kelley, M.F.; Ilan, J.; Ilan, J. )

    1989-01-01

    The lymphokine interleukin 2 is an important immune system regulatory glycopolypeptide. It is produced by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T lymphocytes and is required for the proliferation or clonal expansion of activated T lymphocytes. In this report, it is demonstrated by RNA transfer blot hybridization that the poly(A){sup +} RNA population of the human placenta contains a 0.85-kilobase RNA transcript that specifically hybridizes to a human interleukin 2 cDNA probe. By using hybridization histochemistry in situ, it is further shown that interleukin 2 RNA transcripts are localized, primarily, to the syncytial (syncytiotrophoblast) layer of the human placenta. Possible roles for syncytiotrophoblast-produced interleukin 2 are suggested and discussed.

  15. Pulse infusion interleukin-2 with famotidine and cyclophosphamide has activity in previously treated metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Knupp, Charles; Quan, Francine; Walker, Paul

    2010-04-01

    There is no established systemic therapy for patients with stage IV melanoma refractory to prior systemic treatment. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is capable of inducing T-lymphocyte cytotoxicity against melanoma in vitro and in vivo. Famotidine may enhance the activity of T-cells further by allowing for increased IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Cyclophosphamide may decrease the immunosuppressive effects of regulatory T-cells. Daily short intravenous (i.v.) infusions (pulses) of IL-2 were used to treat 14 patients with metastatic melanoma, all of whom had experienced disease progression despite prior systemic therapy. The patients received 21.6 million IU/m(2) of pulse IL-2 i.v. for 15-30 minutes, preceded by 20 mg of famotidine i.v. (13) patients received 350 mg/m(2) of cyclophosphamide i.v. on day 1 (1 patient did not). Eight (8) patients were treated in an oncology inpatient unit while, most recently, 6 patients have received therapy on an outpatient basis. The cycles were repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression occurred. The patients included 10 males with a median age of 56 (range 31-87) with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of -1 (range 0 - -1). Common metastatice sites included lymph nodes (13), lungs (8), liver (4), and subcutaneous (4). Prior systemic therapy included IL-2 (11), interferon (7), and chemotherapy (7). The median number of cycles the patients underwent was 3 with a range of 1-7. The most common toxic reactions were fever, rigors, nausea/emesis, hypomagnesemia, and hypophosphatemia. One complete response and four partial responses were observed (response rate, 36%; 95% confidence interval: 14%-64%). Responses occurred in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and subcutaneous sites. The median response duration was 3.4 months, with a median survival of 8.3 months for the entire group. Six (6) patients remain alive with a median survival of 10.3 months. Pulse IL-2 with famotidine and cyclophosphamide

  16. Immunotherapy with imiquimod and interferon alfa for metastasized Merkel cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, R.U.; Braunschweig, T.; Ghassemi, A.; Rübben, A.

    2016-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (mcc) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the skin. Remission rates are high with chemotherapy in patients with metastasis, but without any improvement in overall survival. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman with facial mcc. After radiation and surgery, the mcc recurred with widespread cutaneous and regional lymph node metastases. The metastases were treated with weekly intralesional injections of 1–2×106 IU interferon alfa-2a, accompanied by topical imiquimod 5% cream 3 times weekly. After partial regression, subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2b was added at a dose of 30 μg weekly, which was then increased to 50 μg weekly. At 4 months after the start of immunotherapy, all cutaneous metastases and the intralesionally treated lymph node metastases receded. Interruption or reduction of systemic interferon application resulted in locoregional relapses that were successfully treated with surgery or intralesional interferon injections. The patient remains alive 30 months after initiation of immunotherapy, suggesting that locally metastasized mcc might be able to be controlled with local and systemic immunotherapy. PMID:27122984

  17. Immunotherapy with imiquimod and interferon alfa for metastasized Merkel cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R U; Braunschweig, T; Ghassemi, A; Rübben, A

    2016-04-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (mcc) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine tumour of the skin. Remission rates are high with chemotherapy in patients with metastasis, but without any improvement in overall survival. We present the case of a 90-year-old woman with facial mcc. After radiation and surgery, the mcc recurred with widespread cutaneous and regional lymph node metastases. The metastases were treated with weekly intralesional injections of 1-2×10(6) IU interferon alfa-2a, accompanied by topical imiquimod 5% cream 3 times weekly. After partial regression, subcutaneous pegylated interferon alfa-2b was added at a dose of 30 μg weekly, which was then increased to 50 μg weekly. At 4 months after the start of immunotherapy, all cutaneous metastases and the intralesionally treated lymph node metastases receded. Interruption or reduction of systemic interferon application resulted in locoregional relapses that were successfully treated with surgery or intralesional interferon injections. The patient remains alive 30 months after initiation of immunotherapy, suggesting that locally metastasized mcc might be able to be controlled with local and systemic immunotherapy. PMID:27122984

  18. Chemical Modification of Recombinant Interleukin 2 by Polyethylene Glycol Increases Its Potency in the Murine Meth A Sarcoma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katre, Nandini V.; Knauf, Michael J.; Laird, Walter J.

    1987-03-01

    Recombinant human interleukin 2 purified from Escherichia coli has limited solubility at neutral pH and a short circulatory half-life. This recombinant interleukin 2 was chemically modified by an active ester of polyethylene glycol. The modified interleukin 2 was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. This conjugate was compared to unmodified recombinant interleukin 2 in vitro and in vivo. Covalent attachment of the hydrophilic polymer polyethylene glycol enhanced the solubility of interleukin 2, decreased its plasma clearance, and increased its antitumor potency in the Meth A murine sarcoma model.

  19. Reduced secondary cytokine induction by BAY 50-4798, a high-affinity receptor-specific interleukin-2 analog.

    PubMed

    Steppan, Sonja; Eckart, Michael R; Bajsarowicz, Krystyna; Sternberg, Lawrence R; Greve, Jeffrey M; Cassell, Delanie J

    2006-03-01

    Recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) (aldesleukin, Proleukin, Chiron, Emeryville, CA) is approved for treatment of cancer patients and under investigation in HIV-infected individuals. However, treatment with aldesleukin is associated with toxicity, which may be due to its elicitation of inflammatory mediators from cells that express the intermediate-affinity IL-2 receptor. BAY 50-4798, a novel IL-2 analog, is a selective agonist for the high-affinity receptor. It induces the proliferation of activated T cells with a potency similar to that of aldesleukin but has reduced activity on cells expressing the intermediate-affinity receptor. In the current study, we compared cytokine responses elicited in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures stimulated with BAY 50-4798 or aldesleukin. BAY 50-4798 induced approximately 5-fold lower mean levels of endogenous IL-2 than aldesleukin, and at least 50% lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis fctor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1beta, IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Furthermore, statistically significant reductions in the levels of IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) were observed in response to BAY 50-4798. These findings increase our understanding of the biologic action of BAY 50-4798 and suggest a mechanism by which it may exhibit better safety than aldesleukin in humans. PMID:16542139

  20. Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell phenomenon in cluster headache. "In vitro" activation by recombinant interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Giacovazzo, M; Stirparo, G; DeStefano, L; Martelletti, P; Rinaldi-Garaci, C

    1989-03-01

    Previous studies showed that the Natural Killer (NK) activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from cluster headache (CH) patients is lower than that of controls. This decreased activity seems to be independent of the cluster period. beta-interferon has been shown to be more effective in increasing NK activity when incubated with PBL from CH patients, than with PBL from control donors. Lymphokine-Activated Killer (LAK) cells can be generated by incubation of human PBL in recombinant Interleukin-2 (rIL-2). This phenomenon was studied in 10 CH patients and 8 healthy volunteers. PBL were activated to LAK cells by "in vitro" incubation for 72 hours in Control Medium containing rIL-2 (1000 I.U./ml). A four hour Chromium 51 release was used to measure LAK Cell Killing of K562 target cells. The released radioactivity was measured in a gamma scintillation counter. The CH patients showed a marked increase of LAK generation compared to control subjects. This effect seems to be augmented during the cluster period. PMID:2785095

  1. Direct recognition of SLA- and HLA-like class II antigens on porcine endothelium by human T cells results in T cell activation and release of interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Bravery, C A; Batten, P; Yacoub, M H; Rose, M L

    1995-11-15

    To investigate whether human T cells can directly recognize pig xenoantigens, highly purified human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were incubated with pig aortic endothelial cells (PAEC). The response was measured by [3H]thymidine uptake and release of bioactive interleukin-2. A detailed examination of MHC expression by cultured PAEC and tissue sections of porcine aorta and heart showed porcine endothelial cells (EC) to be constitutively positive for SLA class II and antigens that crossreact with HLA class II molecules. Low level expression of B7 receptors was detected by binding of both human and mouse CTLA-4-Ig to untreated PAEC, which was enhanced significantly by treatment with recombinant porcine interferon-gamma. Human T cells, purified by positive selection and residual DR+ cells removed by lymphocytolysis, were shown to be functionally free of monocytes. Untreated PAEC elicited strong proliferation by human CD4+ T cells: CD8+ T cells also proliferated, but more weakly. This response was inhibited by CTLA-4-Ig. Blocking studies were performed with mAbs that bind to PAEC and not human EC (MSA3, TH16B), an mAb that binds to human and porcine EC (DA6.231), and L243, which binds to human and not porcine EC. The proliferative response of CD4+ T cells to PAEC was inhibited significantly by mAbs against swine and human determinants. In contrast, the response of CD4+ T cells to human EC was inhibited only by mAbs against human determinants. Experiments that directly compared the CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to PAEC and the human EC line EAhy.926, both with and without prior treatment with species-specific interferon gamma, demonstrated greater proliferation and 5-10 times more interleukin-2 in response to pig EC than to human EC. PMID:7491676

  2. Ribavirin improves early responses to peginterferon through enhanced interferon signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Jordan J.; Lutchman, Glen A.; Heller, Theo; Hara, Koji; Pfeiffer, Julie K.; Leff, Richard D; Meek, Claudia; Rivera, Maria; Ko, Myung; Koh, Christopher; Rotman, Yaron; Ghany, Marc G.; Haynes-Williams, Vanessa; Neumann, Avidan U.; Liang, T. Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims: The therapeutic mechanisms of ribavirin for hepatitis C are unclear. Microarray analyses have shown that ribavirin increases induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). We evaluated viral kinetics, serum cytokine expression, and viral mutagenesis during early stages of peginterferon therapy with and without ribavirin. Methods: Fifty patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection genotype 1 were randomly assigned to groups that were given peginterferon alfa-2a, with or without ribavirin, for 4 weeks; all patients then received an additional 44 weeks of combination therapy. First- and second-phase viral kinetics were evaluated. Serum levels of IP10, MIG, and MCP1 were quantified as measures of the ISG response. NS5A and NS5B were partially sequenced and mutation rates were calculated. Results: The first-phase decrease in HCV RNA was similar between groups. Patients that received ribavirin had a more rapid second-phase decrease, compared with patients that did not receive ribavirin—particularly those with an adequate first-phase decrease (0.61 vs. 0.35 log10 IU/mL/week, p=0.018). At 12 hrs, fold induction of serum IP10 was higher in patients given the combination therapy than those given only peginterferon (7.6- vs. 3.8-fold, p=0.01); however, the difference was greatest in patients with an adequate first-phase decrease in HCV RNA. IP10-induction correlated with first- and second-phase kinetics and with ribavirin serum concentrations on day 3. HCV mutation rates were similar between groups. Conclusion: Ribavirin improves the kinetics of the early response to therapy in patients with an adequate initial response to peginterferon. Induction of interferon-stimulated cytokines correlates with viral kinetics following ribavirin therapy, suggesting that ribavirin promotes interferon signaling. PMID:20303352

  3. Immunomodulatory therapy with thymopentin and indomethacin. Successful restoration of interleukin-2 synthesis in patients undergoing major surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Faist, E; Markewitz, A; Fuchs, D; Lang, S; Zarius, S; Schildberg, F W; Wachter, H; Reichart, B

    1991-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-mediated monocyte (M phi) suppressor activity and inadequate T-helper cell function represent the mechanistic keystones of trauma-induced impairment of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). In a prospective randomized trial, the immunorestorative potential of a combined therapy with the thymomimetic substance Thymopentin (TP-5; Timunox, Cilag GMBH, Sulzbach, FRG) and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (Indo) in 60 patients (mean age, 63 +/- 2 years) undergoing open heart surgery was studied. Perioperative immunologic screening was carried out on days -2, 3, 1, 5, and 7 and included the in vivo delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin response, phenotyping for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-specific and nonspecific induction of lymphoproliferative responses, in vitro interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis, as well as the serum concentration of D-erythro-Neopterin (NPT) and of gamma interferon (gamma-IFN). The study protocol comprised three groups (n = 20): PA (Indo 150 mg administered intravenously on days 0 to 5), PB (TP-5 administered subcutaneously on days 0, 2, 4, and Indo), and PC (control). In contrast to PC, significant immunorestoration could be demonstrated in PB, as DTH scores on day 7, as well as proliferative responses in cell cultures were not depressed after operation (p less than 0.05). Cell-surface receptor expression for the CD3+, CD4+, and IL-2 receptor-positive (IL-2R+) lymphocyte subpopulations following surgery was reduced to 75% of baseline values in PC, while in PB, receptor protection for CD4+ and IL-2R+ subpopulations (more than 15% above baseline) was observed. Interleukin-2 synthesis (average baseline value, 0.7 + 0.08 U/mL) in cell cultures of PC was massively suppressed, with lymphokine concentrations in the supernatants never more than 0.27 +/- 0.05 U/mL. In PA cultures, IL-2 synthesis was impaired as well but not as precipitously as in PC. In contrast, in PB cultures, the average IL-2 production on consecutive

  4. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  5. Immunomodulation during prolonged treatment with combined interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha in patients with advanced malignancy.

    PubMed Central

    von Rohr, A.; Ghosh, A. K.; Thatcher, N.; Stern, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment with combined IL-2 and alpha-IFN has resulted in synergistic antitumour efficacy in animal studies. The mechanisms responsible for this synergy remain unclear. In this study, several immune parameters which might be involved in mediating antitumour activity have been monitored serially in 15 patients with advanced malignant melanoma or renal cell cancer during treatment with concurrent IL-2 and alpha-IFN. Both drugs were given subcutaneously in low to moderate (outpatient) dosages but for a prolonged duration. This treatment resulted in remarkable immunomodulation. In vivo induction of cytotoxicity against K562 and Daudi target cells was consistently seen, and percentages of peripheral blood cells expressing CD 25 (IL-2 receptor) and CD 56 (Leu-19) increased. In vitro proliferation of lymphocytes in response to IL-2 was enhanced during the treatment periods, whereas spontaneous proliferation was inhibited. Moreover, correlations between immune parameters and subsequent clinical responses were present in the early phase of the study. Cytotoxicity levels generated in vivo as well as the percentage of CD 56+ lymphocytes were higher in patients who responded to treatment than in non-responders. In contrast, responders had lower levels of CD 25+ cells. These findings indicate that it might be possible to select patients who are likely to benefit from prolonged immunotherapy. PMID:7678979

  6. Plasma nitrate plus nitrite changes during continuous intravenous infusion interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Citterio, G.; Pellegatta, F.; Lucca, G. D.; Fragasso, G.; Scaglietti, U.; Pini, D.; Fortis, C.; Tresoldi, M.; Rugarli, C.

    1996-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), a biologically active mediator generated in many cell types by the enzyme NO synthase, may play an important role in cardiovascular toxicity that is frequently observed in cancer patients during intravenous (i.v.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy. The induction of NO synthase and the production of NO seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular leakage syndrome, as well as in the regulation of myocardial contractility. In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of plasmatic NO changes during multiple cycles of continuous i.v. infusion (CIVI) of IL-2 in ten advanced cancer patients (five males, five females, median age 59 years, range 33-67 years; eight affected by renal cell cancer and two affected by malignant melanoma). The patients received IL-2 at 18 MIU m-2 day-1 (14 cycles) or 9 MIU m-2 day-1 (seven cycles) for 96 h, repeated every 3 weeks. Interferon alpha (IFN alpha) was also administered subcutaneously (s.c) during the 3 week interval between IL-2 cycles. For each cycle, plasma samples were collected before treatment (t0), 24 h (t1), 48 h (t2), 72 h (t3) and 96 h (t4) after the start of IL-2 infusion, and 24 h after the end of the cycle. NO concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the accumulation of both nitrite and nitrate (after reduction to nitrite). The following observations may be drawn from data analysis: (1) plasma nitrate + nitrite significantly raised during treatment (P = 0.0226 for t0 vs t3), but statistical significance was retained only when cycles administered with IL-2 18 MIU m-2 day-1 are considered (P = 0.0329 for t0 vs t3; P = 0.0354 for t0 vs t2 vs t4) (dose-dependent pattern); (2) during subsequent cycles a significant trend toward a progressive increase of plasma nitrate + nitrite levels, with increasing cumulative dose of IL-2, was observed (linear regression coefficient r = 0.62, P = 0.0141 for t0; r = 0.80, P = 0.0003 for t1; r = 0.62, P = 0.013 for t2; r = 0.69, P = 0.045 for

  7. Interleukin-2 treatment of tumor patients can expand regulatory T cells

    PubMed Central

    Beyer, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Augmented numbers of regulatory T cells contribute to the overall immunosuppression in tumor patients. Interleukin-2 has been widely used in the clinics in anticancer therapy, yet evidence has accumulated that the major drawback, limiting clinical efficacy, is the expansion of regulatory T cells, which aggravates immunosuppression. PMID:23170272

  8. Administration of high-dose interleukin-2 in a 2-year-old with metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, M Brooke; Hicks, M John; Pappo, Alberto S

    2009-12-15

    Malignant melanoma is rare in pediatrics, and therapies for patients with disseminated disease have not been well studied. This report describes our experience with the use of high-dose interleukin 2 (aldesleukin, IL-2) in a 2-year-old child with metastatic melanoma and describes our approach for the administration of this agent to young patients. PMID:19731326

  9. 77 FR 22283 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment for Field Testing Feline Interleukin-2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ...We are advising the public that the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has prepared an environmental assessment concerning authorization to ship for the purpose of field testing, and then to field test, an unlicensed Feline Interleukin-2 Immunomodulator, Live Canarypox Vector. The environmental assessment, which is based on a risk analysis prepared to assess the risks associated with......

  10. Differential gene expression in response to adjunctive recombinant human interleukin-2 immunotherapy in multidrug-resistant tuberculosis patients.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B J; Estrada, I; Shen, Z; Ress, S; Willcox, P; Colston, M J; Kaplan, G

    1998-06-01

    Administration of low-dose recombinant human interleukin 2 (rhuIL-2) in combination with multidrug chemotherapy to patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) induces measurable changes in in vitro immune response parameters which are associated with changes in the clinical and bacteriologic status of the patients. To determine the molecular basis of these changes, we have used semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-initiated PCR (RT-PCR) and differential display technology. During rhuIL-2 treatment of MDR TB patients, decreased levels of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) relative to baseline levels were observed. However, at the site of a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD), the expression of cellular IFN-gamma and IL-2 mRNAs was increased during rhuIL-2 therapy. Levels of other cytokine mRNAs were not significantly affected by rhuIL-2 administration. Using differential-display RT-PCR, we identified several genes expressed at the DTH skin test site which were up- or down-regulated during rhuIL-2 treatment. Cytochrome oxidase type I mRNA was increased in response to rhuIL-2 therapy relative to baseline levels, as was heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein G mRNA. CD63, clathrin heavy chain, and beta-adaptin mRNAs, all of which encode proteins associated with the endocytic vacuolar pathway of cells, were also differentially regulated by rhuIL-2 administration. The differential effects of IL-2 were confirmed in vitro by using PBMC obtained from PPD-positive individuals stimulated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and IL-2. The differential expression of genes may provide a surrogate marker for leukocyte activation at a mycobacterial antigen-specific response site and for the development of an enhanced antimicrobial response which may result in improved outcomes in MDR TB patients. PMID:9596698

  11. Interleukin 1 beta synergises with interleukin 2 in the outgrowth of autologous tumour-reactive CD8+ effectors.

    PubMed Central

    Baxevanis, C. N.; Dedoussis, G. V.; Gritzapis, A. D.; Stathopoulos, G. P.; Papamichail, M.

    1994-01-01

    Using peritoneal fluid or pleural effusion obtained from 20 patients with lung, ovarian or metastatic breast cancer, we separated tumour cells from malignant effusion-associated mononuclear cells (MEMNCs) using discontinuous Ficoll-Hypaque density gradients. CD3+ T lymphocytes represented the main population of MEMNCs. The mean +/- s.d. CD4/CD8 ratio of MEMNC suspensions was 1.18 +/- 0.40. MEMNCs proliferated and expanded in vitro with human interleukin 2 (IL-2) either as CD3+ CD8+ cells or as CD3+ CD4+ cells or as mixed populations of CD8+ and CD4+ cells. Preferential cytolytic activity against autologous tumour cells was demonstrated in IL-2-activated MEMNC cultures with excess CD3+ CD8+ cells. In contrast, effectors derived from IL-2-activated cultures with excess CD3+ CD4+ cells lysed both autologous and allogeneic tumour target cells. The addition on day 0 of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1 beta) to MEMNCs cultured in the presence of IL-2 was effective in promoting the growth of CD3+ CD8+ cells and augmenting the cytotoxicity against autologous tumour. Simultaneously, the production of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma) was increased in these cultures. This is the first report suggesting that IL-1 beta synergises with IL-2 to induce autologous tumour-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within the MEMNC population. Selective enrichment in T-cell subsets by IL-1 beta may be useful in cellular adoptive immunotherapy using cells isolated from malignant effusions. PMID:7917907

  12. Repeated cycles with 72-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 in kidney cancer and melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Brick, Wendy; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Taylor, W Chris; Khan, Nawazish; Burgess, Russell

    2004-06-01

    While high-dose bolus inpatient interleukin-2 is generally given on 8-week cycles, continuous infusion interleukin-2 could potentially allow for more rapidly repeated cycles. Fourteen (14) patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (PS) of 0 or 1, having either kidney cancer (6) or melanoma (8), have been treated with continuous infusion (CIV) interleukin-2 (IL-2) 18 MIU/m(2)/24 hours for 72 hours. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks up to 4 cycles, then every 3-4 weeks for 2 cycles, then every 6-8 weeks, until progression or intolerable toxicity. All patients received famotidine 20 mg intravenously (i.v.) twice per day during the 72-hour infusions. Patient characteristics included a median ECOG performance status of 1; median age = 63 (range: 25-79); most common metastatic sites: lung (9), bone (5), lymph nodes (5), and the liver (3). No patients with metastatic kidney cancer underwent a nephrectomy prior to interleukin-2. Median number of cycles received = 5 (1-9). No patients required Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission. There have been no treatment-related deaths. Most common toxicities have been rigors, fever, nausea/emesis, and the reversible elevation of creatinine. One complete response and three partial responses (67% response rate; 95% confidence interval: 30%-90%) have been seen in kidney cancer, and two partial responses (25% response rate; 95% confidence interval: 7%-60%) have occurred in melanoma. Median survival has not been reached at >9+ months. Responding sites include the liver, bone, lung, lymph node and subcutaneous sites. Inpatient 72-hour continuous infusion interleukin-2 at this dose and schedule is well tolerated by patients with an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 and has activity in kidney cancer and melanoma. PMID:15285881

  13. Interferons and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Olivier

    2009-10-01

    Interferons are ubiquitous cytokines produced by all mononuclear cell types in response to infection by a DNA or RNA virus. There are three major classes of interferons: type I or nonimmune interferons consist chiefly of interferons alpha produced by leukocytes and of interferon beta produced by fibroblasts, although there are several other less important variants; type II or immune interferon is interferon gamma, which is mainly produced by NK cells and T cells; and type III consists of the lambda interferons. Each type is characterized by a specific receptor and signal transduction pathway. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the cell membrane and endosomes recognize viruses and other microorganisms. Binding of DNA or RNA to endosomal TLRs generates a signal whose transduction pathways lead to molecules capable of binding to genes for various interferons, interleukin-1, and TNFalpha. Interferons can stimulate or inhibit up to 300 different genes encoding proteins involved in antiviral defense mechanisms, inflammation, adaptive immunity, angiogenesis, and other processes. The properties of interferons are used to treat a number of viral infections (e.g., hepatitis B and hepatitis C), inflammatory diseases (interferon beta for multiple sclerosis and interferon gamma for systemic sclerosis), and malignancies. Overactivation of the interferon pathways has been demonstrated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The result is a characteristic pattern of mRNA expression known as the interferon signature. Interferon overactivation is related to inadequate clearance of apoptotic particles with accumulation of apoptosis products (DNA-CpG motifs and U-RNA). Similar abnormalities have been found in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, and polymyositis, as well as in some cases of rheumatoid arthritis. Immunomodulation strategies designed to decrease interferon overactivity are being evaluated in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID

  14. Interferon Alfacon-1 Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon alfacon-1 is no longer available in the United States. If you are currently taking this medication, you should call ... another treatment.Your doctor has ordered interferon alfacon-1 to help treat your hepatitis C infection. The ...

  15. Human Immune Disorder Arising from Mutation of the α Chain of the Interleukin-2 Receptor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharfe, Nigel; Dadi, Harjit K.; Shahar, Michal; Roifman, Chaim M.

    1997-04-01

    Profound cellular immunodeficiency occurs as the result of mutations in proteins involved in both the differentiation and function of mature lymphoid cells. We describe here a novel human immune aberration arising from a truncation mutation of the interleukin-2 receptor α chain (CD25), a subunit of the tripartite high-affinity receptor for interleukin 2. This immunodeficiency is characterized by decreased numbers of peripheral T cells displaying abnormal proliferation but normal B cell development. Extensive lymphocytic infiltration of tissues, including lung, liver, gut, and bone, is observed, accompanied by tissue atrophy and inflammation. Although mature T cells are present, the absence of CD25 does affect the differentiation of thymocytes. While displaying normal development of CD2, CD3, CD4, and CD8 expression, CD25-deficient cortical thymocytes do not express CD1, and furthermore they fail to normally down-regulate levels of the anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2.

  16. Focal takotsubo cardiomyopathy with high-dose interleukin-2 therapy for malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Senthil; Mrozek, Ewa; Liebner, David; Kendra, Kari

    2014-12-01

    High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an available treatment option for patients with metastatic melanoma or renal cell carcinoma, and is associated with sustained complete and partial responses in a subset of patients. IL-2, however, is not devoid of toxicities, most of which involve the cardiovascular system and manifest as hypotension, arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy. This report describes an unusual presentation of takotsubo cardiomyopathy in a postmenopausal woman receiving high-dose IL-2 for metastatic melanoma. PMID:25505207

  17. Interferon: A Changing Picture

    PubMed Central

    Larke, R. P. Bryce

    1966-01-01

    Concepts regarding the nature and function of interferon have undergone considerable modification since its initial description in 1957. A low-molecular-weight protein, interferon has been produced by a variety of host cells following exposure not only to most viruses but also to bacterial cells and endotoxins, rickettsiae, nucleotides and a polyanionic polysaccharide (Statolon). Interferon production and activity require de novo synthesis of cellular RNA and protein, although interferon induced in vivo by endotoxins appears to involve release from a preformed state. The pathogenesis of primary viral infections may be determined largely by non-immune defence mechanisms. Interferon, detectable in the host's serum and associated with leukocytes during the course of viral illness, may make an important contribution to recovery. Low toxicity, weak antigenicity and wide range of antiviral activity make interferon an attractive therapeutic possibility. Stimulation of inherent interferon-producing mechanisms by administration of relatively innocuous agents may prove beneficial in humans. PMID:5322363

  18. Interleukin 2 production in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance.

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez, C; Cabrero, E; Vicario, J L; Martín Villa, M; Rengel, M A; Gomez Campdera, F J; Yebra, M; Fernández-Cruz, E; Arnaiz Villena, A

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 2 production was studied in a family with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a C4Q0 heterozygous inheritance. Autoimmune manifestations seemed to be associated with the HLA haplotype containing the C4Q0 allele, which was shared by all four ill family members. Concentrations of interleukin 2, however, did not associate either with the haplotype or with the clinical or serological manifestations, as diminished concentrations of interleukin 2 were found in only two subjects with SLE. Thus the defect in this family seemed to be acquired rather than genetically conditioned. PMID:1888202

  19. Phase I study of intravenously applied bispecific antibody in renal cell cancer patients receiving subcutaneous interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Kroesen, B. J.; Buter, J.; Sleijfer, D. T.; Janssen, R. A.; van der Graaf, W. T.; The, T. H.; de Leij, L.; Mulder, N. H.

    1994-01-01

    In a phase I trial the toxicity and immunomodulatory effects of combined treatment with intravenous (i.v.) bispecific monoclonal antibody BIS-1 and subcutaneous (s.c.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) was studied in renal cell cancer patients. BIS-1 combines a specificity against CD3 on T lymphocytes with a specificity against a 40 kDa pancarcinoma-associated antigen, EGP-2. Patients received BIS-1 F(ab')2 fragments intravenously at doses of 1, 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 body weight during a concomitantly given standard s.c. IL-2 treatment. For each dose, four patients were treated with a 2 h BIS-1 infusion in the second and fourth week of IL-2 therapy. Acute BIS-1 F(ab')2-related toxicity with symptoms of chills, peripheral vasoconstriction and temporary dyspnoea was observed in 2/4 and 5/5 patients at the 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 dose level respectively. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of BIS-1 F(ab')2 was 5 micrograms kg-1. Elevated plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) were detected at the MTD. Flow cytometric analysis showed a dose-dependent binding of BIS-1 F(ab')2 to circulating T lymphocytes. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated after treatment with 3 and 5 micrograms kg-1 BIS-1, showed increased specific cytolytic capacity against EGP-2+ tumour cells as tested in an ex vivo performed assay. Maximal killing capacity of the PBMCs, as assessed by adding excess BIS-1 to the assay, was shown to be decreased after BIS-1 infusion at 5 micrograms kg-1 BIS-1 F(ab')2. A BIS-1 F(ab')2 dose-dependent disappearance of circulating mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood was observed. Within the circulating CD3+ CD8+ lymphocyte population. LFA-1 alpha-bright and HLA-DR+ T-cell numbers decreased preferentially. It is concluded that i.v. BIS-1 F(ab')2, when combined with s.c. IL-2, has a MTD of 5 micrograms kg-1. The treatment endows the T lymphocytes with a specific anti-EGP-2-directed cytotoxic potential. PMID

  20. Effects of interleukin-2 on bioelectric activity of rat atrial myocardium under normal conditions and during gradual stretching.

    PubMed

    Aksyonov, A; Mitrokhin, V M; Mladenov, M I

    2015-09-01

    Using micro-electrode technique we studied the effects of interleukin-2 (50 ng/ml) on bio-electric activity of rat atrial myocardium under normal conditions and after gradual stretching of the tissue. It was shown that interleukin-2 caused increasing in the duration of action potential at the levels of 25, 50, and 90% re-polarization. Perfusion with interleukin-2 resulted in appearance of frequent rhythm patterns followed by smooth transient fragments of paroxysmal tachyarrhythmia pacing into normal rhythms. In the presence of interleukin-2, stretching of the tissue by 1.7 mN led to appearance of abnormal bio-electrical activity, predominantly in the lengthening of the duration of action potential at the levels of 90% re-polarization. Close observation of both interleukin-2 induced action potential duration to 90% of re-polarization, hump-like depolarization and stretch induced hump-like alteration, indicate existence of a link between the interleukin-2 and stretch induced mechanisms. PMID:26112420

  1. S-adenosyl methionine improves early viral responses and interferon-stimulated gene induction in hepatitis C nonresponders

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Jordan J.; Modi, Apurva A.; El-Diwany, Ramy; Rotman, Yaron; Thomas, Emmanuel; Koh, Christopher; Cherepanov, Vera; Heller, Theo; Ghany, Marc G.; Park, Yoon; Hoofnagle, Jay H.; Liang, T. Jake

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims Fewer than half of patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) achieve sustained viral clearance after peginterferon and ribavirin therapy. S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe) increases interferon signaling in cell culture. We assessed the effect of SAMe on the kinetics of the early anti-viral response and interferon signaling in patients that did not respond to previous therapy (nonresponders) and investigated its mechanisms. Methods Nonresponders with HCV genotype-1 were given 2 weeks of peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin (Course A, baseline/control). After a 1-month period, patients received SAMe (1600 mg daily) for 2 weeks and then peginterferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks (Course B; completed by 21 of 24 patients). Viral kinetics and interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were compared between courses. Results The decrease in HCV RNA from 0 to 48 hours (phase 1) was similar before and after administration of SAMe. However, the slope increased for the second-phase decrease in HCV between courses A and B (Course A=0.11±0.04 log10IU/mL/week, Course B=0.27±0.06; P=0.009); 11 patients (53%) achieved an early virological response and 10 (48%) had undetectable HCV RNA by week 24. Induction of ISGs in PBMCs was significantly greater after Course B. In cultured cells, SAMe increased induction of ISGs, compared with only peginterferon and ribavirin, and the antiviral effects of interferon by increasing STAT1 methylation, which might promote binding of STAT1 to DNA. Conclusions The addition of SAMe to peginterferon and ribavirin improves the kinetics of the early anti-viral response and induces ISGs in patients with HCV genotype 1 that do not respond to interferon therapy. SAMe might be used with peginterferon-based therapies in patients with chronic HCV infections. PMID:20854821

  2. Interleukin-2 and syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in a murine fibrosarcoma model.

    PubMed

    Ho, S P; Stebler, B; Ershler, W B

    1991-04-01

    Mice received interleukin-2 (IL-2) either before and after, or just after intravenous inoculation of syngeneic fibrosarcoma cells. Fewer pulmonary tumor colonies were observed in those animals treated with IL-2, and the best results were observed when IL-2 was administered prior to tumor inoculation. When mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with tumor-contaminated bone marrow, IL-2 treatment was also associated with fewer tumor lung colonies. IL-2 may prove to be a useful adjuvant therapy, particularly in the setting of autologous bone marrow transplantation when the infused marrow is contaminated with tumor cells. PMID:1873353

  3. Hypersensitivity to aldesleukin (interleukin-2 and proleukin) presenting as facial angioedema and erythema.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Daryn; McGrath, Kris G

    2003-01-01

    Aldesleukin is a human recombinant interleukin-2 product. It also is known as interlukin-2 and Proleukin in the United States. It is indicated for the treatment of adults with metastatic renal cell carcinoma as well as for adults with metastatic melanoma. However, its use has been limited because of severe systemic toxicity. There have been no reports of aldesleukin producing a hypersensitivity reaction. This is the first reported case of an immediate systemic hypersensitivity reaction occurring after aldesleukin administration confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for specific immunoglobulin E against aldesleukin. PMID:12974198

  4. In vivo administration of interleukin-2 protects susceptible mice from Theiler's virus persistence.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson-Sciard, E L; Dethlefs, S; Brahic, M

    1997-01-01

    In vivo administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2)-secreting tumor cells results in complete protection against persistent infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in susceptible DBA/2 mice. The IL-2-mediated protection was found to depend on the inoculum size as well as the timing of IL-2 administration. IL-2-treated and TMEV-infected mice displayed a three- to fourfold relative increase in virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) precursors. Thus, we postulate that the persistence of TMEV infection in susceptible mice reflects limited numbers of relevant CTL precursors and their time course of induction and activation. PMID:8985419

  5. Encapsulation of interleukin-2 in murine erythrocytes and subsequent deposition in mice receiving a subcutaneous injection

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, J.R.; Andrews, K.; Sheffield, C.L.

    1988-04-01

    Radiolabeled recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) was successfully encapsulated in both mouse and sheep erythrocytes. Of the added IL-2, 70% was recovered bound to or encapsulated within the carrier cells. Erythrocytes containing IL-2 were stable in vitro and most of the IL-2 remained associated with the cells following a 16-h incubation at 37 degrees C. When carrier erythrocytes containing IL-2 were injected subcutaneously into mice, intact (/sup 35/S)IL-2 was detectable in a number of tissues 3 days after injection.

  6. Adoptive Immunotherapy of Established Pulmonary Metastases with LAK Cells and Recombinant Interleukin-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mule, James J.; Shu, Suyu; Schwarz, Susan L.; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    1984-09-01

    The activation of human peripheral blood leukocytes or murine splenocytes with interleukin-2 (IL-2) generated cells that were lytic in vitro for a variety of fresh tumor cells. The adoptive transfer of such lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells to mice with established pulmonary sarcoma metastases was highly effective in reducing the number (and size) of these tumor nodules when combined with repeated injections of recombinant IL-2. These findings provide a rationale for clinical trials of the infusion of human LAK cells generated with recombinant IL-2 as well as Phase I trials of the infusion of recombinant IL-2 systemically into humans.

  7. [Prognostic predictive factors of the clinical response to immunotherapy with subcutaneous interleukin-2, in patients with metastatic renal carcinoma: analysis of 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Lissoni, P; Scardino, E; Favini, P; Barni, S; Tancini, G; Baccalin, A; Verweij, F; Strada, G; Musci, R; Rocco, F

    1995-04-01

    The intravenous immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) would constitute one of the most effective treatments of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). More recently, IL-2 subcutaneous therapy has also appeared active, either alone or in association with interferon, with results comparable to those found with the intravenous route of injection, but with a lower toxicity. On this basis, we have designed a protocol of treatment with low-dose IL-2 alone given subcutaneously as a first or a second line therapy in metastatic RCC. The study included 60 consecutive patients (pts) (M/F: 39/21, median age 56 years, range 26/74). IL-2 was given at a dose of 3 millions IU twice/day for 5 days/week, for 6 weeks, corresponding to one cycle. In non progressed pts a second cycle was repeated after a 28-day rest period. Dominant metastasis sites were, as follows: soft tissues: 8; bone: 11; lung: 29; liver: 3; liver plus lung: 7; adrenal: 2. The minimum follow-up was 18 months and the median follow-up was 34 months (range 18-48). A complete response (CR) was achieved in 2/60 (3%) pts. A partial response (PR) was obtained in 15/60 (25%). Therefore, tumor objective rate (CR + PR) was 17/60 (28%). The median duration of response was 13 months (4-33).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7787857

  8. Ultra-low Dose Interleukin-2 Promotes Immune-modulating Function of Regulatory T Cells and Natural Killer Cells in Healthy Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Sawa; Bollard, Catherine M; Carlsten, Mattias; Melenhorst, Jan Joseph; Biancotto, Angélique; Wang, Ena; Chen, Jinguo; Kotliarov, Yuri; Cheung, Foo; Xie, Zhi; Marincola, Francesco; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Battiwalla, Minoo; Olnes, Matthew J; Perl, Shira; Schum, Paula; Hughes, Thomas E; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Hensel, Nancy; Muranski, Pawel; Young, Neal S; Barrett, A John

    2014-01-01

    Low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) expands regulatory T cells (Tregs) and natural killer (NK) cells after stem cell transplantation (SCT) and may reduce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We hypothesized that ultra-low dose (ULD) IL-2 could serve as an immune-modulating agent for stem cell donors to prevent GVHD following SCT. However, the safety, dose level, and immune signatures of ULD IL-2 in immune-competent healthy subjects remain unknown. Here, we have characterized the phenotype and function of Tregs and NK cells as well as the gene expression and cytokine profiles of 21 healthy volunteers receiving 50,000 to 200,000 units/m2/day IL-2 for 5 days. ULD IL-2 was well tolerated and induced a significant increase in the frequency of Tregs with increased suppressive function. There was a marked expansion of CD56bright NK cells with enhanced interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production. Serum cytokine profiling demonstrated increase of IFN-γ induced protein 10 (IP-10). Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in a highly restricted set of genes, including FOXP3, IL-2RA, and CISH. This is the first study to evaluate global immune-modulating function of ULD IL-2 in healthy subjects and to support the future studies administrating ULD IL-2 to stem cell donors. PMID:24686272

  9. High-dose continuous infusion plus pulse interleukin-2 and famotidine in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Ramirez, Maria; Taylor, W Chris; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Khan, Nawazish; Jackson, Shawn

    2004-12-01

    High-dose, continuous infusion interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimens generate greater Lymphokine Activated Killer cell (LAK) cytotoxicity in vitro and a higher rebound lymphocytosis in vivo than do bolus IL-2 regimens. Lymphocytes initially activated by continuous infusion IL-2 then subsequently pulsed with IL-2 have increased cytotoxicity against cancer cells. Famotidine may enhance the lysis of tumors by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Fourteen patients with melanoma were treated with famotidine 20 mg intravenously twice per day and continuous infusion IL-2 (18 MIU/sq m/24 hours) for 72 hours, followed by a 24-hour rest, then IL-2 18 MIU/sq m over 15-30 minutes for 1 dose (12 patients) or daily for 3 doses (2 patients). Most common toxicities were fever, nausea/emesis, hypophosphatemia, hypomagnesemia, and rigors. Nine partial responses (64% response rate; 95% Confidence Interval: 39%-84%) have been seen. Median survival has not been reached at greater than 10 months. Two patients responding to therapy showed an increase in detectable CD 56(+) cells in serial subcutaneous or lymph node biopsies, while 1 patient undergoing progression of disease had no such infiltrate. High-dose, 72-hour continuous infusion plus pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine has activity in melanoma. CD 56(+) cells may play a role in responding patients. PMID:15665626

  10. Continuous infusion interleukin-2 and antihistamines in melanoma: a retrospective review showing activity of this combination.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Dean, Maria; Khan, Nawazish; Quan, Walter

    2004-12-01

    A recent randomized trial suggests that there may be an advantage in terms of survival with the combination of histamine and subcutaneous interleukin-2 (IL-2), compared to IL-2 alone. It has been postulated, then, that antihistamines may actually be antagonistic to IL-2 and, therefore, interfere with its antitumor activity. Because antihistamines such as cimetidine and ranitidine are commonly used as prophylaxis against gastrointestinal toxicity commonly seen with IL-2, and, because antihistamines may increase natural killer cell activity, it is reasonable to examine the response rate for this combination. An OVID Medline literature search between 1985 and 2003 was done. Continuous infusion (CIV) interleukin- 2 was used as the reference therapy because of the relatively constant IL-2 levels generated by this approach. Included studies were those in which either cimetidine, ranitidine, or famotidine were regularly scheduled and administered concurrently with IL-2, typically for gastrointestinal ulcer prophylaxis. Six (6) studies were identified. A total of 21 patients responded to therapy. Total response rate was 11%, with a 95% Confidence Interval: 7-17%. Four (4) complete responses were noted. Complete response rate was 2%, with a 95% Confidence Interval: 1-6%. These response rates are consistent with previously noted IL-2 response rates. In this retrospective review of CIV IL-2 and antihistamines, this combination appears to be active in melanoma. There appears to be no deleterious effect of routine antihistamine on the CIV IL-2 response rate. PMID:15665623

  11. l-Arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2 independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Ren; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Li-Tung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Huang, Hsin-Chun; Yang, Kuender D; Ou, Chia-Yo; Hsu, Te-Yao

    2014-01-01

    In cases of arginine depletion, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine production and CD3ζ chain expression are all diminished. In addition to myeloid suppressor cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN) also exert T-cell immune suppressive effects through arginase-induced l-arginine depletion, especially during pregnancy. In this study, we investigated how arginase/l-arginine modulates neonatal lymphocyte proliferation. Results showed that the neonatal plasma l-arginine level was lower than in adults (48·1 ± 11·3 versus 86·5 ± 14·6 μm; P = 0·003). Neonatal PMN had a greater abundance of arginase I protein than adult PMN. Both transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation were responsible for the higher arginase I expression of neonatal PMN. Exogenous l-arginine enhanced neonate lymphocyte proliferation but not that of adult cells. The RNA-binding protein HuR was important but was not the only modulation factor in l-arginine-regulated neonatal T-cell proliferation. l-Arginine-mediated neonatal lymphocyte proliferation could not be blocked by interleukin-2 receptor blocking antibodies. These results suggest that the altered arginase/l-arginine cascade may be one of the mechanisms that contribute to altered neonatal immune responses. Exogenous l-arginine could enhance neonate lymphocyte proliferation through an interleukin-2-independent pathway. PMID:24697328

  12. Activity of continuous infusion plus pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine in patients with metastatic kidney cancer or melanoma previously treated with interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Walker, Paul R; Quan, Francine M; Ramirez, Maria; Elsamaloty, Haitham M; Ghai, Vikas; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Liles, Darla K

    2006-10-01

    Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells generated by high-dose continuous infusion interleukin-2 (IL-2) are able to nonspecifically lyse melanoma and kidney cancer cells. In vitro famotidine enhances cytotoxicity of LAK against tumor cells, possibly by increasing IL-2 uptake at the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Outpatient IL-2 regimens typically have response rates of 15% or less, with most patients eventually experiencing progressive disease. Second-line therapy is, therefore, needed. We treated 11 patients (6 with metastatic melanoma; 5 having metastatic kidney cancer) who had previously experienced progressive disease on prior IL-2 regimens, with a combination of famotidine 20 mg intravenously (i.v.) twice per day and continuous-infusion IL-2 18 MIU/M2/24 hours x 72 hours, followed 24 hours later by a pulse IL-2 dose (18 MIU/M2 over 15 minutes). Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. Patient characteristics were: 9 males, median age 63 years (range, 57-75), median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status: 1; most common metastatic sites: lungs, lymph nodes, and soft tissue/subcutaneous (s.c.); median number of cycles received: 4; most common toxicities were fever, nausea/emesis, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia. Five (5) patients (3 with melanoma, 2 with kidney cancer) have had partial responses. Two (2) patients with kidney cancer have been converted to complete responders with resection of residual disease, remaining without relapse at 5+ and 20+ months. Responding sites are lungs, lymph nodes, abdominal mass, and s.c. Median duration of response was 9.5 months. Median survival was 12 months. This combination has activity in patients with metastatic kidney cancer or melanoma who have received prior IL-2. PMID:17105418

  13. Rabies vaccines and interferon

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. S.

    1972-01-01

    Samples of Fermi, Semple, modified Semple, Duck embryo and tissue culture rabies vaccine were inoculated by different routes and in different doses into rabbits, mice and hamsters. The vaccines induced neither detectable interferon nor immediate protection against lethal challenge with CVS rabies virus. Under similar conditions, high but transient levels of interferon were induced in control animals of the same species with the polynucleotide complex Poly I.C. Hamsters but not mice were protected by Poly I.C.-induced interferon. No autointerference by vaccine with challenge virus was established. Vaccine-induced protection in mice was directly related to immune response. PMID:4506993

  14. Colony formation and interleukin 2 production by leukaemic human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Krajewski, A S; Dewar, A E; Seidelin, P H; Murray, R

    1983-01-01

    PHA-induced colony formation and interleukin 2 (IL-2) production were studied in four patients with T cell leukaemia (three cases OKT4+/T helper and one case OKT8+/T cytotoxic suppressor). Cases of T helper cell leukaemia showed colony formation that was comparable to normal purified blood T cells and was not dependent on the addition of conditioned medium, containing IL-2 activity, to cultures. In contrast the T suppressor cell leukaemia formed colonies only when cultures were supplemented with IL-2 containing medium. When IL-2 production by PHA stimulated cells was measured culture supernatants from the three T helper cell leukaemias all showed normal or high levels of activity, when compared to normal blood mononuclear cells, whereas the T suppressor cell leukaemia showed no activity. PMID:6604606

  15. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas with interleukin 2. I. Local administration of human recombinant IL-2 preparations.

    PubMed

    Bubeník, J; Indrová, M; Toulcová, A

    1986-01-01

    The immunotherapeutic effect of human recombinant interleukin 2 was examined with a panel of MC-induced murine sarcomas carrying individual tumour-specific transplantation antigens. Repeated peritumoral injections of RIL-2 inhibited growth of five (MC11, MC13, MC14, MC15, MC16) out of six sarcomas in syngeneic mice. The sixth murine sarcoma (MC12) was resistant to the tumour-inhibitory effect of human recombinant IL-2 as well as to the tumour-inhibitory effect of murine and rat lymphoid IL-2 preparations. Since the IL-2-sensitive and IL-2-resistant sarcomas were induced with MC in mice of identical genotype and share most of their characteristics, they represent a useful model for investigation of structural target cell determinants and functional target cell properties responsible for the sensitivity of tumours to the immunotherapeutic effects of IL-2. PMID:3492396

  16. Molecular identification of interleukin-2 in the lymphoid tissues of the common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula.

    PubMed

    Young, L J; Cross, M L; Duckworth, J A; Flenady, S; Belov, K

    2012-01-01

    The common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) is an Australian marsupial. Here we describe the identification of possum interleukin-2 in mitogen-stimulated lymph node cells. We used a strategy of Rapid amplification of cDNA ends using probes designed from recently-sequenced marsupial genomes to identify the IL2 gene and then confirmed that IL-2 expression in possum immune tissue occurs in a similar manner to that in their eutherian counterparts. The predictive possum IL-2 peptide showed 28% and 35% amino acid sequence homology with the mouse and human IL-2 molecules, respectively, consistent with the divergence found within this cytokine family. Despite this low sequence identity, possum IL-2 still possessed the characteristic hallmarks of mammalian IL-2, such as a predicted signal peptide and conserved family motifs. PMID:21683733

  17. Genetically engineered Newcastle disease virus expressing interleukin-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand for cancer therapy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant Newcastle disease virus (rNDV) has shown oncolytic therapeutic efficacy in preclinical studies and are currently in clinical trials. In this study, we have evaluated the possibility to enhance the cancer therapeutic potential of NDV by means of inserting both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and tu...

  18. Soluble Interleukin 2 Receptor Levels, Temperament and Character in Formerly Depressed Suicide Attempters Compared with Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenhausler, Hans-Bernd; Stepan, Alexandra; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter

    2006-01-01

    An imbalance of the immune system and mixed personality profiles in suicide attempters have been reported. As suicidal behavior is common in patients with psychiatric disorders within the spectrum of depressive features, in this study we measured soluble interleukin-2 receptor concentrations in plasma (sIL-2R) and investigated temperament and…

  19. Administration of high-dose continuous infusion interleukin-2 to patients age 70 or over.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Ramirez, Maria; Taylor, Chris; Quan, Francine; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Walker, Paul

    2005-02-01

    High-dose bolus or continuous infusion interleukin-2-based therapy can cause capillary leak syndrome. Significant cardiovascular/hemodynamic events, including myocardial infarction, hypotension, pulmonary edema, and cardiac arrhythmia, have been described with such therapy. Concern over the toxicity of highdose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy has led to some clinicians excluding patients 70 years of age or over. We have treated 15 patients 70 years of age or over having an Eastern Conference Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1, with therapy based on continuous infusion IL-2 18 MIU/sq m/24 hours for 72 hours. All patients underwent a pretreatment evaluation of cardiac status with a low-level stress or adenosine stress test. Cycles were typically repeated every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, then every 3-4 weeks thereafter. Patients were treated by oncology nurses in either the stem cell transplant (intermediate unit) or the oncology inpatient unit. Patient characteristics were: median age, 72 years (range, 70-83 years); tumor types: melanoma (10), kidney cancer (5); most common sites of disease: lung (11), lymph nodes (6), subcutaneous (3), liver (2); prior therapy included: none (8), outpatient IL-2 (5), other immunotherapy (4). Median number of cycles received: 3 (1-10). Most common toxicities were: fever, rigors, nausea, emesis, hypophosphatemia, and hypomagnesemia. Three patients required the use of dopamine for blood pressure support. Two patients declined further therapy. There were no treatment-related deaths. No patients required endotracheal intubation or transfer to an intensive care unit. One complete and 8 partial responses (60% response rate) have been seen. Responding sites include the lung, lymph node, intact kidney primary, and liver. Median survival has not been reached at over 14 months (range 3+-26+ months). Patients who are 70 years of age and older with an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 are able to tolerate high-dose continuous infusion IL

  20. Antagonistic effects of systemic interleukin 2 on immune Tcell-mediated graft-versus-leukemia reactivity.

    PubMed

    Schirrmacher, V; Müerköster, S; Umansky, V

    1998-11-01

    This study demonstrates that systemic interleukin 2 (IL-2) can decrease the homing of syngeneic immune T cells to the target organ of metastases and accelerate unwanted side effects of allogeneic immune T cells. As a tumor system, we used the well-characterized highly aggressive DBA/2 mouse leukemia ESb and its less aggressive adhesion variant, ESb-MP. Systemic IL-2 treatment was performed with recombinant human interleukin-2 (Proleukin), which was slowly released via an implanted osmotic pump or was modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG-IL-2) to achieve constant plasma levels. Allogeneic B10.D2 antitumor immune spleen cells (ISPL cells) exerted strong graft-versus-leukemia (GvL) reactivity after adoptive transfer into late-stage ESb-MP tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice. Mls(a) superantigen-reactive vbeta6 donor T cells were not eliminated or tolerized by in vivo priming with the tumor cells and were present in active proliferation in liver infiltrates. When exogenous PEG-IL-2 or Proleukin was applied in addition to ISPL cells in such mice, the strong GvL-mediated protective immunity was converted into a fatal graft-versus-host disease. IL-2 treatment alone had no toxic effect and caused a moderate protection effect in the absence of an effect on local tumor growth. Potentiation of GvH reactivity of B10.D2 ISPL by PEG-IL-2 was proven in non-tumor-bearing DBA/2 mice, in which graft-versus-host disease was characterized by: (a) heavy hepatic lymphocytic infiltration, (b) irreversible increase of serum glutamate-oxalacetate-transaminase and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase levels, (c) weight loss, and (d) death. Antagonistic effects of systemic IL-2 on GvL were observed with syngeneic DBA/2 anti-ESb immune peritoneal effector cells (PECs). There was a detrimental effect of systemic IL-2 on liver target organ infiltration by immune T cells causing, at day 6 after transfer, a drop from 20-30 CD4 or CD8 T cells per liver lobule in the PEC group to <5 in the PEC plus IL-2 group

  1. The protein pheromone Er-1 of the ciliate Euplotes raikovi stimulates human T-cell activity: Involvement of interleukin-2 system

    SciTech Connect

    Cervia, Davide; Catalani, Elisabetta; Belardinelli, Maria Cristina; Perrotta, Cristiana; Picchietti, Simona; Alimenti, Claudio; Casini, Giovanni; Fausto, Anna Maria; Vallesi, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    Water-soluble protein signals (pheromones) of the ciliate Euplotes have been supposed to be functional precursors of growth factors and cytokines that regulate cell–cell interaction in multi-cellular eukaryotes. This work provides evidence that native preparations of the Euplotes raikovi pheromone Er-1 (a helical protein of 40 amino acids) specifically increases viability, DNA synthesis, proliferation, and the production of interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, and IL-13 in human Jurkat T-cells. Also, Er-1 significantly decreases the mRNA levels of the β and γ subunits of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), while the mRNA levels of the α subunit appeared to be not affected. Jurkat T-cell treatments with Er-1 induced the down-regulation of the IL-2Rα subunit by a reversible and time-dependent endocytosis, and increased the levels of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). The cell-type specificity of these effects was supported by the finding that Er-1, although unable to directly influence the growth of human glioma U-373 cells, induced Jurkat cells to synthesize and release factors that, in turn, inhibited the U-373 cell proliferation. Overall, these findings imply that Er-1 coupling to IL-2R and ERK immuno-enhances T-cell activity, and that this effect likely translates to an inhibition of glioma cell growth. -- Highlights: ► Euplotes pheromone Er-1 increases the growth of human Jurkat T-cells. ► Er-1 increases the T-cell production of specific cytokines. ► Er-1 activates interleukin-2 receptor and extracellular signal-regulated kinases. ► The immuno-enhancing effect of Er-1 on Jurkat cells translates to an inhibition of human glioma cell growth.

  2. Lymphokine-activated killer cell phenomenon. Lysis of natural killer-resistant fresh solid tumor cells by interleukin 2-activated autologous human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, E.A.; Mazumder, A.; Zhang, H.Z.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1982-06-01

    Activation in lectin-free interleukin 2 (IL-2) containing supernatants of peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBL) from cancer patients or normal individuals resulted in expression of cytotoxicity toward 20 of 21 natural killer (NK)-resistant fresh solid tumor cells tested. Fresh solid tumor cells were resistant to NK-mediated lysis in 10 autologous patients' PBL-tumor interactions, and from 17 normal individuals tested against 13 allogeneic fresh tumors. Culture of PBL in IL-2 for 2-3 d was required for the lymphokine activated killers (LAK) to be expressed, and lytic activity toward a variety of NK-resistant fresh and cultured tumor targets developed in parallel. Autologous IL-2 was functional in LAK activation, as well as interferon-depleted IL-2 preparations. Irradiation of responder PBL before culture in IL-2 prevented LAK development. Precursors of LAK were present in PBL depleted of adherent cells and in NK-void thoracic duct lymphocytes, suggesting that the precursor is neither a monocyte nor an NK cell. LAK effectors expressed the serologically defined T cell markers of OKT.3, Leu-1, and 4F2, but did not express the monocyte/NK marker OKM-1. Lysis of autologous fresh solid tumors by LAK from cancer patients' PBL was demonstrated in 85% of the patient-fresh tumor combinations. Our data present evidence that the LAK system is a phenomenon distinct from either NK or CTL systems that probably accounts for a large number of reported nonclassical cytotoxicities. The biological role of LAK cells is not yet known, although it is suggested that these cells may be functional in immune surveillance against human solid tumors.

  3. Use of Antigen-Specific Interleukin-2 To Differentiate between Cattle Vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Cattle Infected with M. bovis

    PubMed Central

    McKinna, Lucy C.; Steinbach, Sabine; Dean, Gilly S.; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Whelan, Adam O.; Pirson, C.; Jones, Gareth J.; Clifford, Derek; Vordermeier, H. Martin

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the application of a novel bovine interleukin-2 (IL-2) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the measurement of antigen-specific IL-2 in cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis and in cattle vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis BCG and then experimentally challenged with pathogenic M. bovis. Supernatants from whole-blood cultures stimulated with mycobacterial antigen (bovine purified protein derivative [PPDB] or the peptide cocktail ESAT6-CFP10) were assessed using a sandwich ELISA consisting of a new recombinant monoclonal fragment capture antibody and a commercially available polyclonal anti-bovine-IL-2. The production of IL-2 was compared to the production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the same antigen-stimulated whole-blood supernatants. The data show that cattle infected with M. bovis produced quantifiable levels of antigen-specific IL-2, while IL-2 levels in cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG did not. Furthermore, cattle vaccinated with M. bovis BCG and then challenged with pathogenic M. bovis displayed a more rapid induction of IL-2 but ultimately had lower levels of infection-induced IL-2 than did unvaccinated challenge control cattle. These data suggest that IL-2 responses are not detectable post-BCG vaccination and that these responses may require infection with virulent M. bovis to develop. This may be useful to differentiate infected cattle from uninfected or BCG-vaccinated cattle, although the overall sensitivity is relatively low, particularly in single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT)-negative infected animals. Furthermore, the strength of the IL-2 response may correlate with pathology, which poses interesting questions on the immunobiology of bovine tuberculosis in contrast to human tuberculosis, which is discussed. PMID:24173026

  4. Isolation of human beta-interferon receptor by wheat germ lectin affinity and immunosorbent column chromatographies

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Fournier, A.; Tan, Y.H.

    1986-06-15

    Radioiodinated human beta-interferon-Ser 17 (Betaseron) was reversibly cross-linked to Daudi cells by dithiobis(succinimidylpropionate). The radioactive ligand was cross-linked to three macromolecules forming labeled complexes of apparent Mr values of 130,000, 220,000, and 320,000. Betaseron, human alpha-interferon, human interleukin 2 but not recombinant human gamma-interferon competed with the labeled ligand for binding to these putative receptor(s). Human leukocyte-produced gamma-interferon competed weakly with /sup 125/I-Betaseron for binding to Daudi cells. The Betaseron-receptor complex(es) was purified by passage through a wheat germ lectin column followed by chromatography on an anti-interferon immunosorbent column and semipreparative gel electrophoresis. The cross-linked ligand-receptor complex was shown to be highly purified by sodium dodecyl sulfate and acetic acid:urea:Triton X-100 polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It can be dissociated into the labeled Betaseron (Mr = 17,000) ligand and a receptor moiety which has an apparent molecular weight of 110,000. The chromatographic behavior of the ligand-receptor complex on wheat germ lectin column suggests that the receptor is a glycoprotein. The described procedure yielded about 1 microgram of Betaseron receptor from 10(10) Daudi cells, estimated to contain a maximum of about 15 micrograms of the receptor.

  5. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  6. Pentoxifylline inhibits interleukin-2-induced toxicity in C57BL/6 mice but preserves antitumor efficacy.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, M J; Heniford, B T; Klar, E A; Doak, K W; Miller, F N

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) mediates the regression of metastatic cancer but clinical use has been limited due to associated toxicities. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is an important mediator of IL-2 toxicity and may have a limited role in IL-2 antitumor efficacy. Because pentoxifylline (PTXF) inhibits TNF production, we hypothesized that PTXF would ameliorate IL-2 toxicity without compromising antitumor efficacy. Four groups of female C57BL/6 mice with pulmonary metastases from a 3-methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-105) and four groups of nontumored mice were treated every 6 h for 4 d by intraperitoneal injections of either IL-2 alone, IL-2 and PTXF, PTXF alone, or equal volumes of saline. Upon completion of therapy, we found that PTXF suppressed many of the IL-2-induced effects including TNF production, lymphocytic infiltration of multiple organs, multiple organ edema, hepatic dysfunction, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Tumor response was determined 21 d after cessation of therapy by quantitating the number and surface area of pulmonary metastases. PTXF preserved antitumor efficacy while reducing the morbidity and mortality caused by IL-2 treatment. These data strongly support the use of PTXF in extending the therapeutic index of IL-2 in the treatment of cancer. Images PMID:1644928

  7. High-dose continuous infusion plus pulse interleukin-2 and famotidine in metastatic kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter; Ramirez, Maria; Taylor, Chris; Vinogradov, Mikhail; Quan, Francine; Khan, Nawazish

    2005-02-01

    High-dose continuous infusion interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimens generate a higher degree of lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) cytotoxicity when tested against tumor cells in vitro and a higher rebound lymphocytosis in vivo than do bolus IL-2 regimens. Lymphocytes initially activated by continuous infusion IL-2 have increased cytotoxicity against cancer cells when they are subsequently pulsed with additional IL-2. Famotidine may enhance LAK cytolytic ability. Six patients with kidney cancer have been treated with a combination of famotidine 20 mg intravenous bid and continuous infusion IL-2 (18 MIU/sq m/24 hours) for 72 hours, followed by a 24-hour rest, then IL-2 18 MIU/sq m over 15-30 minutes. The most common metastatic sites were the lung, lymph node, and bone. Median number of cycles received = 5 (range, 3-8). The most common toxicities were fever, rigors, nausea/emesis, hypophosphatemia, hypotension, elevated creatinine, and metabolic acidosis. There were no treatment-related deaths, and no patients required intensive care admission. Two partial responses (33% response rate) have been seen. Median survival has not been reached at greater than 8 months. The combination of high-dose continuous infusion plus pulse IL-2 and famotidine is active in metastatic kidney cancer. An accrual of additional patients is needed to better assess the response rate. PMID:15778577

  8. Activity of continuous infusion + pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine M

    2009-02-01

    High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2), given via continuous intravenous (i.v.) infusion, induces lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. These LAKs exhibit enhanced cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro when they are subsequently pulsed with additional IL-2. Famotidine may increase LAK cytotoxicity against neoplastic cells by allowing for greater IL-2 uptake at the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Twenty-three (23) patients received famotidine 20 mg i.v. twice per day and continuous-infusion IL-2 (18 MIU/m(2)/24 hours) for 72 hours, followed by a 24-hour rest, then 1-3 daily-pulse IL-2 doses of 18 MIU/m(2) over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg i.v. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks. The most common metastatic sites were lung, lymph node, and subcutaneous/soft tissue. The most common toxicities were fever, rigor, nausea/emesis, hypophosphatemia, hypotension, elevated creatinine, and pulmonary edema. There were no treatment-related deaths. One (1) complete (4%) and 9 partial responses (39%) were seen (43% total response rate; 95% confidence interval: 22%-65%). Median survival for all patients is 13 months. The combination of famotidine and high-dose continuous infusion + pulse IL-2 is active in metastatic melanoma. PMID:19243244

  9. High-dose intensity pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine has activity in metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Walker, Paul R; Picton, Maria; Quan, Francine M; King, Linda A; Tyre, Charley; Liles, Darla K

    2008-10-01

    Daily short intravenous (i.v.) infusions (pulses) of interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been developed to decrease toxicity while maintaining anticancer activity of this agent against melanoma. Such IL-2 schedules have previously been shown to promote lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell activity. Famotidine may increase LAK activity by increasing IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. We treated 16 patients with metastatic melanoma using pulse IL-2 18 (15 patients) or 9 million IU/M2 (1 patient) i.v. over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg i.v. daily for 5 days on an oncology inpatient unit. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Patient characteristics were as follows: 11 males, median age, 66, median ECOG performance status, 1; common metastatic sites: lymph nodes, lungs, subcutaneous, liver, and bone. Median number of cycles received was 3. Overall, 93% of planned doses were delivered. Most common toxicities were hypomagnesemia, fever, rigors, hypophosphatemia, and nausea/emesis. Three (3) patients had partial responses (19% response rate; 95% confidence interval: 6%-44%). A fourth patient, after resection of residual disease, remains a surgical complete responder at > 12 months. Responses occurred in lung, liver, lymph nodes, bone, and subcutaneous sites. Median response duration was 7 months. Pulse IL-2 with famotidine has activity in melanoma. PMID:18999936

  10. High-dose intensity pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine in metastatic kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine M

    2009-04-01

    Lymphokine-activated killer cell (LAK) activity against tumor cell lines may be induced by intravenous (i.v.) interleukin-2 (IL-2). Daily short infusions (pulses) have been developed to decrease toxicity while maintaining the anticancer activity of this agent against kidney cancer. The anthihistamine, famotidine, may increase IL-2 uptake by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. We have treated 12 patients with metastatic kidney cancer, using pulse IL-2 (18 million IU/M(2) i.v.) over 15-30 minutes, preceded by famotidine (20 mg I.V. daily for 5 days) on an oncology inpatient unit. Cycles were repeated every 3 weeks until disease progression. Patient characteristics were as follows: 9 males with a median age of 66 years (range, 48-74), and median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 1; common metastatic sites included in the lungs 9 and lymph nodes 3. Median number of cycles received was 2 (range, 1-5). The most common toxicities were fever, rigors, and hypomagnesemia. Two (2) patients had partial responses (17% response rate). Responses occurred in the liver (11.5 months) and lung, pleura, and lymph nodes (3 months). Pulse IL-2 with famotidine shows activity in kidney cancer. PMID:19409039

  11. Activity of outpatient intravenous interleukin-2 and famotidine in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Quan, Francine Marie

    2014-03-01

    Outpatient daily intravenous infusions of interleukin-2 (IL-2) have been developed to maintain anticancer activity and decrease toxicity of this agent against kidney cancer. Lymphokine activated killer cell (LAK) numbers are increased with these IL-2 schedules. Famotidine may enhance the LAK activity by increasing IL-2 internalization by the IL-2 receptor on lymphocytes. Fifteen patients with metastatic clear cell kidney cancer received IL-2 18 million IU/M² intravenously over 15-30 minutes preceded by famotidine 20 mg IV daily for 3 days for 6 consecutive weeks as outpatients. Cycles were repeated every 8 weeks. Patient characteristics were seven males/eight females, median age 59 (range: 28-70), median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status-1; common metastatic sites were lungs (14), lymph nodes (9), liver (4), bone (4), and pancreas (4). Prior systemic therapies were oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor (8), IL-2 (6), and mTor inhibitor (2). Most common toxicities were rigors, arthralgia/myalgia, nausea/emesis, fever, and hypotension. All episodes of hypotension were reversible with intravenous fluid. No patients required hospitalization due to toxicity. One complete response (7%) and four partial responses (26%) were seen (total response rate=33%; 95% confidence interval: 15%-59%). Responses occurred in the lungs, liver, lymph nodes, and bone. Outpatient intravenous IL-2 with famotidine has activity in metastatic clear cell kidney cancer. PMID:24251758

  12. Transcriptional Activation of the Interleukin-2 Promoter by Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein

    PubMed Central

    Bergqvist, Anders; Rice, Charles M.

    2001-01-01

    Most patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) become chronic carriers. Viruses that efficiently establish persistent infections must have effective ways of evading host defenses. In the case of HCV, little is known about how chronic infections are established or maintained. Besides hepatocytes, several reports suggest that HCV can infect T and B lymphocytes. Since T cells are essential for viral clearance, direct or indirect effects of HCV on T-cell function could influence the outcome of infection. Given that T-cell growth and differentiation require the cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2), we asked whether HCV might modulate synthesis of IL-2. Portions of the HCV polyprotein were expressed in Jurkat cells under a variety of conditions. We found that the highly conserved HCV core protein, in combination with other stimuli, was able to dramatically activate transcription from the IL-2 promoter. The carboxy-terminal hydrophobic portion of the core protein was required for this activity. Activation was dependent on nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), occurred in cells deficient in the tyrosine kinase p56lck, and could be blocked by addition of cyclosporin A and by depletion of calcium. These results suggest that the HCV core protein can activate transcription of the IL-2 promoter through the NFAT pathway. This novel activity may have consequences for T-cell development and establishment of persistent infections. PMID:11134290

  13. Interleukin 2 and erythropoietin activate STAT5/MGF via distinct pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Wakao, H; Harada, N; Kitamura, T; Mui, A L; Miyajima, A

    1995-01-01

    Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins play an important role in cytokine signal transduction in conjunction with Janus kinases (JAKs). MGF/STAT5 is known as prolactin regulated STAT. Here we demonstrate that interleukin 2 (IL-2) as well as erythropoietin (EPO) stimulate STAT5 and induce tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT5. These IL-2- and EPO-induced STATs have an identical DNA binding specificity and immunoreactivity. We also show that IL-4 induces a DNA binding factor which possesses similar, but distinct, DNA binding specificity from that of STAT5 and is immunologically different from STAT5. Analysis of two EPO receptor (EPOR) transfected CTLL-2 cell lines discloses that IL-2 activates JAK1 and JAK3 as well as STAT5, while EPO stimulates STAT5 and JAK2 in EPO-responsive CTLL-2 cells (ERT/E2). On the contrary, EPO activates neither JAK2 nor STAT5 in other cell lines that failed to respond to EPO (ERT cells). EPOR and JAK2 associate with each other regardless of EPO presence in ERT/E2 cells, however, such an interaction is not present in ERT cells. Thus, EPOR and JAK2 association seems to be important for EPO responsiveness in CTLL-2 cells. Images PMID:7781605

  14. Interleukin 2 receptor in patients with localized and systemic parasitic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Josimovic-Alasevic, O; Feldmeier, H; Zwingenberger, K; Harms, G; Hahn, H; Shrisuphanunt, M; Diamantstein, T

    1988-01-01

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify soluble interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) in the serum of patients with helminthic and protozoal infections. The results demonstrated that levels of IL-2R were normal in patients with helminthic infections limited to the intestinal tract (ascariasis, trichuriasis), but significantly elevated in patients with systemic or long-lasting infections (strongyloidiasis, schistosomiasis, fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis). In patients infected with Schistosoma mansoni levels of IL-2R were higher in those with the hepatosplenic than in those with the intestinal form of the disease. Patients with malaria also showed increased serum levels of IL-2R, irrespective whether the infection was caused by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. No difference was observed between patients with acute or history of malaria. The highest levels of IL-2R were observed in patients with visceral leishmaniasis. Interestingly, in these patients the concentration of IL-2R correlated to specific antibody titre. The results are discussed in the context of preferential activation of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and/or macrophages during the course of the different parasitic infections investigated. PMID:3136958

  15. Soluble interleukin 2 receptors are released from activated human lymphoid cells in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, L.A.; Kurman, C.C.; Fritz, M.E.; Biddison, W.E.; Boutin, B.; Yarchoan, R.; Nelson, D.L.

    1985-11-01

    With the use of an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay to measure soluble human interleukin 2 receptors (IL 2R), certain human T cell leukemia virus I (HTLV I)-positive T cell lines were found to spontaneously release large quantities of IL 2R into culture supernatants. This was not found with HTLV I-negative and IL 2 independent T cell lines, and only one of seven B cell-derived lines examined produced small amounts of IL 2R. In addition to this constitutive production of soluble IL 2R by certain cell lines, normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be induced to release soluble IL 2R by plant lectins, the murine monoclonal antibody OKT3, tetanus toxoid, and allogeneic cells. Such activated cells also expressed cellular IL 2R measurable in detergent solubilized cell extracts. The generation of cellular and supernatant IL 2R was: dependent on cellular activation, rapid, radioresistant (3000 rad), and inhibited by cycloheximide treatment. NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of soluble IL 2R demonstrated molecules of apparent Mr = 35,000 to 40,000, and 45,000 to 50,000, respectively, somewhat smaller than the mature surface receptor on these cells. The release of soluble IL 2R appears to be a characteristic marker of T lymphocyte activation and might serve an immunoregulatory function during both normal and abnormal cell growth and differentiation.

  16. Ectodomain Shedding of Interleukin-2 Receptor β and Generation of an Intracellular Functional Fragment*

    PubMed Central

    de Oca B., Pavel Montes; Malardé, Valerie; Proust, Richard; Dautry-Varsat, Alice; Gesbert, Franck

    2010-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) regulates different functions of various lymphoid cell subsets. These are mediated by its binding to the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) composed of three subunits (IL2-Rα, -β, and -γc). IL-2Rβ is responsible for the activation of several signaling pathways. Ectodomain shedding of membrane receptors is thought to be an important mechanism for down-regulation of cell surface receptor abundance but is also emerging as a mechanism that cell membrane-associated molecules require for proper action in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that IL-2Rβ is cleaved in cell lines of different origin, including T cells, generating an intracellular 37-kDa fragment (37βic) that comprises the full intracellular C-terminal and transmembrane domains. Ectodomain shedding of IL-2Rβ decreases in a mutant deleted of the juxtamembrane region, where cleavage is predicted to occur, and is inhibited by tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases-3. 37βic is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associates with STAT-5, a canonic signal transducer of IL-2R. Finally, lymphoid cell transfection with a truncated form of IL-2Rβ mimicking 37βic increases their proliferation. These data indicate that IL-2Rβ is subject to ectodomain shedding generating an intracellular fragment biologically functional, because (i) it is phosphorylated, (ii) it associates with STAT5A, and (iii) it increases cell proliferation. PMID:20495002

  17. Interleukin 2-diphtheria toxin fusion protein can abolish cell-mediated immunity in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kelley, V E; Bacha, P; Pankewycz, O; Nichols, J C; Murphy, J R; Strom, T B

    1988-01-01

    De novo expression of the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R) is a critical and pivotal event in initiation of an immune response. Targeting the low-affinity IL-2-binding p55 subunit of the high-affinity IL-2R with the rat anti-mouse IgM monoclonal antibody M7/20 suppresses a variety of T-cell-mediated reactions, including transplant rejection, autoimmunity, and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH). A hybrid IL-2-toxin gene was constructed from the diphtheria toxin gene by replacing the DNA encoding the diphtheria toxin receptor-binding domain with the DNA encoding the receptor-binding domain of IL-2, and the fusion protein encoded by the hybrid gene was expressed in Escherichia coli [Williams, D.P., Parker, K., Bacha, P., Bishai, W., Borowski, M., Genbauffe, F., Strom, T.B. & Murphy, J.R. (1987) Protein Eng. 1, 493-498]. We examined the action of the chimeric IL-2-toxin fusion protein on an in vivo T-cell mediated response, DTH. The IL-2-toxin fusion protein was found to be a potent immunosuppressive agent. Treatment of mice with the IL-2-toxin blocks DTH and prevents expansion of IL-2R+ T cells. Indeed, IL-2-toxin treatment targets IL-2R+ T cells in vivo and is shown to selectively eliminate their appearance in draining lymph nodes. DTH suppression was observed even in mice possessing high titers of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid. PMID:3131768

  18. Thyroid dysfunction in 281 patients with metastatic melanoma or renal carcinoma treated with interleukin-2 alone.

    PubMed

    Krouse, R S; Royal, R E; Heywood, G; Weintraub, B D; White, D E; Steinberg, S M; Rosenberg, S A; Schwartzentruber, D J

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the incidence of thyroid dysfunction in cancer patients receiving immunotherapy with interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone, and to assess the relationship of hypothyroidism to clinical response. A cohort of 281 consecutive patients with metastatic melanoma or renal carcinoma were treated with IL-2 alone from July 1, 1989 until June 30, 1993. The majority (n = 216) received high-dose IL-2 and the remainder (n = 65) received low-dose therapy. Thyroid function was measured before, during, and after immunotherapy. Forty-one percent of initially euthyroid patients developed thyroid dysfunction after starting high-dose IL-2-alone therapy. The most common abnormality was hypothyroidism, occurring in 35% of patients, although moderate or severe hypothyroidism requiring thyroid hormone replacement occurred in 9% of patients. Hypothyroidism was related to duration of IL-2 therapy and was not associated with clinical response. Hyperthyroidism developed in 7% of previously euthyroid patients receiving high-dose IL-2. Overall, the incidence of thyroid dysfunction was similar in the high- and low-dose IL-2 regimens. In conclusion, thyroid dysfunction is a common sequela of IL-2 therapy. Thyroid function should be measured routinely in cancer patients receiving IL-2-based treatment. It is recommended that thyroid hormone replacement be given to patients with moderate or severe hypothyroidism. PMID:8680655

  19. Systemic induction of cells mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity following administration of interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Eisenthal, A; Rosenberg, S A

    1989-12-15

    We have previously demonstrated that incubation of murine cells in vitro in interleukin 2 (IL-2) induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and that these cells were derived from the NK/LAK, FcR+ cell population. In the present study we show that in vivo administration of IL-2 to mice induces cells which exhibit ADCC activity in the peritoneal cavity, liver, lungs, and to a lesser degree in the bone marrow, spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and thymus. A gradual increase in ADCC activity and the number of Fc-receptor-positive cells was seen 1 to 3 days after starting IL-2 treatment. The cells mediating ADCC are closely related to LAK cells since they expressed Thy1.2 antigens and are derived from asialo GM1-positive, Lyt2/L3T4-negative, radiosensitive cells. These results demonstrate that IL-2 can systemically induce cells with ADCC activity and that this ability may be useful in the establishment of therapeutic models against disseminated cancer when combined with specific antitumor monoclonal antibodies. PMID:2573425

  20. Interleukin 2 Gene Polymorphisms Are Associated with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Haihan; Chen, Lei; Cha, Zhanshan

    2012-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common hematologic malignancy worldwide. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a key role in the proliferation of T cells and natural killer cells. It has been reported that polymorphisms in the IL-2 gene are associated with various cancers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of polymorphisms in the IL-2 gene on the development of NHL in the Chinese population. IL-2-330T/G and +114T/G polymorphisms were detected by polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism in 438 NHL cases and 482 age-matched healthy controls. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square test. Results showed that individuals with −330TG genotype or −330GG genotype had significantly increased susceptibility to NHL (Odds ratio [OR]=1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05–1.85, p=0.020 and OR=2.04, 95%CI: 1.28–3.24, p=0.002). Meanwhile, the +114T/G polymorphism did not show any correlation with NHL. When analyzing the haplotypes of these two polymorphisms, the prevalence of −330G/+114T haplotype was significantly higher in NHL cases than in controls (OR=1.45, 95%CI: 1.12–1.88, p=0.005). These data indicate that IL-2 gene polymorphisms may be new risk factors for NHL. PMID:22472080

  1. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor: elevated levels in serum and synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, A B; Eisenbeis, C H; Carrabis, S; Brown, M C; Ip, S H

    1990-01-01

    Soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels were quantitated in the serum and synovial fluid (SF) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and degenerative joint disease (DJD). A sandwich immunoassay, employing two monoclonal antibodies against distinct epitopes on the IL-2R, was utilized for measurement. We found a striking elevation of sIL-2R in RA SF as compared with DJD SF (RA, 1319 +/- 135; DJD, 416 +/- 59; p less than 0.001). RA serum sIL-2R levels were also significantly elevated over DJD levels. There was no interaction between rheumatoid factor (RF) and sIL-2R. RA patients with elevated sIL-2R levels had significantly longer disease duration, higher c-reactive protein (CRP) levels in serum and SF, and higher RF levels in serum and SF. The groups were similar in regard to other laboratory variables. The presence of elevated levels of sIL-2R in RA serum and SF confirms the presence of a heightened immune reactivity and in vivo activation of lymphocytes in RA. PMID:2313471

  2. Annexin A6 regulates interleukin-2-mediated T-cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Cornely, Rhea; Pollock, Abigail H; Rentero, Carles; Norris, Sarah E; Alvarez-Guaita, Anna; Grewal, Thomas; Mitchell, Todd; Enrich, Carlos; Moss, Stephen E; Parton, Robert G; Rossy, Jérémie; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-07-01

    Annexin A6 (AnxA6) has been implicated in cell signalling by contributing to the organisation of the plasma membrane. Here we examined whether AnxA6 regulates signalling and proliferation in T cells. We used a contact hypersensitivity model to immune challenge wild-type (WT) and AnxA6(-/-) mice and found that the in vivo proliferation of CD4(+) T cells, but not CD8(+) T cells, was impaired in AnxA6(-/-) relative to WT mice. However, T-cell migration and signalling through the T-cell receptor ex vivo was similar between T cells isolated from AnxA6(-/-) and WT mice. In contrast, interleukin-2 (IL-2) signalling was reduced in AnxA6(-/-) compared with WT T cells. Further, AnxA6-deficient T cells had reduced membrane order and cholesterol levels. Taken together, our data suggest that AnxA6 regulates IL-2 homeostasis and sensitivity in T cells by sustaining a lipid raft-like membrane environment. PMID:26853809

  3. Characterization of interleukin 2 stimulated 65-kilodalton phosphoprotein in human T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Kohno, Michiaki; Namba, Yuziro ); Kohno, Michiaki ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Nishida, Eisuke )

    1990-01-30

    The authors have characterized the cellular proteins which are rapidly phosphorylated by interleukin 2 (IL 2) in a human IL 2 dependent cell line. When treated with IL 2, the phosphorylation of five proteins, 65, 50, 37, 24, and 21 kDa, was found in IL 2 dependent cell lines by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis. After cell conversion from an IL 2 dependent state to an IL 2 independent state, one of the five phosphoproteins, the 65-kDa protein, became constitutively phosphorylated even without addition of IL 2. Also, in other IL 2 independent cell lines, such as KUT-2 and HUT-102, constitutive phosphorylation of the 65-kDa protein occurred without IL 2-stimulation. So our researchers were focused on biochemical characterization of the 65-kDa protein. It was found that the 65-kDa protein was one of the major cellular proteins by comparing the results of two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of ({sup 32}P)P{sub i}-labeled and ({sup 3}H)leucine-labeled cellular proteins and peptide mapping analysis. Subcellular fraction studies indicated that the 65-kDa protein is a cytosol protein. The 65-kDa protein was purified from cytosol of a human T cell line, and its amino acid composition and amino acid sequences of its three oligopeptides were determined. It was found that the 65-kDa protein is identical with 1-plastin.

  4. High-dose interleukin 2-induced myocarditis: can myocardial damage reversibility be assessed by cardiac MRI?

    PubMed

    Chow, Shien; Cove-Smith, Laura; Schmitt, Matthias; Hawkins, Robert

    2014-06-01

    High-dose interleukin 2 (HD-IL2) is one of the therapeutic options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. In well-selected patients with favorable clinical and pathologic features, it offers impressive response and potential long-term remission. It also has a place for treatment for metastatic malignant melanoma and in adoptive cell therapy. However, it is known for its intensive course and toxicities. Myocarditis is one of the known complications of this treatment and can pose a diagnostic challenge to treating oncologists because of its nonspecific and similar presentation to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We report 3 short cases of HD-IL2-related myocarditis, which were either missed or misdiagnosed as ACS using conventional assessment but subsequently accurately diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonant imaging (CMR). We discussed the clinical presentation of these cases and demonstrated the diagnostic advantage of CMR compared with standard investigations including its superior capability to assess myocardial reversibility, which has important short-term and long-term implications. The use of CMR also avoided unnecessary invasive intervention such as coronary angiogram in all 3 patients. These example cases call for effort to conduct prospective research to assess and confirm the utility of CMR, thus informing a more effective management pathway for immune-related myocarditis in HD-IL2 and other cancer immunotherapy. PMID:24810642

  5. Only high-affinity receptors for interleukin 2 mediate internalization of ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Weissman, A.M.; Harford, J.B.; Svetlik, P.B.; Leonard, W.L.; Depper, J.M.; Waldmann, T.A.; Greene, W.C.; Klausner, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors are expressed on activated T cells and in select T-cell leukemias. Recently, it has been demonstrated that at least two classes of receptor for IL-2 exist with markedly different affinities for ligand. All known biological actions of IL-2 have been correlated with occupancy of high-affinity sites; the function of the low-affinity sites remains unknown. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the primary means of internalization of cell-surface receptors and their ligands. The internalization of IL-2 bound to high- and low-affinity receptor sites was studied in a human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected human T-cell leukemia cell line and in a cloned murine cytotoxic T-cell line (CTLL). Internalization of IL-2 occurred only when bound to high-affinity sites. In addition, an anti-receptor antibody (anti-Tac), which binds equally well to high- and low-affinity sites, demonstrated no detectable internalization. The implications of these findings as they relate to IL-2 receptor structure and function are discussed.

  6. A novel and simple type of liposome carrier for recombinant interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Kanaoka, E; Takahashi, K; Yoshikawa, T; Jizomoto, H; Nishihara, Y; Hirano, K

    2001-03-01

    The strong interaction between recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) and liposome was characterized and its possible application to drug-delivery control considered. The liposomes were prepared with egg phosphatidylcholine, distearoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (DSPG), dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylglycerol or distearoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Small and hydrophobic liposomes were selected, which were composed of saturated and long-fatty-acid-chain phospholipids. When the composition and the mixture ratio of IL-2 and the liposomewere optimized, morethan 95% ofthe lyophilized IL-2 (Imunace, 350000 JRU) was adsorbed consistently onto the DSPC-DSPG liposome (molar ratio, 10:1; 25 micromol mL(-1); 30 nm in size). Merely mixing IL-2 lyophilized with liposome suspension is convenient pharmaceutically. After intravenous administration to mice, liposomal IL-2 was eliminated half as slowly from the systemic circulation as free IL-2, with more than 13 and 18 times more IL-2 being delivered to the liver and spleen, respectively. After subcutaneous administration of liposomal IL-2 to mice, the mean residence time of IL-2 in the systemic circulation was 8 times that of free IL-2. These results show that IL-2 consistently adsorbs onto the surface of liposomes after optimization of its composition and mixing ratio. Intravenous and subcutaneous administration to mice demonstrates the gradual release of IL-2. Further trials are warranted using these liposomes. PMID:11291744

  7. Clinical and immunological effects of single bolus administration of recombinant interleukin-2 in cattle.

    PubMed Central

    Campos, M; Hughes, H P; Godson, D L; Sordillo, L M; Rossi-Campos, A; Babiuk, L A

    1992-01-01

    Recombinant bovine interleukin-2 (rBoIL-2) was administered as a single intramuscular bolus to healthy calves to determine the minimal dose capable of exerting a biological response. Doses ranging from 2.5 to 0.05 micrograms rBoIL-2/kg did not induce pyrexia, diarrhea, or depression, nor did they alter any blood chemistry or hematological parameters commonly associated with IL-2 toxicity. Moreover, the only significant immunological change observed was a reduction in the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes identified with the monoclonal antibodies B7A, BAQ4A (WC1+ cells), CACTB6A (WC2+ cells) and DH59B (monocytes). The decrease in cells associated with these markers did not influence non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity or in vitro lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens and IL-2. The treatments had no effect on delayed type hypersensitivity responses to phytohemagglutinin. These results indicate that IL-2 may be involved in the regulation of trafficking patterns of a unique subpopulation of lymphocytes in cattle. PMID:1586889

  8. Increased production of interleukin-2 and IL-2 receptor in primary IgA nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Schena, F P; Mastrolitti, G; Jirillo, E; Munno, I; Pellegrino, N; Fracasso, A R; Aventaggiato, L

    1989-03-01

    The production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in 13 patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and 9 patients with chronic glomerulonephritis was investigated. Moreover, the distribution of IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression was studied in the purified T cell population versus the non-T cell population of IgAN patients. The results show a spontaneous significant production of IL-2 in cultures of PBMC from patients with IgAN (P less than 0.025) that increased after PHA stimulation. IgAN patients also had a significantly higher expression of IL-2R on the surface of PBMC than did patients with chronic glomerulonephritis (P less than 0.05). IL-2R was usually detected on unstimulated purified T cells that expressed the activation DR antigen. Moreover, a high number of DR helper T cells was associated to a reduced number of suppressor T cells (OKT8+M1+). These findings suggest that the increased production of IL-2 in patients with IgAN may be responsible for the increased activity of helper T cells. The high number of IL-2R expressed by freshly separated PBMC implies an in vivo continuous stimulation of these cells, and this finding is in agreement with the demonstrated spontaneous hyperproduction of IL-2. Moreover, the low number of suppressor T cells may contribute to the overactivity of helper T cells bearing IL-2R in IgAN patients. PMID:2785227

  9. Contradictory results in interferon research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Several reports on immunologically related interferon research, both in the areas of basic science and clinical research, are briefly reviewed, and it is noted that in many cases the results obtained are contradictory. It is argued, however, that the contradictory results are not surprising since interferon is a biological response modifier and has been known to produce opposite results even when the same interferon prepartion is used. It is emphasized that dosage, timing, route, and other experimental conditions are essential factors in planning immunological studies with interferon. Careful planning of future experiments with interferon should be required to prevent the possible generation of effects that are opposite to those expected.

  10. [Immunomodulating properties of interferon inducers].

    PubMed

    Ershov, F I; Tazulakhova, E B

    1989-04-01

    Data on the immunomodulating activity of interferon inductors are presented. It was revealed that the inductors increased the animal vaccinal response. Schemes for combined use of the interferon inductors and immunomodulators were developed. The immunomodulators were shown to increase the host interferon response evident from synergistic increasing of the interferon titers or prolongation of interferon circulation in blood of the animals. The efficiency of the schemes for combined use of the interferon inductors and immunomodulators was obvious from stimulation of the antibody production. As a result the time of the antibody circulation in blood increased. The effect of the combined use of the immunomodulators and interferon inductors was studied. The combined use of the preparations significantly increased the average life-span of the animals and the rate of their survival. PMID:2546512

  11. Effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the survival of rat cardiac allograft

    SciTech Connect

    Sakagami, K.; Ohsaki, T.; Ohnishi, T.; Saito, S.; Matsuoka, J.; Orita, K.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of anti-interleukin 2 monoclonal antibody (anti-IL2 MoAb) and the accumulation of intravenously administered /sup 125/I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb were examined in heterotopic rat cardiac allografts. Mouse anti-human recombinant IL2 MoAb was obtained by the hybridoma technique. The anti-IL2 MoAb, termed 8H-10, was an IgG2a which inhibited IL2-driven (/sup 3/H)TdR incorporation in cytolytic T lymphocyte line cells at a dilution of 2(6). 8H-10 was injected iv at a dose of 200 micrograms/day for 8 consecutive days, beginning on the day of transplantation. Hearts from F344 rats (RT11v1) were transplanted into ACI recipient rats (RT1av1). The mean survival time was 7.6 +/- 0.8 days in untreated controls, 9.0 +/- 1.2 days in additional controls treated with mouse anti-sheep red blood cell monoclonal antibody, and 25.3 +/- 18.4 days in the anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10)-treated group (P less than 0.05). Furthermore, the accumulation of intravenously administered 125I-labeled anti-IL2 MoAb (8H-10) was specifically seen in the grafted heart. In conclusion, these results suggest that IL2 may play an important role in allograft rejection and that anti-IL2 MoAb may serve as a useful immunosuppressive agent in clinical transplantation.

  12. Association of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 with the multichain high-affinity interleukin 2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J; Goldman, C K; Rao, P; Moos, M; Waldmann, T A

    1990-01-01

    Previously, using flow cytometric resonance energy transfer and lateral diffusion measurements, we demonstrated that a 95-kDa protein identified by two monoclonal antibodies (OKT27 and OKT27b) interacts physically with the 55-kDa alpha protein of the high-affinity interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor. In the present study, this 95-kDa protein (p95) was purified and amino acid sequence data were obtained that showed strong homology to the human intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). The identity of the p95 protein with ICAM-1 was confirmed by sequential immunoprecipitations using OKT27 and an antibody, WEHI-CAM-1, that is directed toward ICAM-1. We confirmed the physical proximity of p95/ICAM-1 to the IL-2 receptor alpha subunit by demonstrating that radiolabeled IL-2 could be cross-linked to this protein expressed on activated T cells. In functional studies, the antibodies OKT27 and OKT27b inhibited T-cell proliferative responses to OKT3, to soluble antigen, and to heterologous cells (mixed lymphocyte reaction). However, these antibodies did not inhibit IL-2-induced proliferation of an IL-2-dependent T-cell line. Taken together with our previous observations, the present studies suggest that ICAM-1 is in proximity and interacts physically with the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The association of ICAM-1 with the IL-2 receptor may facilitate the paracrine IL-2-mediated stimulation of T cells expressing IL-2 receptors by augmenting homotypic T-T-cell interaction, by receptor-directed focusing of IL-2 release by helper T cells, and by focusing IL-2 receptors of the physically linked cells to the site of lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1-ICAM-1-IL-2 receptor interaction. Images PMID:1976256

  13. Interleukin 2 expression by tumor cells alters both the immune response and the tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Fenton, B M; Koch, C J; Frelinger, J G; Lord, E M

    1998-04-01

    Microenvironmental conditions within solid tumors can have marked effects on the growth of the tumors and their response to therapies. The disorganized growth of tumors and their attendant vascular systems tends to result in areas of the tumors that are deficient in oxygen (hypoxic). Cells within these hypoxic areas are more resistant to conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy. Here, we examine the hypoxic state of EMT6 mouse mammary tumors and the location of host cells within the different areas of the tumors to determine whether such microenvironmental conditions might also affect their ability to be recognized by the immune system. Hypoxia within tumors was quantified by flow cytometry and visualized by immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) against cellular adducts of 2-(2-nitro-1H-imidazol-1-yl)-N-(2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl)acetam ide (EF5), a nitroimidazole compound that binds selectively to hypoxic cells. Thy-1+ cells, quantified using a monoclonal antibody, were found only in the well-oxygenated areas. The location of these Thy-1+ cells was also examined in EMT6 tumors that had been transfected with the gene for interleukin-2 (IL-2) because these tumors contain greatly increased numbers of host cells. Surprisingly, we found that IL-2-transfected tumors had significantly decreased hypoxia compared to parental tumors. Furthermore, using the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342, an in vivo marker of perfused vessels, combined with immunochemical staining of PECAM-1 (CD31) as a marker of tumor vasculature, we found increased vascularization in the IL-2-transfected tumors. Thus, expression of IL-2 at the site of tumor growth may enhance tumor immunity not only by inducing the generation of tumor-reactive CTLs but also by allowing increased infiltration of activated T cells into the tumors. PMID:9537251

  14. Temporal sequence and cellular origin of interleukin-2 stimulated cytokine gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Saraya, K. A.; Balkwill, F. R.

    1993-01-01

    A study of activation of the cytokine network by interleukin 2, IL-2, may provide a rationale for devising cytokine combination and cytokine antagonist treatments with increased anti-tumour efficacy and decreased toxicity. We have investigated the expression of mRNA for 13 cytokines and three transcription factors during in vitro culture of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC, with IL-2. A consistent pattern of induction was seen in nine individuals, with early (2-24 h) induction of IL-1 beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor, TNF, lymphotoxin, LT, and gro. TNF and LT mRNA was expressed continually throughout culture, but levels of mRNA for IL-1 beta, IL-6, and gro declined by 24-48 h. After 48 h, PBMC began to express mRNA for IFN-gamma, IL-5, GM-CSF, and M-CSF. At 15 min to 1 h post IL-2 mRNA for c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc, and TNF was induced in three individuals studied. IL-4, IFN-alpha, and IL-1 alpha mRNA was not detected. Only a minority of cells expressed mRNA for TNF, IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and monocytes were the main source. Levels of cytokine protein in culture supernatants mirrored the pattern of mRNA induction. This in vitro model shows clear parallels with the reported in vivo production of cytokines during IL-2 therapy, and may prove useful in designing new therapeutic strategies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8439502

  15. Cyclotides Suppress Human T-Lymphocyte Proliferation by an Interleukin 2-Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Gründemann, Carsten; Thell, Kathrin; Lengen, Karin; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Huang, Yen-Hua; Huber, Roman; Craik, David J.; Schabbauer, Gernot; Gruber, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotides are a diverse and abundant group of ribosomally synthesized plant peptides containing a unique cyclic cystine-knotted topology that confers them with remarkable stability. Kalata B1, a representative member of this family of mini-proteins, has been found to inhibit the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Analysis of T-cell proliferation upon treatment with chemically synthesized kalata B1 mutants revealed a region comprising inter-cysteine loops 1 and 2 of the cyclotide framework to be important for biological activity. Cytokine signaling analysis using an ‘active’ kalata B1 mutant [T20K], and the reference drug cyclosporin A (CsA) demonstrated that treatment of activated T-lymphocytes with these compounds decreased the expression of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) surface receptor as well as IL-2 cytokine secretion and IL-2 gene expression, whereas the ‘inactive’ kalata B1 mutant [V10K] did not cause any effects. The anti-proliferative activity of [T20K] kalata B1 was antagonized by addition of exogenous IL-2. Furthermore, treatment with [T20K] kalata B1 led to an initial reduction of the effector function, as indicated by the reduced IFN-γ and TNF-α production, but the levels of both cytokines stabilized over time and returned to their normal levels. On the other hand, the degranulation activity remained reduced. This indicated that cyclotides interfere with T-cell polyfunctionality and arrest the proliferation of immune-competent cells through inhibiting IL-2 biology at more than one site. The results open new avenues to utilize native and synthetically-optimized cyclotides for applications in immune-related disorders and as immunosuppressant peptides. PMID:23840803

  16. Rational interleukin 2 therapy for HIV positive individuals: daily low doses enhance immune function without toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, E L; Pilaro, F; Smith, K A

    1996-01-01

    When administered in high doses to HIV positive (HIV+) individuals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) causes extreme toxicity and markedly increases plasma HIV levels. Integration of the information from the structure-activity relationships of the IL-2 receptor interaction, the cellular distribution of the different classes of IL-2 receptors, and the pharmacokinetics of IL-2 provides for the rationale that low IL-2 doses should circumvent toxicity. Therefore, to identify a nontoxic, but effective and safe IL-2 treatment regimen that does not stimulate viral replication, doses of IL-2 from 62,500 to 250,000 IU/m2/day were administered subcutaneously for 6 months to 16 HIV+ individuals with 200-500 CD4+ T cells/mm3. IL-2 was already detectable in the plasma of most HIV+ individuals even before therapy. Peak plasma IL-2 levels were near saturating for high affinity IL-2 receptors in 10 individuals who received the maximum nontoxic dose, which ranged from 187,500 to 250,000 IU/m2/day. During the 6 months of treatment at this dose range, plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines remained undetectable, and plasma HIV RNA levels did not change significantly. However, delayed type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens were markedly augmented, and there were IL-2 dose-dependent increases in circulating Natural Killer cells, eosinophils, monocytes, and CD4+ T cells. Expanded clinical trials of low dose IL-2 are now warranted, especially in combination with effective antivirals to test for the prevention of immunodeficiency and the emergence of drug-resistant mutants and for the eradication of residual virions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8816813

  17. Interleukin 2 Topical Cream for Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: Experiment Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background It is estimated there are 2.9 million diabetic patients in the United Kingdom, and around 5%-7% of patients have diabetic ulcers. This number will continue to increase globally. Diabetic ulcers are a major economic burden on the healthcare system. More than £650 million is spent on foot ulcers or amputations each year, and up to 100 people a week have a limb amputated due to diabetes. In T1DM, the level of IL-2 is reduced, and hence, wound healing is in a prolonged inflammatory phase. It is not known if IL-2 topical cream can shorten the healing process in T1DM patients. Objective The objective of this study is to understand the pathophysiology in type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and investigate possible future treatment based on its clinical features. The hypothesis is that IL-2 cream can speed up wound healing in NOD mice and that this can be demonstrated in a ten-week study. An experiment protocol is designed in a mouse model for others to conduct the experiment. The discussion is purely based on diabetic conditions; lifestyle influences like smoking and drinking are not considered. Methods Skin incisions will be created on 20 nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, and IL-2 topical cream will be applied in a 10-week study to prove the hypothesis. Mice will be randomly and equally divide into two groups with one being the control group. Results T1DM patients have a decreased number of T regulatory (Treg) cells and interleukin 2 (IL-2). These are the keys to the disease progression and delay in wound healing. Diabetic ulcer is a chronic wound and characterized by a prolonged inflammatory phase. Conclusions If the experiment is successful, T1DM patients will have an alternative, noninvasive treatment of foot ulcers. In theory, patients with other autoimmune diseases could also use IL-2 topical cream for treatment. PMID:26276522

  18. Association between two interleukin-2 gene polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Xiuxiu; Huang, Junjie; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Shi, Jizhou; Lu, Wei; Lv, Zhaojie; Mei, Hongbing; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have illustrated that polymorphisms in interleukin-2 (IL-2) were associated with diverse cancer types. However, recently published statistics were inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, the current meta-analysis was performed to elaborate the effects of IL-2 polymorphisms (rs2069762 and rs2069763) on cancer susceptibility. Material and methods A total of 5,601 cancer cases and 7,809 controls from 21 published case–control studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between IL-2 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results Our study demonstrated an increased susceptibility to cancer in rs2069762 (G vs T: OR =1.268, 95% CI =1.113–1.445; GG vs TT: OR =1.801, 95% CI =1.289–2.516; GT vs TT: OR =1.250, 95% CI =1.061–1.473; GG + GT vs TT: OR =1.329, 95% CI =1.118–1.579; GG vs GT + TT: OR =1.536, 95% CI =1.162–2.030). In the subgroup analysis, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the hospital-based group and PHWE<0.05 (P-value of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium [HWE]) group. In addition, a positive association with cancer susceptibility was observed among both Chinese and non-Chinese. However, no relationship was detected between the rs2069763 polymorphism of IL-2 and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion To conclude, rs2069762 polymorphism of IL-2 contributed to an increased susceptibility to cancer, whereas no association was identified between rs2069763 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. Further detailed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27143914

  19. Interleukin-2 in relation to T cell subpopulations in rheumatic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zedan, M M; el-Shennawy, F A; Abou-Bakr, H M; al-Basousy, A M

    1992-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and T cell subpopulations were evaluated in children with rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Three groups were included: 13 patients with active RHD, 12 with non-active RHD, and 14 control children. Serum IL-2 and T cell subpopulations were measured by radioimmunoassay and monoclonal antibodies respectively. Patients with active RHD showed a significant increase in IL-2 concentrations and helper:suppressor (H:S) ratio compared with controls with a mean (SEM) IL-2 of 3.48 (0.62) v 1.26 (0.16) U/ml and H:S ratio 2.31 (0.14) v 1.66 (0.04). There was a significant decrease in T suppressor (CD8+) and pan T (CD3+) cells compared with controls with a mean (SEM) for CD8+ of 23.75 (1.19) v 32.23 (0.56)% and CD3+ of 79.55 (0.94) v 85.00 (0.11)%. Patients with non-active RHD showed a significant decrease only in the CD3+ cells (78.20 (0.20)%) when compared with controls. A deficiency of CD3+ cells is a constant finding in patients with RHD, whether the disease is active or not. There was a significant increase in IL-2 concentration with a significant decrease in CD8+ cells in patients with active RHD in comparison with the non-active group (mean (SEM) IL-2 of 3.48 (0.62) v 1.85 (0.24) U/ml and CD8+ of 23.75 (1.19) v 28.83 (1.91)%). Thus an increase in IL-2 and a decrease in CD8+ cells may be related to rheumatic activity. T helper (CD4+) cells did not differ significantly between groups. PMID:1471890

  20. Protein Phosphatase 2A Regulates Interleukin-2 Receptor Complex Formation and JAK3/STAT5 Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jeremy A.; Cheng, Hanyin; Nagy, Zsuzsanna S.; Frost, Jeffrey A.; Kirken, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation plays a key role in interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor-mediated activation of Janus tyrosine kinase 3 (JAK3) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) in lymphocytes. Although the mechanisms governing IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of JAK3/STAT5 have been extensively studied, the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation in controlling these effectors remains to be elucidated. Using phosphoamino acid analysis, JAK3 and STAT5 were determined to be serine and tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to IL-2 stimulation of the human natural killer-like cell line, YT. IL-2 stimulation also induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rβ, but not IL-2Rγ. To investigate the regulation of serine/threonine phosphorylation in IL-2 signaling, the roles of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) were examined. Inhibition of phosphatase activity by calyculin A treatment of YT cells resulted in a significant induction of serine phosphorylation of JAK3 and STAT5, and serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rβ. Moreover, inhibition of PP2A, but not PP1, diminished IL-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of IL-2Rβ, JAK3, and STAT5, and abolished STAT5 DNA binding activity. Serine/threonine phosphorylation of IL-2Rβ by a staurosporine-sensitive kinase also blocked its association with JAK3 and IL-2Rγ in YT cells. Taken together, these data indicate that serine/threonine phosphorylation negatively regulates IL-2 signaling at multiple levels, including receptor complex formation and JAK3/STAT5 activation, and that this regulation is counteracted by PP2A. These findings also suggest that PP2A may serve as a therapeutic target for modulating JAK3/STAT5 activation in human disease. PMID:19923221

  1. Human tumor-derived exosomes selectively impair lymphocyte responses to interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Aled; Mitchell, J Paul; Court, Jacquelyn; Mason, Malcolm D; Tabi, Zsuzsanna

    2007-08-01

    Exosomes are nanometer-sized vesicles, secreted by normal and neoplastic cells. The outcome following interaction between the cellular immune system and cancer-derived exosomes is not well understood. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key factor supporting expansion and differentiation of CTL and natural killer (NK) cells but can also support regulatory T cells and their suppressive functions. Our study examined whether tumor-derived exosomes could modify lymphocyte IL-2 responses. Proliferation of healthy donor peripheral blood lymphocytes in response to IL-2 was inhibited by tumor exosomes. In unfractionated lymphocytes, this effect was seen in all cell subsets. Separating CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and NK cells revealed that CD8(+) T-cell proliferation was not inhibited in the absence of CD4(+) T cells and that NK cell proliferation was only slightly impaired. Other exosome effects included selective impairment of IL-2-mediated CD25 up-regulation, affecting all but the CD3(+)CD8(-) T-cell subset. IL-2-induced Foxp3 expression by CD4(+)CD25(+) cells was not inhibited by tumor exosomes, and the suppressive function of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells was enhanced by exosomes. In contrast, exosomes directly inhibited NK cell killing function in a T-cell-independent manner. Analysis of tumor exosomes revealed membrane-associated transforming growth factor beta(1) (TGFbeta(1)), which contributed to the antiproliferative effects, shown by using neutralizing TGFbeta(1)-specific antibody. The data show an exosome-mediated mechanism of skewing IL-2 responsiveness in favor of regulatory T cells and away from cytotoxic cells. This coordinated "double hit" to cellular immunity strongly implicates the role of exosomes in tumor immune evasion. PMID:17671216

  2. Soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in Hodgkin's disease: outcome and clinical implications.

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, S.; Camerini, E.; Bonfante, V.; Santoro, A.; Balzarotti, M.; Fornier, M.; Devizzi, L.; Verderio, P.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic role of soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) in Hodgkin's disease (HD) both in the achievement of complete remission (CR) and in predicting disease relapse. Between August 1988 and June 1993 sIL-2R serum levels were measured in 174 untreated patients; in 137 of them evaluation was repeated at the end of treatment and in 132 also during the follow-up. Baseline sIL-2R levels (mean+/-standard error) were significantly higher in patients than in 65 healthy control subjects (1842+/-129 U ml(-1) vs 420+/-10 U ml(-10, P< 0.0001). At the end of treatment 135 out of 137 evaluated patients achieved complete response (CR) and their mean sIL-2R serum levels were significantly lower than those at diagnosis (635+/-19 U ml(-1) vs 1795+/-122 U ml(-1), P=0.0001). After a median follow-up of 5 years, sIL-2R remained low in 114 patients in continuous CR, while they increased in 9 out of 12 patients (75%) who relapsed. However, a temporary increase was also observed in six patients (5%) still in CR. Treatment outcome in terms of freedom from progression was linearly related to sIL-2R levels. Our study confirms that patients with untreated HD have increased baseline levels of sIL-2R compared with healthy subjects and that their pretreatment values may be an indication of disease outcome similar to other conventional prognostic factors, such as number of involved sites, presence of B symptoms and extranodal extent. PMID:9528846

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis, gallium-67 lung scanning and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Delclos, G L; Flitcraft, D G; Brousseau, K P; Windsor, N T; Nelson, D L; Wilson, R K; Lawrence, E C

    1989-04-01

    This study examined different markers of lung immunologic and inflammatory responses to previous asbestos exposure. We performed bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and gallium-67 (67Ga) lung scans and measured serum and BAL soluble interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and angiotensin-converting enzyme (SACE) levels in 32 subjects with a history of significant asbestos exposure, 14 without (EXP) and 18 with (ASB) radiographic evidence of asbestosis. BAL analysis revealed increases in neutrophils in both ASB and EXP when compared to controls (P less than 0.01), which persisted after adjustment for smoking category. Although significant abnormalities of macrophage and total lymphocyte profiles were not found in the study population, lymphocyte subpopulation analysis revealed elevation of BAL T4/T8 ratios in the entire study group (ASB + EXP) when compared to controls (P less than 0.05), independent of smoking category. 67Ga lung scan activity was increased in 56% of ASB and in 36% of EXP: no correlations between positive scans and different radiological and functional parameters could be found. There was no significant elevation of mean SACE, serum, or BAL IL-2R levels in any of the study categories. These data suggest that asbestos exposure may be associated with parenchymal inflammation, even in the absence of clinical criteria for asbestosis. Abnormalities of gallium uptake and of BAL analysis reflect the clinically inapparent inflammation. The increased BAL T4/T8 ratios observed suggest that abnormal local pulmonary immunoregulation may play a role in the pathogenesis of asbestos-related lung diseases. PMID:2538325

  4. Interferons and Interferon Regulatory Factors in Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Claser, Carla; Tan, Kevin Shyong Wei; Rénia, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious infectious diseases in humans and responsible for approximately 500 million clinical cases and 500 thousand deaths annually. Acquired adaptive immune responses control parasite replication and infection-induced pathologies. Most infections are clinically silent which reflects on the ability of adaptive immune mechanisms to prevent the disease. However, a minority of these can become severe and life-threatening, manifesting a range of overlapping syndromes of complex origins which could be induced by uncontrolled immune responses. Major players of the innate and adaptive responses are interferons. Here, we review their roles and the signaling pathways involved in their production and protection against infection and induced immunopathologies. PMID:25157202

  5. Successful Treatment of TAFRO Syndrome, a Variant of Multicentric Castleman's Disease, with Cyclosporine A: Possible Pathogenetic Contribution of Interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Satoshi; Nishi, Katsuyuki; Sakamaki, Taro; Mitani, Sachiko; Kaneko, Hitomi; Mizutani, Chisato; Ukyo, Naoya; Hirata, Hirokazu; Tsudo, Mitsuru

    2015-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy and excessive interleukin-6 production. A unique clinicopathologic variant of multicentric Castleman's disease, TAFRO (i.e., thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, renal failure or reticulin fibrosis, and organomegaly) syndrome, was recently proposed in Japan. Despite the successful use of anti-interleukin-6 therapy in some patients with TAFRO syndrome, not all patients achieve remission. The pathophysiological etiology of and suitable therapeutic strategies for this variant have not been established. Here, we present our experience of a unique case of TAFRO syndrome in a 78-year-old woman whose symptoms responded differently to several therapies. Tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody, successfully induced remission of fever and lymphadenopathy. However, severe thrombocytopenia persisted and she developed anasarca, ascites, and pleural effusion shortly thereafter. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody, and glucocorticoid therapy provided no symptom relief. In contrast, cyclosporine A, an immunosuppressive agent that blocks T cell function by inhibiting interleukin-2, yielded immediate improvements in systemic fluid retention and a gradual increase in platelet count, with complete resolution of disease symptoms. Excessive serum interleukin-2, when used as an anti-cancer agent, has been reported to cause side effects such as fluid retention, thrombocytopenia, and renal failure. Our case was unique because the anti-interleukin-2 therapy successfully improved symptoms that were not relieved with anti-interleukin-6 therapy. The present report therefore provides insight into the possible role of interleukin-2, in addition to interleukin-6, in TAFRO syndrome. This report will certainly help to clarify the pathogenesis of and optimal treatment strategies for TAFRO syndrome. PMID:26250536

  6. Impaired left ventricular filling rate induced by treatment with recombinant interleukin 2 for advanced cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Fragasso, G.; Tresoldi, M.; Benti, R.; Vidal, M.; Marcatti, M.; Borri, A.; Besana, C.; Gerundini, P. P.; Rugarli, C.; Chierchia, S.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL 2) has been extensively used to treat cancer but its use has been hampered by serious side effects including severe hypotension, arrhythmias, and myocardial infarction. OBJECTIVE--To assess the effects of rIL 2 on human left ventricular function. METHODS--Left ventricular (LV) function was monitored in 22 patients (9 women, 13 men) (mean (SD) age 53 (10) years) undergoing a 120 h continuous intravenous infusion of rIL 2 (18 x 10(6) IU/m2/day) for melanoma (4), renal cell (16), ovarian (1), and colon cancer (1). Radionuclide ventriculography was performed before and 1 h after the end of treatment. Ejection fraction (EF), peak emptying rate (PER), peak filling rate (PFR), and regional left ventricular wall motion were analysed. Heart rate (HR), central venous pressure (CVP), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP), the electrocardiogram, and myocardial enzyme concentrations were monitored throughout the study. RESULTS--All variables (mean (SD)) were normal before rIL 2 was given. After rIL 2 administration HR increased significantly from 84 (11) to 125 (18) beats/min (p < 0.0001), SBP fell from 128 (11) to 100 (9) mmHg (p < 0.001) and DBP from 76 (9) to 65 (7) mmHg (p < 0.0001). CVP decreased from 3.70 (3.2) to 1.30 (0.45) cm H2O (p < 0.001). EF (65 (7) to 64 (8%) and PER (3.56 (0.60) to 3.86 (0.83) EDV/s) did not change significantly. PFR decreased significantly at the end of the rIL 2 infusion from 2.68 (0.46) to 2.37 (0.43) EDV/s (p < 0.01). Left ventricular segmental hypokinesia developed in 6 patients. Myocardial enzyme concentrations remained normal throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS--The results of this study confirmed that rIL 2 produces important haemodynamic changes, predominantly related to decreased systemic resistance. However, the observed reduction in PFR in most patients suggested that rIL 2 might exert its action at the level of the heart muscle itself. The localised systolic

  7. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin in the treatment of hepatitis C virus-related thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Karakan, Tarkan; Cindoruk, Mehmet; Degertekin, Bulent; Dogan, Ibrahim; Sancak, Alper; Dumlu, Sukru; Gorgul, Ahmet; Unal, Selahattin

    2005-01-01

    Background: Isolated thrombocytopenia is a common manifestation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. There is no established treatment modality for this condition. The efficacy of standard interferon (IFN) monotherapy has been reported in some studies. The major disadvantage of this treatment is the high rate of recurrence due to viral breakthrough during the first 12 weeks of treatment. Pegylated IFNs are now the standard regimen for chronic hepatic disease due to HCV infection. However, due to a lack of evidence, pegylated IFNs are not widely used for HCV-related isolated thrombocytopenia. Objective: The aim of this report was to present the case of a male patientwith severe symptomatic thrombocytopenia due to HCV infection. Methods: Thrombocytopenia was treated with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin. Results: Although standard IFN monotherapy failed to achieve virologic and hematologic improvement, therapy with pegylated IFN alfa-2a plus ribavirin was associated with both virologic and hematologic improvement without any significant adverse effects. Conclusions: Pegylated IFN plus ribavirin was effective in this patient for thetreatment of HCV-related thrombocytopenia. However, further research is needed to define the response rate in different patient populations. PMID:24764593

  8. Unique side effects of interferon.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Hina; Qadeer, Rashid; Kashif, Syed Mohammad; Rehan, Muhammad; Afsar, Salahuddin

    2015-08-01

    Interferon-alpha, a potent mediator of host immune response, has immunomodulatory properties in addition to its antiviral effects. A wide spectrum of autoimmune diseases can occur in patients treated with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis B and D, of which clinical systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) accounts for less than 1% and hypothyroidism for 2-4 %. We report herein a case of a 16-year-old male who developed antinuclear antibody (ANA)-negative SLE and hypothyroidism after treatment with interferon-alpha for chronic hepatitis. High index of suspicion is therefore necessary in all patients treated with interferon for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:26228341

  9. A phase II trial of trastuzumab in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients (PTS) with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who have previously failed trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Mani, Aruna; Roda, Julie; Young, Donn; Caligiuri, Michael A; Fleming, Gini F; Kaufman, Peter; Brufsky, Adam; Ottman, Susan; Carson, William E; Shapiro, Charles L

    2009-09-01

    Trastuzumab mediates the lysis of HER2-expressing breast cancer cell lines by interleukin-2 (IL-2) primed natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that IL-2 would augment the anti-tumor effects of trastuzumab in MBC in patients who had progressed on or within 12 months of receiving a trastuzumab-containing regimen. Secondary objectives were to measure antibody-directed cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HER2 over-expressing target cells, and to measure serum cytokines. Patients received trastuzumab (4 mg/kg intravenously (IV)) every 2 weeks in combination with daily low-dose IL-2 (1 million IU/m(2) subcutaneously (SC)) and pulsed intermediate-dose IL-2 (12 million IU/m(2) SC). Samples were analyzed for NK cell expansion and ADCC against a HER2-positive breast cancer cell line. In addition, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the following serum cytokines were measured: IFN-gamma, monokine-induced by IFN-gamma (MIG), and interferon-inducible protein ten (IP-10). The median number of treatment cycles was four (range 1-23) and the treatment was well tolerated. There were no objective responses. NK cells were not expanded and ADCC was not enhanced. Eight (62%) patients had a twofold or higher increase in mRNA transcript for IFN-gamma, two (15%) patients had elevated serum levels of IFN-gamma and 12 (92%) had increases angiogenic MIG and IP-10. In trastuzumab-refractory patients adding IL-2 did not produce responses and did not result in NK cell expansion. However, these patients had the ability to respond to IL-2 as evidenced by increases in IFN-gamma transcripts and chemokines. The lack of NK cell expansion may explain the absence of clinical benefit. PMID:19051009

  10. A phase II trial of trastuzumab in combination with low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients (PTS) with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who have previously failed trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Aruna; Roda, Julie; Young, Donn; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Fleming, Gini F.; Kaufman, Peter; Brufsky, Adam; Ottman, Susan; Carson, William E.

    2010-01-01

    Trastuzumab mediates the lysis of HER2-expressing breast cancer cell lines by interleukin-2 (IL-2) primed natural killer (NK) cells. We hypothesized that IL-2 would augment the anti-tumor effects of trastuzumab in MBC in patients who had progressed on or within 12 months of receiving a trastuzumab-containing regimen. Secondary objectives were to measure antibody-directed cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against HER2 over-expressing target cells, and to measure serum cytokines. Patients received trastuzumab (4 mg/kg intravenously (IV)) every 2 weeks in combination with daily low-dose IL-2 (1 million IU/m2 subcutaneously (SC)) and pulsed intermediate-dose IL-2 (12 million IU/m2 SC). Samples were analyzed for NK cell expansion and ADCC against a HER2-positive breast cancer cell line. In addition, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the following serum cytokines were measured: IFN-γ, monokine-induced by IFN-γ (MIG), and interferon-inducible protein ten (IP-10). The median number of treatment cycles was four (range 1–23) and the treatment was well tolerated. There were no objective responses. NK cells were not expanded and ADCC was not enhanced. Eight (62%) patients had a twofold or higher increase in mRNA transcript for IFN-γ, two (15%) patients had elevated serum levels of IFN-γ and 12 (92%) had increases angiogenic MIG and IP-10. In trastuzumab-refractory patients adding IL-2 did not produce responses and did not result in NK cell expansion. However, these patients had the ability to respond to IL-2 as evidenced by increases in IFN-γ transcripts and chemokines. The lack of NK cell expansion may explain the absence of clinical benefit. PMID:19051009

  11. Interleukin-2 receptor antagonist immunosuppression and consecutive viral management in living-donor liver transplantation for human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C-co-infected patients: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Maki, Harufumi; Kaneko, Junichi; Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Tamura, Sumihito; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2016-02-01

    Management of immunosuppression for human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C (HIV/HCV) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has not been established. We performed LDLT for two patients with HIV/HCV-co-infected end-stage liver disease. The immunosuppression protocol consisted of early calcineurin inhibitor-free and interleukin-2 receptor antagonist (IL2Ra) induction and methylprednisolone. Maintenance low-dose tacrolimus was started and anti-retroviral therapy for HIV was re-started 1 week after LDLT. Consecutively, pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy were successfully added as pre-emptive therapy for HCV. HIV-RNA and HCV-RNA were undetectable on anti-retroviral therapy and HCV treatment at 17 and 8 months after LDLT, respectively, with normal liver function. This study is the first report of early calcineurin inhibitor-free and IL2Ra induction with methylprednisolone immunosuppression in LDLT for HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with a favorable outcome. Consecutive HIV/HCV treatment was well tolerated. PMID:26661842

  12. HLA-C and KIR combined genotype as new response marker for HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B patients treated with interferon-based combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Stelma, F; Jansen, L; Sinnige, M J; van Dort, K A; Takkenberg, R B; Janssen, H L A; Reesink, H W; Kootstra, N A

    2016-08-01

    Current treatment for chronic hepatitis B infection (CHB) consists of interferon-based therapy. However, for unknown reasons, a large proportion of patients with CHB do not respond to this treatment. Hence, there is a pressing need to establish response markers to select patients who will benefit from therapy and to spare potential nonresponders from unnecessary side effects of antiviral therapy. Here, we assessed whether HLA-C and KIR genotypes were associated with treatment outcome for CHB. Twelve SNPs in or near the HLA-C gene were genotyped in 86 CHB patients (41 HBeAg positive; 45 HBeAg negative) treated with peginterferon alfa-2a + adefovir. Genotyping of killer immunoglobin-like receptors (KIRs) was performed by SSP-PCR. One SNP in HLA-C (rs2308557) was significantly associated with combined response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients (P = 0.003). This SNP is linked to the HLA-C group C1 or C2 classification, which controls KIR binding. The combination of KIR2DL1 with its ligand HLA-C2 was observed significantly more often in HBeAg-positive patients with a combined response (13/14) than in nonresponders (11/27, P = 0.001). Patients with the KIR2DL1/C2 genotype had significantly higher baseline ALT levels (136 vs 50 U/L, P = 0.002) than patients without this combination. Furthermore, KIR2DL1-C2 predicted response independent of HBV genotype and ALT at baseline. HLA-C and KIR genotype is strongly associated with response in HBeAg-positive CHB patients treated with interferon-based therapy. In combination with other known response markers, HLA-C/KIR genotype could enable the selection of patients more likely to respond to interferon-based therapy. PMID:26945896

  13. T-cell hybridoma specific for a cytochrome c peptide: specific antigen binding and interleukin 2 production.

    PubMed Central

    Carel, S; Bron, C; Corradin, G

    1983-01-01

    T-cell hybridomas were obtained after fusion of BW 5147 thymoma and long-term cultured T cells specific for cytochrome c peptide 66-80 derivatized with a 2,4-dinitroaminophenyl (DNAP) group. The resulting hybridomas were selected for their capacity to specifically bind to soluble radiolabeled peptide antigen. One T-cell hybrid was positive for antigen binding. This hybrid T cell exhibits surface phenotypic markers of the parent antigen-specific T cells. The binding could be inhibited either by an excess of unlabeled homologous antigen or by cytochrome c peptide 11-25 derivatized with a 2-nitrophenylsulfenyl group. Several other peptide antigens tested failed to inhibit binding of the radioactive peptide. This suggests that a specific amino acid sequence, modified by a DNAP group, is the antigenic structure recognized by the putative T-cell receptor. In addition, direct interaction of DNAP-66-80 peptide with the hybridoma cell line induced production of the T-cell growth factor interleukin 2. Furthermore, supernatants derived from syngeneic macrophages pulsed with the relevant peptide also induced the antigen-specific hybridoma to produce interleukin 2. Images PMID:6192442

  14. Six weeks of aerobic dance exercise improves blood oxidative stress status and increases interleukin-2 in previously sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Saidee, Kunteera; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Pratanaphon, Sainetee; YanKai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-07-01

    This study evaluated the change in blood oxidative stress, blood interleukin-2, and physical performance following 6 weeks of moderate intensity and duration aerobic dance exercise in 24 sedentary women. Blood samples were collected at rest twice before (baseline) and after the 6-week intervention for analysis of protein hydroperoxide (PrOOH), malondialdehyde (MDA), total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) levels. Maximal treadmill run time (Time(max)) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) were also measured. All variables were statistically analyzed with a repeated measurement ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. No differences were noted in any variable during the baseline period (p > 0.05). After aerobic dance exercise, VO(2max), Time(max), TAC and IL-2 were significantly increased, whereas MDA levels were decreased significantly (p < 0.05). PrOOH did not change either between baseline measures or after exercise. It can be concluded that aerobic dance exercise at a moderate intensity and duration can improve physical fitness, decrease MDA, and increase TAC and IL-2 in previously sedentary women. PMID:21665113

  15. Interferon Gamma in Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kima, Peter E.; Soong, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a complex disease that is caused by parasites of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania are further classified into several complexes, each of which can engage in distinct interactions with mammalian hosts resulting in differing disease presentations. It is therefore not unexpected that host immune responses to Leishmania are variable. The induction of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and response to it in these infections has received considerable attention. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of some of the host responses during Leishmania infections that are regulated by IFN-γ. In addition, studies that explore the nature of parasite-derived molecular mediators that might affect the host response to IFN-γ are also discussed. PMID:23801993

  16. Recombinant bovine interleukin 2 enhances immunity and protection induced by Brucella abortus vaccines in cattle.

    PubMed

    Wyckoff, John H; Howland, Jeri L; Scott, Catherine M O'Connell; Smith, Robert A; Confer, Anthony W

    2005-11-30

    magnitude of LP responses to B. abortus antigens following challenge. Characterization of the cytokine response of bovine monocyte-derived macrophages by real-time polymerase chain reaction indicated that in vitro stimulation of these cells with rBoIL 2 resulted in a profound up-regulation of genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL 12p40, and interferon-gamma reflecting activation of the cells. Overall, rBoIL 2-treatment was associated with fewer infections, sero-conversions and a significant (P = 0.02) level of protection against abortion as compared to vaccination alone or no treatment. PMID:16242273

  17. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  18. Nursing care of patients receiving high-dose, continuous-infusion interleukin-2 with pulse dose and famotidine.

    PubMed

    Tyre, Charley Cowan; Quan, Walter

    2007-08-01

    High-dose, continuous-infusion interleukin-2 (IL-2) followed by pulse dose and concurrent administration of famotidine has demonstrated response rates of 64% and 33% in patients with metastatic melanoma and metastatic renal cell carcinoma, respectively. Currently, no information is available concerning the nursing care of patients receiving that IL-2 regimen. Given the high response rates of patients on the treatment, attention by the nursing profession is warranted. Effective nursing care of patients receiving IL-2 is essential to the regimen's success. Recognition and prompt treatment of common side effects lead to better patient outcomes. This article provides nurses with an overview of the treatment regimen, expected side effects, psycho-social considerations, and discharge instructions for patients receiving continuous-infusion plus pulse IL-2 and famotidine. PMID:17723964

  19. The Toxicity and Benefit of Various Dosing Strategies for Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pachella, Laura A.; Madsen, Lydia T.; Dains, Joyce E.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy has been used with success in curing meta­static renal cell carcinoma and melanoma in a small minority of patients. However, the benefits can be accompanied by severe toxicity. This review of the literature discusses varying doses of IL-2 and their associated re­sponse rates and the toxicities associated with treatment. The review also explores the maximally beneficial dose with the most tolerable side effects. Although the higher-dose regimens with a more frequent dosing schedule produce higher-grade toxicity, they were found to deliver the most durable and complete responses. It is recommended to use a higher-dose regimen (720,000 IU/kg every 8 hours for a maximum of 15 doses) and provide sup­portive care for toxicity, so patients can have maximal benefit from therapy. PMID:26557408

  20. The Toxicity and Benefit of Various Dosing Strategies for Interleukin-2 in Metastatic Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pachella, Laura A; Madsen, Lydia T; Dains, Joyce E

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy has been used with success in curing meta-static renal cell carcinoma and melanoma in a small minority of patients. However, the benefits can be accompanied by severe toxicity. This review of the literature discusses varying doses of IL-2 and their associated re-sponse rates and the toxicities associated with treatment. The review also explores the maximally beneficial dose with the most tolerable side effects. Although the higher-dose regimens with a more frequent dosing schedule produce higher-grade toxicity, they were found to deliver the most durable and complete responses. It is recommended to use a higher-dose regimen (720,000 IU/kg every 8 hours for a maximum of 15 doses) and provide sup-portive care for toxicity, so patients can have maximal benefit from therapy. PMID:26557408

  1. Immunotherapy of murine sarcomas with interleukin 2. II. Activation of killer cells by human recombinant IL-2.

    PubMed

    Indrová, M; Bubeník, J; Toulcová, A

    1986-01-01

    Highly purified human recombinant interleukin 2 induced cytotoxicity in mouse spleen cells against mouse sarcoma cells when added during the 51Cr microcytotoxicity assay. It elicited similar levels of killer cell activation as did human lymphoid (Jurkat leukaemia-derived) or mouse lymphoid (EL-4 leukaemia-derived) IL-2 preparations. The susceptibility of six MC-induced mouse sarcomas to the cytolytic effect of lymphokine-activated killer cells was compared. Five (MC11, MC13, MC14, MC15, MC16) of six mouse sarcoma cell lines examined were sensitive in vitro to the LAK cell effect, whereas one cell line (MC12) was resistant. Since the sensitive and resistant target cell lines had been induced with the same carcinogen and in mice of the same genotype, they represent a very useful model for investigation of target cell structures responsible for the sensitivity to the LAK cell effect. PMID:3492397

  2. Skin tumor responsiveness to interleukin-2 treatment and CD8 Foxp3+ T cell expansion in an immunocompetent mouse model.

    PubMed

    Foureau, David M; McKillop, Iain H; Jones, Chase P; Amin, Asim; White, Richard L; Salo, Jonathan C

    2011-09-01

    Recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) therapy is approved for treating patients with advanced melanoma yet significant responses are observed in only 10-15% of patients. Interleukin-2 induces Foxp3 expression in activated human CD8 T cells in vitro and expands circulating CD8 Foxp3+ T cells in melanoma patients. Employing IL-2 responsive (B16-F1, B16-BL6, JB/MS, MCA-205) and nonresponsive (JB/RH, B16-F10) subcutaneous tumor mouse models, we evaluated CD8 Foxp3+ T cell distribution and changes in response to rhIL-2 (50,000 U, i.p. or s.q., twice daily for 5 days). In tumor-free mice and subcutaneous tumor-bearing mouse models, CD8 Foxp3+ T cells were a rare but naturally occurring cell subset. Primarily located in skin-draining lymph nodes, CD8 Foxp3+ T cells expressed both activated T cell (CD28(+), CD44(+)) and Treg (CTLA4(+), PD1(lo/var), NKG2A(+/var)) markers. Following treatment with rhIL-2, a dramatic increase in CD8 Foxp3+ T cell prevalence was observed in the circulation and tumor-draining lymph nodes (TD.LNs) of animals bearing IL-2 nonresponsive tumors, while no significant changes were observed in the circulation and TD.LNs of animals bearing IL-2 responsive tumors. These findings suggest expansion of CD8 Foxp3+ T cell population in response to rhIL-2 treatment may serve as an early marker for tumor responsiveness to immunotherapy in an immune competent model. Additionally, these data may provide insight to predict response in patients with melanoma undergoing rhIL-2 treatment. PMID:21638127

  3. Synergy between interleukin-2 and a second factor in the long-term growth of human T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, B J; Shively, J E; Mitsky, P S; Hawke, D H; Forman, S J; Wright, C L; Todd, C W

    1986-01-01

    It has recently been shown that factors in addition to interleukin-2 (IL-2) are required for the proliferation or differentiation of at least some murine T-cell lines. We have previously shown that conditioned medium from human mononuclear cells stimulated with phorbol ester and staphylococcal enterotoxin A is superior to commercial sources of IL-2 for the long-term growth of human T cells. We have identified in these supernatants a non-IL-2 factor (synergistic factor, SF) which synergizes with JURKAT IL-2 in the long-term growth of human T cells. [3H]TdR incorporation by IL-2-dependent human T cells after growth in IL-2 or SF alone for 14 days was slight, but significant. By contrast, growth in a combination of SF and IL-2 for 14 days stimulated [3H]TdR incorporation 10-20-fold higher, generally equal to the high incorporation measured when cells were grown in the presence of the conditioned medium from which SF was obtained. In a standard 2-day IL-2 assay, there was no correlation between activity and long-term growth-promoting ability. These results suggest that the 14-day assay better discerns the growth-promoting activity of various factors or combinations of factors. The mechanism of this interaction between SF and IL-2 remains to be elucidated. It is clear, however, that T-cell growth factor activity, when assessed by the long-term growth of human T cells, is not due to interleukin-2 alone. PMID:3489670

  4. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such i...

  5. Antibacterial activity of recombinant murine beta interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Fujiki, T; Tanaka, A

    1988-01-01

    Recombinant murine beta interferon was protective and therapeutic for mice against Listeria monocytogenes infection in vivo. The recombinant murine beta interferon caused enhanced H2O2 release by macrophages in vivo, but not in vitro. PMID:3343048

  6. Unfractionated human thymocytes have a lower proliferative capacity than CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ ones but have a similar capacity for expression of interleukin 2 receptors and production of interleukin 2

    SciTech Connect

    Vives, J.; Sole, J.; Suarez, B.

    1987-12-01

    CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ and unfractionated thymocytes were compared for their capacity to proliferate, to express interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptor, and to secrete IL-2. Phorbol ester and Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore were used as mitogens. CD3/sup -/4/sup -/8/sup -/ thymocytes responded vigorously when stimulated with phorbol ester in the presence of IL-2 or in combination with Ca/sup 2 +/ ionophore. In contrast, unfractionated thymocytes responded weakly when stimulated with either of these mitogens. Surprisingly, however, the stimulation of these populations with either phorbol ester plus IL-2 or phorbol ester plus ionophore induced a high and similar level of IL-2 receptor expression in both thymocyte populations. A similar level of IL-2 secretion in both populations was also obtained when they were stimulated with a combination of phorbol ester plus ionophere. These results suggest that during the maturation process, the majority of thymocytes lose their capacity to be activated by some mitogens, although they maintain their capacity to secrete IL-2 and to express the IL-2 receptor.

  7. Interleukin-2 gene transfer potentiates the alpha-galactosylceramide-stimulated antitumor effect by the induction of TRAIL in NKT and NK cells in mouse models of subcutaneous and metastatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nishihori, Yoshiki; Kato, Kazunori; Tanaka, Maki; Okamoto, Tetsuro; Hagiwara, Seiya; Araki, Naoko; Kogawa, Katsuhisa; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Nakamura, Kiminori; Niitsu, Yoshiro

    2009-09-01

    Alpha-Galactosylceramide (alpha-GalCer) is a potent CD1d ligand that activates natural killer like T-cells (NKT), leading to the production of helper T (Th) 1 and Th2 cytokines that mediate various immunemodulatory and antitumor effects. Here, we determined whether the administration of adenovirus-vector-encoding mouse interleukin-2 (AdmIL-2) can augment the antitumor effect of alpha-GalCer on subcutaneous and metastatic tumors in mice. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with alpha-GalCer on days 7, 10 and 13 after tumor inoculation, with or without intratumoral injection of AdmIL-2 on day 7. alpha-GalCer treatment increased the serum levels of interferon-gamma, while intratumoral injection of AdmIL-2 elevated serum IL-2 levels. A combination of alpha-GalCer and AdmIL-2 (alpha-GalCer/AdmIL-2) inhibited the in vivo tumor growth and improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice, as compared to the use of a single agent. Experiments on spontaneous metastasis models revealed that alpha-GalCer/AdmIL-2 reduced lung metastasis and prolonged survival, as compared to control groups. In addition, the splenic and liver mononuclear cells from mice treated with alpha-GalCer/AdmIL-2 showed enhanced cytolytic activity against NK-sensitive YAC-1 and NK-resistant 3LL tumors. Moreover, alpha-GalCer/AdmIL-2 treatment expanded the absolute numbers of lung and liver NK, NKT and T-cells as well as the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) expression of these cells. This study shows the efficacy of alpha-GalCer/AdmIL-2 immunomodulatory therapy, and provides a cellular mechanism on how it exerts the antitumor effects. PMID:19901518

  8. Enhanced protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis afforded by BCG prime-DNA boost regimen in an early challenge mouse model is associated with increased splenic interleukin-2-producing CD4 T-cell frequency post-vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kang, Han; Yuan, Qin; Ma, Hui; Hu, Zhi-Dong; Han, De-Ping; Wu, Kang; Lowrie, Douglas B; Fan, Xiao-Yong

    2014-12-01

    The development of improved vaccines and vaccination strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been hindered by a limited understanding of the immune correlates of anti-tuberculosis protective immunity. Simple measurement of interferon-γ frequency or production per se does not provide adequate prediction of immune protection. In this study, we examined the relationship between T-cell immune responses and protective efficacy conferred by the heterologous vaccination strategy, bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) prime-Ag85A DNA boost (B/D), in an early challenge mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The results demonstrated that mice vaccinated with the B/D regimen had a significantly reduced bacillary load compared with BCG-vaccinated mice, and the reduction in colony-forming units was associated with decreased pathology and lower levels of inflammatory cytokines in the infected lungs. Further analysis of immunogenicity showed that the superior protection afforded by the B/D regimen was associated with significantly increased frequency of splenic interleukin-2 (IL-2) -producing CD4 T cells and increased IL-2 production when measured as integrated mean fluorescence intensity post-vaccination as well. These data suggest that measurement of elevated frequency of IL-2-producing CD4 T cells or IL-2 production in the spleens of vaccinated mice can predict vaccine efficacy, at least in the B/D strategy, and add to the accumulating body of evidence suggesting that BCG prime-boost strategies may be a useful approach to the control of M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:24965530

  9. Ticks Take Cues from Mammalian Interferon.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Aravinda M

    2016-07-13

    Interferons are considered a first line of immune defense restricted to vertebrates. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Smith et al. (2016) demonstrate that mammalian interferon γ activates an antimicrobial response within ticks feeding on blood. The study suggests that arthropods have a parallel interferon-like defense system. PMID:27414493

  10. Single cell tuning of Myc expression by antigen receptor signal strength and interleukin-2 in T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Preston, Gavin C; Sinclair, Linda V; Kaskar, Aneesa; Hukelmann, Jens L; Navarro, Maria N; Ferrero, Isabel; MacDonald, H Robson; Cowling, Victoria H; Cantrell, Doreen A

    2015-01-01

    Myc controls the metabolic reprogramming that supports effector T cell differentiation. The expression of Myc is regulated by the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-2 (IL-2). We now show that the TCR is a digital switch for Myc mRNA and protein expression that allows the strength of the antigen stimulus to determine the frequency of T cells that express Myc. IL-2 signalling strength also directs Myc expression but in an analogue process that fine-tunes Myc quantity in individual cells via post-transcriptional control of Myc protein. Fine-tuning Myc matters and is possible as Myc protein has a very short half-life in T cells due to its constant phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and subsequent proteasomal degradation. We show that Myc only accumulates in T cells exhibiting high levels of amino acid uptake allowing T cells to match Myc expression to biosynthetic demands. The combination of digital and analogue processes allows tight control of Myc expression at the population and single cell level during immune responses. PMID:26136212

  11. [Effect of acupuncture on interleukin-2 level and NK cell immunoactivity of peripheral blood of malignant tumor patients].

    PubMed

    Wu, B; Zhou, R X; Zhou, M S

    1994-09-01

    This paper deals with the observation of acupuncture therapy affecting interleukin-2(IL-2 level and natural killer (NK) cell immunoactivity in the peripheral blood of patients with malignant tumors. In this clinical-laboratory test research, randomized double blind method was used. The patients were divided into an acupuncture treated group (n = 25) and a control group (n = 20). The former group was treated using points, ST36,LI11,RN6 and locations of symptomatic points bilaterally. They received one treatment of 30 minutes daily for 10 days. The results showed that the IL-2 level and NK cell activity were lower than normal in patients with malignant tumor, but there was an increase in the acupuncture group after 10 days of treatment. Significance was found to be remarkable (P < 0.01). The difference between the two groups was also significant (P < 0.01). This increase might be related to the mechanism of acupuncture that adjusting the body's immune function. Thus, acupuncture therapy could enhance the cellular immune function of patients with malignant tumors and providing a beneficial effect in anti-cancer treatment. PMID:7866002

  12. Comparison of the radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 production between species, between tissues, and between young and old individuals

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.; Akagawa, T.; Anderson, D.G.; Makinodan, T.

    1985-04-01

    The radiosensitivity of interleukin-2 (IL-2) production was assessed of (a) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of young humans, dogs, and mice (C57BL/6); (b) PBMC and splenic cells of young mice; and (c) PBMC of young and old humans and the splenic cells of young and old mice. The results indicate that (a) large differences in radiosensitivity exist between the PBMC of humans, dogs, and mice (e.g., the radiation doses which resulted in 37% remaining IL-2 activity (D37) of human, dog, and mouse PBMC were 3771, greater than 10,000, and 1398 rads, respectively); (b) only a small difference exists between the PBMC and splenic cells of mice; and (c) no difference exists between the PBMC of young and old humans and between splenic cells of young and old mice. Topological abnormalities, as judged by scanning electron microscopic analysis, could not be detected in dog PBMC after their exposure to 1800 rads, but could be detected in mouse PBMC after their exposure to 400 rads.

  13. Use of interleukin-2 for management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Zhang, Yinan; Graves, Donna; DeSena, Allen D.; Frohman, Elliot; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 3-year history of natalizumab use developed expressive aphasia. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed left frontotemporal and right parietal lesion with mild contrast enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham virus (JCV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient received five cycles of plasmapheresis followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this intervention, her speech deteriorated and she developed right hemiparesis. Upon referral to our institution, CSF quantitative JCV PCR was notable for 834 copies/ml. The patient was given an initial dose of 50,000 units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously (SQ) followed by 1 million units IL-2 SQ daily. Due to concern for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the patient also received intravenous methylprednisone weekly. The regimen was tolerated well by the patient with no severe adverse effects. Clinically, the patient showed some improvement, and became more responsive and regained right lower extremity antigravity strength. After 12 weeks of IL-2 therapy, JCV quantitative PCR was notable for 31 copies/ml and the patient was more responsive. Due to persistence of JCV, IL-2 therapy was changed to mefloquine. At follow up after 6 months, the patient showed no clinical deterioration. PMID:27134676

  14. Use of interleukin-2 for management of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Divyanshu; Zhang, Yinan; Graves, Donna; DeSena, Allen D; Frohman, Elliot; Greenberg, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    A 51-year-old woman with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 3-year history of natalizumab use developed expressive aphasia. A brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) showed left frontotemporal and right parietal lesion with mild contrast enhancement and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for John Cunningham virus (JCV) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The patient received five cycles of plasmapheresis followed by intravenous immunoglobulin. Despite this intervention, her speech deteriorated and she developed right hemiparesis. Upon referral to our institution, CSF quantitative JCV PCR was notable for 834 copies/ml. The patient was given an initial dose of 50,000 units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) subcutaneously (SQ) followed by 1 million units IL-2 SQ daily. Due to concern for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), the patient also received intravenous methylprednisone weekly. The regimen was tolerated well by the patient with no severe adverse effects. Clinically, the patient showed some improvement, and became more responsive and regained right lower extremity antigravity strength. After 12 weeks of IL-2 therapy, JCV quantitative PCR was notable for 31 copies/ml and the patient was more responsive. Due to persistence of JCV, IL-2 therapy was changed to mefloquine. At follow up after 6 months, the patient showed no clinical deterioration. PMID:27134676

  15. Protein phosphatase 1α is a Ras-activated Bad phosphatase that regulates interleukin-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ayllón, Verónica; Martínez-A, Carlos; García, Alphonse; Cayla, Xavier; Rebollo, Angelita

    2000-01-01

    Growth factor deprivation is a physiological mechanism to regulate cell death. We utilize an interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent murine T-cell line to identify proteins that interact with Bad upon IL-2 stimulation or deprivation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins and co-immunoprecipitation techniques, we found that Bad interacts with protein phosphatase 1α (PP1α). Serine phosphorylation of Bad is induced by IL-2 and its dephosphorylation correlates with appearance of apoptosis. IL-2 deprivation induces Bad dephosphorylation, suggesting the involvement of a serine phosphatase. A serine/threonine phosphatase activity, sensitive to the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, was detected in Bad immunoprecipitates from IL-2-stimulated cells, increasing after IL-2 deprivation. This enzymatic activity also dephosphorylates in vivo 32P-labeled Bad. Treatment of cells with okadaic acid blocks Bad dephosphorylation and prevents cell death. Finally, Ras activation controls the catalytic activity of PP1α. These results strongly suggest that Bad is an in vitro and in vivo substrate for PP1α phosphatase and that IL-2 deprivation-induced apoptosis may operate by regulating Bad phosphorylation through PP1α phosphatase, whose enzymatic activity is regulated by Ras. PMID:10811615

  16. A T-cell-selective interleukin 2 mutein exhibits potent antitumor activity and is well tolerated in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shanafelt, A B; Lin, Y; Shanafelt, M C; Forte, C P; Dubois-Stringfellow, N; Carter, C; Gibbons, J A; Cheng, S L; Delaria, K A; Fleischer, R; Greve, J M; Gundel, R; Harris, K; Kelly, R; Koh, B; Li, Y; Lantz, L; Mak, P; Neyer, L; Plym, M J; Roczniak, S; Serban, D; Thrift, J; Tsuchiyama, L; Wetzel, M; Wong, M; Zolotorev, A

    2000-11-01

    Human interleukin 2 (IL-2; Proleukin) is an approved therapeutic for advanced-stage metastatic cancer; however, its use is restricted because of severe systemic toxicity. Its function as a central mediator of T-cell activation may contribute to its efficacy for cancer therapy. However, activation of natural killer (NK) cells by therapeutically administered IL-2 may mediate toxicity. Here we have used targeted mutagenesis of human IL-2 to generate a mutein with approximately 3,000-fold in vitro selectivity for T cells over NK cells relative to wild-type IL-2. We compared the variant, termed BAY 50-4798, with human IL-2 (Proleukin) in a therapeutic dosing regimen in chimpanzees, and found that although the T-cell mobilization and activation properties of BAY 50-4798 were comparable to human IL-2, BAY 50-4798 was better tolerated in the chimpanzee. BAY 50-4798 was also shown to inhibit metastasis in a mouse tumor model. These results indicate that BAY 50-4798 may exhibit a greater therapeutic index than IL-2 in humans in the treatment of cancer and AIDS. PMID:11062441

  17. Regression of metastatic clear cell kidney cancer with interleukin-2 treatment following nivolumab (anti-PD-1) treatment.

    PubMed

    Brayer, Jason; Fishman, Mayer

    2014-04-01

    Aldesleukin [interleukin-2 (IL-2)] induces durable complete responses in some kidney cancer and melanoma patients. Nivolumab is an investigational antibody drug targeting programmed death-1 (PD-1) as a treatment, demonstrating activity in multiple cancer types. An expanding complement of immunotherapeutics raises important issues regarding the best way to use them. There are issues beyond identifying an agent that provides the superior front-line response: when does one therapy potentiate another immune therapy? When is the capacity of immune response exhausted and an approach without immune mechanism the better therapy? In this case report, we present a patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma with no tumor regression evident on a PD-1 blockade (given on an investigational trial), who then achieved near-complete response to bolus high-dose IL-2 therapy, maintaining a persistent response off therapy. This case emphasizes on the need to develop improved predictors of response to immune therapies, especially as they can be applied to optimize sequential immunotherapeutic modalities versus predict when to turn to alternative targeted agents in renal cell carcinoma, and is an example of efficacious IL-2 application as a second-line treatment. PMID:24598453

  18. Combined levamisole with recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Creagan, E T; Hestorff, R D; Suman, V J; Mailliard, J A; Nair, S; Krook, J E; Kugler, J W; Marschke, R F; Michalak, J C; Tschetter, L K

    1998-04-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy (AI) with interleukin-2 (IL-2) and lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells is an antineoplastic modality in which immune-activated cells are administered to a host having cancer in an attempt to mediate tumor regression. Levamisole (LEV), an immune stimulant, has been suggested as having therapeutic effectiveness in a variety of cancers. After a phase I trial of recombinant IL-2 plus LEV, a phase II trial of this combination was conducted in patients who had advanced renal cell carcinoma. The regimen was IL-2 at 3 x 10(6) U/m2 daily x 5 plus LEV at 50 mg/m2 perorally three times a day x 5. Only one of the 22 eligible patients had a regression. It was a partial regression, 85 days in duration. The median time to treatment failure (refusal, progression, or off study because of toxicity) was 36 days. The only grade 4 toxicity reported was lethargy. This regimen is not recommended for further testing in patients who have advanced renal cell carcinoma. PMID:9537198

  19. In vitro assessment of choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) as a vehicle for recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2)

    PubMed Central

    Foureau, David M.; Vrikkis, Regina M.; Jones, Chase P.; Weaver, Katherine D.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.; Salo, Jonathan C.; McKillop, Iain H.; Elliott, Gloria D.

    2013-01-01

    Choline dihydrogen phosphate (CDHP) is an ionic liquid reported to increase thermal stability of model proteins. The current work investigated CDHP effect on structural integrity and biological activity of recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2), a therapeutic protein used for treating advanced melanoma. In vitro CDHP biocompatibility was also evaluated using primary cell cultures, or B16-F10 cell line, chronically exposed to the ionic liquid. Formulation of rhIL-2 in an aqueous 680mM CDHP pH 7.4 solution resulted in a 12.5°C increase in the Tm of rhIL-2 compared to a basic buffer formulation, and provided conformational rhIL-2 stabilization when the solution was heated to 23.3°C above the Tm. CDHP solutions (≤80mM), exhibited no cytotoxic activity toward primary splenocytes or B16-F10 cells in culture. However, a 10-fold loss in biological activity was observed when rhIL-2 was used in a 30mM CDHP aqueous solution with NaHCO3 (pH≥7.2) compared to controls without CDHP. While increased Tm is associated with a diminished rhIL-2 biological activity, the therapeutic protein remains structurally intact and functional. PMID:24504148

  20. Oral tacrolimus oil formulations for enhanced lymphatic delivery and efficient inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takayuki; Nakanishi, Kiyo; Yoshioka, Tatsunobu; Tsutsui, Yuuki; Maeda, Atsushi; Kondo, Hiromu; Sako, Kazuhiro

    2016-03-01

    Oral oil formulations have been reported to deliver drugs into the lymph. Lymphatic delivery of immunomodulatory drugs can more efficiently expose the drugs to T-cells in lymph, consequently induce higher efficacy and lower side effects. In this study, effects of tacrolimus oral oil formulations on drug blood exposure, and on inhibition of T-cell's interleukin-2 (IL-2) production were investigated in rats. Oil formulations (sunflower oil, cacao butter, medium chain triglyceride, and palm oil) dissolving tacrolimus showed lower drug blood concentration than a solid dispersion formulation (SDF). The sunflower oil, and cacao butter formulations suppressed drug blood exposure to 50% of the SDF, and inhibited T-cell's IL-2 production similar to the SDF. In vitro digestion tests indicated that slower digestion of the oils might reduce amount and rate of tacrolimus blood absorption. The cacao butter formulations showed 3.0 times more rapid tacrolimus absorption to lymphatic fluid than the SDF. Ratio of the rate constants of absorption into lymph to that into blood was higher in oil formulations (15 times in cacao butter, 15 times sunflower oil, and 3.5 times palm oil) than in the SDF. These results indicated that the oral oil formulations might be suitable for reduced tacrolimus blood concentration for low systemic side effects, and keep high lymph concentration for high efficacy in organ transplantation patients. PMID:26748381

  1. Effect of interleukin-2 treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    HU, RUNLEI; MA, SHENGLIN; KE, XIANFU; JIANG, HONG; WEI, DONGSHAN; WANG, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of interleukin-2 (IL-2) treatment combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) on Lewis lung cancer-bearing mice. Magnetic fluids were prepared in vitro and directly injected into the tumors in the mice, which were subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The temperature in the tumor reached 43°C and was maintained by controlling the strength of magnetic field for 30 min. Twenty-four hours later, IL-2 was injected directly into the tumors. Mice were divided into four groups: Group I (control), II (MFH), III (IL-2) and IV (IL-2+MFH). The tumor grew gradually in groups II and IV (both P<0.05) compared to the control group. Histological analysis showed that the tumor cells underwent apoptosis and necrosis. Immunohistochemistry results demonstrated that heat-shock protein 70 and cluster of differentiation (CD) 8-positive and CD4-positive T cells were strongly expressed following hypothermia. Therefore, the present study provided evidence that IL-2 treatment combined with MFH improves the therapeutic effect on lung cancer-bearing mice. PMID:26870335

  2. Functional impairment of natural killer cells in active ulcerative colitis: reversion of the defective natural killer activity by interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Manzano, L; Alvarez-Mon, M; Abreu, L; Antonio Vargas, J; de la Morena, E; Corugedo, F; Duràntez, A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the functional characteristics and clinical importance of the natural killer (NK) cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) from patients with ulcerative colitis. Normal NK activity was observed in PBMNC from patients with inactive disease, but a pronounced decrease was found in those with active disease. Clinical change from active to inactive disease was associated with enhancement of the depressed NK activity. The impairment of NK cytotoxicity found in patients with active disese could not be ascribed to a deficient number of NK cells as the amounts of HNK-1+, CD16+ (Leu 11), and CD11b (OKM1) cells in PBMNC were within normal ranges. This defective cytotoxic PBMNC activity was normalised by short term (18 hour) incubation with recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2). Moreover, long term (5 day) incubation of these effector cells with rIL-2 induced strong cytotoxic activity against NK resistant and NK sensitive target cells in patients with active and inactive disease. We also found that both precursors and effectors of cytotoxic activity promoted by short term and long term incubation with rIL-2 of PBMNC from the patients showed the phenotype of NK cells (CD16+, CD3-). Taken together, these results show that active ulcerative colitis is associated with a defective function of NK cells that is found to be normal in the inactive stage of the disease. The possible pathogenic and therapeutic implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:1541421

  3. Evidence of enhanced recombinant interleukin-2 sensitivity in thymic lymphocytes from patients with myasthenia gravis: possible role in autoimmune pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Kaminsky, S; Levasseur, P; Binet, J P; Berrih-Aknin, S

    1989-09-01

    We evaluated the activation state of thymic lymphocytes in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) by cytofluorographic analysis of CD25 expression and by testing their sensitivity to recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in the absence of any known previous stimulation. We detected no phenotypic signs of activation in fresh MG thymic lymphocyte suspensions, while functional signs of activation were reflected in a significantly higher sensitivity to rIL-2 in MG patients than in controls. The responses to rIL-2 were time- and dose-dependent, were inhibited by a blocking anti-IL-2 receptor antibody, and were associated with an increase in CD25+ T cells in both patients and controls. The T cells with functional signs of previous activation may represent autoreactive cells involved in the autoimmune process and confirm thymus gland hyperactivity in MG. These cells could result from primary autosensitization against the thymic acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-like molecule or from altered migration of peripheral activated cells into an abnormal thymic environment. Our results also provide a clue for understanding the effect of thymectomy in myasthenia gravis. PMID:2808688

  4. Treatment of Walker ascites tumor cells by combination of photodynamic therapy with cyclophosphamide and interleukin-2 entrapped in liposomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, Vasile F.; Ionescu, Mircea D.; Balotescu, Carmen; Dima, V. S.

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial and adverse local effects of PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy on rats bearing Walker ascites tumor cells. Experiments were performed on five batches of Wistar inbred rats with ascites tumor cells receiving intraperitoneally PDT (Photofrin II and 18 hrs later HeNe laser irradiation); Cyclophosphamide (CY); interleukin-2 (IL-2) or associated therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2). The control batch consisted of untreated rats (HBSS). The following results were noticed: (a) sole administration of PDT, IL-2 or CY reduced tumor growth, gave survival rates between 28.4 and 56.5% and cure rates ranging from 12.4 to 33.3%; (b) combined therapy (PDT+CY+IL-2) decreased tumor growth, increased survival rates (88.5%) and cure rates were 73.1% forty-two days post-transplantation. Summing up, in this study we noticed that PDT associated with chemoimmunotherapy reduced mortality as well as tumor volumes and increased cure rates in rats with ascites tumor cells. This approach points to the need for further evaluation in patients with peritoneal malignancies.

  5. Serum concentrations of soluble interleukin 2 receptor in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: effect of second line drugs.

    PubMed

    Crilly, A; Madhok, R; Watson, J; Capell, H A

    1993-01-01

    Serum soluble interleukin 2 receptor (sIL-2R) concentrations reflect lymphocyte activation in vivo. An investigation was carried out to determine if sIL-2R concentrations correlate with existing disease activity parameters in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether these concentrations are modulated by treatment with second line drugs. Seventy nine patients with rheumatoid arthritis with active disease were prospectively treated with sodium aurothiomalate, auranofin, or sulphasalazine. Sequential concentrations of sIL-2R were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No correlations were observed between sIL-2R concentrations and clinical parameters and there were only moderate associations with concentrations of C reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Concentrations of sIL-2R did not significantly change with treatment. It is concluded that sIL-2R probably measures an aspect of rheumatoid synovitis distinct from acute phase reactants and is not influenced by treatment with second line drugs. PMID:8093995

  6. Characterization of surface interleukin-2 receptor expression on gated populations of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    PubMed

    Sweat, J M; Johnson, C M; Marikar, Y; Gibbs, E P

    2005-12-15

    An in vitro system to determine surface interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression on mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from free-ranging manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris was developed. Human recombinant IL-2, conjugated with a fluorescein dye was used in conjunction with flow cytometric analysis to determine changes in surface expression of IL-2R at sequential times over a 48-h period of in vitro stimulation. Surface expression of IL-2R was detected on manatee PBMC, which also cross-reacted with an anti-feline pan T-cell marker. An expression index (EI) was calculated by comparing mitogen-activated and non-activated PBMC. Based on side- and forward-scatter properties, flow cytometric analysis showed an increase in the number of larger, more granular "lymphoblasts" following concanavalin A (Con A) stimulation. The appearance of lymphoblasts was correlated with an increase in their surface expression of IL-2 receptors. Surface IL-2R expression, in Con A-stimulated PBMC, was detected at 16 h, peaked at 24-36 h, and began to decrease by 48 h. Characterization of the IL-2R expression should provide additional information on the health status of manatees, and the effect of their sub lethal exposure to brevetoxin. PMID:16112745

  7. Qualitative Immune Modulation by Interleukin-2 (IL-2) Adjuvant Therapy in Immunological Non Responder HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sabbatini, Francesca; Bandera, Alessandra; Ferrario, Giulio; Trabattoni, Daria; Marchetti, Giulia; Franzetti, Fabio; Clerici, Mario; Gori, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment of HIV-infected patients with interleukin-2 (IL-2) produces significant increases in CD4 T cell counts; however an associated qualitative improvement in cells function has yet to be conclusively demonstrated. By measuring mycobacterial killing activity, we evaluated IL-2-mediated functional immune enhancement ex vivo in immunological non-responders (INRs). Methods and Findings PBMC from 12 immunological non-responders (INRs) (CD4+<200/µl, HIV-RNA<50 cp/ml) on combination antiretroviral treatment (cART) were collected at baseline, and after 3 IL-2 cycles. Eight INRs receiving only cART were studied as controls. After 21 days of PBMC incubation with a virulent M. avium suspension, counts of residual colony forming units (CFUs) and concentrations of TNF-α, IL-10 and IFN-γ were determined. In IL-2 treated patients, a significant reduction in mean residual CFUs of PBMC cultures was observed (p<0.01). Moreover, following IL-2 treatment, significant increases in PBMC's IFNγ production (p = 0.02) and substantial reductions in IL-10 levels were observed. Conclusions IL-2 therapy restores the ability of the lympho-monocyte system in eliciting an effective response against mycobacterial infections. Our data indicate the possibility of a clinical role held by IL-2 in enhancing the immune function of subjects unable to achieve immune competence through cART alone. PMID:21124762

  8. Effects of interferon on antibody formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the effects of interferon on primary and secondary antibody responses and of the relationship of interferon to other cytokines, or cell products, are presented. Dosage- and timing-dependent immunoenhancing and immunosuppressive activities of interferon are documented for mouse spleen cell cultures and for mice infected with murine hepatitis virus (MHV-3). A possibility that altered interferon production might lead to immunopathological disorders, such as lupus erythematosus, AIDS, arthritis, etc., is discussed. Latest technological developments are presented that indicate that interferon does apparently play a major role in the regulation of antibody responses.

  9. No Love Lost Between Viruses and Interferons.

    PubMed

    Fensterl, Volker; Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Sen, Ganes C

    2015-11-01

    The interferon system protects mammals against virus infections. There are several types of interferons, which are characterized by their ability to inhibit virus replication and resultant pathogenesis by triggering both innate and cell-mediated immune responses. Virus infection is sensed by a variety of cellular pattern-recognition receptors and triggers the synthesis of interferons, which are secreted by the infected cells. In uninfected cells, cell surface receptors recognize the secreted interferons and activate intracellular signaling pathways that induce the expression of interferon-stimulated genes; the proteins encoded by these genes inhibit different stages of virus replication. To avoid extinction, almost all viruses have evolved mechanisms to defend themselves against the interferon system. Consequently, a dynamic equilibrium of survival is established between the virus and its host, an equilibrium that can be shifted to the host's favor by the use of exogenous interferon as a therapeutic antiviral agent. PMID:26958928

  10. Results of space experiment program "interferon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tálas, Margarita; Bátkai, László; Stöger, Ivana; Nagy, Károly; Hiros, László; Konstantinova, Irina; Rykova, Marina; Mozgovaya, Irina; Guseva, Olga; Kozharinov, Valerii

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut teams (26 May 1980, and 16 May 1981) aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported: (1) Human lymphocytes separated from blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditons. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin: virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production in space laboratory compared to ground control was observed. (2) Human interferon preparations and interferon inducers placed in space laboratory at room temperature for 7 days maintained their biological activity. (3) A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer activity of lymphocytes isolated from peripheral blood of cosmonauts was observed on the 1st day on Earth after 7-days spaceflight.

  11. Animal Models of Interferon Signature Positive Lupus.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Szeto, Christopher; Han, Shuhong; Yang, Lijun; Reeves, Westley H

    2015-01-01

    Human lupus is strongly associated with a gene expression signature characterized by over-expression of Type I interferon-regulated genes. A strong interferon signature generally is not seen in the standard mouse models of lupus, despite considerable evidence for the involvement of toll-like receptor-driven interferon production. In contrast, pristane-induced lupus exhibits a prominent TLR7-dependent interferon signature. Importantly, genetic disorders with dysregulated interferon production in both human beings and mice cause severe autoinflammatory diseases but not the typical manifestations of lupus, suggesting that interferon over-production is insufficient to cause systemic lupus erythematosus itself. Single-gene models in mice suggest that lupus-like disease may result from abnormalities in B-cell activation and the clearance of dead cells. Pristane may mimic human systemic lupus erythematosus by causing synergistic abnormalities in interferon production along with defective clearance of apoptotic cells and over-active B-cell signaling. PMID:26097482

  12. Animal Models of Interferon Signature Positive Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Haoyang; Szeto, Christopher; Han, Shuhong; Yang, Lijun; Reeves, Westley H.

    2015-01-01

    Human lupus is strongly associated with a gene expression signature characterized by over-expression of Type I interferon-regulated genes. A strong interferon signature generally is not seen in the standard mouse models of lupus, despite considerable evidence for the involvement of toll-like receptor-driven interferon production. In contrast, pristane-induced lupus exhibits a prominent TLR7-dependent interferon signature. Importantly, genetic disorders with dysregulated interferon production in both human beings and mice cause severe autoinflammatory diseases but not the typical manifestations of lupus, suggesting that interferon over-production is insufficient to cause systemic lupus erythematosus itself. Single-gene models in mice suggest that lupus-like disease may result from abnormalities in B-cell activation and the clearance of dead cells. Pristane may mimic human systemic lupus erythematosus by causing synergistic abnormalities in interferon production along with defective clearance of apoptotic cells and over-active B-cell signaling. PMID:26097482

  13. Identification and initial characterization of a rat monoclonal antibody reactive with the murine interleukin 2 receptor-ligand complex.

    PubMed Central

    Malek, T R; Robb, R J; Shevach, E M

    1983-01-01

    Xenogeneic monoclonal antibodies were prepared to the murine interleukin 2 (IL-2)-dependent HT2 cell line. One rat IgM monoclonal antibody (7D4) was identified that inhibited proliferation of the HT2 cells and of IL-2-dependent CTLL cells in the presence of crude rat IL-2 as well as of purified human IL-2. The level of inhibition was dependent on both antibody and IL-2 concentration. Cell distribution studies using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter showed that the antigen identified by 7D4 is expressed at a high density on HT2 cells and on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced T-cell blasts and at a substantially lower density on lipopolysaccharide-induced B-cell blasts; 7D4 binding was not detected on greater than 95% of nonactivated thymocytes, T cells, or B cells. Competition binding studies indicated that 7D4 fails to inhibit the binding of 3H-labeled human IL-2 to CTLL cells. However, 7D4 specifically immunoprecipitated 3H-labeled human IL-2 from detergent extracts of HT2 cells or Con A-induced T-cell blasts that had been pulsed with [3H]IL-2; in contrast, 7D4 did not react with free [3H]IL-2. Initial biochemical analysis of immunoprecipitates with 7D4 of detergent extracts from surface-iodinated Con A-activated spleen cells showed a major band having apparent molecular weight of 48,000-62,000. Collectively, these results suggest that 7D4 detects an epitope on the IL-2 receptor distal to the ligand binding site or another molecule that physically associates with the receptor. Images PMID:6412230

  14. Exogenous Interleukin-2 Administration Corrects the Cell Cycle Perturbation of Lymphocytes from Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Paiardini, Mirko; Galati, Domenico; Cervasi, Barbara; Cannavo, Giuseppe; Galluzzi, Luca; Montroni, Maria; Guetard, Denise; Magnani, Mauro; Piedimonte, Giuseppe; Silvestri, Guido

    2001-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced immunodeficiency is characterized by progressive loss of CD4+ T cells associated with functional abnormalities of the surviving lymphocytes. Increased susceptibility to apoptosis and loss of proper cell cycle control can be observed in lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals and may contribute to the lymphocyte dysfunction of AIDS patients. To better understand the relation between T-cell activation, apoptosis, and cell cycle perturbation, we studied the effect of exogenous interleukin-2 (IL-2) administration on the intracellular turnover of phase-dependent proteins. Circulating T cells from HIV-infected patients display a marked discrepancy between a metabolic profile typical of G0 and a pattern of expression of phase-dependent proteins that indicates a more-advanced position within the cell cycle. This discrepancy is enhanced by in vitro activation with ConA and ultimately results in a marked increase of apoptotic events. Conversely, treatment of lymphocytes with IL-2 alone restores the phase-specific pattern of expression of cell cycle-dependent proteins and is associated with low levels of apoptosis. Interestingly, exogenous IL-2 administration normalizes the overall intracellular protein turnover, as measured by protein synthesis, half-life of newly synthesised proteins, and total protein ubiquitination, thus providing a possible explanation for the effect of IL-2 on the intracellular kinetics of cell cycle-dependent proteins. The beneficial effect of IL-2 administration is consistent with the possibility of defective IL-2 function in vivo, which is confirmed by the observation that lymphocytes from HIV-infected patients show abnormal endogenous IL-2 paracrine/autocrine function upon in vitro mitogen stimulation. Overall these results confirm that perturbation of cell cycle control contributes to HIV-related lymphocyte dysfunction and, by showing that IL-2 administration can revert this perturbation, suggest a new

  15. Low-dose interleukin-2 fosters a dose-dependent regulatory T cell tuned milieu in T1D patients.

    PubMed

    Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Churlaud, Guillaume; Mallone, Roberto; Six, Adrien; Dérian, Nicolas; Chaara, Wahiba; Lorenzon, Roberta; Long, S Alice; Buckner, Jane H; Afonso, Georgia; Pham, Hang-Phuong; Hartemann, Agnès; Yu, Aixin; Pugliese, Alberto; Malek, Thomas R; Klatzmann, David

    2015-04-01

    Most autoimmune diseases (AID) are linked to an imbalance between autoreactive effector T cells (Teffs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). While blocking Teffs with immunosuppression has long been the only therapeutic option, activating/expanding Tregs may achieve the same objective without the toxicity of immunosuppression. We showed that low-dose interleukin-2 (ld-IL-2) safely expands/activates Tregs in patients with AID, such HCV-induced vasculitis and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). Here we analyzed the kinetics and dose-relationship of IL-2 effects on immune responses in T1D patients. Ld-IL-2 therapy induced a dose-dependent increase in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) and CD8(+)Foxp3(+) Treg numbers and proportions, the duration of which was markedly dose-dependent. Tregs expressed enhanced levels of activation markers, including CD25, GITR, CTLA-4 and basal pSTAT5, and retained a 20-fold higher sensitivity to IL-2 than Teff and NK cells. Plasma levels of regulatory cytokines were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while cytokines linked to Teff and Th17 inflammatory cells were mostly unchanged. Global transcriptome analyses showed a dose-dependent decrease in immune response signatures. At the highest dose, Teff responses against beta-cell antigens were suppressed in all 4 patients tested. These results inform of broader changes induced by ld-IL-2 beyond direct effects on Tregs, and relevant for further development of ld-IL-2 for therapy and prevention of T1D, and other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:25634360

  16. Efficacy, durability, and response predictors of low-dose interleukin-2 therapy for chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    PubMed

    Koreth, John; Kim, Haesook T; Jones, Kyle T; Lange, Paulina B; Reynolds, Carol G; Chammas, Marie J; Dusenbury, Katherine; Whangbo, Jennifer; Nikiforow, Sarah; Alyea, Edwin P; Armand, Philippe; Cutler, Corey S; Ho, Vincent T; Chen, Yi-Bin; Avigan, David; Blazar, Bruce R; Antin, Joseph H; Ritz, Jerome; Soiffer, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with inadequate reconstitution of tolerogenic CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). Previous phase 1 studies identified a low daily dose of interleukin-2 (IL-2) that was well tolerated, did not exacerbate alloimmunity, augmented Treg in vivo, and was associated with improvement of active cGVHD. In the current phase 2 study, 35 adults with steroid-refractory cGVHD received daily IL-2 (1 × 10(6) IU/m(2)) for 12 weeks. Median time from transplantation and cGVHD onset was 616 days (range, 270-2145 days) and 317 days (range, 28-1880 days), respectively. Two patients withdrew and 5 required IL-2 dose reductions due to side effects. Twenty of 33 evaluable patients (61%) had clinical responses at multiple cGVHD sites (liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, joint/muscle/fascia). Three patients (9%) had progressive cGVHD. Compared with pretreatment levels, Treg and natural killer cell counts rose >fivefold (P < .001) and >fourfold (P < .001), respectively, without significant change in conventional CD4 T cells (Tcons) or CD8 T cells. The Treg:Tcon ratio rose >fivefold (P < .001). Clinical responders initiated IL-2 earlier (508 vs 917 days after transplantation, P = .005; 249 vs 461 days after cGVHD onset; P = .03). Treg:Tcon ratios ≥0.07 at baseline and ≥0.2 at week 1 also predicted clinical response (P = .003; P = .0003, respectively). After a 4-week treatment hiatus, clinical responders were eligible to continue IL-2 therapy indefinitely. During 2 years of extended IL-2 therapy, clinical and Treg immune responses persisted, while Tcon count and Treg:Tcon ratio gradually normalized. Low-dose IL-2 provides durable clinical improvement in active cGVHD and extended therapy is well-tolerated. PMID:27073224

  17. Effect of IL-2-Bax, a novel interleukin-2-receptor-targeted chimeric protein, on bleomycin lung injury1

    PubMed Central

    Segel, Michael J; Aqeilan, Rami; Zilka, Keren; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya; Wallach-Dayan, Shulamit B; Conner, Michael W; Christensen, Thomas G; Breuer, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    The role of lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis is not clear, but the weight of the evidence supports a pro-fibrotic effect for lymphocytes. The high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor (haIL-2R) is expressed on activated, but not quiescent, T lymphocytes. This selective expression of haIL-2R provides the basis for therapeutic strategies that target IL-2R-expressing cells. We hypothesized that elimination of activated lymphocytes by IL-2R-targeted chimeric proteins might ameliorate lung fibrosis. We investigated the effects of IL-2-Bax, a novel apoptosis-inducing IL-2R-targeted chimeric protein, on bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice. Treatment groups included (i) a single intratracheal instillation of bleomycin and twice-daily intraperitoneal injections of IL-2-Bax; (ii) intratracheal bleomycin and intraperitoneal IL-2-PE664Glu, an older-generation chimeric protein; (iii) intratracheal bleomycin/intraperitoneal PBS; (iv) intratracheal saline/intraperitoneal PBS. Lung injury was evaluated 14 days after intratracheal instillation by cell count in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, semi-quantitative and quantitative histomorphological measurements and by biochemical analysis of lung hydroxyproline. Bleomycin induced a BAL lymphocytosis that was significantly attenuated by IL-2-Bax and IL-2-PE664Glu. However, morphometric parameters and lung hydroxyproline were unaffected by the chimeric proteins. These results show that IL-2-Bax reduces the lymphocytic infiltration of the lungs in response to bleomycin, but this effect is not accompanied by a decrease in lung fibrosis. PMID:16191100

  18. Interleukin-2 from Adaptive T Cells Enhances Natural Killer Cell Activity against Human Cytomegalovirus-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zeguang; Frascaroli, Giada; Bayer, Carina; Schmal, Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Control of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) requires a continuous immune surveillance, thus HCMV is the most important viral pathogen in severely immunocompromised individuals. Both innate and adaptive immunity contribute to the control of HCMV. Here, we report that peripheral blood natural killer cells (PBNKs) from HCMV-seropositive donors showed an enhanced activity toward HCMV-infected autologous macrophages. However, this enhanced response was abolished when purified NK cells were applied as effectors. We demonstrate that this enhanced PBNK activity was dependent on the interleukin-2 (IL-2) secretion of CD4+ T cells when reexposed to the virus. Purified T cells enhanced the activity of purified NK cells in response to HCMV-infected macrophages. This effect could be suppressed by IL-2 blocking. Our findings not only extend the knowledge on the immune surveillance in HCMV—namely, that NK cell-mediated innate immunity can be enhanced by a preexisting T cell antiviral immunity—but also indicate a potential clinical implication for patients at risk for severe HCMV manifestations due to immunosuppressive drugs, which mainly suppress IL-2 production and T cell responsiveness. IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is never cleared by the host after primary infection but instead establishes a lifelong latent infection with possible reactivations when the host′s immunity becomes suppressed. Both innate immunity and adaptive immunity are important for the control of viral infections. Natural killer (NK) cells are main innate effectors providing a rapid response to virus-infected cells. Virus-specific T cells are the main adaptive effectors that are critical for the control of the latent infection and limitation of reinfection. In this study, we found that IL-2 secreted by adaptive CD4+ T cells after reexposure to HCMV enhances the activity of NK cells in response to HCMV-infected target cells. This is the first direct evidence that the adaptive T cells can

  19. Capacity of different cell types to stimulate cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursor cells in the presence of interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Dröge, W; Moyers, C; Wehrmaker, A; Schmidt, H; Panknin, S; Männel, D; Falk, W

    1984-06-01

    Plastic-adherent cells enriched for dendritic cells (AC) were found to be among the most potent stimulator cells for the activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and a constant second set of allogeneic stimulator cells. Concanavalin A-activated nylon wool-nonadherent spleen cells ( CNWT ), concanavalin A-activated unfractionated spleen cells ( Cspl ), and some variants of the ESb T lymphoma line were equally effective as stimulator cells, however, and provoked a substantial cytotoxic response at concentrations of 10(4) cells per culture or less. In contrast, nonactivated nylon wool-nonadherent spleen cells ( NWT ) or unfractionated spleen cells (Spl) and cells of the P815 mastocytoma, the Meth A fibrosarcoma, and the T cell lymphomas Ly 5178 Eb and ESb did not stimulate cytotoxic responses at these cell concentrations. The strong stimulatory potential of the Cspl preparation was reduced by treatment with anti-Thy-1 antibody plus complement, whereas the stimulatory activity of the AC preparation was resistant to this treatment. All cell types tested expressed class I major histocompatibility antigens. Nonactivated NWT cells, in contrast to the CNWT preparation, showed no detectable staining with anti-I-E or anti-I-A antibodies and also a slightly weaker staining with class I antisera. Experiments with the tumor cell lines revealed, however, that there was no strict correlation between stimulatory potential and density of class I alloantigens or the expression of I-E determinants. Experiments on primary cytotoxic responses in vivo gave similar results. Experiments in cultures with a single set of stimulator cells and I region-compatible responder cells indicated that AC and Cspl or CNWT also have a markedly stronger capacity than NWT to induce IL 2-dependent DNA synthesis. PMID:6233360

  20. Human and Mouse CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells at Steady State and during Interleukin-2 Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Churlaud, Guillaume; Pitoiset, Fabien; Jebbawi, Fadi; Lorenzon, Roberta; Bellier, Bertrand; Rosenzwajg, Michelle; Klatzmann, David

    2015-01-01

    In addition to CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD8+ suppressor T cells are emerging as an important subset of regulatory T cells. Diverse populations of CD8+ T cells with suppressive activities have been described. Among them, a small population of CD8+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells is found both in mice and humans. In contrast to thymic-derived CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs, their origin and their role in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are less understood. We report here the number, phenotype, and function of CD8+ Tregs cells in mice and humans, at the steady state and in response to low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2). CD8+ Tregs represent approximately 0.4 and 0.1% of peripheral blood T cells in healthy humans and mice, respectively. In mice, their frequencies are quite similar in lymph nodes (LNs) and the spleen, but two to threefold higher in Peyer patches and mesenteric LNs. CD8+ Tregs express low levels of CD127. CD8+ Tregs express more activation or proliferation markers such as CTLA-4, ICOS, and Ki-67 than other CD8+ T cells. In vitro, they suppress effector T cell proliferation as well as or even better than CD4+ Tregs. Owing to constitutive expression of CD25, CD8+ Tregs are 20- to 40-fold more sensitive to in vitro IL-2 stimulation than CD8+ effector T cells, but 2–4 times less than CD4+ Tregs. Nevertheless, low-dose IL-2 dramatically expands and activates CD8+ Tregs even more than CD4+ Tregs, in mice and humans. Further studies are warranted to fully appreciate the clinical relevance of CD8+ Tregs in AIDs and the efficacy of IL-2 treatment. PMID:25926835

  1. Influence of human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax and rex on interleukin-2 gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, K L; Curtiss, V E; Larson, E L; Haseltine, W A

    1993-01-01

    The X region of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) encodes two proteins that regulate viral gene expression. The tax protein is the product of the transactivator gene and has been shown to up-regulate the expression of some cellular genes controlling T-cell replication, including that of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) T-cell growth hormone and the alpha chain of its receptor (IL-2R). Several studies have shown that tax transactivation of the IL-2R alpha-chain promoter is mediated by binding sites for the transcriptional activator NF-kappa B, and this mechanism has also been implicated in the tax activation of IL-2 promoter activity. The rex gene product of HTLV-I regulates viral protein production by influencing mRNA expression and has been implicated in the stabilization of IL-2R alpha-chain mRNA. In the present studies, the ability of the tax and rex proteins to transactivate IL-2 gene expression has been reinvestigated. The ability of the tax protein to transactivate IL-2 promoter activity appears, at least in part, to be mediated by the recognition sequence for a DNA-binding complex known as CD28RC. Consistent with this hypothesis is the observation that tax-mediated activation of IL-2 gene expression is resistant to the immunosuppressive affects of cyclosporin A, a property postulated for the CD28RC binding complex. Unexpectedly, this tax-mediated up-regulation of IL-2 expression is synergized by the presence of the rex protein. These findings demonstrate that transactivation of IL-2 gene expression by tax is augmented by mechanisms distinct from NF-kappa B and raise the possibility that rex, as well as tax, contributes to the oncogenic capability of HTLV-I by altering the expression of the IL-2 gene in T cells infected with this retrovirus. Images PMID:8382312

  2. MHC I Expression Regulates Co-clustering and Mobility of Interleukin-2 and -15 Receptors in T Cells.

    PubMed

    Mocsár, Gábor; Volkó, Julianna; Rönnlund, Daniel; Widengren, Jerker; Nagy, Péter; Szöllősi, János; Tóth, Katalin; Goldman, Carolyn K; Damjanovich, Sándor; Waldmann, Thomas A; Bodnár, Andrea; Vámosi, György

    2016-07-12

    MHC glycoproteins form supramolecular clusters with interleukin-2 and -15 receptors in lipid rafts of T cells. The role of highly expressed MHC I in maintaining these clusters is unknown. We knocked down MHC I in FT7.10 human T cells, and studied protein clustering at two hierarchic levels: molecular aggregations and mobility by Förster resonance energy transfer and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy; and segregation into larger domains or superclusters by superresolution stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy-based molecular brightness analysis revealed that the studied molecules diffused as tight aggregates of several proteins of a kind. Knockdown reduced the number of MHC I containing molecular aggregates and their average MHC I content, and decreased the heteroassociation of MHC I with IL-2Rα/IL-15Rα. The mobility of not only MHC I but also that of IL-2Rα/IL-15Rα increased, corroborating the general size decrease of tight aggregates. A multifaceted analysis of stimulated emission depletion images revealed that the diameter of MHC I superclusters diminished from 400-600 to 200-300 nm, whereas those of IL-2Rα/IL-15Rα hardly changed. MHC I and IL-2Rα/IL-15Rα colocalized with GM1 ganglioside-rich lipid rafts, but MHC I clusters retracted to smaller subsets of GM1- and IL-2Rα/IL-15Rα-rich areas upon knockdown. Our results prove that changes in expression level may significantly alter the organization and mobility of interacting membrane proteins. PMID:27410738

  3. Eradication of Human Hepatic and Pulmonary Melanoma Metastases in SCID Mice by Antibody--Interleukin 2 Fusion Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Jurgen C.; Pancook, James D.; Gillies, Stephen D.; Mendelsohn, John; Reisfeld, Ralph A.

    1996-04-01

    Antibody--cytokine fusion proteins combine the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. Here, we demonstrate the therapeutic efficacy of such constructs for the treatment of hepatic and pulmonary metastases of different melanoma cell lines. Two antibody--interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins, ch225-IL2 and ch14.18-IL2, constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human IL-2 to the carboxyl end of the Cγ 1 gene of the corresponding antibodies, were tested for their therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human melanoma in vivo. Tumorspecific fusion proteins completely inhibited the growth of hepatic and pulmonary metastases in C.B-17 scid/scid mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells, whereas treatment with combinations of the corresponding antibodies plus recombinant IL-2 only reduced the tumor load. Even when treatment with fusion proteins was delayed up to 8 days after inoculation of tumor cells, it still resulted in complete eradication of micrometastases that were established at that time point. Selection of tumor cell lines expressing or lacking the targeted antigen of the administered fusion protein proved the specificity of the observed antitumor effect. Biodistribution analysis demonstrated that the tumorspecific fusion protein accumulated not only in subcutaneous tumors but also in lungs and livers affected with micrometastases. Survival times of animals treated with the fusion protein were more than doubled as compared to those treated with the combination of the corresponding antibody plus IL-2. Our data demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using cytokines targeted by antibodies to tumor sites has potent effects against disseminated human melanoma.

  4. Elevated soluble CD8 antigen and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in the sera of patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lipnick, R N; Sfikakis, P P; Klipple, G L; Tsokos, G C

    1993-07-01

    Activated T lymphocytes release various molecules including soluble CD8 (sCD8) antigen and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R). Elevated serum sCD8 antigen levels have been found in patients with viral infections, certain hematologic malignancies, and rheumatoid arthritis. On the other hand, elevated serum levels of sIL-2R have been found in various diseases including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA). We measured sCD8 antigen and sIL-2R levels using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in the sera of 49 afebrile patients with JRA (systemic 15, polyarticular 16, and pauciarticular 18) and 16 normal children. Disease activity was classified as mild, moderate, and severe. Sera from patients with severe JRA expressed statistically significant higher levels of both sCD8 and sIL-2R, whereas patients with mild disease had the lowest levels. There were no differences in the serum sCD8 and sIL-2R levels between the groups of patients with pauciarticular-, systemic-, and polyarticular-onset disease. Patients who were treated with prednisone had statistically nonsignificant higher serum levels of sCD8 and sIL-2R. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between sCD8 and sIL-2R levels, sCD8 levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and sIL-2R levels and ESR. Our findings further suggest the presence of activated lymphocytes in patients with JRA and show that sCD8 antigen serum levels correlate with both serum levels of sIL-2R and ESR and thus may represent alternative indicators of disease activity. PMID:8513595

  5. Interleukin 2- and polyomavirus middle T antigen-induced modification of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity in activated T lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Augustine, J A; Sutor, S L; Abraham, R T

    1991-01-01

    Stimulation of activated T lymphocytes with interleukin 2 (IL-2) results in rapid increases in intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Both the identity of the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activated by IL-2 receptor ligation and the identities of the critical target proteins for this PTK remain largely undefined. In this article, we demonstrate that stimulation of activated murine or human T cells with IL-2 for 10 to 30 min induces two- to threefold increases in the level of phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) 3-kinase activity present in antiphosphotyrosine (p-Tyr) antibody immunoprecipitates from these cells. Furthermore, substantial levels of PtdIns 3-kinase activity were coprecipitated from IL-2-deprived T cells by antibodies to the src-related PTK p59fyn. Cellular stimulation with IL-2 induced a two- to threefold increase in the level of p59fyn-associated PtdIns 3-kinase activity. To examine the effect of a constitutive increase in PtdIns 3-kinase activity on the growth factor responsiveness of activated T cells, murine CTLL-2 cells were transfected with a polyomavirus middle T antigen (MTAg) expression vector. Anti-p-Tyr and anti-p59fyn immunoprecipitates from MTAg-transfected CTLL-2 cells contained three- to sixfold higher levels of PtdIns 3-kinase activity than wild-type cells. Immune complex kinase assays revealed that MTAg expression concomitantly induced a constitutive threefold increase in the PTK activity of p59fyn in these cells. However, stable MTAg expression did not abrogate the dependence of CTLL-2 cells on exogenous IL-2 for continued growth and proliferation. Images PMID:1652056

  6. Necrotizing enterocolitis as an adverse effect of recombinant interleukin-2 and Ch14.18 in maintenance therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Levy, Gabriel; Bonnevalle, Michel; Rocourt, Nathalie; Sudour, Hélène; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie

    2015-05-01

    Recombinant interleukin-2 is used with ch14.18/CHO to improve the cytotoxic activity of NK lymphocytes against neoplastic cells. The efficacy of this treatment is limited by its potential side effects. We report an unusual case of necrotizing enterocolitis associated with the administration of interleukin-2 and ch14.18/CHO in maintenance therapy for localized NMyc amplified neuroblastoma (NBL). This case highlights the potentially significant toxicity of this immunotherapy that is currently being tested in the high-risk NBL-1.5 protocol. Further, short-term, medium-term, and long-term follow-up in this patient population will be warranted to judge the potential benefit of this treatment versus the short-term, medium-term, and long-term side effects in a patient population with an outcome that is better than that of stage 4 NBL patients. PMID:25730142

  7. Constitutive secretion of soluble interleukin-2 receptor by human T cell lymphoma xenografted into SCID mice. Correlation of tumor volume with concentration of tumor-derived soluble interleukin-2 receptor in body fluids of the host mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, M. A.; Sioutos, N.; Tuttle, M.; Butmarc, J. R.; Kaplan, W. D.; Kadin, M. E.

    1994-01-01

    Increased serum concentration of soluble alpha-chain receptor for interleukin-2 (sIL-2R) has been noted in patients with a variety of inflammatory conditions and lymphoid malignancies including T cell leukemia and lymphoma. Elevated sIL-2R serum levels seen in lymphoid malignancies appear to correlate with the clinical stage of disease. However, because sIL-2R is produced by normal activated lymphocytes, it has been uncertain whether serum sIL-2R in such conditions is derived from tumor cells or normal immune cells responding to the tumor. To address this question, we used a model of human (CD30+) anaplastic, large T cell lymphoma transplanted into immunodeficient SCID mice. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of tumor RNA showed that the tumor, designated mJB6, contains mRNA for alpha-chain of human IL-2R. Furthermore, 15 to 25% of tumor cells stained with anti-human IL-2R alpha-chain mAb. Solid phase ELISA analysis of serum samples from mice bearing mJB6 lymphoma showed high concentrations of human sIL-2R. None of the control mice without lymphoma or with human nonlymphoid tumors (prostatic carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, and glioblastoma multiforme) showed detectable human sIL-2R. The sIL-2R serum titers of mJB6-bearing mice correlated strongly with tumor volume (P < 0.0001). Tumors as small as 0.4 to 0.8 mm3 could be detected by this method. The sensitivity of sIL-2R ELISA exceeded at least 150 times the sensitivity of conventional radioisotopic tumor detection. Total resection of mJB6 tumors resulted in complete clearance of sIL-2R from the murine serum within 48 hours with a half-life of 6 hours. Accordingly, partial resection led to a significant decrease in sIL-2R followed by gradual increase with tumor regrowth. sIL-2R was also detected in the urine of mJB6-transplanted mice. As in serum, urine concentrations of sIL-2R were proportional to tumor mass (P < 0.02). Based on these findings we postulate that malignant cells are a major source of serum

  8. Human Papillomaviruses and the Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Beglin, Melanie; Melar-New, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are small DNA viruses that target stratified keratinocytes for infection. A subset of HPV types infect epithelia in the genital tract and are the causative agents of cervical as well as other anogenital cancers. Interferon treatment of existing genital HPV lesions has had mixed results. While HPV proteins down-regulate the expression of interferon-inducible genes, interferon treatment ultimately induces their high-level transcription after a delay. Cells containing complete HPV genomes that are able to undergo productive replication upon differentiation are sensitive to interferon-induced growth arrest, while cells from high-grade cancers that only express E6 and E7 are resistant. Recent studies indicate this sensitivity is dependent upon the binding of the interferon-inducible factor, p56, to the E1 replication protein. The response to interferon by HPV proteins is complex and results from the action of multiple viral proteins. PMID:19715460

  9. Interleukin-2 enhances the natural killer cell response to Herceptin-coated Her2/neu-positive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Carson, W E; Parihar, R; Lindemann, M J; Personeni, N; Dierksheide, J; Meropol, N J; Baselga, J; Caligiuri, M A

    2001-10-01

    The Her2/neu (c-erbB-2) oncogene encodes a 185-kDa protein tyrosine kinase which is overexpressed in 20% of breast adenocarcinomas and is recognized by a humanized anti-Her2/neu monoclonal antibody (mAb) (rhu4D5 or Herceptin). Natural killer (NK) cells are capable of mediating antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) against antibody-coated targets via their expression of a low-affinity receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIII or CD16). NK cells can be expanded in cancer patients via the administration of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and become potent cytotoxic effectors following exposure to high doses of IL-2. We tested IL-2-activated NK cells against Her2/neu+ (MCF-7Her2/neu) and Her2/neu- (MDA-468) breast cancer cell lines in a 4-h 51Cr-release cytotoxicity assay in the presence or absence of rhu4D5 mAb (effector : target ratio = 10 : 1). Specific lysis of rhu4D5-coated MCF-7Her2/neu and MDA-468 target cells by IL-2-activated NK cells was 35% and 3%, respectively (p < 0.05). Lysis was less than 5% when targets were treated with either the non-humanized mu4D5 mAb or control huIgG. Lysis of rhu4D5-coated MCF-7Her2/neu cells was inhibited by 80 % when NK cells were pre-treated with an anti-Fc receptor antibody prior to use in the cytotoxicity assay. Enhanced ADCC of MCF-7Her2/neu target cells was seen when the effector cells consisted of mononuclear cells obtained from a patient demonstrating significant expansion of NK cells secondary to therapy with low-dose IL-2. Serum from patients receiving infusions of rhu4D5 mAb could substitute for exogenous antibody in the ADCC assay. NK cells activated by rhu4D5-coated tumor cells in the presence of IL-2 also produced large amounts of IFN-gamma with concomitant up-regulation of cell-surface activation markers CD25 and CD69. These results lend support to the concurrent use of rhu4D5 mAb and IL-2 therapy in patients with cancers that express the Her2/neu oncogene. PMID:11592078

  10. Lectin interactions with the Jurkat leukemic T-cell line: quantitative binding studies and interleukin-2 production

    SciTech Connect

    Dupuis, G.; Bastin, B.

    1988-03-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), concanavalin A (Con A), pea lectin, and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) have been used to investigate their binding properties to Jurkat 77 6.8 leukemic human T cells and their ability to induce these cells to produce interleukin-2 (IL-2). Binding studies showed that the Jurkat cells fixed 0.82 +/- 0.11 microgram pea lectin, 2.02 +/- 0.17 micrograms Con A, 1.85 +/- 0.07 micrograms PHA and 8.88 +/- 0.61 micrograms WGA. Scatchard plots were linear, indicating that the binding process was homogeneous with respect to the binding constant. PHA and Con A bound with the highest affinity (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 9 x 10(9) M-1), followed by pea lectin and WGA (Kass (apparent) approximately equal to 3 x 10(9) M-1). The number of lectin binding sites was in agreement with the results of saturation experiments. We also evaluated the effect of the presence of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the binding process. Results show that there were no gross alterations in the value of (apparent) Kass in the case of PHA and WGA. In contrast, the presence of TPA decreased the affinity of Con A and modified the Scatchard profile for pea lectin, which was curvilinear with a concavity turned upward. In this case, data were (apparent) K1 = 17.7 x 10(9) M-1 (high-affinity sites) and (apparent) K2 = 2.6 x 10(9) M-1 (low-affinity sites). The four lectins shared the ability to stimulate Jurkat 77 6.8 cells to secrete IL-2. Optimal lectin concentrations were 20 micrograms/ml (PHA) and 50 micrograms/ml (WGA and Con A). Pea lectin failed to display a dose-response relationship, and IL-2 production increased proportionally with lectin concentration. Con A was the most efficient stimulator (250 U/ml), followed by WGA (160 U/ml) and PHA (108 U/ml).

  11. Blocking the interleukin 2 (IL2)-induced systemic autophagic syndrome promotes profound antitumor effects and limits toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lotze, Michael T; Buchser, William J; Liang, Xiaoyan

    2012-08-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in the United States in those dying under the age of 85. Although cancer is increasingly controlled as a chronic disease, true cures of patients with metastatic epithelial malignancies have rarely been obtained with currently available systemic therapies. For example, administration of high-dose recombinant interleukin 2 (IL2), enhancing cytolytic immune cell proliferation and delivery, promotes complete antitumor responses in < 10% of treated individuals. Means to reduce the toxicity, attributed to a cytokine storm and an associated "systemic autophagic syndrome" as well as enhance efficacy and increase the potential set of malignancies in which it is applied (currently patients with renal cancer and melanoma) would be of great interest. IL2 promotes both T-cell and NK cell induction of immune cell-mediated autophagy (iC-MA) in tumor targets. We have demonstrated that HMGB1 is detected at high levels in the serum of IL2-treated mice with translocation to the cytoplasm from the nucleus in the liver, consistent with HMGB1's release in response to stress, and ability to sustain autophagy. Limiting autophagy in mice with coadministration of chloroquine (CQ) diminishes serum levels of HMGB1, cytokines (IFNG and IL6 but not IL18), and autophagic flux, attenuating weight gain, enhancing DC, T-cell and NK cell numbers, and promoting long-term tumor control in a murine hepatic metastases model. Autophagy (programmed cell survival) is a metabolic process associated with promotion of late cancer growth. In tumor cell lines, CQ treatment limits ATP production through inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation and promotion of apoptosis. CQ increases autophagic vacuoles and LC3-II levels in tumor cells, associated with increased annexin V(+)/PI(-) cells, cleaved-PARP, cleaved-CASP3, and cytochrome c release from mitochondria. These observations, limiting toxicity and prolonging antitumor effects, with a combination of IL2 and autophagy

  12. Annual Hospital Volume of High Dose Interleukin-2 and Inpatient Mortality in Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Kathan; Appleman, Leonard; Wang, Hong; Tarhini, Ahmad A.; Parikh, Rahul A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Immunotherapy using high dose interleukin-2 (HD IL2) in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and melanoma is associated with severe toxicities. The association between annual hospital volume of HD IL2 and inpatient mortality is not well studied. In this study we aim to quantify the impact of annual hospital volume of HD IL2 on inpatient mortality using National Inpatient Sample (NIS) data. Methods We did a cross-sectional study using NIS, one of the largest inpatient datasets in United States, from 2003 to 2011. Patients with melanoma and RCC receiving HD IL2 were identified by ICD9 procedure code 00.15. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Using Joinpoint regression, which detects change in trend of inpatient mortality with change in annual volume, the hospitals were classified in three volume categories (low: 1–40, medium: 41–120, high: >120). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of inpatient mortality controlling for confounders. Results From 2003 to 2011, 29,532 patients with RCC or melanoma who received HD IL2 were identified, and 124 died during the hospitalization (0.4%). The hospitals with low, medium and high annual volume had significant difference in inpatient mortality (0.83%, 0.29% and 0.13% respectively, p = 0.0003). On multivariate analysis, low volume hospitals were associated with significantly higher odds of inpatient mortality (OR 6.1, 95% CI 1.6–23.2, p = 0.003) as compared to high volume hospitals. Additionally, the hospitals with annual volume of 1–20 had even higher rates (1.31% vs. 0.13%, p<0.0001) and multivariate odds (OR 8.9, 95% CI 2.4–33.2, p = 0.0006) of inpatient mortality as compared to high volume hospitals. Conclusions Lower annual hospital volume of HD IL2 is associated with worse outcomes. Annual hospital volume of 1–40 and 1–20 treatments per year is associated with 6 and 9 times higher odds of inpatient mortality respectively as compared to high volume hospitals

  13. Serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor correlates with CD25 expression in patients with T lymphoblastic lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Toji, Tomohiro; Takata, Katsuyoshi; Sato, Yasuharu; Miyata-Takata, Tomoko; Hayashi, Eiko; Habara, Toshiyuki; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Tanimoto, Mitsune; Yoshino, Tadashi

    2015-08-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia/lymphoma (ALL/LBL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) affecting B-cells or T-cells, respectively. The serum level of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) is known to reflect the immune activity and tumour volume in aggressive NHL; however, the release of sIL-2R in LBL has not been extensively studied. Further, the relationship between sIL-2R release and the expression level of IL-2R α subunit (CD25) remains unknown. In the present study, we examined the serum level of sIL-2R in 23 patients with T lymphoblactic lymphoma (T-LBL) and compared these with the levels in 20 patient with T acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 40 patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), not otherwise specified. The release of sIL-2R into the serum in patients with T-LBL was significantly lower than that for T-ALL, DLBCL and PTCL (p<0.001). Immunohistochemistry revealed that CD25 expression was correlated with the serum level of sIL-2R in T-LBL (p=0.0069), whereas no correlation was found to exist between serum sIL-2R levels and CD25 expression in patients with DLBCL (p=0.348) and PTCL (p=0.266). Furthermore, double immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CD25-positive cells were also found to be Foxp3-positive non-neoplastic T-cells. In conclusion, CD25-positive non-neoplastic T-cells in T-LBL are presumed to be the primary source of sIL-2R, and the low number of cells present results in a lower level of sIL-2R released into the serum compared with the other aggressive and highly aggressive lymphomas. PMID:25935549

  14. Extended continuous infusion low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 in advanced cancer: prolonged immunomodulation without significant toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caligiuri, M A; Murray, C; Soiffer, R J; Klumpp, T R; Seiden, M; Cochran, K; Cameron, C; Ish, C; Buchanan, L; Perillo, D

    1991-12-01

    In previous clinical trials, recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) has been infused at high doses over short periods of time to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells in vivo. These trials have been limited by severe toxicities, and the immunologic effects of rIL-2 have been transient. The present study was designed to assess the toxicity and immunologic effects of prolonged administration of low doses of rIL-2. In this phase I study, patients with advanced cancer were scheduled to receive intravenous (IV) infusion of rIL-2 without interruption for 3 months in an outpatient setting. Twenty-one patients received rIL-2 at doses ranging from 0.5 x 10(5) to 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d. Treatment was extremely well tolerated, and no patient experienced grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity. The lowest dose level (0.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d) did not have demonstrable immunologic activity. At doses of 1.5 x 10(5) and 4.5 x 10(5) U/m2/d, rIL-2 infusion resulted in the specific expansion of natural-killer (NK) cells (sixfold and ninefold increases, respectively, at these two dose levels) without any changes in B cells, T cells, neutrophils, or monocytes. Grade 2 toxicity was observed at the dose of 6.0 x 10(5) U/m2/d, as three patients required interruption of therapy and two patients who completed therapy developed transient hypothyroidism. In patients with increased NK cells, enhancement of non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxicity and increased generation of LAK cells in vitro were also demonstrated. Therapy with low-dose rIL-2 can be given safely in an uninterrupted fashion for prolonged periods of time in an outpatient setting. This results in selective expansion of NK cells in vivo with minimal toxicity. Further investigation of this schedule for immunomodulation in vivo should be pursued in phase II studies of both malignant and immunodeficient disease states. PMID:1960552

  15. Soluble interleukin-2 receptor is a thyroid hormone-dependent early-response marker in the treatment of thyrotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Smallridge, R C; Tsokos, G C; Burman, K D; Porter, L; Cranston, T; Sfikakis, P P; Solomon, B L

    1997-01-01

    Thyrotoxic patients exhibit increased levels of immune activation molecules (soluble interleukin-2 receptor [sIL-2R], intercellular adhesion molecule-1 [ICAM-1], and endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 [ELAM-1]) in serum, although the clinical significance of these measurements remains unclear. In a randomized 4-week study, we have recently shown that in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, the combination of cholestyramine and methimazole (MMI) resulted in faster lowering of serum thyroid-hormone levels than did MMI alone. Stored serial serum samples from patients participating in this randomized treatment trial were analyzed for sIL-2R, soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1), and soluble ELAM-1 (sELAM-1). The levels of all three molecules were elevated in patients with hyperthyroidism. Although the levels of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 remained elevated through the 4-week follow-up period in both groups of patients, the sIL-2R levels (normal levels, 1.0 to 4.2 ng/ml) decreased significantly in the 10 patients who received cholestyramine in addition to MMI (week 0, 14.2 +/- 1.5 ng/ml; week 2, 10.8 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; week 4, 8.9 +/- 1.5 ng/ml). In eight patients who received MMI alone, sIL-2R decreased less rapidly (week 0, 12.3 +/- 1.4 ng/ml; week 2, 12.3 +/- 1.3 ng/ml; week 4, 10.9 +/- 1.3 ng/ml). sICAM-1 and sELAM-1 were elevated at baseline but did not decrease during therapy. In the former group, free thyroxine and free triiodothyronine decreased faster. These data show that levels of sIL-2R in serum, but not those of sICAM-1 and sELAM-1, may be of clinical use in the early follow-up evaluation of medically treated patients. PMID:9302209

  16. Adoptive immunotherapy of human pancreatic cancer with lymphokine-activated killer cells and interleukin-2 in a nude mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Marincola, F.M.; Da Pozzo, L.F.; Drucker, B.J.; Holder, W.D. Jr. )

    1990-11-01

    A pancreatic cancer cell line was grown in orthotopic and heterotopic positions in young Swiss/NIH nude mice, which were tested with adoptive immunotherapy. Mice were injected with 1 x 10(7) human cancer cells in the subcutaneous tissue and duodenal lobe of the pancreas. The mice were randomly divided into four groups: group IA (LAK + IL-2) (N = 25) received 2 X 10(7) human lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from normal donors by tail vein injection followed by 10,000 units of human recombinant interleukin-2 (IL-2) given intraperitoneally every 12 hours for 28 days; group IB (IL-2) (N = 27) was given the same dose of IL-2 alone; group IC (RPMI-1640) (N = 18) received a placebo consisting of 1 ml of RPMI-1640 intraperitoneally every 12 hours; and group ID (LAK) (N = 14) received 2 X 10(7) LAK cells but no IL-2. Toxicity was significantly higher in group IB, with a mortality rate of 45.5% (10/22 animals) versus a 0% mortality (0/25) in group IA. None of the group IA or IB animals died of pancreatic cancer during the experiment. The animals that did not receive IL-2 died before 28 days in 14.2% of group IC and in 16.7% of group ID. The area under the growth curve of subcutaneous tumors during the course of treatment and the pancreatic tumor weight at the end of treatment were compared in each group. Subcutaneous tumors had a reduced rate of growth in group IA animals compared to all the other treatments. Pancreatic tumor growth was slowed in group IA. The animals treated with IL-2 alone (group IB) showed some slowing of tumor growth that was intermediate between group IA, group IC, and group ID. A similar experiment was done with irradiated (375 rad) mice. Nine nude mice with tumors were treated with LAK + IL-2 (group IIA), eight received IL-2 alone (group IIB), and seven received placebo (group IIC).

  17. Recombinant Interleukin-2 in Patients Aged Younger Than 60 Years With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission

    PubMed Central

    Kolitz, Jonathan E.; George, Stephen L.; Benson, Don M.; Maharry, Kati; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L.; Allen, Steven L.; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Shea, Thomas C.; Stock, Wendy; Bakan, Courtney E.; Hars, Vera; Hoke, Eva; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) induces cellular cytotoxicity against leukemia blasts. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) may harbor minimal residual disease that is susceptible to rIL-2–activated effector cells. METHODS In the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 19808 study, patients with AML in first CR were randomly assigned after all planned chemotherapy to receive a 90-day course of subcutaneously administered rIL-2 or no further therapy. The primary objective was to compare disease-free survival (DFS) between the 2 treatment arms. A total of 534 patients achieved a CR, 214 of whom were randomized. Six courses of low-dose daily rIL-2 were given for the expansion of cytotoxic effector cells, each followed by 3-day high-dose boluses given to trigger cytotoxicity against minimal residual disease. RESULTS On the protocol-specified intention-to-treat analysis, the hazards ratio for DFS was 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.52–1.09; P =.13); the 5-year DFS rate was 42% in the observation arm and 53% in the rIL-2 treatment arm. The hazards ratio for overall survival (OS) was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.54–1.23; P =.34); the 5-year OS rate was 58% for the observation arm and 63% for the rIL-2 treatment arm. Twenty-five of the 107 patients randomized to treatment with rIL-2 either refused or were unable to initiate therapy and 30 patients did not complete their assigned therapy. However, significant toxicities were not commonly observed. The trial design did not anticipate the difficulties patients would encounter with protocol compliance. CONCLUSIONS The efficacy of immunotherapy with rIL-2 administered after intensive postremission treatment was not assessed as planned because of unexpected refusals by patients and/or their physicians to comply with protocol-directed therapy. Neither DFS nor OS was found to be significantly improved. PMID:24382782

  18. Low CD3+CD28-induced interleukin-2 production correlates with decreased reactive oxygen intermediate formation in neonatal T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kilpinen, S; Hurme, M

    1998-01-01

    The capacity of neonatal T cells to secrete interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been reported to be variable. We analysed IL-2 production in purified neonatal and adult T cells using polyclonal activator phorbol ester + calcium ionophore (PDBu + iono) or receptor-mediated anti-CD3/anti-CD3+ anti-CD28 stimulation. PDBu + iono induced equally high IL-2 levels in both groups and, when stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody (mAb), the IL-2 secretion by neonatal cells was undetectable and adult cells produced low amounts of IL-2 (mean 331 +/- 86 pg/ml). The addition of anti-CD28 mAb to anti-CD3-stimulated cells markedly increased IL-2 production in both cell types, but levels of IL-2 in neonatal T cells remained clearly lower than those of adult T cells (respective mean values: 385 +/- 109 pg/ml and 4494 +/- 1199 pg/ml). As NF-kappa B is a critical transcription factor in the control of IL-2 expression, we next analysed its nuclear translocation in neonatal and adult T cells using the electrophoretic mobility shift assay and, because induction of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) is required for the activation of NF-kappa B, we also analysed levels of intracellular ROI in these cells using the ROI-reactive fluorochrome DCFH-DA and flow cytometry. In neonatal T cells NF-kappa B activation and ROI formation after anti-CD3 stimulation were low compared with adult T cells and, although addition of anti-CD28 mAb increased induction of NF-kappa B and ROI formation, levels similar to those of adults were not achieved. After PDBu + iono stimulation, the cells showed similar ROI formation and IL-2 secretion. Our results suggest that reduced IL-2 production by neonatal T cells is specific for anti-CD3 and anti-CD3+ anti-CD28-mediated stimulation and that these activators cannot effectively activate the ROI-NF-kappa B signalling pathway in neonatal T cells. Images Figure 3 PMID:9741337

  19. Flow cytometric analysis of expression of interleukin-2 receptor beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, S.; Oshimi, K.; Tsudo, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Teramura, M.; Masuda, M.; Motoji, T.; Mizoguchi, H. )

    1990-08-15

    We analyzed the expression of the interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) beta chain (p70-75) on various leukemic cells from 44 patients by flow cytometric analysis using the IL-2R beta chain-specific monoclonal antibody, designated Mik-beta 1. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated the expression of the IL-2R beta chain on granular lymphocytes (GLs) from all eight patients with granular lymphocyte proliferative disorders (GLPDs), on adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cells from all three patients with ATL, and on T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells from one of three patients with T-ALL. Although GLs from all the GLPD patients expressed the IL-2R beta chain alone and not the IL-2R alpha chain (Tac-antigen: p55), ATL and T-ALL cells expressing the beta chain coexpressed the alpha chain. In two of seven patients with common ALL (cALL) and in both patients with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the leukemic cells expressed the alpha chain alone. Neither the alpha chain nor the beta chain was expressed on leukemic cells from the remaining 28 patients, including all 18 patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia, five of seven patients with cALL, all three patients with multiple myeloma, and two of three patients with T-ALL. These results indicate that three different forms of IL-2R chain expression exist on leukemic cells: the alpha chain alone; the beta chain alone; and both the alpha and beta chains. To examine whether the results obtained by flow cytometric analysis actually reflect functional aspects of the expressed IL-2Rs, we studied the specific binding of 125I-labeled IL-2 (125I-IL-2) to leukemic cells in 18 of the 44 patients. In addition, we performed 125I-IL-2 crosslinking studies in seven patients. The results of IL-2R expression of both 125I-IL-2 binding assay and crosslinking studies were in agreement with those obtained by flow cytometric analysis.

  20. Interleukin-2 transcription is regulated in vivo at the level of coordinated binding of both constitutive and regulated factors.

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, P A; Chen, D; Rothenberg, E V; Wold, B J

    1994-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) transcription is developmentally restricted to T cells and physiologically dependent on specific stimuli such as antigen recognition. Prior studies have shown that this stringent two-tiered regulation is mediated through a transcriptional promoter/enhancer DNA segment which is composed of diverse recognition elements. Factors binding to some of these elements are present constitutively in many cell types, while others are signal dependent, T cell specific, or both. This raises several questions about the molecular mechanism by which IL-2 expression is regulated. Is the developmental commitment of T cells reflected molecularly by stable interaction between available factors and the IL-2 enhancer prior to signal-dependent induction? At which level, factor binding to DNA or factor activity once bound, are individual regulatory elements within the native enhancer regulated? By what mechanism is developmental and physiological specificity enforced, given the participation of many relatively nonspecific elements? To answer these questions, we have used in vivo footprinting to determine and compare patterns of protein-DNA interactions at the native IL-2 locus in cell environments, including EL4 T-lymphoma cells and 32D clone 5 premast cells, which express differing subsets of IL-2 DNA-binding factors. We also used the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A as a pharmacological agent to further dissect the roles played by cyclosporin A-sensitive factors in the assembly and maintenance of protein-DNA complexes. Occupancy of all site types was observed exclusively in T cells and then only upon excitation of signal transduction pathways. This was true even though partially overlapping subsets of IL-2-binding activities were shown to be present in 32D clone 5 premast cells. This observation was especially striking in 32D cells because, upon signal stimulation, they mobilized a substantial set of IL-2 DNA-binding activities, as measured by in vitro assays using

  1. Silicate minerals and the interferon system

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N.; Booth, J.A.

    1987-08-01

    Natural-occurring minerals representative of six silicate classes were examined for their influence on interferon induction by influenza virus in Rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK/sub 2/) cell monolayers. Minerals within the classes nesosilicate, sorosilicate, cyclosilicate, and inosilicate exhibited either little or marked (50% or greater) inhibition of interferon induction. Within the inosilicate class, however, minerals of the pyroxenoid group (wollastonite, pectolite, and rhodonite) all significantly showed a two- to threefold increase in interferon production. Silicate materials in the phyllosilicate and tectosilicate classes all showed inhibitory activity for the induction process. When silicate minerals were coated with the polymer poly(4-vinylpyridine-N-oxide), the inhibitory activity of silicates on viral interferon induction was counteracted. Of nine randomly selected silicate minerals, which inhibited viral interferon induction, none adversely affected the ability of exogenous interferon to confer antiviral cellular resistance. Increased levels of influenza virus multiplication concomitant with decreased levels of interferon occurred in cell monolayers pretreated with silicates. The findings of this study demonstrate the diverse effects of minerals representative of different silicate classes on the interferon system and indicate that certain silicates in comprising the viral interferon induction process may increase susceptibility to viral infection.

  2. GB virus C (GBV-C) infection in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Influence on liver disease and on hepatitis virus behaviour: effect of interferon alfa therapy.

    PubMed

    Pawlotsky, J M; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Muerhoff, A S; Pellerin, M; Germanidis, G; Desai, S M; Bastie, A; Darthuy, F; Rémiré, J; Zafrani, E S; Soussy, C J; Mushahwar, I K; Dhumeaux, D

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients with chronic hepatitis C, 1) the prevalence and the epidemiological characteristics of GB virus C (GBV-C) infection, 2) the influence of GBV-C on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, 3) the pathogenicity of GBV-C in the absence of treatment and under interferon therapy, and 4) the effect of interferon alfa on GBV-C and HCV replications. One hundred fifteen patients with chronic hepatitis C were studied. Before treatment, they were tested for GBV-C RNA by PCR and GBV-C genotype was determined for positive samples. Pretreatment information was collected, including age, gender, source of HCV, estimated duration of HCV infection, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities, cirrhosis and Knodell's score on liver biopsy, HCV genotype, HCV viral burden and anti-HCV core IgM antibodies. The genetic complexity of the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of HCV was studied by PCR-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism. All patients were treated with 3 to 9 mega units of interferon alfa-2a three times per week for 3 to 6 months. The influence of GBV-C on the evolution of ALT and HCV replication during and after treatment was studied, and GBV-C and HCV RNA were monitored monthly by PCR during this period. Eighteen patients (16%) were GBV-C RNA-positive. Among 11 samples studied, GBV-C genotype 2a was present in 9 cases, 2b in one case and type 3 in one case. GBV-C RNA-positive patients were significantly younger than GBV-C RNA-negative ones (38.4 +/- 11.5 vs. 47.4 +/- 14.0, P = 0.012), a result independent of the route of transmission and the disease duration. No difference between GBV-C RNA-positive and -negative patients was found for other epidemiological parameters (e.g. gender, risk factor for parenteral viral infections, disease duration and HCV genotypes), or for the characteristics of HCV infection and related liver disease (e.g. HCV RNA level, genetic complexity of the HVR1, anti-HCV core Ig

  3. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which the nerves do not ... known how interferon beta-1a works to treat MS. ... doctor.Interferon beta-1a controls the symptoms of MS but does not cure it. Continue to use ...

  4. Inactivation of human interferon by body fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cesario, T. C.; Mandell, A.; Tilles, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the effects of human feces, bile, saliva, serum, and cerebrospinal fluid on interferon activity. It is shown that crude interferon is inactivated by at least 50% more than with the control medium used, when incubated for 4 hr in vitro in the presence of serum, saliva, or cerebrospinal liquid, and by close to 100% when incubated with stool extract or bile.

  5. Biodistribution of an anti-interleukin 2 receptor monoclonal antibody in rat recipients of a heart allograft, and its use as a rejection marker in gamma scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Thedrez, P.; Paineau, J.; Jacques, Y.; Chatal, J.F.; Pelegrin, A.; Bouchaud, C.; Soulillou, J.P. )

    1989-09-01

    Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies have been shown to prevent allograft rejection. This paper reports on the biodistribution of a mouse MoAb directed at the 55 Kd alpha chain of rat interleukin-2 receptor (IL2-R) during allograft rejection. Only a low percentage (approximately 1%) of intact 125I-labeled MoAb was detected in the rejected graft, and irrelevant control IgG1 was found at a similar level. This suggests that most of the injected intact MoAb bound to graft tissue via its monomorphic Fc segment. In contrast, OX39 F(ab')2 fragments showed a preferential localization in the rejected allograft and did not bind to the LEW-to-LEW syngeneic heart graft. Irrelevant F(ab')2 did not concentrate in the allogeneic graft. Accordingly, F(ab')2 fragments from OX39 or irrelevant MoAb were used for gamma-scintigraphy on allograft recipients together with biodistribution studies. Results show that scintigraphy was able to detect allograft accumulation of 131I OX39 F(ab')2, whereas no imaging was obtained when OX39 F(ab')2 was used in the syngeneic combination or when irrelevant 131-IgG1 F(ab')2 was given to allograft recipients. This method, applied to the clinical situation, could be of interest for detection of early graft rejection episodes by immunoscintigraphy using reagents specific for activation determinants on lymphocyte membranes, such as anti-interleukin-2 receptor MoAb.

  6. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Bethany A.; Powers, Linda S.; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K.; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks. PMID:26562011

  7. Interferon-γ Inhibits Ebola Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Bethany A; Powers, Linda S; Rogers, Kai; Anantpadma, Manu; Singh, Brajesh K; Sakurai, Yasuteru; Bair, Thomas; Miller-Hunt, Catherine; Sinn, Patrick; Davey, Robert A; Monick, Martha M; Maury, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus outbreaks, such as the 2014 Makona epidemic in West Africa, are episodic and deadly. Filovirus antivirals are currently not clinically available. Our findings suggest interferon gamma, an FDA-approved drug, may serve as a novel and effective prophylactic or treatment option. Using mouse-adapted Ebola virus, we found that murine interferon gamma administered 24 hours before or after infection robustly protects lethally-challenged mice and reduces morbidity and serum viral titers. Furthermore, we demonstrated that interferon gamma profoundly inhibits Ebola virus infection of macrophages, an early cellular target of infection. As early as six hours following in vitro infection, Ebola virus RNA levels in interferon gamma-treated macrophages were lower than in infected, untreated cells. Addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, to interferon gamma-treated macrophages did not further reduce viral RNA levels, suggesting that interferon gamma blocks life cycle events that require protein synthesis such as virus replication. Microarray studies with interferon gamma-treated human macrophages identified more than 160 interferon-stimulated genes. Ectopic expression of a select group of these genes inhibited Ebola virus infection. These studies provide new potential avenues for antiviral targeting as these genes that have not previously appreciated to inhibit negative strand RNA viruses and specifically Ebola virus infection. As treatment of interferon gamma robustly protects mice from lethal Ebola virus infection, we propose that interferon gamma should be further evaluated for its efficacy as a prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategy against filoviruses. Use of this FDA-approved drug could rapidly be deployed during future outbreaks. PMID:26562011

  8. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  9. Dendritic cell immunizations alone or combined with low doses of interleukin-2 induce specific immune responses in melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, A; López, M; Serrano, A; Ramirez, M; Pérez, C; Aguirre, A; González, R; Alfaro, J; Larrondo, M; Fodor, M; Ferrada, C; Salazar-Onfray, F

    2005-01-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based therapy has proved to be effective in patients with a variety of malignancies. However, an optimal immunization protocol using DCs and the best means for delivering antigens has not yet been described. In this study, 20 patients with malignant melanoma in stages III or IV were vaccinated with autologous DCs pulsed with a melanoma cell lysate, alone (n = 13) or in combination with low doses of subcutaneous (s.c.) interleukin (IL)-2 injections (n = 7), to assess toxicity, immunological and clinical responses. Monocyte-derived DCs were morphological, phenotypic and functionally characterized in vitro. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), harvested from patients either prior to and after the treatment, were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT). After vaccination, 50% of the patients tested (seven of 13) from the first group and (three of seven) from the second, showed an increase in interferon (IFN)-γ production in response to allogeneic melanoma cell lines but not to controls. Four of five tested human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A2+ patients with anti-melanoma activity also showed specific T cell responses against peptides derived from melanoma-associated antigens. Delayed type IV hypersensitivity reaction (DTH) against melanoma cell lysate was observed in six of 13 patients from the group treated with DC vaccines only and four of seven from the group treated with the combination of DCs and IL-2. Significant correlations were found between DTH-positive responses against tumour lysate and both disease stability and post-vaccination survival on the stage IV patients. There were no toxicities associated with the vaccines or evidence of autoimmunity including vitiligo. Furthermore, no significant enhancement was observed as a result of combining DC vaccination with IL-2. Our data suggest that autologous DCs pulsed with tumour lysate may provide a standardized and widely applicable source of melanoma specific antigens for

  10. Interferon effects on protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Wirth, J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of interferon (IFN) on mice infected with two different parasitic protozoans, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, are investigated experimentally. The preparation of the cell cultures, IFN and assays, antibody, and the experimental procedures are described. It is observed that in cells treated with IFN-gamma there is an increased association of T. cruzi with murine macrophages and an increase in the killing of T. cruzi by IFN-gamma-treated murine macrophages. For spleen cells infected with T.b. rhodesiense in vitro, it is detected that live trypanosomes cannot induce IFN in cells from normal mice, but can in cells from immunized mice; and that trypanosome-lysates induce IFN in vitro in cells from normal mice. The data suggest that there is a two-step mechanism for mice against T. cruzi and T.b. rhodesiense.

  11. Rat interferons. VI. Heterologous interferon in the treatment of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Lobodzińska, M; Albin, M

    1979-01-01

    In previous studies in vitro we demonstrated the protection of mouse cells against viral infections by rat interferon. In continuation, the present paper reports results of a study designed to confirm this heterospecific activity of rat interferon in vivo. Experiments were carried out with mice of the inbred 129/AoBoy strain, inoculated intranasally or intraperitoneally with EMC-strain Col MM, VSV and influenza A 055/74 viruses, and treated with mouse or rat interferon administered by the same routes as infection. Both interferons exhibited protective action. The therapeutic effect of the mouse and rat interferons was dependent on the infecting dose of the viruses. Rat interferon proved more effective in the treatment of mice infected intraperitoneally than mice infected intranasally. PMID:220932

  12. Treatment of trypanosome-infected mice with exogenous interferon, interferon inducers, or antibody to interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1986-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that mice resistant to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (the B10.BR/SgSnJ strain) produces, upon infection by this parasite, two peaks of serum interferon (IFN), while the susceptible mice (C3HeB/FeJ) produces no IFN. In the present study, survival times were compared for B10.BR/SgSnJ, C3HeB/FeJ, and CBA/J (an intermediately resistant strain) mice that were injected, prior to infection with the parasite, with either of the following three preparations (1) IFN-gamma, (2) an antibody to IFN-gamma and (3) polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid (to induce IFN-alpha/beta). No effect on the survival times of mice by any of these preparations could be demonstrated, contrary to some previous reports.

  13. Interferon Beta-1a Intramuscular Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1a intramuscular at around the same time of day on your injection days. Follow the ...

  14. Immunomodulatory activity of interferon-beta

    PubMed Central

    Kasper, Lloyd H; Reder, Anthony T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disorder of the central nervous system that appears to be driven by a shift in immune functioning toward excess inflammation that results in demyelination and axonal loss. Beta interferons were the first class of disease-modifying therapies to be approved for patients with MS after treatment with this type I interferon improved the course of MS on both clinical and radiological measures in clinical trials. The mechanism of action of interferon-beta appears to be driven by influencing the immune system at many levels, including antigen-presenting cells, T cells, and B cells. One effect of these interactions is to shift cytokine networks in favor of an anti-inflammatory effect. The pleiotropic mechanism of action may be a critical factor in determining the efficacy of interferon-beta in MS. This review will focus on select immunological mechanisms that are influenced by this type I cytokine. PMID:25356432

  15. Type I interferon dysregulation and neurological disease.

    PubMed

    McGlasson, Sarah; Jury, Alexa; Jackson, Andrew; Hunt, David

    2015-09-01

    Type I interferon is an essential component of the brain's innate immune defence, conferring protection against viral infection. Recently, dysregulation of the type I interferon pathway has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of neuroinfectious and neuroinflammatory disorders. Underactivity of the type I interferon response is associated with a predisposition to herpes simplex encephalitis. Conversely, a group of 'interferonopathic' disorders, characterized by severe neuroinflammation and overactivity of type I interferon, has been described. Elucidation of the genetic basis of these Mendelian neuroinflammatory diseases has uncovered important links between nucleic acid sensors, innate immune activation and neuroinflammatory disease. These mechanisms have an important role in the pathogenesis of more common polygenic diseases that can affect the brain, such as lupus and cerebral small vessel disease. In this article, we review the spectrum of neurological disease associated with type I interferon dysregulation, as well as advances in our understanding of the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of these conditions. We highlight the potential utility of type I interferon as both a biomarker and a therapeutic target in neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:26303851

  16. Inhibited interferon production after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Gould, C. L.; Williams, J.; Mandel, A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Several studies have been performed in our laboratories indicating that interferon production may be impaired in rodents after space flight. Using an antiorthostatic suspension model that simulates some of the effects of microgravity seen during space flight, we have shown that interferon-alpha/beta production was inhibited. The inhibition was not due solely to the stress of suspension. The inhibited interferon production was transient, as suspended animals returned to normal caging recovered the ability to produce interferon. Antiorthostatic suspension of mice also resulted in a loss of resistance to infection with the diabetogenic strain of encephalomyocarditis virus, which correlated with the drop in interferon production. In rats flown in US Space Shuttle mission SL-3, interferon-gamma production was inhibited severely when spleen cells were challenged with concanavalin-A upon return to earth. In contrast, interleukin-3 production by these cells was normal. These results suggest that immune responses may be altered after antiorthostatic modeling or space flight, and the resistance to viral infections may be especially affected.

  17. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirth, J. J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-01-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN.

  18. Enhancing effects of gamma interferon on phagocytic cell association with and killing of Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, J.J.; Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Zlotnik, A.

    1985-07-01

    Results are reported from a study of the influence gamma interferon (GIFN) and interleukin 2 (IL2) have on the capability of P388D1 cells and mouse resident peritoneal macrophages (MPM) to attach to the blood-resident parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and kill them. Cultures of trypomastigote forms of the Tulahuen strain of T. cruzi grown in bovine serum were introduced into peritoneal cells of mice, along with P388D1 cells incubated with GIFN, IL2 and both. Control cells were also maintained. Statistical analysis were then performed on data on counts of the number of dead T. Cruzi cells. The GIFN enhanced the interaction of MPM and P388D1 cells with the surface of T. Cruzi, provided the interaction was given over 12 hr to take place. A depression of the cytotoxicity of P388D1 cells was attributed to mediation by H2O2, an effect partially offset by incubation with the lymphokine GIFN. 23 references.

  19. Interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and their precursors express the VGO1 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Denegri, J.F.; Peterson, J.; Tilley, P. )

    1989-07-01

    Precursor and effector cells of recombinant interleukin-2 (r-IL-2)-induced lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) activity were investigated for their expression of VGO1. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from normal donors were purified and separated in a FACS 420 into VGO1+- and VGO1- cell fractions before and after culture for 96 hr with 100 U/ml of r-IL-2. Their lytic activity against K 562 and Daudi cells was measured in a 51Cr release assay. The majority, if not all, of the LAK effector and precursor cells was VGO1+ lymphocytes. The expression of VGO1 by LAK precursor cells remained stable under the culture conditions used in our experiments. VGO1- lymphocytes cultured with r-IL-2 demonstrated neither LAK-induced activity nor expression of VGO1 antigen.

  20. In vivo electroporation of plasmids encoding GM-CSF or interleukin-2 into existing B16 melanomas combined with electrochemotherapy induces long-term antitumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Heller, L; Pottinger, C; Jaroszeski, M J; Gilbert, R; Heller, R

    2000-12-01

    When cancer cells, including melanoma cells, are genetically altered to secrete cytokines, irradiated and injected into subjects, long-term antitumour immunity is induced. Optimally, existing melanomas induced to produce cytokines in vivo could stimulate this same immune response. Although in vivo electroporation enhances plasmid expression, electroporation of plasmids encoding granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-2 (IL2) into B16 mouse melanomas did not significantly alter tumour growth at the concentration tested. Electrochemotherapy, which causes short-term, complete regressions of treated tumour but no resistance to challenge, was combined with plasmid delivery. The combination treatment resulted in the induction of long-term immunity to recurrence and resistance to challenge in up to 25% of mice. PMID:11198480

  1. Secretory production of biologically active rat interleukin-2 by Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM792 as a tool for anti-tumor treatment.

    PubMed

    Barbé, Sofie; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Theys, Jan; Geukens, Nick; Lammertyn, Elke; Lambin, Philippe; Anné, Jozef

    2005-05-01

    The search for effective means of selectively delivering high therapeutic doses of anti-cancer agents to tumors has explored a variety of systems in the last decade. The ability of intravenously injected clostridial spores to infiltrate and thence selectively germinate in the hypoxic regions of solid tumors is exquisitely specific, making this system an interesting addition to the anti-cancer therapy arsenal. To increase the number of therapeutic proteins potentially useful for cancer treatment we have tested the possibility of Clostridium acetobutylicum to secrete rat interleukin-2 (rIL2). Therefore, rIL2 cDNA was placed under the control of the endo-beta-1,4-glucanase promoter and signal sequence of C. saccharobutylicum. Recombinant C. acetobutylicum containing the relevant construct secreted up to 800 microgl(-1) biologically active rIL2. The obtained yield should be sufficient to provoke in vivo effects. PMID:15869963

  2. Interleukin 2 (IL2) PE40 is cytotoxic to cells displaying either the p55 or p70 subunit of the IL2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Lorberboum-Galski, H; Kozak, R W; Waldmann, T A; Bailon, P; FitzGerald, D J; Pastan, I

    1988-12-15

    IL2-PE40 is a chimeric protein composed of human interleukin 2 (IL2) genetically fused to the amino terminus of a modified form of pseudomonas exotoxin (PE). Internalization of IL2 via the individual p55 and p70 subunits of the IL2 receptor was studied using IL2-PE40 on several mouse and human cell lines expressing either the p55, the p70, or both IL2 receptor subunits. Internalization was assessed by measuring inhibition of protein synthesis caused by the toxin moiety of IL2-PE40. The results demonstrate that IL2 internalization is mediated by either the p55 receptor subunit or by the p70 subunit but is much more efficient when high affinity receptors composed of both subunits are present. IL2-PE40 is a powerful reagent for studying IL2 receptor interactions and for analyzing pathways of the immune response and its regulation. PMID:3143716

  3. CD45RA+ and CD45RO+ T cells differ in susceptibility to cyclosporin A mediated inhibition of interleukin-2 production.

    PubMed

    Schwinzer, R; Siefken, R

    1996-03-01

    Lymphocytes in different states of activation use different intracellular signalling pathways and may therefore differ in their susceptibility to immunosuppressive agents. In this study we examined the proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) by unprimed/naive CD4+CD45RA+ T cells and previously activated/memory CD4+CD45RO+ T cells from human peripheral blood when stimulated in vitro in the presence of cyclosporin A (CsA). Further, the dependency of the IL-2 response on calcium (Ca2+) ions was analysed by the addition of the chelating agent EGTA. The CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells were shown to be less susceptible to CsA and less dependent on the level of Ca+ ions than the naive CD4+CD45RA+ T cells. The subcellular mechanisms involved in this difference and the potential clinical implications are discussed. PMID:8762014

  4. Thymic regulatory T cell niche size is dictated by limiting interleukin 2 from antigen-bearing dendritic cells and feedback competition

    PubMed Central

    Weist, Brian M.; Kurd, Nadia; Boussier, Jeremy; Chan, Shiao Wei; Robey, Ellen A.

    2015-01-01

    Thymic regulatory T (Treg) cell production requires interleukin 2 (IL-2) and agonist TCR ligands, and is controlled by competition for a limited developmental niche, but the thymic sources of IL-2 and the factors that limit access to the niche are poorly understood. Here we show that IL-2 produced by antigen-bearing dendritic cells plays a key role in Treg cell development, and that existing Treg cells limit new Treg cell development by competing for IL-2. . Our data suggest that antigen-presenting cells that can provide both IL-2 and a TCR ligand comprise the thymic niche, and that competition by existing Treg cells for a limited supply of IL-2 provides negative feedback for new Treg cell production. PMID:25939026

  5. Prolonged survival of a patient affected by pancreatic adenocarcinoma with massive lymphocyte and dendritic cell infiltration after interleukin-2 immunotherapy. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Nobili, Cinzia; Degrate, Luca; Caprotti, Roberto; Franciosi, Claudio; Leone, Biagio Eugenio; Trezzi, Rosangela; Romano, Fabrizio; Uggeri, Fabio; Uggeri, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Several studies have shown that there is a paucity of immune cells within the stroma of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a very aggressive cancer with a median survival of about 18 months. A 65-year-old man presented with jaundice. Abdominal ultrasound revealed intra- and extrahepatic bile duct dilatation and a 45-mm diameter hypoechoic solid mass within the pancreatic head; a computed tomography scan excluded vascular infiltration and metastatic lesions. The patient received immunotherapy consisting of 6,000,000 IU human recombinant interleukin-2 administered subcutaneously twice a day for 3 consecutive days. Thirty-six hours after the last dose, he underwent a pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. Because of the presence of high-grade dysplasia detected by intraoperative histological examination of a distal section, a spleen preserving total pancreatectomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient died 32 months after surgery because of local recurrence. Histopathology showed G3 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma infiltrating the anterior and posterior peripancreatic tissue, duodenal wall and intrapancreatic common bile duct, with sarcoma-like foci and a component of intraductal tumor involving the common bile duct. In the distal pancreas, widespread foci of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanI2-3) were found. The Ki-67 proliferation index was 16%. TNM staging was pT3 pN1 R1. Sections were immunostained for the T-lymphocyte marker CD3 and for the dendritic cell marker CD1a. Intratumoral infiltration was high for CD1a+ cells and mild for CD3+ cells. Preoperative immunotherapy with interleukin-2 may contribute to massive stromal infiltration of immune cells in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This may prolong the survival even in the presence of negative prognostic factors (age >65 years, tumor diameter >20 mm, R1, tumor grade G3). PMID:18705415

  6. Interleukin-2 and concanavalin A upregulate a cat2 isoform encoding a high affinity L-arginine transporter in feline lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, B R; Tellier, M; Harvey, W; Feldman, D H; Bosworth, J

    2000-01-01

    The immunological responses of activated lymphocytes are associated with increased nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis. Studies in the literature have primarily approached control of NO by focusing on the regulation of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. However, the present study approaches the control of NO synthesis by addressing the regulation of L-arginine availability to lymphocytes via regulation of membrane transport. The guanidino nitrogen of L-arginine is the sole biosynthetic precursor of NO. We investigated cytokine and mitogen regulation of membrane L-arginine transporters for the first time in feline cells. Feline peripheral blood mononuclear cells were treated with interleukin-2 and concanavalin A, then alternatively spliced isoforms of L-arginine transporters known in other species were probed by RT-PCR, using various oligonucleotide primers that hybridized to several regions in common with the isoforms. Both high affinity and low affinity isoforms are encoded by mRNAs arising from mutually exclusive alternative splicing of the primary transcript. A region of 123 bp was obtained that encoded an extracellular polypeptide loop of 41 amino acids. The sequence of this region represented the high affinity L-arginine substrate binding site of a CAT2 transporter polypeptide isoform, but not the CAT2a isoform low affinity binding site. Neither of the inducible isoforms were constitutively expressed in unstimulated feline cells. This is the first report demonstrating that domestic cats possess the cat2 gene encoding an inducible L-arginine transporter, and, furthermore, that the high affinity isoform transcript is activated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A in feline lymphocytes. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:10935886

  7. Binding of human interferon alpha to cells of different sensitivities: studies with internally radiolabeled interferon retaining full biological activity.

    PubMed Central

    Yonehara, S; Yonehara-Takahashi, M; Ishii, A

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of interferon binding to various cells with different interferon sensitivity were studied by using [3H]leucine-labeled, pure human interferon alpha from Namalwa cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding data on cells sensitive to interferon alpha (human FL and fibroblasts and bovine MDBK) indicated the presence of two kinds of binding sites with high and low affinities. The binding constants of the high-affinity sites in these cells were similar (4 X 10(10) to 11 X 10(10) M-1). Cells insensitive to human interferon alpha (human HEC-1 and mouse L cells) were shown to have only low-affinity sites, suggesting that high-affinity binding sites are indispensable for interferon sensitivity and represent interferon receptors. However, the number of sites in three human diploid fibroblast strains and one strain trisomic for chromosome 21 were not proportionally correlated to the interferon sensitivity of the cells. The high-affinity binding to human cells was completely inhibited by both nonradioactive human interferons alpha and beta in a similar manner, but binding to bovine MDBK cells, on which human interferon beta is practically inactive, was inhibited effectively only by interferon alpha and not by beta. These results suggest that the receptor for human interferon alpha is common to human interferon beta in human cells, whereas the receptor on bovine cells binds only human interferon alpha. PMID:6300453

  8. Pegylated Interferon Alpha–Associated Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Kathleen T.; Nelson, Bruce; Harrison, Andrew R.; McLoon, Linda K.; Lee, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    A 52-year-old man with chronic hepatitis C presented with painless, bilateral, simultaneous non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and peripheral neuropathy. Symptoms began 19 weeks after starting peginterferon alpha-2a. The peripheral neuropathy and vision of the right eye improved, but the vision of the left eye worsened after stopping interferon. We identified 23 additional cases of NAION during interferon alpha therapy. At least 12 of these patients suffered bilateral NAION. Patients lost vision 1–40 weeks after initiating therapy. Of 21 eyes that had documented initial and follow-up acuities, 8 improved, 1 worsened, and the rest remained stable. One patient had a painful peripheral neuropathy. Treatment with interferon alpha may result in NAION. Discontinuation of therapy deserves consideration after weighing individual risks and benefits. PMID:20351572

  9. Influenza virus activation of the interferon system

    PubMed Central

    Killip, Marian J.; Fodor, Ervin; Randall, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    The host interferon (IFN) response represents one of the first barriers that influenza viruses must surmount in order to establish an infection. Many advances have been made in recent years in understanding the interactions between influenza viruses and the interferon system. In this review, we summarise recent work regarding activation of the type I IFN response by influenza viruses, including attempts to identify the viral RNA responsible for IFN induction, the stage of the virus life cycle at which it is generated and the role of defective viruses in this process. PMID:25678267

  10. [Interferon inducing activity of rabies cell culture vaccine in humans].

    PubMed

    Atanasiu, P; Yokota, Y; Gamet, A

    1979-01-01

    Rabies cell culture vaccines are able to induce circulating interferon in human sera. In 8/15 cases a low peak of interferon appears in the serum about 8 h after the vaccination. The inhibition has been considered as due to interferon because of the resistance to pH 2 and lack of activity on other animal species. PMID:39484

  11. OX48, a monoclonal antibody against a 70,000 MW rat activation antigen expressed by T cells bearing the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Somoza, C; Fernández-Ruiz, E; Rebollo, A; Sanz, E; Ramírez, F; Silva, A

    1990-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody (mAb) OX48 recognizes a 70,000 MW cell-surface protein present in a small percentage of activated rat T cells and in CD8+ rat x BW5147 interleukin-2 (IL-2)-dependent T-cell hybridomas, but not in resting spleen cells or in IL-2-independent T-cell hybrids. OX48 antibody added simultaneously with concanavalin A (Con A) to resting spleen cells inhibits the cell proliferation and reduces the IL-2 production. However, addition of IL-2 does not restore the mitogenic response. Growth of rat blast T cells or IL-2-dependent hybrids is not affected by the OX48 antibody. There is a close correlation between the expression of high-affinity IL-2 receptors (IL-2R) and the OX48 antigen in T-cell hybridomas. In spite of this striking correlation, OX48 mAb does not inhibit the binding of 125I-IL-2 to the IL-2-dependent hybrids, and is unable to immunoprecipitate any of the proteins chemically cross-linked to 125I-IL-2. Therefore, the OX48 molecule represents a new rat activation antigen, undefined in other species, and probably involved in the early steps of T-cell activation. Images Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:2373518

  12. The pathogenesis of experimental toxic shock syndrome: the role of interleukin-2 in the induction of hypotension and release of cytokines.

    PubMed

    Tokman, M G; Carey, K D; Quimby, F W

    1995-02-01

    Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) is a multisystem disorder characterized by fever, hypotension, and involvement of three other organ systems. The etiologic agent is a toxigenic strain of Staphylococcus aureus which secretes the exotoxin, TSST-1. The toxin is a superantigen which stimulates the immune system to produce interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-2, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We hypothesized that TSST-1 induces the release of IL-2 which in turn is either directly involved or acts via an additional mediator to produce hypotension. We submitted four pairs of normal anesthetized adult female baboons to intravenous boluses of TSST-1. One baboon in each pair received anti-IL-2 intravenously and anti-IL-2 receptor intrathyroidally 15 min prior to TSST-1. The other baboon received the same dose and placement of anti-sheep red blood cell antibody. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was recorded continuously and mean arterial pressure was calculated and plotted. IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF were measured in serum at varying times before and after toxin administration. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure were significantly lower in the sham-treated group versus the experimental (anti-IL-2/IL-2R) group (p < .05 for all variables). In addition no differences were seen in any of the measurements between experimentally treated baboons and those receiving no TSST-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7749941

  13. Effects of interleukin-2 therapy on the proliferation and differentiation of CD4/CD25 positive and CD4/CD25 negative cells in HIV+ patients.

    PubMed

    Caggiari, L; Zanussi, S; D'Andrea, M; Bortolin, M T; Crepaldi, C; Caffau, C; Paoli, P D

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin-2 has been widely used in HIV-1+ subjects as an immunoactivating agent. In this study, we investigated cytokine production, Ki67 antigen expression and the modulation of the surface phenotype of the CD4/CD25+ subset as compared to the reciprocal CD4/CD25- subset in IL-2-treated HIV+ patients. Our findings suggest that CD4 T cells are heterogeneous in responding to IL-2, because CD4/CD25+ cells sharply increased their "memory" phenotype, their Ki67 antigen expression and were the main in vivo targets for IL-2-dependent proliferation during therapy, while the percentages of IFN-gamma+ (terminally differentiated) cells remained unchanged at the end of therapy. Conversely, the CD4+/CD25- subpopulation showed an expansion of differentiated cells and a slight increase in the proliferation rate. The use of anti-retroviral therapy alone (HAART) reduced the proliferation and increased the differentiation of both CD4 subsets. Our data suggest that IL-2 has a moderate capacity to activate resting T cells in vivo and is probably unable to boost HIV-1 from latency to the replicative state. PMID:11566623

  14. The shared and contrasting roles of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-15 in the life and death of normal and neoplastic lymphocytes: implications for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) and IL15, members of the 4α-helix bundle family of cytokines, play pivotal roles in the control of the life and death of lymphocytes. Although their heterotrimeric receptors have two receptor subunits in common these two cytokines have contrasting roles in adaptive immune responses. The unique role of IL2 through maintenance of fitness of regulatory T cells (Treg) and activation-induced cell death (AICD) is the elimination of self-reactive T cells to prevent autoimmunity. In contrast to IL2, IL15 is dedicated to the prolonged maintenance of memory T-cell responses to invading pathogens. Blockade of IL2 and IL15 using monoclonal antibodies has been reported to be of value in the treatment of patients with leukemia, autoimmune disorders and in the prevention of allograft rejection. IL2 has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with malignant renal cell cancer and metastatic malignant melanoma. Clinical trials involving recombinant human IL15 given by bolus infusions have been completed, and by subcutaneous and continuous intravenous infusions are underway in patients with metastatic malignancy. Furthermore, clinical trials are being initiated that employ the combination of IL15 with IL15Rα+/− IgFc. PMID:25736261

  15. 65-kilodalton protein phosphorylated by interleukin 2 stimulation bears two putative actin-binding sites and two calcium-binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Zu, Youli; Shigesada, Katsuya; Hanaoka, Masao; Namba, Yuziro ); Nishida, Eisuke ); Kubota, Ichiro ); Kohno, Michiaki )

    1990-09-11

    The authors have previously characterized a 65-kilodalton protein (p65) as an interleukin 2 stimulated phosphoprotein in human T cells and showed that three endopeptide sequences of p65 are present in the sequence of l-plastin. In this paper, they present the complete primary structure of p65 based on the cDNA isolated from a human T lymphocyte (KUT-2) cDNA library. Analysis of p65 sequences and the amino acid composition of cleaved p65 N-terminal peptide indicated that the deduced p65 amino acid sequence exactly coincides with that of l-plastin over the C-terminal 580 residues and has a 57-residue extension at the N-terminus to l-plastin. Computer-assisted structural analysis revealed that p65 is a multidomain molecule involving at least three intriguing functional domains: two putative calcium-binding sites along the N-terminal 80 amino acid residues; a putative calmodulin-binding site following the calcium-binding region; and two tandem repeats of putative actin-binding domains in its middle and C-terminal parts, each containing approximately 240 amino acid residues. These results suggest that p65 belongs to actin-binding proteins.

  16. Evidence for direct and indirect mechanisms in the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 on the release of acetylcholine in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Seto, David; Kar, Satyabrata; Quirion, Rémi

    1997-01-01

    The biphasic nature of the potent modulatory action of interleukin-2 (IL-2) on hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated by use of brain slice superfusion.Both the potentiating (10−13 M) and inhibitory (10−9 M) effects of IL-2 on hippocampal ACh release were stimulation-dependent and were blocked by a neutralizing IL-2 receptor antibody, suggesting the activation of typical IL-2 receptors in both cases.Tetrodotoxin (TTX; 10 μM) failed to block the potentiation of ACh release induced by a very low concentration of IL-2 (10−13M) suggesting a direct effect on cholinergic nerve terminals.In contrast, the inhibitory effect seen at a higher concentration (10−9 M) was TTX-sensitive, and hence indicative of an indirect action.To establish the nature of this intermediate mediator, blockers of nitric oxide synthesis, and of opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors were used. Only GABAA and GABAB receptor antagonists altered the inhibitory action of IL-2, suggesting the participation of GABA as mediator.Taken together, these results provide further evidence for the potent role of IL-2 in the modulation of cholinergic function in the rat hippocampus. PMID:9134229

  17. Effects of medium quality on the expression of human interleukin-2 at high cell density in fermentor cultures of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, H L; Neway, J O

    1990-01-01

    We examined the ability of transformed Escherichia coli cells in fermentor cultures to accumulate interleukin-2 (IL-2) intracellularly under temperature-regulated control of the phage lambda pL promoter. Induction of expression was undertaken at different culture optical densities, and specific IL-2 accumulation was found to decrease with increasing cell density at induction. Induction at higher culture optical densities was also accompanied by decreased growth during induction and increased acetate accumulation in the culture medium. Experiments were undertaken to study the effect of replacing spent medium by perfusion with fresh medium both before induction and during IL-2 expression at high cell density. Improved IL-2 expression was seen only when perfusion was continued past 1.6 h after the start of induction, and it was accompanied by a significant reduction in acetate buildup. Further improvements were not seen when perfusion was continued beyond hour 3 of induction. Replenishing medium components and decreasing the concentration of diffusible inhibitors before induction did not alleviate acetate buildup, growth limitation, or limitation of IL-2 synthesis. These results suggested that accumulation of diffusible inhibitors such as acetate during induction may be a significant factor limiting IL-2 expression in high-density cultures, but other factors intrinsic to the organism or the protein also played a major role. PMID:2180368

  18. Improved expression of human interleukin-2 in high-cell-density fermentor cultures of Escherichia coli K-12 by a phosphotransacetylase mutant.

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, K A; Ben-Bassat, A; Dawson, M; de la Puente, V T; Neway, J O

    1990-01-01

    A fluoroacetate-resistant mutant of Escherichia coli K-12 (MM-294) accumulated less acetate in the medium during growth to high cell density in fermentor cultures and was shown to be defective in its phosphotransacetylase activity. The mutant had an improved ability to continue growing during induction of interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis, and in fermentor cultures it gave a higher level of specific IL-2 accumulation than its parent during expression under control of the temperature-sensitive pL promoter. In flask cultures at lower cell density, the mutant again produced less acetate than the parent, although both showed a much lower level of acetate accumulation than that seen in fermentors at high cell density. Both showed a higher specific expression level of IL-2 in flask cultures, and there was a greater difference between the mutant and its parent in the final extent of specific IL-2 accumulation in fermentor cultures compared with flask cultures. Thus, the concentration of acetate in the medium, which was much higher in fermentor cultures (greater than or equal to 300 mM after 5 h of induction) than in flask cultures (less than or equal to mM) of the parent organism, was a significant factor in limiting expression of the heterologous protein product, IL-2. The acetate kinase-phosphotransacetylase pathway was therefore a major source of acetate formation in these cultures. Blocking this pathway improved accumulation of IL-2 and did not slow growth. PMID:2187412

  19. Aerosol Delivery of Interleukin-2 in Combination with Adoptive Transfer of Natural Killer Cells for the Treatment of Lung Metastasis: Methodology and Effect.

    PubMed

    Kiany, Simin; Gordon, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are a subtype of lymphocytes with a major role as a host defense mechanism against tumor cells. Allogeneic NK cell therapy is being used as an alternative promising therapy for many different cancers. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for NK cell proliferation, survival, and effector functions. Cytokine support is essential to activate, expand, and increase the life span of NK cells. Aerosol delivery of IL-2 in combination with adoptive transfer of NK cells offers a reasonable approach for the treatment of lung metastases as it avoids the deleterious side effects of systemic IL-2. Using a human OS mouse model, we demonstrated the efficacy of this approach. Combination therapy of aerosol IL-2 with NK cells resulted in a better therapeutic effect against OS lung metastases as compared with each therapy alone. Aerosol IL-2 selectively increased infiltration, retention, and proliferation of infused NK cells in the lung, and there was no local inflammation or toxicity in the lungs or any other organ. Our results demonstrate that delivery of IL-2 via the aerosol route offers a feasible and innovative approach to enhance the immunotherapeutic effect of NK cells against pulmonary metastases. In the following chapter, we describe the methodology and effect of this innovative therapeutic approach. PMID:27177675

  20. Virus-Like Particles Displaying Recombinant Short-Chain Fragment Region and Interleukin 2 for Targeting Colon Cancer Tumors and Attracting Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Deo, Vipin Kumar; Kato, Tatsuya; Park, Enoch Y

    2016-05-01

    Functionalized virus-like particles (VLPs) can target with specificity as drug delivery systems and can attract macrophages for the destruction of cancer cells. Here, the group antigen capsid protein from the Rous sarcoma virus was used to prepare VLPs, functionalized by displaying glycol-inositol phosphate-anchored recombinant single chain fragment variable (rscFv) and hemagglutinin transmembrane region anchored recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL2) (designated as VLP-rscFv-rhIL2s) in silkworms. The rscFv specifically binds the tumor-associated glycoprotein 72 that is expressed at the surface of colon cancer cells. VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 was affinity purified and had a smooth particle size with a diameter of 50 nm. Calcein-AM-packaged VLP-rscFv-rhIL2s successfully targeted cancer cells as a model for drug delivery system. VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 bound with colon cancer cells that attracted macrophages (human monocytic cell line-1 cells) in chemotaxis chamber assays compared with negative controls. The macrophages secreted tumor necrosis factor-α, a cytokine that is necessary to destroy cancer cells. These results demonstrate the potential of VLP-rscFv-rhIL2 as an intelligent nano biomaterial that is capable of attracting macrophages. PMID:27037014

  1. Clonal evolution in chronic lymphocytic leukemia detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization and conventional cytogenetics after stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides and interleukin-2: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Brejcha, Martin; Stoklasová, Martina; Brychtová, Yvona; Panovská, Anna; Štěpanovská, Kristina; Vaňková, Gabriela; Plevová, Karla; Oltová, Alexandra; Horká, Kateřina; Pospíšilová, Šárka; Mayer, Jiří; Doubek, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients may acquire new chromosome abnormalities during the course of their disease. Clonal evolution (CE) has been detected by conventional chromosome banding (CBA), several groups also confirmed CE with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). At present, there are minimal prospective data on CE frequency determined using a combination of both methods. Therefore, the aim of our study was to prospectively assess CE frequency using a combination of FISH and CBA after stimulation with CpG oligonucleotides and interleukin-2. Between 2008 and 2012, we enrolled 140 patients with previously untreated CLL in a prospective trial evaluating CE using FISH and CBA after stimulation. Patients provided baseline and regular follow-up peripheral blood samples for testing. There was a median of 3 cytogenetic examinations (using both methods) per patient. CE was detected in 15.7% (22/140) of patients using FISH, in 28.6% (40/140) using CBA, and in 34.3% (48/140) of patients by combining both methods. Poor-prognosis CE (new deletion 17p, new deletion 11q or new complex karyotype) was detected in 15% (21/140) of patients and was significantly associated with previous CLL treatment (p=0.013). CBA provides more complex information about cytogenetic abnormalities in CLL patients than FISH and confirms that many patients can acquire new abnormalities during the course of their disease in a relatively short time period. PMID:24246692

  2. A novel amino acid supplementation strategy based on a stoichiometric model to enhance human IL-2 (interleukin-2) expression in high-cell-density Escherichia coli cultures.

    PubMed

    Sarkandy, Shahin Yegane; Khalilzadeh, Rasoul; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Farnoud, Amir Mohammad; Babaeipour, Valiollah; Maghsoudi, Amir

    2010-12-01

    A novel amino acid supplementation strategy was developed for enhancing the production of IL-2 (interleukin-2; as a model protein) by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (pET21a-hil2) in fed-batch high-cell-density cultures. The amino acids most needed and their amounts were determined using a stoichiometric model, and full factorial design experiments were conducted to determine the effects of single amino acids and amino acid mixtures on production. One of the most effective amino acid mixtures was found to be leucine, aspartic acid and glycine. This amino acid mixture was utilized for the production of IL-2 in batch and fed-batch fermentations. The amount of IL-2 produced increased from 403 to 722 mg/l and from 5.15 × 10³ to 8.08 × 10³ mg/l in batch and fed-batch cultures respectively. The results also revealed that the above amino acid mixture specifically increases IL-2 concentration in the cells. PMID:21062264

  3. Regulating the diverse outcomes of interferon's interference.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Heather D; Kaech, Susan M

    2014-08-01

    Regulatory T cells are crucial for preventing autoimmunity, but how their function is restrained to allow optimal effector T cells responses in appropriate contexts is unclear. In a recent paper in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, Campbell and colleagues demonstrate that virus-induced type I interferon acts directly on Treg cells to allow for functional antiviral T cell responses. PMID:25052591

  4. Relative sensitivities of viruses to different species of interferon.

    PubMed

    Stewart, W E; Scott, W D; Sulkin, S E

    1969-08-01

    Some viruses were found to be more sensitive than others to the action of interferons from certain species of animals but less sensitive to interferons from other species. Vaccinia virus was the most sensitive to mouse and hamster interferons of five viruses tested, but the least sensitive of these five viruses to human, rabbit, and bat interferons. The relative sensitivities of the viruses to interferons were found to be characteristic for each of the species tested, with those closely related phylogenetically exhibiting similar patterns of relative interferon-induced virus resistance. The amount of synthetic double-stranded polynucleotide polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid required to induce resistance to each of the viruses in each of the cell species correlated with the interferon sensitivities of the viruses. PMID:4308914

  5. Mechanisms underlying the inhibition of interferon signaling by viruses

    PubMed Central

    Devasthanam, Anand S

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of the antiviral response is the induction of interferons. First discovered in 1957 by Issac and Lindeman, interferons are noted for their ability to interfere with viral replication. Interferons act via autocrine and paracrine pathways to induce an antiviral state in infected cells and in neighboring cells containing interferon receptors. Interferons are the frontline defenders against viral infection and their primary function is to locally restrict viral propagation. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to escape the host interferon response, thus gaining a replicative advantage in host cells. This review will discuss recent findings on the mechanisms viruses use to evade the host interferon response. This knowledge is important because the treatment of viral infections is a challenge of global proportions and a better understanding of the mechanisms viruses use to persist in the host may uncover valuable insights applicable to the discovery of novel drug targets. PMID:24504013

  6. Characteristics of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferons and ribavirin.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Méndez, Ricardo; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    The effect of interferon alfa against hepatitis C virus has been well documented. However, clinical efficacy is low due to the short interferon residence in the body. To prolong half-life, interferon molecules have been bound to the biologically inert polymer, polyethyleneglycol. Pegylated interferons exhibit a longer residence time with an improved clinical efficacy, although the rate of therapeutic failure is still important. Addition of ribavirin to interferon, either pegylated or not, significantly increases efficacy. Therefore, the combination of a pegylated interferon with ribavirin has become the standard treatment of chronic hepatitis C. As the efficacy and safety of such combinations are not yet optimal, different drugs, including other types of long-acting interferons and ribavirin analogs, are presently been investigated. PMID:20713998

  7. Pulse interleukin-2 with famotidine induces CD56+ lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of patients with metastatic melanoma or kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Quan, Walter D Y; Gagnon, Gregory A; Walker, Paul R; Quan, Francine M

    2011-02-01

    Increased lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell numbers and cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines have been seen in patients receiving high-dose continuous and bolus infusion interleukin-2 (IL-2) regimens. LAK are CD56 positive on flow cytometry. Daily intravenous doses of IL-2 of 18-21.6 MIU/m(2) over 15-30 minutes ("pulses") have been developed to attempt to lessen the toxicity of this therapy. It has been previously shown that the patients with metastatic melanoma or kidney cancer may be treated safely with pulse IL-2 daily for 5 days preceded by intravenous famotidine. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. Because LAK numbers have not been previously described with this regimen, the present study has examined CD56 numbers via peripheral blood flow cytometry in 11 patients with samples scheduled at baseline, after two cycles, and after four cycles. Eight (8) patients had melanoma and 3 had kidney cancer. Median CD56 counts after two cycles was significantly higher than baseline (p = 0.001). Similarly, CD56 counts at 2 months later were also greater than baseline (p = 0.009). There was no difference between median values after two cycles versus after four cycles. Patients who were clinical responders had a median CD56 count of 650 after two cycles when compared with nonresponders who had a median CD56 count of 290 (p = 0.005). CD56 counts are significantly elevated in patients treated with pulse IL-2 with famotidine and clinical responders have significantly higher CD56 than nonresponders. PMID:21348776

  8. A single nucleotide insertion in the canine interleukin-2 receptor gamma chain results in X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency disease.

    PubMed

    Somberg, R L; Pullen, R P; Casal, M L; Patterson, D F; Felsburg, P J; Henthorn, P S

    1995-08-01

    The immunologic and genetic analysis of a 14-week-old-male cardigan Welsh corgi puppy that presented with failure to thrive, diarrhea, and intermittent vomiting are described. The lack of palpable lymph nodes, the premature death of a male sibling, and similar clinical signs in a male cousin suggested that a primary immunodeficiency disease might be responsible for his poor clinical condition. Quantitation of serum immunoglobulins revealed low concentrations of IgG and undetectable IgA, yet normal concentrations of IgM. A complete blood cell count showed a slight anemia and lymphopenia. Although the peripheral blood contained a normal percentage of T cells, with an increased CD4:CD8 ratio, they were unable to proliferate in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and/or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Furthermore, following PHA activation, the peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) demonstrated a nearly complete lack of IL-2 binding. All of these laboratory findings were identical with our previous findings from dogs with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (XSCID) that is due to a mutation in their IL-2 receptor gamma (IL-2R gamma) chain. Examination of the corgi's IL-2R gamma cDNA revealed an insertion of a cytosine following nucleotide 582, resulting in a premature stop codon prior to the transmembrane domain. The insertion also created an EcoO109 restriction enzyme site that enabled us to detect the mutation in the patient's genomic DNA. This new mutation in the IL-2R gamma chain discovered in a cardigan Welsh corgi puppy results in XSCID with similar immunologic abnormalities as observed in dogs with the same disease resulting from a different IL-2R gamma chain mutation. PMID:8571541

  9. Limited T-cell receptor beta-chain heterogeneity among interleukin 2 receptor-positive synovial T cells suggests a role for superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Howell, M D; Diveley, J P; Lundeen, K A; Esty, A; Winters, S T; Carlo, D J; Brostoff, S W

    1991-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a disease affecting the synovial membranes of articulating joints that is thought to result from T-cell-mediated autoimmune phenomena. T cells responsible for the pathogenesis of RA are likely present in that fraction of synovial T cells that expresses the interleukin 2 receptor (IL-2R), one marker of T-cell activation. We report herein an analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain gene expression by IL-2R-positive synovial T cells. These T cells were isolated from uncultured synovial tissue specimens by using IL-2R-specific monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads, and TCR beta-chain transcription was analyzed by PCR-catalyzed amplification using a panel of primers specific for the human TCR beta-chain variable region (V beta). Multiple V beta gene families were found to be transcribed in these patients samples; however, three gene families, V beta 3, V beta 14, and V beta 17, were found in a majority of the five synovial samples analyzed, suggesting that T cells bearing these V beta s had been selectively retained in the synovial microenvironment. In many instances, the V beta 3, V beta 14, or V beta 17 repertoires amplified from an individual patient were dominated by a single rearrangement, indicative of clonal expansion in the synovium and supportive of a role for these T cells in RA. Of note is a high sequence similarity between V beta 3, V beta 14, and V beta 17 polypeptides, particularly in the fourth complementarity-determining region (CDR). Given that binding sites for superantigens have been mapped to the CDR4s of TCR beta chains, the synovial localization of T cells bearing V beta s with significant CDR4 homology indicates that V beta-specific T-cell activation by superantigen may play a role in RA. PMID:1660155

  10. Induction of interleukin 2 receptiveness and proliferation in resting peripheral T cells by monoclonal anti-CD3 (T3) antibodies does not require the presence of macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Stingl, L A; Sinska, A; Landesmann, U; Smolen, J S

    1987-01-01

    In this study, we sought to elucidate the sequence of events by which mitogenic monoclonal anti-CD3 antibodies (anti-CD3-MoAb) initiate T cell activation. In cultures of monocyte-depleted resting T cells, two anti-CD3-MoAb, OKT3 and anti-Leu 4, induced a state of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptiveness which culminated in T lymphocyte proliferation when recombinant IL-2 was provided. Evidence that Fc-receptor mediation by monocytes did not contribute to this mitogenesis was supported by studies showing that polyclonal F(ab')2 anti-mouse IgG Fc antibody did not alter the magnitude of the IL-2 driven T cell proliferative response, and by the use of T cells from donors whose monocytes were unable to assist in the induction of anti-Leu 4 (IgG1 subclass) initiated proliferation. Anti-CD3-MoAb, in the absence of IL-2, induced IL-2 receptor expression on purified T cells, and anti-IL 2 receptor antibodies inhibited T cell proliferation in the presence of this growth factor. Furthermore, following modulation of the CD3 molecular complex in the presence of monocytes, depletion of accessory cells rendered the modulated T cells mitogenically dependent on exogenous IL-2. IL-2 itself did not suffice to promote T cell proliferation in the absence of anti-CD3-MoAb. These results indicate that the binding of monoclonal antibody to CD3 is capable of initiating, in an accessory cell-independent manner, premitotic alterations in T cells which can culminate in proliferation when exogenous IL-2 is provided. PMID:3115639

  11. A Phase I Study of High-Dose Interleukin-2 With Sorafenib in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Elaine; Mortazavi, Amir; Kendra, Kari; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Mace, Thomas A.; Geyer, Susan; Carson, William E.; Tahiri, Sanaa; Bhinder, Arvinder; Clinton, Steven K.; Olencki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of high-dose interleukin-2 (HD IL-2) followed by sorafenib in patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Biomarkers relevant to the antitumor effects of IL-2 that may be altered by sorafenib including the percentages of natural T-regulatory cells (Tregs), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and STAT5 phosphorylation (pSTAT5) in T cells were evaluated. We hypothesized that the proposed treatment schedule is feasible and safe and may lead to enhanced tumor response. A phase I dose escalation trial was conducted in patients with either metastatic RCC or MM. HD IL-2 (600,000 IU/kg IV q8h×8–12 doses) was administered on days 1–5 and 15–19, followed by sorafenib on days 29–82. The sorafenib dose was escalated. The percentage of Tregs, MDSC, and pSTAT5 in T cells were evaluated in peripheral blood by flow cytometry. Twelve of the 18 patients were evaluable for dose-limiting toxicity. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. The treatment-related toxicity was predictable and did not seem to be additive with this schedule of administration. Partial responses were seen in 3 patients. No significant changes in the percentage of circulating Treg and MDSC were observed, whereas sorafenib did not adversely affect the ability of IL-2 to induce pSTAT5 in T cells. HD IL-2 followed by sorafenib was safe and feasible in patients with MM and RCC and did not adversely affect T-cell signaling through STAT5 in response to IL-2. PMID:24598448

  12. Activation of pp70/85 S6 kinases in interleukin-2-responsive lymphoid cells is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and inhibited by cyclic AMP.

    PubMed Central

    Monfar, M; Lemon, K P; Grammer, T C; Cheatham, L; Chung, J; Vlahos, C J; Blenis, J

    1995-01-01

    Activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and activation of the 70/85-kDa S6 protein kinases (alpha II and alpha I isoforms, referred to collectively as pp70S6k) have been independently linked to the regulation of cell proliferation. We demonstrate that these kinases lie on the same signalling pathway and that PI3K mediates the activation of pp70 by the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2). We also show that the activation of pp70S6k can be blocked at different points along the signalling pathway by using specific inhibitors of T-cell proliferation. Inhibition of PI3K activity with structurally unrelated but highly specific PI3K inhibitors (wortmannin or LY294002) results in inhibition of IL-2-dependent but not phorbol ester (conventional protein kinase C [cPKC])-dependent pp70S6k activation. The T-cell immunosuppressant rapamycin potently antagonizes IL-2-(PI3K)- and phorbol ester (cPKC)-mediated activation of pp70S6k. Thus, wortmannin and rapamycin antagonize IL-2-mediated activation of pp70S6k at distinct points along the PI3K-regulated signalling pathway, or rapamycin antagonizes another pathway required for pp70S6k activity. Agents that raise the concentration of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) and activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) also inhibit IL-2-dependent activation of pp70S6k. In this case, inhibition appears to occur at least two points in this signalling path. Like rapamycin, PKA appears to act downstream of cPKC-mediated pp70S6k activation, and like wortmannin, PKA antagonizes IL-2-dependent activation of PI3K. The results with rapamycin and wortmannin are of added interest since the yeast and mammalian rapamycin targets resemble PI3K in the catalytic domain. PMID:7528328

  13. Relationship between Serum Level of Interleukin-2 in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Disease Activity in Comparison with Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Mehrdad; Musavi, Sara; Nomali, Mahin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the large number of surveys, there are not any validated biomarkers for SLE disease activity till now. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum level of IL-2 in patients with SLE and disease activity in comparison with control group. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 73 patients with lupus and 73 healthy subjects referred to the rheumatology clinic of 5 Azar Hospital in Gorgan (North of Iran).They were studied via convenience sampling during 2011-2012. Blood samples were taken from both groups and serum levels of interleukin -2 measured by Avi Bion Human IL-2 ELISA kit. Serum Level of IL-2 greater than 15 pg/ml defined positive and lesser than this amount defined negative. Disease activity evaluated with SLE disease activity index. Score greater than or equal to three or four defined as active disease. Data analysis conducted by SPSS software (version 16) and by using descriptive statistics and statistical tests. Results: Serum level of IL-2 was positive in 45.2% of sample studied and negative in 54.8% in case group, while in control group, serum level of IL-2 only in 11% of sample studied was positive and in 89% was negative. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between serum level of IL-2 and the SLE disease activity index (p=0.025). Conclusion: This study showed the relationship between serum levels of IL-2 and disease activity, so this biomarker can be used as a clinical indicator for assessing disease activity in patients with SLE. PMID:25177590

  14. Intermediate- and high-affinity interleukin-2 receptors expressed in an IL-4-dependent T-cell line induce different signals.

    PubMed Central

    Rebollo, A; Silva, A

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the respective roles of IL-2R alpha and IL-2R beta subunits in transmission of the interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated growth signals, we have established two IL-4-dependent murine T-cell clones stably expressing the human IL-2R beta chain and three clones stably expressing the human IL-2R alpha chain. Whereas parental LD8 cells (which express only the murine IL-2R beta chain) do not proliferate in response to IL-2, cell lines stably expressing human IL-2R beta or the chimeric IL-2R alpha beta complex proliferate in response to IL-2. Stably transfected cells expressing the chimeric high-affinity receptor (human IL-2R alpha and murine IL-2R beta) expressed de novo endogenous murine IL-2R alpha when cultured in the presence of IL-2 but not IL-4. Both chimeric and endogenous receptors are functional in response to IL-2, since only addition of both anti-human and anti-murine IL-2R alpha monoclonal antibodies (mAb) inhibited IL-2-induced proliferation. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that human and murine IL-2R beta molecules are different since interaction of IL-2 with human p70 IL-2R is sufficient for transduction of proliferative signals in the absence of p55 IL-2R or, alternatively, that over-expression of the IL-2R beta chain renders cells responsive to IL-2. In addition, IL-2 stimulation of T cells through different forms of IL-2R results in the induction of distinct cellular responses. PMID:8262551

  15. Transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing chicken interleukin 2 stimulated higher cellular immune response in chickens compared with the wild-type parasites.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuoran; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Jingxia; Qin, Mei; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria sp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria sp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria sp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2) expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-γ secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria sp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis. PMID:26082759

  16. Effects of phorbol esters and cytokines (interleukin-2,-4, and -6) on the proliferation and surface phenotype of Epstein-Barr virus immortalised human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Kosmas, C; Epenetos, A A; Courtenay-Luck, N S

    1992-09-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-induced in vitro infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) leads to a polyclonal proliferation and immortalisation of B lymphocytes. In the present study we determined the effects of three different cytokines, interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the tumour promoting phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on EBV-immortalised B lymphocytes. These factors have known activities on normal B cells. IL-4 and IL-6 increased significantly EBV-B cell proliferation after 3 and 5 days of culture, where IL-2 had no effect. The effect of IL-4 and IL-6 on EBV-B cells was abolished after pre-incubation with anti-IL-4 and anti-IL-6 neutralising antisera, respectively. TPA induced a dose dependent inhibition of proliferation both in serum free and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) supplemented culture medium. Combinations of TPA and interleukins did not restore lymphoblastoid cell proliferation to background levels. All possible combinations of the three cytokines showed no synergistic or antagonistic effect on proliferation. TPA induced significant phenotypic changes of EBV immortalised B lymphocytes, by increasing IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) expression and decreasing CD20 and CD23 antigen expression. Other B cell differentiation antigens; HLA-DR, CD19, and transferrin receptor (CD71), did not demonstrate significant changes. A dose dependent inhibition of CD21 and increase in CD22 expression was observed in 2 out of 3 lymphoblastoid cell lines tested. PMID:1337296

  17. Retrospective Analysis of the Safety and Efficacy of High-dose Interleukin-2 After Prior Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Therapy in Patients With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael K. K.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Redman, Bruce G.; Logan, Theodore; Gao, Dexiang; Flaig, Thomas W.; Lewis, Karl; Poust, Jamie; Monk, Paul; Jarkowski, Anthony; Sendilnathan, Arun; Bolden, Marcus; Kuzel, Timothy M.; Olencki, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the most common first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 (HD-IL2) remains the only agent that provides durable complete responses. The optimal sequence of these agents remains uncertain. This retrospective multi-institutional study examined the safety and efficacy of HD-IL2 following TKI therapy. After IRB approval at 7 HD-IL2 centers, data relating to patient, disease, and treatment characteristics among 40 consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with HD-IL2 after at least 1 prior TKI therapy were retrospectively collected. The most common cardiac adverse events were grade 3 hypotension and vascular leak syndrome. Six patients (15%) experienced other grade ≥3 cardiac adverse events. There were 2 treatment-related deaths due to congestive heart failure, occurring in 1 patient with short TKI to HD-IL2 interval and another patient with an abnormal baseline cardiac stress test. Best responses included 2 CRs (5%, duration 40+ and 62+ mo), 3 PRs (8%, duration 6, 11, and 24 mo), 13 SD (32%, median duration 12 mo), 20 PD (50%), and 2 not evaluable patients. Median overall survival was 22 months. Administration of HD-IL2 could be safe and effective after TKI therapy; however, careful selection of patients is critical. We recommend baseline cardiac risk factor assessment, screening with both cardiac stress test and echocardiogram, and allowing a TKI to HD-IL2 interval of at least 2 months. PMID:25075565

  18. Retrospective analysis of the safety and efficacy of high-dose interleukin-2 after prior tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lam, Elaine T; Wong, Michael K K; Agarwal, Neeraj; Redman, Bruce G; Logan, Theodore; Gao, Dexiang; Flaig, Thomas W; Lewis, Karl; Poust, Jamie; Monk, Paul; Jarkowski, Anthony; Sendilnathan, Arun; Bolden, Marcus; Kuzel, Timothy M; Olencki, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are the most common first-line therapy for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, high-dose interleukin-2 (HD-IL2) remains the only agent that provides durable complete responses. The optimal sequence of these agents remains uncertain. This retrospective multi-institutional study examined the safety and efficacy of HD-IL2 following TKI therapy. After IRB approval at 7 HD-IL2 centers, data relating to patient, disease, and treatment characteristics among 40 consecutive patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who were treated with HD-IL2 after at least 1 prior TKI therapy were retrospectively collected. The most common cardiac adverse events were grade 3 hypotension and vascular leak syndrome. Six patients (15%) experienced other grade ≥3 cardiac adverse events. There were 2 treatment-related deaths due to congestive heart failure, occurring in 1 patient with short TKI to HD-IL2 interval and another patient with an abnormal baseline cardiac stress test. Best responses included 2 CRs (5%, duration 40+ and 62+ mo), 3 PRs (8%, duration 6, 11, and 24 mo), 13 SD (32%, median duration 12 mo), 20 PD (50%), and 2 not evaluable patients. Median overall survival was 22 months. Administration of HD-IL2 could be safe and effective after TKI therapy; however, careful selection of patients is critical. We recommend baseline cardiac risk factor assessment, screening with both cardiac stress test and echocardiogram, and allowing a TKI to HD-IL2 interval of at least 2 months. PMID:25075565

  19. Effects of p56lck deficiency on the growth and cytolytic effector function of an interleukin-2-dependent cytotoxic T-cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Karnitz, L; Sutor, S L; Torigoe, T; Reed, J C; Bell, M P; McKean, D J; Leibson, P J; Abraham, R T

    1992-01-01

    The growth, differentiation, and functional activities of antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes are regulated by the interaction of the T-cell-derived cytokine, interleukin-2 (IL-2), with the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R). IL-2R occupancy initiates a rapid increase in intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, suggesting that a receptor-coupled protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) serves as a proximal signaling element for the IL-2R. Previous studies implicated the src-family kinase, p56lck, as a potential IL-2R-linked signal transducer. In this study, we have characterized a spontaneous variant of the IL-2-dependent cytotoxic T-cell line, CTLL-2, which contains no detectable lck-derived mRNA transcripts, protein, or PTK activity. The p56lck-deficient CTLL-2 cells retained strict dependence on IL-2 for both viability and growth, indicating that p56lck activity was not required for the transduction of IL-2-mediated mitogenic signals. However, the p56lck-deficient cells exhibited a moderate decrease in their rate of IL-2-dependent proliferation. In contrast to this relatively modest proliferative defect, the p56lck-deficient cell line displayed a profound reduction in T-cell antigen receptor-dependent cytolytic effector functions. Both the proliferative and the cytolytic defects observed in the p56lck-deficient cells were completely reversed by transfection of these cells with a wild-type lck expression vector. These results indicate that p56lck expression is not obligatory for IL-2-mediated T-cell growth stimulation; however, this PTK plays a central role in the generation T-cell-mediated cytotoxic responses. Images PMID:1406641

  20. Transgenic Eimeria mitis expressing chicken interleukin 2 stimulated higher cellular immune response in chickens compared with the wild-type parasites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhuoran; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Jingxia; Qin, Mei; Yin, Guangwen; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Chicken coccidiosis, caused by Eimeria sp., occurs in almost all poultry farms and causes huge economic losses in the poultry industry. Although this disease could be controlled by vaccination, the reduced feed conservation ratio limits the widespread application of anticoccidial vaccines in broilers because some intermediate and/or low immunogenic Eimeria sp. only elicit partial protection. It is of importance to enhance the immunogenicity of these Eimeria sp. by adjuvants for more effective prevention of coccidiosis. Cytokines have remarkable effects on the immunogenicity of antigens. Interleukin 2 (IL-2), for example, significantly stimulates the activation of CD8+ T cells and other immune cells. In this study, we constructed a transgenic Eimeria mitis line (EmiChIL-2) expressing chicken IL-2 (ChIL-2) to investigate the adjuvant effect of ChIL-2 to enhance the immunogenicity of E. mitis against its infection. Stable transfected EmiChIL-2 population was obtained by pyrimethamine selection and verified by PCR, genome walking, western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence assay. Cellular immune response, E. mitis-specific IFN-γ secretion lymphocytes in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells, stimulated by EmiChIL-2 was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The results showed that EmiChIL-2 stimulated a higher cellular immune response compared with that of the wild-type parasite infection in chickens. Moreover, after the immunization with EmiChIL-2, elevated cellular immune response as well as reduced oocyst output were observed These results indicated that ChIL-2 expressed by Eimeria sp. functions as adjuvant and IL-2 expressing Eimeria parasites are valuable vaccine strains against coccidiosis. PMID:26082759

  1. Inhibition of G-Protein βγ Signaling Enhances T Cell Receptor-Stimulated Interleukin 2 Transcription in CD4+ T Helper Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yost, Evan A.; Hynes, Thomas R.; Hartle, Cassandra M.; Ott, Braden J.; Berlot, Catherine H.

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling modulates the expression of cytokines that are drug targets for immune disorders. However, although GPCRs are common targets for other diseases, there are few GPCR-based pharmaceuticals for inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether targeting G-protein βγ (Gβγ) complexes could provide a useful new approach for modulating interleukin 2 (IL-2) levels in CD4+ T helper cells. Gallein, a small molecule inhibitor of Gβγ, increased levels of T cell receptor (TCR)-stimulated IL-2 mRNA in primary human naïve and memory CD4+ T helper cells and in Jurkat human CD4+ leukemia T cells. Gβ1 and Gβ2 mRNA accounted for >99% of Gβ mRNA, and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated silencing of Gβ1 but not Gβ2 enhanced TCR-stimulated IL-2 mRNA increases. Blocking Gβγ enhanced TCR-stimulated increases in IL-2 transcription without affecting IL-2 mRNA stability. Blocking Gβγ also enhanced TCR-stimulated increases in nuclear localization of nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFAT1), NFAT transcriptional activity, and levels of intracellular Ca2+. Potentiation of IL-2 transcription required continuous Gβγ inhibition during at least two days of TCR stimulation, suggesting that induction or repression of additional signaling proteins during T cell activation and differentiation might be involved. The potentiation of TCR-stimulated IL-2 transcription that results from blocking Gβγ in CD4+ T helper cells could have applications for autoimmune diseases. PMID:25629163

  2. Inability to Mediate Prolonged Reduction of Regulatory T Cells After Transfer of Autologous CD25-depleted PBMC and Interleukin-2 After Lymphodepleting Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Daniel J.; de Vries, Christiaan R.; Allen, Tamika; Ahmadzadeh, Mojgan; Rosenberg, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg) regulate peripheral self-tolerance and possess the ability to suppress antitumor responses, which may explain the poor clinical response of cancer patients undergoing active immunization protocols, and provides the rationale for neutralizing Treg cells in vivo to strengthen local antitumor immune responses. Because interleukin-2 (IL-2) mediates tumor regression in about 15% of treated patients but simultaneously increases Treg cells, we hypothesized that transient elimination of Treg cells will enhance the clinical effectiveness of IL-2 therapy. In the current study, 5 patients with metastatic melanoma who were refractory to prior IL-2 received a lymphodepleting preparative regimen followed by the adoptive transfer of autologous lymphocytes depleted of CD25+ Treg cells and high-dose IL-2 administration. CD25+ cells were eliminated from patient leukapheresis samples using a clinical-grade, large-scale immunomagnetic system, leaving CD8+ and CD25−CD4+ T cells intact. In the early aftermath of CD25+ Treg cell-depleted cell infusion, CD25+FOXP3+ CD4+ Treg cells rapidly repopulated the peripheral blood of treated patients with 18% to 63% of CD4+ T cells expressing FOXP3. Recovering CD25+CD4+ T cells exhibited suppressive activity against CD25−CD4+ effector T-cell proliferation in vitro. No patient experienced objective tumor regression or autoimmunity. Our results indicate that in vivo transfer of autologous CD25-depleted mononuclear populations to lymphopenic patients in combination with high-dose IL-2 is not sufficient to mediate prolonged reduction of Treg cells after IL-2 administration. PMID:17457218

  3. Spontaneous release of interleukin 2 by lung T lymphocytes in active pulmonary sarcoidosis is primarily from the Leu3+DR+ T cell subset.

    PubMed Central

    Saltini, C; Spurzem, J R; Lee, J J; Pinkston, P; Crystal, R G

    1986-01-01

    The inflammation within the lower respiratory tract of individuals with pulmonary sarcoidosis is dominated by large numbers of helper T lymphocytes that proliferate and spontaneously release interleukin 2 (IL-2). To identify the lymphocyte subpopulation that releases IL-2 in this disorder, lung lymphocytes recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using the monoclonal antibodies Leu4 (T lymphocyte), Leu3 (helper/inducer), Leu2 (suppressor/cytotoxic), and anti-HLA-DR, and separated by panning and flow cytometry. The majority of the IL-2 spontaneously released by T cells in the sarcoid lung was contributed by the Leu3+ cell population (Leu3+65 +/- 23 IL-2 units released/10(6) cells per 24 h; Leu2+ 9 +/- 8, P less than 0.04). Further characterization of the lung Leu3+ T cells in sarcoid demonstrated that 30 +/- 3% were expressing HLA-DR molecules on their surface compared with 6 +/- 1% in normals (P less than 0.01). Importantly, the subpopulation of Leu3+ lung T lymphocytes expressing a high intensity of HLA-DR molecules on their surface was responsible for the majority of the release of IL-2 in the sarcoid lung (Leu3+ high-intensity DR 42 +/- 17 U/10(6) cells per 24 h, Leu3+ low-intensity DR 8 +/- 1 U/10(6) cells per 24 h; P less than 0.01). Thus, the spontaneous release of IL-2 in the lung of sarcoid patients appears to be localized to a subset of Leu3+ high-intensity DR ("activated" lung helper/inducer) T lymphocytes. Because the sarcoid lung is characterized by markedly increased numbers of these cells, it is likely that this compartmentalized T cell population plays a major role in sustaining the exaggerated localized immune processes of this disorder. PMID:3486888

  4. Effect of concanavalin A treatment on the allogeneic response of mice to challenge with P 815 mastocytoma: interleukin 2 treatment reverses concanavalin A suppression in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ekstedt, R D; Merdian, D J

    1984-05-01

    Mice injected repeatedly with concanavalin A (Con A) prior to and following challenge with P 815 mastocytoma are suppressed in their cell-mediated cytotoxicity responses. Earlier studies showed that pretreatment of the animals with silica to affect macrophage (M phi) functions reversed the Con A suppression. In the present paper we have shown that peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) induced/activated by ip injection of Con A were able to transfer suppression to normal mice. Separation of the PEC populations into adherent and nonadherent cells abrogated their capacity to transfer suppression. It was further shown that Con A is not functioning in this in vivo system to block effector activity of cytotoxic cells on target cells, and PEC induced with Con A were not directly cytotoxic to target P 815 cells. Finally, we were able to show that the cytotoxicity response of Con A-suppressed mice could be enhanced by treatment with concentrated culture supernatants of normal mouse spleen cells, rich in interleukin 2 (IL 2) activity. Attempts to detect a recently described mouse serum inhibitor of IL 2 in normal or Con A-treated mice were unsuccessful and spleen cells from Con A-treated mice lost their capacity to generate IL 2 in vitro when cultured under appropriate conditions. Taken together, these results suggest that suppression of cell-mediated immune responses in Con A-treated mice results from interruption of the normal generation of IL 2 helper effects necessary for the activation of cytotoxic effector T cells in vivo. PMID:6424952

  5. V delta 1 gene usage, interleukin-2 receptors and adhesion molecules on gamma delta+ T cells in inflammatory diseases of the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mix, E; Fiszer, U; Olsson, T; Fredrikson, S; Kostulas, V; Söderström, M; Link, H

    1994-01-01

    This study investigates the expression of T cell receptor V delta 1 chain, interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain (CD25) and adhesion molecules ICAM-1 (CD54), LFA-1 (CD11a/18) and CD44 on gamma delta+ T cells by three-color flow cytometry on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood cells in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND) and other neurological diseases (OND). Of gamma delta + T cells in CSF and blood, 20-40% belonged to the 'epithelial' V delta 1 subtype. MS patients had the lowest levels in both CSF and blood, but the differences between the patient groups were not significant. The activation markers CD25 and CD54 were expressed by only a small proportion of gamma delta+ T cells and in a minority of patients. Although the occurrence of CD25+ and CD54+ gamma delta+ T cells was somewhat higher in CSF than in blood and in inflammatory diseases than in controls, the small numbers of CD25+ and CD54+ gamma delta+ T cells preclude establishing differences amongst compartments and patient groups. The adhesion molecules CD11a/18 and CD44 were constitutively expressed on all T cells. Therefore, we compared the relative antigen density per cell as measured by the relative fluorescence index (RFI) between CSF and blood, between the patient groups and between gamma delta+ and total T cells. The only difference encountered was a slightly higher expression of adhesion molecules on gamma delta+ compared to total T cells, with preference to MS patients. In conclusion, the V delta 1+ subtype of gamma delta+ T cells does not dominate in the CSF compartment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7507498

  6. Regulation of interferon-gamma gene expression.

    PubMed

    Young, H A

    1996-08-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), also known as type II interferon, is an important immunoregulatory gene that has multiple effects on the development, maturation, and function of the immune system. IFN-gamma mRNA and protein are expressed predominantly by T cells and large granular lymphocytes. The IFN-gamma mRNA is induced/inhibited in these cell types by a wide variety of extracellular signals, thus implicating a number of diverse, yet convergent signal transduction pathways in its transcriptional control. In this review, I describe how DNA methylation and specific DNA binding proteins may regulate transcription of the IFN-gamma gene in response to extracellular signals. PMID:8877725

  7. Oromucosal Administration of Interferon to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Beilharz, Manfred W.; Cummins, Martin J.; Bennett, Alayne L.; Cummins, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing dogma is that, to be systemically effective, interferon-alpha (IFNα) must be administered in sufficiently high doses to yield functional blood concentrations. Such an approach to IFNα therapy has proven effective in some instances, but high-dose parenteral IFNα therapy has the disadvantage of causing significant adverse events. Mounting evidence suggests that IFNα delivered into the oral cavity in low doses interacts with the oral mucosa in a unique manner to induce systemic host defense mechanisms without IFNα actually entering the circulation, thus reducing the potential for toxic side effects. A better understanding of the applications and potential benefits of this treatment modality are under active investigation. This paper provides a review of the relevant literature on the clinical use of the oromucosal route of administration of interferon, with an emphasis on the treatment of influenza.

  8. Association of alpha interferon production with natural killer cell lysis of U937 cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Rappocciolo, G; Toso, J F; Torpey, D J; Gupta, P; Rinaldo, C R

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear leukocytes from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seronegative and -seropositive homosexual men lysed HIV-infected U937 cells to a significantly greater degree than uninfected U937 cells. Depletion of cell subsets with monoclonal antibodies and complement indicated that the effector cells were primarily of the CD16+ phenotype. Acid-stable alpha interferon (IFN-alpha) production induced by the HIV-infected cells correlated with, although was not an absolute requisite for, preferential lysis of the infected targets. The activity of these CD16+, natural killer (NK) cells decreased in relation to the duration of HIV infection and the presence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Pretreatment of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-seronegative subjects, but not HIV-seropositive men, with IFN-alpha or recombinant interleukin-2 enhanced lysis of both uninfected and HIV-infected U937 cells. These results suggest that IFN-alpha-associated, NK-like mechanisms are active in the cytotoxic response against HIV-infected cells and that HIV infection results in an early and progressive depression of such responses. Prospective investigations may be useful in determining the role of this NK cell response in the natural history and pathogenesis of HIV infection and the efficacy of therapeutic modalities. PMID:2913035

  9. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Gamma-Interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Gamma-Interferon. Stimulates the body's immune system and is used clinically in the treatment of cancer. Potential as an anti-tumor agent against solid tumors as well as leukemia's and lymphomas. It has additional utility as an anti-ineffective agent, including antiviral, anti-bacterial, and anti-parasitic activities. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  10. Induction of synthesis of the cytolytic C9 (ninth component of complement)-related protein in human peripheral mononuclear cells by monoclonal antibody OKT3 or interleukin 2: correlation with cytotoxicity and lymphocyte phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.E.; Zalman, L.S.; Jung, G.; Mueller-Eberhard, H.J.

    1987-05-01

    Synthesis of the cytolytic C9-related protein (C9RP) was induced by activation of resting human peripheral T lymphocytes with the anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 or interleukin 2. Comparison of cellular cytotoxicity and C9RP content at various times during activation yielded a coefficient of correlation r = 0.92. During OKT3 stimulation of peripheral mononuclear cells, maximal C9RP content and cytotoxicity were observed by day 2 for 3, with subsequent decline to baseline values by day 5, whereas during interleukin 2 stimulation, both parameters reached the maximal level at days 3-5. After fluorescence-activated cell sorting, C9RP and cytotoxicity were quantitated in CD4/sup +/, CD8/sup +/, and Leu-19/sup +/ subsets. In OKT3-activated CD8/sup +/ cells, C9RP increased to approx. 3 x 10/sup 6/ molecules per cell, with a corresponding increase in lysis of human melanoma cells mediated by anti-CD3-anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody conjugates. Interleukin 2-stimulated CD8/sup +/ cell showed similar increases, but cytotoxicity was conjugate-independent. Activated CD4/sup +/ cells showed minimal increase in C9RP content. Leu-19/sup +/ cells, which exhibit natural killer cell activity, had a high C9RP content before stimulation.

  11. Recent advances in the anti-HCV mechanisms of interferon.

    PubMed

    Huang, Menghao; Jiang, Jian-Dong; Peng, Zonggen

    2014-08-01

    Interferon (IFN) in combination with ribavirin has been the standard of care (SOC) for chronic hepatitis C for the past few decades. Although the current SOC lacks the desired efficacy, and 4 new direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently approved, interferons are still likely to remain the cornerstone of therapy for some time. Moreover, as an important cytokine system of innate immunity, host interferon signaling provides a powerful antiviral response. Nevertheless, the mechanisms by which HCV infection controls interferon production, and how interferons, in turn, trigger anti-HCV activities as well as control the outcome of HCV infection remain to be clarified. In this report, we review current progress in understanding the mechanisms of IFN against HCV, and also summarize the knowledge of induction of interferon signaling by HCV infection. PMID:26579391

  12. [Effects of neuropeptides on interferon production in vitro].

    PubMed

    Kul'chikov, A E; Makarenko, A N

    2008-01-01

    The study of an interferon-inducing action of neuropeptides (a cerebrolysin model) on production of interferons by human blood leukocytes has shown that neuropeptides induce gamma-interferon production in the titer 267 IU/ml that determines one of the mechanisms of a neuroimmunocorrecting effect of cerebrolysin (Ebewe, Austria) in many neurological diseases (acute stroke, brain traumas and different neuroinfectious diseases). PMID:18720720

  13. Racial differences in responses to therapy with interferon in chronic hepatitis C. Consensus Interferon Study Group.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K R; Hoofnagle, J H; Tong, M J; Lee, W M; Pockros, P; Heathcote, E J; Albert, D; Joh, T

    1999-09-01

    The likelihood of a sustained response to a course of interferon in patients with chronic hepatitis C correlates with several clinical and viral factors, including age, viral genotype and initial levels of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in serum. The role of race and ethnicity has not been assessed. We evaluated the association of race with response to interferon in a large randomized, controlled trial using either consensus interferon (9 microg) or interferon alfa-2b (3 million units) given three times weekly for 24 weeks. African-American patients participating in the study were similar to white patients in mean age (43 vs. 42 years) and baseline levels of HCV RNA (3.6 vs. 3.0 million copies/mL) but had lower rates of cirrhosis (5% vs. 12%) and more frequently had viral genotype 1 (88% vs. 66%: P =.004). Most strikingly, the rates of end-of-treatment and sustained virological responses were lower among the 40 African-American patients (5% and 2%) than among the 380 white patients (33% and 12%) (P =.04 and.07). Rates of response among Hispanic and Asian-American patients were not statistically different than non-Hispanic white patients. Median viral levels decreased by week 24 of therapy by 2.5 logs in white patients (from 3.0 to 0.012 million copies/mL) but by only 0.5 logs among African- American patients (from 3.6 to 1.8 million copies/mL). Thus, there are marked racial differences in virological responses to interferon in hepatitis C that must be considered in assessing trials of interferon therapy and in counseling patients regarding treatment. The differences in response rates are as yet unexplained. PMID:10462387

  14. Alpha-interferon in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Fayad, M N; Yamout, B I; Mroueh, S

    1997-11-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an inexorably progressive disease with no effective therapy. Recent trials of intrathecal and intraventricular alpha-interferon yielded controversial results. We tried intrathecal or intraventricular alpha-interferon in four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. None of them had evidence of improvement. We reviewed the previously published studies on the use of alpha-interferon in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Further international collaborative studies are needed to determine the role of alpha-interferon in the treatment of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. PMID:9430312

  15. Impairment of the cellular immune response in acute murine toxoplasmosis: regulation of interleukin 2 production and macrophage-mediated inhibitory effects.

    PubMed Central

    Haque, S; Khan, I; Haque, A; Kasper, L

    1994-01-01

    Depression of the cellular immune response to Toxoplasma gondii has been reported in both mice and humans. The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics and mechanism of the observed downregulation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) production during experimental murine toxoplasmosis. For these investigations, the cell-mediated immune response to the wild type (PTg) was compared with that to the less-virulent mutant parasite (PTgB), which is deficient in the major surface antigen, p30 (SAG-1). Spleen cells from infected A/J mice failed to proliferate in response to Toxoplasma antigens during the first week of infection. Both PTg- and PTgB-infected A/J mice exhibited a significant reduction in the concanavalin A (Con A)-induced lymphoproliferative response. Further, the response of splenocytes from mice infected with the wild-type parasite was significantly diminished compared with that of mice infected with PTgB. The lymphoproliferative response to Con A reached its nadir at day 7 and remained below control levels for at least 14 days postinfection. By day 21 postinfection, the response to Con A and to Toxoplasma antigens was restored to the level observed prior to day 7. Con A-stimulated culture supernatants of spleen cells from mice on day 7 postinfection contained significantly less IL-2 than normal mice. There was no significant difference in the numbers of binding sites or capacity of high-affinity IL-2 receptors between infected and normal mouse splenocytes as determined by Scatchard analysis. Exogenous IL-2 at different concentrations failed to restore the proliferative response of lymphocytes from infected mice to Con A. Adherent macrophages from 7-day-infected mice were able to suppress IL-2 production by normal splenocytes following stimulation with Con A. The inhibitory activity mediated by infected cells was reversed by the antibody to IL-10 but not transforming growth factor beta. There were insignificant levels of nitric oxide production in both

  16. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, ameliorates interleukin 2-induced capillary leakage and reduces tumour growth in adenocarcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed Central

    Orucevic, A.; Lala, P. K.

    1996-01-01

    We tested whether NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, can prevent interleukin 2 (IL-2)-induced capillary leakage in tumour-bearing mice without compromising the therapeutic benefits of IL-2. C3H/HeJ female mice transplanted s.c. with 2.5 x 10(5) C3-L5 mammary carcinoma cells were treated with: nothing, IL-2 (ten injections of 15,000 Cetus units i.p. every 8 h), L-NAME (0.1, 0.5, or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water), IL-2 + L-NAME (0.1 or 0.5 or 1 mg ml-1 drinking water). Therapies were given in one round (IL-2, days 10-13; L-NAME, days 9-13) or in two rounds (IL-2, days 10-13 and 20-23; L-NAME, days 9-13 and days 19-23) after tumour transplantation. Capillary leakage was measured from the water contents of the pleural cavities, lungs, spleen and kidneys. Effects of the therapies on the primary tumour size and the number of spontaneous lung metastases were also recorded. NO production was measured as the nitrite + nitrate levels in the serum and in the pleural effusion. After the first round of therapies, addition of L-NAME significantly reduced IL-2-induced pulmonary oedema and water retention in the spleen in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the IL-2-induced rise in NO levels in the serum and pleural fluid, but did not affect IL-2-induced pleural effusion or water retention in the kidney. At later stages of tumour growth (day 23), tumours themselves induced significant fluid retention in the lungs and the kidney, which was not aggravated further with the second round of IL-2 therapy. At this time, L-NAME therapy alone ameliorated tumour-induced pulmonary oedema. During both rounds of therapy different doses of L-NAME alone caused a reduction of primary tumour growth as well as spontaneous lung metastases, which improved further with the addition of IL-2. The combination therapy was at least as effective as IL-2 therapy. In summary, L-NAME had anti-tumour effects in vivo, reduced the severity of IL-2

  17. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  18. Durable responses and reversible toxicity of high-dose interleukin-2 treatment of melanoma and renal cancer in a Community Hospital Biotherapy Program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) has been FDA-approved for over 20 years, but it is offered only at a small number of centers with expertise in its administration. We analyzed the outcomes of patients receiving high-dose IL-2 in relation to the severity of toxicity to ascertain if response or survival were adversely affected. Methods A retrospective analysis of the outcomes of 500 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 186) or melanoma (n = 314) treated with high-dose IL-2 between 1997 and 2012 at Providence Cancer Center was performed. IL-2 was administered at a dose of 600,000 international units per kg by IV bolus every 8 hours for up to 14 doses. A second cycle was administered 16 days after the first and patients with tumor regression could receive additional cycles. Survival and anti-tumor response were analyzed by diagnosis, severity of toxicity, number of IL-2 cycles and subsequent therapy. Results The objective response rate in melanoma was 28% (complete 12% and partial 16%), and in RCC was 24% (complete 7% and partial 17%). The 1-, 2- and 3-year survivals were 59%, 41% and 31%, for melanoma and 75%, 56% and 44%, for RCC, respectively. The proportion of patients with complete or partial response in both melanoma and RCC was higher in patients who a) required higher phenylephrine doses to treat hypotension (p < 0.003), b) developed acidosis (bicarbonate < 19 mmol (p < 0.01)), or c) thrombocytopenia (<50, 50–100, >100,000 platelets; p < 0.025). The proportion achieving a complete or partial response was greater in patients with melanoma who received 5 or more compared with 4 or fewer IL-2 cycles (p < 0.0001). The incidence of death from IL-2 was less than 1% and was not higher in patients who required phenylephrine. Conclusions High-dose IL-2 can be administered safely; severe toxicity including hypotension is reversible and can be managed in a community hospital. The tumor response and survival

  19. N-Farnesyloxy-norcantharimide inhibits progression of human leukemic Jurkat T cells through regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and interleukin-2 production

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ming-Che; Wu, Jin-Yi; Liao, Hui-Fen; Chen, Yu-Jen

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the anticancer effects of N-farnesyloxy-norcantharimide (NOC15), a newly synthesized norcantharidin (NCTD) analogue, on human leukemic Jurkat T cells and the signaling pathway underlying its effects. We found that the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of NOC15 on Jurkat T cells is 1.4 μmol/l, which is 11.14-fold (=15.6÷1.4) smaller than the 15.6 μmol/l of NCTD on Jurkat T cells, whereas the IC50 of NOC15 on human normal lymphoblast (HNL) is 207.9 μmol/l, which is 8.17-fold (=1698.0÷207.8) smaller than the 1698.0 μmol/l of NCTD on HNL cells. These results indicated that NOC15 exerts a higher anticancer effect on Jurkat T cells and has higher toxicity toward HNL cells than NCTD. Thus, NOC15 is 1.36-fold (=11.14÷8.17) beneficial as an anticancer agent toward Jurkat T cells compared with NCTD. Moreover, NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase and reduce the cell viability of Jurkat T cells, stimulate p38 and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway, and inhibit calcineurin expression and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. However, NOC15 exerted no effects on the Jun-N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) signaling pathway, the production of IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We conclude that the anticancer activity of the newly synthesized NOC15 is 1.36-fold beneficial than NCTD as an anticancer agent and that NOC15 can increase the percentage of cells in the sub-G1 phase through the stimulation of p38 and ERK1/2 of the MAPK signaling pathway and the inhibition of calcineurin expression and IL-2 production. The NOC15 may have the potential of being developed into an anticancer agent in the future. PMID:26288134

  20. A phase I study of prolonged continuous infusion of low dose recombinant interleukin-2 in melanoma and renal cell cancer. Part I: Clinical aspects.

    PubMed Central

    Vlasveld, L. T.; Rankin, E. M.; Hekman, A.; Rodenhuis, S.; Beijnen, J. H.; Hilton, A. M.; Dubbelman, A. C.; Vyth-Dreese, F. A.; Melief, C. J.

    1992-01-01

    The optimal schedule for recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) administration is unclear. Because the clinical and immunological effects of prolonged continuous exposure to rIL-2 are unknown, we have conducted a phase I study to assess the toxicity and feasibility of continuous low dose infusion of rIL-2 (EuroCetus) using central venous access with a portable infusion device on an out-patient basis. Twenty-two patients entered the study, 13 with melanoma and nine with renal cell cancer, age range 26-66 years (median 51), performance status less than or equal to 1. They were treated with one of the following doses per m2 per 24 h: 0.18 x 10(6) IU, 0.6 x 10(6) IU, 1.8 x 10(6) IU, 3 x 10(6) IU, 6 x 10(6) IU and 9 x 10(6) IU. Toxicity was evaluable in 20 patients receiving greater than or equal to 3 weeks treatment duration or in whom treatment was discontinued prematurely because of toxicity. Constitutional symptoms consisting of fatigue, malaise and fever up to 40 degrees C without significant organ dysfunction occurred with doses greater than or equal to 1.8 x 10(6) IU m-2. The maximum tolerated dose was 6 x 10(6) IU m-2 24 h-1. In all patients toxicity reached a peak at 3 weeks and resolved thereafter despite continued rIL-2 treatment. Peripheral blood eosinophilia (up to 66% of white blood cell count) followed the same pattern. An infection of the central venous access occurred in 55% of the patients but this was mostly asymptomatic. Thirteen patients were treated greater than or equal to 6 weeks and were evaluable for tumour response. A partial remission occurred in a patient with melanoma with a dose of 1.8 x 10(6) IU rIL-2 m-2 24 h-1. PMID:1586602

  1. Prognostic Relevance of Cytokine Receptor Expression in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Interleukin-2 Receptor α-Chain (CD25) Expression Predicts a Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Nakase, Kazunori; Kita, Kenkichi; Kyo, Taiichi; Ueda, Takanori; Tanaka, Isao; Katayama, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    A variety of cytokine/cytokine receptor systems affect the biological behavior of acute leukemia cells. However, little is known about the clinical relevance of cytokine receptor expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We quantitatively examined the expression of interleukin-2 receptor α-chain (IL-2Rα, also known as CD25), IL-2Rβ, IL-3Rα, IL-4Rα, IL-5Rα, IL-6Rα, IL-7Rα, the common β-chain (βc), γc, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)Rα, G-CSFR, c-fms, c-mpl, c-kit, FLT3, and GP130 in leukemia cells from 767 adult patients with AML by flow cytometry and determined their prevalence and clinical significance. All cytokine receptors examined were expressed at varying levels, whereas the levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, IL-2Rα, γc, c-kit, and G-CSFR exhibited a wide spectrum of ≥10,000 sites/cell. In terms of their French-American-British classification types, GM-CSFRα and c-fms were preferentially expressed in M4/M5 patients, G-CSF in M3 patients, and IL-2Rα in non-M3 patients. Elevated levels of IL-3Rα, GM-CSFRα, and IL-2Rα correlated with leukocytosis. In patients ≤60 years old, higher levels of these 3 receptors correlated with poor responses to conventional chemotherapy, but only IL-2Rα was associated with a shorter overall survival. By incorporating IL-2Rα status into cytogenetic risk stratification, we could sort out a significantly adverse-risk cohort from the cytogenetically intermediate-risk group. Analyses with various phenotypical risk markers revealed the expression of IL-2Rα as an independent prognostic indicator in patients with intermediate-risk cytogenetics. These findings were not observed in patients >60 years old. Our results indicate that several cytokine receptors were associated with certain cellular and clinical features, but IL-2Rα alone had prognostic value that provides an additional marker to improve current risk evaluation in AML patients ≤60 years old. PMID:26375984

  2. Interferon activity of mitogen-induced chicken splenic lymphocytes which do not express interferon mRNA.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, S K; Cloud, S S; Burnside, J

    1996-10-01

    Interferon activity was measured in media from virally infected chicken embryo fibroblasts and Concanavalin A-stimulated splenic lymphocytes using a viral inhibition assay. Both cell types produce interferon activity. A cDNA probe corresponding to a chicken interferon mRNA was used to probe Northern blots of RNA prepared from both cells. A single hybridizing species of 900 bases was detected in virally infected fibroblast RNA, but no hybridizing species was detected in the splenic lymphocytes. These results suggest that the interferon activity produced by lymphocytes is of different molecular origin than the corresponding activity produced by virally infected fibroblasts. PMID:8969047

  3. Expansion of amphibian intronless interferons revises the paradigm for interferon evolution and functional diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines identified in vertebrates, and evolutionary dominance of intronless IFN genes in amniotes is a signature event in IFN evolution. For the first time, we show that the emergence and expansion of intronless IFN genes is evident in amphibians, shown by 24-37 intronle...

  4. Physiological Proteins in Therapeutics: A Current Review on Interferons.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debosree; Ghosh, Debjani; Parida, Pratap

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are produced in vivo and are one of the prime components of natural defense system of animals. They are released by the viral infected cells and provide protection to the neighboring cells against viral infection. The cyto-protective property of the proteins ignited the thought of their pharmaceutical adaptation for therapeutic use against viral diseases in individuals in whom the interferons released naturally are not sufficient to combat the situation. Interferon supplements have been found to complement various antiviral drugs. Considering the efficacy of interferons in regulating angiogenesis and immunomodulation, they can be adapted for therapy of the killer diseases like cancer and AIDS. We have come ahead more than twenty five years after the approval of clinical use of interferon as drugs and are today really in a position to promise a disease free life to our present and next generation. Interferon therapy will be contributing a big share to the upcoming remedies for the new diseases and we are thus armed to fight back the deadly viral threats. Interferons have been modified [pegylated etc.] and have already been adapted to some extent in certain diseases and are in regular use in some. Thus interferons if modified as per need and used in combination with either antiviral drugs, antibiotics, antioxidants may strengthen our defense system effectively to bring about a strong protection against wide range of diseases. PMID:27499189

  5. Specificity, cross-talk and adaptation in Interferon signaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilman, Anton

    Innate immune system is the first line of defense of higher organisms against pathogens. It coordinates the behavior of millions of cells of multiple types, achieved through numerous signaling molecules. This talk focuses on the signaling specificity of a major class of signaling molecules - Type I Interferons - which are also used therapeutically in the treatment of a number of diseases, such as Hepatitis C, multiple sclerosis and some cancers. Puzzlingly, different Interferons act through the same cell surface receptor but have different effects on the target cells. They also exhibit a strange pattern of temporal cross-talk resulting in a serious clinical problem - loss of response to Interferon therapy. We combined mathematical modeling with quantitative experiments to develop a quantitative model of specificity and adaptation in the Interferon signaling pathway. The model resolves several outstanding experimental puzzles and directly affects the clinical use of Type I Interferons in treatment of viral hepatitis and other diseases.

  6. Results of space experiment program "Interferon". I. Production of interferon in vitro by human lymphocytes aboard space laboratory Solyut-6 ("Interferon I") and influence of space flight on lymphocyte functions of cosmonauts ("Interferon III").

    PubMed

    Tálas, M; Bátkai, L; Stöger, I; Nagy, L; Hiros, L; Konstantinova, I; Rykova, M; Mozgovaya, I; Guseva, O; Kozharinov, V

    1983-01-01

    The results of the biological space experiment "Interferon" performed by two international cosmonaut crews aboard the space laboratory Solyut-6 are reported. Human lymphocytes separated from the blood of healthy donors and placed into "Interferon I" equipment could be kept for 7 days in suspension culture under spaceflight conditions. Interferon production could be induced in human lymphocytes by preparations of different origin, such as virus, synthetic polyribonucleotides, bacterial protein and plant pigment. An increased lymphocyte interferon production was observed in the space laboratory as compared to the ground control. A decrease of induced interferon production and natural killer cell activity was observed in the cosmonauts' lymphocytes on the 1st day on Earth after 7 days spaceflight. PMID:6659855

  7. Induction of Type I Interferons by Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Monroe, Kathryn M.; McWhirter, Sarah M.; Vance, Russell E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Type I interferons (IFNs) are secreted cytokines that orchestrate diverse immune responses to infection. Although typically considered to be most important in the response to viruses, type I IFNs are also induced by most, if not all, bacterial pathogens. Although diverse mechanisms have been described, bacterial induction of type I IFNs occurs upon stimulation of two main pathways: (1) Toll-like receptor (TLR) recognition of bacterial molecules such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS); (2) TLR-independent recognition of molecules delivered to the host cell cytosol. Cytosolic responses can be activated by two general mechanisms. First, viable bacteria can secrete stimulatory ligands into the cytosol via specialized bacterial secretion systems. Second, ligands can be released from bacteria that lyse or are degraded. The bacterial ligands that induce the cytosolic pathways remains uncertain in many cases, but appear to include various nucleic acids. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of how bacteria induce type I interferons and the roles type I IFNs play in host immunity. PMID:20482555

  8. Interferon Gamma in Successful Pregnancies1

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Shawn P.; Tayade, Chandrakant; Ashkar, Ali A.; Hatta, Kota; Zhang, Jianhong; Croy, B. Anne

    2009-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFNG) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted in the uterus during early pregnancy. It is abundantly produced by uterine natural killer cells in maternal endometrium but also by trophoblasts in some species. In normal pregnancies of mice, IFNG plays critical roles that include initiation of endometrial vasculature remodeling, angiogenesis at implantation sites, and maintenance of the decidual (maternal) component of the placenta. In livestock and in humans, deviations in these processes are thought to contribute to serious gestational complications, such as fetal loss or preeclampsia. Interferon gamma has broader roles in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to viruses and tumors, in part through upregulating transcription of genes involved in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and antigen processing/presentation. Despite this, rodent and human trophoblast cells show dampened responses to IFNG that reflect the resistance of these cells to IFNG-mediated activation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II transplantation antigen expression. Lack of MHC class II antigens on trophoblasts is thought to facilitate survival of the semiallogeneic conceptus in the presence of maternal lymphocytes. This review describes the dynamic roles of IFNG in successful pregnancy and briefly summarizes data on IFNG in gestational pathologies. PMID:19164174

  9. The many faces of interferon tau.

    PubMed

    Bazer, Fuller W; Ying, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqiu; Dunlap, Kathrin A; Zhou, Beiyan; Johnson, Greg A; Wu, Guoyao

    2015-03-01

    Interferon tau (IFNT) was discovered as the pregnancy recognition signal in ruminants, but is now known to have a plethora of physiological functions in the mammalian uterus. The mammalian uterus includes, from the outer surface to the lumen, the serosa, myometrium and endometrium. The endometrium consists of the luminal, superficial glandular, and glandular epithelia, each with a unique phenotype, stromal cells, vascular elements, nerves and immune cells. The uterine epithelia secrete or selectively transport molecules into the uterine lumen that are collectively known as histotroph. Histotroph is required for growth and development of the conceptus (embryo and its associated extra-embryonic membranes) and includes nutrients such as amino acids and glucose, enzymes, growth factors, cytokines, lymphokines, transport proteins for vitamins and minerals and extracellular matrix molecules. Interferon tau and progesterone stimulate transport of amino acids in histotroph, particularly arginine. Arginine stimulates the mechanistic target of rapamycin pathway to induce proliferation, migration and protein synthesis by cells of the conceptus, and arginine is the substrate for synthesis of nitric oxide and polyamines required for growth and development of the conceptus. In ruminants, IFNT also acts in concert with progesterone from the corpus luteum to increase expression of genes for transport of nutrients into the uterine lumen, as well as proteases, protease inhibitors, growth factors for hematopoiesis and angiogenesis and other molecules critical for implantation and placentation. Collectively, the pleiotropic effects of IFNT contribute to survival, growth and development of the ruminant conceptus. PMID:25557050

  10. Interleukin-2 treatment reverses effects of cAMP-responsive element modulator α-over-expressing T cells in autoimmune-prone mice.

    PubMed

    Ohl, K; Wiener, A; Schippers, A; Wagner, N; Tenbrock, K

    2015-07-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), are often characterized by a failure of self-tolerance and result in an uncontrolled activation of B cells and effector T cells. Interleukin (IL)-2 critically maintains homeostasis of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and effector T cells in the periphery. Previously, we identified the cAMP-responsive element modulator α (CREMα) as a major factor responsible for decreased IL-2 production in T cells from SLE patients. Additionally, using a transgenic mouse that specifically over-expresses CREMα in T cells (CD2CREMαtg), we provided in-vivo evidence that CREMα indeed suppresses IL-2 production. To analyse the effects of CREMα in an autoimmune prone mouse model we introduced a Fas mutation in the CD2CREMαtg mice (FVB/Fas(-/-) CD2CREMαtg). Overexpression of CREMα strongly accelerated the lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly in the FVB/Fas(-/-) mice. This was accompanied by a massive expansion of double-negative (DN) T cells, enhanced numbers of interferon (IFN)-γ-producing T cells and reduced percentages of T(regs). Treatment of FVB/Fas(-/-) CD2CREMαtg mice with IL-2 restored the percentage of T(regs) and reversed increased IFN-γ production, but did not affect the number of DNTs. Our data indicate that CREMα contributes to the failure of tolerance in SLE by favouring effector T cells and decreasing regulatory T cells, partially mediated by repression of IL-2 in vivo. PMID:25817470

  11. Interleukin-2 enhances the response of natural killer cells to interleukin-12 through up-regulation of the interleukin-12 receptor and STAT4.

    PubMed

    Wang, K S; Frank, D A; Ritz, J

    2000-05-15

    Interleukin (IL)-12 plays a critical role in modulating the activities of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes. In animal models, IL-12 has potent antitumor effects that are likely mediated by its ability to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and to induce the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma by NK and T cells. In addition to IL-12, NK cells are responsive to IL-2, and may mediate some of the antitumor effects of IL-2. In this study, we examine the interaction between IL-2 and the signaling events induced by IL-12 in NK cells. We find that IL-2 not only up-regulates the expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2, it also plays an important role in up-regulating and maintaining the expression of STAT4, a critical STAT protein involved in IL-12 signaling in NK cells. In contrast to the effects of IL-2 alone, expression of IL-12 receptors and STAT4 are unaffected or decreased by IL-12 or the combination of IL-2 and IL-12. Through expression of high levels of IL-12 receptors and STAT4, IL-2-primed NK cells show enhanced functional responses to IL-12 as measured by IFN-gamma production and the killing of target cells. NK cells from cancer patients who received low-dose IL-2 treatment also exhibited increased expression of IL-12 receptor chains, suggesting that IL-2 may enhance the response to IL-12 in vivo. These findings provide a molecular framework to understand the interaction between IL-2 and IL-12 in NK cells, and suggest strategies for improving the effectiveness of these cytokines in the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:10807786

  12. Blockade of interferon Beta, but not interferon alpha, signaling controls persistent viral infection.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cherie T; Sullivan, Brian M; Teijaro, John R; Lee, Andrew M; Welch, Megan; Rice, Stephanie; Sheehan, Kathleen C F; Schreiber, Robert D; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2015-05-13

    Although type I interferon (IFN-I) is thought to be beneficial against microbial infections, persistent viral infections are characterized by high interferon signatures suggesting that IFN-I signaling may promote disease pathogenesis. During persistent lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection, IFNα and IFNβ are highly induced early after infection, and blocking IFN-I receptor (IFNAR) signaling promotes virus clearance. We assessed the specific roles of IFNβ versus IFNα in controlling LCMV infection. While blockade of IFNβ alone does not alter early viral dissemination, it is important in determining lymphoid structure, lymphocyte migration, and anti-viral T cell responses that lead to accelerated virus clearance, approximating what occurs during attenuation of IFNAR signaling. Comparatively, blockade of IFNα was not associated with improved viral control, but with early dissemination of virus. Thus, despite their use of the same receptor, IFNβ and IFNα have unique and distinguishable biologic functions, with IFNβ being mainly responsible for promoting viral persistence. PMID:25974304

  13. Positive feedback regulation of type I interferon by the interferon-stimulated gene STING

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Li, Bing; Yu, Yongxin; Iyer, Shankar S; Sun, Mingyu; Cheng, Genhong

    2015-01-01

    Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an important regulator of the innate immune response to cytoplasmic DNA. However, regulation of STING itself is largely unknown. Here, we show that STING transcription is induced by innate immune activators, such as cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), through an IFNAR1- and STAT1-dependent pathway. We also identify a STAT1 binding site in the STING promoter that contributes to the activation of STING transcription. Furthermore, we show that induction of STING mediates the positive feedback regulation of CDN-triggered IFN-I. Thus, our study demonstrates that STING is an interferon-stimulated gene (ISG) and its induction is crucial for the IFN-I positive feedback loop. PMID:25572843

  14. Regulation of type I interferon responses

    PubMed Central

    Ivashkiv, Lionel B.; Donlin, Laura T.

    2014-01-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) activate intracellular antimicrobial programmes and influence the development of innate and adaptive immune responses. Canonical type I IFN signalling activates the Janus kinase (JAK)–signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway, leading to transcription of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). Host, pathogen and environmental factors regulate the responses of cells to this signalling pathway and thus calibrate host defences while limiting tissue damage and preventing autoimmunity. Here, we summarize the signalling and epigenetic mechanisms that regulate type I IFN-induced STAT activation and ISG transcription and translation. These regulatory mechanisms determine the biological outcomes of type I IFN responses and whether pathogens are cleared effectively or chronic infection or autoimmune disease ensues. PMID:24362405

  15. Phleboviruses and the Type I Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Wuerth, Jennifer Deborah; Weber, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    The genus Phlebovirus of the family Bunyaviridae contains a number of emerging virus species which pose a threat to both human and animal health. Most prominent members include Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), sandfly fever Naples virus (SFNV), sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV), Toscana virus (TOSV), Punta Toro virus (PTV), and the two new members severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) and Heartland virus (HRTV). The nonstructural protein NSs is well established as the main phleboviral virulence factor in the mammalian host. NSs acts as antagonist of the antiviral type I interferon (IFN) system. Recent progress in the elucidation of the molecular functions of a growing list of NSs proteins highlights the astonishing variety of strategies employed by phleboviruses to evade the IFN system. PMID:27338447

  16. NK-lysin, a novel effector peptide of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Structure and cDNA cloning of the porcine form, induction by interleukin 2, antibacterial and antitumour activity.

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M; Gunne, H; Agerberth, B; Boman, A; Bergman, T; Sillard, R; Jörnvall, H; Mutt, V; Olsson, B; Wigzell, H

    1995-01-01

    A 78 residue antimicrobial, basic peptide, NK-lysin, with three intrachain disulfide bonds was purified from pig small intestine and characterized. A corresponding clone was isolated from a porcine bone marrow cDNA library. The 780 bp DNA sequence had a reading frame of 129 amino acids which corresponded to NK-lysin. The clone was used to show that stimulation with human interleukin-2 induced synthesis of NK-lysin-specific mRNA in a lymphocyte fraction enriched for T and NK cells. Lower levels of mRNA were detected in tissues known to contain T and NK cells, such as small intestine, spleen and colon. Interleukin-2 also induced both proliferation of the lymphocyte fraction and cytolytic function in these cells. Immunostaining showed that NK-lysin was present in cells positive for CD8, CD2 and CD4. NK-lysin showed high anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus megaterium and moderate activity against Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Streptococcus pyogenes. The peptide showed a marked lytic activity against an NK-sensitive mouse tumour cell line, YAC-1, but it did not lyse red blood cells. The amino acid sequence of NK-lysin exhibits 33% identity with a putative human preproprotein, NKG5, of unknown function but derived from a cDNA clone of activated NK cells. We suggest that NK-lysin is a new effector molecule of cytotoxic T and NK cells. Images PMID:7737114

  17. Recombinant DNA products: Insulin, interferon and growth hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Bollon, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides the discussion of products of biotechnology of recombinant DNA. The contents include: Recombinant DNA techniques; isolation, cloning, and expression of genes; from somatostatin to human insulin; yeast; an alternative organism for foreign protein production; background in human interferon; preclinical assessment of biological properties of recombinant DNA derived human interferons; human clinical trials of bacteria-derived human ..cap alpha.. interferon.f large scale production of human alpha interferon from bacteria; direct expression of human growth hormone in escherichia coli with the lipoprotein promoter; biological actions in humans of recombinant DNA synthesized human growth hormone; NIH guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA molecules; appendix; viral vectors and the NHY guidelines; FDA's role in approval and regulation of recombinant DNA drugs; and index.

  18. Beta-interferon inhibits cell infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Beta interferon has been shown to inhibit the capacity of bloodstream forms of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, to associate with and infect mouse peritoneal macrophages and rat heart myoblasts. The inhibitory effect was abrogated in the presence of specific antibodies to the interferon. Pretreatment of the parasites with interferon reduced their infectivity for untreated host cells, whereas pretreament of either type of host cell did not affect the interaction. The effect of interferon on the trypanosomes was reversible; the extent of the inhibitory effect was significantly reduced afer 20 min, and was undetectable after 60 min when macrophages were used as host cells. For the myoblasts, 60 min elapsed before the inhibitory effect began to subside and 120 min elapsed before it became insignificant or undetectable.

  19. Enhancement of the sensitivity of the whole-blood gamma interferon assay for diagnosis of Mycobacterium bovis infections in cattle.

    PubMed

    Denis, Michel; Wedlock, D Neil; McCarthy, Allison R; Parlane, Natalie A; Cockle, Paul J; Vordermeier, H Martin; Hewinson, R Glyn; Buddle, Bryce M

    2007-11-01

    In this study, we determined if the sensitivity of the currently available in vitro test to detect bovine tuberculosis could be enhanced by adding the following immunomodulators: interleukin-2 (IL-2); granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF); antibodies neutralizing IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta); mono-methyl-l-arginine, which blocks nitric oxide production; and l-methyl-tryptophan, which interferes with the indoleamine dioxygenase pathway. Blood was obtained from uninfected control cattle, experimentally infected cattle, cattle responding positively to the skin test in tuberculosis-free areas (false positives), and cattle naturally infected with Mycobacterium bovis from New Zealand and Great Britain. Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) responses to bovine purified protein derivative (PPD-b), avian purified protein derivative, and a fusion protein of ESAT-6 and CFP-10 were measured. Mono-methyl-l-arginine, l-methyl-tryptophan, or an antibody neutralizing TGF-beta had minimal impact on IFN-gamma production. IL-2 and GM-CSF promoted IFN-gamma release whether antigen was present or not. In contrast, adding an antibody against IL-10 enhanced only antigen-specific responses. In particular, addition of anti-IL-10 to ESAT-6/CFP-10-stimulated blood cultures enhanced the test sensitivity. Furthermore, whole blood cells from field reactors produced substantial amounts of IL-10 upon stimulation with PPD-b or ESAT-6/CFP-10. Testing "false-positive" cattle from tuberculosis-free areas of New Zealand revealed that addition of anti-IL-10 did not compromise the test specificity. Therefore, the use of ESAT-6/CFP-10 with anti-IL-10 could be useful to detect cattle potentially infected with tuberculosis, which are not detected using current procedures. PMID:17881504

  20. Altered production of tumour necrosis factors alpha and beta and interferon gamma by HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed Central

    Vyakarnam, A; Matear, P; Meager, A; Kelly, G; Stanley, B; Weller, I; Beverley, P

    1991-01-01

    In vitro studies shows that recombinant tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha and beta, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) can enhance HIV replication, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) infected with HIV in vitro secrete high levels of the same cytokines. As T cells secrete all three mediators, the capacity of T cell activation signals to trigger cytokine production in PBMC from HIV-infected individuals was investigated as such patients may be immunocompromised. We demonstrate that asymptomatic seropositives in CDC group II/III as well as patients who have progressed to CDC group IV of the disease proliferate efficiently to anti-CD3 antibody, recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), PHA plus phorbol 12,13 dibutyrate (PMA) but secrete significantly (P less than 0.05) higher amounts of TNF-alpha, TNF-beta and IFN-gamma compared with controls in response to the same stimulants. We also show a difference between group II/III and group IV patients with the latter secreting more TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. The kinetics of TNF-alpha and -beta, and IFN-gamma production was stimulus dependent with overall levels varying in time for each stimulus. Furthermore, the kinetics of the response to all three stimulants were altered in seropositives; CDC group II/III and group IV patients secreted higher levels of cytokines over several time points compared to controls. The altered production of these mediators by HIV-infected patients may contribute to disease progression and to the pathogenesis of AIDS. PMID:1901776

  1. Recombinant chicken interferon-alpha inhibits the replication of exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) in DF-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Dai, Manman; Wu, Siyu; Feng, Min; Feng, Saixiang; Sun, Chao; Bai, Dayong; Gu, Mingzhu; Liao, Ming; Cao, Weisheng

    2016-08-01

    Chickeninterferon alpha (ChIFNα) belongs to type I IFNs that are important antiviral cytokines. We investigated whether ChIFNα plays a role in avian leukosis virus (ALV) infections of chickens. Firstly, we explored the immune response to ALV in vivo by measuring cytokine expression profiles in the spleens and bursas of chickens during the late stages of ALV-J infection. The results indicated that ALV-J infection could induce a mixed Th1/Th2 cytokine response by elevating levels of both interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-10. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels decreased in the spleen while interferon beta (IFNβ) and Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) expression levels in the bursa increased significantly. This indicated that ALV-J stimulates a Type I IFN response. Next, we found that different ALV subgroups or strains up-regulated chicken IFN regulatory factor 3 (ChIRF-3) promoter activity, suggesting that ALV infection could trigger Type I IFNs pathway in vitro. Accordingly, we further investigated ChIFNα antiviral effects on ALV replication in DF-1 cells by successfully expressing recombinant ChIFNα in Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain BL21. The specific activity of the purified rChIFNα protein was determined to be 4×10(7)U/mL. When added at 4000U/mL, the recombinant protein restrained ALV replication as measured by decreases in viral protein p27 levels and mRNA expression. This new reagent may be useful for prophylactic and therapeutic drug design. PMID:27372921

  2. Human Cytokinome Analysis for Interferon Response

    PubMed Central

    Al-Yahya, Suhad; Mahmoud, Linah; Al-Zoghaibi, Fahad; Al-Tuhami, Abdullah; Amer, Haithem; Almajhdi, Fahad N.; Polyak, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytokines are a group of small secreted proteins that mediate a diverse range of immune and nonimmune responses to inflammatory and microbial stimuli. Only a few of these cytokines mount an antiviral response, including type I, II, and III interferons (IFNs). During viral infections and under inflammatory conditions, a number of cytokines and chemokines are coproduced with IFN; however, no systematic study exists on the interactions of the cytokine repertoire with the IFN response. Here, we performed the largest cytokine and chemokine screen (the human cytokinome, with >240 members) to investigate their modulation of type I and type II IFN responses in a cell line model. We evaluated the cytokine activities in both IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) and IFN-γ activation sequence (GAS) reporter systems. Several cytokine clusters that augment either or both ISRE- and GAS-mediated responses to IFNs were derived from the screen. We identified novel modulators of IFN response—betacellulin (BTC), interleukin 11 (IL-11), and IL-17F—that caused time-dependent induction of the IFN response. The ability to induce endogenous IFN-β and IFN-stimulated genes varies among these cytokines and was largely dependent on Stat1, as assessed by Stat1 mutant fibroblasts. Certain cytokines appear to augment the IFN-β response through the NF-κB pathway. The novel IFN-like cytokines augmented the antiviral activity of IFN-α against several RNA viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and influenza virus, in susceptible cell lines. Overall, the study represents a large-scale analysis of cytokines for enhancing the IFN response and identified cytokines capable of enhancing Stat1, IFN-induced gene expression, and antiviral activities. IMPORTANCE Innate immunity to viruses is an early defense system to ward off viruses. One mediator is interferon (IFN), which activates a cascade of biochemical events that aim to control the virus life

  3. Axonal interferon responses and alphaherpesvirus neuroinvasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ren

    Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), typically begins at a peripheral epithelial surface and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that innervates this tissue. Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to viral invasion of the PNS. PNS neurons are highly polarized cells with long axonal processes that connect to distant targets. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which include type I interferon (e.g. IFNbeta) and type II interferon (i.e. IFNgamma). IFNbeta can be produced by all types of cells, while IFNgamma is secreted by some specific types of immune cells. And both types of IFN induce antiviral responses in surrounding cells that express the IFN receptors. The fundamental question is how do PNS neurons respond to the inflammatory milieu experienced only by their axons. Axons must act as potential front-line barriers to prevent PNS infection and damage. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, I found that pretreating isolated axons with IFNbeta or IFNgamma significantly diminished the number of HSV-1 and PRV particles moving from axons to the cell bodies in an IFN receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, I found the responses in axons are activated differentially by the two types of IFNs. The response to IFNbeta is a rapid, axon-only response, while the response to IFNgamma involves long distance signaling to the PNS cell body. For example, exposing axons to IFNbeta induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1) only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFNgamma induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated IFNgamma-, but not IFNbeta-mediated antiviral effects. Proteomic analysis of IFNbeta- or IFNgamma-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore

  4. Virus Multiplicity of Infection Affects Type I Interferon Subtype Induction Profiles and Interferon-Stimulated Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zaritsky, Luna A.; Bedsaul, Jacquelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced upon viral infection and important mediators of innate immunity. While there is 1 beta interferon (IFN-β) protein, there are 12 different IFN-α subtypes. It has been reported extensively that different viruses induce distinct patterns of IFN subtypes, but it has not been previously shown how the viral multiplicity of infection (MOI) can affect IFN induction. In this study, we discovered the novel finding that human U937 cells infected with 2 different concentrations of Sendai virus (SeV) induce 2 distinct type I IFN subtype profiles. Cells infected at the lower MOI induced more subtypes than cells infected at the higher MOI. We found that this was due to the extent of signaling through the IFN receptor (IFNAR). The cells infected at the lower viral MOI induced the IFNAR2-dependent IFN-α subtypes 4, 6, 7, 10, and 17, which were not induced in cells infected at higher virus concentrations. IFN-β and IFN-α1, -2, and -8 were induced in an IFNAR-independent manner in cells infected at both virus concentrations. IFN-α5, -14, -16, and -21 were induced in an IFNAR-dependent manner in cells infected at lower virus concentrations and in an IFNAR-independent manner in cells infected at higher virus concentrations. These differences in IFN subtype profiles in the 2 virus concentrations also resulted in distinct interferon-stimulated gene induction. These results present the novel finding that different viral MOIs differentially activate JAK/STAT signaling through the IFNAR, which greatly affects the profile of IFN subtypes that are induced. IMPORTANCE Type I IFNs are pleiotropic cytokines that are instrumental in combating viral diseases. Understanding how the individual subtypes are induced is important in developing strategies to block viral replication. Many studies have reported that different viruses induce distinct type I IFN subtype profiles due to differences in the way viruses are sensed in different cell types

  5. Cytokine therapeutics: lessons from interferon alpha.

    PubMed Central

    Gutterman, J U

    1994-01-01

    Cytokines are soluble proteins that allow for communication between cells and the external environment. Interferon (IFN) alpha, the first cytokine to be produced by recombinant DNA technology, has emerged as an important regulator of growth and differentiation, affecting cellular communication and signal transduction pathways as well as immunological control. This review focuses on the biological and clinical activities of the cytokine. Originally discovered as an antiviral substance, the efficacy of IFN-alpha in malignant, viral, immunological, angiogenic, inflammatory, and fibrotic diseases suggests a spectrum of interrelated pathophysiologies. The principles learned from in vivo studies will be discussed, particularly hairy cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, certain angiogenic diseases, and hepatitis. After the surprising discovery of activity in a rare B-cell neoplasm, IFN-alpha emerged as a prototypic tumor suppressor protein that represses the clinical tumorigenic phenotype in some malignancies capable of differentiation. Regulatory agencies throughout the world have approved IFN-alpha for treatment of 13 malignant and viral disorders. The principles established with this cytokine serve as a paradigm for future development of natural proteins for human disease. PMID:8108387

  6. Potentiation of radiation injury by interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Dritschilo, A.; Mossman, K.; Gray, M.; Sreevalsan, T.

    1982-02-01

    Interferon (IFN) is being tested clinically in the treatment of a wide range of human malignancies. Patients undergoing cancer treatment may require radiotherapy in conjunction with IFN administration. This study examined the effect of purified preparations of IFN on the radiation response of mouse Swiss 3T3 cells in culture. Cells were exposed to 10 U/ml of mouse IFN or human IFN 2 hours prior to radiation. The IFN was left in the medium for the duration of the experiment. Marked enhancement of radiation response was observed in the presence of mouse IFN as compared to human IFN or no IFN treatment. The difference in radiation response was due to a reduction in the shoulder portion of the survival curve with no change in the slope of the exponential portion. Since human IFN was inactive in these experiments, the data suggest that the potentiation of radiation damage is specific for mouse IFN. The reduction in the shoulder in the presence of mouse IFN suggests the inhibition of the ability of cells to accumulate sublethal radiation injury. Split-dose experiments to test for sublethal radiation injury repair capacity failed to demonstrate an IFN effect. We conclude from these studies that IFN potentiates radiation injury. In clinical situations in which IFN is used, careful monitoring of dosage and timing of irradiation may be required to avoid excessive tissue damage. Moreover, treatment strategies may be directed to time radiation and IFN to obtain an improved therapeutic ratio.

  7. Interferon Alpha Association with Neuromyelitis Optica

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Nasrin; Voss, Anne; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Thue Lillevang, Soeren

    2013-01-01

    Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has immunoregulatory functions in autoimmune inflammatory diseases. The goal of this study was to determine occurrence and clinical consequences of IFN-α in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients. Thirty-six NMO and 41 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients from a population-based retrospective case series were included. Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and MRI findings determined disease activity. Linear regression was used to assess the effects of the level of IFN-α on disability (EDSS). IFN-α was determined by sensitive ELISA assays. IFN-α was detectable in sera from 9/36 NMO patients, significantly more often than in the MS group (2/41) (P = 0.0197). A higher frequency of IFN-α was observed in NMO patients with acute relapse compared to NMO patients in remission (P < 0.001) and compared to the MS patients with relapse (P = 0.010). In NMO patients, the levels of IFN-α were significantly associated with EDSS (P = 0.0062). It may be concluded that IFN-α was detectable in a subgroup of NMO patients. Association of IFN-α levels with clinical disease activity and severity suggests a role for IFN-α in disease perpetuation and may provide a plausible explanation for a negative effect of IFN-1 treatment in NMO patients. PMID:24348680

  8. STAT-Phosphorylation–Independent Induction of Interferon Regulatory Factor-9 by Interferon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN)-dependent STAT1 and STAT2 activation requires specific tyrosine residues (337Y and 512Y) located in the cytoplasmic domain of IFNAR-2c, the β-subunit of the human type I IFN receptor. To identify STAT activation-independent induction of ISGs, we used a mutant cell line in which both 337Y and 512Y were substituted with phenylalanine (337F512F or FF mutant). In these cells, type I IFN failed to activate STAT1, STAT2, and STAT3 did not induce well-characterized ISGs and did not exert antiviral or antiproliferative effects. Using Oligonucleotide array (Affymetrix™) analysis, we showed that interferon regulatory factor-9 (IRF-9) was the only gene induced by IFN-β in FF cells. Transient transfection analysis using an IRF-9 promoter–reporter luciferase construct in FF cells confirmed induction of the IRF-9 transcription unit by IFN-β. EMSA analysis using an IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE)-like sequence on the IRF-9 promoter detected 2 novel DNA-binding complexes induced in nuclear extracts of IFN-β-treated FF cells. Supershift experiments identified the proteins IRF-1 and C/EBP-β in the complex. These studies provide the first evidence that signaling pathways leading to gene transcription are activated by IFN-β independent of STAT phosphorylation. PMID:20038197

  9. T-cell homeostasis in chronic HCV-infected patients treated with interferon and ribavirin or an interferon-free regimen.

    PubMed

    Hartling, Hans Jakob; Birch, Carsten; Gaardbo, Julie C; Hove, Malene; Trøseid, Marius; Clausen, Mette Rye; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2015-10-01

    Direct-acting antiviral has replaced pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin-based treatment in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. While interferon-α is immune modulating and causes lymphopenia, interferon-free regimens seem to be well-tolerated. This study aimed to compare T-cell homeostasis before, during, and after HCV treatment with or without interferon-α in patients with chronic HCV infection. A total of 20 patients with chronic HCV infection were treated with pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin, and six patients were treated with an interferon-free regimen. All patients were treated for a minimum of 12 weeks. Interferon-α treatment caused an increase in the density of the receptor for IL-7 (IL-7Rα) during treatment, while interferon-free regimens caused a decrease in IL-7Rα density. After a sustained viral response, proportions of IL-7Rα+ T cells and IL-7Rα density decreased compared to prior treatment values. Finally, a proportion of CD8+ effector memory was lower while proportion of apoptotic T cells was higher after sustained virologic response compared to prior treatment. Despite lymphopenia during interferon, alterations in T-cell homeostasis during treatment were relatively similar in patients receiving interferon-based treatment and in patients receiving interferon-free treatment, and alterations during and after treatment seem to illustrate a reduced need for high levels of T cells aimed at controlling infection. PMID:26279289

  10. Interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) results from the inability of the host's immune system to control viral replication. Interferon-α (IFN-α) therapy can convert CHB into inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 20-30% of the treated patients. In spite of the low response rate, IFN-α therapy has the advantage of having a limited duration and being effective even after therapy, as demonstrated by a much higher incidence of HBsAg clearance in responders to IFN-α than in naturally occurring inactive HBsAg carriers. IFN-α has multiple antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities and targets: cellular genes (IFN-stimulated genes) activating different pathways of antiviral defense in infected and noninfected cells, HBV replication blocking the RNA-containing core particle formation and accelerating their decay, degrading pregenomic RNA, and modulating the nuclear viral minichromosome (covalently closed circular DNA) activity by targeting its epigenetic regulation and both innate and adaptive immune response. The interference of viral heterogeneity and genetic polymorphisms of the host on IFN-α susceptibility is under investigation. Only a better understanding of the complex interplay between the different activities of IFN-α would warrant the amelioration of current therapeutic strategies and the design of new therapeutic approaches. The study of on-treatment dynamics of HBV infection by means of combined quantitative monitoring of serum HBV DNA and HBsAg warrant tailoring treatment at the single-patient level and can help to make treatment more cost-effective by using the different combinations of currently available antivirals, including IFN, more appropriately. Integrated molecular and clinical knowledge in a systems medicine fashion is mandatory to further improve antiviral therapy in CHB. PMID:25034484

  11. Neutralizing Antibodies Against Interferon-Beta

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) is a major problem in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta (IFN-ß). Whereas binding antibodies (BAbs) can be demonstrated in the vast majority of patients, only a smaller proportion of patients develop NAbs. The principle in NAb in vitro assays is the utilization of cultured cell lines that are responsive to IFN-ß. The cytopathic effect (CPE) assay measures the capacity of NAbs to neutralize IFN- ß's protective effect on cells challenged with virus and the MxA induction assay measures the ability of NAbs to reduce the IFN-ß-induced expression of MxA, either at the mRNA or the protein level. A titer of >20 neutralizing units/ml traditionally defines NAb posi-tivity. NAbs in high titers completely abrogate the in vivo response to IFN-ß, whereas the effect of low and intermediate titers is unpredictable. As clinically important NAbs appear only after 9-18 months IFN- ß0 therapy, short-term studies of two years or less are unsuitable for evaluation of clinical NAb effects. All long-term trials of three years or more concordantly show evidence of a detrimental effect of NAbs on relapses, disease activity on MRI, or on disease progression. Persistent high titers of NAbs indicate an abrogation of the biological response and, hence, absence of therapeutic efficacy, and this observation should lead to a change of therapy. As low and medium titers are ambiguous treatment decisions in patients with low NAb titres should be guided by determination of in vivo mRNA MxA induction and clinical disease activity. PMID:21180570

  12. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cindy S E; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S; Belz, Gabrielle T; Stevenson, Philip G

    2016-05-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I) limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C) increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization. PMID:27223694

  13. Type I Interferons Direct Gammaherpesvirus Host Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Cindy S. E.; Lawler, Clara; May, Janet S.; Belz, Gabrielle T.; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-herpesviruses colonise lymphocytes. Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) infects B cells via epithelial to myeloid to lymphoid transfer. This indirect route entails exposure to host defences, and type I interferons (IFN-I) limit infection while viral evasion promotes it. To understand how IFN-I and its evasion both control infection outcomes, we used Mx1-cre mice to tag floxed viral genomes in IFN-I responding cells. Epithelial-derived MuHV-4 showed low IFN-I exposure, and neither disrupting viral evasion nor blocking IFN-I signalling markedly affected acute viral replication in the lungs. Maximising IFN-I induction with poly(I:C) increased virus tagging in lung macrophages, but the tagged virus spread poorly. Lymphoid-derived MuHV-4 showed contrastingly high IFN-I exposure. This occurred mainly in B cells. IFN-I induction increased tagging without reducing viral loads; disrupting viral evasion caused marked attenuation; and blocking IFN-I signalling opened up new lytic spread between macrophages. Thus, the impact of IFN-I on viral replication was strongly cell type-dependent: epithelial infection induced little response; IFN-I largely suppressed macrophage infection; and viral evasion allowed passage through B cells despite IFN-I responses. As a result, IFN-I and its evasion promoted a switch in infection from acutely lytic in myeloid cells to chronically latent in B cells. Murine cytomegalovirus also showed a capacity to pass through IFN-I-responding cells, arguing that this is a core feature of herpesvirus host colonization. PMID:27223694

  14. The type I interferons: Basic concepts and clinical relevance in immune-mediated inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    López de Padilla, Consuelo M; Niewold, Timothy B

    2016-01-15

    There is increasing scientific and clinical interest in elucidating the biology of type I Interferons, which began approximately 60 years ago with the concept of "viral interference", a property that reduces the ability of a virus to infect cells. Although our understanding of the multiple cellular and molecular functions of interferons has advanced significantly, much remains to be learned and type I Interferons remain an active and fascinating area of inquiry. In this review, we cover some general aspects of type I interferon genes, with emphasis on interferon-alpha, and various aspects of molecular mechanisms triggered by type I interferons and toll-like receptor signaling by the Janus activated kinase/signal transducer activation of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway and interferon regulatory factor pathway. We will also describe the role of type I interferons in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and its potential use as therapeutic agent. PMID:26410416

  15. Adherence to treatment of chronic hepatitis C: from interferon containing regimens to interferon and ribavirin free regimens

    PubMed Central

    Younossi, Zobair M.; Stepanova, Maria; Henry, Linda; Nader, Fatema; Younossi, Youssef; Hunt, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Patients’ experience during treatment may affect treatment adherence. Our aim was to assess the impact of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) on adherence to different anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens. Clinical, demographic, and PRO data (short form-36 [SF-36], chronic liver disease questionnaire-hepatitis C version [CLDQ-HCV], functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue [FACIT-F], work productivity and activity impairment: specific health problem [WPAI:SHP]) from 13 multinational clinical trials of anti-HCV treatment were available. Treatment adherence was defined as >80% of prescribed doses taken. Included were 4825 HCV patients. Regimens were grouped into: interferon- and ribavirin (RBV)-containing (±sofosbuvir [SOF]), interferon-free RBV-containing (RBV + SOF ± ledipasvir [LDV]), and interferon-free RBV-free (LDV/SOF). The adherence to these regimens were 77.6%, 84.3%, and 96.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Nonadherent patients were more likely to be unemployed and to have a greater PRO impairment at baseline (up to −5.3% lower PRO scores, P < 0.0001). During treatment with interferon- or RBV-based regimens, nonadherent patients experienced lower PROs and had larger decrements from their baseline PRO scores. In contrast, there were no significant declines in PRO scores (all P > 0.05) for the small number of patients who were nonadherent to LDV/SOF. In multivariate analysis, being treatment-naive, longer treatment duration, and receiving an interferon- or RBV-containing regimen were associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (all P < 0.003). Better baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were associated with a higher likelihood of adherence to interferon and RBV. The use of interferon and/or RBV, longer duration of treatment, and lower baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were linked to a decreased likelihood of being adherent to interferon + RBV-containing or interferon-free RBV-containing antiviral

  16. Adherence to treatment of chronic hepatitis C: from interferon containing regimens to interferon and ribavirin free regimens.

    PubMed

    Younossi, Zobair M; Stepanova, Maria; Henry, Linda; Nader, Fatema; Younossi, Youssef; Hunt, Sharon

    2016-07-01

    Patients' experience during treatment may affect treatment adherence. Our aim was to assess the impact of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) on adherence to different anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) regimens.Clinical, demographic, and PRO data (short form-36 [SF-36], chronic liver disease questionnaire-hepatitis C version [CLDQ-HCV], functional assessment of chronic illness therapy-fatigue [FACIT-F], work productivity and activity impairment: specific health problem [WPAI:SHP]) from 13 multinational clinical trials of anti-HCV treatment were available. Treatment adherence was defined as >80% of prescribed doses taken.Included were 4825 HCV patients. Regimens were grouped into: interferon- and ribavirin (RBV)-containing (±sofosbuvir [SOF]), interferon-free RBV-containing (RBV + SOF ± ledipasvir [LDV]), and interferon-free RBV-free (LDV/SOF). The adherence to these regimens were 77.6%, 84.3%, and 96.2%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Nonadherent patients were more likely to be unemployed and to have a greater PRO impairment at baseline (up to -5.3% lower PRO scores, P < 0.0001). During treatment with interferon- or RBV-based regimens, nonadherent patients experienced lower PROs and had larger decrements from their baseline PRO scores. In contrast, there were no significant declines in PRO scores (all P > 0.05) for the small number of patients who were nonadherent to LDV/SOF. In multivariate analysis, being treatment-naive, longer treatment duration, and receiving an interferon- or RBV-containing regimen were associated with a lower likelihood of adherence (all P < 0.003). Better baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were associated with a higher likelihood of adherence to interferon and RBV.The use of interferon and/or RBV, longer duration of treatment, and lower baseline and on-treatment PRO scores were linked to a decreased likelihood of being adherent to interferon + RBV-containing or interferon-free RBV-containing antiviral regimens

  17. Interferons and inflammasomes: Cooperation and counterregulation in disease.

    PubMed

    Labzin, Larisa I; Lauterbach, Mario A R; Latz, Eicke

    2016-07-01

    Interferons and the IL-1 family of cytokines have important roles in host defense against invading viruses and bacteria. Inflammasomes, multimeric cytosolic sensors of infection, are required for IL-1β and IL-18 processing and release. Interferons, IL-1β, and IL-18 are also implicated in autoimmune disease and chronic inflammation. Although independent but complementary pathways induce these cytokine subsets during infection, in some circumstances the cross-talk between these key inflammatory mediators is a particular requirement for effective host defense. In this review we will summarize recent discoveries concerning the potentiation of inflammasome responses by type I interferons, particularly in patients with gram-negative bacterial infections, and reflect on the molecular mechanisms of IFN-β's immunosuppressive effects through modulation of inflammasome and IL-1β signaling in patients with tuberculosis and multiple sclerosis. PMID:27373324

  18. [Autoimmunization induced by interferon alpha therapy in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Rocca, Pierre; Codes, Liana; Chevallier, Michèle; Trépo, Christian; Zoulim, Fabien

    2004-11-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old woman with post-transfusion chronic hepatitis C who presented with a severe ALT flare up associated with a rapid progression of liver fibrosis during interferon alpha 2b therapy. Several hypotheses were considered to explain the etiology of this ALT flare: there was no viral super infection by other hepatotropic viruses, no toxic hepatitis, no metabolic disease, and no other specific liver diseases could be identified. HLA typing showed a specific profile A1 B8 DR3 (risk factor of auto-immunization during interferon alpha therapy) with antinuclear antibodies and anti smooth muscle antibodies. This case suggests that auto-immunization induced by interferon alpha should be investigated in case of ALT flare that is not followed by an HCV breakthrough. PMID:15657545

  19. Role of interferon in resistance and immunity to protozoa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Degee, A. L. W.; Mansfield, J. M.; Newsome, A. L.; Arnold, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    Production of interferon (I) in response to protozoan infection, and the interferon-mediated inhibition of parasite replication were studied in order to determine if these effects may be related to immunologic-mediated resistance of the hosts. Two extracellular parasites-Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Naegleria fowlei were used. Upon infection with the trypanosome, only resistant strains of mice produced I. An early peak of alpha/beta I is followed by appearance of gamma I, which coincided with antibody production and a drop in parasitemia. In case of the amoeba, pretreatment of its suspension with alpha/beta I inhibits its replication in vitro, and appears to protect mice from the infection and the disease. It is proposed that production of interferon, with its regulatory effect on the immune responses, may play a major role in regulating the processes of protozoan-caused diseases.

  20. Gamma interferon receptor defect presenting as recurrent tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Balasubramanian; Amperayani, Sumanth; Dhanalakshmi, K; Padmanaban, Swathi

    2014-07-01

    Failure of response to therapy in childhood tuberculosis may be due to resistance, paradoxical response or immunodeficiency. Interferon-γ (IFNγ) plays a major role during host defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). An 8-y-old boy presented with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and parotid abscess. He had been earlier treated for BCG adenitis in infancy and at 5 y for TB osteomyelitis of iliac bone and recovered. Investigations confirmed disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Intracellulare infection. He was investigated for immunodeficiency because of recurrent mycobacterial disease and a partial defect of γ-interferon receptor was identified. He required a 2 y course of therapy with a 7 drug regimen and recovered. The authors report this case because of its rarity and to highlight the need to consider γ-interferon receptor defect in the presence of recurrent tuberculosis (TB) and also review the options for therapy. PMID:23681833

  1. Recurrent Pericarditis, an Unexpected Effect of Adjuvant Interferon Chemotherapy for Malignant Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Marmoush, Fady; Shafi, Muhammad Ismail; Shah, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced pericarditis is a well-described cardiac pathology that can result from a variety of medications; however, interferon-mediated pericarditis is extremely rare. We present a case of a young female with recurrent pericarditis due to interferon therapy. The role of interferon in adjuvant chemotherapy is well known and yields good effect, but this case highlights the very uncommon phenomena of interferon induced pericarditis and the significant distress it can cause. PMID:27418981

  2. The Use of Interferons in the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, Natalie; Rook, Alain H

    2015-10-01

    Interferons are polypeptides that naturally occur in the human body as a part of the innate immune response. By harnessing these immunomodulatory functions, synthetic interferons have shown efficacy in combating various diseases including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. This article closely examines the qualities of interferon alfa and interferon gamma and the evidence behind their use in the 2 most common types of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas, namely, mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. PMID:26433845

  3. Expansion of amphibian intronless interferons revises the paradigm for interferon evolution and functional diversity

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Yongming; Liu, Qinfang; Lee, Jinhwa; Ma, Wenjun; Blecha, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines identified in vertebrates and evolutionary dominance of intronless IFN genes in amniotes is a signature event in IFN evolution. For the first time, we show that the emergence and expansion of intronless IFN genes is evident in amphibians, shown by 24–37 intronless IFN genes in each frog species. Amphibian IFNs represent a molecular complex more complicated than those in other vertebrate species, which revises the established model of IFN evolution to facilitate re-inspection of IFN molecular and functional diversity. We identified these intronless amphibian IFNs and their intron-containing progenitors, and functionally characterized constitutive and inductive expression and antimicrobial roles in infections caused by zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza viruses and Listeria monocytogenes. Amphibians, therefore, may serve as overlooked vectors/hosts for zoonotic pathogens, and the amphibian IFN system provides a model to study IFN evolution in molecular and functional diversity in coping with dramatic environmental changes during terrestrial adaption. PMID:27356970

  4. Expansion of amphibian intronless interferons revises the paradigm for interferon evolution and functional diversity.

    PubMed

    Sang, Yongming; Liu, Qinfang; Lee, Jinhwa; Ma, Wenjun; McVey, D Scott; Blecha, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are key cytokines identified in vertebrates and evolutionary dominance of intronless IFN genes in amniotes is a signature event in IFN evolution. For the first time, we show that the emergence and expansion of intronless IFN genes is evident in amphibians, shown by 24-37 intronless IFN genes in each frog species. Amphibian IFNs represent a molecular complex more complicated than those in other vertebrate species, which revises the established model of IFN evolution to facilitate re-inspection of IFN molecular and functional diversity. We identified these intronless amphibian IFNs and their intron-containing progenitors, and functionally characterized constitutive and inductive expression and antimicrobial roles in infections caused by zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza viruses and Listeria monocytogenes. Amphibians, therefore, may serve as overlooked vectors/hosts for zoonotic pathogens, and the amphibian IFN system provides a model to study IFN evolution in molecular and functional diversity in coping with dramatic environmental changes during terrestrial adaption. PMID:27356970

  5. Treatment of Hepatitis C Infections with Interferon: A Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.; Contente, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Interferons were first described in 1957, but it was not until 34 years after their discovery that sufficient quantities of it were available for treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections, Clinicians now have an excellent understanding of the basis for the effectiveness of interferon alpha (IFN-α) in the therapy of this disease. Treatment with IFN-α is more efficient when it complemented by the antiviral ribavirin and the IFN-α is conjugated with polyethylene glycol to form peginterferon. In the near future treatment of HCV with IFN-α may involve new anti-HCV agents that are currently under development. PMID:21152181

  6. The Rotavirus Interferon Antagonist NSP1: Many Targets, Many Questions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Michelle M

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of death due to diarrhea among young children across the globe. Despite the limited coding capacity that is characteristic of RNA viruses, rotavirus dedicates substantial resources to avoiding the host innate immune response. Among these strategies is use of the interferon antagonist protein NSP1, which targets cellular proteins required for interferon production to be degraded by the proteasome. Although numerous cellular targets have been described, there remain many questions about the mechanism of NSP1 activity and its role in promoting replication in specific host species. PMID:27009959

  7. Human interferon and its inducers: clinical program overview at Roswell Park Memorial Institute.

    PubMed

    Carter, W A; Horoszewicz, J S

    1978-11-01

    An overview of the clinical interferon program at Roswell Park Memorial Institute is presented. Purified fibroblast interferon and a novel inducer of human interferon [rIn-r(C12,U)n] are being evaluated for possible antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities in patients with cancer. PMID:728908

  8. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  9. Neuropsychiatric Adverse Effects of Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Raison, Charles L.; Demetrashvili, Marina; Capuron, Lucile; Miller, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Recombinant preparations of the cytokine interferon (IFN)-α are increasingly used to treat a number of medical conditions, including chronic viral hepatitis and several malignancies. Although frequently effective, IFNα induces a variety of neuropsychiatric adverse effects, including an acute confusional state that develops rapidly after initiation of high-dose IFNα, a depressive syndrome that develops more slowly over weeks to months of treatment, and manic conditions most often characterised by extreme irritability and agitation, but also occasionally by euphoria. Acute IFNα-induced confusional states are typically characterised by disorientation, lethargy, somnolence, psychomotor retardation, difficulties with speaking and writing, parkinsonism and psychotic symptoms. Strategies for managing delirium should be employed, including treatment of contributing medical conditions, use of either typical or atypical antipsychotic agents and avoidance of medications likely to worsen mental status. Significant depressive symptoms occur in 21–58% of patients receiving IFNα, with symptoms typically manifesting over the first several months of treatment. The most replicated risk factor for developing depression is the presence of mood and anxiety symptoms prior to treatment. Other potential, but less frequently replicated, risk factors include a past history of major depression, being female and increasing IFNα dosage and treatment duration. The available data support two approaches to the pharmacological management of IFNα-induced depression: antidepressant pretreatment or symptomatic treatment once IFNα has been initiated. Pretreatment might be best reserved for patients already receiving antidepressants or for patients who endorse depression or anxiety symptoms of mild or greater severity prior to therapy. Several recent studies demonstrate that antidepressants effectively treat IFNα-induced depression once it has developed, allowing the vast majority of

  10. Effect of flight in mission SL-3 on interferon-gamma production by rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, C. L.; Williams, J. A.; Mandel, A. D.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    Rats flown in Space Shuttle mission SL-3 were sacrificed after flight and spleens were removed. Cultures of spleen cells were challenged with the mitogen concanavalin-A to attempt to induce interferon-gamma. Most control, ground-based rats had spleen cells that produced moderate titers of interferon-gamma. Spleen cells from flown rats did not produce interferon-gamma in most cases, and one flown rat produced minimally detectable amounts of interferon. These data suggest that interferon-gamma production was inhibited in rats flown in mission SL-3 immediately upon return to earth.

  11. Interferon Production and Protein Synthesis in Chick Cells

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Robert M.

    1966-01-01

    Friedman, Robert M. (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Md.). Interferon production and protein synthesis in chick cells. J. Bacteriol. 91:1224–1229. 1966.—Overnight incubation of chick embryo fibroblasts (CEF) at 4 C before infection with live Semliki Forest virus (SFV) increased virus yields but decreased interferon production. The same findings were noted when CEF were incubated for 4 hr with p-fluorophenylalanine (FPA) before infection with live SFV or inactivated Chikungunya virus. In both systems incorporation of C14-leucine into protein appeared to be increased after pretreatment at 4 C or with FPA. Protein synthesis could be raised in CEF incubated in 0.5% serum after trypsinization by increasing the concentration of serum. CEF in 10% serum had higher rates of C14-leucine incorporation than did cells in 1.5% serum, but again the cells with the apparently high rate of incorporation produced less interferon. These findings may be related to the mechanism of cellular control over interferon production. PMID:5929753

  12. Interferon Gamma as a Biomarker of Exposure to Enteric Viruses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) was selected as a biomarker for viral exposure. Twelve-week-old BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally injected with Coxsackievirus B3 or B4 diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Control mice were injected with PBS only. Four months after viral infectio...

  13. Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IF stimulated ...

  14. Alpha-interferon in the treatment of nodular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Urba, W J; Longo, D L

    1986-12-01

    Patients with nodular lymphoma initially respond to a number of therapies but relapse is common and inexorable with time, and despite further therapy, most patients will ultimately die of their lymphoma. The recent demonstration of their sensitivity to alpha-interferon is promising. The importance of this human antitumor effect is that it is presumably based on mechanisms different from conventional agents. Phase I trials of various doses and schedules of recombinant alpha-interferon have shown that effective serum levels can be obtained by intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), or subcutaneous (SC) routes. Virtually all patients experienced some degree of acute toxicity manifested by fever, chills, myalgia, and headache. Tolerance usually developed to acute adverse effects within the first few weeks of therapy, regardless of dose or schedule. Fatigue and anorexia were the most important adverse reactions, occurring during the first two weeks of treatment and generally persisting for the duration of therapy. Occasional adverse effects relating to the central nervous and cardiovascular systems have been reported. Primary laboratory abnormalities observed during treatment include decreases in hematologic parameters and elevations of liver function tests. The clinical efficacy of alpha-interferon, both natural and recombinant, has been demonstrated in both untreated and heavily pretreated patients with nodular lymphoma. The response rate has approached 50% in recent studies; however, less than half were complete responders. Future directions include combination of interferon with cytotoxic agents or other biological response modifiers and use as adjuvant therapy. PMID:3541218

  15. Who benefits most from adjuvant interferon treatment for melanoma?

    PubMed

    Gogas, Helen; Abali, Huseyin; Ascierto, Paolo A; Demidov, Lev; Pehamberger, Hubert; Robert, Caroline; Schachter, Jacob; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Hauschild, Axel; Espinosa, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma has a poor prognosis; the median survival for patients with stage IV melanoma ranges from 8 to 18 months after diagnosis. Interferon-α provides significant improvement in disease-free survival at the cost of poor tolerability. Identifying patients who benefit the most may improve the cost:benefit ratio. In addition, no data exist for the role of adjuvant therapy in noncutaneous melanoma. Molecular profiles may help to identify patients who benefit the most from adjuvant interferon therapy. In this review, the American Joint Commission on Cancer 2009 staging criteria and emerging biomarker data to guide adjuvant treatment decisions will be discussed. Several criteria to guide selection of patients are discussed in detail. These include Breslow thickness, number of positive lymph nodes, whether or not the primary lesion has ulcerated, immunologic markers, and cytokine profiles. Substantial progress has been made in deciding which patients benefit from interferon-α adjuvant therapy. Interferon-α is the only agent currently approved for the adjuvant treatment of this deadly disease, despite its side effect profile. More effective drugs with better tolerability are needed. PMID:24176884

  16. Interferons and Their Receptors in Birds: A Comparison of Gene Structure, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Cross Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Wang, Mingshu; Cheng, Anchun

    2014-01-01

    Interferon may be thought of as a key, with the interferon receptor as the signal lock: Crosstalk between them maintains their balance during viral infection. In this review, the protein structure of avian interferon and the interferon receptor are discussed, indicating remarkable similarity between different species. However, the structures of the interferon receptors are more sophisticated than those of the interferons, suggesting that the interferon receptor is a more complicated signal lock system and has considerable diversity in subtypes or structures. Preliminary evolutionary analysis showed that the subunits of the interferon receptor formed a distinct clade, and the orthologs may be derived from the same ancestor. Furthermore, the development of interferons and interferon receptors in birds may be related to an animal’s age and the maintenance of a balanced state. In addition, the equilibrium between interferon and its receptor during pathological and physiological states revealed that the virus and the host influence this equilibrium. Birds could represent an important model for studies on interferon’s antiviral activities and may provide the basis for new antiviral strategies. PMID:25405736

  17. ELF4 is critical for induction of type I interferon and the host antiviral response

    PubMed Central

    You, Fuping; Wang, Penghua; Yang, Long; Yang, Guang; Zhao, Yang O; Qian, Feng; Walker, Wendy; Sutton, Richard; Montgomery, Ruth; Lin, Rongtuan; Iwasaki, Akiko; Fikrig, Erol

    2014-01-01

    Induction of type I interferon is a central event of innate immunity, essential for host defense. Here we report that the transcription factor ELF4 is induced by type I interferon and upregulates interferon expression in a feed-forward loop. ELF4 deficiency leads to reduced interferon production, resulting in enhanced susceptibility to West Nile virus encephalitis in mice. After viral infection, ELF4 is recruited by STING, interacts with and is activated by the MAVS-TBK1 complex, and translocates into the nucleus to bind interferon promoters. Cooperative binding with ELF4 increases the binding affinity of interferon regulatory factors IRF3 and IRF7, which is mediated by EICE elements. Thus, in addition to identifying a regulator of innate immune signaling, we uncovered a role for EICE elements in interferon transactivation. PMID:24185615

  18. Interleukin 2 Induces CD8^+ T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication in CD4^+ T Cells and This Effect Overrides Its Ability to Stimulate Virus Expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinter, Audrey L.; Bende, Steven M.; Hardy, Elena C.; Jackson, Robert; Fauci, Anthony S.

    1995-11-01

    The nonlytic suppression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) production from infected CD4^+ T cells by CD8^+ lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals is one of the most potent host-mediated antiviral activities observed in vitro. We demonstrate that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 2 (IL-2), but not IL-12, is a potent inducer of the CD8^+ HIV suppressor phenomenon. IL-2 induces HIV expression in peripheral blood or lymph node mononuclear cells from HIV-infected individuals in the absence of CD8^+ T cells. However, IL-2 induces CD8^+ T cells to suppress HIV expression when added back to these cultures, and this effect dramatically supersedes the ability of IL-2 to induce HIV expression. Five to 25 times fewer CD8^+ cells were required to obtain comparable levels of inhibition of viral production if they were activated in the presence of IL-2 as compared with IL-12 or no exogenous cytokine. Furthermore, IL-2 appeared either to induce a qualitative increase in HIV suppressor cell activity or to increase the relative frequency of suppressor cells in the activated (CD25^+) CD8^+ populations. Analyses of proviral levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells suggest that CD8^+ T cell-mediated lysis of in vivo infected cells is not induced by IL-2. These results have implications for our understanding of the effects of impaired IL-2 production during HIV disease as well as the overall effects of IL-2-based immunotherapy on HIV replication in vivo.

  19. BAY 50-4798, a novel, high-affinity receptor-specific recombinant interleukin-2 analog, induces dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation among unstimulated, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Lynn; Chapman, Sherita; Ramchandani, Meena S; Lane, H Clifford; Davey, Richard T; Sereti, Irini

    2004-12-01

    Interleukin-2 administration induces CD4 T cell expansion in HIV-infected patients, however, toxicity can limit dosing. BAY 50-4798 is a recombinant IL-2 analog with >1000-fold specificity for the high-affinity IL-2 receptor. The effects of this compound on unstimulated human PBMC were evaluated. PBMC from HIV(-) and HIV(+) donors were cultured in vitro with incremental doses of BAY 50-4798 or aldesleukin. CD25 expression and proliferation were evaluated with flow cytometry. Cytokine levels were measured by ELISA in culture supernatants. BAY 50-4798 induced dose-dependent increases in CD25 expression and proliferation of T cells, NK, and B cells and showed selectivity for CD4 T cells expressing CD25. Induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines was also dose-dependent and was observed at the concentrations of BAY 50-4798 with the highest biologic activity. These data suggest that BAY 50-4798 can induce proliferation of unstimulated T cells but loss of T cell selectivity and induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines occur at concentrations exerting the highest biologic activity. PMID:15507389

  20. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the fusion protein of mycobacterium heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) with human interleukin-2 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Mei; Bai, Yin-Lan; Shi, Chang-Hong; Gao, Hui; Xue, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Xu, Zhi-Kai

    2008-12-01

    Developing a new generation of vaccines is important for preventing tuberculosis (TB). DNA vaccine is one promising candidate. In this study we evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the DNA vaccine encoding the fusion protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock protein 65 (Hsp65) with human interleukin-2 (hIL-2) in BALB/c mice. We showed that the DNA vaccine pcDNA-Hsp65-hIL-2 could induce high levels of antigen-specific antibody, IFN-gamma, CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell production. When the immunized mice were infected with M. tuberculosis H37Rv, the organ bacterial loads in the DNA immunized group were significantly reduced compared to those of the saline control group, but the ability to reduce bacteria was not better than for BCG. The histopathology in lungs of the DNA vaccine immunized mice was similar to that of BCG immunized mice, which was obviously ameliorated compared to that of the saline control group. Overall, the DNA vaccine could afford protection against M. tuberculosis infection, though the protection efficacy was not as great as that of conventional BCG. PMID:19133010

  1. Structure based 3D-QSAR studies of Interleukin-2 inhibitors: Comparing the quality and predictivity of 3D-QSAR models obtained from different alignment methods and charge calculations.

    PubMed

    Halim, Sobia Ahsan; Zaheer-ul-Haq

    2015-08-01

    Interleukin-2 is an essential cytokine in an innate immune response, and is a promising drug target for several immunological disorders. In the present study, structure-based 3D-QSAR modeling was carried out via Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) and Comparative Molecular Similarity Index Analysis (CoMSIA) methods. Six different partial charge calculation methods were used in combination with two different alignment methods to scrutinize their effects on the predictive power of 3D-QSAR models. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models were obtained with the AM1 charges when used with co-conformer based substructure alignment (CCBSA) method. The obtained models posses excellent correlation coefficient value and also exhibited good predictive power (for CoMFA: q(2)=0.619; r(2)=0.890; r(2)Pred=0.765 and for CoMSIA: q(2)=0.607; r(2)=0.884; r(2)Pred=0.655). The developed models were further validated by using a set of another sixteen compounds as external test set 2 and both models showed strong predictive power with r(2)Pred=>0.8. The contour maps obtained from these models better interpret the structure activity relationship; hence the developed models would help to design and optimize more potent IL-2 inhibitors. The results might have implications for rational design of specific anti-inflammatory compounds with improved affinity and selectivity. PMID:26051521

  2. Type III interferon (IFN-lambda) antagonizes the antiviral activity of interferon-alpha in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bordi, L; Lalle, E; Lapa, D; Caglioti, C; Quartu, S; Capobianchi, M R; Castilletti, C

    2013-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-lambda) are the most recently discovered members of IFN family. Synergism between different IFN types is well established, but for type I and type III IFNs no conclusive evidence has been reported so far. Possible synergism/antagonism between IFN-alpha and IFN-lambda in the inhibition of virus replication (EMCV, WNV lineage 1 and 2, CHIKV and HSV-1), and in the activation of intracellular pathways of IFN response (MxA and 2'-5' OAS) was evaluated in different cell lines (Vero E6, A549 and Wish cells). The antiviral potency of IFN-lambda1 and -l2 was lower than that of IFN-alpha. When IFN-alpha and -lambda were used together, the Combination Index (CI) for virus inhibition was greater than 1 virtually for all virus/host cell systems, indicating antagonistic effect. Antagonism between IFN-alpha and -l was also observed for the induction of mRNA for both MxA and 2'-5'OAS. Elucidating the interplay between IFN-alpha and -lambda may help to better understand innate defence mechanisms against viral infections, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of IL-28B polymorphisms in the response to HCV and other viral infections. PMID:24382181

  3. Negative regulation of the interferon response by an interferon-induced long non-coding RNA.

    PubMed

    Kambara, Hiroto; Niazi, Farshad; Kostadinova, Lenche; Moonka, Dilip K; Siegel, Christopher T; Post, Anthony B; Carnero, Elena; Barriocanal, Marina; Fortes, Puri; Anthony, Donald D; Valadkhan, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in diverse cellular processes; however, their involvement in many critical aspects of the immune response including the interferon (IFN) response remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we compared the global gene expression pattern of primary human hepatocytes before and at three time points after treatment with IFN-α. Among ∼ 200 IFN-induced lncRNAs, one transcript showed ∼ 100-fold induction. This RNA, which we named lncRNA-CMPK2, was a spliced, polyadenylated nuclear transcript that was induced by IFN in diverse cell types from human and mouse. Similar to protein-coding IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), its induction was dependent on JAK-STAT signaling. Intriguingly, knockdown of lncRNA-CMPK2 resulted in a marked reduction in HCV replication in IFN-stimulated hepatocytes, suggesting that it could affect the antiviral role of IFN. We could show that lncRNA-CMPK2 knockdown resulted in upregulation of several protein-coding antiviral ISGs. The observed upregulation was caused by an increase in both basal and IFN-stimulated transcription, consistent with loss of transcriptional inhibition in knockdown cells. These results indicate that the IFN response involves a lncRNA-mediated negative regulatory mechanism. lncRNA-CMPK2 was strongly upregulated in a subset of HCV-infected human livers, suggesting a role in modulation of the IFN response in vivo. PMID:25122750

  4. Negative regulation of the interferon response by an interferon-induced long non-coding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kambara, Hiroto; Niazi, Farshad; Kostadinova, Lenche; Moonka, Dilip K.; Siegel, Christopher T.; Post, Anthony B.; Carnero, Elena; Barriocanal, Marina; Fortes, Puri; Anthony, Donald D.; Valadkhan, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play critical roles in diverse cellular processes; however, their involvement in many critical aspects of the immune response including the interferon (IFN) response remains poorly understood. To address this gap, we compared the global gene expression pattern of primary human hepatocytes before and at three time points after treatment with IFN-α. Among ∼200 IFN-induced lncRNAs, one transcript showed ∼100-fold induction. This RNA, which we named lncRNA-CMPK2, was a spliced, polyadenylated nuclear transcript that was induced by IFN in diverse cell types from human and mouse. Similar to protein-coding IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), its induction was dependent on JAK-STAT signaling. Intriguingly, knockdown of lncRNA-CMPK2 resulted in a marked reduction in HCV replication in IFN-stimulated hepatocytes, suggesting that it could affect the antiviral role of IFN. We could show that lncRNA-CMPK2 knockdown resulted in upregulation of several protein-coding antiviral ISGs. The observed upregulation was caused by an increase in both basal and IFN-stimulated transcription, consistent with loss of transcriptional inhibition in knockdown cells. These results indicate that the IFN response involves a lncRNA-mediated negative regulatory mechanism. lncRNA-CMPK2 was strongly upregulated in a subset of HCV-infected human livers, suggesting a role in modulation of the IFN response in vivo. PMID:25122750

  5. Differential Transcriptional Responses to Interferon-α and Interferon-γ in Primary Human Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Santosh; Ji, Xuhuai; Calderon-Rodriguez, Gloria M.; Greenberg, Harry B.; Liang, T. Jake

    2010-01-01

    Interferon (IFN) plays a central role in the innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses. While IFN-α is currently approved for treating chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C, in limited studies, IFN-γ has not been shown to be effective for chronic hepatitis B or C. To identify the potential mechanism underlying the differential antiviral effects of IFN-α and IFN-γ, we used cDNA microarray to profile the global transcriptional response to IFN-α and IFN-γ in primary human hepatocytes, the target cell population of hepatitis viruses. Our results reveal distinct patterns of gene expression induced by these 2 cytokines. Overall, IFN-α induces more genes than IFN-γ at the transcriptional level. Distinct sets of genes were induced by IFN-α and IFN-γ with limited overlaps. IFN-α induces gene transcription at an early time point (6 h) but not at a later time point (18 h), while the effects of IFN-γ are more prominent at 18 h than at 6 h, suggesting a delayed transcriptional response to IFN-γ in the hepatocytes. These findings indicate differential actions of IFN-α and IFN-γ in the context of therapeutic intervention for chronic viral infections in the liver. PMID:20038212

  6. Borna disease virus nucleoprotein inhibits type I interferon induction through the interferon regulatory factor 7 pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wuqi; Kao, Wenping; Zhai, Aixia; Qian, Jun; Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hong; Hu, Yunlong; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fengmin

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •IRF7 nuclear localisation was inhibited by BDV persistently infected. •BDV N protein resistant to IFN induction both in BDV infected OL cell and N protein plasmid transfected OL cell. •BDV N protein is related to the inhibition of IRF7 nuclear localisation. -- Abstract: The expression of type I interferon (IFN) is one of the most potent innate defences against viral infection in higher vertebrates. Borna disease virus (BDV) establishes persistent, noncytolytic infections in animals and in cultured cells. Early studies have shown that the BDV phosphoprotein can inhibit the activation of type I IFN through the TBK1–IRF3 pathway. The function of the BDV nucleoprotein in the inhibition of IFN activity is not yet clear. In this study, we demonstrated IRF7 activation and increased IFN-α/β expression in a BDV-persistently infected human oligodendroglia cell line following RNA interference-mediated BDV nucleoprotein silencing. Furthermore, we showed that BDV nucleoprotein prevented the nuclear localisation of IRF7 and inhibited endogenous IFN induction by poly(I:C), coxsackie virus B3 and IFN-β. Our findings provide evidence for a previously undescribed mechanism by which the BDV nucleoprotein inhibits type I IFN expression by interfering with the IRF7 pathway.

  7. Type 1 Interferons Inhibit Myotube Formation Independently of Upregulation of Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15

    PubMed Central

    Franzi, Sara; Salajegheh, Mohammad; Nazareno, Remedios; Greenberg, Steven A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type 1 interferon (IFN)-inducible genes and their inducible products are upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle. Of these, IFN-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the most upregulated, suggesting its possible involvement in the pathogenesis of this disease. To test this postulate, we developed a model of type 1 IFN mediated myotube toxicity and assessed whether or not downregulation of ISG15 expression prevents this toxicity. Methods Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 cell line) were cultured in the presence of type 1 or type 2 IFNs and ISG15 expression assessed by microarray analysis. The morphology of newly formed myotubes was assessed by measuring their length, diameter, and area on micrographs using imaging software. ISG15 expression was silenced through transfection with small interference RNA. Results Type 1 IFNs, especially IFN-beta, increased ISG15 expression in C2C12 cells and impaired myotube formation. Silencing of ISG15 resulted in knockdown of ISG15 protein, but without phenotypic rescue of myotube formation. Discussion IFN-beta affects myoblast differentiation ability and myotube morphology in vitro.These studies provide evidence that ISG15, which is highly upregulated in dermatomyositis muscle, does not appear to play a key role in IFN-beta-mediated C2C12 myoblast cell fusion. PMID:23750257

  8. Interleukin-2 therapy for human cancer.

    PubMed

    van Hoesel, Q G

    1990-01-01

    The concept of immunotherapy is evolving from nonspecific, haphazard stimulation of the immune apparatus to more specific and controlled manipulation of the immune system. IL-2 gives the opportunity to exert influence on the cellular immune system. Why LAK cells are able to lyse tumor cells and leave normal cells intact is not known. How LAK cells behave after reinfusion is not known; are they able to migrate to tumor sites? Can improvements be made in scheduling in order to decrease toxicity and to enhance efficacy? But first of all, the question arises whether the tremendous efforts required by adoptive transfer, in terms of toxicity, logistics, and money, are outweighed by the therapeutic results. For clinical practice inside the frontier of oncology, continuous infusion of IL-2 at an intermediate dose is a quite attractive option in finding a balance between efforts and results. PMID:2117107

  9. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-01-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells. Images Figure 1 PMID:2126252

  10. Weapons of STAT destruction. Interferon evasion by paramyxovirus V protein.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Curt M

    2004-12-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family of proteins function to activate gene transcription downstream of myriad cytokine and growth factor signals. The prototype STAT proteins, STAT1 and STAT2, are required for innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses that result from interferon signal transduction. While many viruses have evolved the ability to avoid these antiviral cytokines, the Paramyxoviruses are distinct in their abilities to interfere directly with STAT proteins. Individual paramyxovirus species differ greatly in their precise mechanism of STAT signaling evasion, but a virus-encoded protein called V plays a central role in this process. The theme of V-dependent interferon evasion and its variations provide significant insights into virus-host interactions and viral immune evasion that can help define targets for antiviral drug design. Exposure of the viral weapons of STAT destruction may also be instructive for application to STAT-directed therapeutics for diseases characterized by STAT hyperactivity. PMID:15606749

  11. The interferon response to intracellular DNA: why so many receptors?

    PubMed

    Unterholzner, Leonie

    2013-11-01

    The detection of intracellular DNA has emerged to be a key event in the innate immune response to viruses and intracellular bacteria, and during conditions of sterile inflammation and autoimmunity. One of the consequences of the detection of DNA as a 'stranger' and a 'danger' signal is the production of type I interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Much work has been dedicated to the elucidation of the signalling cascades that activate this DNA-induced gene expression programme. However, while many proteins have been proposed to act as sensors for intracellular DNA in recent years, none has been met with universal acceptance, and a theory linking all the recent observations is, as yet, lacking. This review presents the evidence for the various interferon-inducing DNA receptors proposed to date, and examines the hypotheses that might explain why so many different receptors appear to be involved in the innate immune recognition of intracellular DNA. PMID:23962476

  12. Systems biology unravels interferon responses to respiratory virus infections

    PubMed Central

    Kroeker, Andrea L; Coombs, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    Interferon production is an important defence against viral replication and its activation is an attractive therapeutic target. However, it has long been known that viruses perpetually evolve a multitude of strategies to evade these host immune responses. In recent years there has been an explosion of information on virus-induced alterations of the host immune response that have resulted from data-rich omics technologies. Unravelling how these systems interact and determining the overall outcome of the host response to viral infection will play an important role in future treatment and vaccine development. In this review we focus primarily on the interferon pathway and its regulation as well as mechanisms by which respiratory RNA viruses interfere with its signalling capacity. PMID:24600511

  13. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given – 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  14. Interferon-free strategies without a nucleoside/nucleotide analogue.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Tania Mara; Zeuzem, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    The identification of viral and host factors involved in hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication was a key prerequisite for the discovery and further exploration of antiviral drug targets. As of today, numerous direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), as well as host-targeting agents (HTAs), have been developed and entered clinical testing. The goal to omit pegylated interferon due to its unfavorable side-effect profile from novel HCV therapeutic approaches led to an expedited design and competitive conduct of DAA combination trials striving for easily applicable, all-oral HCV treatments. Approval of several interferon-free regimens is awaited in the near future (2014/2015). Results of different DAA combination trials (without nucleos(t)ide polymerase inhibitors) and trials involving HTAs are reviewed herein. PMID:24782258

  15. Successful Treatment of Provisional Cutaneous Mastocytosis with Interferon Alpha.

    PubMed

    Rosario, Andrea; Bhat, Ramesh M

    2016-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a disorder characterized by the clonal proliferation of mast cells and their accumulation in skin, bone marrow, liver, and spleen. Cutaneous mastocytosis presents in children in over 90% of the cases and any cutaneous manifestation in an adult is the earliest sign of the systemic disease. A 45-year-old patient presented with itchy dark lesions over the body since childhood and Darier's sign was positive. Skin biopsy showed features of mastocytosis and immunohistochemistry was positive for CD34. Since the patient was refractory to treatment with antihistamines and psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy, injections of interferon alpha were given - 3 million IU twice weekly subcutaneously as they have been proven to improve constitutional symptoms. Very few reports of successful treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis using interferon alpha have been published. PMID:27293273

  16. Interferon-induced 2'-5' adenylate synthetase in vivo and interferon production in vitro by lymphocytes from systemic lupus erythematosus patients with and without circulating interferon

    SciTech Connect

    Preble, O.T.; Rothko, K.; Klippel, J.H.; Friedman, R.M.; Johnston, M.I.

    1983-06-01

    The interferon (IFN)-induced enzyme 2-5A synthetase was elevated in mononuclear cells from both serum IFN-positive and -negative systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. This suggests that a much higher percentage of patients than previously thought produce endogenous IFN. These results may partly explain findings that mononuclear cells from SLE patients are deficient in IFN production in vitro in response to certain IFN inducers. Although normal lymphocytes can produce an acid-labile alpha IFN after stimulation with C. parvum in vitro, the reason for endogenous production of this unusual alpha IFN by SLE patients remains unknown.

  17. Interleukin-4 enhances interferon-gamma synthesis but inhibits development of interferon-gamma-producing cells.

    PubMed Central

    Noble, A; Kemeny, D M

    1995-01-01

    Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is antagonistic for many of the activities of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and, as well as suppressing the development of T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells, has been reported to block directly the synthesis of IFN-gamma in human lymphocytes. However, IL-4 transgenic mice produce increased amounts of IFN-gamma as well as IL-4. We have compared the ability of rat IL-4 to regulate IFN-gamma secretion in short-term cultures of spleen cells with its effect on the differentiation of T lymphocytes into IFN-gamma-producing, or Th1-type, cells. Normal rat spleen cells were stimulated using a variety of mitogens and ovalbumin antigen, with or without IL-4, for 12-24 hr and the levels of IFN-gamma in the supernatants measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results show that when normal rat splenocytes were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or concavalin A (Con A), IL-4 enhanced secretion of IFN-gamma after 12-24 hr. This enhancement was also apparent when splenocytes from animals immunized 10 days previously with alum-precipitated ovalbumin were stimulated with ovalbumin in vitro, and appeared to be mediated primarily via CD+ T cells. In contrast, when spleen cells were maximally stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin, addition of IL-4 had no effect on the amount of IFN-gamma secreted. When splenocytes were stimulated with Con A for 4 days in the presence of IL-4, and restimulated with PMA and ionomycin, IFN-gamma secretion was greatly suppressed. Our results indicate that IL-4 exerts differential effects on IFN-gamma secretion and on the development of IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes. PMID:7558122

  18. Interferon γ-inducible Protein (IFI) 16 Transcriptionally Regulates Type I Interferons and Other Interferon-stimulated Genes and Controls the Interferon Response to both DNA and RNA Viruses*

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Mikayla R.; Sharma, Shruti; Atianand, Maninjay; Jensen, Søren B.; Carpenter, Susan; Knipe, David M.; Fitzgerald, Katherine A.; Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.

    2014-01-01

    The interferon γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) has recently been linked to the detection of nuclear and cytosolic DNA during infection with herpes simplex virus-1 and HIV. IFI16 binds dsDNA via HIN200 domains and activates stimulator of interferon genes (STING), leading to TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator)-binding kinase-1 (TBK1)-dependent phosphorylation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3 and transcription of type I interferons (IFNs) and related genes. To better understand the role of IFI16 in coordinating type I IFN gene regulation, we generated cell lines with stable knockdown of IFI16 and examined responses to DNA and RNA viruses as well as cyclic dinucleotides. As expected, stable knockdown of IFI16 led to a severely attenuated type I IFN response to DNA ligands and viruses. In contrast, expression of the NF-κB-regulated cytokines IL-6 and IL-1β was unaffected in IFI16 knockdown cells, suggesting that the role of IFI16 in sensing these triggers was unique to the type I IFN pathway. Surprisingly, we also found that knockdown of IFI16 led to a severe attenuation of IFN-α and the IFN-stimulated gene retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) in response to cyclic GMP-AMP, a second messenger produced by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) as well as RNA ligands and viruses. Analysis of IFI16 knockdown cells revealed compromised occupancy of RNA polymerase II on the IFN-α promoter in these cells, suggesting that transcription of IFN-stimulated genes is dependent on IFI16. These results indicate a broader role for IFI16 in the regulation of the type I IFN response to RNA and DNA viruses in antiviral immunity. PMID:25002588

  19. Interferon-stimulated genes: roles in viral pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Schoggins, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are critical for controlling virus infections. As new antiviral ISGs continue to be identified and characterized, their roles in viral pathogenesis are also being explored in more detail. Our current understanding of how ISGs impact viral pathogenesis comes largely from studies in knockout mice, with isolated examples from human clinical data. This review outlines recent developments on the contributions of various ISGs to viral disease outcomes in vivo. PMID:24713352

  20. Interferon induces natural killer cell blastogenesis in vivo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biron, C. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Welsh, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Interferon (IFN), types beta and gamma, and IFN inducers polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, all stimulated the generation of blast-natural killer (NK) cells in mouse spleens, Blast-NK cells were characterized on the basis of size, 3H-thymidine uptake, and NK cell markers These data indicate that in addition to augmenting NK cell-mediated lysis, IFN may regulate NK cell proliferation in vivo.

  1. Randomized study of intensified anthracycline doses for induction and recombinant interleukin-2 for maintenance in patients with acute myeloid leukemia age 50 to 70 years: results of the ALFA-9801 study.

    PubMed

    Pautas, Cecile; Merabet, Fatiha; Thomas, Xavier; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Gardin, Claude; Corm, Selim; Bourhis, Jean-Henri; Reman, Oumedaly; Turlure, Pascal; Contentin, Nathalie; de Revel, Thierry; Rousselot, Philippe; Preudhomme, Claude; Bordessoule, Dominique; Fenaux, Pierre; Terré, Christine; Michallet, Mauricette; Dombret, Hervé; Chevret, Sylvie; Castaigne, Sylvie

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), induction chemotherapy is based on standard doses of anthracyclines and cytarabine. High doses of cytarabine have been reported as being too toxic for patients older than age 50 years, but few studies have evaluated intensified doses of anthracyclines. PATIENTS AND METHODS In this randomized Acute Leukemia French Association 9801 (ALFA-9801) study, high doses of daunorubicin (DNR; 80 mg/m(2)/d x 3 days) or idarubicin (IDA4; 12 mg/m(2)/d x 4 days) were compared with standard doses of idarubicin (IDA3; 12 mg/m(2)/d x 3 days) for remission induction in patients age 50 to 70 years, with an event-free survival (EFS) end point. After two consolidation courses based on intermediate doses of cytarabine, patients in continuous remission were randomly assigned to receive or not receive maintenance therapy with recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2; 5 x 10(6) U/m(2) x 5 days each month) for a total duration of 12 months. A total of 468 patients entered the study (median age, 60 years). Results Overall complete remission rate was 77% with significant differences among the three randomization arms (83%, 78%, and 70% in the IDA3, IDA4, and DNR arms, respectively; P = .04). However, no significant differences were observed in relapse incidence, EFS, or overall survival among the three arms. In the 161 patients randomly assigned for maintenance therapy, no difference in outcome was observed between the rIL-2 and the no further treatment arms. CONCLUSION Neither intensification of anthracycline doses nor maintenance with rIL-2 showed a significant impact on AML course, at least as scheduled in this trial. PMID:20048183

  2. 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in combination with transforming growth factor-β increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells through preferential expansion and usage of interleukin-2

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, Emma S; Suwannasaen, Duangchan; Mann, Elizabeth H; Urry, Zoe; Richards, David F; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Hawrylowicz, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    A high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency exists worldwide, which is associated with an increased incidence and severity of a range of immune-mediated diseases. This has resulted in considerable interest in the immunodulatory functions of vitamin D. The active form of vitamin D, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], has been shown to increase the frequency of Foxp3+ CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells when present at high concentrations or under strong T-cell stimulation in culture. Supporting evidence exists in vivo for a positive association between serum 25(OH)D and Foxp3+ Treg cell numbers in humans. The aim of this work was to identify the cytokine milieu required in vitro to promote Foxp3+ Treg cells in cultures containing 1,25(OH)2D3 at more moderate concentrations (10−7 m). Stimulation of human CD4+ T cells with a combination of 1,25(OH)2D3 and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) greatly increased the frequency of Foxp3+ Treg cells, which is proposed to result from the preferential expansion of Foxp3+ Treg cells, as compared with the Foxp3− effector T cells, in culture. The differential effect on proliferation may result from enhanced availability and usage of interleukin-2 by the Foxp3+ Treg cells compared with Foxp3− effector T cells. In summary, modulation of the cytokine environment to one high in TGF-β in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 (10−7 m) significantly increased Foxp3+ Treg cell frequency. These data provide additional evidence for the important immunomodulatory properties of 1,25(OH)2D3 that exist and may help to control inflammatory diseases. PMID:24673126

  3. Priming of tumor-specific T cells in the draining lymph nodes after immunization with interleukin 2-secreting tumor cells: three consecutive stages may be required for successful tumor vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Maass, G; Schmidt, W; Berger, M; Schilcher, F; Koszik, F; Schneeberger, A; Stingl, G; Birnstiel, M L; Schweighoffer, T

    1995-01-01

    Although both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are clearly required to generate long-lasting anti-tumor immunity induced by s.c. vaccination with interleukin 2 (IL-2)-transfected, irradiated M-3 clone murine melanoma cells, some controversy continues about the site and mode of T-cell activation in this system. Macrophages, granulocytes, and natural killer cells infiltrate the vaccination site early after injection into either syngeneic euthymic DBA/2 mice or athymic nude mice and eliminate the inoculum within 48 hr. We could not find T cells at the vaccination site, which argues against the concept that T-cell priming by the IL-2-secreting cancer cells occurs directly at that location. However, reverse transcription-PCR revealed transcripts indicative of T-cell activation and expansion in the draining lymph nodes of mice immunized with the IL-2-secreting vaccine but not in mice vaccinated with untransfected, irradiated M-3 cells. We therefore propose that the antigen-presenting cells, which invade the vaccination site, process tumor-derived antigens and, subsequently, initiate priming of tumor-specific T lymphocytes in lymphoid organs. These findings suggest a three-stage process for the generation of effector T cells after vaccination with IL-2-secreting tumor cells: (i) tumor-antigen uptake and processing at the site of injection by antigen-presenting cells, (ii) migration of antigen-presenting cells into the regional draining lymph nodes, where T-cell priming occurs, and (iii) circulation of activated T cells that either perform or initiate effector mechanisms leading to tumor cell destruction. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7777545

  4. Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Immunotherapy Does Not Improve Outcome of Patients Age 60 Years and Older With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9720

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Maria R.; George, Stephen L.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Sanford, Ben L.; Bothun, Sandra M.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Moore, Joseph O.; Stone, Richard M.; Anastasi, John; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Larson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9720 evaluated subcutaneous low-dose recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) maintenance immunotherapy as a strategy for prolonging remission in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Patients and Methods AML patients age 60 years and older in first complete remission after induction and consolidation chemotherapy were randomly assigned to no further therapy or a 90-day regimen of 14-day cycles of low-dose rIL-2, aimed at expanding natural killer (NK) cells, followed by 3-day higher doses aimed at activating cytotoxicity of expanded NK cells to lyse residual AML cells. All randomly assigned patients were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Results A total of 163 (64%) of 254 patients who completed induction and consolidation chemotherapy on CALGB 9720 were randomly assigned to rIL-2 (n = 81) or no further therapy (n = 82); the most common reasons for lack of random assignment were patient refusal and relapse. Fifteen patients randomly assigned to rIL-2 never initiated it because of refusal, intercurrent medical problems, or relapse, and 24 patients initiated rIL-2 but stopped early because of toxicity or relapse. Grade 4 toxicities during rIL-2 therapy included thrombocytopenia (65%) and neutropenia (64%), and grade 3 toxicities included anemia (33%), infection (24%) and malaise/fatigue (14%). Forty-two patients (52%) randomly assigned to rIL-2 completed the full 90-day course. Patients in both arms had similar distributions of both disease-free (combined median = 6.1 months; P = .47) and overall survival (combined median = 14.7 months; P = .61) after random assignment. Moreover, the 42 patients who completed all planned therapy did not show prolongation of disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion Low-dose rIL-2 maintenance immunotherapy is not a successful strategy in older AML patients. PMID:18591543

  5. Overproduction of human interleukin-2 in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 high-cell-density culture by the determination and optimization of essential amino acids using a simple stoichiometric model.

    PubMed

    Yegane-Sarkandy, S; Farnoud, A M; Shojaosadati, S A; Khalilzadeh, R; Sadeghyzadeh, M; Ranjbar, B; Babaeipour, V

    2009-09-01

    In order to increase the productivity of human IL-2 (interleukin-2), a stoichiometric model has been used to determine the most essential amino acids and precise values of their amounts to be added to the culture during expression of human IL-2 (as a model protein) by recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (pET21a-hil2). Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of chosen amino acids and their interactions on expression of human IL-2. Glutamine, a mixture of leucine, aspartic acid and glycine, and a mixture of leucine, glutamine and aspartic acid, were the most effective for the expression of IL-2. The most promising amino acids were then chosen for further experiments at three different levels to determine whether altering their stoichiometry can lead to better expression levels. The optimized value of glutamine in the flask was 0.316 g/l; a mixture of leucine, glutamine and aspartic acid at concentrations of 0.124, 0.316 and 0.212 g/l respectively and of leucine, aspartic acid and glycine in concentrations of 0.124, 0.212, 0.111 g/l respectively were chosen to be added to the flask. The effect of glutamine, as one of the amino acids most influencing the expression of IL-2 in batch and fed-batch high-cell-density cultures, was studied. The results revealed that the amount of expressed IL-2 compared with the control culture increased from 81 to 195 mg/l in the shake flask, 403 to 594 mg/l in the fermentor and 5.15 to 10.01 g/l in the fermentor under fed-batch cultivation. PMID:19341362

  6. Remission of liver fibrosis by interferon-alpha 2b.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    1995-08-01

    Fibrosis is a dynamic process associated with the continuous deposition and resorption of connective tissue, mainly collagen. Therapeutic strategies are emerging by which this dynamic process can be modulated. Since interferons are known to inhibit collagen production, the aim of this study was to investigate if the administration of interferon-alpha 2b (IFN-alpha) can restore the normal hepatic content of collagen in rats with established fibrosis. Fibrosis was induced by prolonged bile duct ligation. IFN-alpha (100,000 IU/rat/day; s.c.) was administered to fibrotic rats for 15 days. Bile duct ligation increased liver collagen content 6-fold. In addition, serum and liver markers of hepatic injury increased significantly; liver histology showed an increase in collagen deposition, and the normal architecture was lost, with large zones of necrosis being observed frequently. IFN-alpha administration reversed to normal the values of all the biochemical markers measured and restored the normal architecture of the liver. Our results demonstrated that IFN-alpha is useful in reversing fibrosis and liver damage induced by biliary obstruction in the rat. However, further investigations are required to evaluate the therapeutic relevance of interferons on non-viral fibrosis and cholestasis. PMID:7646558

  7. Two Modes of the Axonal Interferon Response Limit Alphaherpesvirus Neuroinvasion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ren; Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Greco, Todd M.; Diner, Benjamin A.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), typically begins at epithelial surfaces and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to invasion of the PNS. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which includes the interferons (IFNs). The fundamental question is how do PNS cell bodies respond to these distant, potentially damaging events experienced by axons. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, we found that pretreating isolated axons with beta interferon (IFN-β) or gamma interferon (IFN-γ) significantly diminished the number of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and PRV particles moving in axons toward the cell bodies in a receptor-dependent manner. Exposing axons to IFN-β induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1) only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFN-γ induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated antiviral effects induced by IFN-γ, but not those induced by IFN-β. Proteomic analysis of IFN-β- or IFN-γ-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore, unlike treatment with IFN-γ, IFN-β induces a noncanonical, local antiviral response in axons. The activation of a local IFN response in axons represents a new paradigm for cytokine control of neuroinvasion. PMID:26838720

  8. Treatment of carcinoid syndrome with recombinant interferon alpha-2a.

    PubMed

    Di Bartolomeo, M; Bajetta, E; Zilembo, N; de Braud, F; Di Leo, A; Verusio, C; D'Aprile, M; Scanni, A; Barduagni, M; Barduagni A [corrected to Barduagni, M

    1993-01-01

    The prognosis and the quality of life of patients with carcinoid tumors is related either to symptoms from the substances secreted or to progressive tumor growth. Medical treatment with cytotoxic agents is of marginal value for increasing life expectancy and reducing clinical symptoms. Recent studies with interferon have shown interesting results. In the present investigation, 22 patients with carcinoid tumors and syndrome were treated with recombinant interferon alpha-2a (r-IFN alpha-2a) at the dose of 6 x 10(6) IU intramuscularly daily for 8 weeks and three times weekly thereafter. The primary tumor was localized in the foregut (n = 11), midgut (n = 7), hindgut (n = 1), and unknown site (n = 3). Most cases had liver metastasis. Seventeen patients had elevated 5-hydroxyindoloacetic acid (5-HIAA) excretion and 5 had flushing and/or diarrhea as the only clinical manifestation. Six cases presented a complete syndrome (flushing, diarrhea and 5-HIAA excretion). Control of symptoms was obtained in 80% and a 5-HIAA level reduction in 58% of the patients. The interferon treatment was more effective for control of the carcinoid syndrome than for control of tumor growth. The treatment was well tolerated and fever, myalgia, anorexia and fatigue were the most frequent side-effects. PMID:7686766

  9. Pharmacokinetics of peginterferons.

    PubMed

    Zeuzem, Stefan; Welsch, Christoph; Herrmann, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Two polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified interferons are approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. The pharmocokinetic properties of the branched 40 kDa pegylated interferon alfa-2a differ from the linear 12 kDa pegylated interferon alfa-2b. The absorption half-life of standard interferon alfa is 2.3 hours, while absorption half-lives for peginterferon alfa-2a and alfa-2b are 50 hours and 4.6 hours, respectively. The volume of distribution for peginterferon alfa-2a is considerably restricted, while the volume of distribution for peginterferon alfa-2b is only approximately 30% lower than that for conventional interferon. Because of its large size, the 40 kD peginterferon alfa-2a has a more than 100-fold reduction in renal clearance compared with conventional interferon alfa. Clearance of peginterferon alfa-2b is about one-tenth that of unmodified interferon alfa. Although data are limited, both drugs appear to show differences in the initial viral decay pattern in patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, it remains unknown whether these differences in the initial viral decline predict differences in the primary clinical endpoint, sustained virological response. PMID:12934165

  10. Enhanced antitumor reactivity of tumor-sensitized T cells by interferon alfa

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Woude, D.L.; Wagner, P.D.; Shu, S.; Chang, A.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Tumor-draining lymph node cells from mice bearing the methylcholanthrene-induced MCA 106 tumors can be sensitized in vitro to acquire antitumor reactivity. We examined the effect of interferon alfa on the function of cells that underwent in vitro sensitization in adoptive immunotherapy. Interferon alfa increased the antitumor reactivity of in vitro sensitized cells in the treatment of MCA 106 pulmonary metastases. This effect was evident in irradiated mice, indicating that a host response to the interferon alfa was not required. Interferon alfa treatment increased class I major histocompatibility complex antigen expression on tumor cells and increased their susceptibility to lysis by in vitro sensitized cells. These results suggest that interferon alfa enhancement of adoptive immunotherapy was mediated by its effect on tumor cells. Interferon alfa may be a useful adjunct to the adoptive immunotherapy of human cancer.

  11. Production of human beta interferon in insect cells infected with a Baculovirus expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.E.; Summers, M.D.; Fraser, M.J.

    1983-12-01

    Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcNPV) was used as an expression vector for human beta interferon. By using specially constructed plasmids, the protein-coding sequences for interferon were linked to the AcNPV promoter for the gene encoding for polyhedrin, the major occlusion protein. The interferon gene was inserted at various locations relative to the AcNPV polyhedrin transcriptional and translational signals, and the interferon-polyhedrin hybrid genes were transferred to infectious AcNPV expression vectors. Biologically active interferon was produced, and greater than 95% was secreted from infected insect cells. A maximum of ca. 5 x 10/sup 6/ U of interferon activity was produced by 10/sup 6/ infected cells. These results demonstrate that AcNPV should be suitable for use as a eucaryotic expression vector for the production of products from cloned genes.

  12. Delayed Liver Function Impairment Secondary to Interferon β-1a Use in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming-Feng; Yen, Su-Chen; Chun-Yen, Lin; Rong-Kuo, Lyu

    2013-01-01

    Interferon β-1a is a widely used immunomodulation treatment for multiple sclerosis. Liver function impairment is a common side effect and usually develops in the first 6 months after interferon use. Here, we describe 2 multiple sclerosis patients who developed delayed liver function impairment 5 years after receiving interferon β-1a treatment. Their liver function recovered after discontinuing interferon use, and further detailed hepatological evaluations excluded other etiologies of liver function impairment. Our case reports illustrate that liver function impairment induced by interferon β-1a can be delayed for 5 years after starting treatment and, probably, this is an idiosyncratic reaction. Regular liver function monitoring in multiple sclerosis patients who receive interferon β is necessary even after the first 6 months of treatment, especially in those patients with concomitant use of other liver-toxic medications. PMID:23904853

  13. Mice devoid of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) show normal expression of type I interferon genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, L F; Ruffner, H; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Weissmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binds tightly to the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter and has been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs. We generated mice devoid of functional IRF-1 by targeted gene disruption. As reported by others, IRF-1-deficient mice showed a discrete phenotype: the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased and IFN-gamma-induced levels of macrophage iNO synthase mRNA were strongly diminished. However, type I IFN induction in vivo by virus or double-stranded RNA was unimpaired, as evidenced by serum IFN titers and IFN mRNA levels in spleen, liver and lung. There was also no impairment in the response of type I IFN-inducible genes. Therefore, IRF-1 is not essential for these processes in vivo. Images PMID:7957048

  14. Interferon-λ and interleukin-22 cooperate for the induction of interferon-stimulated genes and control of rotavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ines; Schwierzeck, Vera; Nguyen, Nam; Guendel, Fabian; Gronke, Konrad; Ryffel, Bernhard; Hoelscher, Christoph; Dumoutier, Laure; Renauld, Jean-Christophe; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Staeheli, Peter; Diefenbach, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The epithelium is the major entry point for many viruses but the processes protecting barrier surfaces against viral infections are incompletely understood. We identify interleukin (IL)-22 produced by group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) as an amplifier of interferon (IFN)-λ signaling, a synergism required to curtail replication of rotavirus, the leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis. Cooperation between IL-22 and IFN-λ receptors, both of which are preferentially expressed by intestinal epithelial cells, was required for optimal STAT1 transcription factor activation and expression of interferon-stimulated genes. This data suggests that epithelial cells are protected against virus replication by co-opting two evolutionarily related cytokine networks. These data may inform the design of novel immunotherapies of virus infections that are sensitive to IFNs. PMID:26006013

  15. Enhancement of antiviral protection against encephalomyocarditis virus by a combination of isoprinosine and interferon.

    PubMed

    Chany, C; Cerutti, I

    1977-01-01

    The antiviral effect of interferon against encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus infection in mice was enhanced by isoprinosine. However, the enhancement was only obtained when both interferon and the virus were inoculated into the peritoneum; the inoculation route of isoprinosone did not modify significantly the final results. In addition, the time sequence of injections was of great importance; generally the injection of isoprinosine had to precede that of interferon by a few hours. PMID:74245

  16. The effects of interferon-alpha/beta in a model of rat heart transplantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slater, A. D.; Klein, J. B.; Sonnenfeld, G.; Ogden, L. L. 2nd; Gray, L. A. Jr

    1992-01-01

    Interferons have multiple immunologic effects. One such effect is the activation of expression of cell surface antigens. Interferon alpha/beta enhance expression of class I but not class II histocompatibility antigens. Contradictory information has been published regarding the effect of interferon-alpha/beta administration in patients with kidney transplantation. In a model of rat heart transplantation we demonstrated that administration of interferon-alpha/beta accelerated rejection in a dose-dependent fashion in the absence of maintenance cyclosporine. Animals treated with maintenance cyclosporine had evidence of increased rejection at 20 days that was resolved completely at 45 days with cyclosporine alone.

  17. Erythema Annulare Centrifugum-Like Eruption Associated with Pegylated Interferon Treatment for Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Yoong, Deborah; Solomon, Robert; Ostrowski, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Current standard of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection requires the use of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin. Treatment with these two agents has been associated with numerous side effects, which frequently include dermatologic eruptions. We report a cutaneous eruption associated with interferon having clinical presentation of erythema annulare centrifugum. The eruption occurred within days of the first interferon injection and repeatedly flared following subsequent injections. Our patient was able to continue therapy without interruption, while managing the reaction with topical corticosteroid and oral antihistamine. We conclude that this is a benign cutaneous eruption associated with interferon which can be managed without discontinuing treatment for hepatitis C. PMID:25386320

  18. [Interferon status in the treatment of neuroleptic-resistant patients with paranoid schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Maruta, N A; Rachkauskas, G S; Frolov, V M; Vysochin, E V

    2012-01-01

    We studied 73 patients with paranoid schizophrenia with resistance to neuroleptics. All patients were divided into two groups - basic (37 patients) and comparison (36 patients). Both groups received traditional treatment. Patients of the basic group were treated with the combination of reamberin and cycloferon. Before treatment, significant alterations in the interferon status (IFS), which were characterized by the decrease of serum interferon (SIFN) activity and blood α- and γ-interferons (IFN) levels, were identified in both group. The positive effect of the drug combination on clinical symptoms and interferon status (the normalization of SIFN activity, increase in blood α- and γ-IFN levels) was found. PMID:22677752

  19. Effect of Interferon and Interferon Inducers on Infections with a Nonviral Intracellular Microorganism, Chlamydia trachomatis.

    PubMed

    Kazar, J; Gillmore, J D; Gordon, F B

    1971-06-01

    The effect of mouse interferon (IF) on the multiplication of Chlamydia trachomatis (strain MRC-1/G) in homologous (L-929) cell cultures and the effect of the IF inducers Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid complex (poly I:C) on the experimental infection of mice with aerosolized C. trachomatis (strain MoPn) were investigated. Treatment of infected cell cultures with IF reduced the number of cells containing chlamydial inclusions and depressed the yield of chlamydiae as determined by titrations for infectivity. Growth of chlamydiae was reduced when cultures were exposed to IF 6 or 18 hr before infection, and slight reduction of the yield was also detectable in cell cultures treated with IF at early intervals (0 or 4 hr) after chlamydial infection. No effect of IF on penetration of chlamydiae into mouse cells was observed, whether phagocytic cells from peritoneal washings or L-929 cells were used, indicating that the inhibitory effect of IF occurs after chlamydiae enter the host cell. Additional evidence was obtained that a significant effect of IF occurs at an early stage in maturation of the intracellular chlamydiae. In mice exposed repeatedly to NDV aerosols and challenged with aerosolized MoPn 8 hr after the first exposure to NDV, mortality was delayed by 2 to 3 days and lung consolidation was slightly reduced at 3 days after infection. Yields of chlamydiae from lung pools of NDV-treated mice, taken at 3, 6, and 9 days after challenge, were not significantly different from those of controls. Similar results were obtained when mice were challenged with MoPn 8 hr after intranasal injection with 100 mug of poly I:C or 24 hr after intravenous injection with 200 mug of poly I:C. In contrast, administration of 0.2 ml of NDV (10(8.3) plaque-forming units) intravenously 10 hr before or 24 hr after challenge with MoPn accelerated mortality of mice by 2 to 3 days. In all experiments, detectable levels of IF in sera or 20% lung

  20. Neo-adjuvant chemo-(immuno-)therapy of advanced squamous-cell head and neck carcinoma: a multicenter, phase III, randomized study comparing cisplatin + 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with cisplatin + 5-FU + recombinant interleukin 2.

    PubMed

    Mantovani, G; Gebbia, V; Airoldi, M; Bumma, C; Contu, P; Bianchi, A; Ghiani, M; Dessì, D; Massa, E; Curreli, L; Lampis, B; Lai, P; Mulas, C; Testa, A; Proto, E; Cadeddu, G; Tore, G

    1998-11-01

    We carried out an open, randomized, phase III, multicenter clinical trial to compare, in neo-adjuvant setting, the clinical response and toxicity of the combination chemotherapy cisplatin + 5-FU with the same combination plus s.c. recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) in patients with advanced (stage III IV) head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Regimen A was the classical Al Sarraf treatment: 100 mg/m2 cisplatin i.v. on day 1 plus 1000 mg m(-2) day(-1) 5-FU on days 1-5 as a continuous infusion. Regimen B was the same as regimen A plus 4.5 MIU/day rIL-2 s.c. on days 8-12 and 15-19. Treatment was repeated every 3 weeks for three cycles. A total of 33 patients were enrolled in the study; 30 were evaluable for toxicity and 28 for response. Seventeen patients were assigned to group A and 16 were assigned to group B. Three patients (20%) of group A and 4 (31%) of group B had a complete response, 9 patients (60%) of group A and 6 (46%) of group B had a partial response, with an overall response rate of 12 patients (80%) for group A and 10 patients (77%) for group B. Two patients (13%) of group A and 3 patients (23%) group B had stable disease; 1 patient (7%) of group A had progressive disease. Thus, there was not a statistically significant difference in response rate between the two groups and therefore there was no benefit from the addition of immunotherapy with rIL-2 to the standard chemotherapy. Both regimens were well tolerated. There were 2 toxic deaths (6.7%), 1 from hematological causes in group A and I from cardiac causes in group B. Myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity, mainly nausea/vomiting and stomatitis, were the most frequent toxicities. The calculated number of patients for the sample has not yet been reached; however, the projection of our present results suggests that it is highly improbable that a clinically significant difference between the two treatment groups will be observed even if the calculated patient sample size is achieved

  1. Spreading Depression Transiently Disrupts Myelin via Interferon-gamma Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Pusic, Aya D.; Mitchell, Heidi M.; Kunkler, Phillip E.; Klauer, Neal; Kraig, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and migraine with aura are clinically correlated and both show imaging changes suggestive of myelin disruption. Furthermore, cortical myelin loss in the cuprizone animal model of multiple sclerosis enhances susceptibility to spreading depression, the likely underlying cause of migraine with aura. Since multiple sclerosis pathology involves inflammatory T cell lymphocyte production of interferon-gamma and a resulting increase in oxidative stress, we tested the hypothesis that spreading depression disrupts myelin through similar signaling pathways. Rat hippocampal slice cultures were initially used to explore myelin loss in spreading depression, since they contain T cells, and allow for controlled tissue microenvironment. These experiments were then translated to the in vivo condition in neocortex. Spreading depression in slice cultures induced significant loss of myelin integrity and myelin basic protein one day later, with gradual recovery by seven days. Myelin basic protein loss was abrogated by T cell depletion, neutralization of interferon-gamma, and pharmacological inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase-2. Conversely, one day after exposure to interferon-gamma, significant reductions in spreading depression threshold, increases in oxidative stress, and reduced levels of glutathione, an endogenous neutral sphingomyelinase-2 inhibitor, emerged. Similarly, spreading depression triggered significant T cell accumulation, sphingomyelinase activation, increased oxidative stress, and reduction of grey and white matter myelin in vivo. Myelin disruption is involved in spreading depression, thereby providing pathophysiological links between multiple sclerosis and migraine with aura. Myelin disruption may promote spreading depression by enhancing aberrant excitability. Thus, preservation of myelin integrity may provide novel therapeutic targets for migraine with aura. PMID:25500111

  2. Acetaminophen Modulates the Transcriptional Response to Recombinant Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Aaron; Flaman, Anathea S.; Prasad, Shiv S.; Gravel, Caroline; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; Li, Xuguang

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant interferon treatment can result in several common side effects including fever and injection-site pain. Patients are often advised to use acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain medications as needed. Little is known regarding the transcriptional changes induced by such co-administration. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested whether the administration of acetaminophen causes a change in the response normally induced by interferon-β treatment. CD-1 mice were administered acetaminophen (APAP), interferon-β (IFN-β) or a combination of IFN-β+APAP and liver and serum samples were collected for analysis. Differential gene expression was determined using an Agilent 22 k whole mouse genome microarray. Data were analyzed by several methods including Gene Ontology term clustering and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. We observed a significant change in the transcription profile of hepatic cells when APAP was co-administered with IFN-β. These transcriptional changes included a marked up-regulation of genes involved in signal transduction and cell differentiation and down-regulation of genes involved in cellular metabolism, trafficking and the IκBK/NF-κB cascade. Additionally, we observed a large decrease in the expression of several IFN-induced genes including Ifit-3, Isg-15, Oasl1, Zbp1 and predicted gene EG634650 at both early and late time points. Conclusions/Significance A significant change in the transcriptional response was observed following co-administration of IFN-β+APAP relative to IFN-β treatment alone. These results suggest that administration of acetaminophen has the potential to modify the efficacy of IFN-β treatment. PMID:20544007

  3. Polymorphism in the interferon-alpha gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Golovleva, I.; Kandefer-Szerszen, M.; Beckman, L.; Lundgren, E.

    1996-01-01

    A pronounced genetic polymorphism of the interferon type I gene family has been assumed on the basis of RFLP analysis of the genomic region as well as the large number of sequences published compared to the number of loci. However, IFNA2 is the only locus that has been carefully analyzed concerning gene frequency, and only naturally occurring rare alleles have been found. We have extended the studies on a variation of expressed sequences by studying the IFNA1, IFNA2, IFNA10, IFNA13, IFNA14, and IFNA17 genes. Genomic white-blood-cell DNA from a population sample of blood donors and from a family material were screened by single-nucleotide primer extension (allele-specific primer extension) of PCR fragments. Because of sequence similarities, in some cases "nested" PCR was used, and, when applicable, restriction analysis or control sequencing was performed. All individuals carried the interferon-alpha 1 and interferon-alpha 13 variants but not the LeIF D variant. At the IFNA2 and IFNA14 loci only one sequence variant was found, while in the IFNA10 and IFNA17 groups two alleles were detected in each group. The IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles segregated in families and showed a close fit to the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was a significant linkage disequilibrium between IFNA10 and IFNA17 alleles. The fact that the extent of genetic polymorphism was lower than expected suggests that a majority of the previously described gene sequences represent nonpolymorphic rare mutants that may have arisen in tumor cell lines. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8751858

  4. Effect of space flight on interferon production - mechanistic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1991-01-01

    Ground-based models were studied for the effects of space flight on immune responses. Most time was spent on the model for the antiorthostatic, hypokinetic, hypodynamic suspension model for rats. Results indicate that suspension is useful for modeling the effects of spaceflight on functional immune responses, such as interferon and interleukin production. It does not appear to be useful for modeling shifts in leukocyte sub-populations. Calcium and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D sub 3 appear to play a pivitol role in regulating shifts in immune responses due to suspension. The macrophage appears to be an important target cell for the effects of suspension on immune responses.

  5. Regulation of Hepatocyte Fate by Interferon

    PubMed Central

    Horras, Christopher J.; Lamb, Cheri L.; Mitchell, Kristen A.

    2011-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ is a cytokine known for its immunomodulatory and anti-proliferative action. In the liver, IFN-γ can induce hepatocyte apoptosis or inhibit hepatocyte cell cycle progression. This article reviews recent mechanistic reports that describe how IFN-γ may direct the fate of hepatocytes either towards apoptosis or a cell cycle arrest. This review also describes a probable role for IFN-γ in modulating hepatocyte fate during liver regeneration, transplantation, hepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and highlights promising areas of research that may lead to the development of IFN-γ as a therapy to enhance recovery from liver disease. PMID:21334249

  6. Links between innate and adaptive immunity via type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Le Bon, Agnes; Tough, David F

    2002-08-01

    Type I interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) is expressed rapidly following exposure to a wide variety of infectious agents and plays a key role in innate control of virus replication. Recent studies have demonstrated that dendritic cells both produce IFN-alpha/beta and undergo maturation in response to IFN-alpha/beta. Moreover, IFN-alpha/beta has been shown to potently enhance immune responses in vivo through the stimulation of dendritic cells. These findings indicate that IFN-alpha/beta serves as a signal linking innate and adaptive immunity. PMID:12088676

  7. Computer simulations of human interferon gamma mutated forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilkova, E.; Litov, L.; Petkov, P.; Petkov, P.; Markov, S.; Ilieva, N.

    2010-01-01

    In the general framework of the computer-aided drug design, the method of molecular-dynamics simulations is applied for investigation of the human interferon-gamma (hIFN-γ) binding to its two known ligands (its extracellular receptor and the heparin-derived oligosaccharides). A study of 100 mutated hIFN-γ forms is presented, the mutations encompassing residues 86-88. The structural changes are investigated by comparing the lengths of the α-helices, in which these residues are included, in the native hIFN-γ molecule and in the mutated forms. The most intriguing cases are examined in detail.

  8. Duration of effect of interferon aerosol prophylaxis of vesicular stomatitis virus infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wyde, P R; Sun, C S; Wilson, S Z; Knight, V

    1985-01-01

    Mice were exposed for 8 h to continuous small-particle aerosols containing natural mouse alpha interferon (estimated dosage 100 U per mouse) or one of two concentrations of hybrid recombinant alpha interferon A/D bgl (estimated dosages of 100 and 10,000 U per mouse, respectively). On days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9 after exposure to these interferons, three mice from each group were inoculated intranasally with 100 PFU of vesicular stomatitis virus. Control mice were exposed to aerosols of saline or inoculated intraperitoneally with either natural mouse alpha interferon (350 U) or one of two doses of hybrid recombinant alpha interferon A/D bgl (350 or 35,000 U) and challenged similarly. Of mice injected intraperitoneally, only those given 35,000 U of hybrid recombinant alpha interferon A/D bgl 24 h before virus challenge were protected from pulmonary infection, compared with the saline-treated control mice. Of mice given 100 U of either interferon by small-particle aerosol, only those exposed 24 h before inoculation of vesicular stomatitis virus had reduced pulmonary titers of the virus. However, of mice given ca. 10,000 U of hybrid recombinant alpha interferon A/D bgl by small-particle aerosol, all groups except those exposed 9 days before virus inoculation had significantly reduced lung virus titers. PMID:2984982

  9. Interferon Administered in the Cerebrospinal Space and Its Effect on Rabies in Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Monto; Nash, Carolyn; Morgan, Charles W.; Armstrong, John A.; Carroll, Robert G.; Postic, Bosko

    1974-01-01

    Because combined administration of intramuscular and intravenous interferon has been partially successful in the incubationary treatment of rabies, the effect of direct interferon administration into the cerebrospinal fluid space was tested. After injecting 1,800 U of interferon into the cisterna magna or the lateral ventricle, periodic samples, obtained by cisternal taps, showed that 1 to 5% remained after 24 h, as opposed to the known clearance of interferon from the bloodstream to this level within minutes. The distributions of interferon and 131I-labeled albumin were similar as demonstrated by kinetics of clearance monitored over 24 h. Beginning with and after experimental infection of rabbits, daily intraventricular injections of one million units of interferon were given for as long as 3 weeks. Interferon was prepared from cell culture fluids after pressure dialysis and chromatography on Sephadex G-100. This intensive treatment did not prevent encephalitis, but prolonged the length of the incubation period by one- to two-thirds. The outcome after intraventricular administration was not as favorable as when one million units equally divided between intramuscular and intravenous injections were given at the time of challenge. Interferon administered in the subarachnoid space in this fashion is apparently inadequate to protect the rabbit against rabies. Its role as an adjunct measure, or other methods of administration in the nervous system, remains to be examined. Images PMID:4816460

  10. Intranasal application of alpha interferon reduces morbidity associated with low pathogenic avian influenza infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type I interferons, including interferon alpha (IFN-alpha), are expressed rapidly after viral infection, and represent a first line of defense initiated by the innate immune response. Following infection of chickens with avian influenza virus (AIV), transcription of IFN-alpha is quickly up regulate...

  11. Ribavirin Potentiates Interferon Action by Augmenting Interferon-Stimulated Gene Induction in Hepatitis C Virus Cell Culture Models

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Emmanuel; Feld, Jordan J.; Li, Qisheng; Hu, Zongyi; Fried, Michael W.; Liang, T. Jake

    2012-01-01

    The combination of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Our recent clinical study suggests that ribavirin augments the induction of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) in patients treated for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In order to further characterize the mechanisms of action of ribavirin, we examined the effect of ribavirin treatment on ISG induction in cell culture. In addition, the effect of ribavirin on infectious HCV cell culture systems was studied. Similar to interferon (IFN)-α, ribavirin potently inhibits JFH-1 infection of Huh7.5.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner, which spans the physiological concentration of ribavirin in vivo. Microarray analysis and subsequent quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays demonstrated that ribavirin treatment resulted in the induction of a distinct set of ISGs. These ISGs, including IFN regulatory factors 7 and 9, are known to play an important role in anti-HCV responses. When ribavirin is used in conjunction with IFN-α, induction of specific ISGs is synergistic when compared with either drug applied separately. Direct up-regulation of these antiviral genes by ribavirin is mediated by a novel mechanism different from those associated with IFN signaling and intracellular double-stranded RNA sensing pathways such as RIG-I and MDA5. RNA interference studies excluded the activation of the Toll-like receptor and nuclear factor κB pathways in the action of ribavirin. Conclusion Our study suggests that ribavirin, acting by way of a novel innate mechanism, potentiates the anti-HCV effect of IFN. Understanding the mechanism of action of ribavirin would be valuable in identifying novel antivirals PMID:21254160

  12. Interferon regulatory factors and TFIIB cooperatively regulate interferon-responsive promoter activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, I M; Blanco, J C; Tsai, S Y; Tsai, M J; Ozato, K

    1996-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) bind to the interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) and regulate interferon- and virus-mediated gene expression. IRF-1 acts as a transcriptional activator, while IRF-2 acts as a repressor. Here we show that IRF-1 and IRF-2 bind to both cellular TFIIB, a component of the basal transcription machinery, and recombinant TFIIB (rTFIIB) and that this protein-protein interaction facilitates binding of IRFs to the ISRE. A functional interaction between TFIIB and IRF was assessed by a newly established in vitro transcription assay in which recombinant IRF-1 (rIRF-1) stimulated transcription specifically from an ISRE-containing template. With this assay we show that rIRF-1 and rTFIIB cooperatively enhance the ISRE promoter in vitro. We found that the activity of an ISRE-containing promoter was cooperatively enhanced upon cotransfection of TFIIB and IRF-1 cDNAs into P19 embryonal carcinoma cells, further demonstrating functional interactions in vivo. The cooperative enhancement by TFIIB and IRF-1 was independent of the TATA sequence in the ISRE promoter but dependent on the initiator sequence (Inr) and was abolished when P19 cells were induced to differentiate by retinoic acid treatment. In contrast, cotransfection of TFIIB and IRF-1 into NIH 3T3 cells resulted in a dose-dependent repression of promoter activation which occurred in a TATA-dependent manner. Our results indicate the presence of a cell type-specific factor that mediates the functional interaction between IRFs and TFIIB and that acts in conjunction with the requirement of TATA and Inr for promoter activation. PMID:8887661

  13. Role for herpes simplex virus 1 ICP27 in the inhibition of type I interferon signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Karen E.; Song, Byeongwoon; Knipe, David M.

    2008-05-10

    Host cells respond to viral infection by many mechanisms, including the production of type I interferons which act in a paracrine and autocrine manner to induce the expression of antiviral interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). Viruses have evolved means to inhibit interferon signaling to avoid induction of the innate immune response. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has several mechanisms to inhibit type I interferon production, the activities of ISGs, and the interferon signaling pathway itself. We report that the inhibition of the Jak/STAT pathway by HSV-1 requires viral gene expression and that viral immediate-early protein ICP27 plays a role in downregulating STAT-1 phosphorylation and in preventing the accumulation of STAT-1 in the nucleus. We also show that expression of ICP27 by transfection causes an inhibition of IFN-induced STAT-1 nuclear accumulation. Therefore, ICP27 is necessary and sufficient for at least some of the effects of HSV infection on STAT-1.

  14. Reduction in intensity of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in mice by aerosol administration of gamma interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Beck, J M; Liggitt, H D; Brunette, E N; Fuchs, H J; Shellito, J E; Debs, R J

    1991-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS may result from impaired local release of gamma interferon from lung lymphocytes and subsequent failure of macrophage activation. We tested this hypothesis with mice rendered immunodeficient by selective depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes and inoculated intratracheally with P. carinii. After aerosol administration of recombinant murine gamma interferon, the intensity of P. carinii infection in these mice was reduced in comparison with that in mice not treated with gamma interferon. Histologic scoring of lung tissue did not reveal additional pulmonary inflammation attributable to gamma interferon. Aerosol administration of gamma interferon may reduce the intensity of P. carinii infection by augmentation of host defense, despite persistent CD4+ lymphocyte depletion. Images PMID:1682252

  15. Effect of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon-alpha/beta production by the mouse (41939)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, Andrea; Steffen, Joseph M.; Musacchia, X. J.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Mandel, Adrian D.

    1984-01-01

    Mice were suspended in a model that simulates the weightlessness that occurs during prolonged space flight. After one and two weeks of suspension in an antiorthostatic (head-down tilt) position, the mice were challenged with polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid to induce interferon-alpha/beta. Interferon production was severely reduced in mice that had been suspended. When mice were allowed to recover in cages for a week following removal from suspension, they recovered their full interferon-production capacity. Mice suspended in an orthostatic (horizontal) position did not have their interferon production capabilities affected, which indicates that stress per se was not a major component in the effects of antiorthostatic suspension on interferon induction.

  16. 78 FR 46593 - Prospective Grant of Start-up Exclusive License: Kits for the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... the Detection of Human Interferon-Alpha Subtypes and Allotypes AGENCY: National Institutes of Health...-2008/0), titled ``Compositions for Detecting Human Interferon- Alpha Subtypes and Methods of Use'', to.... This technology relates to use of kits for the detection of human interferon-alpha subtypes...

  17. Murine interferon system regulation: isolation and characterization of a mutant 3T6 cell engaged in the semiconstitutive synthesis of interferon.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, A P; Colby, C

    1978-06-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a virus-resistant mutant of murine 3T6 cells. The mutant, designated 3T6-VrB2, displays a high degree of resistance to infection by members of the toga-, rhabdo- and picornavirus classes. The level of this resistance to infection is similar to the parent 3T6 pretreated with approximately 100 lU/ml of interferon. Upon co-cultivation of 3T6-VrB2 cells with interferon-sensitive mouse cells, an antiviral state is induced in the latter cells as measured by a reduction of virus yield following infection. The nature of the induction is defined by a series of experiments using anti-mouse interferon antiserum. In the presence of this antiserum, the ability of the mutant to induce an antiviral state in interferon-sensitive mouse cells upon co-cultivation is eliminated. Additionally, growth of the mutant cells in the presence of this antiserum causes a reversal of the virus-resistant phenotype. Our results indicate that 3T6-VrB2 contains a mutation affecting the regulation of the murine interferon system such that the cell is engaged in the semiconstitutive synthesis of interferon. PMID:208779

  18. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Lazear, Helen M.; Daniels, Brian P.; Pinto, Amelia K.; Huang, Albert C.; Vick, Sarah C.; Doyle, Sean E.; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S.; Diamond, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1−/− mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1−/− mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1−/− mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis– and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)–independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. PMID:25904743

  19. Interferon-λ restricts West Nile virus neuroinvasion by tightening the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Lazear, Helen M; Daniels, Brian P; Pinto, Amelia K; Huang, Albert C; Vick, Sarah C; Doyle, Sean E; Gale, Michael; Klein, Robyn S; Diamond, Michael S

    2015-04-22

    Although interferon-λ [also known as type III interferon or interleukin-28 (IL-28)/IL-29] restricts infection by several viruses, its inhibitory mechanism has remained uncertain. We used recombinant interferon-λ and mice lacking the interferon-λ receptor (IFNLR1) to evaluate the effect of interferon-λ on infection with West Nile virus, an encephalitic flavivirus. Cell culture studies in mouse keratinocytes and dendritic cells showed no direct antiviral effect of exogenous interferon-λ, even though expression of interferon-stimulated genes was induced. We observed no differences in West Nile virus burden between wild-type and Ifnlr1(-/-) mice in the draining lymph nodes, spleen, or blood. We detected increased West Nile virus infection in the brain and spinal cord of Ifnlr1(-/-) mice, yet this was not associated with a direct antiviral effect in mouse neurons. Instead, we observed an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability in Ifnlr1(-/-) mice. Treatment of mice with pegylated interferon-λ2 resulted in decreased blood-brain barrier permeability, reduced West Nile virus infection in the brain without affecting viremia, and improved survival against lethal virus challenge. An in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier showed that interferon-λ signaling in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells increased transendothelial electrical resistance, decreased virus movement across the barrier, and modulated tight junction protein localization in a protein synthesis- and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-independent manner. Our data establish an indirect antiviral function of interferon-λ in which noncanonical signaling through IFNLR1 tightens the blood-brain barrier and restricts viral neuroinvasion and pathogenesis. PMID:25904743

  20. Interferon-Stimulated Gene 15 and the Protein ISGylation System

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxian

    2011-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is one of the most upregulated genes upon Type I interferon treatment or pathogen infection. Its 17 kDa protein product, ISG15, was the first ubiquitin-like modifier identified, and is similar to a ubiquitin linear dimer. As ISG15 modifies proteins in a similar manner to ubiquitylation, protein conjugation by ISG15 is termed ISGylation. Some of the primary enzymes that promote ISGylation are also involved in ubiquitin conjugation. The process to remove ISG15 from its conjugated proteins, termed de-ISGylation, is performed by a cellular ISG15-specific protease, ubiquitin-specific proteases with molecular mass 43 kDa (UBP43)/ubiquitin-specific proteases 18. Relative to ubiquitin, the biological function of ISG15 is still poorly understood, but ISG15 appears to play important roles in various biological and cellular functions. Therefore, there is growing interest in ISG15, as the study of free ISG15 and functional consequences of ISGylation/de-ISGylation may identify useful therapeutic targets. This review highlights recent discoveries and remaining questions important to understanding the biological functions of ISG15. PMID:21190487

  1. Exogenous interferon prolongs survival of rabies infected mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S; Roy, S; Mukherjee, S; Yadav, N; Patel, N; Chowdhary, A

    2015-09-01

    Rabies is an acute viral infection that causes encephalomyelitis in almost all warm blooded animals and is invariably fatal once the clinical signs appear. The present study was carried out to assess the effect of recombinant human interferon alpha (rhIFN α-2A) treatment on the survival of rabies infected mice and its correlation with cytokines expression. The gene expression of TNF-α and IL-6 was measured by SYBR Green Real Time PCR for two groups-"Pre-exposure" (mice were inoculated with rhIFN α-2A prior to rabies infection) and "Post-exposure" (mice were inoculated with rhIFN α-2A post rabies virus infection). Delayed mortality was observed in interferon treated infected groups. In addition, statistically significant decrease (P < 0.0001) in the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 was observed, both in the pre-exposure and post-exposure groups. These findings indicate that modulation of cytokine secretion using exogenous biologicals such as rhIFN may offer novel therapeutic approaches to treat diseases such as rabies. PMID:26396983

  2. Interferon but not MxB inhibits foamy retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Bähr, Ariane; Singer, Anna; Hain, Anika; Vasudevan, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva; Schilling, Mirjam; Reh, Juliane; Riess, Maximilian; Panitz, Sylvia; Serrano, Vanessa; Schweizer, Matthias; König, Renate; Chanda, Sumit; Häussinger, Dieter; Kochs, Georg; Lindemann, Dirk; Münk, Carsten

    2016-01-15

    Foamy viruses (FV) are retroviruses that are widely distributed in primate and non-primate animal species. We tested here FV with capsids of simian and non-simian origin for sensitivity to interferon-β (IFN-β). Our data show significant inhibition of FV by IFN-β early in infection of human HOS and THP-1 but not of HEK293T cells. The post-entry restriction of FV was not mediated by the interferon-induced MxB protein that was recently identified as a capsid-interacting restriction factor targeting Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) before integration. Neither the ectopic expression of MxA or MxB in HEK293T cells nor the lack of MxB expression in CRISPR/CAS MxB THP-1 knockout cells impacted the infection of the tested FV. IFN-β treated THP-1 and THP-1 KO MxB cells showed the same extend of restriction to FV. Together, the data demonstrate that IFN-β inhibits FV early in infection and that MxB is not a restriction factor of FV. PMID:26609934

  3. Interferon Gamma Receptor: The Beginning of the Journey

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Cédric M.; Lamaze, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Our view of endocytosis and membrane trafficking of transmembrane receptors has dramatically changed over the last 20 years. Several new endocytic routes have been discovered and mechanistically characterized in mammalian cells. Long considered as a passive means to terminate signaling through down-regulation of the number of activated receptors at the plasma membrane, it is now established that receptor endocytosis and endosomal sorting can be directly linked to the regulation of intracellular signaling pathways. The functional links between membrane trafficking of interferon receptors and JAK/STAT signaling have recently begun to be unraveled. These studies raise the exciting possibility that a certain level of signal specificity can be achieved through endocytosis and selective localization of the activated complexes within cellular membranes. The ongoing development of high-resolution cell imaging techniques with better spatial and temporal resolution gives new means of deciphering the inherent complexity of membrane trafficking and signaling. This should help to better comprehend the molecular mechanisms by which endocytosis and endosomal sorting of interferon receptors can orchestrate signaling selectivity within the JAK/STAT pathway that can be activated by as many as 60 different cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. PMID:24027571

  4. Interferons Mediate Terminal Differentiation of Human Cortical Thymic Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vidalain, Pierre-Olivier; Laine, David; Zaffran, Yona; Azocar, Olga; Servet-Delprat, Christine; Wild, T. Fabian; Rabourdin-Combe, Chantal; Valentin, Hélène

    2002-01-01

    In the thymus, epithelial cells comprise a heterogeneous population required for the generation of functional T lymphocytes, suggesting that thymic epithelium disruption by viruses may compromise T-cell lymphopoiesis in this organ. In a previous report, we demonstrated that in vitro, measles virus induced differentiation of cortical thymic epithelial cells as characterized by (i) cell growth arrest, (ii) morphological and phenotypic changes, and (iii) apoptotis as a final step of this process. In the present report, we have analyzed the mechanisms involved. First, measles virus-induced differentiation of thymic epithelial cells is shown to be strictly dependent on beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion. In addition, transfection with double-stranded RNA, a common intermediate of replication for a broad spectrum of viruses, is reported to similarly mediate thymic epithelial cell differentiation through IFN-β induction. Finally, we demonstrated that recombinant IFN-α, IFN-β, or IFN-γ was sufficient to induce differentiation and apoptosis of uninfected thymic epithelial cells. These observations suggested that interferon secretion by either infected cells or activated leukocytes, such as plasmacytoid dendritic cells or lymphocytes, may induce thymic epithelium disruption in a pathological context. Thus, we have identified a new mechanism that may contribute to thymic atrophy and altered T-cell lymphopoiesis associated with many infections. PMID:12050353

  5. Response of differentiated but not anaplastic teratoma to interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Rustin, G. J.; Kaye, S. B.; Williams, C. J.; Newlands, E. S.; Bagshawe, K. D.; Toy, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    A Phase 2 trial was conducted using intramuscular lymphoblastoid interferon (IFN, Wellcome Research Laboratories), 4 MU per day, in 10 patients with chemotherapy-resistant teratomas. There was stabilisation of disease in 2 patients both of whom were in retrospect considered to have had differentiated teratoma at the time of IFN administration. There was progression of presumed active anaplastic germ cell tumour in 8 patients. One of these patients, a 15-year-old boy with biopsy proven differentiated teratoma has received 2 courses of lymphoblastoid IFN and 1 course of recombinant leukocyte A IFN (Roche Products Ltd.) lasting 5 1/2, 8 and 8+ months respectively. He has had a mixed response in his differentiated tumour which on each occasion has been maintained for the duration that he received IFN. Rising HCG levels during his second course of interferon required additional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Lymphoblastoid IFN does not appear to be active against anaplastic germ cell tumours but both lymphoblastoid and recombinant leukocyte A IFN may be useful in the treatment of unresectable differentiated teratoma. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6498061

  6. The HIN-200 family: More than interferon-inducible genes?

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlow, Louise E.A.; Johnstone, Ricky W.; Clarke, Christopher J.P. . E-mail: chris.clarke@petermac.org

    2005-08-01

    The HIN-200 family was initially grouped together based on their hemopoietic expression, interferon-inducibility, nuclear localization, and characteristic 200 amino-acid domains. In this review, we performed a comprehensive search of genome databases and determined the location of previously characterized and predicted genes within the human, mouse, and rat HIN-200 loci. Several novel proteins were predicted in the mouse and rat. We also discuss recent advances in our understanding of this family of proteins and highlight the most important findings. In addition to a role in interferon biology, there is now good evidence supporting a role for these proteins as regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. The activity of HIN-200 proteins is not restricted to the hemopoietic system as they are expressed and can function in a variety of other cells and tissues. The importance of HIN-200 proteins in disease now is beginning to be understood as they appear to be involved in autoimmunity and may act as tumor suppressor proteins.

  7. Interleukins, interferons, and establishment of pregnancy in pigs.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Daniel J; Lucy, Matthew C; D Geisert, Rodney

    2016-06-01

    Early pregnancy in mammals requires complex and highly orchestrated cellular and molecular interactions between specialized cells within the endometrium and the conceptus. Proinflammatory cytokines are small signaling proteins released by leukocytes that augment innate and adaptive immune responses. They are also released by the mammalian trophectoderm as the conceptus apposes the uterine surface for implantation. On approximately day 12 of development in pigs, the conceptus undergoes a rapid morphological transformation referred to as elongation while simultaneously releasing estrogens and a novel conceptus form of interleukin-1 beta (IL1β). Following elongation, pig conceptuses express interferon gamma (IFNγ) and, in lesser amounts, interferon delta (IFNδ). Significant IFN signaling takes place within the endometrium between day 14 and 18 of pregnancy as the conceptus intimately associates with the uterine epithelium. Based on studies carried out in pigs and other mammals, the combined spacio-temporal activities of conceptus estrogens, IL1β, and IFN set in motion a series of coordinated events that promote establishment of pregnancy. This is achieved through enhancement of conceptus development, uterine receptivity, maternal-fetal hemotropic exchange, and endometrial leukocyte function. These events require activation of specific signaling pathways within the uterine luminal epithelium, glandular epithelium, and stroma. Here, we review proinflammatory cytokine expression by pig conceptuses and the hypothesized actions of these molecules during establishment of pregnancy. PMID:27001998

  8. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  9. Interferon Lambda: A New Sword in Cancer Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lasfar, Ahmed; Abushahba, Walid; Balan, Murugabaskar; Cohen-Solal, Karine A.

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of the interferon-lambda (IFN-λ) family has considerably contributed to our understanding of the role of interferon not only in viral infections but also in cancer. IFN-λ proteins belong to the new type III IFN group. Type III IFN is structurally similar to type II IFN (IFN-γ) but functionally identical to type I IFN (IFN-α/β). However, in contrast to type I or type II IFNs, the response to type III IFN is highly cell-type specific. Only epithelial-like cells and to a lesser extent some immune cells respond to IFN-λ. This particular pattern of response is controlled by the differential expression of the IFN-λ receptor, which, in contrast to IFN-α, should result in limited side effects in patients. Recently, we and other groups have shown in several animal models a potent antitumor role of IFN-λ that will open a new challenging era for the current IFN therapy. PMID:22190970

  10. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  11. Type I interferon signaling protects mice from lethal henipavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Dhondt, Kévin P; Mathieu, Cyrille; Chalons, Marie; Reynaud, Joséphine M; Vallve, Audrey; Raoul, Hervé; Horvat, Branka

    2013-01-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are closely related, recently emerged paramyxoviruses that form Henipavirus genus and are capable of causing considerable morbidity and mortality in a number of mammalian species, including humans. However, in contrast to many other species and despite expression of functional virus entry receptors, mice are resistant to henipavirus infection. We report here the susceptibility of mice deleted for the type I interferon receptor (IFNAR-KO) to both HeV and NiV. Intraperitoneally infected mice developed fatal encephalitis, with pathology and immunohistochemical features similar to what was found in humans. Viral RNA was found in the majority of analyzed organs, and sublethally infected animals developed virus-specific neutralizing antibodies. Altogether, these results reveal IFNAR-KO mice as a new small animal model to study HeV and NiV pathogenesis, prophylaxis, and treatment and suggest the critical role of type I interferon signaling in the control of henipavirus infection. PMID:23089589

  12. Interferon action on parental Semliki forest virus ribonucleic acid.

    PubMed

    Friedman, R M; Fantes, K H; Levy, H B; Carter, W B

    1967-12-01

    Actinomycin D-treated chick fibroblasts were infected with purified (32)P-labeled Semliki forest virus, and ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted after 1 or 2 hr. Within 1 hr, viral RNA forms sedimenting in sucrose gradients at 42S, 30S, and 16S were present. The 42S form corresponded to the RNA of the virion. The 16S form appeared to be a double-stranded template for the formation of new viral RNA, since nascent RNA was associated with it and the molecule could be heat-denatured and subsequently reannealed by slow cooling. Interferon treatment before infection, or puromycin (50 mug/ml) or cycloheximide (200 mug/ml) added at the time of virus infection, had no effect on the formation of the 30S RNA but inhibited the production of the 16S form. Several findings made it unlikely that these results were due to breakdown of parental RNA and reincorporation of (32)P into progeny structures. The results suggested that the mechanism of interferon action involves inhibition of protein synthesis by parental viral RNA, since a specific viral RNA polymerase had previously been demonstrated to be necessary for production of 16S RNA. No protein synthesis appears necessary for formation of 30S RNA from parental virus RNA. PMID:5621488

  13. Hepatitis B, interferon, and acne fulminans in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sandeep; Malik, Ajay; Kumar, Dharmendra; Sodhi, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Acne fulminans (AF) is a very rare severe form of acne seen in young males, characterized by a sudden and explosive onset of hemorrhagic pustules and ulceration on the trunk, systemic features in the form of fever, polyarthropathy, malaise, erythema nodosum and painful osteolytic bone involvement with leukocytosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Conventional treatment of AF includes corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents for the initial phase followed by isotretinoin. Active hepatitis B infection with a high viral load precludes the administration of any immunosuppressive drugs. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl with a history of occasional acne who presented with AF of sudden onset following administration of interferon-alpha-2a for her recently detected hepatitis B infection. Management of hepatitis B was withheld in view of her general condition. The patient was managed with low dose isotretinoin with subsidence of lesions. AF in a young female precipitated by interferon and its management with isotretinoin in the presence of active hepatitis B infection make the case unique. PMID:27057488

  14. Costimulation by B7-1 and LFA-3 targets distinct nuclear factors that bind to the interleukin-2 promoter: B7-1 negatively regulates LFA-3-induced NF-AT DNA binding.

    PubMed Central

    Parra, E; Varga, M; Hedlund, G; Kalland, T; Dohlsten, M

    1997-01-01

    We have characterized the regulation of nuclear factors involved in transcriptional control of the interleukin-2 (IL-2) promoter-enhancer activity in Jurkat T cells stimulated with superantigen presented on HLA-DR transfectants combined with the ligands LFA-3 (CD58) and B7-1 (CD80). Gel shift analyses showed that NF-AT was strongly induced in LFA-3-costimulated Jurkat T cells, suggesting that NF-AT is a key target nuclear factor for the CD2-LFA-3 pathway. Studies using HLA-DR-B7-1-LFA-3 triple transfectants showed that the LFA-3-induced NF-AT DNA binding activity was negatively regulated by B7-1 costimulation. In contrast, induction of a CD28 response complex containing only c-Rel proteins was seen after B7-1 costimulation. Both LFA-3 costimulation and B7-1 costimulation induced the AP-1 and NF-kappaB nuclear factors. Distinct compositions of the NF-AT complexes were seen in B7-1- and LFA-3-costimulated cells. LFA-3 induced primarily Jun-D, Fra-1, and Fra-2, while B7-1 induced June-D-Fos complexes. In contrast, AP-1 and NF-kappaB complexes induced in B7-1- and LFA-3-costimulated T cells showed similar contents. Transient transfection of Jurkat T cells with a construct encoding the IL-2 enhancer-promoter region (position -500 to +60) linked to a luciferase reporter gene revealed that B7-1 costimulation was required to induce strong transcriptional activity. Combined B7-1-LFA-3 costimulation resulted in a synergistic increase in IL-2 transcriptional activity. Multimers of the AP-1, NF-AT, NF-kappaB, and CD28 response elements showed distinct kinetics and activity after LFA-3 and B7-1 costimulation and revealed that B7-1 and LFA-3 converge to superinduce transcriptional activity of the AP-1, NF-AT, and CD28 response elements. Transcriptional studies with an IL-2 enhancer-promoter carrying a mutation in the CD28 response element site revealed that the activity was reduced by 80% after B7-1 and B7-1-LFA-3 costimulation whereas the transcriptional activity induced by LFA

  15. Interleukin-2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in human corticotrophic adenoma and murine pituitary cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Arzt, E; Stelzer, G; Renner, U; Lange, M; Müller, O A; Stalla, G K

    1992-01-01

    The production of IL-1 and IL-6 by pituitary cells has recently been demonstrated. In this study we investigated the expression of IL-2 and its receptor (IL-2R) by pituitary cells of different species. In Northern blots, a single hybridizing band of 1 kb, identical to that in normal stimulated lymphocytes, was obtained with specific IL-2 probes. In the mouse AT-20 pituitary tumor cell line, IL-2 mRNA expression was detected after stimulation with corticotropin-releasing hormone or phorbol myristate acetate. In human corticotrophic adenoma cells, basal IL-2 mRNA expression as well as IL-2 secretion were further stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. Both adenoma and AtT-20 cells showed detectable amounts of IL-2R mRNA and by immunofluorescence, IL-2R membrane expression. In addition, dual immunofluorescence studies in rat anterior pituitary cells demonstrated colocalization of IL-2R with ACTH-positive cells and other cell types expressing the receptor. In addition to the action of lymphocyte-produced IL-2, this cytokine may have a paracrine or autocrine regulatory role within the pituitary. It remains to be established whether IL-2 production occurs in the normal pituitary or is intrinsic to the process of tumor development of these cells. IL-2 may be involved in the growth control of pituitary cells. Images PMID:1331177

  16. Concentration-guided ribavirin dosing with darbepoetin support and peg-IFN alfa-2a for treatment of hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ackefors, M; Gjertsen, H; Wernerson, A; Weiland, O

    2012-09-01

    Relapse of hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation is universal. Standard-of-care (SOC) treatment for relapse offers less satisfactory treatment response than in nontransplanted patients. Tolerance for treatment is suboptimal and withdrawals owing to adverse events induced by treatment frequent. To improve tolerance for SOC, and ribavirin (RBV) in particular, concentration-guided RBV dosing calculated by a formula taking renal function and weight into consideration was utilized. A serum RBV concentration of 10 μm was set as the goal. All patients were given maintenance darbepoetin therapy from 2 weeks prior to initiation of treatment. In total, 21 patients with a mean age of 52 (range 25-64) years were included. The mean RBV concentration at week 4 was 10.2 and 7.36 μm in genotype 1/4 and non-1/4 patients, respectively, and 11.7 and 9.42 at week 12. The mean haemoglobin drop was 25 g/L vs 21 g/L in the genotype 1/4 and non-1/4 group, respectively, a nonsignificant difference. With this treatment approach, 80-90% of patients could be kept adherent to treatment. Sustained viral response was achieved 8/16 (50%) with low-grade fibrosis (fibrosis stage ≤ 2) vs in none of five patients with advanced fibrosis (Fibrosis stage 3 and 4), P < 0.05. We conclude that a treatment algorithm utilizing concentration-guided RBV dosing during darbepoetin maintenance therapy substantially improves tolerance and allows high adherence to a SOC treatment schedule, and that therapy needs to be initiated before advanced fibrosis is developed. PMID:22863267

  17. Natural interferon-beta treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Reina; Kanda, Tatsuo; Nakamoto, Shingo; Haga, Yuki; Nakamura, Masato; Yasui, Shin; Jiang, Xia; Wu, Shuang; Arai, Makoto; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2015-05-18

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can cause liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several studies have demonstrated that the eradication of HCV reduces the occurrence of HCC. In Japan, as many people live to an advanced age, HCV-infected patients are also getting older, and the age at HCC diagnosis has also increased. Although older HCV-infected patients have a risk of developing HCC, the treatment response to peginterferon-alpha plus ribavirin therapy is relatively poor in these patients because of drop-out or discontinuation of this treatment due to adverse events. It is established that the mechanism of action between interferon-alpha and interferon-beta is slightly different. Short-term natural interferon-beta monotherapy is effective for patients with acute hepatitis C and patients infected with HCV genotype 2 and low viral loads. Natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin for 48 wk or for 24 wk are also effective for some patients with HCV genotype 1 or HCV genotype 2. Natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin has been used for certain "difficult-to-treat" HCV-infected patients. In the era of direct-acting anti-virals, natural interferon-beta plus ribavirin may be one of the therapeutic options for special groups of HCV-infected patients. In the near future, signal transduction pathways of interferon-beta will inform further directions. PMID:26052401

  18. Influence of Interferon-Alpha Combined with Chemo (Radio) Therapy on Immunological Parameters in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karakhanova, Svetlana; Mosl, Beate; Harig, Sabine; von Ahn, Katharina; Fritz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Jan; Jäger, Dirk; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V.

    2014-01-01

    Prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is particularly poor. A combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy could be an option for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to perform an immunomonitoring of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer from the CapRI-2 study, and tumor-bearing mice treated with combination of chemo (radio) therapies with interferon-2α. Low doses of interferon-2α led to a decrease in total leukocyte and an increase in monocyte counts. Furthermore, we observed a positive effect of interferon-2α therapy on the dendritic cells and NK (natural killer) cell activation immediately after the first injection. In addition, we recorded an increased amount of interferon-γ and IL-10 in the serum following the interferon-2α therapy. These data clearly demonstrate that pancreatic carcinoma patients also show an immunomodulatory response to interferon-2α therapy. Analysis of immunosuppressive cells in the Panc02 orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer revealed an accumulation of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens and tumors of the mice treated with interferon-2α and 5-fluorouracil. The direct effect of the drugs on myeloid-derived suppressor cells was also registered in vitro. These data expose the importance of immunosuppressive mechanisms induced by combined chemo-immunotherapy. PMID:24608924

  19. Influence of interferon-alpha combined with chemo (radio) therapy on immunological parameters in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Karakhanova, Svetlana; Mosl, Beate; Harig, Sabine; von Ahn, Katharina; Fritz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Jan; Jäger, Dirk; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2014-01-01

    Prognosis of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is particularly poor. A combination of chemotherapy with immunotherapy could be an option for treatment of pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to perform an immunomonitoring of 17 patients with pancreatic cancer from the CapRI-2 study, and tumor-bearing mice treated with combination of chemo (radio) therapies with interferon-2α. Low doses of interferon-2α led to a decrease in total leukocyte and an increase in monocyte counts. Furthermore, we observed a positive effect of interferon-2α therapy on the dendritic cells and NK (natural killer) cell activation immediately after the first injection. In addition, we recorded an increased amount of interferon-γ and IL-10 in the serum following the interferon-2α therapy. These data clearly demonstrate that pancreatic carcinoma patients also show an immunomodulatory response to interferon-2α therapy. Analysis of immunosuppressive cells in the Panc02 orthotopic mouse model of pancreatic cancer revealed an accumulation of the myeloid-derived suppressor cells in spleens and tumors of the mice treated with interferon-2α and 5-fluorouracil. The direct effect of the drugs on myeloid-derived suppressor cells was also registered in vitro. These data expose the importance of immunosuppressive mechanisms induced by combined chemo-immunotherapy. PMID:24608924

  20. Interferon alpha 2b as maintenance therapy improves outcome in follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Avilés, Agustin; Neri, Natividad; Huerta-Guzmán, Judith; Pérez, Felipe; Sotelo, León

    2004-11-01

    The role of interferon alpha as maintenance therapy in follicular lymphoma (FL) remains unsolved. We started a controlled clinical trial to assess if interferon alpha 2b could improve outcome, measured with event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with FL in complete remission after chemotherapy based anthracyclines and adjuvant radiotherapy to sites of initial bulky disease. Three hundred and eighty four patients in complete response after 6 cycles of CEOP-Bleo (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vincristine, prednisone and bleomycin, at standard doses), and adjuvant radiotherapy when necessary, were randomized to received Interferon alpha 2b, three times a week for 1 year or no treatment (control group). Median follow up was 9.8 years (range 7.0-15 years); actuarial curves showed that EFS was 64% (95% confidence interval (CI) 56-71%) in patients treated with interferon that was statistically significant to patients in the control group: 35% (95% CI: 28-43%) (p<.01). OS was also statistically significant: 81% in patients treated with interferon (95% CI: 74-93%) and 57% (95% CI: 50-63%) in the control group (p<.001). Toxicity was mild, all patients received the planned dose of interferon on time. The use of aggressive chemotherapy and maintenance therapy with interferon alpha 2b in follicular lymphoma improved outcome; more than 60% of patients remain alive free of disease at longer follow-up. PMID:15512813

  1. Coinhibition of viral interferon induction by Benzo(. alpha. )pyrene in association with occupation-related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Hahon, N. West Virginia Univ., Morgantown ); Booth, J.A. ); Flowers, L. )

    1990-06-01

    Benzo({alpha})pyrene (B(a)P) in combination with coal, asbestos, silicate, or metal particles was studied for its inhibitory effects on interferon-{alpha}/{beta} induction by influenza virus in rhesus monkey kidney (LLC-MK{sub 2}) cell monolayers. B(a)P per se had no adverse effect on the induction process. However, when cell cultures were pretreated with B(a)P that was bioactivated by rat liver S9 homogenate, from 52 to 65% inhibition of interferon induction occurred. Significantly greater depression (coinhibition) of viral interferon induction (>83%) resulted when bioactivated B(a)P was incorporated with coal particles representative of coal rank (anthracite, bituminous, lignite, peat). Coinhibition affected by bioactivated B(a)P was coal rank-independent but any interferon inhibitory activity affected by coal particles per se was coal rank-independent. When metals (aluminum, aluminum oxide, ferric oxide, nickel, or chromium) or asbestos fibers were individually mixed with bioactivated B(a)P, coinhibition of cellular interferon synthesis also resulted which was significantly greater than that manifested by bioactivated B(a)P or particles per se. Coinhibition of interferon induction by silicates and the bioactivated hydrocarbon was not in evidence although some silicates alone partially inhibited the induction process. Viral interferon induction was inhibited in a dose-response manner by B(a)P ({+-}S9) in combination with selected particles.

  2. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease. PMID:27438848

  3. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the "workhorse" of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease. PMID:27438848

  4. Direct costs of interferon-based and interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Gray, E; O'Leary, A; Kieran, J A; Fogarty, E; Dowling, T; Norris, S

    2016-09-01

    Given the increasing budget impact of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment, robust real-world cost data are essential for healthcare decision-makers to evaluate and understand the costs and benefits of these treatments. To determine the direct cost of treating HCV infection in a hospital-based ambulatory care setting in Ireland based on available data from the Irish national hepatitis C treatment registry. A microcosting study of the direct costs of patients with hepatitis C treated with interferon-based and interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens was conducted. Attendance at the outpatient clinic for clinical assessment, the quantity of resources used per patient, the medication prescribed and the identification and timing of staff involvement was measured and combined to establish a mean cost of treatment per patient and a cost per sustained virological response (SVR). One hundred and sixty-eight patients were included in the analysis; 119 treated with interferon-based direct-acting antiviral regimens and 47 treated with interferon-free regimens. The mean costs of treatment with the interferon-based regimens per patient were €38 286 (95% CI €35 305-€41 061). The cost per SVR was €62 457. The mean cost of treatment with interferon-free regimens per patient was €55 734 (95% CI €50 906-€60 880). The cost per SVR was €81 873. Real-world cost data provide valuable information to enhance reimbursement decisions. While the direct costs associated with hepatitis C treatment in Ireland are substantial, it is reasonable to expect that the mean cost of treatment and the cost per SVR will reduce as patients with less advanced disease are treated with interferon-free therapies. PMID:26996144

  5. Bortezomib sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to induction of apoptosis by type I interferons through NOXA expression and Mcl-1 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruishan; Davidoff, Andrew M; Pfeffer, Lawrence M

    2016-09-01

    Glioblastomas are highly invasive and aggressive primary brain tumors. Type I interferons have significant, pleiotropic anticancer activity. However, through various pathways many cancers become interferon-resistant, limiting interferon's clinical utility. In this study, we demonstrated that the proteasomal inhibitor bortezomib sensitized human glioblastoma cells to the antiproliferative action of interferons, which involved the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis but not necroptosis. We found that death ligands such as TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) were not involved in interferon/bortezomib-induced apoptosis, although interferon induced TRAIL expression. However, apoptosis was induced through an intrinsic pathway involving increased NOXA expression and Mcl-1 cleavage. Our findings may provide an important rationale for combining type I interferons with bortezomib for glioblastoma therapy. PMID:27450810

  6. n-Dodecyl-β-D-maltoside inhibits aggregation of human interferon-β-1b and reduces its immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Rifkin, Robert A; Maggio, Edward T; Dike, Sonny; Kerr, Douglas A; Levy, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The development of neutralizing antibodies to the protein drug interferon-β is a significant impediment to its use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Neutralizing antibodies to interferon-β arise from aggregation of the peptide during manufacturing and storage. We tested the ability of dodecylmaltoside, a nontoxic alkylsaccharide surfactant, to reduce aggregation of interferon-β in vitro and to reduce its immunogenicity in vivo. Interferon-β, in solution with and without dodecylmaltoside, was periodically evaluated for aggregation by light scatter for 1 month. Interferon-β, with and without dodecylmaltoside, was given 3 days/week for 1 month to mice; the sera of these mice were analyzed for anti-interferon-β antibodies by ELISA. Dodecylmaltoside reduces the aggregation of interferon-β in vitro and its immunogenicity in vivo. Our positive findings warrant additional tests of dodecylmaltoside as a therapeutic adjuvant in rodent models of multiple sclerosis. PMID:20532646

  7. Regulation of antiviral T cell responses by type I interferons.

    PubMed

    Crouse, Josh; Kalinke, Ulrich; Oxenius, Annette

    2015-04-01

    Type I interferons (IFNs) are pro-inflammatory cytokines that are rapidly induced in different cell types during viral infections. The consequences of type I IFN signalling include direct antiviral activity, innate immune cell activation and regulation of adaptive immune responses. In this Review, we discuss recent conceptual advances in our understanding of indirect and direct regulation of T cell immunity by type I IFNs, which can either promote or inhibit T cell activation, proliferation, differentiation and survival. This regulation depends, to a large extent, on the timing of type I IFN exposure relative to T cell receptor signalling. Type I IFNs also provide activated T cells with resistance to natural killer cell-mediated elimination. PMID:25790790

  8. Molecular basis of interferon resistance in hepatitis C virus.

    PubMed

    Perales, Celia; Beach, Nathan M; Sheldon, Julie; Domingo, Esteban

    2014-10-01

    Resistance to interferon (IFN) in hepatitis C virus (HCV) differs from resistance to standard, directly-acting antiviral (DAA) agents in that the virus confronts a multicomponent antiviral state evoked by IFN. This renders unlikely the repeated selection of the same specific mutations that confer an IFN-resistance phenotype. Comparison of amino acid sequences of viral proteins in HCV that replicates in the presence of IFN in vivo or in cell culture (with entire virus or subgenomic replicons) reveals very few common candidate IFN resistance substitutions. Multiple host and viral factors contribute to divergent responses to IFN. The environmental heterogeneity in which exogenous IFN is expected to exert its selective effect may increase as a result of incorporation of new DAAs in therapy. PMID:24968186

  9. Interferon in resistance to bacterial and protozoan infections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Gould, Cheryl L.; Kierszenbaum, Felipe; Degee, Antonie L. W.; Mansfield, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of genetic differences in mouse strains on the modulation of protozoan infections by interferon (IFN) were investigated. In one set of experiments, three different strains of mice were injected with T. cruzi, and their sera were assayed at five time intervals for IFN titer. A greater quantity of IFN was produced by mouse strains that were susceptible to T. cruzi infection than by the more resistant strain. In another set of experiments, spleen cell cultures from inbred strains of mice were challenged with an antigen made from T.b. rhodesiense. The cells from mice resistant to infection, produced greater amounts of IFN-gamma than did cells from the susceptible mice. In a third set of experiments, it was found that mice injected with T.b. rhodesiense before being infected with a diabetogenic virus (EMC-D) were resistant to the effects of the virus and did not produce virus-specific antibody.

  10. Interferons and viruses: an evolutionary arms race of molecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Hans-Heinrich; Schneider, William M.; Rice, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Over half a century has passed since interferons (IFNs) were discovered and shown to inhibit virus infection in cultured cells. Since then, researchers have steadily brought to light the molecular details of IFN signaling, catalogued their pleiotropic effects on cells, and harnessed their therapeutic potential for a variety of maladies. While advances have been plentiful, several fundamental questions have yet to be answered and much complexity remains to be unraveled. We explore the current knowledge surrounding four main questions: are type I IFN subtypes differentially produced in response to distinct pathogens? How are IFN subtypes distinguished by cells? What are the mechanisms and consequences of viral antagonis