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Sample records for intergalactic space

  1. Testing a novel method to map the 3D distribution of gas clouds in intergalactic space

    E-print Network

    Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new method to detect intergalactic Lyman a emitter and absorber systems by comparing broadband and narrowband images. The narrowband observations were carried out with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter ...

  2. Intergalactic Globular Clusters

    E-print Network

    Michael J. West; Patrick Cote; Henry C. Ferguson; Michael D. Gregg; Andres Jordan; Ronald O. Marzke; Nial R. Tanvir; Ted von Hippel

    2003-09-23

    We confirm and extend our previous detection of a population of intergalactic globular clusters in Abell 1185, and report the first discovery of an intergalactic globular cluster in the nearby Virgo cluster of galaxies. The numbers, colors and luminosities of these objects can place constraints on their origin, which in turn may yield new insights to the evolution of galaxies in dense environments.

  3. The Importance of Intergalactic Structure to Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    E-print Network

    R. Benton Metcalf

    2004-12-20

    Image flux ratio anomalies have been attributed to substructures within the gravitational lens and to small mass halos (M intergalactic space. In this paper, analytic calculations are presented that help in the understanding of how intergalactic halos affect magnification ratios. It is found that intergalactic halos can produce anomalies at a similar level to those that are observed. Intergalactic halos with masses intergalactic halos depends strongly on the radial profile of the halos and the primordial power spectrum at small scales. Strongly lensed quasars provide an opportunity to probe these properties. A strong dependence on the QSO redshift is predicted and can be used to distinguish between intergalactic structure and substructure as the cause of magnification anomalies. This analytic approach also explains why some previous semi-analytic estimates disagreed with numerical calculations.

  4. Enrichment of intergalactic matter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Siluk, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    The primordial gas out of which the Galaxy condensed may have been significantly enriched in heavy elements. A specific mechanism of enrichment is described, in which quasi-stellar sources eject enriched matter into the intergalactic medium. This matter is recycled through successive generations of these sources, and is progressively enriched. The enriched intergalactic matter is accreted by the protogalaxy and we find, for rates of mass ejection by quasi-stellar sources equal to about one solar mass per year in heavy elements, that this mechanism can account for the heavy-element abundances in the oldest Population II stars. Expressions are given for the degree of enrichment of the intergalactic gas as a function of redshift, and we show that our hypothesis implies that the present density of intergalactic gas must be at least a factor 3 larger than the mean density in galaxies at the present epoch.

  5. Lyman alpha Absorption Systems and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    George Efstathiou; Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns

    2000-04-10

    The last few years have seen a dramatic improvement in our understanding of the origin of Lyman alpha absorption systems. Hydrodynamic numerical simulations of cold dark matter dominated universes have shown that the many properties of the Lyman alpha absorption systems can be explained by a photoionized, space-filling, intergalactic medium. Lyman alpha lines offer promising probes of the photoionizing background, the amplitude of the mass fluctuations at high redshift and the evolution of the equation of state of the intergalactic medium.

  6. Intergalactic HI Clouds

    E-print Network

    F. H. Briggs

    2005-02-16

    Neutral intergalactic clouds are so greatly out numbered by galaxies that their integral HI content is negligible in comparison to that contained in optically luminous galaxies. In fact, no HI cloud that is not associated with a galaxy or grouping of galaxies has yet been identified. This points to a causal relationship that relies on gravitational potentials that bind galaxies also being responsible for confining HI clouds to sufficient density that they can become self-shielding to the ionizing background radiation. Unconfined clouds of low density become ionized, but confined clouds find themselves vulnerable to instability and collapse, leading to star formation.

  7. The Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The bulk of cosmic matter resides in a dilute reservoir that fills the space between galaxies, the intergalactic medium (IGM). The history of this reservoir is intimately tied to the cosmic histories of structure formation, star formation, and supermassive black hole accretion. Our models for the IGM at intermediate redshifts (2intergalactic hydrogen. However, at both lower and higher redshifts (and around galaxies) much is still unknown about the IGM. We review the theoretical models and measurements that form the basis for the modern understanding of the IGM, and we discuss unsolved puzzles (ranging from the largely unconstrained process of reionization at high-z to the missing baryon problem at low-z), highlighting the efforts that have the potential to solve them.

  8. Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy

    E-print Network

    THEIA Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy White Paper, Penn State, Princeton University, Space Telescope Science Institute, University of California University 1 #12;1. THEIA Overview Over the past 25 years, the Hubble Space Telescope has revolutionized our

  9. The Remnants of Intergalactic Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Dan Maoz; Eli Waxman; Abraham Loeb

    2005-06-30

    Intergalactic type-Ia supernovae (SNe-Ia) have been discovered recently in rich galaxy clusters, likely the descendants of an intergalactic stellar population found in recent years through a variety of tracers. We estimate the observational signatures of the associated SN remnants (SNRs) in the unusual intracluster medium (ICM) environment. If SNe-Ia still have a circumstellar medium (CSM) at the time of explosion, then their remnants are visible in the optical for ~100-1000 years, with properties similar to young galactic SNRs. In contrast with galactic SNRs, in which the ejecta from the explosion interacts with the ISM, intracluster SNRs become undetectable in the optical once their ejecta passes beyond the CSM and enters the hot and tenuous ICM. If SNe-Ia have a CSM, there should be ~150 young SNRs in the Virgo cluster, with L(H-alpha)~10^{35} erg/s and angular size ~0.1''. We investigate the possibility that members of this SNR population may have recently been detected, but incorrectly identified as intergalactic HII regions. Alternatively, if optical intergalactic SNRs do not exist in Virgo, this will be evidence that SNe-Ia are devoid of a CSM, with implications for progenitor scenarios. Regardless of the presence of a CSM, about 10 older radio SNRs per square degree should be detectable in Virgo, with fluxes of ~0.1 mJy at 1 GHz. Their angular sizes, morphologies, and lack of optical association with distant galaxies can distinguish them from the much more numerous background population. Their detection would provide a measurement of the intracluster SN rate. Observations toward the site of SN1980I, a possibly intergalactic Virgo SN-Ia, can test the existence of a CSM by comparison to our early-time predictions for intergalactic SNR development.

  10. The Intergalactic Medium Richard C. Henry

    E-print Network

    90 The Intergalactic Medium Richard C. Henry Center for Astrophysical Sciences The Henry A. Rowland, the capability of detection of the dark matter of the universe, and in particular, detection of the intergalactic) play in the search for the intergalactic medium and the search for the dark matter of the Universe. I

  11. Observational Tests of Intergalactic Enrichment Models

    E-print Network

    Anthony Aguirre; Joop Schaye

    2005-04-19

    We summarize recent results assessing the carbon and silicon abundances of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using the `pixel optical depth' technique. We briefly discuss the implications of these results for models of intergalactic enrichment, focusing on distinguishing `early' z >> 4 enrichment by the first generations of stars and objects from `late' enrichment by 2 intergalactic enrichment at z > 2.

  12. The Physics of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Avery A. Meiksin

    2008-12-15

    Intergalactic space is filled with a pervasive medium of ionized gas, the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). A residual neutral fraction is detected in the spectra of Quasi-Stellar Objects at both low and high redshifts, revealing a highly fluctuating medium with temperatures characteristic of photoionized gas. The statistics of the fluctuations are well-reproduced by numerical gravity-hydrodynamics simulations within the context of standard cosmological structure formation scenarios. As such, the study of the IGM offers an opportunity to probe the nature of the primordial density fluctuations on scales unavailable to other methods. The simulations also suggest the IGM is the dominant reservoir of baryons produced by the Big Bang, and so the principal source of the matter from which galaxies formed. The detection of metal systems within the IGM shows that it was enriched by evolved stars early in its history, demonstrating an intimate connection between galaxy formation and the IGM. The author presents a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the structure and physical properties of the IGM and its relation to galaxies, concluding with comments on prospects for furthering the study of the IGM using future ground-based facilities and space-based experiments.

  13. An Intergalactic Voyage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wethered, Peggy Ann

    1997-01-01

    Describes an event called Star Week that involved families joining in their children's projects, attending an educational presentation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and participating in a schoolwide star party. Contains resources for both students and teachers. (JRH)

  14. A SEARCH FOR DUST EMISSION IN THE LEO INTERGALACTIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Puget, Jeremie; Latter, William B.; Schneider, Stephen; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-08-15

    We present a search for infrared dust emission associated with the Leo cloud, a large intergalactic cloud in the M96 group. Mid-infrared and far-infrared images were obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis of these maps is done at each wavelength relative to the H I spatial distribution. We observe a probable detection at 8 {mu}m and a marginal detection at 24 {mu}m associated with the highest H I column densities in the cloud. At 70 and 160 {mu}m, upper limits on the dust emission are deduced. The level of the detection is low so that the possibility of a fortuitous cirrus clump or of an overdensity of extragalactic sources along the line of sight cannot be excluded. If this detection is confirmed, the quantities of dust inferred imply a dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic cloud up to a few times solar but no less than 1/20 solar. A confirmed detection would therefore exclude the possibility that the intergalactic cloud has a primordial origin. Instead, this large intergalactic cloud could therefore have been formed through interactions between galaxies in the group.

  15. Signatures of Intergalactic Dust From the First Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Abraham Loeb; Zoltan Haiman

    1997-04-14

    We quantify the consequences of intergalactic dust produced by the first Type II supernovae in the universe. The fraction of gas converted into stars is calibrated based on the observed C/H ratio in the intergalactic medium at z=3, assuming a Scalo mass function for the stars. The associated dust absorbs starlight energy and emits it at longer wavelengths. For a uniform mix of metals and dust with the intergalactic gas, we find that the dust distorts the microwave background spectrum by a y-parameter in the range (0.02-2)x10^{-5}(M_d/0.3M_sun), where M_d is the average mass of dust produced per supernova. The opacity of intergalactic dust to infrared sources at redshifts z>10 is significant, tau=(0.1-1)x(M_d/0.3M_sun), and could be detected with the Next Generation Space Telescope. Although dust suppresses the Ly-alpha emission from early sources, the redshifts of star clusters at z=10-35 can be easily inferred from the Lyman-limit break in their infrared spectrum between 1-3.5 micron.

  16. Gamma ray bursts, supernovae and metallicity in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Shlomo Dado; Arnon Dar; A. De Rujula

    2007-10-22

    The mean iron abundance observed in the intergalactic medium (IGM) within galaxy clusters and without galaxy clusters is consistent with the mean amount of iron per unit volume in the Universe which has been produced by standard supernova (SN) explosions with a rate proportional to the cosmic star-formation rate. If most SNe took place inside galaxies, then the IGM could have been enriched with their metals by galactic winds and jets that swept most of the galactic gas with the SNe ejecta into the IGM. A significant fraction of the early SNe, however, could have taken place outside galaxies or within dwarf galaxies, which were later disrupted by tidal interactions, and/or mass loss through fast winds, SN ejecta and jets. Little is known about such intergalactic SNe at high red-shifts. They could have occurred primarily in highly obscured environments, avoiding detection. Supporting evidence for intergalactic SNe is provided by SNe associated with gamma ray bursts (GRBs) without a host galaxy and from the ratio of well localized GRBs with and without a host galaxy. A direct test of whether a significant contribution to the iron abundance in the IGM came from intergalactic SNe would require the measurement of their rate per comoving unit volume as function of red-shift. This may be feasible with IR telescopes, such as the Spitzer Space Telescope.

  17. High-Velocity Clouds and the Local Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Philipp Richter

    2006-02-15

    In this article I review recent observations of the gaseous halos of galaxies and the intergalactic medium at low redshift. In the first part I discuss distribution, metal content, and physical properties of the Galactic intermediate- and high-velocity clouds and the hot halo of the Milky Way. Recent absorption and emission measurements show that the Galaxy's tidal interaction with the Magellanic Clouds, the infall of low-metallicity gas, as well as the circulation of gas as part of the galactic fountain contribute to the observed distribution of gas in the halo of the Milky Way. In the second part I give a short overview on the circumgalactic gaseous environment of other nearby spiral galaxies. Multi-wavelength observations demonstrate that neutral and ionized gaseous halos of galaxies are common, and that they extend deep into intergalactic space. These studies suggest that the gaseous material around spiral galaxies is tightly connected to the on-going hierarchical formation and evolution of these galaxies. In the last part of this article I summarize recent quasar absorption-line measurements of the local intergalactic medium. In accordance with cosmological simulations, absorption-line studies in the far-ultraviolet indicate that both the photoionized Ly alpha forest and the shock-heated warm-hot intergalactic medium harbor a substantial fraction of the baryons in the local Universe.

  18. The intergalactic medium and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the intergalactic medium (IGM), defined as the component of the baryon-electron matter which now occupies the space between galaxies and which filled the pregalactic universe, are reviewed. Topics addressed include the Gunn-Peterson constraint on the history of the IGM, the mean mass density of the IGM at high redshift, requirements for ionizing the IGM, the observed quasar contribution, the thermal and ionization history of the IGM (quasar photoionization, stellar sources of the ionizing background, and alternative sources such as protogalactic shock radiation and the decay of exotic particles), and the hydrodynamical evolution of the IGM. Typical results from observations and numerical simulations are presented graphically.

  19. Constraining the Intergalactic Radiation Field with Quasar Absorption Lines

    E-print Network

    Constraining the Intergalactic Radiation Field with Quasar Absorption Lines Diplomarbeit von Mirko and the intergalactic medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2.1 The Gunn.3.3 The intergalactic radiation field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1.4 Aims of this work

  20. Discovery of Intergalactic HII Regions

    E-print Network

    E. V. Ryan-Weber; M. E. Putman; K. C. Freeman; G. R. Meurer; R. L. Webster

    2003-10-23

    We have discovered a number of very small isolated HII regions 20-30 kpc from their nearest galaxy. The HII regions appear as tiny emission line dots (ELdots) in narrow band images obtained by the NOAO Survey for Ionization in Neutral Gas Galaxies (SINGG). We have spectroscopic confirmation of 5 isolated HII regions in 3 systems. The H-alpha luminosities of the HII regions are equivalent to the ionizing flux of only 1 large or a few small OB stars each. These stars appear to have formed in situ and represent atypical star formation in the low density environment of galaxy outskirts. In situ star formation in the intergalactic medium offers an alternative to galactic wind models to explain metal enrichment. In interacting systems (2 out of 3), isolated HII regions could be a starting point for tidal dwarf galaxies.

  1. The Physics and Early History of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Rennan Barkana; Abraham Loeb

    2007-04-26

    The intergalactic medium - the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies - is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early universe to radiative emission from newly-formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early universe and basic cosmological parameters. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, radiation from the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the universe, turning the surrounding atoms into free electrons and ions. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer simulations. A wide variety of instruments currently under design will probe the first sources of light during an epoch in cosmic history that has been largely unexplored so far. The new observations and the challenges for theoretical models and numerical simulations will motivate intense work in this field over the coming decade. (abridged)

  2. Constraints on intergalactic dust from quasar colours

    E-print Network

    Edvard Mortsell; Ariel Goobar

    2003-09-02

    Colour measurements of quasars are used to constrain the abundance and properties of intergalactic dust and the related extinction effects on high-z sources. For Type Ia supernovae at z = 1, we derive an upper limit on the possible dimming from intergalactic dust of dm=0.2, ruling out the ``grey'' dust scenario as being solely responsible for the observed faintness of high-z SNIa.

  3. Constraint on intergalactic dust from thermal history of intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Akio K. Inoue; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2003-03-13

    This Letter investigates the amount of dust in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The dust photoelectric heating can be the most efficient heating mechanism in the IGM where the density is very small and there are a lot of hard ultraviolet photons. Comparing the observational thermal history of IGM with a theoretical one taking into account the dust photoelectric heating, we can put an upper limit on the dust-to-gas ratio, ${\\cal D}$, in the IGM. Since the rate of the dust photoelectric heating depends on the size of dust, we find the following results: If the grain size is $\\ga 100$ \\AA, ${\\cal D}$ at $z \\sim 3$ is $\\la 1/100$ Galactic value corresponding to $\\Omega_{\\rm dust}^{\\rm IGM}\\la 10^{-5}$. On the other hand, if the grain size is as small as $\\sim 10$ \\AA, ${\\cal D}$ is $\\la 1/1000$ Galactic value corresponding to $\\Omega_{\\rm dust}^{\\rm IGM}\\la 10^{-6}$.

  4. Turbulence in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Evoli, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    We study supernova-driven galactic outflows as a mechanism for injecting turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) far from galaxies. To this aim we follow the evolution of a 10^13 Msun galaxy along its merger tree, with carefully calibrated prescriptions for star formation and wind efficiencies. At z~3 the majority of the bubbles around galaxies are old (ages >1Gyr), i.e. they contain metals expelled by their progenitors at earlier times; their filling factor increases with time reaching about 10% at zexpanding shocks in the IGM is predominantly in kinetic form (mean energy density of 1 \\mu eV cm^-3, about 2-3 x the thermal one), which is rapidly converted in disordered motions by instabilities, finally resulting in a fully developed turbulent spectrum whose evolution is followed through a spectral transfer function approach. The derived mean IGM turbulent Doppler parameter, b_t, peaks at z~1 at about 1.5 km/s with maximum b_t = 25 km/s. The shape of the b_t distributi...

  5. INTERGALACTIC 'PIPELINE' FUNNELS MATTER BETWEEN COLLIDING GALAXIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This visible-light picture, taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, reveals an intergalactic 'pipeline' of material flowing between two battered galaxies that bumped into each other about 100 million years ago. The pipeline [the dark string of matter] begins in NGC 1410 [the galaxy at left], crosses over 20,000 light-years of intergalactic space, and wraps around NGC 1409 [the companion galaxy at right] like a ribbon around a package. Although astronomers have taken many stunning pictures of galaxies slamming into each other, this image represents the clearest view of how some interacting galaxies dump material onto their companions. These results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. Astronomers used the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to confirm that the pipeline is a continuous string of material linking both galaxies. Scientists believe that the tussle between these compact galaxies somehow created the pipeline, but they're not certain why NGC 1409 was the one to begin gravitationally siphoning material from its partner. And they don't know where the pipeline begins in NGC 1410. More perplexing to astronomers is that NGC 1409 is seemingly unaware that it is gobbling up a steady flow of material. A stream of matter funneling into the galaxy should have fueled a spate of star birth. But astronomers don't see it. They speculate that the gas flowing into NGC 1409 is too hot to gravitationally collapse and form stars. Astronomers also believe that the pipeline itself may contribute to the star-forming draught. The pipeline, a pencil-thin, 500 light-year-wide string of material, is moving a mere 0.02 solar masses of matter a year. Astronomers estimate that NGC 1409 has consumed only about a million solar masses of gas and dust, which is not enough material to spawn some of the star-forming regions seen in our Milky Way. The low amount means that there may not be enough material to ignite star birth in NGC 1409, either. The glancing blow between the galaxies was enough, however, to toss stars deep into space and ignite a rash of star birth in NGC 1410. The arms of NGC 1410, an active, gas-rich spiral galaxy classified as a Seyfert, are awash in blue, the signature color of star-forming regions. The bar of material bisecting the center of NGC 1409 also is a typical byproduct of galaxy collisions. Astronomers expect more fireworks to come. The galaxies are doomed to continue their game of 'bumper cars,' hitting each other and moving apart several times until finally merging in another 200 million years. The galaxies' centers are only 23,000 light-years apart, which is slightly less than Earth's distance from the center of the Milky Way. They are bound together by gravity, orbiting each other at 670,000 miles an hour (1 million kilometers an hour). The galaxies reside about 300 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Taurus. The Hubble picture was taken Oct. 25, 1999. Credits: NASA, William C. Keel (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa)

  6. Intergalactic stars in the Fornax Cluster

    E-print Network

    Tom Theuns; S. J. Warren

    1996-09-10

    We have identified ten candidate intergalactic planetary nebulae in the Fornax galaxy cluster. These objects were found during observations in 1992 and 1993 in three fields chosen well away from any Fornax galaxy at 15 arcmin, 30 arcmin, and 45 arcmin from the centre of Fornax. We used the usual method of blinking images taken in a narrow OIII filter, with images taken in an adjacent broad filter. The measured fluxes in the narrow, broad, and I bands are consistent with these unresolved objects being planetary nebulae immersed in an intergalactic population of stars. Such a population is expected to arise as a consequence of tidal encounters between galaxies, and our findings strengthen the case for the existence of such tidal debris. The confirmation of some or all of these ten candidates as planetary nebulae would imply that intergalactic stars constitute a substantial fraction of all the stars in Fornax, up to an estimated 40 per cent. Intergalactic planetary nebulae could prove useful in probing the underlying cluster potential, since they would be far more abundant than galaxies. We discuss possible contamination of the sample by emission-line galaxies, but conclude that planetary nebulae is the most likely identification for the detected objects. keywords: intergalactic medium-- galaxies: interactions -- planetary nebulae: general -- clusters: individual: Fornax

  7. Limits on Intergalactic Dust during Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imara, N.; Loeb, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we constrain the dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts. We employ models for dust in the local universe to constrain the dust-to-gas ratio during the epoch of reionization at redshifts z ? 6–10. The observed level of reddening of high redshift galaxies implies that the IGM was enriched to an intergalactic dust-to-gas ratio of less than 3% of the Milky Way value by a redshift of z = 10.

  8. Ultraviolet spectroscopy of interstellar and intergalactic matter.

    PubMed

    Shull, J M

    1980-12-01

    Ultraviolet radiation in absorption and emission provides diagnostics of interstellar and intergalactic matter. After reviewing some basic physical reasons for the importance of UV astronomy, the UV observations of both media, the future uses of high resolution spectrometers in the far UV, and the atomic data required for proper interpretation are discussed. Satellite UV observations have the potential of answering fundamental questions dealing with the nature of the gaseous matter in the outer regions of our galaxy, in neighboring galaxies, and in the intergalactic matter seen in quasar absorption spectra. PMID:20234728

  9. Cosmological Blastwaves and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    G. Mark Voit

    1996-05-13

    Winds from protogalactic starbursts and quasars can drive shocks that heat, ionize, and enrich the intergalactic medium. The Sedov-Taylor solution for point-like explosions adequately describes these blastwaves early in their development, but as the time since the explosion ($t - t_1$) approaches the age of the universe ($t$), cosmological effects begin to alter the blastwave's structure and growth rate. This paper presents an analytical solution for adiabatic blastwaves in an expanding universe, valid when the IGM is homogeneous and contains only a small fraction of the total mass density ($\\Omega_{\\rm IGM} intergalactic gas at $z \\sim 2 - 4$.

  10. Temperature fluctuations in the intergalactic medium Tom Theuns,1P

    E-print Network

    Zaroubi, Saleem

    Temperature fluctuations in the intergalactic medium Tom Theuns,1P Saleem Zaroubi,2 Tae-Sun Kim,3-density intergalactic medium (IGM) is set by the balance between adiabatic cooling resulting from the expansion ­ intergalactic medium ­ quasars: absorption lines ­ cosmology: theory ­ large-scale structure of Universe. 1 I NT

  11. Polychromatic View of Intergalactic Star Formation in NGC 5291

    E-print Network

    M. Boquien; P. -A. Duc; J. Braine; E. Brinks; U. Lisenfeld; V. Charmandaris

    2007-03-01

    Star formation (SF) takes place in unusual places such as way out in the intergalactic medium out of material expelled from parent galaxies. We wish to answer whether SF proceeds in this specific environment in a similar way than in galactic disks. We have carried out a multiwavelength analysis of the interacting system NGC 5291, which is remarkable for its extended HI ring hosting numerous intergalactic HII regions. We combined new ultraviolet (GALEX) observations with archival Halpha, 8 mu m (Spitzer Space Telescope) and HI (VLA B-array) images of the system. We have found that the morphology of the star forming regions, as traced by the ultraviolet, Halpha, and 8 mu m emission is similar. There is a clear excess of ultraviolet emission compared to individual HII regions in spirals, i.e. the [8.0]/[NUV] and [Halpha]/[NUV] SFR ratios are on average low although there are some large variations from one region to another, which cannot be explained by variations of the metallicity or the dust extinction along the HI structure. Comparing the observed SFR with a model of the evolution of [Halpha]/[NUV] with time favours young, quasi-instantaneous though already fading starbursts. The total star formation rate measured in the intergalactic medium (which accounts for 80% of the total) surrounding NGC 5291 is up to 1.3 Msun/yr, a value typical for spirals, assuming the standard SFR calibrations are valid. The SFR drops by a factor of 2 to 4 in case the star formation is indeed quasi-instantaneous. (abridged)

  12. Numerical simulations of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Tom Theuns

    2002-09-05

    The intergalactic medium at redshifts 2--6 can be studied observationally through the absorption features it produces in the spectra of background quasars. Most of the UV-absorption lines arise in mildly overdense regions, which can be simulated reliably with current hydrodynamical simulations. Comparison of observed and simulated spectra allows one to put contraints on the model's parameters.

  13. Simulating the effects of intergalactic grey dust

    E-print Network

    Rupert A. C. Croft; Romeel Dave'; Lars Hernquist; Neal Katz

    2000-02-23

    Using a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, we present a method to constrain extinction due to intergalactic grey dust based on the observed magnitudes of distant Type IA supernovae. We apply several simple prescriptions to relate the intergalactic dust density to the gas density in the simulation, thereby obtaining dust extinctions that may be directly compared to the observed distribution of supernova magnitudes. Our analysis is sensitive to the spatial distribution of grey dust, but is not dependent on its intrinsic properties such as its opacity or grain size. We present an application of our technique to the supernova data of Perlmutter et al., who find that their high redshift sample is ~0.2 magnitudes fainter than the expectation for a non-accelerating, low-density universe. We find that for grey dust to be responsible, it must be distributed quite smoothly, e.g., tracing intergalactic gas. More realistic dust distributions, such as dust tracing the metal density, are inconsistent with observations at the 1.5-2 sigma level. Upcoming observations and improved modelling of the dust distribution should lead to stronger constraints on intergalactic grey dust extinction.

  14. Simulating the Effects of Intergalactic Gray Dust.

    PubMed

    Croft; Davé; Hernquist; Katz

    2000-05-10

    Using a high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamic simulation, we present a method to constrain extinction due to intergalactic gray dust based on the observed magnitudes of distant Type Ia supernovae. We apply several simple prescriptions to relate the intergalactic dust density to the gas density in the simulation, thereby obtaining dust extinctions that may be directly compared with the observed distribution of supernova magnitudes. Our analysis is sensitive to the spatial distribution of gray dust but is not dependent on its intrinsic properties, such as its opacity or grain size. We present an application of our technique to the supernova data of Perlmutter et al., who find that their high-redshift sample is approximately 0.2 mag fainter than the expectation for a nonaccelerating, low-density universe. We find that for gray dust to be responsible, it must be distributed quite smoothly (e.g., tracing intergalactic gas). More realistic dust distributions, such as dust tracing the metal density, are inconsistent with observations at the 1.5-2 sigma level. Upcoming observations and improved modeling of the dust distribution should lead to stronger constraints on intergalactic gray dust extinction. PMID:10813663

  15. Quasar Absorption Lines and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Buell T. Jannuzi

    1996-01-24

    The importance of HST for the study of quasar absorption lines and of the nature of the intergalactic medium is illustrated by reviewing selected results from past HST observations. Topics reviewed include the study of Ly-alpha absorbers at low redshift and the search for a diffuse IGM at high redshifts.

  16. Searching for Intergalactic Shocks with the SKA

    E-print Network

    Uri Keshet; Eli Waxman; Abraham Loeb

    2004-07-12

    Strong intergalactic shocks are a natural consequence of structure formation in the universe. These shocks are expected to deposit large fractions of their energy in relativistic electrons (xi_e~0.05 of the thermal energy according to supernova remnant observations) and magnetic fields (xi_B~0.01 according to cluster halo observations). We discuss the expected synchrotron emission from such shocks, and the observational consequences for next generation radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometer Array. We present an analytical model, calibrated and verified based on a hydrodynamical LCDM simulation. The resulting signal composes a large fraction (up to a few 10%) of the extragalactic radio background below 500 MHz. The associated angular fluctuations, e.g. delta T_l>260(xi_e*xi_B/5*10^-4)(nu/100 MHz)^-3 K for multipoles 4003*10^-4. The fluctuating signal is most pronounced for nuintergalactic shocks). Detection of the signal will provide the first identification of intergalactic shocks and of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (believed to contain most of the baryons in the low redshift universe), and gauge the unknown intergalactic magnetic field.

  17. Dynamical evolution of high velocity clouds in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    C. Konz; C. Bruens; G. T. Birk

    2002-07-19

    HI observations of high-velocity clouds (HVCs) indicate, that they are interacting with their ambient medium. Even clouds located in the very outer Galactic halo or the intergalactic space seem to interact with their ambient medium. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical evolution of high velocity neutral gas clouds moving through a hot magnetized ambient plasma by means of two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic plasma-neutral gas simulations. This situation is representative for the fast moving dense neutral gas cloudlets in the Magellanic Stream as well as for high velocity clouds in general. The question on the dynamical and thermal stabilization of a cold dense neutral cloud in a hot thin ambient halo plasma is numerically investigated. The simulations show the formation of a comet-like head-tail structure combined with a magnetic barrier of increased field strength which exerts a stabilizing pressure on the cloud and hinders hot plasma from diffusing into the cloud. The simulations can explain both the survival times in the intergalactic medium and the existence of head-tail high velocity clouds.

  18. The thermal history of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Joop Schaye; Tom Theuns; Michael Rauch; George Efstathiou; Wallace L. W. Sargent

    2000-06-13

    At redshifts z >~ 2, most of the baryons reside in the smooth intergalactic medium which is responsible for the low column density Lyman-alpha forest. This photoheated gas follows a tight temperature-density relation which introduces a cut-off in the distribution of widths of the Lyman-alpha absorption lines (b-parameters) as a function of column density. We have measured this cut-off in a sample of nine high resolution, high signal-to-noise quasar spectra, and determined the thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium in the redshift range 2.0-4.5. At redshift z ~ 3, the temperature at the mean density shows a peak and the gas becomes nearly isothermal. We interpret this as evidence for the reionization of HeII.

  19. Dwarf Irregular Galaxies and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Noah Brosch

    1998-10-20

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are more numerous than large galaxies. Most dwarfs in clusters are dEs, but in the field they belong mostly to late types. The importance of late-type DGs in the context of the intergalactic medium (IGM) lies in the fact that (at least some) are probably ``young'' galaxies forming stars for the first time. Many DGs have significant amounts of interstellar gas, they may form out of intergalactic gas clouds, and matter ejected from such galaxies as a result of star formation processes may enrich the IGM with metals. The physical mechanism responsible for triggering the star formation process has not yet been identified. The extended halos of DGs may provide (at least some of) the QSO absorption line systems. Recent observations also show that the LSB dwarf galaxies may be good tests of MOND.

  20. Cosmic Minivoids in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Avery Meiksin

    1996-11-01

    The Gunn-Peterson effect, absorption of Lya photons by a homogeneous component of the intergalactic medium (IGM), potentially provides a test of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN). With a lower limit on the UV radiation field estimated from the contribution due to QSOs, a measurement of the Lya opacity of the intergalactic medium would permit the derivation of a lower bound to the baryonic density of the universe. The effect, however, has continually eluded a convincing detection, both in HI and HeII, despite extensive searches. Recent cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of structure formation in the intergalactic medium suggest an explanation for its absence. In a Cold Dark Matter dominated cosmology, the fragmentation of the baryons is nearly complete, leaving a negligible remnant to comprise a smoothly distributed component. The fragmentation extends even into regions that are underdense, where it gives rise to most of the optically thin HI systems and nearly all of the HeII systems, both thin and saturated. The result is a Lya opacity from a smooth IGM that is suppressed by over two orders of magnitude from the BBN value.

  1. Galactic Corona or Local Group Intergalactic Medium?

    E-print Network

    Rik J. Williams; Smita Mathur; Fabrizio Nicastro

    2005-11-21

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations predict that the low redshift universe comprises a web of warm-hot intergalactic gas and galaxies, with groups of galaxies and clusters forming at dense knots in these filaments. Our own Galaxy being no exception is also expected to be surrounded by the warm-hot intergalactic medium, filling the Local Group. Some theoretical models also predict the existence of a hot Galactic corona. With X-ray and FUV observations of extragalactic sources, we can probe the warm-hot gas through absorption lines of highly ionized elements. Indeed, Chandra, XMM and FUSE observations have detected z=0 absorption lines toward many sightlines. The debate that has emerged is over the interpretation of these observations: are the z=0 absorption systems from the halo of our Galaxy or from the extended Local Group environment? This has important implications for our understanding of the mass of the Local Group, the physical conditions in the intergalactic medium, the structure of the Galaxy and galaxy formation in general. We will present the current status of the debate and discuss our ongoing observing program aimed at understanding the z=0 absorption systems, with an emphasis on the high quality Chandra spectra of the Mrk 421 and Mrk 279 sightlines.

  2. X-raying the Intergalactic OVI Absorbers

    E-print Network

    Y. Yao; T. M. Tripp; Q. D. Wang; C. W. Danforth; C. R. Canizares; J. M. Shull; H. L. Marshall; L. Song

    2009-03-23

    The observed intergalactic OVI absorbers at z>0 have been regarded as a significant reservoir of the ``missing baryons''. However, to fully understand how these absorbers contribute to the baryon inventory, it is crucial to determine whether the systems are collisionally ionized or photoionized (or both). Using the identified intergalactic OVI absorbers as tracers, we search for the corresponding X-ray absorption lines, which are useful for finding the missing baryons and for revealing the nature of the OVI absorbers. Stacking the Chandra grating spectra along six AGN sight lines, we obtain three spectra with signal-to-noise ratios of 32, 28, and 10 per 12.5 mA spectral bin around the expected OVII Kalpha wavelength. These spectra correspond to OVI absorbers with various dynamic properties. We find no detectable NeIX, OVII, OVIII, NVII, or CVI absorption lines in the spectra, but the high counting statistics allows us to obtain firm upper limits on the corresponding ionic column densities (in particular N(OVII)intergalactic medium and its detection in future X-ray observations.

  3. Cluster of galaxies as a probe of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forman, W.; Jones, C.; Tucker, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of galactic clusters as probes of the intercluster medium is discussed, and the effects of a postulated hot intercluster medium on the diffuse gas associated with clusters of galaxies is examined. It is shown that diffuse intracluster gas, which is observed at X-ray wavelengths, is a powerful probe of intergalactic space. The consequences of conduction are explored and the existence and properties of the intracluster gas are used to constrain the temperature and density of a uniform gas filling the universe. The effects of a nonuniform medium on the results are discussed and it is shown that for plausible scenarios the evaporative mass loss rates are insensitive to changes in the density and temperature of the intracluster medium in the vicinity of clusters. The parameters such a gas would have to have in order to explain the larger energy per unit mass found in the intracluster gas compared to that in galaxies are calculated.

  4. Do intergalactic magnetic fields imply an open universe?

    E-print Network

    J. D. Barrow; C. G. Tsagas; K. Yamamoto

    2012-11-09

    The detection of magnetic fields at high redshifts, and in empty intergalactic space, support the idea that cosmic magnetism has a primordial origin. Assuming that Maxwellian electromagnetism and general relativity hold, and without introducing any `new' physics, we show how the observed magnetic fields can easily survive cosmological evolution from the inflationary era in a marginally open Friedmann universe but fail to do so, by a very wide margin, in a flat or a marginally closed universe. Magnetic fields evolve very differently in open and closed Friedmann models. The existence of significant magnetic fields in the universe today, that require primordial seeding, may therefore provide strong evidence that the universe is marginally open rather than marginally closed.

  5. Determination of intergalactic magnetic fields from gamma ray data

    E-print Network

    Warren Essey; Shin'ichiro Ando; Alexander Kusenko

    2011-07-07

    We report a measurement of intergalactic magnetic fields using combined data from Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes and Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, based on the spectral data alone. If blazars are assumed to produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays, the observed spectra are not sensitive to the intrinsic spectrum of the source, because, for a distant blazar, secondary photons produced in line-of-sight cosmic-ray interactions dominate the signal. In this case, we find 0.01 fG < B < 30 fG. If one excludes the cosmic-ray component, the 0.01 fG lower limit remains, but the upper limit depends on the spectral properties of the source. We present the allowed ranges for a variety of model parameters.

  6. Can Cosmic Rays Heat the Intergalactic Medium?

    E-print Network

    Saumyadip Samui; Kandaswamy Subramanian; Raghunathan Srianand

    2005-05-30

    Supernova explosions in the early star forming galaxies will accelerate cosmic rays (CRs). CRs are typically confined in the collapsed objects for a short period before escaping into the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic outflows can facilitate this escape by advecting CRs into the IGM. An outflow that results in a termination shock can also generate more CRs. We show that the CR protons from the above processes can significantly affect the thermal history of the IGM. Within plausible range of parameters, cosmic ray heating can compensate for adiabatic cooling and explain the measured IGM temperature at redshifts z between 2 to 4, even with early reionization.

  7. The Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    2003-01-01

    The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in the context of current theories of galaxy formation, developing and using numerical and analytical techniques aimed at a detailed modeling of cosmological radiative transfer, gas dynamics, and thermal and ionization evolution. The ionization history of the IGM has important implications for the metagalactic UV background, intergalactic helium absorption 21-cm tomography, metal absorption systems, fluctuations in the microwave background, and the cosmic rate of structure and star formation. All the original objectives of our program have been achieved, and the results widely used and quoted by the community. Indeed, they remain relevant as the level and complexity of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted, due to new discoveries on galaxy formation and evolution, a flood of high-quality data on the distant universe, new theoretical ideas and direct numerical simulations of structure formation in hierarchical clustering theories.

  8. Intergalactic magnetogenesis at Cosmic Dawn by photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrive, J.-B.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of an astrophysical mechanism that generates cosmological magnetic fields during the Epoch of Reionization. It is based on the photoionization of the intergalactic medium by the first sources formed in the Universe. First the induction equation is derived, then the characteristic length and time-scales of the mechanism are identified, and finally numerical applications are carried out for first stars, primordial galaxies and distant powerful quasars. In these simple examples, the strength of the generated magnetic fields varies between the order of 10-23 G on hundreds of kiloparsecs and 10-19 G on hundreds of parsecs in the neutral intergalactic medium between the Strömgren spheres of the sources. Thus, this mechanism contributes to the premagnetization of the whole Universe before large-scale structures are in place. It operates with any ionizing source, at any time during the Epoch of Reionization. Finally, the generated fields possess a characteristic spatial configuration which may help discriminate these seeds from those produced by different mechanisms.

  9. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields from Quasar Outflows

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Abraham Loeb

    2001-02-05

    Outflows from quasars inevitably pollute the intergalactic medium (IGM) with magnetic fields. The short-lived activity of a quasar leaves behind an expanding magnetized bubble in the IGM. We model the expansion of the remnant quasar bubbles and calculate their distribution as a function of size and magnetic field strength at different redshifts. We generically find that by a redshift z=3, about 5-20% of the IGM volume is filled by magnetic fields with an energy density >10% of the mean thermal energy density of a photo-ionized IGM (at T=10^4 K). As massive galaxies and X-ray clusters condense out of the magnetized IGM, the adiabatic compression of the magnetic field could result in the field strength observed in these systems without a need for further dynamo amplification. The intergalactic magnetic field could also provide a nonthermal contribution to the pressure of the photo-ionized gas that may account for the claimed discrepancy between the simulated and observed Doppler width distributions of the Ly-alpha forest.

  10. A NEW WAY OF DETECTING INTERGALACTIC BARYONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lieu, Richard; Duan Lingze

    2013-02-01

    For each photon wave packet of extragalactic light, the dispersion by line-of-sight intergalactic plasma causes an increase in the envelope width and a chirp (drift) in the carrier frequency. It is shown that for continuous emission of many temporally overlapping wave packets with random epoch phases such as quasars in the radio band, this in turn leads to quasi-periodic variations in the intensity of the arriving light on timescales between the coherence time (defined as the reciprocal of the bandwidth of frequency selection, taken here as of order 0.01 GHz for radio observations) and the stretched envelope, with most of the fluctuation power on the latter scale which is typically in the millisecond range for intergalactic dispersion. Thus, by monitoring quasar light curves on such short scales, it should be possible to determine the line-of-sight plasma column along the many directions and distances to the various quasars, affording one a three-dimensional picture of the ionized baryons in the near universe.

  11. Absorption of High Energy Gamma-Rays by Low Energy Intergalactic Photons

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; O. C. De Jager

    1995-01-18

    Following our previously proposed technique, we have used the recent gamma-ray observations of Mrk 421 to place theoretically significant constraints on and possible estimates of the intergalactic infrared radiation field (IIRF) which are consistent with normal galactic IR production by stars and dust and rule out exotic mechanisms proposed to produce a larger IIRF. Using models for the low energy intergalactic photon spectrum from microwave to UV energies, we calculate the opacity of inter- galactic space to gamma-rays as a function of energy and redshift. These calculations indicate that the GeV gamma-ray burst recently observed by the EGRET experiment on CGRO originates at a redshift less than approximately 1.5.

  12. Constraints on dark matter from intergalactic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overduin, J. M.; Wesson, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several of the dark matter candidates that have been proposed are believed to be unstable to decay, which would contribute photons to the radiation field between galaxies. The main candidates of this type are light neutrinos and axions, primordial mini-black holes, and a nonzero 'vacuum' energy. All of these can be constrained in nature by observational data on the extragalactic background light and the microwave background radiation. Black holes and the vacuum can be ruled out as significant contributors to the 'missing mass'. Light axions are also unlikely candidates; however, those with extremely small rest energies (the so-called 'invisible' axions) remain feasible. Light neutrinos, like those proposed by Sciama, are marginally viable. In general, we believe that the intergalactic radiation field is an important way of constraining all types of dark matter.

  13. Intergalactic medium heating by dark matter

    E-print Network

    E. Ripamonti; M. Mapelli; A. Ferrara

    2006-12-12

    We derive the evolution of the energy deposition in the intergalactic medium (IGM) by dark matter (DM) decays/annihilations for both sterile neutrinos and light dark matter (LDM) particles. At z > 200 sterile neutrinos transfer a fraction f_abs~0.5 of their rest mass energy into the IGM; at lower redshifts this fraction becomes 300) redshift, dropping to ~0.1 below z=100. These results indicate that the impact of DM decays/annihilations on the IGM thermal and ionization history is less important than previously thought. We find that sterile neutrinos (LDM) decays are able to increase the IGM temperature by z=5 at most up to 4K (100K), about 50-200 times less than predicted by estimates based on the assumption of complete energy transfer to the gas.

  14. The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This grant is associated to a 5-year LTSA grant, on "Studying the Largest Reservoir of Baryons in the Universe: The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium". The first year of work within this program has been very rich, and has already produced several important results, as detailed in this paper. Table 2 of our original proposal justification, listed the planned year-by-year program, divided into two sub-fields: (A) the study of the z=0 (or Local Group WHIM) system, and (B) the study of the z greater than 0 (i.e- intervening WHIM) systems. For each of the two sub-fields we had planned to analyze, in the first year, a number of archival (Chandra, XMM and FUSE) and new (if observed) sightlines. Moreover, the plan for the z=0 system included the search for new interesting sightlines. We have accomplished all these tasks.

  15. Galaxies, Intergalactic Absorption Lines, and Feedback at High Redshift

    E-print Network

    Kurt L. Adelberger

    2005-04-26

    The galaxy-IGM part of the Lyman-break survey currently consists of measured redshifts for more than 1000 galaxies with redshift 1.5intergalactic medium of energetic feedback from star and black-hole formation. This talk begins with a description of the observed correlations between galaxies and intergalactic absorption lines and ends with a discussion of whether any of the observations provide clear evidence for Mpc-scale superwinds. Although our own observations remain fairly ambiguous, other observations disfavor a very high redshift (z~10) for the creation of intergalactic metals.

  16. Colour corrections for high redshift objects due to intergalactic attenuation

    E-print Network

    Avery Meiksin

    2005-12-16

    Corrections to the magnitudes of high redshift objects due to intergalactic attenuation are computed using current estimates of the properties of the intergalactic medium. The results of numerical simulations are used to estimate the contributions to resonant scattering from the higher order Lyman transitions. Differences of 0.5-1 magnitude from the previous estimate of Madau (1995) are found. Intergalactic k_IGM-corrections and colours are provided for high redshift starburst galaxies and Type I and Type II QSOs for several filter systems used in current and planned deep optical and infra-red surveys.

  17. Radio Foregrounds for the 21cm Tomography of the Neutral Intergalactic Medium at High Redshifts

    E-print Network

    Tiziana Di Matteo; Rosalba Perna; Tom Abel; Martin J. Rees

    2001-09-16

    Absorption or emission against the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) may be observed in the redshifted 21cm line if the spin temperature of the neutral intergalactic medium prior to reionization differs from the CMB temperature. This so-called 21cm tomography should reveal important information on the physical state of the intergalactic medium at high redshifts. The fluctuations in the redshifted 21 cm, due to gas density inhomogeneities at early times, should be observed at meter wavelengths by the next generation radio telescopes such as the proposed {\\it Square Kilometer Array (SKA)}. Here we show that the extra-galactic radio sources provide a serious contamination to the brightness temperature fluctuations expected in the redshifted 21 cm emission from the IGM at high redshifts. Unless the radio source population cuts off at flux levels above the planned sensitivity of SKA, its clustering noise component will dominate the angular fluctuations in the 21 cm signal. The integrated foreground signal is smooth in frequency space and it should nonetheless be possible to identify the sharp spectral feature arising from the non-uniformities in the neutral hydrogen density during the epoch when the first UV sources reionize the intergalactic medium.

  18. Enrichment of the Intergalactic Medium by the Milky Way Subgroup

    E-print Network

    Leticia Carigi

    2001-08-27

    I study the effect of the galaxies of the Milky Way subgroup on the chemical enrichment of the diffuse gas within the Local Group. The preferred model predicts that the present-day intergalactic medium mass is 1/22 of the initial baryonic mass and its metallicity is 1/20 $Z_\\odot$. Nearly 80 % of intergalactic metals were produced in the Galactic bulge.

  19. Galaxies and Intergalactic Matter at Redshift z~3: Overview

    E-print Network

    K. L. Adelberger; C. C. Steidel; A. E. Shapley; M. Pettini

    2002-10-14

    We present the first results from a survey of the relative spatial distributions of galaxies, intergalactic neutral hydrogen, and intergalactic metals at high redshift. We obtained high-resolution spectra of 8 bright QSOs at 3.1intergalactic medium contains less neutral hydrogen than the global average within rintergalactic medium within the largest overdensities at z~3, which will presumably evolve into the intracluster medium by z~0, is rich in neutral hydrogen and CIV. The lack of HI absorption at small distances from LBGs appears unlikely to be produced solely by the Lyman continuum radiation they emit; it may show that the galaxies' supernovae-driven winds maintain their measured outflow velocities of ~600 km/s for a few hundred million years and drive away nearby intergalactic gas. We present correlation functions of galaxies with Lyman-alpha forest flux decrements, with CIV systems, and with other galaxies. We describe the association of galaxies with damped Lyman-a systems and with intergalactic HeII opacity. A strong observed correlation of galaxies with intergalactic metals supports the idea that Lyman-break galaxies' winds have enriched their surroundings.

  20. The Multiphase Intergalactic Medium towards PKS 2155-304

    E-print Network

    J. Michael Shull; Jason Tumlinson; Mark Giroux

    2003-07-25

    We study the cluster of H I and O VI absorption systems and the claimed detection of O VIII absorption from the intergalactic medium at z ~ 0.0567, associated with a group of galaxies toward the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. As measured by spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope, Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer, and Chandra, this system appears to contain gas at a variety of temperatures. We analyze this multi-phase gas in a clumpy-infall model. From the absence of C IV and Si III absorption in the Ly-alpha clouds, we infer metallicities less than 2.5-10% of solar values. The only metals are detected in two O VI absorption components, offset by +/- 400 km/s from the group barycenter (cz ~ 16,600 km/s). The O VI components may signify "nearside" and "backside" infall into the group potential well, which coincides with the claimed O VIII absorption. If the claimed O VIII detection is real, our analysis suggests that clusters of strong Ly-alpha and O VI absorbers, associated with groups of galaxies, may be the "signposts" of shock-heated, metal-enriched baryons. Through combined UV and X-ray spectra of H I and O VI, O VII, and O VIII, one may be able to clarify the heating mechanism of this multiphase gas.

  1. On the intergalactic temperature-density relation

    E-print Network

    McQuinn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological simulations of the low-density intergalactic medium exhibit a strikingly tight power-law relation between temperature and density that holds over two decades in density. It is found that this relation should roughly apply Delta z ~ 1-2 after a reionization event, and this limiting behavior has motivated the power-law parameterizations used in most analyses of the Ly-alpha forest. This relation has been explained by using equations linearized in the baryonic overdensity (which does not address why a tight power-law relation holds over two decades in density) or by equating the photoheating rate with the cooling rate from cosmological expansion (which we show is incorrect). Previous explanations also did not address why recombination cooling and Compton cooling off of the cosmic microwave background, which are never negligible, do not alter the character of this relation. We provide an understanding for why a tight power-law relation arises for unshocked gas at all densities for which collisional c...

  2. Detecting the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Herder, Jan-Willem; Paerels, Frits B. S.; Rasmussen, Andrew; Bruijn, Marcel; Hoevers, Henk; Kaastra, Jelle S.; Kahn, Steven M.; de Korte, Piet A.; Scharf, Caleb

    2004-10-01

    A very significant fraction of the baryonic matter in the local universe is predicted to form a Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) of very low density, moderately hot gas, tracing the cosmic web. Its X-ray emission is dominated by metal features, but is weak (< 0.01 photons/cm2/s/sr) and potentially hard to separate from the galactic component. However, a mission capable of directly mapping this component of the large scale structure of the universe, via a small number of well chosen emission lines, is now within reach due to recent improvements in cryogenic X-ray detector energy resolution. To map the WHIM, the energy resolution and grasp are optimized. A number of missions have been proposed to map the missing baryons including MBE (US/SMEX program) and DIOS (Japan). The design of the mirror and detector have still room for improvements which will be discussed. With these improvements it is feasible to map a 10 x 10 degree area of the sky in 2 years out to z = 0.2 with sufficient sensitivity to directly detect WHIM structure, such as filaments connecting clusters of galaxies. This structure is predicted by the current Cold Dark Matter paradigm which thus far appears to provide a good description of the distribution of matter as traced by galaxies.

  3. Giant Radio Galaxies: I. Intergalactic Barometers

    E-print Network

    Malarecki, J M; Saripalli, L; Subrahmanyan, R; Jones, D H; Duffy, A R; Rioja, M

    2013-01-01

    We present new wideband radio observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array of a sample of 12 giant radio galaxies. The radio observations are part of a larger radio-optical study aimed at relating the radio structures with the ambient medium on large scales. With projected linear sizes larger than 0.7 Mpc, these objects are ideal candidates for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The sample includes sources with sizes spanning 0.8 to 3.2 Mpc and total powers of 1.2*10^24 to 4.0*10^26 W Hz^-1 at 2.1 GHz. Redshifts were limited to z<0.15 to permit spectroscopic observations of the hosts and neighbouring galaxies, which were obtained using the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. We derive lobe energy densities from the radio observations via equipartition arguments. The inferred pressures in the lobes of the giant radio sources, which range from 1.1*10^-15 to 2.0*10^-14 Pa (80 to 1500 cm^-3 K), are lower than previously inferred from X-ray observations of dens...

  4. Intergalactic dust and its photoelectric heating

    E-print Network

    Akio K. Inoue; Hideyuki Kamaya

    2008-10-31

    We have examined the dust photoelectric heating in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The heating rate in a typical radiation field of the IGM is represented by $\\Gamma_{\\rm pe} = 1.2\\times10^{-34}$ erg s$^{-1}$ cm$^{-3}$ $({\\cal D}/10^{-4})(n_{\\rm H}/10^{-5} {\\rm cm^{-3}})^{4/3} (J_{\\rm L}/10^{-21} {\\rm erg s^{-1} cm^{-2} Hz^{-1} sr^{-1}})^{2/3} (T/10^4 {\\rm K})^{-1/6}$, where ${\\cal D}$ is the dust-to-gas mass ratio, $n_{\\rm H}$ is the hydrogen number density, $J_{\\rm L}$ is the mean intensity at the hydrogen Lyman limit of the background radiation, and $T$ is the gas temperature, if we assume the new X-ray photoelectric yield model by Weingartner et al. (2006) and the dust size distribution in the Milky Way by Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck (1977). This heating rate dominates the HI and HeII photoionization heating rates when the hydrogen number density is less than $\\sim10^{-6}$ cm$^{-3}$ if ${\\cal D}=10^{-4}$ which is 1% of that in the Milky Way, although the heating rate is a factor of 2--4 smaller than that with the old yield model by Weingartner & Draine (2001). The grain size distribution is very important. If only large ($\\ge0.1$ $\\mu$m) grains exist in the IGM, the heating rate is reduced by a factor of $\\simeq5$. Since the dust heating is more efficient in a lower density medium relative to the photoionization heating, it may cause an inverted temperature--density relation in the low density IGM suggested by Bolton et al. (2008). Finally, we have found that the dust heating is not very important in the mean IGM before the cosmic reionization.

  5. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Ly? forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ˜100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ? 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Ly? flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at ?F, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find ?F = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Ly? forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope ? of the temperature-density relation T={T}0{(? /\\bar{? })}? -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter ?F.

  6. FIREBALL: The Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon --Overview and 1st Science Flight Results

    E-print Network

    Martin, Chris

    FIREBALL: The Faint Intergalactic medium Redshifted Emission Balloon -- Overview and 1st Science Physics Inc., P.O. Box 266, Altadena, CA 91003, USA ABSTRACT FIREBALL (the Faint Intergalactic Redshifted. FIREBALL is designed to study the faint and diffuse emission of the intergalactic medium, until now

  7. accepted by the Astronomical Journal Intergalactic HII Regions Discovered in SINGG

    E-print Network

    Zwaan, Martin

    accepted by the Astronomical Journal Intergalactic HII Regions Discovered in SINGG E. V. Ryan but #12;nite intergalactic star formation rate will enrich and ionize the surrounding medium. In one: formation | galaxies: halos | intergalactic medium | galaxies: star clusters 1. Introduction H ii regions

  8. arXiv:astroph/0407236 Planetary Nebulae as Tracers of the Intergalactic

    E-print Network

    Buzzoni, Alberto

    arXiv:astro­ph/0407236 v1 12 Jul 2004 Planetary Nebulae as Tracers of the Intergalactic Stellar limit at #24; 7% for the global B luminosity of the cluster provided by \\loose" intergalactic stars. 1 with the expected properties of the di#11;use stellar component of the intergalactic medium. #12; 2 A. Buzzoni & M

  9. Heavy element enrichment in low density regions of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Cowie, Antoinette Songaila

    Heavy element enrichment in low density regions of the intergalactic medium Lennox L. Cowie Submitted to Nature, 1/21/98 #12; -- 2 -- Pregalactic enrichment models 1, 2 for the diffuse intergalactic medium pre­ dict that at low cosmological overdensities the intergalactic gas at high redshift should

  10. Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004

    E-print Network

    Koribalski, Bärbel

    Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004 Pierre of the intergalactic gas cloud HIPASS J0731{69, and re-examine the question of its origin in light of these new data. 1. Background An intergalactic gas cloud was discovered serendipitously during the course of the H i Parkes All

  11. Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004

    E-print Network

    Briggs, Frank H.

    Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004 Pierre-Alain Duc, Jonathan Braine and Elias Brinks, eds. Intergalactic HI Clouds F.H. Briggs RSAA, Mount Stromlo Observatory, ANU Cotter Road Weston Creek 2611 ACT Australia Abstract. Neutral intergalactic clouds are so

  12. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUMGALAXY CONNECTION TOWARD PKS 0405123. I. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY AND METAL-LINE SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Howk, Jay Christopher

    PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM­GALAXY CONNECTION TOWARD PKS 0405À123. I. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY, or is in a nonequilibrium state. This contrasts with the general description of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM and indicates enrichment of the intergalactic medium over the past %10 Gyr. Subject headings: galaxies

  13. H i GAS IN HIGHER DENSITY REGIONS OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM1 Toru Misawa,2

    E-print Network

    Iye, Masanori

    H i GAS IN HIGHER DENSITY REGIONS OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM1 Toru Misawa,2 David Tytler,3 intergalactic medium gas, whereas the HDLs are likely to be cooler dense gas near to galaxies. Key words: galaxies: ISM -- intergalactic medium -- quasars: absorption lines 1. INTRODUCTION Quasars have been used

  14. Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004

    E-print Network

    Koribalski, Bärbel

    Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004 Pierre-Alain Duc, Jonathan Braine and Elias Brinks, eds. Studies of an Intergalactic HI Cloud Jayanne English School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University Abstract. An intergalactic HI

  15. Effects of the Intergalactic Plasma on Supernova Dimming via Photon-Axion Oscillations

    E-print Network

    Csaba Csaki; Nemanja Kaloper; John Terning

    2001-12-17

    We have recently proposed a mechanism of photon-axion oscillations as a way of rendering supernovae dimmer without cosmic acceleration. Subsequently, it has been argued that the intergalactic plasma may interfere adversely with this mechanism by rendering the oscillations energy dependent. Here we show that this energy dependence is extremely sensitive to the precise value of the free electron density in the Universe. Decreasing the electron density by only a factor of 4 is already sufficient to bring the energy dependence within the experimental bounds. Models of the intergalactic medium show that for redshifts z<1 about 97% of the total volume of space is filled with regions of density significantly lower than the average density. From these models we estimate that the average electron density in most of space is lower by at least a factor of 15 compared to the estimate based on one half of all baryons being uniformly distributed and ionized. Therefore the energy dependence of the photon-axion oscillations is consistent with experiment, and the oscillation model remains a viable alternative to the accelerating Universe for explaining the supernova observations. Furthermore, the electron density does give rise to a sufficiently large plasma frequency which cuts off the photon-axion mixing above microwave frequencies, shielding the cosmic microwave photons from axion conversions and significantly relaxing the lower bounds on the axion mass implied by the oscillation model.

  16. Soft X-Ray Absorption by High-Redshift Intergalactic Helium.

    PubMed

    Miralda-Escudé

    2000-01-01

    The Lyalpha absorption from intergalactic, once-ionized helium (He ii) has been measured with the Hubble Space Telescope in four quasars over the last few years in the redshift range 2.4intergalactic medium (IGM) can be completely optically thick to Lyalpha photons when only a small fraction of the helium remains as He ii. In addition, finding quasars in which the He ii Lyalpha absorption can be observed becomes increasingly difficult at higher redshift owing to the large abundance of hydrogen Lyman limit systems. It is pointed out here that He ii in the IGM should also cause detectable continuum absorption in the soft X-rays. The spectrum of a high-redshift source seen behind the IGM when most of the helium was He ii should recover from the He ii Lyman continuum absorption at an observed energy of approximately 0.1 keV. Galactic absorption will generally be stronger, but not by a large factor; the intergalactic He ii absorption can be detected as an excess over the expected Galactic absorption from the 21 cm H i column density. In principle, this method allows a direct determination of the fraction of helium that was singly ionized as a function of redshift if the measurement is done on a large sample of high-redshift sources over a range of redshifts. PMID:10587481

  17. Particle mesh simulations of the Lyman-alpha forest and the signature of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    White, Martin; Carlson, Jordan; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Fasel, Patricia; Daniel, David; Lukic, Zarija

    2009-01-01

    We present a set of ultra-large particle-mesh simulations of the LyA forest targeted at understanding the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) in the inter-galactic medium. We use 9 dark matter only simulations which can, for the first time, simultaneously resolve the Jeans scale of the intergalactic gas while covering the large volumes required to adequately sample the acoustic feature. Mock absorption spectra are generated using the fluctuating Gunn-Peterson approximation which have approximately correct flux probability density functions (PDFs) and small-scale power spectra. On larger scales there is clear evidence in the redshift space correlation function for an acoustic feature, which matches a linear theory template with constant bias. These spectra, which we make publicly available, can be used to test pipelines, plan future experiments and model various physical effects. As an illustration we discuss the basic properties of the acoustic signal in the forest, the scaling of errors with noise ...

  18. Extinction by grey dust in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Ernst Fischer

    2003-06-23

    Condensation in the outer regions of decaying supernovae is an efficient source of dust with grain size up to 1 micron. The largest grains leave the parent galaxy, thus forming "grey" intergalactic dust, which can explain the observed dimming of light from distant supernovae without invoking cosmic acceleration

  19. High Redshift Intergalactic Medium: Probes and Physical Models

    E-print Network

    Shiv K. Sethi

    2004-11-02

    Recent years have seen major advances in understanding the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift. Some aspects of this understanding are reviewed here. In particular, we discuss: (1) Different probes of IGM like Gunn-Peterson test, CMBR anisotropies, and neutral hydrogen emission from reionization, and (2) some models of reionization of the universe.

  20. X-ray absorption by the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Fang, Taotao, 1970-

    2001-01-01

    I have studied the intergalactic medium (IGM) located in galaxy clusters and groups via the so-called "X-ray Forest" the X-ray absorption lines produced by the hot IGM. I gave a semi-analytic calculation of the X-ray forest ...

  1. A Population of Intergalactic Supernovae in Galaxy Clusters

    E-print Network

    Avishay Gal-Yam; Dan Maoz; Puragra Guhathakurta; Alexei V. Filippenko

    2002-11-14

    We have discovered seven type Ia cluster supernovae (SNe) in the course of the Wise Observatory Optical Transients Search in the fields of galaxy clusters with redshifts between z=0.06 and z=0.2. Two of these events, SN 1998fc in Abell 403 (z=0.10) and SN 2001al in Abell 2122/4 (z = 0.066), have no obvious hosts. Both events appear projected on the halos of the central cD galaxies, but have velocity offsets of 750-2000 km/s relative to those galaxies, suggesting they are not bound to them. We use deep Keck imaging of the locations of the two SNe to put upper limits on the luminosities of possible dwarf hosts, M_R > -14 mag for SN 1998fc and M_R > -11.8 mag for SN 2001al. The fractions of the cluster luminosities in dwarf galaxies fainter than our limits are less than 3 x 10^-3 and 3 x 10^-4, respectively. Thus, 2/7 of the SNe would be associated with less than 3 x 10^-3 of the luminosity attributed to galaxies. We argue, instead, that the progenitors of both events were probably members of a diffuse population of intergalactic stars, recently detected in local clusters via planetary nebulae and red giants. Considering the higher detectability of hostless SNe compared to normal SNe, we estimate that 20^{+12}_{-15} percent of the SN Ia parent stellar population in clusters is intergalactic. This fraction is consistent with other measurements of the intergalactic stellar population, and implies that the process that produces intergalactic stars (e.g., tidal disruption of cluster dwarfs) does not disrupt or enhance significantly the SN Ia formation mechanism. Hostless SNe are potentially powerful tracers of the formation of the intergalactic stellar population out to high redshift.

  2. Flows of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through the infall of gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) and through the accretion of smaller building blocks. At the same time, galaxies return chemically enriched gas and radiation to intergalactic space. At high redshift, where these processes are most active, our understanding of the underlying physical processes is largely limited to theoretical modeling, as the constituents of a galactic halo (tenuous gas and distributed stellar populations) are hard to observe.I will report on how ultra-deep spectroscopic searches for HI Lyman alpha and other emission features combined with deep HST imaging can be used to pinpoint actively forming galactic halos and to observe their gaseous and stellar ingredients, giving us detailed observational insights into exchanges of matter and radiation between high z galaxies and the IGM.Galaxies hosting extended, often spatially asymmetric Lyman alpha halos have started to yield plausible glimpses of accretion streams. Such observations suggest a more complicated picture of the metal enrichment of the IGM than often implied by the simplest "outflow" paradigm, emphasizing the role of satellite galaxies and interactions within a halo, and of relative motions between galaxies and the IGM.

  3. Constraints on Dark Matter annihilations from reionization and heating of the intergalactic gas

    E-print Network

    Marco Cirelli; Fabio Iocco; Paolo Panci

    2009-09-15

    Dark Matter annihilations after recombination and during the epoch of structure formation deposit energy in the primordial intergalactic medium, producing reionization and heating. We investigate the constraints that are imposed by the observed optical depth of the Universe and the measured temperature of the intergalactic gas. We find that the bounds are significant, and have the power to rule out large portions of the `DM mass/cross section' parameter space. The optical depth bound is generally stronger and does not depend significantly on the history of structure formation. The temperature bound can be competitive in some cases for small masses or the hadronic annihilation channels (and is affected somewhat by the details of structure formation). We find in particular that DM particles with a large annihilation cross section into leptons and a few TeV mass, such as those needed to explain the PAMELA and FERMI+HESS cosmic ray excesses in terms of Dark Matter, are ruled out as they produce too many free electrons. We also find that low mass particles (<~ 10 GeV) tend to heat too much the gas and are therefore disfavored.

  4. Constraints on Dark Matter annihilations from reionization and heating of the intergalactic gas

    SciTech Connect

    Cirelli, Marco; Iocco, Fabio; Panci, Paolo E-mail: iocco@iap.fr

    2009-10-01

    Dark Matter annihilations after recombination and during the epoch of structure formation deposit energy in the primordial intergalactic medium, producing reionization and heating. We investigate the constraints that are imposed by the observed optical depth of the Universe and the measured temperature of the intergalactic gas. We find that the bounds are significant, and have the power to rule out large portions of the 'DM mass/cross section' parameter space. The optical depth bound is generally stronger and does not depend significantly on the history of structure formation. The temperature bound can be competitive in some cases for small masses or the hadronic annihilation channels (and is affected somewhat by the details of structure formation). We find in particular that DM particles with a large annihilation cross section into leptons and a few TeV mass, such as those needed to explain the PAMELA and FERMI+HESS cosmic ray excesses in terms of Dark Matter, are ruled out as they produce too many free electrons. We also find that low mass particles (?< 10 GeV) tend to heat too much the gas and are therefore disfavored.

  5. Physics of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Draine, Bruce T.

    @astro.princeton.edu . A Solutions Manual for use by instructors is available from Princeton University Press ­ see http.7% of the interstellar mass is in the form of dust in spherical particles of radius a = 1000 °A = 0.1 µm and density 2 g cm-3 , what is the mean number density of dust grains in interstellar space? (c) Let Qext

  6. DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor): the Dark Baryon Exploring Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawara, Yuzuru; Ohashi, Takaya; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2015-08-01

    More than half of the baryons are unidentified in the local Universe, and majority of them are thought to reside along the large-scale structure in the form of Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). The 3-dimensional structure of WHIM will be probed by observing redshifted oxygen emission lines with high resolution X-ray spectrometers. DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) has been developed aiming for a launch by JAXA’s Epsilon Launch Vehicle around 2020. The payload consists of a 4-reflection X-ray telescope and a TES calorimeter array cooled by mechanical coolers. With a large grasp (area times f.o.v.) over 100 cm2 deg2, DIOS will identify 30-40% of dark baryons and will show us gas dynamics of cosmic plasmas from Earth’s megnetosphere to cluster outskirts. We describe the design and outstanding issues of DIOS.

  7. Missing baryons and the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Stars and gas in galaxies, hot intracluster medium, and intergalactic photo-ionized gas make up at most half of the baryons that are expected to be present in the universe. The majority of baryons are still missing and are expected to be hidden in a web of warm-hot intergalactic medium. This matter was shock-heated during the collapse of density perturbations that led to the formation of the relaxed structures that we see today. Finding the missing baryons and thereby producing a complete inventory of possibly the only detectable component of the energy-mass budget of the universe is crucial to validate or invalidate our standard cosmological model. PMID:18174432

  8. Towards discrimination between galactic and intergalactic axion-photon mixing

    E-print Network

    Sergey Troitsky

    2015-09-19

    There exists a growing evidence for the anomalous transparency of the Universe for energetic gamma rays. Popular explanations include conversion of photons into hypothetical axion-like particles (ALPs) and back in astrophysical magnetic fields. Two distinctive scenarios of this conversion have been put forward: either it happens in the (host galaxy of the) gamma-ray source and in the Milky Way, or the photon-ALP oscillations take place in the intergalactic magnetic fields all along the way between the source and the observer. Here we point out that, given recent astrophysical constraints on ALPs and on intergalactic magnetic fields, these two mechanisms imply very different ALP masses and couplings. Therefore, confirmation of the anomalies and identification of one of the scenarios would mean cornering of ALP parameters to a particular narrow region. We discuss approaches to distinguish between the two mechanisms and present some preliminary indications in favour of the galactic scenario.

  9. Cosmic far ultraviolet background. [observations for intergalactic medium properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, A.; Bowyer, S.; Lampton, M.

    1974-01-01

    The expected intensities of various possible components of the far ultraviolet background are discussed. It is concluded that existing results do not place interesting constraints on the density of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Current techniques and instrumentation for far ultraviolet astronomy are, however, sufficient to achieve vastly improved limits. New observations are required to determine whether the IGM can be detected in the far ultraviolet or whether the extragalactic component of the background is masked by radiation with a more local origin.

  10. Metal enrichment of the high-z intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Yu. A. Shchekinov

    2002-05-19

    Recent observations show the presence of metals in low-density Ly$\\alpha$ forest absorbers at high redshift ($z\\sim 3$). It remains still far from being clearly understood what mechanisms spread metals over Mpc scales from the parent galaxies, whether metals are homogeneously distributed in the intergalactic medium (IGM), how metallicity of the IGM does evolve. These questions are briefly addressed in this review.

  11. An updated analytic model for attenuation by the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio K.; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Iwata, Ikuru; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    We present an updated version of the so-called Madau model for attenuation of the radiation from distant objects by intergalactic neutral hydrogen. First, we derive the distribution function of intergalactic absorbers from the latest observational statistics of the Ly? forest, Lyman-limit systems and damped Ly? systems. The distribution function reproduces the observed redshift evolution of the Ly? depression and the mean-free path of the Lyman continuum excellently and simultaneously. We then derive a set of analytic functions describing the mean intergalactic attenuation curve for objects at z > 0.5. The new model predicts less (or more) Ly? attenuation for z ? 3-5 (z > 6) sources through the usual broad-band filters relative to the original Madau model. This may cause a systematic difference in the photometric redshift estimates, which is, however, still small: about 0.05. Finally, we find a more than 0.5 mag overestimation of Lyman-continuum attenuation in the original Madau model at z > 3, which causes a significant overcorrection against direct observations of the Lyman continuum of galaxies.

  12. Intergalactic Dust and Observations of Type Ia Supernovae

    E-print Network

    Anthony N. Aguirre

    1999-06-24

    Estimates of the cosmic star formation rate and of cluster metallicities independently imply that at z intergalactic medium (IGM) by ejection of metals and dust from galaxies via winds, in mergers or in dust efflux driven by radiation pressure. Galaxies have a dust/metal ratio of ~ 0.5 in their interstellar media, but some fraction (1-f) > 0 of this must be destroyed in the IGM or during the ejection process. Assuming the Draine & Lee dust model and preferential destruction of small grains, I calculate the reddening and extinction of a uniform cosmological dust component in terms of (f) and the minimum grain size a_min. Very small grains provide most of the reddening but less than half of the opacity for optical extinction. For f > 0.3 and a_min > 0.1 microns, the intergalactic dust would be too grey to have been detected by its reddening, yet dense enough to be cosmologically important: it could account for the recently observed type Ia supernova dimming at z ~ 0.5 without cosmic acceleration. The importance of grey intergalactic dust of the described type can be tested by observations of z=0.5 supernovae in (rest) R-band or longer wavelengths and by the fluxes of a large sample of supernovae at z > 1. (Abridged)

  13. The Temperature Structure of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Naoki Yoshida; Steven Furlanetto; Lars Hernquist

    2004-11-30

    We study the temperature structure of the intergalactic medium (IGM) using a large cosmological N-body/SPH simulation. We employ a two-temperature model for the thermal evolution of the ionized gas, in which the relaxation process between electrons and ions is explicitly included. In the diffuse, hot IGM, the relaxation time is comparable to the age of the Universe and hence the electron temperature in post-shock regions remains significantly smaller than the ion temperature. We show that, at the present epoch, a large fraction of the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) has a well-developed two temperature structure, with typical temperature differences of order a factor of a few. Consequently, the fraction of metals in various ionization states such as OVI, OVII, and OVIII, as well as their line emissivities, can differ locally by more than an order of magnitude from those computed with a single temperature model. It is thus necessary to follow the evolution of the electron temperature explicitly to determine absorption and emission by the WHIM. Although equipartition is nearly achieved in the denser intracluster medium (ICM), we find an appreciable systematic deviation between the gas-mass weighted electron temperature and the mean temperature even at half the virial radii of clusters. There is thus a reservoir of warm (Te Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor and the Missing Baryon Explorer.

  14. Bent-Double Radio Sources as Probes of Intergalactic Gas

    E-print Network

    E. Freeland; R. F. Cardoso; E. Wilcots

    2008-06-24

    As the most common environment in the universe, groups of galaxies are likely to contain a significant fraction of the missing baryons in the form of intergalactic gas. The density of this gas is an important factor in whether ram pressure stripping and strangulation affect the evolution of galaxies in these systems. We present a method for measuring the density of intergalactic gas using bent-double radio sources that is independent of temperature, making it complementary to current absorption line measurements. We use this method to probe intergalactic gas in two different environments: inside a small group of galaxies as well as outside of a larger group at a 2 Mpc radius and measure total gas densities of $4 \\pm 1_{-2}^{+6} \\times 10^{-3}$ and $9 \\pm 3_{-5}^{+10} \\times 10^{-4}$ per cubic centimeter (random and systematic errors) respectively. We use X-ray data to place an upper limit of $2 \\times 10^6$ K on the temperature of the intragroup gas in the small group.

  15. Fluctuations in the Radio Background from Intergalactic Synchrotron Emission

    E-print Network

    Eli Waxman; Abraham Loeb

    2000-07-05

    The shocks produced in the intergalactic medium during large-scale structure formation accelerate a population of highly relativistic electrons which emit synchrotron radiation due to intergalactic magnetic fields. In a previous paper (Loeb & Waxman 2000) we have shown that these electrons cool primarily by inverse-Compton scattering of the microwave background photons and can thereby produce the observed intensity and spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background. Here we calculate the intensity and angular fluctuations of the radio synchrotron background that results from the same high-energy electrons, as well as the expected angular fluctuations in the gamma-ray background. On angular scales smaller than a degree, the predicted fluctuations in the microwave background temperature are of order 40micro-K*(xi_B/0.01)(nu/10 GHz)^{-3}, where xi_B is the magnetic fraction of the post-shock energy density. This foreground might have already dominated the anisotropy signal detected in existing low-frequency CMB experiments, and can be identified with confidence through multi-frequency observations. Detection of the synchrotron fluctuations would allow to determine the strength of the intergalactic magnetic field. We predict a strong correlation between high-resolution maps taken at low-frequency radio waves and at high-energy gamma-rays. Young X-ray clusters may also appear as radio or gamma-ray clusters. The detailed study of this correlation will become easily accessible with the future launch of GLAST.

  16. Bar-driven injection of intergalactic matter into galactic halos

    E-print Network

    M. Lopez-Corredoira

    2007-03-15

    AIMS. The non-conservative gravitational potential of barred galaxies, or of any other non-axisymmetric structure, produces a loss of energy in infalling particles of the intergalactic medium into the galaxy, which are trapped in its potential. This dynamical friction can contribute towards increasing the total mass of barred galaxies. METHODS. Analytical calculations of the energy loss are carried out using the orbits of the particles derived numerically. Theoretical predictions are compared with observations through the statistical analysis of the rotation curves of barred and non-barred galaxies, either in cluster or field galaxies. RESULTS. There is a net effect of accretion, but it is normally very low in relative terms. It is only significant (>10% of the total mass of the dark matter halo in the life of the galaxy) if the density of the intergalactic medium is higher than ~3e13 Msun/Mpc^3 (or considerably lower in cases of motions of the galaxies close to the IGM average motion, or perpendicular to the plane of the galaxy, or when the halo mass is low). Data on rotation curves do not show clear trends towards higher halo mass for barred galaxies, only slight trends for early-type spiral galaxies. In any case, the statistical uncertainties are limited to the detection of differences in masses >~20%, so the effect of bar-driven injection of intergalactic matter into galactic halos might be present with relative contributions to the average mass of these barred galaxies lower than 20%.

  17. Detecting and Mapping Hidden Baryons in the Intergalactic Medium in the Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Christopher

    I discuss several experimental projects underway or proposed designed to discover and map emission from the Intergalactic Medium in the rest ultraviolet. The Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) is a ground-based high resolution spectrometer designed to detect low surface brightness emission from redshifted Lyman alpha, OVI and CIV at Palomar and Keck Observatories, over 2space UV. I will report on preliminary results from FIREBALL and CWI and on technology developments that will support a UV IGM mapping mission in next decade. :

  18. COSMOLOGICAL X-RAY SCATTERING FROM INTERGALACTIC DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Corrales, Lia; Paerels, Frits

    2012-06-01

    High-resolution X-ray imaging offers a unique opportunity to probe the nature of dust in the z {approx}< 2 universe. Dust grains 0.1-1 {mu}m in size will scatter soft X-rays, producing a diffuse 'halo' image around an X-ray point source, with a brightness of {approx} few percent confined to an arcminute-sized region. We derive the formulae for scattering in a cosmological context and calculate the surface brightness of the scattering halo due to (1) an intergalactic medium (IGM) uniformly enriched ({Omega}{sub d} {approx} 10{sup -5}) by a power-law distribution of grain sizes and (2) a damped Ly{alpha} type (N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) dust screen at cosmological distances. The morphology of the surface brightness profile can distinguish between the two scenarios above, place size constraints on dusty clumps, and constrain the homogeneity of the IGM. Thus, X-ray scattering can gauge the relative contribution of the first stars, dwarf galaxies, and galactic outflows to the cosmic metallicity budget and cosmic history of dust. We show that, because the amount of intergalactic scattering is overestimated for photon energies <1 keV, the non-detection of an X-ray scattering halo by Petric et al. is consistent with 'gray' intergalactic dust grains ({Omega}{sub d} {approx} 10{sup -5}) when the data are restricted to the 1-8 keV band. We also calculate the systematic offset in magnitude, {delta}m {approx} 0.01, for such a population of graphite grains, which would affect the type of supernova survey ideal for measuring dark energy parameters within {approx}1% precision.

  19. Time delay and extended halo for constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2015-12-01

    Primary gamma rays emitted from extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE) sources, such as blazars, will generate cascade radiation in intergalactic space with a scale of ? 100 Mpc, for z ? 0.1 and E? ? 1TeV. These cascades proceed through electron-positron pair production and inverse Compton (IC) scattering in the cosmic background radiation fields, mainly cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and extragalactic background light in the voids of the universe. The existence of an intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would deflect paths of electron-positron pairs that scatter CMB photons, causing some observable effects, such as time delay, an extended halo, and a spectral change. Here we reanalyze the diffusion of an electron jet deflected by IGMF and propose a unified semi-analytical model. By using publicly available data from the Fermi/LAT detector and contemporaneous TeV observations, we find that the cascade photon flux is not significantly affected by the IGMF strength for non-variable blazars when the IGMF is weaker than ? 10?16 G. This result is clearly different from previous works that analyzed the extended halo and time delay separately for non-variable blazars and flaring blazars. By applying our model to two extreme blazars (1ES 0229+200 and 1ES 1218+304), we obtain the IGMF lower limit of order ? 10?13 ? 10?14 G in the non-variable case, which is a stronger constraint on the IGMF strength than previous works (? 10?16 ? 10?18 G), and ? 10?18 ? 10?19 G in the case of flaring blazars. Furthermore, we study the light curves and extended halo of the cascade photons by considering the effects of the IGMF.

  20. Intergalactic magnetic field spectra from diffuse gamma-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenlei; Chowdhury, Borun D.; Ferrer, Francesc; Tashiro, Hiroyuki; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2015-07-01

    Non-vanishing parity-odd correlators of gamma-ray arrival directions observed by Fermi-LAT indicate the existence of a helical intergalactic magnetic field with strength B ˜ 10-14 G on ˜10 Mpc scales. We successfully test this hypothesis using more stringent cuts of the data, Monte Carlo simulations with Fermi-LAT time exposure information, separate analyses for the Northern and Southern galactic hemispheres, and confirm predictions made in Tashiro & Vachaspati. With some further technical assumptions, we show how to reconstruct the magnetic helicity spectrum from the parity-odd correlators.

  1. Intergalactic magnetic field spectra from diffuse gamma rays

    E-print Network

    Wenlei Chen; Borun D. Chowdhury; Francesc Ferrer; Hiroyuki Tashiro; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2014-12-10

    Non-vanishing parity-odd correlators of gamma ray arrival directions observed by Fermi-LAT indicate the existence of a helical intergalactic magnetic field (Tashiro et al.2013). We successfully test this hypothesis using more stringent cuts of the data, Monte Carlo simulations with Fermi-LAT time exposure information, separate analyses for the northern and southern galactic hemispheres, and confirm predictions made in Tashiro & Vachaspati (2014). With some further technical assumptions, we show how to reconstruct the magnetic helicity spectrum from the parity-odd correlators.

  2. Abundances in the high-redshift Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Joop Schaye; Anthony Aguirre

    2005-09-06

    The enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with heavy elements provides us with a record of past star formation and with an opportunity to study the interactions between galaxies and their environments. We summarize current data analysis methods and observational constraints on abundances in the diffuse, high-redshift (z > 2) IGM. This review is targeted at interested outsiders and attempts to answer the following questions: Why should you care? What do we want to measure? How do we do it? What do we know? What are the common misconceptions?

  3. Intergalactic Extinction of High Energy Gamma-Rays

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker

    1999-01-19

    We discuss the determination of the intergalactic pair-production absorption coefficient (Stecker & De Jager 1998) making use of an empirically based calculation of the IR background spectrum (Malkan & Stecker 1998) which agrees well with recent data and constraints on the IR background. While the Whipple observations of Mrk421 hint at extragalactic absorption, the new HEGRA observations of Mrk501 appear to strongly indicate such absorption. We discuss the determination of absorption at higher redshifts (Salamon & Stecker 1998). We also give a predicted spectrum, with absorption included, for PKS2155-304, which, at a redshift of 0.12, is the highest redshift TeV source yet observed.

  4. Radiative Transfer Effects during Photoheating of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Tom Abel; Martin G. Haehnelt

    1999-03-06

    The thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) after reionization is to a large extent determined by photoheating. Here we demonstrate that calculations of the photoheating rate which neglect radiative transfer effects substantially underestimate the energy input during and after reionization. The neglect of radiative transfer effects results in temperatures of the IGM which are too low by a factor of two after HeII reionization. We briefly discuss implications for the absorption properties of the IGM and the distribution of baryons in shallow potential wells.

  5. Intergalactic Extinction of High Energy Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the intergalactic pair-production absorption coefficient as derived by Stecker and De Jager by making use of a new empirically based calculation of the spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic infrared radiation field as given by Malkan and Stecker. We show that the results of the Malkan and Stecker calculation agree well with recent data on the infrared background. We then show that Whipple observations of the flaring gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 hint at extragalactic absorption and that the HEGRA observations of the flaring spectrum of Mrk 501 appear to strongly indicate extragalactic absorption. We also discuss the determination of the y-ray opacity at higher redshifts, following the treatment of Salamon and Stecker. We give a predicted spectrum, with absorption included for PKS 2155-304. This XBL lies at a redshift of 0.12, the highest redshift source yet observed at an energy above 0.3 TeV. This source should have its spectrum steepened by approx. 1 in its spectral index between approx. 0.3 and approx. 3 TeV and should show an absorption cutoff above approx. 6 TeV.

  6. Intergalactic magnetic field and the distance of quasars from Faraday rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arp, Halton

    1988-05-01

    In 1968 Sofue, Fujimoto and Kawabata and, later, Reinhardt and Thiel, showed that the amount of Faraday rotation measured for quasars is related to their distance from the observer. Such measures then become the only existing method to directly measure distances of quasars. It is shown here that the observed Faraday rotation as a function of redshift excludes the possibility that quasars are at distances proportional to their redshifts. Systematically larger Faraday rotations are observed for quasars with redshifts z ~ 1. The strongest concentration of z ~ 1 quasars is in an area of the sky ~40° in diameter centered on the Virgo Cluster. The fact that these Faraday rotations are of the same sign demonstrates the existence of an ordered magnetic field throughout a large volume of intergalactic space in the direction toward the Local Supercluster. Quasars with z ~ 2.0 and z ~ 0.5 do not show such Faraday rotations and are confirmed to be at a closer distance. The organized magnetic field discovered in the space around the Virgo Cluster is 3 orders of magnitude larger than any previously known.

  7. Characterizing the Jeans Filtering Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Kulkarni, Girish; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z Ly-alpha forest is degenerate with the 3-D structure of the IGM on ~100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T~$10^4$ K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z Ly-alpha flux, $F_\\mathrm{real}$, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The $F_\\mathrm{real}$ power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at $\\lambda_F$, allowing us to rigorously quanti...

  8. A search for intergalactic hydrogen in the virgo cluster.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S J

    1966-01-01

    A fixed-horn antenna having a beam 10 degrees by 10 degrees , and a switched-load radiometer with traveling-wave-maser preamplifier were used to observe the 21-cm spectrum of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. An upper limit to the antenna temperature is 0.024 degrees K relative to regions outside the cluster with filters whose width is 2 Mc/sec. If the excitation temperature of the intergalactic hydrogen is enough greater than the background continuum radiation so that absorption can be ignored, and if the velocity spectrum is that defined by the galaxies, the density of optically thin neutral hydrogen in the cluster does not exceed that outside of the cluster by an amount that gives 5.6 x 10(12) solar masses in the cluster. PMID:17842090

  9. 3D Spatial Distribution of the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Patrick Petitjean; Emmanuel Rollinde; Bastien Aracil; Christophe Pichon; Stéphane Colombi

    2001-09-06

    Very recently a new inversion method has been developped to analyze the intergalactic medium seen in absorption in quasar spectra (the so-called Lyman-alpha forest). This method is applied to recover the temperature of the gas and the underlying density field. Using constraints from the Lyman-beta forest, it is possible to recover this field up to over-densities delta=10. By inverting the HI and CIV absorptions together it has been shown that the CIV/HI ratio varies through the profile of strong lines, beeing larger in the wings. The method can be applied to reconstruct the 3D density field from multiple lines of sight and is shown to give good results up to mean separations of 3 arcmin. Results from a survey of QSO pairs performed with HST/STIS and VLT/UVES-FORS are summarized.

  10. Probing the intergalactic medium with fast radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Neill, J. D.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-10

    The recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs), presumably of extragalactic origin, have the potential to become a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We point out a few such potential applications. We provide expressions for the dispersion measure and rotation measure as a function of redshift, and we discuss the sensitivity of these measures to the He II reionization and the IGM magnetic field. Finally, we calculate the microlensing effect from an isolated, extragalactic stellar-mass compact object on the FRB spectrum. The time delays between the two lensing images will induce constructive and destructive interference, leaving a specific imprint on the spectra of FRBs. With a high all-sky rate, a large statistical sample of FRBs is expected to make these applications feasible.

  11. Implications for High Energy Blazar Spectra from Intergalactic Absorption Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F

    2008-01-01

    Given a knowledge of the density spectra intergalactic low energy photons as a function of redshift, one can derive the intrinsic gamma-ray spectra and luminosities of blazars over a range of redshifts and look for possible trends in blazar evolution. Stecker, Baring & Summerlin have found some evidence hinting that TeV blazars with harder spectra have higher intrinsic TeV gamma-ray luminosities and indicating that there may be a correlation of spectral hardness and luminosity with redshift. Further work along these lines, treating recent observations of the blazers lES02291+200 and 3C279 in the TeV and sub-TeV energy ranges, has recently been explored by Stecker & Scully. GLAST will observe and investigate many blazars in the GeV energy range and will be sensitive to blazers at higher redshifts. I examine the implications high redshift gamma-ray absorption for both theoretical and observational blazer studies.

  12. X-Ray Emission from the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    E. Ursino; M. Galeazzi

    2006-04-10

    The number of detected baryons in the Universe at z<0.5 is much smaller than predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis and by the detailed observation of the Lyman alpha forest at red-shift z=2. Hydrodynamical simulations indicate that a large fraction of the baryons today is expected to be in a ``warm-hot'' (10^5-10^7K) filamentary gas, distributed in the intergalactic medium. This gas, if it exists, should be observable only in the soft X-ray and UV bands. Using the predictions of a particular hydrodynamic model, we simulated the expected X-ray flux as a function of energy in the 0.1-2 keV band due to the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM), and compared it with the flux from local and high red-shift diffuse components. Our results show that as much as 20% of the total diffuse X-ray background (DXB) in the energy range 0.37-0.925keV could be due to X-ray flux from the WHIM, 70% of which comes from filaments at redshift z between 0.1 and 0.6. Simulations done using a FOV of 3', comparable with that of Suzaku and Constellation-X, show that in more than 20% of the observations we expect the WHIM flux to contribute to more than 20% of the DXB. These simulations also show that in about 10% of all the observations a single bright filament in the FOV accounts, alone, for more than 20% of the DXB flux. Red-shifted oxygen lines should be clearly visible in these observations.

  13. Navy Space and Astronautics Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, R. G.

    Fundamental concepts of the spatial environment, technologies, and applications are presented in this manual prepared for senior officers and key civilian employees. Following basic information on the atmosphere, solar system, and intergalactic space, a detailed review is included of astrodynamics, rocket propulsion, bioastronautics, auxiliary…

  14. Lyman-alpha scattering in the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionisation 

    E-print Network

    Higgins, Jonathan

    2012-06-22

    We examine resonant scattering of Ly? (Lyman-alpha) photons in the neutral hydrogen Intergalactic Medium (IGM) at high redshift. Ly? scattering plays a key role in the 21cm emission/absorption against the Cosmic Microwave Background via...

  15. Quasar spectroscopy in UV and X-ray- probing the intergalactic medium using helium and oxygen

    E-print Network

    Gong, Donglai, 1977-

    2004-01-01

    We employ ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray quasar spectroscopy to study the physical state of the Intergalactic Medium (IGM). First, we quantify the possibility of measuring the temperature of moderately over-dense regions of ...

  16. Parity-odd correlators of diffuse gamma rays and intergalactic magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Hiroyuki Tashiro; Tanmay Vachaspati

    2014-09-12

    We develop the connection between intergalactic helical magnetic fields and parity odd signatures in the diffuse gamma ray sky. We find that the location and the amplitude of a peak in a parity odd correlator, $Q(R)$, can be used to infer the normal and helical power spectra of the intergalactic magnetic field. When applied to Fermi-LAT data, the amplitude of the observed peak in $Q(R)$ gives $\\sim 10^{-14}~{\\rm G}$ intergalactic magnetic field strength, which is consistent with an earlier independent estimate that only used the peak location (Tashiro et al. 2014). We discuss features in the observed $Q(R)$ that further support the intergalactic magnetic field hypothesis and make predictions for future tests.

  17. X-ray Observations of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Smita Mathur; David H. Weinberg; Xuelei Chen

    2002-10-25

    We present Chandra observations that provide the most direct evidence to date for the pervasive, moderate density, shock-heated intergalactic medium predicted by leading cosmological scenarios. We also comment briefly on future observations with Constellation-X.

  18. Future instrumentation for the study of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    F. B. S. Paerels; J. S. Kaastra; T. Ohashi; P. Richter; A. M. Bykov; J. Nevalainen

    2008-01-07

    We briefly review capabilities and requirements for future instrumentation in UV- and X-ray astronomy that can contribute to advancing our understanding of the diffuse, highly ionised intergalactic medium.

  19. Electromagnetic Zero Point Field as Active Energy Source in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Alfonso Rueda; Hiroki Sunahata; Bernhard Haisch

    1999-06-16

    For over twenty years the possibility that the electromagnetic zero point field (ZPF) may actively accelerate electromagnetically interacting particles in regions of extremely low particle density (as those extant in intergalactic space (IGS) with n < 1 particle/m^3 has been studied and analyzed. This energizing phenomenon has been one of the few contenders for acceleration of cosmic rays (CR), particularly at ultrahigh energies. The recent finding by the AGASA collaboration (Phys. Rev. Lett., 81, 1163, 1998) that the CR energy spectrum does not display any signs of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off (that should be present if these CR particles were indeed generated in localized ultrahigh energies CR sources, as e.g., quasars and other highly active galactic nuclei), may indicate the need for an acceleration mechanism that is distributed throughout IGS as is the case with the ZPF. Other unexplained phenomena that receive an explanation from this mechanism are the generation of X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds and the existence of Cosmic Voids. However recently, a statistical mechanics kind of challenge to the classical (not the quantum) version of the zero-point acceleration mechanism has been posed (de la Pena and Cetto, The Quantum Dice, 1996). Here we briefly examine the consequences of this challenge and a prospective resolution.

  20. Warm-hot intergalactic medium contribution to baryonic matter

    E-print Network

    Andrzej M. Soltan

    2006-04-21

    Hydrodynamical simulations indicate that substantial fraction of baryons in the Universe remains in a diffuse component - Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM). To determine physical properties (spatial distribution, temperature and density) of the WHIM, spatial structure of the soft extended X-ray emission surrounding field galaxies is carefully investigated using the XMM-Newton EPIC/MOS observations. Angular correlations between the galaxy distribution and the soft X-ray background extending over several arcmin are determined. The correlations at large scales result from the clustering of galaxies. At small scales (below ~2 arcmin) the excess of the soft flux is interpreted as the genuine emission from halos of the WHIM surrounding individual galaxies. Bulk parameters of the average WHIM halos associated with galaxies in the sample are estimated. Typical halo has a characteristic radius of ~0.3 Mpc and a mass of 4 - 7 x 10^11 M_sun. The average density of the WHIM in the local universe amounts to 7 - 11 x 10^{-32} g cm^{-3} (Omega_WHIM = 0.7 - 1.2 %). Observations of the X-ray WHIM emission are in good agreement with the numerical simulations, but accuracy of the observational material is insufficient to constrain the theory of WHIM. A series of deep observations of a moderately numerous sample of low redshift galaxies with high resolution instruments of Chandra would significantly improve our estimates of the WHIM parameters.

  1. Heating and cooling of the intergalactic medium by resonance photons

    E-print Network

    Leonid Chuzhoy; Paul R. Shapiro

    2007-01-27

    During the epoch of reionization a large number of photons were produced with frequencies below the hydrogen Lyman limit. After redshifting into the closest resonance, these photons underwent multiple scatterings with atoms. We examine the effect of these scatterings on the temperature of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM). Continuum photons, emitted between the Ly_alpha and Ly_gamma frequencies, heat the gas after being redshifted into the H Ly_alpha or D Ly_beta resonance. By contrast, photons emitted between the Ly_gamma and Ly-limit frequencies, produce effective cooling of the gas. Prior to reionization, the equilibrium temperature of ~100 K for hydrogen and helium atoms is set by these two competing processes. At the same time, Ly_beta resonance photons thermally decouple deuterium from other species, raising its temperature as high as 10^4 K. Our results have important consequences for the cosmic 21-cm background and the entropy floor of the early IGM which can affect star formation and reionization.

  2. Exploring the intergalactic medium with VLT/UVES

    E-print Network

    S. Cristiani; S. Bianchi; S. D'Odorico; T. -S. Kim

    2001-12-12

    The remarkable efficiency of the UVES spectrograph at the VLT has made it possible to push high-resolution, high-S/N ground observations of the Ly-a forest down to z~1.5, gaining new insight into the physical conditions of the intergalactic medium and its evolution over more than 90% of the cosmic time. The universal expansion, the UV ionizing background and the gravitational condensation of structures are the driving factors shaping the number density and the column density distribution of the absorbers. A (limited) contribution of UV photons produced by galaxies is found to be important to reproduce the observed evolutionary pattern at very high and low redshift. The Lyman forest contains most of the baryons, at least at z>1.5, and acts as a reservoir for galaxy formation. The typical Doppler parameter at a fixed column density is measured to slightly increase with decreasing redshift, but the inferred temperature at the mean density is increasing with redshift. The signatures of HeII reionization and feedback from the formation of galactic structures have possibly been detected in the Lyman forest.

  3. The growth of structure in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Sabino Matarrese; Roya Mohayaee

    2001-09-08

    A {\\it stochastic adhesion} model is introduced, with the purpose of describing the formation and evolution of mildly nonlinear structures, such as sheets and filaments, in the intergalactic medium (IGM), after hydrogen reionization. The model is based on replacing the overall force acting on the baryon fluid -- as it results from the composition of local gravity, pressure gradients and Hubble drag -- by a mock external force, self-consistently calculated from first-order perturbation theory. A small kinematic viscosity term prevents shell-crossing on small scales (which arises because of the approximate treatment of pressure gradients). The emerging scheme is an extension of the well-known adhesion approximation for the dark matter dynamics, from which it only differs by the presence of a small-scale `random' force, characterizing the IGM. Our algorithm is the ideal tool to obtain the skeleton of the IGM distribution, which is responsible for the structure observed in the low-column density Ly$\\alpha$ forest in the absorption spectra of distant quasars.

  4. Ly? heating of inhomogeneous high-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Oklop?i?, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2013-12-20

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the epoch of reionization consists mostly of neutral hydrogen gas. Lyman-? (Ly?) photons produced by early stars resonantly scatter off hydrogen atoms, causing energy exchange between the radiation field and the gas. This interaction results in moderate heating of the gas due to the recoil of the atoms upon scattering, which is of great interest for future studies of the pre-reionization IGM in the H I 21 cm line. We investigate the effect of this Ly? heating in the IGM with linear density, temperature, and velocity perturbations. Perturbations smaller than the diffusion length of photons could be damped due to heat conduction by Ly? photons. The scale at which damping occurs and the strength of this effect depend on various properties of the gas, the flux of Ly? photons, and the way in which photon frequencies are redistributed upon scattering. To find the relevant length scale and the extent to which Ly? heating affects perturbations, we calculate the gas heating rates by numerically solving linearized Boltzmann equations in which scattering is treated by the Fokker-Planck approximation. We find that (1) perturbations add a small correction to the gas heating rate, and (2) the damping of temperature perturbations occurs at scales with comoving wavenumber k ? 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup –1}, which are much smaller than the Jeans scale and thus unlikely to substantially affect the observed 21 cm signal.

  5. FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE DUE TO THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.k

    2010-11-01

    Studying the nature and origin of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is an outstanding problem of cosmology. Measuring Faraday rotation would be a promising method to explore the IGMF in the large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe. We investigated the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the IGMF in filaments of galaxies using simulations for cosmological structure formation. We employed a model IGMF based on turbulence dynamo in the LSS of the universe, it has an average strength of (B) {approx} 10 nG and a coherence length of several x 100 h {sup -1} kpc in filaments. With the coherence length smaller than the path length, the inducement of RM would be a random walk process, and we found that the density peak along the line of sight dominantly contributes to the resultant RM. The root mean square of RM through filaments at the present universe was predicted to be {approx}1 rad m{sup -2}. In addition, we predicted that the probability distribution function of |RM| through filaments follows the lognormal distribution, and the power spectrum of RM in the local universe peaks at a scale of {approx}1 h {sup -1} Mpc. Our prediction of RM could be tested with future instruments.

  6. Measuring the Sources of the Intergalactic Ionizing Flux

    E-print Network

    L. L. Cowie; A. J. Barger; L. Trouille

    2008-11-06

    We use a wide-field (0.9 square degree) X-ray sample with optical and GALEX ultraviolet observations to measure the contribution of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) to the ionizing flux as a function of redshift. Our analysis shows that the AGN contribution to the metagalactic ionizing background peaks around z=2. The measured values of the ionizing background from the AGNs are lower than previous estimates and confirm that ionization from AGNs is insufficient to maintain the observed ionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z>3. We show that only sources with broad lines in their optical spectra have detectable ionizing flux and that the ionizing flux seen in an AGN is not correlated with its X-ray color. We also use the GALEX observations of the GOODS-N region to place a 2-sigma upper limit of 0.008 on the average ionization fraction fnu(700 A)/fnu(1500 A) for 626 UV selected galaxies in the redshift range z=0.9-1.4. We then use this limit to estimate an upper bound to the galaxy contribution in the redshift range z=0-5. If the z~1.15 ionization fraction is appropriate for higher redshift galaxies, then contributions from the galaxy population are also too low to account for the IGM ionization at the highest redshifts (z>4).

  7. Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Ly? emission at z > 6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The large cross-section of the Ly? line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Ly? opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Ly? fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Ly? emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Ly? fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ?2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ? 0.1. Larger changes in the Ly? fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ? 7) ? 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ? 6.

  8. Multifrequency survey of the intergalactic cloud in the M96 group

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.E.; Skrutskie, M.F.; Hacking, P.B.; Young, J.S.; Dickman, R.L.

    1989-03-01

    The intergalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen in the M96 group are examined for signs of emission over a wide range of frequencies, from radio waves to X rays. Past or present stellar activity in the gas might have been expected to produce detectable visual infrared, CO, OH, or radio recombination-line emission. None was detected. The limits are used to study physical conditions in the intergalactic gas. In particular, B and V band limits on starlight and IRAS limits on the presence of dust strongly constrain the presence of stars or stellar by-products. However, given the uncertainties about physical conditions in the intergalactic environment, it is difficult to rule out entirely the presence of stellar-processed materials. Results of neutral hydrogen mapping from a large-scale survey of the intergalactic cloud and surrounding region are also presented. These observations confirm that the gas is confined to a large ringlike structure. The simplest interpretation remains that the intergalactic gas in Leo is primordial. 36 references.

  9. Multifrequency survey of the intergalactic cloud in the M96 group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Hacking, Perry B.; Young, Judith S.; Dickman, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The intergalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen in the M96 group are examined for signs of emission over a wide range of frequencies, from radio waves to X rays. Past or present stellar activity in the gas might have been expected to produce detectable visual infrared, CO, OH, or radio recombination-line emission. None was detected. The limits are used to study physical conditions in the intergalactic gas. In particular, B and V band limits on starlight and IRAS limits on the presence of dust strongly constrain the presence of stars or stellar by-products. However, given the uncertainties about physical conditions in the intergalactic environment, it is difficult to rule out entirely the presence of stellar-processed materials. Results of neutral hydrogen mapping from a large-scale survey of the intergalactic cloud and surrounding region are also presented. These observations confirm that the gas is confined to a large ringlike structure. The simplest interpretation remains that the intergalactic gas in Leo is primordial.

  10. Heavy-element enrichment in low-density regions of the intergalactic medium.

    PubMed

    Cowie, L L; Songaila, A

    1998-07-01

    Models for the composition of the diffuse intergalactic medium predict that low-density intergalactic gas at high redshift should be very poor in heavy elements. This is because locations of early star formation (and thus of heavy-element synthesis) and of gas delivery from such stars are located preferentially within higher-density regions of the intergalactic gas. Here we present a method for analysing carbon and oxygen absorption lines in quasar spectra that allows us to probe the heavy-element abundances at a redshift of three within low-density regions of intergalactic gas. We find that the ratio of triply ionized carbon to neutral hydrogen is roughly constant over a wide range of densities, and that, even as the density approaches zero, the ratio remains high. This unexpected enrichment of low-density gas in heavy elements suggests that early generations of small galaxies might be much more efficient at ejecting heavy elements into the intergalactic medium than has previously been thought. PMID:9665126

  11. Intergalactic globular clusters and the faint end of the galaxy number counts in A1656 (Coma)

    E-print Network

    A. Marin-Franch; A. Aparicio

    2002-11-26

    The existence of an intergalactic globular cluster population in the Coma cluster of galaxies has been tested using surface-brightness fluctuations. The main result is that the intergalactic globular cluster surface density ($N_{\\rm IGC}$) does not correlate with the distance to the center of Coma and hence with the environment. Furthermore, comparing these results with different Coma mass-distribution model predictions, it is suggested that $N_{\\rm IGC}$ must in fact be zero all over Coma. On the other hand, the results for $N_{\\rm IGC}$ and the faint end of the galaxy number counts (beyond $m_R=23.5$) are connected. So $N_{\\rm IGC}=0$ settles the slope of this function, which turns out to be $\\gamma=0.36\\pm0.01$ down to $m_R=26.5$. The fact that $N_{\\rm IGC}=0$ all over Coma suggests that globular clusters were formed only, or almost only, from protogalactic clouds. None, or perhaps very few, could have formed in isolated regions. It also seems inappropriate to advocate a relationship between intergalactic globular clusters and dark matter distributions, although it is true that the relationship could still exist but not be strong enough to have been detected. Finally, since our conclusion is that intergalactic globular clusters do not exist in Coma, accretion of intergalactic globular clusters might not be significant in galaxy formation and evolutionary processes in the Coma galaxies.

  12. THEIA: Telescope for Habitable Exoplanets and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spergel, David N.; Kasdin, J.; Belikov, R.; Atcheson, P.; Beasley, M.; Calzetti, D.; Cameron, B.; Copi, C.; Desch, S.; Dressler, A.; Ebbets, D.; Egerman, R.; Fullerton, A.; Gallagher, J.; Green, J.; Guyon, O.; Heap, S.; Jansen, R.; Jenkins, E.; Kasting, J.; Keski-Kuha, R.; Kuchner, M.; Lee, R.; Lindler, D.; Linfield, R.; Lisman, D.; Lyon, R.; Malhotra, S.; Mathews, G.; McCaughrean, M.; Mentzel, J.; Mountain, M.; NIkzad, S.; O'Connell, R.; Oey, S.; Padgett, D.; Parvin, B.; Procashka, J.; Reeve, W.; Reid, I. N.; Rhoads, J.; Roberge, A.; Saif, B.; Scowen, P.; Seager, S.; Seigmund, O.; Sembach, K.; Shaklan, S.; Shull, M.; Soummer, R.

    2009-01-01

    By combining an occultor with a 4-meter optical/ultraviolet telescope, THEIA (Telescope for Habiatable Earths and Interstellar/Intergalactic Astronomy) will conduct an observational program that address many of the most exciting questions in astrophysics. The telescope is an on-axis telescope with a MgF-coated primary and a LiF-coated secondary. This hybrid approach allows reasonable through-put in the UV without the need to coat a large piimary with LiF. The coronagraph/occultor system is also a hybrid that aims to reduce the requirements on each approach. The telescope feeds a rich instrument complement. The eXtrasolar Planet Characterizer (XPC) baseline instruments are three narrow-field cameras for the UV (0.25-4.0 microns), blue (0.4-0.7 microns) and red (0.7-1.0 microns) with filters, and an integral field spectrograph (IFS) operating in the red. A wide-field high-resolution camera (Star Formation Camera) operating with a blue (190--517nm) and a red (517--1075nm) channel will conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems. A UV high-resolution spectrograph (UVS) with R=30,000-100,000 in the far-UV (1000-1700 A) and near-UV (1700-3000 A) will strengthen the foundations of observational cosmology by examining the cosmic web (IGM), its interactions with galaxies, and its enrichment with the products of stellar and galactic evolution. This mission has two basic opseration modes. While the occultor is moving from target star to target star, the telescope carries out an exciting program of general astrophysics. While the occultor is on target, it will characterize the key properties of a detected planet and deeply image adjacent fields in parallel mode.

  13. STUDYING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ursino, E.; Branchini, E.; Ohashi, T.; Kawahara, H.; Piro, L.; Corsi, A.; Amati, L.; Den Herder, J. W.; Kaastra, J.; Galeazzi, M.; Moscardini, L.; Roncarelli, M.; Nicastro, F.; Paerels, F.; Viel, M.

    2011-06-20

    We assess the possibility of detecting the warm-hot intergalactic medium in emission and characterizing its physical conditions and spatial distribution through spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy, in the framework of the recently proposed DIOS, EDGE, Xenia, and ORIGIN missions, all of which are equipped with microcalorimeter-based detectors. For this purpose, we analyze a large set of mock emission spectra, extracted from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. These mock X-ray spectra are searched for emission features showing both the O VII K{alpha} triplet and O VIII Ly{alpha} line, which constitute a typical signature of the warm-hot gas. Our analysis shows that 1 Ms long exposures and energy resolution of 2.5 eV will allow us to detect about 400 such features per deg{sup 2} with a significance {>=}5{sigma} and reveals that these emission systems are typically associated with density {approx}100 above the mean. The temperature can be estimated from the line ratio with a precision of {approx}20%. The combined effect of contamination from other lines, variation in the level of the continuum, and degradation of the energy resolution reduces these estimates. Yet, with an energy resolution of 7 eV and all these effects taken into account, one still expects about 160 detections per deg{sup 2}. These line systems are sufficient for tracing the spatial distribution of the line-emitting gas, which constitute an additional information, independent from line statistics, to constrain the poorly known cosmic chemical enrichment history and the stellar feedback processes.

  14. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

    2013-10-20

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ?1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ? 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or ?{sub host}?(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling ?{sub IGM} ? z {sup 2} for z ?< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ?> 1.

  15. Light dispersion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, L. C.

    2015-09-01

    Considering an idea of F. Arago in 1853 regarding light dispersion through the light ether in the interstellar space, this paper presents a new idea on an alternative interpretation of the cosmological red shift of the galaxies in the universe. The model is based on an analogy with the temporal material dispersion that occurs with light in the optical fiber core. Since intergalactic space is transparent, according to the model, this phenomenon is related to the gravitational potential existing in the whole space. Thus, it is possible to find a new interpretation to Hubble's constant. In space, light undergoes a dispersion process in its path, which is interpreted by a red shift equation of the type ?z = HL, since H = (d2n/d?2 ?v ??), where H means the Hubble constant, n is the refractive index of the intergalactic space, ?? is the spectral width of the extragalactic source, and ?v is the variation of the speed of light caused by the gravitational potential. We observe that this "constant" is governed by three new parameters. Light traveling the intergalactic space undergoes red shift due to this mechanism, while light amplitude decreases with time, and the wavelength always increases, thus producing the same type of behavior given by Hubble's Law. It can be demonstrated that the dark matter phenomenon is produced by the apparent speed of light of the stars on the periphery of the galaxies, without the existence of dark energy. Based on this new idea, the model of the universe is static, lacking expansion. Other phenomena may be interpreted based on this new model of the universe. We have what we call temporal gravitational dispersion of light in space produced by the variations of the speed of light, due to the presence of the gravitational potential in the whole space.

  16. Gamma-ray induced cascades and magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Elyiv, A.; Neronov, A.; Semikoz, D. V.

    2009-07-15

    We present the results of Monte Carlo simulations of three-dimensional electromagnetic cascade initiated by interactions of the multi-TeV {gamma} rays with the cosmological infrared/optical photon background in the intergalactic medium. Secondary electrons in the cascade are deflected by the intergalactic magnetic fields before they scatter on CMB photons. This leads to extended 0.1 deg. -10 deg. scale emission at multi-GeV and TeV energies around extragalactic sources of very high-energy {gamma} rays. The morphology of the extended emission depends, in general, on the properties of magnetic fields in the intergalactic medium. Using Monte Carlo simulated data sets, we demonstrate that the decrease of the size of extended source with the increase of energy allows to measure weak magnetic fields with magnitudes in the range from {<=}10{sup -16} G to 10{sup -12} G if they exist in the voids of the large scale structure.

  17. Detection of intergalactic red-giant-branch stars in the Virgo cluster

    E-print Network

    Henry C. Ferguson; Nial R. Tanvir; Ted von Hippel

    1998-01-23

    It has been suspected for nearly 50 years that clusters of galaxies contain a population of intergalactic stars, ripped from galaxies during cluster formation or when the galaxies' orbits take them through the cluster center. Support for the existence of such a population of free-floating stars comes from measurements of the diffuse light in clusters, and from recent detections of planetary nebulae with positions and/or velocities far removed from any observed cluster galaxy. But estimates for the mass of the diffuse population and its distribution relative to the galaxies are still highly uncertain. Here we report the direct detection of intergalactic stars in deep images of a blank field in the Virgo Cluster. The data suggest that approximately 10% of the stellar mass of the cluster is in intergalactic stars. We observe a relatively homogeneous distribution of stars, with evidence of a slight gradient toward M87.

  18. Absorption of Very High Energy Gamma-Rays by Intergalactic Infrared Radiation: A New Determination

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; O. C. De Jager

    1998-04-20

    We present a new calculation of the intergalactic gamma-ray absorption coefficient as a function of both energy and redshift. In reexamining this problem, we make use of a new, empirically based calculation (as opposed to previous model calculations) of the intergalactic infrared radiation field. We find smaller opacities than those given previously (Stecker & De Jager 1997). We apply our results to the new observations of the flaring gamma-ray spectra of Mrk421 and Mrk501, both at a redshift of apx. 0.03. Our new calculations indicate that there should be no significant curvature in the spectra of these sources for energies below 10 TeV, as indicated by recent observations. However, the intrinsic spectra of these sources should be harder by apx. 0.2 to 0.45 in the spectral index in the 1 to 10 TeV range with an intergalactic absorption cutoff above apx. 20 TeV.

  19. Intergalactic H_2 Photodissociation and the Soft UV Background Produced by Population III Objects

    E-print Network

    Benedetta Ciardi; Andrea Ferrara; Tom Abel

    1999-04-09

    We study the effects of the ionizing and dissociating photons produced by PopIII objects on the surrounding intergalactic medium. We find that the typical size of a H_2 photodissociated region, R_d ~ 1-5 kpc, is smaller than the mean distance between sources at z ~ 20-30, but larger than the ionized region by a factor depending on the detailed properties of the emission spectrum. This implies that clearing of intergalactic H_2 occurs before reionization of the universe is complete. In the same redshift range, the soft-UV background in the Lyman-Werner bands, when the intergalactic H and H_2 opacity is included, is found to be J_LW ~ 1d-30 - 1d-27 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} Hz^{-1}. This value is well below the threshold required for the negative feedback of PopIII objects on the subsequent galaxy formation to be effective in that redshift range.

  20. PAPER-64 Constraints On Reionization. II. The Temperature of the z =8.4 Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E.; Bernardi, Gianni; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Kohn, Saul A.; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H. E.; Maree, Matthys; Mesinger, Andrei; Moore, David F.; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.; Walker, Andre; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-08-01

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK2 can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z = 8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ?5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ?7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ?10 K for neutral fractions between 30% and 70%. We also calculate the heating of the IGM that would be provided by the observed high redshift galaxy population, and find that for most models, these galaxies are sufficient to bring the IGM temperature above our lower limits. However, there are significant ranges of parameter space that could produce a signal ruled out by the PAPER measurements; models with a steep drop-off in the star formation rate density at high redshifts or with relatively low values for the X-ray to star formation rate efficiency of high redshift galaxies are generally disfavored. The PAPER measurements are consistent with (but do not constrain) a hydrogen spin temperature above the CMB temperature, a situation which we find to be generally predicted if galaxies fainter than the current detection limits of optical/NIR surveys are included in calculations of X-ray heating.

  1. Cosmic far-ultraviolet background radiation - Probe of a dense hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    Line and continuum radiation fluxes have been computed for a wide range of enriched intergalactic medium (IGM) models. Observations of the diffuse extragalactic light at optical and far-ultraviolet wavelengths are found to provide a potentially important probe of a dense hot intergalactic medium. If the diffuse X-ray background is produced by this gas, the models constrain the cosmological density parameter (Omega) to be less than 0.4. The associated Compton distortions of the cosmic blackbody background radiation and the optical depths to distant quasars at X-ray wavelengths are also evaluated.

  2. INTERGALACTIC He ii ABSORPTION IN THE SPECTRA OF QUASARS AT REDSHIFTS 3.5 AND 3.8, OBSERVED WITH THE HST ACS PRISM1

    E-print Network

    Tittley, Eric

    INTERGALACTIC He ii ABSORPTION IN THE SPECTRA OF QUASARS AT REDSHIFTS 3.5 AND 3.8, OBSERVED with an intergalactic He ii Ly optical depth at 304 8 of 304 > 3:1 (90% confidence), or a He iii region with edge 5: dark matter -- intergalactic medium -- quasars: individual (SDSS J1711+6052, SDSS J2346

  3. Intergalactic Photon Spectra from the Far IR to the UV Lyman Limit for $0 < z < 6$ and the Optical Depth of the Universe to High Energy Gamma-Rays

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; M. A. Malkan; S. T. Scully

    2006-05-25

    We calculate the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0 intergalactic space owing to interactions with low energy photons and the 2.7 K cosmic background radiation. We calculate the optical depth of the universe, tau, for gamma-rays having energies from 4 GeV to 100 TeV emitted by sources at redshifts from ~0 to 5. We also give an analytic fit with numerical coefficients for approximating $\\tau(E_{\\gamma}, z)$. As an example of the application of our results, we calculate the absorbed spectrum of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at z = 0.117 and compare it with the spectrum observed by the H.E.S.S. air Cherenkov gamma-ray telescope array.

  4. Redshifted intergalactic {sup 3}He{sup +} 8.7 GHz hyperfine absorption

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Matthew; Switzer, Eric R.

    2009-09-15

    Motivated by recent interest in redshifted 21 cm emission of intergalactic hydrogen, we investigate the 8.7 GHz {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} F=0-1 hyperfine transition of {sup 3}He{sup +}. While the primordial abundance of {sup 3}He relative to hydrogen is 10{sup -5}, the hyperfine spontaneous decay rate is 680 times larger. Furthermore, the antenna temperature is much lower at the frequencies relevant for the {sup 3}He{sup +} transition compared to that of z>6 21 cm emission. We find that the spin temperature of this 8.7 GHz line in the intergalactic medium is approximately the cosmic microwave background temperature, such that this transition is best observed in absorption against high-redshift, radio-bright quasars. We show that intergalactic 8.7 GHz absorption is a promising, unsaturated observable of the ionization history of intergalactic helium (for which He II{yields}He III reionization is believed to complete at z{approx}3) and of the primordial {sup 3}He abundance. Instruments must reach {approx}1 {mu}Jy RMS noise in bands of 1 MHz on a 1 Jy source to directly resolve this absorption. However, in combination with H i Ly{alpha} forest measurements, an instrument can statistically detect this absorption from z>3 with 30 {mu}Jy RMS noise in 0.1 MHz spectral bands over 100 MHz, which may be within the reach of present instruments.

  5. Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004

    E-print Network

    Koribalski, Bärbel

    Recycling intergalactic and interstellar matter IAU Symposium Series, Vol. 217, 2004 Pierre (Barnes & Hernquist 1992; Duc et al. 2000, Braine et al. 2001). But, how long can these young, recycled be found out to large distances from the galaxy centre. Recycling and re- accretion of these distant debris

  6. The He II Opacity of the Lyman-alpha Forest and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Wei Zheng; Arthur F. Davidsen; Gerard A. Kriss

    1997-11-12

    Based on the empirical formulas governing the distribution of Ly-a forest absorption, we use a Monte-Carlo technique to calculate the average HeII optical depth produced by these forest lines. A substantial contribution to HeII absorption arises from extremely tenuous regions of intergalactic gas that are beyond the observational limits for HI absorption.

  7. Confirmation of X-ray Absorption by Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in the Sculptor Wall

    E-print Network

    Fang, Taotao

    In a previous paper, we reported a 3? detection of an absorption line from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using the Chandra and XMM X-ray grating spectra of the blazar H2356-309, the sight line of which intercepts ...

  8. PAPER-64 CONSTRAINTS ON REIONIZATION. II. THE TEMPERATURE OF THE z = 8.4 INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    E-print Network

    Pober, Jonathan C.

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints ...

  9. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  10. Intergalactic Photon Spectra from the Far-IR to the UV Lyman Limit for 0 < z < 6 and the Optical Depth of the Universe to High-Energy Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Malkan, M. A.; Scully, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0intergalactic photon densities to extend previous work on the absorption of high-energy Gamma-rays in intergalactic space owing to interactions with low-energy photons and the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation. We calculate the optical depth of the universe, Tau , for Gamma-rays having energies from 4 GeV to 100 TeV emitted by sources at redshifts from 0 to 5. We also give an analytic fit with numerical coefficients for approximating (E(Gamma), z). As an example of the application of our results, we calculate the absorbed spectrum of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at z=0.117 and compare it with the spectrum observed by the HESS air Cerenkov Gamma-ray telescope array.

  11. Tracing the cosmic metal evolution in the low-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Shull, J.; Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M. E-mail: danforth@colorado.edu

    2014-11-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we measured the abundances of six ions (C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, N V, and O VI) in the low-redshift (z ? 0.4) intergalactic medium (IGM). Both C IV and Si IV have increased in abundance by a factor of ?10 from z ? 5.5 to the present. We derive ion mass densities, ?{sub ion} ? ?{sub ion}?{sub cr}, with ?{sub ion} expressed relative to the closure density. Our models of mass-abundance ratios, (Si III/Si IV) =0.67{sub ?0.19}{sup +0.35}, (C III/C IV) =0.70{sub ?0.20}{sup +0.43}, and (?{sub C} {sub III}+?{sub C} {sub IV})/(?{sub Si} {sub III}+?{sub Si} {sub IV})=4.9{sub ?1.1}{sup +2.2}, are consistent with the photoionization parameter log U = –1.5 ± 0.4, hydrogen photoionization rate ?{sub H} = (8 ± 2) × 10{sup –14} s{sup –1} at z < 0.4, and specific intensity I {sub 0} = (3 ± 1) × 10{sup –23} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} sr{sup –1} at the Lyman limit. Consistent ionization corrections for C and Si are scaled to an ionizing photon flux ?{sub 0} = 10{sup 4} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, baryon overdensity ? {sub b} ? 200 ± 50, and ''alpha-enhancement'' (Si/C enhanced to three times its solar ratio). We compare these metal abundances to the expected IGM enrichment and abundances in higher photoionized states of carbon (C V) and silicon (Si V, Si VI, and Si VII). Our ionization modeling infers IGM metal densities of (5.4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ?} Mpc{sup –3} in the photoionized Ly? forest traced by the C and Si ions and (9.1 ± 0.6) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ?} Mpc{sup –3} in hotter gas traced by O VI. Combining both phases, the heavy elements in the IGM have mass density ? {sub Z} = (1.5 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ?} Mpc{sup –3} or ? {sub Z} ? 10{sup –5}. This represents 10% ± 5% of the metals produced by (6 ± 2) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ?} Mpc{sup –3} of integrated star formation with yield y{sub m} = 0.025 ± 0.010. The missing metals at low redshift may reside within galaxies and in undetected ionized gas in galactic halos and circumgalactic medium.

  12. MULTIPLE ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yangsen; Michael Shull, J.; Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a physically based absorption-line model for the spectroscopic study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This model adopts results from Cloudy simulations and theoretical calculations by Gnat and Sternberg to examine the resulting observational signatures of the absorbing gas with the following ionization scenarios: collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), photoionization equilibrium, hybrid (photo- plus collisional ionization), and non-equilibrium cooling. As a demonstration, we apply this model to new observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the IGM absorbers at z {approx} 0.1877 along the 1ES 1553+113 sight line. We identify Ly{alpha}, C III, O VI, and N V absorption lines with two distinct velocity components (blue at z{sub b} = 0.18757; red at z{sub r} = 0.18772) separated by {Delta}(cz)/(1 + z) {approx} 38 km s{sup -1}. Joint analyses of these lines indicate that none of the examined ionization scenarios can be applied with confidence to the blue velocity component, although photoionization seems to play a dominant role. For the red component, CIE can be ruled out, but pure photoionization and hybrid scenarios (with T < 1.3 x 10{sup 5} K) are more acceptable. The constrained ranges of hydrogen density and metallicity of the absorbing gas are n{sub H} = (1.9-2.3) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -3} and Z = (0.43-0.67) Z{sub sun}. These constraints indicate O VI and H I ionization fractions, f{sub OVI} = 0.10-0.15 and f{sub HI} = (3.2-5.1) x 10{sup -5}, with total hydrogen column density N{sub H} = (0.7-1.2) x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. This demonstration shows that the joint analysis of multiple absorption lines can constrain the ionization state of an absorber, and results used to estimate the baryonic matter contained in the absorber.

  13. X-RAY SCATTERING ECHOES AND GHOST HALOS FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: RELATION TO THE NATURE OF AGN VARIABILITY

    E-print Network

    Corrales, Lia

    X-ray bright quasars might be used to trace dust in the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium through the phenomenon of X-ray scattering, which is observed around Galactic objects whose light passes through a sufficient ...

  14. The Carbon Content of Intergalactic Gas at Z=4.25 and Its Evolution toward Z=2.4

    E-print Network

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    This paper presents ionization-corrected measurements of the carbon abundance in intergalactic gas at 4.0 < z < 4.5, using spectra of three bright quasars obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kycocera Echelle spectrograph ...

  15. Future Japanese missions for the study of warm-hot intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    T. Ohashi; M. Ishida; S. Sasaki; Y. Ishisaki; K. Mitsuda; N. Y. Yamasaki; R. Fujimoto; T. Furusho; H. Kunieda; Y. Tawara; A. Furuzawa; Y. Suto; K. Yoshikawa

    2004-02-24

    We present our proposal for a small X-ray mission DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor) to perform survey observations of warm-hot intergalactic medium using OVII and OVIII emission lines. This will be proposed to a small satellite program planned by ISAS/JAXA in Japan for a launch in 2008. The instrument consists of an array of TES microcalorimeters with an energy resolution 2 eV, cooled by mechanical coolers. The X-ray telescope will employ 4-stage reflection mirrors with a focal length as short as 70 cm and an angular resolution 2'. In addition to DIOS, we briefly describe the NeXT (New X-ray Telescope) mission, which is a larger Japanese X-ray observatory to be launched in 2010 and plans to explore non-thermal processes in the universe.

  16. Dimming of Supernovae by Photon-Pseudoscalar Conversion and the Intergalactic Plasma

    E-print Network

    Cédric Deffayet; Diego Harari; Jean-Philippe Uzan; Matias Zaldarriaga

    2001-12-07

    Recently Csaki, Kaloper and Terning (hep-ph/0111311) suggested that the observed dimming of distant type Ia supernovae may be a consequence of mixing of the photons with very light axions. We point out that the effect of the plasma, in which the photons are propagating, must be taken into account. This effect changes the oscillation probability and renders the dimming frequency-dependent, contrary to observations. One may hope to accommodate the data by averaging the oscillations over many different coherence domains. We estimate the effect of coherence loss, either due to the inhomogeneities of the magnetic field or of the intergalactic plasma. These estimates indicate that the achromaticity problem can be resolved only with very specific, and probably unrealistic, properties of the intergalactic medium.

  17. UV Diagnostics of the Interaction between Starburst Galaxies and the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Crystal L. Martin

    1998-10-28

    Both galaxies and the intergalactic medium evolve dramatically between $z \\approx 2$ and the present. These changes are coupled via galactic winds, cloud accretion, and ionizing radiation. Measurements of these interactions are critical for building a physical understanding of galaxy assembly. This paper reviews the role of starburst galaxies in heating, enriching, and ionizing the intergalactic medium. The strategies used to address these problems rely heavily on access to the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) spectrum. Rather modest gains in UV sensitivity are shown to produce enormous gains in our ability to follow the very low-density gas dispersed by galactic winds and galaxy interactions. This leverage results from the sensitivity of absorption lines to low ionic columns and the very steep rise in the areal density of quasars toward fainter magnitudes.

  18. Chandra Detection of OVIII Ly-alpha Absorption from an Overdense Region in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    T. Fang; H. L. Marshall; J. C. Lee; D. S. Davis; C. R. Canizares

    2002-06-16

    We report the first detection of an OVIII Ly-alpha absorption line associated with an overdense region in the intergalactic medium (IGM) along the sightline towards PKS 2155-304 with the Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (LETGS). The absorption line is detected at 4.5 sigma level with cz~16,600 km/s. At the same velocity Shull et al.(1998) detected a small group of spiral galaxies (with an overdensity of delta_gal ~ 100) and low metallicity HI Ly-alpha clouds. We constrain the intragroup gas that gives rise to the OVIII Ly-alpha line to a baryon density in the range 1e-5 intergalactic medium (WHIM) that are predicted from hydrodynamic simulations. Extrapolating from this single detection implies a large fraction of the ``missing baryons'' (~ 10%, or ~ 30-40% of the WHIM) are probed by the OVIII absorber.

  19. Hot Gas in the Local Group and Low-Redshift Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Kenneth R. Sembach

    2003-11-04

    There is increasing observational evidence that hot, highly ionized interstellar and intergalactic gas plays a significant role in the evolution of galaxies in the local universe. The primary spectral diagnostics of the warm-hot interstellar/intergalactic medium are ultraviolet and X-ray absorption lines of O VI and O VII. In this paper, I summarize some of the recent highlights of spectroscopic studies of hot gas in the Local Group and low-redshift universe. These highlights include investigations of the baryonic content of low-z O VI absorbers,evidence for a hot Galactic corona or Local Group medium, and the discovery of a highly ionized high velocity cloud system around the Milky Way.

  20. On the Absorption of High Energy Gamma-Rays by Intergalactic Infrared Radiation

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; O. C. de Jager

    1996-08-13

    We present a new calculation of the intergalactic $\\gamma$-ray pair-production absorption coefficient as a function of both energy and redshift up to the redshift of 3C279, z = 0.54. In reexamining this problem, we make use of new observational data on the intergalactic infrared radiation field (IIRF), together with recent theoretical models of the galactic spectral energy distributions of the IIRF from stars and dust reradiation and estimates of the IIRF from galaxy counts and {\\it COBE} results. We present our results for two fairly well defined IIRF spectral energy distributions, one of which is within $1 \\sigma $ of our previous estimate of the IIRF at $ \\sim 20$ $\\mu$m. We then apply our results to the $\\gamma$-ray spectrum of Mrk 421, and obtain good agreement with the observational data, including the recent results of the {\\it HEGRA} group.

  1. Evidence for Intergalactic Absorption in the TeV Gamma-Ray Spectrum of Mkn 501

    E-print Network

    Alexander K. Konopelko; John G. Kirk; Floyd W. Stecker; Apostolos Mastichiadis

    1999-04-05

    The recent HEGRA observations of the blazar Mkn 501 show strong curvature in the very high energy gamma-ray spectrum. Applying the gamma-ray opacity derived from an empirically based model of the intergalactic infrared background radiation field (IIRF), to these observations, we find that the intrinsic spectrum of this source is consistent with a power-law: dN/dE~ E^-alpha with alpha=2.00 +/- 0.03 over the range 500 GeV - 20 TeV. Within current synchrotron self-Compton scenarios, the fact that the TeV spectral energy distribution of Mkn 501 does not vary with luminosity, combined with the correlated, spectrally variable emission in X-rays, as observed by the BeppoSAX and RXTE instruments, also independently implies that the intrinsic spectrum must be close to alpha=2. Thus, the observed curvature in the spectrum is most easily understood as resulting from intergalactic absorption.

  2. Quantifying galactic clustering and departures from randomness of the inter-galactic void probability function using information geometry

    E-print Network

    C. T. J. Dodson

    2008-11-26

    A number of recent studies have estimated the inter-galactic void probability function and investigated its departure from various random models. We study a family of parametric statistical models based on gamma distributions, which do give realistic descriptions for other stochastic porous media. Gamma distributions contain as a special case the exponential distributions, which correspond to the `random' void size probability arising from Poisson processes. The random case corresponds to the information-theoretic maximum entropy or maximum uncertainty model. Lower entropy models correspond on the one hand to more `clustered' structures or `more dispersed' structures than expected at random. The space of parameters is a surface with a natural Riemannian structure, the Fisher information metric. This surface contains the Poisson processes as an isometric embedding and provides the geometric setting for quantifying departures from randomness and perhaps on which may be written evolutionary dynamics for the void size distribution. Estimates are obtained for the two parameters of the void diameter distribution for an illustrative example of data published by Fairall.

  3. Evidence for Gamma-Ray Halos Around Active Galactic Nuclei and the First Measurement of Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    E-print Network

    Shin'ichiro Ando; Alexander Kusenko

    2010-09-02

    Intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMF) can cause the appearance of halos around the gamma-ray images of distant objects because an electromagnetic cascade initiated by a high-energy gamma-ray interaction with the photon background is broadened by magnetic deflections. We report evidence of such gamma-ray halos in the stacked images of the 170 brightest active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the 11-month source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Excess over point spread function in the surface brightness profile is statistically significant at 3.5\\sigma (99.95% confidence level), for the nearby, hard population of AGN. The halo size and brightness are consistent with IGMF, B_{IGMF} ~ 10^{-15} G. The knowledge of IGMF will facilitate the future gamma-ray and charged-particle astronomy. Furthermore, since IGMF are likely to originate from the primordial seed fields created shortly after the Big Bang, this potentially opens a new window on the origin of cosmological magnetic fields, inflation, and the phase transitions in the early Universe.

  4. EVIDENCE FOR GAMMA-RAY HALOS AROUND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE FIRST MEASUREMENT OF INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kusenko, Alexander E-mail: kusenko@ucla.ed

    2010-10-10

    Intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) can cause the appearance of halos around the gamma-ray images of distant objects because an electromagnetic cascade initiated by a high-energy gamma-ray interaction with the photon background is broadened by magnetic deflections. We report evidence of such gamma-ray halos in the stacked images of the 170 brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 11 month source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Excess over the point-spread function in the surface brightness profile is statistically significant at 3.5{sigma} (99.95% confidence level), for the nearby, hard population of AGNs. The halo size and brightness are consistent with IGMF, B {sub IGMF} {approx} 10{sup -15} G. The knowledge of IGMF will facilitate the future gamma-ray and charged-particle astronomy. Furthermore, since IGMFs are likely to originate from the primordial seed fields created shortly after the big bang, this potentially opens a new window on the origin of cosmological magnetic fields, inflation, and the phase transitions in the early universe.

  5. Searching for the Missing Baryons in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    X. Barcons

    2007-11-30

    At low redshift (zIntergalactic Medium (WHIM), as predicted by simulations. Attempts to detect WHIM filaments at cosmological distances in absorption towards bright background sources have yielded controversial results that I review here. I argue that a secure detection of absorption features by the WHIM is at the limit of the XMM-Newton capabilities, but feasible. A proper characterisation of the whole WHIM belongs to the realm of future X-ray missions.

  6. Merging of Elliptical Galaxies as Possible Origin of the Intergalactic Stellar Population

    E-print Network

    Letizia Stanghellini; A. Cesar Gonzalez-Garcia; Arturo Manchado

    2006-03-02

    We present N-body simulations of elliptical galaxy encounters into dry mergers to study the resulting unbound intergalactic stellar population, in particular that of the post-Main Sequence stars. The systems studied are pairs of spherical galaxies without dark halos. The stellar content of the model galaxies is distributed into mass-bins representing low- and intermediate-mass stars (0.85 -- 8 solar masses) according to Salpeter's initial mass function. Our models follow the dynamical evolution of galaxy encounters colliding head-on from initial low-energy parabolic or high-energy mildly-hyperbolic orbits, and for a choice of initial-mass ratios. The merging models with initial parabolic orbits have M2/M1 =1 and 10, and they leave behind respectively 5.5 % and 10 % of the total initial mass as unbound stellar mass. The merging model with initial hyperbolic orbit has M2/M1 =1, and leaves behind 21 % of its initial stellar mass as unbound mass, showing that the efficiency in producing intergalactic stars through a high-energy hyperbolic encounter is about four times than through a parabolic encounter of the same initial mass ratio. By assuming that all progenitor galaxies as well as the merger remnants are homologous systems we obtained that the intergalactic starlight is 17 % and 28 % of the total starlight respectively for the parabolic and hyperbolic encounters with M2/M1 =1. In all models, different mass stars have the same probability of becoming unbound and feeding the intergalactic stellar population.

  7. Large scale structure in the intergalactic magnetic field and ultra-high energy cosmic ray propagation

    E-print Network

    Gustavo Medina Tanco

    1998-07-31

    The possibility that the magnetic field is strongly correlated with the large-scale structure of the universe has been recently proposed in the literature. In this scenario the intergalactic magnetic field has a strong (m Gauss) regular component spanning tens of Mpc. This could have severe consequences on the propagation of ultra-high energy cosmic rays, and the observed spectra, isotropy and composition. A quantitative discussion of these effects is given in the present work.

  8. Effect of intergalactic absorption in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of Mkn 501

    E-print Network

    Alexander K. Konopelko

    1999-10-29

    We discuss an effect of the intergalactic absorption of the TeV gamma-rays in time-averaged spectrum of Mkn 501 measured by the HEGRA Collaboration. Analysis of the spectral behavior, variability time scale and relevant calculations of TeV gamma-ray emission allow to conclude the presence of a noticeable absorption of the TeV gamma-rays in the Mkn 501 energy spectrum.

  9. The relationships between galaxies/AGN and the circum-/intergalactic medium at z<1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and evolution of galaxies is governed by gas accretion from circum-/intergalactic gas reservoirs and satellites that is regulated by feedback from stars and active galactic nuclei. To constrain the relationship between these gas reservoirs and galaxy properties, I have carried out deep and highly complete surveys of several thousand galaxies in fields with high quality absorption spectra of background quasars from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. The survey results imply that (1) highly ionized, heavy-element enriched gas traced by OVI absorption primarily arise in low-mass, gas-rich galaxy groups rather than the warm-hot phase of the intergalactic medium and that (2) galaxies with nearby neighbors exhibit more extened OVI absorbing gas than isolated galaxies. Together, these observations suggest that galaxy and group interactions play a role in stripping bound, heavy element enriched halo gas to enrich the intergalactic medium. In addition, I carried out the first large survey of circumgalactic gas around active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars. The cool, heavy-element enriched gas content of AGN and quasar host halos is strongly correlated with AGN luminosity, and the gas exhibit extreme kinematics with velocity spread inconsistent with gas bound to the AGN host. These observations provide tantalizing hints at the widespread impact of AGN feedback on the extended gas reservoirs around galaxies.

  10. Hot Baryons and the Distribution of Metals in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Tumlinson, J; Tumlinson, Jason; Fang, Taotao

    2005-01-01

    We use the observed number and column-density distributions of intergalactic O VI absorbers to constrain the distribution of metals in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). In this simple model the metals in the O VI absorbers are assumed to be produced in and propagated from low-redshift galaxies drawn from a real sample, in this case the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This model can explain the observed dN/dz of metals seen in O VI absorbers if these metals are dispersed out to ~ 200 kpc by galaxies down to L \\~ 0.01 - 0.1 L_r^*. Massive galaxies (L ~ L_r^*) by themselves cannot provide the necessary enrichment unless they can enrich volumes out to $\\gtrsim 0.5 - 1 Mpc. Alternatively, our model allows an estimate of the fraction of O VI absorbers directly caused by galaxies rather than hot IGM. With this assumption we explore the possible connections between the intergalactic O VI absorbers and the known populations of highly-ionized high-velocity clouds (HVCs) surrounding the Milky Way. Our model ...

  11. TeV Gamma-Ray Absorption and the Intergalactic Infrared Background

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker

    2001-01-12

    In this paper, I will take a synoptic approach to determining the intergalactic infrared radiation field (IIRF). This approach draws on both the multi-TeV gamma-ray observations and the infrared background observations and relates them via the semi-empirical modelling method of Malkan and Stecker. I discuss the evidence for an intergalactic infrared background obtained by an analysis of the HEGRA observations of the high energy gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 501 and from constraints from Mrk 421 deduced from the Whipple air Cherenkov telescope results. I will show that this evidence is in accord with the predictions made by Malkan and Stecker for the intergalactic infrared spectral energy distribution produced by galaxies. The Malkan-Stecker predictions are also in excellent agreement with mid- and far infrared galaxy counts. However, there may be potential problems relating these predictions with the results of the analysis of COBE-DIRBE far infrared data. The gamma-ray and COBE-DIRBE observations may also need to be reconciled. I will discuss possible ways to resolve this situation including a partial nullification of the $\\gamma$-ray absorption process which can hypothetically occur if Lorentz invariance is broken.

  12. The positron density in the intergalactic medium and the galactic 511 keV line

    E-print Network

    A. Vecchio; A. C. Vincent; J. Miralda-Escude; C. Pena-Garay

    2013-04-01

    The 511 keV electron-positron annihilation line, most recently characterized by the INTEGRAL/SPI experiment, is highly concentrated towards the Galactic centre. Its origin remains unknown despite decades of scrutiny. We propose a novel scenario in which known extragalactic positron sources such as radio jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) fill the intergalactic medium with MeV e+e- pairs, which are then accreted into the Milky Way. We show that interpreting the diffuse cosmic radio background (CRB) as arising from radio sources with characteristics similar to the observed cores and radio lobes in powerful AGN jets suggests that the intergalactic positron-to-electron ratio could be as high as 10^{-5}, although this can be decreased if the CRB is not all produced by pairs and if not all positrons escape to the intergalactic medium. Assuming an accretion rate of one solar mass per year of matter into the Milky Way, a positron-to-electron ratio of only 10^{-7} is already enough to account for much of the 511 keV emission of the Galaxy. A simple spherical accretion model predicts an emission profile highly peaked in the central bulge, consistent with INTEGRAL observations. However, a realistic model of accretion with angular momentum would likely imply a more extended emission over the disk, with uncertainties depending on the magnetic field structure and turbulence in the galactic halo.

  13. ON LYMAN-LIMIT SYSTEMS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERGALACTIC IONIZING BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Matthew; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Peng Oh, S.

    2011-12-10

    We study the properties of self-shielding intergalactic absorption systems and their implications for the ionizing background. We find that cosmological simulations post-processed with detailed radiative transfer calculations generally are able to reproduce the observed abundance of Lyman-limit systems, and we highlight possible discrepancies between the observations and simulations. This comparison tests cosmological simulations at overdensities of {approx}100. Furthermore, we show that the properties of Lyman-limit systems in these simulations, in simple semianalytic arguments, and as suggested by recent observations indicate that a small change in the ionizing emissivity of the sources would have resulted in a much larger change in the amplitude of the intergalactic H I-ionizing background (with this scaling strengthening with increasing redshift). This strong scaling could explain the rapid evolution in the Ly{alpha} forest transmission observed at z Almost-Equal-To 6. Our calculations agree with the suggestion of simpler models that the comoving ionizing emissivity was constant or even increasing from z = 3 to 6. Our calculations also provide a more rigorous estimate than in previous studies for the clumping factor of intergalactic gas after reionization, which we estimate was Almost-Equal-To 2-3 at z = 6.

  14. The Contribution of the Intergalactic Medium to Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies

    E-print Network

    F. Atrio-Barandela; J. P. Muecket

    2006-01-19

    We compute the power spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature anisotropies generated by the Intergalactic Medium. To estimate the electron pressure along the line of sight and its contribution to the Sunyaev-Zeldovich component of the CMB anisotropies, we assume the non-linear baryonic density contrast is well described by a log-normal distribution. For model parameters in agreement with observations and for an experiment operating in the Rayleigh-Jeans regime, the largest IGM contribution is expected at scales corresponding to multipole numbers of about 2000. The amplitude is rather uncertain and could be as large as 100-200 [mikroK]^2, comparable to the contribution of galaxy clusters. The actual value is strongly dependent on the gas polytropic index and the amplitude of the matter power spectrum sigma_8. At all redshifts, the largest contribution comes from scales very close to the comoving baryon Jeans length. This scale is not yet resolved in numerical simulations that follow the evolution of gas on cosmological scales. The anisotropy generated by the Intergalactic Medium could make compatible the excess of power measured by Cosmic Background Imager (CBI) on scales of l > 2000 with sigma_8=0.9. Taking the CBI result as an upper limit, the polytropic index can be constrained to Intergalactic Medium contributions could be separated by cross correlating galaxy/cluster catalogs with CMB maps. This measurement will determine the state of the gas at low and intermediate redshifts.

  15. INTERGALACTIC GAS IN GROUPS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL FORMATION AND THE MISSING BARYONS PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Freeland, E.; Wilcots, E. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2011-09-10

    Radio galaxies with bent jets are predominantly located in groups and clusters of galaxies. We use bent-double radio sources, under the assumption that their jets are bent by ram pressure, to probe intragroup medium (IGM) gas densities in galaxy groups. This method provides a direct measurement of the intergalactic gas density and allows us to probe intergalactic gas at large radii and in systems whose IGM is too cool to be detected by the current generation of X-ray telescopes. We find gas with densities of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} at group radii from 15 to 700 kpc. A rough estimate of the total baryonic mass in intergalactic gas is consistent with the missing baryons being located in the IGM of galaxy groups. The neutral gas will be easily stripped from dwarf galaxies with total masses of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} in the groups studied here. Indications are that intragroup gas densities in less-massive systems like the Local Group should be high enough to strip gas from dwarfs like Leo T and, in combination with tides, produce dwarf spheroidals.

  16. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  17. A DETERMINATION OF THE INTERGALACTIC REDSHIFT-DEPENDENT ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL-NIR PHOTON DENSITY USING DEEP GALAXY SURVEY DATA AND THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T. E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to {gamma}-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  18. A search for intergalactic HI gas in the NGC 1808 group of galaxies

    E-print Network

    Michael Dahlem; Matthias Ehle; Stuart D. Ryder

    2001-06-04

    A mosaic of six HI line observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array is used to search for intergalactic gas in the NGC 1808 group of galaxies. Within the field of view of about 1.4 deg x 1.2 deg, no emission from intergalactic HI gas is detected, either in the form of tidal plumes or tails, intergalactic HI clouds, or as gas associated with tidal dwarf galaxies, with a 5-sigma limiting sensitivity of about 3x10^{18} cm^{-2} (or 1.4x10^7 M_sun at a distance of 10.9 Mpc, for the given beam size of 127.9" x 77.3"). The HI data of NGC 1792 and NGC 1808, with a velocity resolution of 6.6 km/s, confirm the results of earlier VLA observations. Simultaneous wide-band 1.34 GHz continuum observations also corroborate the results of earlier studies. However, the continuum flux of NGC 1808 measured by us is almost 20% higher than reported previously. No radio continuum emission was detected from the type Ia supernova SN1993af in the north-eastern spiral arm of NGC 1808. A comparison of NGC 1792 and NGC 1808 shows that it is not primarily the total energy input that makes the big difference between the starburst-related outflow in NGC 1808 and the absence of such extraplanar features in NGC 1792, but the area over which the energy released by stellar winds and supernovae is injected into the ISM.

  19. FUSE and STIS Observations of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium towards PG1259+593

    E-print Network

    Philipp Richter; Blair D. Savage; Todd M. Tripp; Kenneth R. Sembach

    2004-03-22

    We use FUSE and STIS spectra to study intergalactic absorption towards the quasar PG1259+593 (z=0.478). We identify 135 intergalactic absorption lines with equivalent widths >10mA, tracing 78 absorption components in 72 Ly alpha/beta absorption-line systems. We concentrate on the distribution and physical properties of the WHIM as sampled by OVI and intrinsically broad Ly alpha lines. The number of intervening OVI absorbers for equivalent widths W>24 mA is 3-6 over an unobscured redshift path of dz=0.368. This implies a number density of OVI systems, dN/dz, of ~8-16 along this sight line. This range is consistent with estimates from other sight lines, supporting the idea that intervening intergalactic OVI absorbers contain an substantial fraction of the baryonic mass in the low-redshift Universe. We identify a number of broad Ly alpha absorbers with large Doppler parameters (b~40-200 km/s) and low column densities (N(HI)<10^14 cm^-2). For pure thermal broadening, these widths correspond to temperatures of ~1x10^5 to 3x10^6 K. While these broad absorbers could be caused by blends of multiple, unresolved lines, continuum undulations, or by kinematic flows and Hubble broadening, we consider the possibility that some of these features are single-component, thermally broadened Ly alpha lines. These systems could represent WHIM absorbers that are too weak, too metal-poor, and/or too hot to be detected in OVI. If so, their widths and their frequency in the PG1259+593 spectrum imply that these absorbers trace an even larger fraction of the baryons in the low-redshift Universe than the OVI absorbing systems (abridged version).

  20. Hot Baryons and the Distribution of Metals in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Jason Tumlinson; Taotao Fang

    2005-01-25

    We use the observed number and column-density distributions of intergalactic O VI absorbers to constrain the distribution of metals in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM). In this simple model the metals in the O VI absorbers are assumed to be produced in and propagated from low-redshift galaxies drawn from a real sample, in this case the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This model can explain the observed dN/dz of metals seen in O VI absorbers if these metals are dispersed out to ~ 200 kpc by galaxies down to L \\~ 0.01 - 0.1 L_r^*. Massive galaxies (L ~ L_r^*) by themselves cannot provide the necessary enrichment unless they can enrich volumes out to $\\gtrsim 0.5 - 1 Mpc. Alternatively, our model allows an estimate of the fraction of O VI absorbers directly caused by galaxies rather than hot IGM. With this assumption we explore the possible connections between the intergalactic O VI absorbers and the known populations of highly-ionized high-velocity clouds (HVCs) surrounding the Milky Way. Our model predicts that more sensitive, complete surveys optimized to uncover weaker O VI absorbers will find the tentative turnover below log N(O VI) ~ 13.5 to be a real effect resulting from the apparently limited volumes over which galaxies can enrich the IGM. If so, it would indicate that metals are not as widespread throughout the low-density IGM as they are assumed to be in cosmological simulations of the WHIM.

  1. Impact of Dark Matter Annihilation on the High-Redshift Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Leonid Chuzhoy

    2008-05-30

    We reexamine the impact of dark matter (DM) annihilation on the intergalactic medium, taking into account the clumping of DM particles. We find that energy injection from the annihilation of the thermal relic DM particles may significantly raise the gas temperature at high redshifts and leave a strong imprint on the cosmological 21-cm signal, provided the particle mass is below ~1 TeV. Further, we find that while the energy injection from DM annihilation could not alone complete the reionization of the Universe, it could make a significant contribution to the electron optical depth.

  2. A Possible Shock Wave in the Intergalactic Medium of the Cluster of Galaxies A754

    E-print Network

    R. Krivonos; A. Vikhlinin; M. Markevitch; M. Pavlinsky

    2003-07-04

    The cluster of galaxies A754 undergoes a merger of several large structural units. X-ray observations show a nonequilibrium state of the central part of the cluster, in which a cloud of cold plasma 500 kpc in size was identified amid the hotter cluster gas. The X-ray image of A754 exhibits a brightness discontinuity, which can be interpreted as a shock wave in front of a moving cloud of dense gas. The shock parameters are determined from the jump in intergalactic gas density using the ROSAT image. The estimated Mach number is M=1.71^{+0.45}_{-0.24} at a 68% confidence level.

  3. Photon-axion conversion in intergalactic magnetic fields and cosmological consequences

    E-print Network

    A. Mirizzi; G. G. Raffelt; P. D. Serpico

    2006-07-18

    Photon-axion conversion induced by intergalactic magnetic fields causes an apparent dimming of distant sources, notably of cosmic standard candles such as supernovae of type Ia (SNe Ia). We review the impact of this mechanism on the luminosity-redshift relation of SNe Ia, on the dispersion of quasar spectra, and on the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. The original idea of explaining the apparent dimming of distant SNe Ia without cosmic acceleration is strongly constrained by these arguments. However, the cosmic equation of state extracted from the SN Ia luminosity-redshift relation remains sensitive to this mechanism. For example, it can mimic phantom energy.

  4. Highly Ionized High-Velocity Clouds: Hot Intergalactic Medium or Galactic Halo?

    E-print Network

    J. A. Collins; J. M. Shull; M. L. Giroux

    2005-01-15

    We use spectroscopic data from HST and FUSE to study the wide range of ionization states of the "highly ionized high-velocity clouds". Studied extensively in OVI absorption, these clouds are usually assumed to be infalling gas in the Galactic halo at distances less than 50 kpc. An alternative model attributes the OVI (and OVII X-ray absorption) to cosmological structures of low-density, shock-heated intergalactic gas, distributed over 1-3 Mpc surrounding the Milky Way. The latter interpretation is unlikely, owing to the enormous required mass of gas (4x10^12 M_solar). Our detection, in 9 of 12 sight lines, of low ionization stages (CII/III/IV; SiII/III/IV) at similar high velocities as OVI requires gas densities far above that (n_H=5x10^-6 cm^-3) associated with the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). These HVCs are probably cooling, multiphase gas in the Galactic halo, bow-shocks and interfaces between clouds falling through a hot, rotating gaseous halo. The velocity segregation of these HVCs in Galactic coordinates is consistent with a pattern in which infalling clouds reflect the sense of Galactic rotation, with peculiar velocities superposed.

  5. Dynamical limits on galactic winds, halo MACHOs and intergalactic globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, HongSheng

    2002-10-01

    We argue that any violent galactic winds following the early epoch of starbursts will significantly weaken the potentials of galaxies, and leave lasting signatures such as a lowered dark halo density and preferentially radial/escaping orbits for halo tracers such as globular clusters. A galaxy is disintegrated if more than half of its dynamical mass is blown off. The presence of dense haloes in galaxies and the absence of intergalactic/escaping globulars should imply an upper limit on the amount of baryons lost in galactic winds of around 4 per cent of the total mass of the galaxy. This translates to limits on the baryons participating in the early starbursts and baryons locked in stellar remnants, such as white dwarfs. The numbers of halo white dwarfs claimed in recent proper motion searches and microlensing observations in the Galactic halo are too high to be consistent with our dynamical upper limits. Similar arguments also imply upper limits for the number of neutron stars and stellar black holes in galaxy haloes. Nevertheless, a milder outflow is desirable, especially in dwarf galaxies, both to lower their cold dark matter central density and to inject metals into the intergalactic medium.

  6. Hydrogen-like nitrogen radio line from hot interstellar and warm-hot intergalactic gas

    E-print Network

    R. A. Sunyaev; D. Docenko

    2006-10-06

    Hyperfine structure lines of highly-charged ions may open a new window in observations of hot rarefied astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we discuss spectral lines of isotopes and ions abundant at temperatures 10^5-10^7 K, characteristic for warm-hot intergalactic medium, hot interstellar medium, starburst galaxies, their superwinds and young supernova remnants. Observations of these lines will allow to study bulk and turbulent motions of the observed target and will broaden the information about the gas ionization state, chemical and isotopic composition. The most prospective is the line of the major nitrogen isotope having wavelength 5.65 mm (Sunyaev and Churazov 1084). Wavelength of this line is well-suited for observation of objects at z=0.15-0.6 when it is redshifted to 6.5-9 mm spectral band widely-used in ground-based radio observations, and, for example, for z>=1.3, when the line can be observed in 1.3 cm band and at lower frequencies. Modern and future radio telescopes and interferometers are able to observe the absorption by 14-N VII in the warm-hot intergalactic medium at redshifts above z=0.15 in spectra of brightest mm-band sources. Sub-millimeter emission lines of several most abundant isotopes having hyperfine splitting might also be detected in spectra of young supernova remnants.

  7. On The Source of Ionization of The Intergalactic Medium at $z \\sim 2.4$

    E-print Network

    Shiv K. Sethi; Biman B. Nath

    1997-03-20

    We use the recent detection of He II absorption at $z=2.2-2.6$ in the line of sight of the quasar HS1700+64 to put bounds on the sources of ionization. We find that given the uncertainty in $\\tauhgp$ and the model of absorption in the intergalactic medium (IGM), a wide range of possible sources of ionization is still allowed by the observations. We show that a significant contribution from star forming galaxies is allowed and is consistent with the proximity effect. In the case of photoionization by the UV background radiation, the contribution of star forming galaxies to the intensity at $912 > {\\AA}$ can be within a range of $\\sim 1 - 15$ times that of the quasars. We also investigate the case of a collisionally ionized intergalactic medium. We show that although collisional ionization can be a dominant source of ionization at $z \\sim 2.4$ (taking into account the upper limit on Compton y-parameter of the microwave background radiation), the thermal state of the IGM cannot yet be determined. We also consider Sciama's model of radiatively decaying neutrinos and show that the model of decaying neutrino is consistent with the observations.

  8. FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN STEPHAN'S QUINTET REVEALED BY AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toyoaki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2011-04-10

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ, HCG92) was observed with the Far-Infrared Surveyor on board AKARI in four far-infrared (IR) bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m. The AKARI four-band images show far-IR emission in the intergalactic medium of SQ. In particular, the 160 {mu}m band image shows single peak emission in addition to the structure extending in the north-south direction along the shock ridge as seen in the 140 {mu}m band, H{sub 2} emission, and X-ray emission. Whereas most of the far-IR emission in the shocked region comes from the cold dust component, shock-powered [C II]158 {mu}m emission can significantly contribute to the emission in the 160 {mu}m band that shows a single peak at the shocked region. In the shocked region, the observed gas-to-dust mass ratio is in agreement with the Galactic one. The color temperature of the cold dust component ({approx}20 K) is lower than that in surrounding galaxies ({approx}30 K). We discuss a possible origin of the intergalactic dust emission.

  9. On modeling and measuring the temperature of the z ? 5 intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

    2014-06-20

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Ly?) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z ? 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Ly? forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Ly? forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z ? 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ? 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ? 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

  10. A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W

    2013-10-31

    Most of the metals (elements heavier than helium) produced by stars in the member galaxies of clusters currently reside within the hot, X-ray-emitting intra-cluster gas. Observations of X-ray line emission from this intergalactic medium have suggested a relatively small cluster-to-cluster scatter outside the cluster centres and enrichment with iron out to large radii, leading to the idea that the metal enrichment occurred early in the history of the Universe. Models with early enrichment predict a uniform metal distribution at large radii in clusters, whereas those with late-time enrichment are expected to introduce significant spatial variations of the metallicity. To discriminate clearly between these competing models, it is essential to test for potential inhomogeneities by measuring the abundances out to large radii along multiple directions in clusters, which has not hitherto been done. Here we report a remarkably uniform iron abundance, as a function of radius and azimuth, that is statistically consistent with a constant value of ZFe = 0.306?±?0.012 in solar units out to the edge of the nearby Perseus cluster. This homogeneous distribution requires that most of the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium occurred before the cluster formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity. PMID:24172976

  11. Gamma-ray burst afterglows as probes of galactic and intergalactic dust

    E-print Network

    Rosalba Perna; Anthony Aguirre

    2000-05-23

    The amount and properties of high-redshift galactic and intergalactic (IG) dust are largely unknown, but could be investigated using multi-wavelength photometry of high-z objects that have a known intrinsic spectrum. Observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows appear to support the theoretical model of an adiabatic blast wave expanding into an external medium. In this model, the synchrotron peak flux is independent of frequency, providing a flat spectrum when observed over time, and therefore allowing straightforward measurement of the relative attenuation of afterglow flux in widely separated bands. Applying this method to dust extinction, we show that for a sample of afterglows which have been corrected by galactic extinction, comparison between the number counts of peak fluxes in X-ray versus optical can provide constraints on an intergalactic component of dust. A similar technique can probe the redshift-dependence of extinction in GRB-forming regions without requiring an assumed relation between extinction and reddening by the dust. Probing systematic changes in extinction with redshift - particularly in IG and/or non-reddening dust - is crucial to a proper interpretation of the Type Ia Supernova Hubble diagram and similar observations, and useful in understanding GRB progenitor environments.

  12. Dynamical limits on galactic winds, halo machos and intergalactic globular clusters

    E-print Network

    HongSheng Zhao

    2002-07-04

    We argue that any violent galactic winds following early epoch of star bursts would significantly weaken the potentials of galaxies, and leave lasting signatures such as a lowered dark halo density and preferentially radial/escaping orbits for halo tracers such as globular clusters. A galaxy is disintegrated if more than half of its dynamical mass is blown off. The presence of dense halos in galaxies and the absence of intergalactic/escaping globulars should imply an upper limit on the amount of baryons lost in galactic winds around 4% of the total mass of the galaxy. This translates to limits on the baryons participating the early star bursts and baryons locked in stellar remnents, such as white dwarfs. The amount of halo white dwarfs claimed in recent proper motion searches and microlensing observations in the Galactic halo are too high to be consistent with our dynamical upper limits. Similar arguments also imply upper limits for the amount of neutron stars and stellar black holes, in galaxy halos. Nevertheless, a milder outflow is desirable, especially in dwarf galaxies, both for lowering their cold dark matter central density and for injecting metals to the intergalactic medium.

  13. The evolution of the intergalactic medium and the origin of the galaxy luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; Blanchard, Alain; Mamon, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of the Press and Schechter prescription with the CDM scenario and the Hoyle-Rees-Ostriker cooling criterion leads to a galaxy formation scenario in which galaxies are overproduced by a large factor. Although star formation might be suppressed in the smaller halos, a large amount of energy per galactic mass is needed to account for the present number density of galaxies. The evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) provides a simple criterion to prevent galaxy formation without requiring feedback, since halos with small virial temperatures are not able to retain the infalling hot gas of the IGM. If the ionizing background has decreased since z is approximately 1 - 2, then this criterion explains the slope of the luminosity function at the faint end. In addition, this scenario predicts two populations of dwarf galaxies, well differentiated in age, gas content, stellar populations, and clustering properties, which can be identified with dE and dIm galaxies.

  14. A census of H? emitters in the intergalactic medium of the NGC 2865 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; Arnaboldi, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Gerhard, O.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D.

    2014-09-01

    Tidal debris, which are rich in HI gas and formed in interacting and merging systems, are suitable laboratories to study star formation outside galaxies. Recently, several such systems were observed, which contained many young star forming regions outside the galaxies. In previous works, we have studied young star forming regions outside galaxies in different systems with optical and/or gaseous tidal debris, in order to understand how often they occur and in which type of environments. In this paper, we searched for star forming regions around the galaxy NGC 2865, a shell galaxy that is circled by a ring of HI with a total mass of 1.2 × 109 M?. Using the multi-slit imaging spectroscopy technique with the Gemini telescope, we detected all H? emitting sources in the surroundings of the galaxy NGC 2865, down to a flux limit of 10-18 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1. With the spectra information and the near and far-ultraviolet flux, we characterize the star formation rates, masses, ages, and metallicities for these HII regions. In total, we found 26 emission-line sources in a 60 × 60 Kpc field centered over the southeastern tail of the HI gas present around the galaxy NGC 2865. Out of the 26 H? emitters, 19 are in the satellite galaxy FGCE 0745, and seven are intergalactic HII regions scattered over the south tail of the HI gas around NGC 2865. We found that the intergalactic HII regions are young (<200 Myr) with stellar masses in the range 4 × 103 M? to 17 × 106 M?. These are found in a region of low HI gas density, where the probability of forming stars is expected to be low. For one of the intergalactic HII regions, we estimated a solar oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.7. We also were able to estimate the metallicity for the satellite galaxy FGCE 0745 to be 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.0. Given these physical parameters, the intergalactic HII regions are consistent with young star forming regions (or clusters), which are born in situ outside the NGC 2865 galaxy from a pre-enriched gas removed from the host galaxies in a merger event. The relevance of these observations is discussed. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina) - Observing runs: GS-2008A-Q-35.

  15. Probing ~100 AU Intergalactic MgII Absorbing "Cloudlets" with Quasar Microlensing

    E-print Network

    Subo Dong

    2006-12-18

    Intergalactic MgII absorbers are known to have structures down to scales ~ 10^{2.5} pc, and there are now indications that they may be fragmented on scales <~ 10^{-2.5} pc (Hao et al., astro-ph/0612409). When a lensed quasar is microlensed, the micro-images of the quasar experience creation, destruction, distortion, and drastic astrometric changes during caustic-crossing. I show that quasar microlensing can effectively probe MgII and other absorption "cloudlets" with sizes ~ 10^{-4.0} - 10^{-2.0} pc by inducing significant spectral variability on the timescales of months to years. With numerical simulations, I demonstrate the feasibility of applying this method to Q2237+0305, and I show that high-resolution spectra of this quasar in the near future would provide a clear test of the existence of such metal-line absorption "cloudlets" along the quasar sight line.

  16. Non-equilibrium Ionization State of Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Kohji Yoshikawa; Shin Sasaki

    2006-06-13

    Time evolution of the ionization state of metals in the cosmic baryons is investigated in a cosmological context without the assumption of ionization equilibrium. We find that a significant fraction of ionized oxygen ions (OVII and OVIII) in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is not in the ionization equilibrium state at a redshift of z~0. We also investigate the effect on the detectability and observables of WHIM as a consequence of such deviation from ionization equilibrium. It is found that the detectability of WHIM is not altered very much both through its emission and absorption signatures, but line ratios between OVII and OVIII are significantly different from those in the ionization equilibrium state.

  17. Energy dissipation of energetic electrons in the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization

    E-print Network

    Kaurov, Alexander A

    2015-01-01

    We explore a time-dependent energy dissipation of the energetic electrons in the inhomogeneous intergalactic medium (IGM) during the epoch of cosmic reionization. In addition to the atomic processes we take into account the Inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the electrons on the comic microwave background (CMB) photons, which is the dominant channel of energy loss for the electrons with energies above a few MeV. We show that: (1) the effect on the IGM has both local (atomic processes) and non-local (IC radiation) components; (2) the energy distribution between Hydrogen and Helium ionizations depends on the initial electron energy; (3) the local baryon overdensity significantly affects the fractions of energy distributed in each channel; and (4) the relativistic effect of atomic cross section become important during the epoch of cosmic reionization. We release our code as open source for further modification by the community.

  18. Models of the Thermal Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium After Reionization

    E-print Network

    Sanderbeck, Phoebe R Upton; McQuinn, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have brought more precise temperature measurements of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM). These new measurements constrain the processes that heated the IGM, such as the reionization of HI and of HeII. We present a semi-analytical model for the thermal history of the IGM that follows the photoheating history of primordial gas. We compare this model with recent temperature measurements spanning z= 1.6-4.8, finding that these measurements are consistent with scenarios in which the HeII was reionized at z= 3-4 by quasars. Significantly longer duration or higher redshift HeII reionization scenarios are ruled out by the measurements. For hydrogen reionization, we find that only low redshift and high temperature scenarios are excluded. For example, a model in which the IGM was heated to 30,000K when an ionization front passed, and with hydrogen reionization occurring over 63.

  19. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  20. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the extragalactic gamma-ray background, through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thus inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that the two extreme cases (zero IGMF and IGMF strong enough to completely isotropize cascade photons) would be separable by ten years of Fermi observations and reasonable model parameters for the gamma-ray background. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  1. The effect of neutrinos on the matter distribution as probed by the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Matteo Viel; Martin G. Haehnelt; Volker Springel

    2010-06-03

    We present a suite of full hydrodynamical cosmological simulations that quantitatively address the impact of neutrinos on the (mildly non-linear) spatial distribution of matter and in particular on the neutral hydrogen distribution in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM), which is responsible for the intervening Lyman-alpha absorption in quasar spectra. The free-streaming of neutrinos results in a (non-linear) scale-dependent suppression of power spectrum of the total matter distribution at scales probed by Lyman-alpha forest data which is larger than the linear theory prediction by about 25% and strongly redshift dependent. By extracting a set of realistic mock quasar spectra, we quantify the effect of neutrinos on the flux probability distribution function and flux power spectrum. The differences in the matter power spectra translate into a ~2.5% (5%) difference in the flux power spectrum for neutrino masses with Sigma m_{\

  2. A Simple Analytic Treatment of the Intergalactic Absorption Effect in Blazar Gamma-ray Spectra

    E-print Network

    F. W. Stecker; S. T. Scully

    2006-11-13

    We derive a new and user friendly simple analytic approximation for determining the effect of intergalactic absorption in the energy range 0.2-2 TeV and the redshift range 0.05-0.4. In these ranges, the form of the absorption coeeficient is approximately logarithmic in energy. The effect of this energy dependence is to steepen intrinsic source spectra such that a source with an approximate power-law intrinsic spectrum in this energy range with spectral index $\\Gamma_{s}$ is steepened to a power-law with an observed spectral index $\\Gamma_{o} = $\\Gamma_{s} + $\\Delta \\Gamma (z)$ where $\\Delta \\Gamma (z)$ is a linear function of z in the redshift range 0.05-0.4. We apply this approximation to the spectra of seven TeV blazars.

  3. The Gunn Peterson effect: a test for a black holes induced photoionization of the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Marina Gibilisco

    1996-09-06

    Many experimental evidences indicate the presence of a ionizing background radiation flux at large redshifts; in some previous works I suggested the possibility that this ionizing flux comes from the quantum evaporation of primordial black holes (PBHs). Here I discuss the constraints that the experimental measurements put upon the free parameters of this reionization model and I study the absorption of the ionizing background due to $\\lia$ clouds: in particular, I discuss this phenomenon in presence of different absorption levels and I calculate the HI Gunn Peterson optical depth $\\tau_{GP}(z)$; from a comparison with the experimental data I obtain a constraint on the intergalactic medium density parameter, namely $\\Omega_{IGM}$ $<0.020$. A study of the characteristics of the absorbers is also performed; finally, the same kind of analysis is repeated for He II.

  4. Spontaneous magnetization of a vacuum in the hot Universe and intergalactic magnetic fields

    E-print Network

    Vadim Demchik; Vladimir Skalozub

    2014-06-10

    We review the spontaneous magnetization of the vacuum of non-Abelian gauge fields at high temperature. The standard model of particles is investigated as a particular example. By using both analytic methods of quantum field theory and gauge field theory on a lattice, we determine the Abelian (chromo)magnetic fields in the restored phase of the model at high temperatures $T \\geq T_{ew}$. The fields are stable and temperature dependent, $B = B(T)$. We investigate the mechanisms of the field stabilization in detail. The screening parameters for electric and magnetic fields - the Debye, $m_D(B,T),$ and magnetic, $m_{magn.}(B,T)$, masses - are calculated. It is shown that, in the field presence, the former one is smaller than at zero field. The magnetic mass of the (chromo)magnetic fields is determined to be zero, as for usual $U(1)$ magnetic field. We also show that the vacuum magnetization stops at temperatures below the electroweak phase transition temperature, $T \\leq T_{ew}$, when a scalar condensate creates. These properties make reasonable a possibility that the intergalactic magnetic fields observed recently were spontaneously generated in the hot Universe at the reheating epoch due to vacuum polarization of non-Abelian gauge fields. We present a procedure for estimating the field strengths $B(T)$ at different temperatures. In particular, the value of $B(T_{ew}) \\sim 10^{14} G$, at $T_{ew}$ is estimated with taking into consideration the observed intergalactic magnetic field $B_0 \\sim 10^{- 15} G$. The magnetic field scale is also estimated. Some model dependent peculiarities of the phenomena studied are briefly discussed.

  5. The Column Density Distribution and Continuum Opacity of the Intergalactic and Circumgalactic Medium at Redshift langzrang = 2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Shapley, Alice E.; Pettini, Max

    2013-06-01

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at langzrang = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly? and Ly? forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14 \\lesssim log (N_H\\,\\scriptsize{ I}/ {cm}^{-2}) \\lesssim 17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N H I absorbers than low-N H I absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N_H\\,\\scriptsize{ I}/ {cm}^{-2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N_H\\,\\scriptsize{ I}/ {cm}^{-2}) \\gt 17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N H I ?1015 cm-2. We compute new estimates of the mean free path (?mfp) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z em = 2.4, finding ?mfp = 147 ± 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to ?mfp = 121 ± 15 Mpc. These ?mfp measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of ionizing sources at z ? 2-3. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  7. Star Formation Feedback and Metal-enrichment History of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Renyue; Chisari, Nora Elisa

    2011-04-01

    Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of the standard cold dark matter model with star formation feedback strength normalized to match the observed star formation history of the universe at z= 0-6, we compute the metal-enrichment history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Overall we show that galactic superwind (GSW) feedback from star formation can transport metals to the IGM and that the properties of simulated metal absorbers match current observations. The distance of influence of GSW from galaxies is typically limited to about <=0.5 Mpc and within regions of overdensity ? >= 10. Most C IV and O VI absorbers are located within shocked regions of elevated temperature (T >= 2 × 104 K), overdensity (? >= 10), and metallicity ([Z/ Z sun] = [ - 2.5, - 0.5]), enclosed by double shocks propagating outward. O VI absorbers have typically higher metallicity, lower density, and higher temperature than C IV absorbers. For O VI absorbers, collisional ionization dominates over the entire redshift range z= 0-6, whereas for C IV absorbers the transition occurs at moderate redshift z ~ 3 from collisionally dominated to photoionization dominated. We find that the observed column density distributions for C IV and O VI in the range log N cm2=12-15 are reasonably reproduced by the simulations. The evolution of mass densities contained in C IV and O VI lines, ?C IV and ?O VI , is also in good agreement with observations, which shows a near constancy at low redshifts and an exponential drop beyond redshift z= 3-4. For both C IV and O VI, most absorbers are transient and the amount of metals probed by C IV and O VI lines of column log N cm2=12-15 is only ~2% of total metal density at any epoch. While gravitational shocks from large-scale structure formation dominate the energy budget (80%-90%) for turning about 50% of the IGM to the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) by z = 0, GSW feedback shocks are energetically dominant over gravitational shocks at z>=1-2. Most of the so-called missing metals at z= 2-3 are hidden in a warm-hot (T = 104.5-107 K) gaseous phase, heated up by GSW feedback shocks. Their mass distribution is broadly peaked at ?=1-10 in the IGM, outside virialized halos. Approximately 37%, 46%, 10%, and 7% of the total metals at z = 0 are in stars, WHIM, X-ray gas, and cold gas, respectively; the distributions stand at 23%, 57%, 2%, and 18% and 14%, 51%, 4%, and 31% at z = 2 and z = 4, respectively.

  8. Evolution of Structure in the Intergalactic Medium and the Nature of the LY-Alpha Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Hongguang; Davidsen, Arthur F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a detailed statistical study of the evolution of structure in a photoionized intergalactic medium (IGM) using analytical simulations to extend the calculation into the mildly nonlinear density regime found to prevail at z = 3. Our work is based on a simple fundamental conjecture: that the probability distribution function of the density of baryonic diffuse matter in the universe is described by a lognormal (LN) random field. The LN distribution has several attractive features and follows plausibly from the assumption of initial linear Gaussian density and velocity fluctuations at arbitrarily early times. Starting with a suitably normalized power spectrum of primordial fluctuations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM), we compute the behavior of the baryonic matter, which moves slowly toward minima in the dark matter potential on scales larger than the Jeans length. We have computed two models that succeed in matching observations. One is a nonstandard CDM model with OMEGA = 1, h = 0.5, and GAMMA = 0.3, and the other is a low-density flat model with a cosmological constant (LCDM), with OMEGA = 0.4, OMEGA(sub LAMBDA) = 0.6, and h = 0.65. In both models, the variance of the density distribution function grows with time, reaching unity at about z = 4, where the simulation yields spectra that closely resemble the Ly-alpha forest absorption seen in the spectra of high-z quasars. The calculations also successfully predict the observed properties of the Ly-alpha forest clouds and their evolution from z = 4 down to at least z = 2, assuming a constant intensity for the metagalactic UV background over this redshift range. However, in our model the forest is not due to discrete clouds, but rather to fluctuations in a continuous intergalactic medium. At z = 3; typical clouds with measured neutral hydrogen column densities N(sub H I) = 10(exp 13.3), 10(exp 13.5), and 10(exp 11.5) /sq cm correspond to fluctuations with mean total densities approximately 10, 1, and 0.1 times the universal mean baryon density. Perhaps surprisingly, fluctuations whose amplitudes are less than or equal to the mean density still appear as "clouds" because in our model more than 70% of the volume of the IGM at z = 3 is filled with gas at densities below the mean value.

  9. DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2012-02-20

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance ({approx}< 3{sigma}) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of {approx}90 and 190 per 50 mA spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N{sub Ovii}{approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mA for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s{sup -1}) at {approx}> 3{sigma} significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N{sub Ovii} at {>=}4{sigma} from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of {approx}0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R {approx} 4000 and effective area A {>=} 100 cm{sup 2} to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of {approx}2 Ms and would require {approx}11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux {approx}> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  10. Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    E-print Network

    Finke, Justin D; Georganopoulos, Markos; Reynolds, Kaeleigh; Ajello, Marco; Fegan, Stephen J; McCann, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Distant BL Lacertae objects emit $\\gamma$ rays which interact with the extragalactic background light (EBL), creating electron-positron pairs, and reducing the flux measured by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at very-high energies (VHE). These pairs can Compton-scatter the cosmic microwave background, creating a $\\gamma$-ray signature at slightly lower energies observable by the \\fermi\\ Large Area Telescope (LAT). This signal is strongly dependent on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) strength ($B$) and its coherence length ($L_B$). We use IACT spectra taken from the literature for 5 VHE-detected BL Lac objects, and combine it with LAT spectra for these sources to constrain these IGMF parameters. Low $B$ values can be ruled out by the constraint that the cascade flux cannot exceed that observed by the LAT. High values of $B$ can be ruled out from the constraint that the EBL-deabsorbed IACT spectrum cannot be greater than the LAT spectrum extrapolated into the VHE band, unles...

  11. Patchy Blazar Heating: Diversifying the Thermal History of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, Astrid; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large-scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is inhomogeneous for z ? 2. At high redshift, the temperature-density relation shows an important scatter and presents a low temperature envelope of unheated regions, in particular at low densities and within voids. However, the median temperature of the IGM is close to that in the uniform case, albeit slightly lower at low redshift. We find that blazar heating is more complex than initially assumed and that the temperature-density relation is not unique. Our analytic model for the heating rate fluctuations couples well with large-scale simulations and provides a cost-effective alternative to subgrid models.

  12. Intergalactic magnetic fields and gamma-ray observations of extreme TeV blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, Timothy C.; Vassilev, Vladimir V.; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P.; Shafi, S. Yusef

    2014-11-20

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in cosmic voids can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, 'extreme TeV blazars', can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from inverse Compton scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature that utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars, 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same framework. Through a recently developed, detailed, three-dimensional particle-tracking Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research the effects of major uncertainties, such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the ultraviolet and far-infrared extragalactic background light, undersampled very high energy (energy ?100 GeV) coverage, past history of gamma-ray emission, source versus observer geometry, and the jet AGN Doppler factor. The implications of these effects on the recently reported lower limits of the IGMF are thoroughly examined to conclude that the presently available data are compatible with a zero-IGMF hypothesis.

  13. MAST Interface to Synthetic Telescopes with yt {MISTY}: Observing Simulations of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly

    2014-10-01

    The COS instrument has shed new light on the metal-rich, massive, multi-phase reservoirs of gas surrounding galaxies. Numerical modeling has greatly enhanced the scientific understanding of the large body of of circumgalactic medium {CGM} and intergalactic medium {IGM} observations taken with COS. These numerical models produce synthetic spectra for direct comparison against COS outputs, a useful data resource for both simulators and observers alike, yet different groups apply different methods and formats, and there is no public archive of this scientific resource. We propose to construct a uniform and public simulation-to-archive pipeline for generating, analyzing, and providing to the community such synthetic spectra. By enabling rigorous and consistent comparisons between COS data and simulations, this project will advance our detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical conditions in CGM/IGM absorbers {density, temperature, metallicity ionization, ionization process}, and of the connection between observed velocity structure and galactic inflows and outflows. The results of our pipeline will be searchable via a MAST interface allowing users to specify subsets of synthetic spectra they wish to download and analyze.

  14. Patchy He II reionization and the physical state of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleser, Liron; Nusser, Adi; Benson, Andrew J.; Ohno, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2005-08-01

    We present a Monte Carlo model of He II reionization by quasi-stellar objects (QSOs, quasars) and its effect on the thermal state of the clumpy intergalactic medium (IGM). The model assumes that patchy reionization develops as a result of the discrete distribution of QSOs. It includes various recipes for the propagation of the ionizing photons, and treats photoheating self-consistently. The model predicts the fraction of He III, the mean temperature in the IGM, and the He II mean optical depth - all as a function of redshift. It also predicts the evolution of the local temperature versus density relation during reionization. Our findings are as follows. The fraction of He III increases gradually until it becomes close to unity at z~ 2.8-3.0. The He II mean optical depth decreases from ?~ 10 at z>~ 3.5 to ?<~ 0.5 at z<~ 2.5. The mean temperature rises gradually between z~ 4 and z~ 3 and declines slowly at lower redshifts. The model predicts a flattening of the temperature-density relation, with significant increase in the scatter during reionization at z~ 3. Towards the end of reionization, the scatter is reduced and a tight relation is re-established. This scatter should be incorporated in the analysis of the Ly? forest at z<~ 3. Comparison with observational results of the optical depth and the mean temperature at moderate redshifts constrains several key physical parameters.

  15. X-Ray Absorption by the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium in the Hercules Supercluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Bin; Fang, Taotao; Buote, David A.

    2014-02-01

    "Missing baryons," in the form of warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), are expected to reside in cosmic filamentary structures that can be traced by signposts such as large-scale galaxy superstructures. The clear detection of an X-ray absorption line in the Sculptor Wall demonstrated the success of using galaxy superstructures as a signpost to search for the WHIM. Here we present an XMM -Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the blazar Mkn 501, located in the Hercules Supercluster. We detected an O VII K? absorption line at the 98.7% level (2.5?) at the redshift of the foreground Hercules Supercluster. The derived properties of the absorber are consistent with theoretical expectations of the WHIM. We discuss the implication of our detection for the search for the "missing baryons." While this detection shows again that using signposts is a very effective strategy to search for the WHIM, follow-up observations are crucial both to strengthen the statistical significance of the detection and to rule out other interpretations. A local, z ~ 0 O VII K? absorption line was also clearly detected at the 4? level, and we discuss its implications for our understanding of the hot gas content of our Galaxy.

  16. Non-parametric 3D map of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman-alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Khandai, Nishikanta; Ozbek, Melih; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Visualizing the high-redshift Universe is difficult due to the dearth of available data; however, the Lyman-alpha forest provides a means to map the intergalactic medium at redshifts not accessible to large galaxy surveys. Large-scale structure surveys, such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), have collected quasar (QSO) spectra that enable the reconstruction of H I density fluctuations. The data fall on a collection of lines defined by the lines of sight (LOS) of the QSO, and a major issue with producing a 3D reconstruction is determining how to model the regions between the LOS. We present a method that produces a 3D map of this relatively uncharted portion of the Universe by employing local polynomial smoothing, a non-parametric methodology. The performance of the method is analysed on simulated data that mimics the varying number of LOS expected in real data, and then is applied to a sample region selected from BOSS. Evaluation of the reconstruction is assessed by considering various features of the predicted 3D maps including visual comparison of slices, probability density functions (PDFs), counts of local minima and maxima, and standardized correlation functions. This 3D reconstruction allows for an initial investigation of the topology of this portion of the Universe using persistent homology.

  17. Constraining the baryon fraction in the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium at low redshifts with PLANCK data

    E-print Network

    Genova-Santos, Ricardo; Kitaura, Francisco-Shu; Muecket, Jan P

    2015-01-01

    We cross-correlate a template of the matter density field tracing the large-scale filamentary distribution of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium out to ~90 Mpc/h with foreground cleaned Planck Nominal Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) maps. The template traces the projected matter density reconstructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey of galaxies and models the spatial distribution of filaments. After applying a filtering technique in order to reduce the unwanted 1/f noise in the CMB data and potential large-scale foreground residuals, we find a marginal signal with a signal-to-noise from 0.84 to 1.39 at the different Planck frequencies, and with a frequency dependence compatible with the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. At the 95% confidence level we set an upper limit to the cross-correlation at zero lag of < 0.17 muK. These results were obtained in a region covering 60% of the full sky, which is left after masking out the Galaxy, point sources and galaxy clusters. The significance of t...

  18. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  19. Faraday Rotation Measure due to the Intergalactic Magnetic Field II: the Cosmological Contribution

    E-print Network

    Akahori, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) through the cosmic web up to cosmological distances, using a model IGMF based on turbulence dynamo in the large-scale structure of the universe. By stacking the IGMF and gas density data up to redshift $z=5$ and taking account of the redshift distribution of polarized background radio sources against which the RM is measured, we simulate the sky map of the RM. The contribution from galaxy clusters is subtracted from the map, based on several different criteria of X-ray brightness and temperature. Our findings are as follows. The distribution of RM for radio sources of different redshifts shows that the root-mean-square (rms) value increases with redshift and saturates for $z \\ga 1$. The saturated value is RM$_{\\rm rms} \\approx$ several ${\\rm rad m^{-2}}$. The probability distribution function of $|{\\rm RM}|$ follows the lognormal distribution. The power spectrum has a broad plateau over the angular scale of $\\sim 1...

  20. Search for Oxygen Emission from Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium around A2218 with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Yoh; Ohashi, Takaya; Henry, J.Patrick; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Tamura, Takayuki; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tawa, Noriaki; Matsushita, Kyoko; Bautz, Mark W.; Hughes, John P.; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Arnaud, Keith A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Tokyo Metropolitan U. /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Osaka U. /Sci. U., Tokyo /MIT, MKI /Rutgers U., Piscataway /SLAC /NASA, Goddard

    2006-09-08

    We searched for redshifted O emission lines from the possible warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) surrounding the cluster of galaxies A2218 at z = 0.1756 using the XIS instrument on Suzaku. This cluster is thought to have an elongated structure along the line of sight based on previous studies. We studied systematic uncertainties in the spectrum of the Galactic emission and in the soft X-ray response of the detectors due to the contamination building up on the XIS filters. We detected no significant redshifted O lines, and set a tight constraint on the intensity with upper limits for the surface brightness of O{sub VII} and O{sub VIII} lines of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} and 3.0 x 10{sup -7} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} arcmin{sup -2}, respectively. These upper limits are significantly lower than the previously reported fluxes from the WHIM around other clusters of galaxies. We also discuss the prospect for the detection of the WHIM lines with Suzaku XIS in the future.

  1. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Roncarelli, M.

    2010-09-20

    Hydrodynamic simulations predict that a significant fraction of the gas in the current universe is in the form of high temperature, highly ionized plasma emitting and absorbing primarily in the soft X-ray and UV bands, dubbed the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Its signature should be observable in redshifted emission and absorption lines from highly ionized elements. To determine the expected WHIM emission in the soft X-ray band we used the output of a large scale smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation to generate images and spectra with angular resolution of 14'' and energy resolution of 1 eV. The current biggest limit of any hydrodynamic simulation in predicting the X-ray emission comes from metal diffusion. In our investigation, by using four different models for the WHIM metallicity we have found a strong dependence of the emission on the model used, with differences up to almost an order of magnitude. For each model, we have investigated the redshift distribution and angular scale of the emission, confirming that most photons come from redshift z < 1.2 and that the emission has a typical angular scale of less than a few arcminutes. We also compared our simulations with the few currently available observations and found that, within the variation of the metallicity models, our predictions are in good agreement with current constraints on the WHIM emission, and at this time the weak experimental constraints on the WHIM emission are not sufficient to exclude any of the models used.

  2. The Scattering of Lyman-series Photons in the Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Steven Furlanetto; Jonathan R. Pritchard

    2006-05-26

    We re-examine scattering of photons near the Lyman-alpha resonance in the intergalactic medium (IGM). We first derive a general integral solution for the radiation field around resonance when spin diffusivity is ignored. Our solution shows explicitly that recoil sources an absorption feature, whose magnitude increases with the relative importance of recoil compared to Doppler broadening. This spectrum depends on the Lyman-alpha line profile, but approximating it with the absorption profile appropriate to the Lorentzian wings of natural broadening accurately reproduces the results for a full Voigt profile so long as T<1000 K in the IGM. This approximation allows us to obtain simple analytic formulae for the total scattering rate of Lyman-alpha photons and the accompanying energy exchange rate. Our power series solutions converge rapidly for photons that redshift into the Lyman-alpha resonance as well as for photons injected at line center. We confirm previous calculations showing that heating through this mechanism is quite slow and probably negligible compared to other sources. We then show that energy exchange during the scattering of higher-order Lyman-series photons can be much more important than naively predicted by recoil arguments. However, the resulting heating is still completely negligible.

  3. X-RAY ABSORPTION BY THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN THE HERCULES SUPERCLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Bin; Fang, Taotao; Buote, David A.

    2014-02-10

    ''Missing baryons'', in the form of warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), are expected to reside in cosmic filamentary structures that can be traced by signposts such as large-scale galaxy superstructures. The clear detection of an X-ray absorption line in the Sculptor Wall demonstrated the success of using galaxy superstructures as a signpost to search for the WHIM. Here we present an XMM -Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer observation of the blazar Mkn 501, located in the Hercules Supercluster. We detected an O VII K? absorption line at the 98.7% level (2.5?) at the redshift of the foreground Hercules Supercluster. The derived properties of the absorber are consistent with theoretical expectations of the WHIM. We discuss the implication of our detection for the search for the ''missing baryons''. While this detection shows again that using signposts is a very effective strategy to search for the WHIM, follow-up observations are crucial both to strengthen the statistical significance of the detection and to rule out other interpretations. A local, z ? 0 O VII K? absorption line was also clearly detected at the 4? level, and we discuss its implications for our understanding of the hot gas content of our Galaxy.

  4. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Huffenberger, K.

    2014-07-01

    We use numerical simulations to predict the soft X-ray ([0.4-0.6] keV) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal (at 150 GHz) from a large-scale structure in the universe and then compute two-point statistics to study the spatial distribution and time evolution of the signals. The average X-ray signal predicted for the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is in good agreement with observational constraints that set it at about 10% of the total diffuse X-ray background. The characteristic angle computed with the autocorrelation function is of the order of some arcminutes and becomes smaller at higher redshift. The power spectrum peak of the SZ due to the WHIM is at l ? 10,000 and has an amplitude of ?0.2 ?K{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude below the signal measured with telescopes like Planck, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope. Even if the high-redshift WHIM signal is too weak to be detected using X-rays only, the small-scale correlation between X-ray and SZ maps is dominated by the high-redshift WHIM. This makes the analysis of the SZ signal in support of X-rays a promising tool to study the early time WHIM.

  5. FARADAY ROTATION MEASURE DUE TO THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD. II. THE COSMOLOGICAL CONTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: ryu@canopus.cnu.ac.kr

    2011-09-10

    We investigate the Faraday rotation measure (RM) due to the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) through the cosmic web up to cosmological distances, using a model IGMF based on turbulence dynamo in the large-scale structure of the universe. By stacking the IGMF and gas density data up to redshift z = 5 and taking account of the redshift distribution of polarized background radio sources against which the RM is measured, we simulate the sky map of the RM. The contribution from galaxy clusters is subtracted from the map, based on several different criteria of X-ray brightness and temperature. Our findings are as follows. The distribution of RM for radio sources of different redshifts shows that the rms value increases with redshift and saturates for z {approx}> 1. The saturated value is RM{sub rms} {approx} several rad m{sup -2}. The probability distribution function of |RM| follows the lognormal distribution. The power spectrum has a broad plateau over the angular scale of {approx}1{sup 0}-0.{sup 0}1 with a peak around {approx}0.{sup 0}15. The second-order structure function has a flat profile in the angular separation of {approx}> 0.{sup 0}2. Our results could provide useful insights for surveys to explore the IGMF with the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and upcoming SKA pathfinders.

  6. Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.; Reyes, Luis C.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Reynolds, Kaeleigh; Ajello, Marco; Fegan, Stephen J.; McCann, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Distant BL Lacertae objects emit ?-rays that interact with the extragalactic background light (EBL), creating electron–positron pairs, and reducing the flux measured by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at very-high energies (VHE). These pairs can Compton-scatter the cosmic microwave background, creating a ?-ray signature at slightly lower energies that is observable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This signal is strongly dependent on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) strength (B) and its coherence length (LB). We use IACT spectra taken from the literature for 5 VHE-detected BL Lac objects and combine them with LAT spectra for these sources to constrain these IGMF parameters. Low B values can be ruled out by the constraint that the cascade flux cannot exceed that observed by the LAT. High values of B can be ruled out from the constraint that the EBL-deabsorbed IACT spectrum cannot be greater than the LAT spectrum extrapolated into the VHE band, unless the cascade spectrum contributes a sizable fraction of the LAT flux. We rule out low B values (B ? 10?19 G for LB ? 1 Mpc) at >5? in all trials with different EBL models and data selection, except when using >1 GeV spectra and the lowest EBL models. We were not able to constrain high values of B.

  7. Detecting HeliumII reionization from a sudden injection of entropy in the intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Tom Theuns; Saleem Zaroubi; Tae-Sun Kim

    2001-10-25

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium is set by the balance between adiabatic cooling resulting from the expansion of the universe, and photo-heating by the UV-background. A sudden injection of entropy from the reionization will increase the temperature of the gas, leading to a broadening of the hydrogen Lyman-alpha absorption lines produced in the IGM, and observed in the spectra of background quasars. We present a method based on wavelets to characterise objectively the line widths of such absorption lines. We use high resolution hydrodynamical simulations to demonstrate that the algorithm can detect changes in temperature of order of 50 per cent on scales > 5000 km/s. We apply the method to a UVES/VLT spectrum of quasar 0055--269 (emission redshift=3.7) and detect at the 99 per cent confidence level a sudden increase in temperature below redshift z=3.3, which we interpret as evidence for HeliumII reionization.

  8. THE SIGNATURE OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN WMAP AND THE FORTHCOMING PLANCK DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Velasquez, I.; Kitaura, F.-S.; Muecket, J. P.; Atrio-Barandela, F. E-mail: kitaura@aip.de E-mail: atrio@usal.es

    2013-05-20

    We compute the cross-correlation between the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium and maps of cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies using a log-normal probability density function to describe the weakly nonlinear matter density field. We search for this contribution in the data measured by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. We use a template of projected matter density reconstructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey as a tracer of the electron distribution. The spatial distribution of filaments is modeled using the recently developed Augmented Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. On the scales considered here, the reconstructed density field is very well described by the assumed log-normal distribution function. We predict that the cross-correlation will have an amplitude of 0.03-0.3 {mu}K. The measured value is close to 1.5 {mu}K, compatible with random alignments between structure in the template and in the temperature anisotropy data. Using the W1 Differencing Assembly to remove this systematic gives a residual correlation dominated by Galactic foregrounds. Planck could detect the Warm-Hot Medium if it is well traced by the density field reconstructed from galaxy surveys. The 217 GHz channel will allow to eliminate spurious contributions and its large frequency coverage can show the sign change from the Rayleigh-Jeans to the Wien part of the spectrum, characteristic of the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect.

  9. Strength of the spontaneously emitted collective aperiodic magnetic field fluctuations in the reionized early intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Felten, T. E-mail: tim.felten@rub.de

    2013-11-20

    Nonmagnetized, fully ionized plasmas spontaneously emit aperiodic turbulent magnetic field fluctuations. Its fluctuation intensities are dominated by the contribution from a recently discovered collective, damped mode, which modifies the earlier estimate of the total magnetic field strength in a thermal nonrelativistic electron-proton plasma to |?B|=24?{sub e}{sup 1/4}(gn{sub e}m{sub e}c{sup 2}){sup 1/2} G, where g denotes the plasma parameter and ? {sub e} the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light, in the case of no collisional damping. Accounting for simultaneous viscous damping reduces the estimate to |?B|{sub eq} = 2305g(n{sub e}m{sub e}c {sup 2}){sup 1/2} G, depending only on the plasma parameter g and the electron density n{sub e} . For the unmagnetized intergalactic medium, immediately after the reionization onset the field strengths from this mechanism are about 6.8 × 10{sup –13} G for no collisional damping and 1.5 × 10{sup –16} G for viscous damping. Maximum spatial scales of 10{sup 15} cm of the emitted aperiodic fluctuations in cosmic voids are possible.

  10. Cosmic gamma-ray background from structure formation in the intergalactic medium

    PubMed

    Loeb; Waxman

    2000-05-11

    The Universe is filled with a diffuse background of gamma-ray radiation, the origin of which remains one of the unsolved puzzles of cosmology. Less than one-quarter of the gamma-ray flux can be attributed to unresolved discrete sources, such as active galactic nuclei; the remainder appears to constitute a truly diffuse background. Here we show that the shock waves induced by gravity in the gas of the intergalactic medium, during the formation of large-scale structures like filaments and sheets of galaxies, produce a population of highly relativistic electrons. These electrons scatter a small fraction of the cosmic microwave background photons in the local Universe up to gamma-ray energies, thereby providing the gamma-ray background. The predicted diffuse flux agrees with the observed background across more than four orders of magnitude in photon energy, and the model predicts that the gamma-ray background, though generated locally, is isotropic to better than five per cent on angular scales larger than a degree. Moreover, the agreement between the predicted and observed background fluxes implies a mean cosmological density of baryons that is consistent with Big Bang nucleosynthesis. PMID:10821264

  11. Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field from Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin; Fermi-LAT Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Distant BL Lacertae objects emit gamma rays which interact with the extragalactic background light (EBL), creating electron-positron pairs, and reducing the flux measured by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at very-high energies (VHE). These pairs can Compton-scatter the cosmic microwave background, creating a gamma-ray signature at slightly lower energies observable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This signal is strongly dependent on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) strength (B) and its coherence length (L_B). We constrain these parameters by combining LAT spectra with IACT spectra taken from the literature for 5 VHE-detected BL Lac objects. Low B values can be ruled out by the constraint that the cascade flux cannot exceed that observed by the LAT. High values of B can be ruled out from the constraint that the EBL-deabsorbed IACT spectrum cannot be greater than the LAT spectrum extrapolated into the VHE band, unless the cascade spectrum contributes a sizable fraction of the LAT flux. We rule out low $B$ values (B<~10^{-19} G for L_B>=1 Mpc) at >5 sigma in most trials with different EBL models and data selection. We were not able to constrain high values of B.

  12. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Intergalactic and Interstellar Absorption Toward 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Howk, J. Christopher; Savage, Blair D.; Shull, J. Michael; Oegerle, William R.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the molecular, neutral atomic, weakly ionized, and highly ionized components of the interstellar and intergalactic material toward the quasar 3C273. We identify Ly-beta absorption in eight of the known intergalactic Ly-alpha absorbers along the sight line with the rest-frame equivalent widths W(sub r)(Ly-alpha) > 50 micro-angstroms. Refined estimates of the H(I) column densities and Doppler parameters (b) of the clouds are presented. We find a range of b = 16-46 km/s. We detect multiple H(I) lines (Ly-beta - Ly-theta) in the 1590 km/s Virgo absorber and estimate logN(H(I)) = 15.85 +/- 0.10, ten times more H(I) than all of the other absorbers along the sight line combined. The Doppler width of this absorber, b = 16 km/s, implies T < 15,000 K. We detect O(VI) absorption at 1015 km/s at the 2-3(sigma) level that may be associated with hot, X-ray emitting gas in the Virgo Cluster. We detect weak C(III) and O(VI) absorption in the IGM at z=0.12007; this absorber is predominantly ionized and has N(H+)/N(H(I)) > 4000/Z, where Z is the metallicity. Strong Galactic interstellar O(VI) is present between -100 and +100 km/s with an additional high-velocity wing containing about 13% of the total O(VI) between +100 and +240 km/s. The Galactic O(VI), N(V), and C(IV) lines have similar shapes, with roughly constant ratios across the -100 to +100 km/s velocity range. The high velocity O(VI) wing is not detected in other species. Much of the interstellar high ion absorption probably occurs within a highly fragmented medium within the Loop IV remnant or in the outer cavity walls of the remnant. Multiple hot gas production mechanisms are required. The broad O(VI) absorption wing likely traces the expulsion of hot gas out of the Galactic disk into the halo. A flux limit of 5.4 x 10(epx -16) erg/sq cm/s on the amount of diffuse O(VI) emission present = 3.5' off the 3C273 sight line combined with the observed O(VI) column density toward 3C273, logN O(VI) = 14.73 +/- 0.04, implies n(sub e) < 0.02/cubic cm and P/k < 11,500/cubic cm for an assumed temperature of 3 x 10(exp 5) K. The elemental abundances in the neutral and weakly-ionized interstellar clouds are similar to those found for other halo clouds. The warm neutral and warm ionized clouds along the sight line have similar dust-phase abundances, implying that the properties of the dust grains in the two types of clouds are similar. Interstellar H2 absorption is present at positive velocities at a level of logN(H2) = 15.71, but is very weak at the velocities of the main column density concentration along the sight line observed in H(I) 21 cm emission.

  13. The Intergalactic and Circumgalactic Medium surrounding Star-Forming Galaxies at Redshifts 2 < z < 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudie, Gwen C.

    We present measurements of the spatial distribution, kinematics, and physical properties of gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of 2.0 < z < 2.8 UV color-selected galaxies as well as within the 2 < z < 3 intergalactic medium (IGM). These measurements are derived from Voigt profile decomposition of the full Lyalpha and Lybeta forest in 15 high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio QSO spectra resulting in a catalog of ˜ 6000 H I absorbers. Chapter 2 of this thesis focuses on H I surrounding high-z star-forming galaxies drawn from the Keck Baryonic Structure Survey (KBSS). The KBSS is a unique spectroscopic survey of the distant universe designed to explore the details of the connection between galaxies and intergalactic baryons within the same survey volumes. The KBSS combines high-quality background QSO spectroscopy with large densely-sampled galaxy redshift surveys to probe the CGM at scales of ˜ 50 kpc to a few Mpc. Based on these data, Chapter 2 presents the first quantitative measurements of the distribution, column density, kinematics, and absorber line widths of neutral hydrogen surrounding high-z star-forming galaxies. Chapter 3 focuses on the thermal properties of the diffuse IGM. This analysis relies on measurements of the ˜ 6000 absorber line widths to constrain the thermal and turbulent velocities of absorbing "clouds." A positive correlation between the column density of H I and the minimum line width is recovered and implies a temperature-density relation within the low-density IGM for which higher-density regions are hotter, as is predicted by simple theoretical arguments. Chapter 4 presents new measurements of the opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons. The chapter begins with a revised measurement of the H I column density distribution based on this new absorption line catalog that, due to the inclusion of high-order Lyman lines, provides the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14 ? log(NHI/cm--2) ? 17.2. Also presented are the first measurements of the column density distribution of H I within the CGM (50 < d < 300 pkpc) of high-z galaxies. These distributions are used to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and IGM+CGM and to revise previous measurements of the mean free path of hydrogen-ionizing photons within the IGM. This chapter also considers the effect of the surrounding CGM on the transmission of ionizing photons out of the sites of active star-formation and into the IGM. This thesis concludes with a brief discussion of work in progress focused on understanding the distribution of metals within the CGM of KBSS galaxies. Appendix B discusses my contributions to the MOSFIRE instrumentation project.

  14. STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK AND METAL-ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue; Chisari, Nora Elisa E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-04-10

    Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of the standard cold dark matter model with star formation feedback strength normalized to match the observed star formation history of the universe at z= 0-6, we compute the metal-enrichment history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Overall we show that galactic superwind (GSW) feedback from star formation can transport metals to the IGM and that the properties of simulated metal absorbers match current observations. The distance of influence of GSW from galaxies is typically limited to about {<=}0.5 Mpc and within regions of overdensity {delta} {>=} 10. Most C IV and O VI absorbers are located within shocked regions of elevated temperature (T {>=} 2 x 10{sup 4} K), overdensity ({delta} {>=} 10), and metallicity ([Z/Z{sub sun}] = [ - 2.5, - 0.5]), enclosed by double shocks propagating outward. O VI absorbers have typically higher metallicity, lower density, and higher temperature than C IV absorbers. For O VI absorbers, collisional ionization dominates over the entire redshift range z= 0-6, whereas for C IV absorbers the transition occurs at moderate redshift z {approx} 3 from collisionally dominated to photoionization dominated. We find that the observed column density distributions for C IV and O VI in the range log N cm{sup 2}=12-15 are reasonably reproduced by the simulations. The evolution of mass densities contained in C IV and O VI lines, {Omega}{sub CIV} and {Omega}{sub OVI}, is also in good agreement with observations, which shows a near constancy at low redshifts and an exponential drop beyond redshift z= 3-4. For both C IV and O VI, most absorbers are transient and the amount of metals probed by C IV and O VI lines of column log N cm{sup 2}=12-15 is only {approx}2% of total metal density at any epoch. While gravitational shocks from large-scale structure formation dominate the energy budget (80%-90%) for turning about 50% of the IGM to the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) by z = 0, GSW feedback shocks are energetically dominant over gravitational shocks at z{>=}1-2. Most of the so-called missing metals at z= 2-3 are hidden in a warm-hot (T = 10{sup 4.5}-10{sup 7} K) gaseous phase, heated up by GSW feedback shocks. Their mass distribution is broadly peaked at {delta}=1-10 in the IGM, outside virialized halos. Approximately 37%, 46%, 10%, and 7% of the total metals at z = 0 are in stars, WHIM, X-ray gas, and cold gas, respectively; the distributions stand at 23%, 57%, 2%, and 18% and 14%, 51%, 4%, and 31% at z = 2 and z = 4, respectively.

  15. COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM EVOLUTION. I. TEST OF THE SUBGRID CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Côté, Benoit; Martel, Hugo; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-11-10

    We present a one-zone galactic chemical enrichment model that takes into account the contribution of stellar winds from massive stars under the effect of rotation, Type II supernovae, hypernovae, stellar winds from low- and intermediate-mass stars, and Type Ia supernovae. This enrichment model will be implemented in a galactic model designed to be used as a subgrid treatment for galaxy evolution and outflow generation in large-scale cosmological simulations, in order to study the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We test our enrichment prescription by comparing its predictions with the metallicity distribution function and the abundance patterns of 14 chemical elements observed in the Milky Way stars. To do so, we combine the effect of many stellar populations created from the star formation history of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood. For each stellar population, we keep track of its specific mass, initial metallicity, and age. We follow the time evolution of every population in order to respect the time delay between the various stellar phases. Our model is able to reproduce the observed abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and Ca. For Si, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, the fits are still reasonable, but improvements are needed. We marginally reproduce the nitrogen abundance in very low metallicity stars. Overall, our results are consistent with the predicted abundance ratios seen in previous studies of the enrichment history of the Milky Way. We have demonstrated that our semi-analytic one-zone model, which cannot deal with spatial information such as the metallicity gradient, can nevertheless successfully reproduce the global Galactic enrichment evolution obtained by more complex models, at a fraction of the computational cost. This model is therefore suitable for a subgrid treatment of chemical enrichment in large-scale cosmological simulations.

  16. X-Ray Constraints on the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. I.; Mushotzky, R. F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three observational constraints can be placed on a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) pointed and survey data, the emission strength, the energy spectrum, and the fluctuation spectrum. The upper limit to the emission strength of the WHIM is 7.5 +/- 1.0 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) in the 3/4 keV band, an unknown portion of which value may be due to our own Galactic halo. The spectral stape of the WHIM emission can be described as thermal emission with logT = 6.42, although the true spectrum is more likely to come from a range of temperatures. The values of emission strength and spectral shape are in reasonable agreement with hydrodynamical cosmological models. The autocorrelation function in the 0.44 keV < E < 1.21 keV band range, w(theta), for the extragalactic soft X-ray background (SXRB) which includes both the WHIM and contributions due to point sources, is approx. < 0.002 for 10 min < 0 < 20 min in the 3/4 keV band. This value is lower than the Croft et al. (2000) cosmological model by a factor of approx. 5, but is still not inconsistent with cosmological models. It is also found that the normalization of the extragalactic power law component of the soft X-ray background spectrum must be 9.5 +/- 0.9 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) to be consistent with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey.

  17. Bringing Simulation and Observation Together to Better Understand the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Hilary; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-08-01

    The methods by which one characterizes the distribution of matter in cosmological simulations is intrinsically different from how one performs the same task observationally. In this paper, we make substantial steps toward comparing simulations and observations of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a more sensible way. We present a pipeline that generates and fits synthetic QSO absorption spectra using sight lines cast through a cosmological simulation, and simultaneously identifies structure by directly analyzing the variations in H I and O VI number density. We compare synthetic absorption spectra with a less observationally motivated, but more straightforward density threshold-based method for finding absorbers. Our efforts focus on H I and O VI to better characterize the warm/hot IGM, a subset of the IGM that is challenging to conclusively identify observationally. We find that the two methods trace roughly the same quantities of H I and O VI above observable column density limits, but the synthetic spectra typically identify more substructure in absorbers. We use both methods to characterize H I and O VI absorber properties. We find that both integrated and differential column density distributions from both methods generally agree with observations. The distribution of Doppler parameters between the two methods are similar for Ly? and compare reasonably with observational results, but while the two methods agree with each other with O VI systems, they both are systematically different from observations. We find a strong correlation between O VI baryon fraction and O VI column density. We also discuss a possible bimodality in the temperature distribution of the gas traced by O VI.

  18. The Baryon Census in a Multiphase Intergalactic Medium: 30% of the Baryons May Still be Missing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Smith, Britton D.; Danforth, Charles W.

    2012-11-01

    Although galaxies, groups, and clusters contain ~10% of the baryons, many more reside in the photoionized and shocked-heated intergalactic medium (IGM) and in the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We update the baryon census in the (H I) Ly? forest and warm-hot IGM (WHIM) at 105-6 K traced by O VI ?1032, 1038 absorption. From Enzo cosmological simulations of heating, cooling, and metal transport, we improve the H I and O VI baryon surveys using spatially averaged corrections for metallicity (Z/Z ?) and ionization fractions (f H I , f O VI ). Statistically, the O VI correction product correlates with column density, (Z/Z ?)f O VI ? (0.015)(N O VI /1014 cm-2)0.70, with an N O VI -weighted mean of 0.01, which doubles previous estimates of WHIM baryon content. We also update the Ly? forest contribution to baryon density out to z = 0.4, correcting for the (1 + z)3 increase in absorber density, the (1 + z)4.4 rise in photoionizing background, and cosmological proper length dl/dz. We find substantial baryon fractions in the photoionized Ly? forest (28% ± 11%) and WHIM traced by O VI and broad-Ly? absorbers (25% ± 8%). The collapsed phase (galaxies, groups, clusters, CGM) contains 18% ± 4%, leaving an apparent baryon shortfall of 29% ± 13%. Our simulations suggest that ~15% reside in hotter WHIM (T >= 106 K). Additional baryons could be detected in weaker Ly? and O VI absorbers. Further progress requires higher-precision baryon surveys of weak absorbers, down to minimum column densities N H I >= 1012.0 cm-2, N O VI >= 1012.5 cm-2, N O VII >= 1014.5 cm-2, using high signal-to-noise data from high-resolution UV and X-ray spectrographs.

  19. Constraining the Baryon Fraction in the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium at Low Redshifts with Planck Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, R.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kitaura, F.-S.; Mücket, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    We cross-correlate foreground cleaned Planck Nominal cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps with two templates constructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey of galaxies. The first template traces the large-scale filamentary distribution characteristic of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) out to ˜ 90 {{h}-1} Mpc. The second preferentially traces the virialized gas in unresolved halos around galaxies. We find a marginal signal from the correlation of Planck data and the WHIM template with a signal to noise from 0.84 to 1.39 at the different Planck frequencies, and with a frequency dependence compatible with the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. When we restrict our analysis to the 60% of the sky outside the plane of the Galaxy and known point sources and galaxy clusters, the cross-correlation at zero lag is 0.064+/- 0.051 ? K. The correlation extends out to ? 6{}^\\circ , which at the median depth of our template corresponds to a physical length of ˜ 6--8 {{h}-1} Mpc. On the same fraction of the sky, the cross-correlation of the CMB data with the second template is \\lt 0.17 ? K (95% C.L.), providing no statistically significant evidence of a contribution from bound gas to the previous result. This limit translates into a physical constraint on the properties of the shock-heated WHIM of a log-normal model describing the weakly nonlinear density field. We find that our upper limit is compatible with a fraction of 45% of all baryons residing in filaments at overdensities ˜1-100 and with temperatures in the range {{10}4.5}--{{10}7.5} K, in agreement with the detection at redshift z˜ 0.5 of Van Waerbeke et al..

  20. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  1. THE TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max

    2012-10-01

    We present new measurements of the temperature-density (T-{rho}) relation for neutral hydrogen in the 2.0 < z < 2.8 intergalactic medium (IGM) using a sample of {approx}6000 individual H I absorbers fitted with Voigt profiles constrained in all cases by multiple Lyman series transitions. We find model-independent evidence for a positive correlation between the column density of H I (N{sub HI}) and the minimum observed velocity width of absorbers (b{sub min}). With minimal interpretation, this implies that the T-{rho} relation in the IGM is not 'inverted', contrary to many recent studies. Fitting b{sub min} as a function of N{sub HI} results in line-width-column-density dependence of the form b{sub min} = b{sub 0}(N{sub HI}/N{sub HI,0}){sup {Gamma}-1} with a minimum line width at mean density ({rho}/{rho}-bar = 1, N{sub HI,0} = 10{sup 13.6} cm{sup -2}) of b{sub 0} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} and a power-law index of ({Gamma} - 1) = 0.15 {+-} 0.02. Using analytic arguments, these measurements imply an 'equation of state' for the IGM at (z) = 2.4 of the form T=T{sub 0} ({rho}/{rho}-bar){sup {gamma}-1} with a temperature at mean density of T{sub 0} = [1.94 {+-} 0.05] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and a power-law index ({gamma} - 1) = 0.46 {+-} 0.05.

  2. Bringing simulation and observation together to better understand the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, Hilary; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-08-10

    The methods by which one characterizes the distribution of matter in cosmological simulations is intrinsically different from how one performs the same task observationally. In this paper, we make substantial steps toward comparing simulations and observations of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a more sensible way. We present a pipeline that generates and fits synthetic QSO absorption spectra using sight lines cast through a cosmological simulation, and simultaneously identifies structure by directly analyzing the variations in H I and O VI number density. We compare synthetic absorption spectra with a less observationally motivated, but more straightforward density threshold-based method for finding absorbers. Our efforts focus on H I and O VI to better characterize the warm/hot IGM, a subset of the IGM that is challenging to conclusively identify observationally. We find that the two methods trace roughly the same quantities of H I and O VI above observable column density limits, but the synthetic spectra typically identify more substructure in absorbers. We use both methods to characterize H I and O VI absorber properties. We find that both integrated and differential column density distributions from both methods generally agree with observations. The distribution of Doppler parameters between the two methods are similar for Ly? and compare reasonably with observational results, but while the two methods agree with each other with O VI systems, they both are systematically different from observations. We find a strong correlation between O VI baryon fraction and O VI column density. We also discuss a possible bimodality in the temperature distribution of the gas traced by O VI.

  3. Statistical techniques for detecting the intergalactic magnetic field from large samples of extragalactic Faraday rotation data

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Gaensler, B. M.; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: bryan.gaensler@sydney.edu.au

    2014-08-01

    Rotation measure (RM) grids of extragalactic radio sources have been widely used for studying cosmic magnetism. However, their potential for exploring the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies is unclear, since other Faraday-rotation media such as the radio source itself, intervening galaxies, and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy are all significant contributors. We study statistical techniques for discriminating the Faraday rotation of filaments from other sources of Faraday rotation in future large-scale surveys of radio polarization. We consider a 30° × 30° field of view toward the south Galactic pole, while varying the number of sources detected in both present and future observations. We select sources located at high redshifts and toward which depolarization and optical absorption systems are not observed so as to reduce the RM contributions from the sources and intervening galaxies. It is found that a high-pass filter can satisfactorily reduce the RM contribution from the Galaxy since the angular scale of this component toward high Galactic latitudes would be much larger than that expected for the IGMF. Present observations do not yet provide a sufficient source density to be able to estimate the RM of filaments. However, from the proposed approach with forthcoming surveys, we predict significant residuals of RM that should be ascribable to filaments. The predicted structure of the IGMF down to scales of 0.°1 should be observable with data from the Square Kilometre Array, if we achieve selections of sources toward which sightlines do not contain intervening galaxies and RM errors are less than a few rad m{sup –2}.

  4. TURBULENCE IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: SOLENOIDAL AND DILATATIONAL MOTIONS AND THE IMPACT OF NUMERICAL VISCOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Weishan; Gu, Qiusheng; Feng, Long-long; Xia, Yinhua; Shu, Chi-Wang; Fang, Li-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    We use a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, run by two fixed grid codes, to investigate the properties of solenoidal and dilatational motions of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the impact of numerical viscosity on turbulence in an ?CDM universe. The codes differ only in the spatial difference discretization. We find that (1) The vortical motion grows rapidly since z = 2 and reaches ?10 km s{sup –1}-90 km s{sup –1} at z = 0. Meanwhile, the small-scale compressive ratio r{sub CS} drops from 0.84 to 0.47, indicating comparable vortical and compressive motions at z = 0. (2) Power spectra of the solenoidal velocity possess two regimes, ?k {sup –0.89} and ?k {sup –2.02}, while the total and dilatational velocity follow the scaling k {sup –1.88} and k {sup –2.20}, respectively, in the turbulent range. The IGM turbulence may contain two distinct phases, the supersonic and post-supersonic phases. (3) The non-thermal pressure support, measured by the vortical kinetic energy, is comparable with the thermal pressure for ?{sub b} ? 10-100, or T < 10{sup 5.5} K at z = 0.0. The deviation of the baryon fraction from the cosmic mean shows a preliminary positive correlation with the turbulence pressure support. (4) A relatively higher numerical viscosity would dissipate both the compressive and vortical motions of the IGM into thermal energy more effectively, resulting in less developed vorticity, remarkably shortened inertial range, and leading to a non-negligible uncertainty in the thermal history of gas accretion. Shocks in regions outside of clusters are significantly suppressed by numerical viscosity since z = 2, which may directly cause the different levels of turbulence between the two codes.

  5. Where Am I? My Place in Time and Space. First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jaime

    In this activity, first grade students learn their addresses and their places in space. Each student pretends they are a student in Ms. Frizzle's class and are to help the class figure out how to get home. The students create their own intergalactic address book, so that on their next trip into the universe they will have a map to guide them back…

  6. THE BARYON CENSUS IN A MULTIPHASE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: 30% OF THE BARYONS MAY STILL BE MISSING

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.; Smith, Britton D. E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu

    2012-11-01

    Although galaxies, groups, and clusters contain {approx}10% of the baryons, many more reside in the photoionized and shocked-heated intergalactic medium (IGM) and in the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We update the baryon census in the (H I) Ly{alpha} forest and warm-hot IGM (WHIM) at 10{sup 5-6} K traced by O VI {lambda}1032, 1038 absorption. From Enzo cosmological simulations of heating, cooling, and metal transport, we improve the H I and O VI baryon surveys using spatially averaged corrections for metallicity (Z/Z {sub Sun }) and ionization fractions (f {sub HI}, f {sub OVI}). Statistically, the O VI correction product correlates with column density, (Z/Z {sub Sun })f {sub OVI} Almost-Equal-To (0.015)(N {sub OVI}/10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}){sup 0.70}, with an N {sub OVI}-weighted mean of 0.01, which doubles previous estimates of WHIM baryon content. We also update the Ly{alpha} forest contribution to baryon density out to z = 0.4, correcting for the (1 + z){sup 3} increase in absorber density, the (1 + z){sup 4.4} rise in photoionizing background, and cosmological proper length dl/dz. We find substantial baryon fractions in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest (28% {+-} 11%) and WHIM traced by O VI and broad-Ly{alpha} absorbers (25% {+-} 8%). The collapsed phase (galaxies, groups, clusters, CGM) contains 18% {+-} 4%, leaving an apparent baryon shortfall of 29% {+-} 13%. Our simulations suggest that {approx}15% reside in hotter WHIM (T {>=} 10{sup 6} K). Additional baryons could be detected in weaker Ly{alpha} and O VI absorbers. Further progress requires higher-precision baryon surveys of weak absorbers, down to minimum column densities N {sub HI} {>=} 10{sup 12.0} cm{sup -2}, N {sub OVI} {>=} 10{sup 12.5} cm{sup -2}, N {sub OVII} {>=} 10{sup 14.5} cm{sup -2}, using high signal-to-noise data from high-resolution UV and X-ray spectrographs.

  7. ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Barai, Paramita; Martel, Hugo; Germain, Joel

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the large-scale influence of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation with a detailed model of metal enrichment, in which outflows expand anisotropically along the direction of least resistance, distributing metals into the IGM. The metals carried by the outflows are generated by two separate stellar populations: stars located near the central AGN, and stars located in the greater galaxy. Using this algorithm, we performed a series of five simulations of the propagation of AGN-driven outflows in a cosmological volume of size (128 h{sup -1} Mpc){sup 3} in a {Lambda}CDM universe, and analyze the resulting metal enrichment of the IGM. We found that the metallicity induced in the IGM is greatly dominated by AGNs having bolometric luminosity L>10{sup 9} L{sub sun}, sources with 10{sup 8} < L/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 9} having a negligible contribution. Our simulations produced an average IGM metallicity of [O/H] = -5 at z = 5.5, which then rises gradually, and remains relatively flat at a value [O/H] = -2.8 between z = 2 and z = 0. The ejection of metals from AGN host galaxies by AGN-driven outflows is found to enrich the IGM to >10%-20% of the observed values, the number dependent on redshift. The enriched IGM volume fractions are small at z>3, then rise rapidly to the following values at z = 0: 6%-10% of the volume enriched to [O/H]> - 2.5, 14%-24% volume to [O/H]> - 3, and 34%-45% volume to [O/H]> - 4. At z {>=} 2, there is a gradient of the induced enrichment, the metallicity decreasing with increasing IGM density, enriching the underdense IGM to higher metallicities, a trend more prominent with increasing anisotropy of the outflows. This can explain observations of the metal-enriched low-density IGM at z {approx} 3-4.

  8. Constrained Simulations of the Real Universe: II. Observational Signatures of Intergalactic Gas in the Local Supercluster Region

    E-print Network

    Andrey V. Kravtsov; Anatoly A. Klypin; Yehuda Hoffman

    2001-09-05

    We present results of gasdynamics+N-body constrained cosmological simulations of the Local Supercluster region (LSC; about 30/h Mpc around the Virgo cluster), which closely mimic the real Universe within 100 Mpc by imposing constraints from Mark III catalog of galaxy peculiar velocities. The simulations are used to study the properties and possible observational signatures of intergalactic medium in the LSC region. We find that, in agreement with previous unconstrained simulations, about 30% of the gas in this region is in the warm/hot phase at T~10^5-10^7 K, and about 40% in the diffuse phase at Tintergalactic medium of the LSC located in filaments and in the vicinity of virialized regions of groups and clusters are through absorption in resonant lines of OVII and OVIII in soft X-rays and in the OVI doublet in UV. If intergalactic gas in filaments (rho/~ 1-10) is enriched to typical metallicities of >0.05, the column densities of OVI, OVII, and OVIII along a random line of sight near the North Galactic Pole, especially near the supergalactic plane, have a significant probability to be in the range detectable by the current (FUSE,XMM) and future (Constellation-X) instruments. (Abridged)

  9. The baryon density at z=0.9-1.9 - Tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium with broad Lyman alpha absorption

    E-print Network

    N. Prause; D. Reimers; C. Fechner; E. Janknecht

    2007-05-11

    We present an analysis of the Lyman alpha forests of five quasar spectra in the near UV. Properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at an intermediate redshift interval (0.9 intergalactic medium (WHIM) are traced to get constraints on the redshift evolution of the different phases of the intergalactic gas. The baryon density of the diffuse IGM is determined with photoionisation calculations under the assumption of local hydrostatic equilibrium. We assume that the gas is ionised by a metagalactic background radiation with a Haardt & Madau (2001) spectrum. The WHIM is traced with broad Lyman alpha (BLA) absorption. The properties of a number of BLA detections are studied. Under the assumption of collisional ionisation equilibrium a lower limit to the baryon density could be estimated. It is found that the diffuse photoionised IGM contains at least 25% of the total baryonic matter at redshifts 1 intergalactic gas is in a state of evolution at z=1.5. We confirm that a considerable part of the WHIM is created between z=1 and z=2.

  10. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    E-print Network

    Fang, Taotao

    We present a survey of six low- to moderate-redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the warm-hot intergalactic ...

  11. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM/GALAXY CONNECTION. V. ON THE ORIGIN OF Ly? AND O VI ABSORPTION AT z < 0.2

    E-print Network

    Prochaska, J. Xavier

    We analyze the association of galaxies with Ly? and O VI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions of the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z[subscript em] = 0.06–0.57. Confirming ...

  12. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  13. Constraining the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium with the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ forests

    E-print Network

    Boera, Elisa; Becker, George D; Bolton, James S

    2015-01-01

    The post-reionization thermal state of the intergalactic medium is characterized by a power-law relationship between temperature and density, with a slope determined by the parameter $\\gamma$. We describe a new method to measure $\\gamma$ using the ratio of flux curvature in the Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ forests. At a given redshift, this curvature ratio incorporates information from the different gas densities traced by Lyman-$\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ absorption. It is relatively simple and fast to compute and appears robust against several observational uncertainties. We apply this technique to a sample of 27 high-resolution quasar spectra from the Very Large Telescope. While promising statistical errors on $\\gamma$ appear to be achievable with these spectra, to reach its full potential, the dependence of the curvature ratio on the thermal state of the gas in the foreground Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest will require further, detailed forward modelling.

  14. TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 - A possible probe of origin and intergalactic infrared radiation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.; Salamon, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 during 1991 June exhibited a near-perfect power law between 50 MeV and over 5 GeV with a differential spectral index of -(2.02 +/- 0.07). If extrapolated, the gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 should be easily detectable with first-generation air Cerenkov detectors operating above about 0.3 TeV provided there is no intergalactic absorption. However, by using model-dependent lower and upper limits for the extragalactic infrared background radiation field, a sharp cutoff of the 3C 279 spectrum is predicted at between about 0.1 and about 1 TeV. The sensitivity of present air Cerenkov detectors is good enough to measure such a cutoff, which would provide the first opportunity to obtain a measurement of the extragalactic background infrared radiation field.

  15. The mass of the missing baryons in the X-ray forest of the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin; Drake, Jeremy; Fang, Taotao; Fruscione, Antonella; Krongold, Yair; Marshall, Herman; Williams, Rik; Zezas, Andreas

    2005-02-01

    Recent cosmological measurements indicate that baryons comprise about four per cent of the total mass-energy density of the Universe, which is in accord with the predictions arising from studies of the production of the lightest elements. It is also in agreement with the actual number of baryons detected at early times (redshifts z > 2). Close to our own epoch (z < 2), however, the number of baryons detected add up to just over half (approximately 55 per cent) of the number seen at z > 2 (refs 6-11), meaning that about approximately 45 per cent are 'missing'. Here we report a determination of the mass-density of a previously undetected population of baryons, in the warm-hot phase of the intergalactic medium. We show that this mass density is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the mass density of the missing baryons. PMID:15690033

  16. Towards the statistical detection of the warm-hot intergalactic medium in intercluster filaments of the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Werk, Jessica K.; Theuns, Tom; Padilla, Nelson; Bielby, Rich M.; Finn, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Modern analyses of structure formation predict a universe tangled in a `cosmic web' of dark matter and diffuse baryons. These theories further predict that at low z, a significant fraction of the baryons will be shock-heated to T ˜ 105-107 K yielding a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), but whose actual existence has eluded a firm observational confirmation. We present a novel experiment to detect the WHIM, by targeting the putative filaments connecting galaxy clusters. We use HST/COS to observe a remarkable quasi-stellar object (QSO) sightline that passes within ?d = 3 Mpc from the seven intercluster axes connecting seven independent cluster pairs at redshifts 0.1 ? z ? 0.5. We find tentative excesses of total H I, narrow H I (NLA; Doppler parameters b < 50 km s-1), broad H I (BLA; b ? 50 km s-1) and O VI absorption lines within rest-frame velocities of ?v ? 1000 km s-1 from the cluster-pairs redshifts, corresponding to ˜2, ˜1.7, ˜6 and ˜4 times their field expectations, respectively. Although the excess of O VI likely comes from gas close to individual galaxies, we conclude that most of the excesses of NLAs and BLAs are truly intergalactic. We find the covering fractions, fc, of BLAs close to cluster pairs are ˜4-7 times higher than the random expectation (at the ˜2? c.l.), whereas the fc of NLAs and O VI are not significantly enhanced. We argue that a larger relative excess of BLAs compared to those of NLAs close to cluster pairs may be a signature of the WHIM in intercluster filaments. By extending this analysis to tens of sightlines, our experiment offers a promising route to detect the WHIM.

  17. THE CARBON CONTENT OF INTERGALACTIC GAS AT z = 4.25 AND ITS EVOLUTION TOWARD z = 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Simcoe, Robert A.

    2011-09-10

    This paper presents ionization-corrected measurements of the carbon abundance in intergalactic gas at 4.0 < z < 4.5, using spectra of three bright quasars obtained with the Magellan Inamori Kycocera Echelle spectrograph on Magellan. By measuring the C IV strength in a sample of 131 discrete H I-selected quasar absorbers with {rho}/{rho}-bar {>=} 1.6, we derive a median carbon abundance of [C/H]=-3.55, with lognormal scatter of approximately {sigma} {approx} 0.8 dex. This median value is a factor of two to three lower than similar measurements made at z {approx} 2.4 using C IV and O VI. The strength of evolution is modestly dependent on the choice of UV background spectrum used to make ionization corrections, although our detection of an abundance evolution is generally robust with respect to this model uncertainty. We present a framework for analyzing the effects of spatial fluctuations in the UV ionizing background at frequencies relevant for C IV production. We also explore the effects of reduced flux between 3 and 4 Rydbergs (as from He II Lyman series absorption) on our abundance estimates. At He II line absorption levels similar to published estimates, the effects are very small, although a larger optical depth could reduce the strength of the abundance evolution. Our results imply that {approx}50% of the heavy elements seen in the intergalactic medium at z {approx} 2.4 were deposited in the 1.3 Gyr between z {approx} 4.3 and z {approx} 2.4. The total implied mass flux of carbon into the Ly{alpha} forest would constitute {approx}30% of the IMF-weighted carbon yield from known star-forming populations over this period.

  18. THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC C IV EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Kathy

    We surveyed the Hubble Space Telescope UV spectra of 49 low-redshift quasars for z < 1 C IV candidates, relying solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of the doublet. After consideration of the defining traits ...

  19. THE LAST EIGHT-BILLION YEARS OF INTERGALACTIC Si IV EVOLUTION

    E-print Network

    Cooksey, Kathy

    We identified 24 Si iv absorption systems with z ? 1 from a blind survey of 49 low-redshift quasars with archival Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectra. We relied solely on the characteristic wavelength separation of ...

  20. Dense Sampling and Large Volume: The Structure of the Intergalactic Medium from 50,000 SDSS3 BOSS Quasar Absorption Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Rupert A.; Arnau, E.; Aubourg, E.; Bailey, S.; Bechtold, J.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bolton, A.; Borde, A.; Brinkmann, J.; Busca, N.; Carithers, W.; Cen, R.; Charlassier, R.; Cortes, M.; Dall'Aglio, A.; Cristiani, S.; Dawson, K.; Delubac, T.; Font-Ribera, A.; Hamilton, J.; Ho, S.; Lee, K.; LeGoff, J.; Kirkby, D.; Lundgren, B.; Menard, B.; Miralda-Escude, J.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Myers, A.; Paris, I.; Peirani, S.; Petitjean, P.; Pieri, M.; Rich, J.; Rollinde, E.; Ross, N.; Schlegel, D.; Skibba, R.; Slosar, A.; Suzuki, N.; Trac, H.; Vikas, S.; Viel, M.; Wake, D.; Weinberg, D.; White, M.; Yeche, C.

    2012-01-01

    The BOSS quasar spectra analyzed so far contain over a quarter billion pixels of information on the intervening intergalactic medium. The statistical power of BOSS has previously enabled 10% of the eventual full dataset to yield the first measurements of three dimensional large-scale structure in the Lya forest (Slosar et al 2011). Here we present results from a sample several times larger, covering several topics in cosmology and intergalactic medium science which are qualitatively transformed by the dense sampling (20 quasars per square degree) and enormous sky area. These include new constraints on cosmology and the neutrino mass from a Lya forest power spectrum measurement using 20 times more spectra than the largest previously published analysis (from SDSS), a new catalog of metal absorbers and a stacking analysis which has uncovered many metal species never before seen in the intergalactic medium. Cross-correlations of quasars, galaxies, metal lines and Lyman series absorption provide us with a wide variety of probes, including of cosmology, quasar host masses, lifetimes, and absorber galaxy masses. We show several of these results. We also show through correlation function analysis that the prime task, of making a BAO detection from Lya forest clustering, (the first BAO constraint between z=1 and the CMB) is well on the way to completion.

  1. The distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE-SCALE GALAXY FILAMENT NEAR A CANDIDATE INTERGALACTIC X-RAY ABSORPTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Cox, Thomas J.

    2010-11-20

    We present an analysis of the large-scale galaxy distribution around two possible warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) absorption systems reported along the Markarian 421 sight line. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find a prominent galaxy filament at the redshift of the z = 0.027 X-ray absorption line system. The filament exhibits a width of 3.2 Mpc and a length of at least 20 Mpc, comparable to the size of WHIM filaments seen in cosmological simulations. No individual galaxies fall within 350 projected kpc so it is unlikely that the absorption is associated with gas in a galaxy halo or outflow. Another, lower-significance X-ray absorption system was reported in the same Chandra spectrum at z = 0.011, but the large-scale structure in its vicinity is far weaker and may be a spurious alignment. By searching for similar galaxy structures in 140 random smoothed SDSS fields, we estimate an {approx}5%-10% probability of the z = 0.027 absorber-filament alignment occurring by chance. If these two systems are indeed physically associated, this would represent the first known coincidence between a large-scale galaxy structure and a blind X-ray WHIM detection.

  3. The M_BH - T relation for a black hole in thermodynamic equilibrium with the surrounding intergalactic medium

    E-print Network

    Andrea Cattaneo

    2006-01-19

    I consider a toy model of self-regulated black hole accretion. The black hole grows through Bondi accretion and a fraction of the accretion power is distributed as thermal feedback into the surrounding gas. The gas expands or contracts until AGN heating and radiative cooling balance each other. The balance of heating and cooling is used to determine a quasi-equilibrium temperature at which the black hole accretes in self-regulated equilibrium with the surrounding intergalactic medium. This temperature grows with the black hole mass. The temperature increase is very steep around a critical black hole mass due to the shape of the cooling function. The quasi-equilibrium temperature cannot exceed the virial temperature or the AGN will drive a thermal wind. This limits the black hole mass to a maximum value determined by the depth of the potential well. In the regime in which cooling is dominated by bremsstrahlung, this model determines a relation between black hole mass and halo characteristic velocity of the form M_BH ~ v^4. The predictions of the model are consistent with the observed black hole mass -- bulge velocity dispersion relation.

  4. Towards the statistical detection of the warm-hot intergalactic medium in inter-cluster filaments of the cosmic web

    E-print Network

    Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H M; Morris, Simon L; Werk, Jessica K; Theuns, Tom; Padilla, Nelson; Bielby, Rich M; Finn, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    [Abridged] Modern analyses of structure formation predict a universe tangled in a cosmic web of dark matter and diffuse baryons. These theories further predict that by the present day, a significant fraction of the baryons will be shock-heated to $T \\sim 10^{5}-10^{7}$K yielding a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), but whose actual existence has eluded a firm observational confirmation. We have designed a novel experiment to search for signatures of the WHIM, by targeting the putative filaments connecting galaxy clusters. Here, we detail the experimental design and report on our first study of a remarkable QSO sightline, that passes within $\\Delta d 50$ km/s) and OVI absorption lines within $\\Delta v < 1000$ km/s from the cluster-pairs redshifts, corresponding to $\\sim 2$, $\\sim 2$, $\\sim 6$ and $\\sim 4$ times their field expectations, respectively. We also report on covering fractions, $f_c$, of gas close to cluster-pairs, and find that the $f_c$ of BLAs are $\\sim 4-7$ times higher than the random expe...

  5. Polarization of absorption lines as a diagnostics of circumstellar, interstellar and intergalactic magnetic fields: Fine structure atoms

    E-print Network

    Huirong Yan; A. Lazarian

    2006-11-09

    The relative population of the fine structure sublevels of an atom's ground state is affected by radiative transitions induced by an anisotropic radiation flux. This causes the alignment of atomic angular momentum. In terms of observational consequences for the interstellar and intergalactic medium, this results in the polarization of the absorption lines. In the paper we consider the conditions necessary for this effect and provide calculations of polarization from a few astrophysically important atoms and ions with multiple upper and lower levels for an arbitrary orientation of magnetic fields to the a) source of optical pumping, b) direction of observation, c) absorbed source. We also consider an astrophysically important ``degenerate'' case when the source of optical pumping coincides with the source of the absorbed radiation. We present analytical expressions that relate the degree of linear polarization and the intensity of absorption to the 3D orientation of the magnetic field with respect to the pumping source, the source of the absorbed radiation, and the direction of observations. We discuss how all these parameters can be determined via simultaneous observations of several absorption lines and suggest graphical means that are helpful in practical data interpretation. We prove that studies of absorption line polarization provide a unique tool to study 3D magnetic field topology in various astrophysical conditions.

  6. INTERMITTENCE OF THE MAP OF THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND TURBULENCE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Weishan; Feng Longlong; Fang Lizhi

    2011-06-10

    We investigate the possibility of detecting the turbulent state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. Being sensitive to the divergence-free component of the momentum field of the IGM, the kSZ effect might be used to probe the vorticity of the turbulent IGM. With cosmological hydrodynamical simulation in the concordance {Lambda}CDM universe, we find that the structure functions of two-dimensional kSZ maps show strong intermittence, and the intermittent exponents follow a law similar to the She-Leveque scaling formula of fully developed turbulence. We also find that the intermittence is weak in the maps of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. Nevertheless, the superposition of the kSZ and tSZ effects still contain significant intermittence. We conclude that the turbulent behavior of the IGM may be revealed by the observation of the SZ effect on angular scales equal to or less than 0.5 arcmin, corresponding to the multipole parameter l {>=} 2 x 10{sup 4}.

  7. TIME DELAY OF CASCADE RADIATION FOR TeV BLAZARS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, Charles D.; Razzaque, Soebur; Finke, Justin D.; Cavadini, Massimo; Chiang, James; Lott, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Recent claims that the strength B{sub IGMF} of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is {approx}> 10{sup -15} G are based on upper limits to the expected cascade flux in the GeV band produced by blazar TeV photons absorbed by the extragalactic background light. This limit depends on an assumption that the mean blazar TeV flux remains constant on timescales {approx}> 2(B{sub IGMF}/10{sup -18}G){sup 2}/(E/10 GeV){sup 2} yr for an IGMF coherence length {approx}1 Mpc, where E is the measured photon energy. Restricting TeV activity of 1ES 0229+200 to {approx}3-4 years during which the source has been observed leads to a more robust lower limit of B{sub IGMF} {approx}> 10{sup -18} G, which can be larger by an order of magnitude if the intrinsic source flux above {approx}5-10 TeV from 1ES 0229+200 is strong.

  8. THE LOW-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AS SEEN IN ARCHIVAL LEGACY HST/STIS AND FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Evan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Michael Shull, J.; Ross, Teresa L. E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu

    2012-11-10

    We present a comprehensive catalog of ultraviolet (HST/STIS and FUSE) absorbers in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 0.4. The catalog draws from much of the extensive literature on IGM absorption and reconciles discrepancies among several previous catalogs through a critical evaluation of all reported absorption features in light of new HST/COS data. We report on 746 H I absorbers down to a rest-frame equivalent width of 12 mA over a maximum redshift path length {Delta}z = 5.38. We also confirm 111 O VI absorbers, 29 C IV absorbers, and numerous absorption lines due to other metal ions. We characterize the bivariate distribution of absorbers in redshift and column density as a power law, {partial_derivative}{sup 2}N/{partial_derivative}z{partial_derivative}N) {proportional_to} N{sup -{beta}}, where {beta} = 2.08 {+-} 0.12 for O VI and {beta} = 1.68 {+-} 0.03 for H I. Utilizing a more sophisticated accounting technique than past work, our catalog accounts for {approx}43% of the baryons: 24% {+-} 2% in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest and 19% {+-} 2% in the warm-hot IGM as traced by O VI. We discuss the large systematic effects of various assumed metallicities and ionization states on these calculations, and we implement recent simulation results in our estimates.

  9. A meeting with the universe: Science discoveries from the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M. (editor); Maran, S. P. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    A general history of space exploration is presented. The solar system is discussed. The Sun-Earth relationship is considered, including magnetic fields, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the Sun-weather relationship. The universe beyond the solar system is discussed. Topics include stellar and galactic evolution, quasars and intergalactic space. The effects of weightlessness and ionizing radiation on human beings are considered. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is discussed. Lunar and planetary exploration, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, biomedical research and exobiology are reviewed. Numerons color illustrations are included.

  10. A meeting with the universe: Science discoveries from the space program

    SciTech Connect

    French, B.M.; Maran, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    A general history of space exploration is presented. The solar system is discussed. The Sun-Earth relationship is considered, including magnetic fields, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the Sun-weather relationship. The universe beyond the solar system is discussed. Topics include stellar and galactic evolution, quasars and intergalactic space. The effects of weightlessness and ionizing radiation on human beings are considered. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is discussed. Lunar and planetary exploration, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, biomedical research and exobiology are reviewed. Numerous color illustrations are included.

  11. Eternity in six hours: Intergalactic spreading of intelligent life and sharpening the Fermi paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Stuart; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The Fermi paradox is the discrepancy between the strong likelihood of alien intelligent life emerging (under a wide variety of assumptions) and the absence of any visible evidence for such emergence. In this paper, we extend the Fermi paradox to not only life in this galaxy, but to other galaxies as well. We do this by demonstrating that travelling between galaxies - indeed even launching a colonisation project for the entire reachable universe - is a relatively simple task for a star-spanning civilisation, requiring modest amounts of energy and resources. We start by demonstrating that humanity itself could likely accomplish such a colonisation project in the foreseeable future, should we want to. Given certain technological assumptions, such as improved automation, the task of constructing Dyson spheres, designing replicating probes, and launching them at distant galaxies, become quite feasible. We extensively analyse the dynamics of such a project, including issues of deceleration and collision with particles in space. Using similar methods, there are millions of galaxies that could have reached us by now. This results in a considerable sharpening of the Fermi paradox.

  12. THE 21 cm FOREST AS A PROBE OF THE REIONIZATION AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yidong; Fan Zuhui; Chen Xuelei; Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue

    2009-10-20

    Using high-redshift radio sources as background, the 21 cm forest observations probe the neutral hydrogen absorption signatures of early structures along the lines of sight. Directly sensitive to the spin temperature of the hydrogen atoms, it complements the 21 cm tomography observations, and provides information on the temperature as well as the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We use a radiative transfer simulation to investigate the 21 cm forest signals during the epoch of reionization. We first confirmed that the optical depth and equivalent width (EW) are good representations of the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. The features selected by their relative optical depth are excellent tracers of ionization fields, and the features selected by their absolute optical depth are very sensitive to the IGM temperature, so the IGM temperature information could potentially be extracted from 21 cm forest observation, thus breaking a degeneracy in 21 cm tomographic observation. With the EW statistics, we predict some observational consequences for 21 cm forest. From the distributions of EWs and the number evolution of absorbers and leakers with different EWs, we see clearly the cosmological evolution of ionization state of the IGM. The number density of potentially observable features decreases rapidly with increasing gas temperature. The sensitivity of the proposed EW statistic to the IGM temperature makes it a unique and potentially powerful probe of reionization. Missing small-scale structures, such as small filaments and minihalos that are unresolved in our current simulation, and lack of an accurate calculation of the IGM temperature, however, likely have rendered the presented signals quantitatively inaccurate. Finally, we discuss the requirements of the background radio sources for such observations, and find that signals with equivalent widths larger than 1 kHz are hopeful to be detected.

  13. THE NATURE OF THE WARM/HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. NUMERICAL METHODS, CONVERGENCE, AND O VI ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Shull, J. Michael; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2011-04-10

    We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z {approx} 0.5, declining to 35%-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic O VI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} {approx}< N{sub OVI} {approx}< 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}). Models that include only collisional ionization provide better fits for high column density absorbers (N{sub OVI} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}). The distribution of O VI in density and temperature exhibits two populations: one at T {approx} 10{sup 5.5} K (collisionally ionized, 55% of total O VI) and one at T {approx} 10{sup 4.5} K (photoionized, 37%) with the remainder located in dense gas near galaxies. While not a perfect tracer of hot gas, O VI provides an important tool for a WHIM baryon census.

  14. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  15. A Snapshot Survey of AGNS/QSOS for Intergalactic Medium Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Sembach, George

    2005-01-01

    This spectroscopic program with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program was designed to identify ultraviolet-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for follow-up spectroscopy with FUSE and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All of the FUSE spectra obtained for this snapshot program (FUSE identifier D808) have been examined for data quality and flux levels. As expected, only a small number of objects observed (4/19) have flux levels suitable for follow-up spectroscopy. A portion of our effort in this program was devoted to comparing the spectra obtained in these snapshot exposures to others to determine if the spectra could be used for detailed scientific analyses. The resulting effort demonstrated that some of the brighter sources are relatively stable (non- variable), as determined through comparisons of the spectra at multiple epochs. For these brighter sources, the exposure times are simply too short to perform meaningful detailed analyses. Comparisons of the absorption lines in these spectra with those of higher signal-to-noise spectra, like those of PG1116+215 and H1821+643, showed that many of the lines of interest could not be characterized adequately at the S/N levels reached in the short snapshot exposures. As a result, the FUSE D808 observations are suitable only for their original purpose - flux determination. Several bright objects identified as part of this program include: HE0153-4520, flux >2x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 at 1000 Angstroms IRASF04250-5718, flux >4x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms RXJ2154.1-4414, flux > 1.6x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms S50716+714, flux >2.5x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms. All of these objects have been incorporated into the primary target lists for the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Identifying such objects for follow-up observations with HST/COS was the primary goal of this program, so the program wa successful. In addition, some of the objects were included in proposed target lists for future FUSE observations. Given that the state of the FUSE observatory is uncertain at this time, it is unknown whether anyjof htese objects will be re-observed with FUSE. The results of this program have been communicated to the astronomical community via email and by word of mouth since the resuts in and of themselves do not warrant publication in an astronomical journal. However, these lists will be maintained for future observers. The data are archived in the Multi-Mission Archive at the Space Telescioe Science INstitute.

  16. Tomography of the intergalactic medium with Ly? forests in close QSO pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.; Viel, M.; Saitta, F.; Cristiani, S.; Bianchi, S.; Boyle, B.; Lopez, S.; Maza, J.; Outram, P.

    2006-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional distribution of non-virialized matter at z ~ 2 using high-resolution spectra of quasi-stellar object (QSO) pairs and simulated spectra drawn from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We have collected the largest sample of QSO pairs ever observed with Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the European Southern Observatory-Very Large Telescope (ESO-VLT), with angular separations between ~1 and 14arcmin. The observed correlation functions of the transmitted flux in the HI Lyman ? forest along and transverse to the lines of sight are in good agreement implying that the distortions in redshift space due to peculiar velocities are small. The clustering signal is significant up to velocity separations of ~200kms-1, or about 3h-1 comoving Mpc. The regions at lower overdensity are still clustered but on smaller scales (?v <~ 100kms-1). The observed and simulated correlation functions are compatible at the 3? level. A better concordance is obtained when only the low overdensity regions are selected for the analysis or when the effective optical depth of the simulated spectra is increased artificially, suggesting a deficiency of strong lines in the simulated spectra. We found that also a lower value of the power-law index of the temperature-density relation for the Lyman ? forest gas improves the agreement between observed and simulated results. If confirmed, this would be consistent with other observations favouring a late HeII reionization epoch (at z ~ 3). We remark the detection of a significant clustering signal in the cross-correlation coefficient at a transverse velocity separation ?v? ~ 500kms-1 whose origin needs further investigation. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Cerro Paranal, Chile - Programs 65.O-0299(A), 68.A-0216(A), 69.A-0204(A), 69.A-0586(A), 70.A-0031(A), 166.A-0106(A). E-mail: dodorico@oats.inaf.it

  17. Detection of an intergalactic meteor particle with the 6-m telescope

    E-print Network

    V. L. Afanasiev; V. V. Kalenichenko; I. D. Karachentsev

    2007-12-10

    On July 28, 2006 the 6-m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences recorded the spectrum of a faint meteor. We confidently identify the lines of FeI and MgI, OI, NI and molecular-nitrogen N_2 bands. The entry velocity of the meteor body into the Earth's atmosphere estimated from radial velocity is equal to 300 km/s. The body was several tens of a millimeter in size, like chondrules in carbon chondrites. The radiant of the meteor trajectory coincides with the sky position of the apex of the motion of the Solar system toward the centroid of the Local Group of galaxies. Observations of faint sporadic meteors with FAVOR TV CCD camera confirmed the radiant at a higher than 96% confidence level. We conclude that this meteor particle is likely to be of extragalactic origin. The following important questions remain open: (1) How metal-rich dust particles came to be in the extragalactic space? (2) Why are the sizes of extragalactic particles larger by two orders of magnitude (and their masses greater by six orders of magnitude) than common interstellar dust grains in our Galaxy? (3) If extragalactic dust surrounds galaxies in the form of dust (or gas-and-dust) aureoles, can such formations now be observed using other observational techniques (IR observations aboard Spitzer satellite, etc.)? (4) If inhomogeneous extragalactic dust medium with the parameters mentioned above actually exists, does it show up in the form of irregularities on the cosmic microwave background (WMAP etc.)?

  18. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of red shift using an approach based on observational data obtained at in different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. Our empirically based approach allows us, for the firs.t time, to obtain a completely model independent determination of the IBL and to quantify its uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, independent of previous constraints.

  19. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  20. Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space

    E-print Network

    Edinburgh, University of

    Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space Blue: Shared Space #12;Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space Blue: Shared Space #12;Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space Blue: Shared Space #12;Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space Blue: Shared Space #12;Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space Blue: Shared Space #12;Pink: PG Space Orange: UG Space

  1. Relativistic pair beams from TeV blazars: A source of reprocessed GeV emission rather than intergalactic heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Giannios, Dimitrios E-mail: dgiannio@purdue.edu

    2014-05-20

    The interaction of TeV photons from blazars with the extragalactic background light produces a relativistic beam of electron-positron pairs streaming through the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fate of the beam energy is uncertain. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the nonlinear evolution of dilute ultra-relativistic pair beams propagating through the IGM. We explore a wide range of beam Lorentz factors ? {sub b} >> 1 and beam-to-plasma density ratios ? << 1, so that our results can be extrapolated to the extreme parameters of blazar-induced beams (? {sub b} ? 10{sup 6} and ? ? 10{sup –15}, for powerful blazars). For cold beams, we show that the oblique instability governs the early stages of evolution, but its exponential growth terminates—due to self-heating of the beam in the transverse direction—when only a negligible fraction ?(?/? {sub b}){sup 1/3} ? 10{sup –7} of the beam energy has been transferred to the IGM plasma. Further relaxation of the beam proceeds through quasi-longitudinal modes, until the momentum dispersion in the direction of propagation saturates at ?p {sub b,} {sub ?}/?{sub b} m{sub e}c ? 0.2. This corresponds to a fraction ?10% of the beam energy—irrespective of ? {sub b} or ?—being ultimately transferred to the IGM plasma (as compared to the heating efficiency of ?50% predicted by one-dimensional models, which cannot properly account for the transverse broadening of the beam). For the warm beams generated by TeV blazars, the development of the longitudinal relaxation is suppressed, since the initial dispersion in beam momentum is already ?p {sub b0,} {sub ?}/? {sub b} m{sub e}c ? 1. Here, the fraction of beam energy ultimately deposited into the IGM is only ?? ? {sub b} ? 10{sup –9}. It follows that most of the beam energy is still available to power the GeV emission produced by inverse Compton up-scattering of the cosmic microwave background by the beam pairs.

  2. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-10

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z {approx} 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase the temperature of the mean density IGM by nearly an order of magnitude, and at low densities by substantially more. It also naturally produces the inverted temperature-density relation inferred by recent observations of the high-redshift Ly{alpha} forest, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with standard reionization models. Finally, we close with a discussion on the possibility of detecting this hot low-density IGM suggested by our model either directly or indirectly via the local Ly{alpha} forest, the Comptonized CMB, or free-free emission, but we find that such measurements are currently not feasible.

  3. THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTINUUM OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC AND CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Shapley, Alice E.; Pettini, Max

    2013-06-01

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at (z) = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14{approx}< log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}){approx}<17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers than low-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2})>17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We compute new estimates of the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z{sub em} = 2.4, finding {lambda}{sub mfp} = 147 {+-} 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to {lambda}{sub mfp} = 121 {+-} 15 Mpc. These {lambda}{sub mfp} measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of ionizing sources at z Almost-Equal-To 2-3.

  4. Spaces of Spaces

    E-print Network

    Edward Anderson

    2015-05-13

    Wheeler emphasized the study of Superspace - the space of 3-geometries on a spatial manifold of fixed topology. This is a configuration space for GR; knowledge of configuration spaces is useful as regards dynamics and QM.In this Article I consider furthmore generalized configuration spaces to all levels within the conventional `equipped sets' paradigm of mathematical structure used in fundamental Theoretical Physics. This covers A) the more familiar issue of topology change in the sense of topological manifolds (tied to cobordisms), including via pinched manifolds. B) The less familiar issue of not regarding as fixed the yet deeper levels of structure: topological spaces themselves (and their metric space subcase), collections of subsets and sets. Isham has previously presented quantization schemes for a number of these. I consider some classical preliminaries for this program, aside from the most obvious (classical dynamics for each). Rather, I provide I) to all levels Relational and Background Independence criteria, which have Problem of Time facets as consequences. I demonstrate that many of these issues descend all the way down, whilst also documenting at which level the others cease to apply. II) Probability theory on configuration spaces. In fact such a stochastic treatment is how to further mathematize the hitherto fairly formal and sketchy subject of records theory (a type of formultion of quantum gravity). Along these lines I provide a number of further examples of records theories. This is in addition to Kendall's shape statistics being the example corresponding to relational mechanics models. To this example I now add 1) Cech cohomology, 2) Kendall's random sets, 3) the lattice of topologies on a fixed set. I finally consider 4) sheaves, both as a generalization of Cech cohomology and in connection to the study of stratified manifolds such as Superspace itself.

  5. Space Elevator: Path to Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    The Space Elevator is the most promising Space Transportation system on the drawing boards today, combining scalability, qualify of ride, and safety to deliver truly commercial-grade space access-practically comparable to a train ride to space.

  6. The experiment AIR-WATCH from SPACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarsi, Livio

    1999-03-01

    The observation in the Cosmic Radiation of particles with energy above 1020eV and the foreseeable existence of neutrinos of comparable energy open a chapter of fundamental interest in Astro-particle Physics concerning their origin and propagation in the intergalactic space. The extremely low flux involved (order of 1 particle/year 1000km2 sr) on one side and the very low interaction cross section of neutrinos on the other, require detectors of exceptional dimensions. An adequate solution can be represented by exploiting the UV fluorescence induced by the ionizing radiation in the Earth atmosphere which offers a target with up to millions of km2 sr and 1013 tons. The primary Cosmic Ray particles, neutrinos and gammas can be detected through the luminescence associated to the giant showers (EAS) they give rise to by the cascade of interactions produced in the atmosphere. The observation is carried out from Space with detectors on board of a LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. The experimental framework is outlined and a description is given of the AIR-WATCH from SPACE mission and of the observational strategy.

  7. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ?100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Ly? forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Ly? forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ?100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Ly? forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of only 20 close quasar pair spectra can pinpoint the Jeans scale to ? 5% precision, independent of the amplitude T{sub 0} and slope ? of the temperature-density relation of the IGM T=T{sub 0}(?/ ?-bar ){sup ?-1}. This exquisite sensitivity arises because even long-wavelength one-dimensional Fourier modes ?10 Mpc, i.e., two orders of magnitude larger than the Jeans scale, are nevertheless dominated by projected small-scale three-dimensional (3D) power. Hence phase angle differences between all modes of quasar pair spectra actually probe the shape of the 3D power spectrum on scales comparable to the pair separation. We show that this new method for measuring the Jeans scale is unbiased and is insensitive to a battery of systematics that typically plague Ly? forest measurements, such as continuum fitting errors, imprecise knowledge of the noise level and/or spectral resolution, and metal-line absorption.

  8. Space Jobs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Herman J.; And Others

    This booklet, intended for children in grades K-3 as "vocational guidance in a space age," should be read to the child in early school years at an appropriate time. The booklet is divided into five chapters and a summary. Topics discussed concern space workers, space travelers, jobs in space, spaceships, and preparing for a career in space

  9. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  10. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  11. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Taotao; Canizares, Claude R.; Marshall, Herman L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a survey of six low to moderate redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. All the X-ray spectra can be well fitted by a power law with neutral hydrogen absorption. Only one feature is detected at above 3-sigma level in all the spectra, which is consistent with statistic fluctuation. We discuss the implications in our understanding of the baryon content of the universe. We also discuss the implication of the non-detection of the local (z approx. 0) X-ray absorption.

  12. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  13. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. I. IMPLICATIONS OF PLASMA INSTABILITIES FOR THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-10

    Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.

  14. LOWER BOUNDS ON MAGNETIC FIELDS IN INTERGALACTIC VOIDS FROM LONG-TERM GeV-TeV LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZAR MRK 421

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Mori, Masaki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Inoue, Susumu; Takami, Hajime

    2013-07-10

    Lower bounds are derived on the amplitude B of intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) in the region between Galaxy and the blazar Mrk 421, from constraints on the delayed GeV pair-echo flux that are emitted by secondary e {sup -} e {sup +} produced in {gamma}{gamma} interactions between primary TeV gamma rays and the cosmic infrared background. The distribution of galaxies mapped by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey shows that this region is dominated by a large intergalactic void. We utilize data from long-term, simultaneous GeV-TeV observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope and the ARGO-YBJ experiment extending over 850 days. For an assumed value of B, we evaluate the daily GeV pair-echo flux expected from the TeV data, select the dates where this exceeds the Fermi 2{sigma} sensitivity, compute the probability that this flux is excluded by the Fermi data for each date, and then combine the probabilities using the inverse normal method. Consequently, we exclude B < 10{sup -20.5} G for a field coherence length of 1 kpc at {approx}4{sigma} level, as long as plasma instabilities are unimportant for cooling of the pair beam. This is much more significant than the 2{sigma} bounds we obtained previously from observations of Mrk 501, by virtue of more extensive data from the ARGO-YBJ, as well as improved statistical analysis. Compared with most other studies of IGMF bounds, the evidence we present here for a non-zero IGMF is more robust as it does not rely on unproven assumptions on the primary TeV emission during unobserved periods.

  15. COINCIDENCES BETWEEN O VI AND O VII LINES: INSIGHTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION SIMULATIONS OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2012-07-01

    With high-resolution (0.46 h{sup -1} kpc), large-scale, adaptive mesh-refinement Eulerian cosmological hydrodynamic simulations we compute properties of O VI and O VII absorbers from the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at z = 0. Our new simulations are in broad agreement with previous simulations with {approx}40% of the intergalactic medium being in the WHIM. Our simulations are in agreement with observed properties of O VI absorbers with respect to the line incidence rate and Doppler-width-column-density relation. It is found that the amount of gas in the WHIM below and above 10{sup 6} K is roughly equal. Strong O VI absorbers are found to be predominantly collisionally ionized. It is found that (61%, 57%, 39%) of O VI absorbers of log N(O VI) cm{sup 2} = (12.5-13, 13-14, > 14) have T < 10{sup 5} K. Cross correlations between galaxies and strong [N(O VI) > 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}] O VI absorbers on {approx}100-300 kpc scales are suggested as a potential differentiator between collisional ionization and photoionization models. Quantitative prediction is made for the presence of broad and shallow O VI lines that are largely missed by current observations but will be detectable by Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observations. The reported 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean column density of coincidental O VII lines at the location of detected O VI lines by Yao et al. is above our predicted value by a factor of 2.5-4. The claimed observational detection of O VII lines by Nicastro et al., if true, is 2{sigma} above what our simulations predict.

  16. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  17. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  18. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  19. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  20. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  1. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  2. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  3. Space Basics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Dexter (editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  4. Space basic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, Dexter

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  5. Innovation Spaces

    E-print Network

    Schneider-Sikorsky, Patrick A

    2014-01-01

    Innovation ecosystems today are the lifeblood or the great hope of many major economies, but at the heart of these ecosystems, there are places and spaces. Silicon Valley is not just a place, but a cluster of spaces where ...

  6. Quadratic Gravitational Lagrangian with Torsion Can Give Possible Explanations of the Form of Galactic Rotation Curves, of the Amount of Intergalactic Lensings, and of the Accelerating Expansion of the Universe

    E-print Network

    Yi Yang; Wai Bong Yeung

    2012-01-16

    The Quadratic Gravitational Lagrangian with torsion provides us with a richer number of solutions than the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian does. With proper interpretation, these solutions, together, seem to give good explanations of the form of the galactic rotation curves, of the amount of intergalactic gravitational lensings, and of the accelerating expansion of the Universe. The existence of Particle Families can also arise from the existence of these various microscopic metrics endowed to the respective particles

  7. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  8. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  9. A Measurement of the Temperature-Density Relation in the Intergalactic Medium Using a New Lyman-alpha Absorption Line Fitting Method

    E-print Network

    Patrick McDonald; Jordi Miralda-Escude; Michael Rauch; Wallace L. W. Sargent; Tom A. Barlow; Renyue Cen

    2000-05-29

    The evolution of the temperature in the intergalactic medium is related to the reionization of hydrogen and helium, and has important consequences for our understanding of the Lya forest and of galaxy formation in gravitational models of large-scale structure. We measure the temperature-density relation of intergalactic gas from Lya forest observations of eight quasar spectra with high resolution and signal-to-noise ratio, using a new line fitting technique to obtain a lower cutoff of the distribution of line widths from which the temperature is derived. We carefully test the accuracy of this technique to recover the gas temperature with a hydrodynamic simulation. The temperature at redshift z=(3.9, 3.0, 2.4) is best determined at densities slightly above the mean: T_star=(20200\\pm2700, 20200\\pm1300, 22600\\pm1900)K (statistical error bars) for gas density (in units of the mean density) Delta_star=(1.42\\pm0.08, 1.37\\pm0.11, 1.66\\pm0.11). The power-law index of the temperature-density relation, defined by T=T_star(Delta/Delta_star)^{gamma-1}, is gamma-1= (0.43\\pm0.45, 0.29\\pm0.30, 0.52\\pm0.14) for the same three redshifts. The temperature at the fixed over-density Delta=1.4 is T_1.4=(20100\\pm2800, 20300\\pm1400, 20700\\pm1900)K. These temperatures are higher than expected for photoionized gas in ionization equilibrium with a cosmic background, and can be explained by a gradual additional heating due to on-going HeII reionization. The measurement of the temperature reduces one source of uncertainty in the lower limit to the baryon density implied by the observed mean flux decrement. We find that the temperature cannot be reliably measured for under-dense gas, because the velocities due to expansion always dominate the widths of the corresponding weak lines.

  10. $?$--Rindler space

    E-print Network

    J. Kowalski-Glikman

    2009-07-18

    In this paper we construct, and investigate some thermal properties of, the non-commutative counterpart of Rindler space, which we call $\\kappa$--Rindler space. This space is obtained by changing variables in the defining commutators of $\\kappa$--Minkowski space. We then re-derive the commutator structure of $\\kappa$--Rindler space with the help of an appropriate star product, obtained from the $\\kappa$--Minkowski one. Using this star product, following the idea of Padmanabhan, we find the leading order, $1/\\kappa$ correction to the Hawking thermal spectrum.

  11. Cognitive Space and Information Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    2001-01-01

    Considers information retrieval systems as a subset of information systems and examines the information spaces of systems and cognitive spaces of users. Presents a method for automatically generating information spaces from document collections that uses term cooccurrence, eigensystems analysis, and Principal Components Analysis, and discusses…

  12. LOWER BOUNDS ON INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM SIMULTANEOUSLY OBSERVED GeV-TeV LIGHT CURVES OF THE BLAZAR Mrk 501

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Keitaro; Mori, Masaki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo; Inoue, Susumu

    2012-01-15

    We derive lower bounds on intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) from upper limits on the pair echo emission from the blazar Mrk 501, that is, delayed GeV emission from secondary e{sup -}e{sup +} pairs produced via interactions of primary TeV gamma rays with the cosmic infrared background. Utilizing only simultaneous GeV-TeV light curves observed by VERITAS, MAGIC, and the Fermi Large Area Telescope during a multiwavelength campaign in 2009 that included a TeV flare, bounds are deduced on the IGMF strength of B {approx}> 10{sup -20} G at the 90% confidence level for a field coherence length of 1 kpc. Since our analysis is based firmly on the observational data alone and is nearly free of assumptions concerning the primary TeV flux in unobserved periods or spectral bands, our evaluation of the pair echo flux is conservative and the evidence for a non-zero IGMF is more robust compared to previous studies.

  13. Line-emitting galaxies beyond a redshift of 7: an improved method for estimating the evolving neutrality of the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2014-11-01

    The redshift-dependent fraction of color-selected galaxies revealing Lyman alpha (Ly?) emission, x {sub Ly?} has become the most valuable constraint on the evolving neutrality of the early intergalactic medium. However, in addition to resonant scattering by neutral gas, the visibility of Ly? is also dependent on the intrinsic properties of the host galaxy, including its stellar population, dust content, and the nature of outflowing gas. Taking advantage of significant progress we have made in determining the line-emitting properties of z ? 4-6 galaxies, we propose an improved method, based on using the measured slopes of the rest-frame ultraviolet continua of galaxies, to interpret the growing body of near-infrared spectra of z > 7 galaxies in order to take into account these host galaxy dependencies. In a first application of our new method, we demonstrate its potential via a new spectroscopic survey of 7 < z < 8 galaxies undertaken with the Keck MOSFIRE spectrograph. Together with earlier published data, our data provide improved estimates of the evolving visibility of Ly?, particularly at redshift z ? 8. As a by-product, we also present a promising new line-emitting galaxy candidate, detected at 4.0? at redshift z = 7.62. We discuss the improving constraints on the evolving neutral fraction over 6 < z < 8 and the implications for cosmic reionization.

  14. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  15. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  16. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  17. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  18. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians and scientists should be actively engaged in fundamental and applied research designed to ensure that it is safe for humans to routinely and repeatedly stay and work in the microgravity environment of space.

  19. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  20. Quantifying galactic clustering and departures from randomness of the inter-galactic void probability function using information geometry

    E-print Network

    C. T. J. Dodson

    2006-08-24

    We study a family of parametric statistical models based on gamma distributions, which do give realistic descriptions for other stochastic porous media. Gamma distributions contain as a special case the exponential distributions, which correspond to the `random' void size probability arising from Poisson processes. The space of parameters is a surface with a natural Riemannian metric structure. This surface contains the Poisson processes as an isometric embedding and a recent theorem shows that it contains neighbourhoods of all departures from randomness. The method provides thereby a geometric setting for quantifying departures from randomness and on which may be formulated cosmological evolutionary dynamics for galactic clustering and for the concomitant development of the void size distribution. The 2dFGRS data offer the possibility of more detailed investigation of this approach than was possible when it was originally suggested and some parameter estimations are given.

  1. Space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wayne Littles will take over the job of Associate Administrator for Space Flight at NASA from Maj.Gen. Jeremiah W. Pearson, who has resigned from the post. Littles, now NASA's Chief Engineer, was formerly deputy director of the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  2. Space Kimchi

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Oborny, Jaimie; Tsutsui, William

    2006-07-05

    -starved astronaut to do? Never fear: kimchi is here. Ever since Korea decided to put a Korean national into orbit, the race to produce a space-friendly version of Korea's unofficial national food heated up. The picante pickled cabbage is a great choice for space...

  3. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  4. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design of the spacecraft is described. Focus is placed on the external tanks, the solid rocket boosters, the main engine, and the space shuttle orbiter. The logistics of the project were reviewed and included the management plan, the facilities involved in construction and testing of the space shuttle, and the benefits expected from the project.

  5. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  6. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  7. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  8. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  9. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  10. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    SciTech Connect

    Higdon, S. J. U.; Higdon, J. L.; Smith, B. J.; Hancock, M.

    2014-06-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (?100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ?6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ?10{sup 6} M {sub ?} of warm H{sub 2} with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 ?m, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 ?m emission compared to that at 3.6 ?m or 24 ?m separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ?30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  11. New limits on 21 cm epoch of reionization from paper-32 consistent with an x-ray heated intergalactic medium at z = 7.7

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2014-06-20

    We present new constraints on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization (EoR) power spectrum derived from three months of observing with a 32 antenna, dual-polarization deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum approach to avoiding foregrounds, achieving over eight orders of magnitude of foreground suppression (in mK{sup 2}). Combining this approach with a procedure for removing off-diagonal covariances arising from instrumental systematics, we achieve a best 2? upper limit of (41 mK){sup 2} for k = 0.27 h Mpc{sup –1} at z = 7.7. This limit falls within an order of magnitude of the brighter predictions of the expected 21 cm EoR signal level. Using the upper limits set by these measurements, we generate new constraints on the brightness temperature of 21 cm emission in neutral regions for various reionization models. We show that for several ionization scenarios, our measurements are inconsistent with cold reionization. That is, heating of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) is necessary to remain consistent with the constraints we report. Hence, we have suggestive evidence that by z = 7.7, the H I has been warmed from its cold primordial state, probably by X-rays from high-mass X-ray binaries or miniquasars. The strength of this evidence depends on the ionization state of the IGM, which we are not yet able to constrain. This result is consistent with standard predictions for how reionization might have proceeded.

  12. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  13. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  14. On the connection between the intergalactic medium and galaxies: the H I-galaxy cross-correlation at z ? 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Morris, Simon L.; Finn, Charles W.; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Bechtold, Jill; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Altay, Gabriel; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Ryan-Weber, Emma; Davé, Romeel

    2014-01-01

    We present a new optical spectroscopic survey of 1777 `star-forming' (`SF') and 366 `non-star-forming' (`non-SF') galaxies at redshifts z ˜ 0-1 (2143 in total), 22 AGN and 423 stars, observed by instruments such as the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, in three fields containing five quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy. We also present a new spectroscopic survey of 173 `strong' (1014 ? NHI? 1017 cm-2) and 496 `weak' (1013 ? NHI < 1014 cm-2) intervening H I (Ly?) absorption-line systems at z ? 1 (669 in total), observed in the spectra of eight QSOs at z ˜ 1 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph on the HST. Combining these new data with previously published galaxy catalogues such as the Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph Deep Survey and the Gemini Deep Deep Survey, we have gathered a sample of 654 H I absorption systems and 17 509 galaxies at transverse scales ?50 Mpc, suitable for a two-point correlation function analysis. We present observational results on the H I-galaxy (?ag) and galaxy-galaxy (?gg) correlations at transverse scales r? ? 10 Mpc, and the H I-H I autocorrelation (?aa) at transverse scales r? ? 2 Mpc. The two-point correlation functions are measured both along and transverse to the line of sight, ?(r?, r?). We also infer the shape of their corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ?(r), from the projected along the line-of-sight correlations, assuming power laws of the form ?(r) = (r/r0)-?. Comparing the results from ?ag, ?gg and ?aa, we constrain the H I-galaxy statistical connection, as a function of both H I column density and galaxy star formation activity. Our results are consistent with the following conclusions: (i) the bulk of H I systems on ˜ Mpc scales have little velocity dispersion (?120 km s-1) with respect to the bulk of galaxies (i.e. no strong galaxy outflow/inflow signal is detected); (ii) the vast majority (˜100 per cent) of `strong' H I systems and `SF' galaxies are distributed in the same locations, together with 75 ± 15 per cent of `non-SF' galaxies, all of which typically reside in dark matter haloes of similar masses; (iii) 25 ± 15 per cent of `non-SF' galaxies reside in galaxy clusters and are not correlated with `strong' H I systems at scales ?2 Mpc; and (iv) >50 per cent of `weak' H I systems reside within galaxy voids (hence not correlated with galaxies), and are confined in dark matter haloes of masses smaller than those hosting `strong' systems and/or galaxies. We speculate that H I systems within galaxy voids might still be evolving in the linear regime even at scales ?2 Mpc.

  15. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  16. Space nursing.

    PubMed

    Barrett, E A

    1991-10-01

    Rogers' nursing science of unitary human beings has potential for providing a unique understanding of human life and health in space as well as on Earth. When planning for nursing services beyond the planetary level, we must focus these on people as integrated wholes in mutual process with a radically different environment. The overview effect, as experienced by astronauts and others, suggests that future space inhabitants are precursors of spacekind. PMID:1743064

  17. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  18. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging op

  19. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  20. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (editor); Oleary, B. (editor); Gosset, B. (editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  1. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  2. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  3. GRB 130606A AS A PROBE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN A STAR-FORMING GALAXY IN THE FIRST Gyr AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Drout, Maria R.; Fong Wenfai; Laskar, Tanmoy; Fox, Derek B.; Roth, Katherine C.

    2013-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z Almost-Equal-To 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 A due to absorption from Ly{alpha} at redshift z Almost-Equal-To 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Ly{alpha} forest between 7000 and 7800 A. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain the metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] {approx}> -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] {approx}< -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Ly{alpha} seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of {Delta}z = 0.12 in the Ly{alpha} forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean Ly{alpha} transmission fraction of {approx}<0.2% (or {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} (Ly{alpha}) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Ly{alpha} red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.

  4. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM/GALAXY CONNECTION. V. ON THE ORIGIN OF Ly{alpha} AND O VI ABSORPTION AT z < 0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chen, H.-W.; Mulchaey, J.; Cooksey, K. E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2011-10-20

    We analyze the association of galaxies with Ly{alpha} and O VI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions of the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z{sub em} = 0.06-0.57. Confirming previous studies, we observe a high covering fraction for Ly{alpha} absorption to impact parameter {rho} = 300 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc: 33/37 of our L > 0.01 L* galaxies show Ly{alpha} equivalent width W{sup Ly{alpha}} {>=} 50 mA. Galaxies of all luminosity L > 0.01 L* and spectral type are surrounded by a diffuse and ionized circumgalactic medium (CGM), whose baryonic mass is estimated at {approx}10{sup 10.5{+-}0.3} M{sub sun} for a constant N{sub H} = 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}. The virialized halos and extended CGM of present-day galaxies are responsible for most strong Ly{alpha} absorbers (W{sup Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) but cannot reproduce the majority of observed lines in the Ly{alpha} forest. We conclude that the majority of Ly{alpha} absorption with W{sup Ly{alpha}} = 30-300 mA occurs in the cosmic web predicted by cosmological simulations and estimate a characteristic width for these filaments of {approx}400 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc. Regarding O VI, we observe a near unity covering fraction to {rho} = 200 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc for L > 0.1 L* galaxies and to {rho} = 300 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc for sub-L* (0.1 L* < L < L*) galaxies. Similar to our Ly{alpha} results, stronger O VI systems (W{sup 1031} > 70 mA) arise in the virialized halos of L > 0.1 L* galaxies. Unlike Ly{alpha}, the weaker O VI systems (W{sup 1031} {approx} 30 mA) arise in the extended CGM of sub-L* galaxies. The majority of O VI gas observed in the low-z IGM is associated with a diffuse medium surrounding individual galaxies with L {approx} 0.3 L* and rarely originates in the so-called warm-hot IGM (predicted by cosmological simulations.

  5. Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic Web Imager. II. Discovery of Extended, Kinematically Linked Emission around SSA22 Ly? Blob 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Ly? blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Ly? emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Ly? emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 1011 M ?, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 1012 M ?. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and coaligned angular momentum, strengthening the case for their association.

  6. Chandra View of the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium toward 1ES 1553+113: Absorption-line Detections and Identifications. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, F.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Davé, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Shull, J. M.; Takei, Y.; Zappacosta, L.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z >~ 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2? and 4.1?. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 <= ? <= 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z ~= 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1?, 4.1?, 3.9?, 3.8?, and 2.7?), are identified as C V and C VI K? absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at zX = 0.312, zX = 0.237, and langzX rang = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the zX = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (zX = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8? (zX = 0.312; 6.3? if the low-significance O V and C V K? associations are considered), 3.9? (zX = 0.237), and 3.8? (langzX rang = 0.133), respectively.

  7. CHANDRA VIEW OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM TOWARD 1ES 1553+113: ABSORPTION-LINE DETECTIONS AND IDENTIFICATIONS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Nicastro, F.; Zappacosta, L.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Shull, J. M.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Dave, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Takei, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z {approx}> 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2{sigma} and 4.1{sigma}. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 {<=} {sigma} {<=} 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z {approx_equal} 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1{sigma}, 4.1{sigma}, 3.9{sigma}, 3.8{sigma}, and 2.7{sigma}), are identified as C V and C VI K{alpha} absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at z{sub X} = 0.312, z{sub X} = 0.237, and (z{sub X} ) = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the z{sub X} = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (z{sub X} = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.312; 6.3{sigma} if the low-significance O V and C V K{beta} associations are considered), 3.9{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.237), and 3.8{sigma} ((z{sub X} ) = 0.133), respectively.

  8. Echelle Spectroscopy of a GRB Afterglow at z=3.969: A New Probe of the Interstellar and Intergalactic Media in the Young Universe

    E-print Network

    Hsiao-Wen Chen; Jason X. Prochaska; Joshua S. Bloom; Ian B. Thompson

    2005-10-09

    We present an echelle spectrum of the Swift GRB 050730, obtained four hours after the burst using the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay Telescope when the afterglow was at R=17.7. The spectrum reveals a forest of absorption features superimposed on a simple power-law shaped continuum, best described as f_nu(lambda)\\propto lambda^{alpha} with alpha =1.88\\pm 0.01 over lambda=7000-9000 A. We identify the GRB host at z_GRB=3.96855 based on the hydrogen Lyman absorption series, narrow absorption lines due to heavy ions such as OI, CII, SiII, SII, NiII, FeII, CIV, SiIV, and NV, and fine structure transitions such as OI*, OI**, SiII*, CII*, and FeII*. Together these transitions allow us to study the the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the GRB host. The principal results are as follows. (1) We estimate a neutral hydrogen column density of log N(HI)=22.15\\pm 0.05 in the host. (2) The associated metal lines exhibit multiple components over a velocity range of ~80 km/s, with >90% of the neutral gas confined in 20 km/s. (3) Comparisons between different ionic transitions show that the host has little/no dust depletion and has 1/100 solar metallicity. (4) The absorbing gas has much higher density than that of intervening damped Lya absorption (DLA) systems. In addition, we report the identification of an intervening DLA system at z_DLA=3.56439 with log N(HI)=20.3\\pm 0.1 and solar metallicity, a Lyman limit system at z_LLS=3.02209 with log N(HI)=19.9\\pm 0.1, a strong MgII absorber at z_MgII=2.25313, and a pair of MgII absorbers at z_MgII=1.7731, 57 km/s apart. We demonstrate that rapid echelle spectroscopy of GRB afterglows helps to reveal a wealth of information in the ISM and the intergalactic medium along the sightline (abridged).

  9. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. II. Discovery of extended, kinematically linked emission around SSA22 Ly? BLOB 2

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-05-10

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Ly? blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Ly? emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Ly? emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ?}. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and coaligned angular momentum, strengthening the case for their association.

  10. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  11. Space internetworking with CCSDS Space Packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, T.

    Some space agencies are planning to launch constellations of space elements for space exploration or space science programs. In these constellations, some spacecraft are sometimes required to relay data to and from other spacecraft. In constellations having such relay spacecraft, the capability of space internetworking is required because the onboard networks of the participating spacecraft must be interconnected. Most current space projects use CCSDS Space Packets for data transfer, but CCSDS Space Packets do not have a capability for performing space internetworking. This paper proposes a method for realizing space internetworking using CCSDS Space Packets with only a minor modification. The method proposed in this paper uses the technique of encapsulating Space Packets into other Space Packets. This method has several advantages over using special protocols for realizing space internetworking: (1) this method enables development of space internetworking with a very small cost; (2) this method is scalable; and (3) this method facilitates interoperability among different space agencies.

  12. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  13. Space Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Geodesy is the science studying the size and the figure of the Earth including the determination of the Earth's gravitational field. Geodetic astronomy is that part of astronomy dealing with the definition and realization of a terrestrial and a celestial reference frame (see TERRESTRIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND FRAMES). By space geodesy we mean, then, those aspects of geodesy and geodetic astronomy...

  14. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  15. Found Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Ted; Ogurek, Douglas J.

    2006-01-01

    When education providers confront obstacles such as shrinking budgets and swelling enrollments, a multi-million-dollar new facility or major additions probably are not feasible. Converting vacant and underused buildings into school facilities enables administrators to acquire additional space quickly and cheaply. In this article, the authors…

  16. Space Gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J. (editor); Economos, A. C. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  17. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  18. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  19. Space Pens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Fisher's Space Pen was developed for use in gravity free environments. The cartridge, pressurized with nitrogen, seals out air preventing evaporation and oxidation of the ink. Internal pressures force ink outward toward the ball point. A thixotropic ink is used. The pen will operate from minus 50 to plus 45 degrees Fahrenheit, and will withstand atmospheric extremes. It was used both on the Apollo missions and by Soviet Cosmonauts.

  20. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths. PMID:14696587

  1. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  2. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  3. Space Utilization InitiativeSpace Utilization Initiative Space UtilizationSpace Utilization

    E-print Network

    Space Utilization InitiativeSpace Utilization Initiative July 2010 1 #12;Space UtilizationSpace Utilization Executive Committee · SVP Jones, VP O'Brien, CFO Pfutzenreuter Team Members · Space Management #12;Space UtilizationSpace Utilization Charge: · Improve the utilization of University space

  4. Hubble space telescope/cosmic origins spectrograph observations of the quasar Q0302–003: Probing the He II reionization epoch and QSO proximity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-03-20

    Q0302–003 (z = 3.2860 ± 0.0005) was the first quasar discovered that showed a He II Gunn-Peterson trough, a sign of incomplete helium reionization at z ? 2.9. We present its Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV medium-resolution spectrum, which resolves many spectral features for the first time, allowing study of the quasar itself, the intergalactic medium, and quasar proximity effects. Q0302–003 has a harder intrinsic extreme-UV spectral index than previously claimed, as determined from both a direct fit to the spectrum (yielding ?{sub ?} ? –0.8) and the helium-to-hydrogen ion ratio in the quasar's line-of-sight proximity zone. Intergalactic absorption along this sightline shows that the helium Gunn-Peterson trough is largely black in the range 2.87 < z < 3.20, apart from ionization due to local sources, indicating that helium reionization has not completed at these redshifts. However, we tentatively report a detection of nonzero flux in the high-redshift trough when looking at low-density regions, but zero flux in higher-density regions. This constrains the He II fraction to be about 1% in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) and possibly a factor of a few higher in the IGM as a whole, suggesting helium reionization has progressed substantially by z ? 3.1. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers to a He II Ly? forest at z < 2.87. We confirm a transmission feature due to the ionization zone around a z = 3.05 quasar just off the sightline, and resolve the feature for the first time. We discover a similar such feature possibly caused by a luminous z = 3.23 quasar further from the sightline, which suggests that this quasar has been luminous for >34 Myr.

  5. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  6. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  7. Space Technospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn't realize that began to transform into Homo Sapiens. Human's departure from the 'cradle' of the mankind - Earth - has the same value in the making new environment habitable.

  8. European Space Agency European Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    European Space Agency Aurora European Space Exploration Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY #12;2 Aurora Programme EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. What is Aurora? A European Space Exploration Programme based on a road map economically and politically as a leading world power, it cannot leave space exploration to the other space

  9. Space Research Centre Space Research Centre

    E-print Network

    Banaji,. Murad

    Space Research Centre Space Research Centre www.src.le.ac.uk #12;2 University of Leicester · DeLivering over five DecaDes of space science anD instrUmentation expertise... Welcome to the SRC The Space Research Centre's (SRC) programme has two main foci: the Space Science and Instrumentation (SSI) Group

  10. Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather

    E-print Network

    on the Power Grid Space Weather and the Aurora Borealis What are Solar Flares? What are Coronal Mass Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather Please help the NWS spread these important safety build a WeatherReady Nation. New Space Weather Safety Page What is Space Weather and What

  11. An Empirical Determination of the Intergalactic Background Light Using Near-Infrared Deep Galaxy Survey Data Out to 5 Micrometers and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 micrometers. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) terraelectron volts. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  12. An empirical determination of the intergalactic background light using near-infrared deep galaxy survey data out to 5 ?m and the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-04-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 ?m. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to ?-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) TeV. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  13. An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASA’s Next UVOIR Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

  14. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  15. UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE

    E-print Network

    UNIVERSITY COLLEGE DUBLIN UNIVERSITY SPACE POLICY #12;ALLOCATION OF UNIVERSITY SPACE I Purpose To provide a methodology for the allocation of space across the University II Background Due to the university's success in attracting research funding, the need for space and facilities has grown

  16. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  17. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  18. Space on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ideas for applying research from space programs to life science instruction including plants in space, exercise and diet on space flights, environmental advantages from space exploration, and the effects of microgravity on health. Discusses space spinoffs used in medicine including digital imaging processing and the Ingestible Thermal…

  19. NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Space Infrared

    E-print Network

    Rebull, Luisa M.

    observatory set to launch on Aug. 23 will open a new window on the universe, using infrared technologyNATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Space Infrared Telescope Facility Launch Press Kit donald.savage@hq.nasa.gov Washington, D.C. Jane Platt Space Infrared Telescope Facility 818/354-0880 Jet

  20. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  1. Space-to-Space Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Gaylor, Kent; Vitalpur, Sharada; Sham, Cathy

    1999-01-01

    The Space-to-Space Communications System (SSCS) is an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Time-Division-Multiple Access (TDMA) system that is designed, developed, and deployed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide voice, commands, telemetry and data services in close proximity among three space elements: International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter, and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU). The SSCS consists of a family of three radios which are, Space-to-Space Station Radio (SSSR), Space-to-Space Orbiter Radio (SSOR), and Space-to-Space Extravehicular Mobility Radio (SSER). The SSCS can support up to five such radios at a time. Each user has its own time slot within which to transmit voice and data. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) carrier modulation with a burst data rate of 695 kbps and a frequency deviation of 486.5 kHz is employed by the system. Reed-Solomon (R-S) coding is also adopted to ensure data quality. In this paper, the SSCS system requirements, operational scenario, detailed system architecture and parameters, link acquisition strategy, and link performance analysis will be presented and discussed

  2. Social Media: Space Weather #SpaceWeather

    E-print Network

    Weather Check out this video on how space weather impacts communications: https://youtu.be/7vFGTl_Cp6I://www.swpc.noaa.gov/impacts/spaceweatherandgpssystems #SpaceWeather Check out this video on how space weather impacts GPS: https

  3. Space art and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comte, Pierre; Lipsey, Sharon; Willekens, Philippe

    Space Art has been a growing activity in Europe and in the USA since the end of the 70'ies. With space exploration, space programmes and activities have constantly become a source of inspiration and ideas, particularly suitable for art.

  4. Institute of Space Atmospheric

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies 20002000200020002000 #12;Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies Institute of Space and Atmospheric Studies, University of Saskatchewan 116 Science Place Committee 5 Research Programs Planetary Astronomy Atmospheric Dynamics Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Interactions

  5. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  6. Sculpting space through sound

    E-print Network

    Nakagawa, Junko, 1975-

    2002-01-01

    How does one experience space? What kind of information do humans collect in the process of constructing space in their mind? How does one begin to understand volume, light, texture, material, smell and sense of space? The ...

  7. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  8. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  9. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  10. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  11. Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    Benefits Stemming from Space Exploration September 2013 International Space from Space Exploration Table of Content Executive Summary .......................................................................................................................................... 3 2. Fundamental Benefits of Space Exploration

  12. National Space Policy and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2006-12-01

    The new national space policy, authorized by President Bush on 31 August 2006, has been the cause of considerable discussion among space professionals. The policy statement is a broad umbrella that lays out the nation's objectives in space, from science to commercial to national security and intelligence. The policy appears to support numerous national space objectives that were contained in the previous (1996) policy statement, of the Clinton administration. It also articulates in one location many of the pronouncements on space activities that have been promulgated since 2001. Some of the unhappiness expressed in editorial comments would seem to occur because words such as "Mars" and "Moon" do not appear explicitly. At the same time, neither do the words "space weather."

  13. In Outer Space without a Space Suit?

    E-print Network

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-06-24

    The author proposes and investigates his old idea - a living human in space without the encumbrance of a complex space suit. Only in this condition can biological humanity seriously attempt to colonize space because all planets of Solar system (except the Earth) do not have suitable atmospheres. Aside from the issue of temperature, a suitable partial pressure of oxygen is lacking. In this case the main problem is how to satiate human blood with oxygen and delete carbonic acid gas (carbon dioxide). The proposed system would enable a person to function in outer space without a space suit and, for a long time, without food. That is useful also in the Earth for sustaining working men in an otherwise deadly atmosphere laden with lethal particulates (in case of nuclear, chemical or biological war), in underground confined spaces without fresh air, under water or a top high mountains above a height that can sustain respiration.

  14. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  15. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  16. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  17. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  18. Studying Galaxy Formation and Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will review the current status of the project.

  19. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan F.; Barbier, L. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D. D.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sakamoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts 2-6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In addition to JWST s ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  20. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  1. Organic chemistry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  2. Johnson Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston is NASA's lead center for the space shuttle and the International Space Station programs and for biomedical research. Areas of study include Earth sciences and solar system exploration, astromaterials and space medicine. About 14 000 people, including 3000 civil servants, work at JSC....

  3. Using space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: reducing the cost of space exploration; the high cost of shipping; lunar raw materials; some useful space products; energy from the moon; ceramic, glass, and concrete construction materials; mars atmosphere resources; relationship to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI); an evolutionary approach to using space resources; technology development; and oxygen and metal coproduction.

  4. Space: The New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document is designed primarily to describe the U.S. Space Program, its history, its current state of development, and its goals for the future. Chapter headings include: Space and You; The Early History of Space Flight; The Solar System; Space Probes and Satellites; Scientific Satellites and Sounding Rockets; Application Satellites, Unmanned…

  5. Planetary Science Space Physics

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    is almost one-of-a-kind among university-based space centers. With up to a dozen space science flight#12;Planetary Science Space Physics Solar Influences Atmospheric Science Engineering Mission Operations #12;A message from the Director At the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics (LASP), we

  6. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  7. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  8. Bioprocessing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R. (compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings are presented of the 1976 NASA Colloquium on bioprocessing in space. The program included general sessions and formal presentations on the following topics: NASA's Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and space-processing programs; the known unusual behavior of materials in space; space-processing experiment results; cell biology, gravity sensors in cells, space electrophoresis of living cells, new approaches to biosynthesis of biologicals from cell culture in space, and zero-g fermentation concepts; and upcoming flight opportunities and industrial application planning studies already underway.

  9. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  10. Noncommutative spherically symmetric spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Sean; Govaerts, Jan

    2011-01-15

    We examine some noncommutative spherically symmetric spaces in three space dimensions. A generalization of Snyder's noncommutative (Euclidean) space allows the inclusion of the generator of dilations into the defining algebra of the coordinate and rotation operators. We then construct a spherically symmetric noncommutative Laplacian on this space having the correct limiting spectrum. This is presented via a creation and annihilation operator realization of the algebra, which may lend itself to a truncation of the Hilbert space.

  11. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  12. Man in Space, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Walter

    Included is a summary of the Apollo lunar program to date. Projected future NASA programs planned for the 1970's are discussed under the headings Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Space Station. Possibilities for the 1980's are outlined in the final section. (Author/AL)

  13. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering, Interpersonal Skills, Telecommunications, Earth Observation and Navigation. A group CCP, a major asset of this unique program, is a focused project, aimed at the formation of a credible virtual commercial space-related business. Participants exercise space systems engineering fundamentals as well as marketing and business engineering tools, with the goal of creating a financially viable business opportunity. They then present the result, in the form of an unsolicited proposal to potential investors, as well as a varied group of engineers, managers and executives from the space community. During the CCP, participants learn the ties between mission and system design and the potential return to investors. They develop an instinct for the technical concepts and which of the parameters to adjust to make their newly conceived business more effective and profitable.

  14. Space Station overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Sanctis, Carmine E.; Priest, C. C.; Wood, W. V.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Space Station, including program guidelines, international involvement, current baseline configuration, and utilization for science and application missions. Space Station configuration and capabilities, plus methods of utilizing the Space Station for scientific and engineering investigations, are described. The Space Station is being designed as a multipurpose facility to support a number of functions, such as a laboratory in space, a transportation node, an assembly facility, a staging base, etc. The description includes the baseline configuration, location of the pressurized modules, servicing and assembly facilities, and the work package structure for Space Station management. The Space Station will accommodate a wide variety of user requirements in laboratory modules and as attached payloads. To show the utility of the Space Station, a variety of science and application missions currently being studied for NASA at the Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed.

  15. Redshift-space distortion of the 21-cm background from the epoch of reionization - I. Methodology re-examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yi; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mellema, Garrelt; Iliev, Ilian T.; Koda, Jun; Ahn, Kyungjin

    2012-05-01

    The peculiar velocity of the intergalactic gas responsible for the cosmic 21-cm background from the epoch of reionization and beyond introduces an anisotropy in the three-dimensional power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations. Measurement of this anisotropy by future 21-cm surveys is a promising tool for separating cosmology from 21-cm astrophysics. However, previous attempts to model the signal have often neglected peculiar velocity or only approximated it crudely. This paper re-examines the effects of peculiar velocity on the 21-cm signal in detail, improving upon past treatment and addressing several issues for the first time. (1) We show that even the angle-averaged power spectrum, P(k), is affected significantly by the peculiar velocity. (2) We re-derive the brightness temperature dependence on atomic hydrogen density, spin temperature, peculiar velocity and its gradient and redshift to clarify the roles of thermal versus velocity broadening and finite optical depth. (3) We show that properly accounting for finite optical depth eliminates the unphysical divergence of the 21-cm brightness temperature in overdense regions of the intergalactic medium found by previous work that employed the usual optically thin approximation. (4) We find that the approximation made previously to circumvent the diverging brightness temperature problem by capping the velocity gradient can misestimate the power spectrum on all scales. (5) We further show that the observed power spectrum in redshift space remains finite even in the optically thin approximation if one properly accounts for the redshift-space distortion. However, results that take full account of finite optical depth show that this approximation is only accurate in the limit of high spin temperature. (6) We also show that the linear theory for redshift-space distortion widely employed to predict the 21-cm power spectrum results in a ˜30 per cent error in the observationally relevant wavenumber range k˜ 0.1-1 h Mpc-1, when strong ionization fluctuations exist (e.g. at the 50 per cent ionized epoch). We derive an alternative, quasi-linear formulation which improves upon the accuracy of the linear theory. (7) We describe and test two numerical schemes to calculate the 21-cm signal from reionization simulations to incorporate peculiar velocity effects in the optically thin approximation accurately, by real- to redshift-space re-mapping of the H I density. One is particle based, the other grid based, and while the former is most accurate, we demonstrate that the latter is computationally more efficient and can be optimized so as to achieve sufficient accuracy.

  16. Space Station Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baraona, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    The strategies, reasoning, and planning guidelines used in the development of the United States Space Station Program are outlined. The power required to support Space Station missions and housekeeping loads is a key driver in overall Space Station design. conversely, Space Station requirements drive the power technology. Various power system technology options are discussed. The mission analysis studies resulting in the required Space Station capabilities are also discussed. An example of Space Station functions and a concept to provide them is presented. The weight, area, payload and altitude requirements on draft and mass requirements are described with a summary and status of key power systems technology requirements and issues.

  17. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  18. [Reflections on physical spaces and mental spaces].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hung-Yi

    2013-08-01

    This article analyzes certain reciprocal impacts from physical spaces to mental spaces. If the epistemological construction and the spatial imagination from the subject of cogito or the social collectivities are able to influence the construction and creation of the physical spaces of that subject, then the context of that physical space may also affect the cognitive or social subject's mental cognition. This article applies the methodology of iconology from art history (E. Panofsky) and sociology (P. Bourdieu) to explore correlations between the creation of imaginative and physical spaces from the collective consciousness and mental cognition. The author uses Gilles Deleuses's opinion regarding the 17th-century Baroque style and contemporary social collective symptoms as an explanation. From these theoretical studies, the author analyzes the differences of spatial epistemology generated by Taiwan's special geological text. Finally, the author applies Michel Foucault's studies on spatial context to assess the possible application of this thesis of reciprocal impacts from mental spaces to physical spaces in a nursing context. PMID:23922087

  19. Space transportation, satellite services, and space platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disher, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper takes a preview of the progressive development of vehicles for space transportation, satellite services, and orbital platforms. A low-thrust upper stage of either the ion engine or chemical type will be developed to transport large spacecraft and space platforms to and from GEO. The multimission spacecraft, space telescope, and other scientific platforms will require orbital serves going beyond that provided by the Shuttle's remote manipulator system, and plans call for extravehicular activity tools, improved remote manipulators, and a remote manned work station (the cherry picker).

  20. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  5. The Classroom Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbickas, Sarah

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Classroom Space project aimed at revitalizing science education at Key Stages 3 and 4 by using exciting examples from Space Science and Astronomy to illustrate key science concepts. (Author/YDS)

  6. Welding in Space Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential was discussed for welding in space, its advantages and disadvantages, and what type of programs can benefit from the capability. Review of the various presentations and comments made in the course of the workshop suggests several routes to obtaining a better understanding of how welding processes can be used in NASA's initiatives in space. They are as follows: (1) development of a document identifying well processes and equipment requirements applicable to space and lunar environments; (2) more demonstrations of welding particular hardware which are to be used in the above environments, especially for space repair operations; (3) increased awareness among contractors responsible for building space equipment as to the potential for welding operations in space and on other planetary bodies; and (4) continuation of space welding research projects is important to maintain awareness within NASA that welding in space is viable and beneficial.

  7. Characterizing Protein Conformation Space

    E-print Network

    Nigham, Anshul

    In this work, we propose a radical approach for exploring the space of all possible protein structures. We present techniques to explore the clash-free conformation space, which comprises all protein structures whose atoms ...

  8. FOCK SPACES Stephane ATTAL

    E-print Network

    Attal, Stéphane

    , Guichardet's representation) and their fundamental operators (creation, annihilation, second quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 8.3.1 Creation and Annihilation Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 8 family of spaces in Quantum Mechanics: the Fock spaces. They are fundamental for they represent typical

  9. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  10. Space Day 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Introduces three design challenges for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students created by the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Presents information on Space Day and the National Classroom and provides Internet site addresses. (YDS)

  11. Space spider crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  12. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  13. Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in Greenbelt, MD, named for Dr Robert H Goddard, a pioneer in rocket research, was established in 1959. Since that time, GSFC has played a major role in space and Earth science....

  14. Space Studies Board, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 report of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council summarizes the charter and organization of the board, activities and membership, major and short reports, and congressional testimony. A cumulative bibliography of the Space Studies (formerly Space Science) Board and its committees is provided. An appendix contains reports of the panel to review Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) plans. Major reports cover scientific opportunities in the human exploration of space, the dichotomy between funding and effectiveness in space physics, an integrated strategy for the planetary sciences for the years 1995-2010, and Office of Naval Research (ONR) research opportunities in upper atmospheric sciences. Short reports cover utilization of the space station, life and microgravity sciences and the space station program, Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Cassini Saturn Probe.

  15. Occupational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  16. Architecting space communication networks

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Net, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Reliable communication and navigation services are critical to robotic and human space missions. NASA currently provides them through three independent and uncoordinated network that consist of both Earth-based and space-based ...

  17. Space Fence Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimerl, J.; Fonder, G.

    Space is no longer a vast, empty void. Unprecedented quantities of new satellites, derelict satellites, and debris litter the skies, posing an imminent threat to America's space assets. The Space Fence System is a ground-based system of S-band radars designed to greatly enhance the Air Force Space Surveillance network. Space Fence provides unprecedented sensitivity, coverage and tracking accuracy, and contributes to key mission threads with the ability to detect, track and catalog small objects in LEO, MEO and GEO. Space Fence capabilities will revolutionize space situational awareness. Space Fence includes up to two minimally-manned radar sites and the Space Fence Operations Center. Each radar site features a design with closely-spaced, but separate, Transmit and Receive Arrays that are mission-optimized for high availability and low lifetime support costs, including prime power. The radar architecture is based on Digital Beam-forming. This capability permits tremendous user-defined flexibility to customize volume surveillance and track sectors instantaneously without impacting routine surveillance functions. Space Fence offers assured surveillance coverage for improved custody and features the capability to develop long arc tracks for accurate orbit determination, while simultaneously maintaining a persistent surveillance volume. Space Fence allows operators to reconstruct recent events such as collisions or satellite break-ups and accurately predict future events. For high-interest objects, a micro fence can be electronically constructed to gather more track data, focusing radar resources specifically on that object, providing more timely and accurate information. The Space Fence System is net-centric and will seamlessly integrate into the existing Space Surveillance Network, providing services to external users such as JSpOC and coordinating handoffs to other SSN sites. Space Fence is a robust, flexible, advanced end-to-end system that will meet the warfighters operational needs and revolutionize Space Situational Awareness.

  18. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  19. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  20. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (h) No public facility may open into any sleeping space. (i) Each washbasin, shower...toilet space is through a washing space. (m) Each toilet must have an open front seat. (n) Each washing space and toilet space must be...

  1. Academic Affairs Space Planning Charge to Academic Affairs Space Coordinator and Academic Affairs Space

    E-print Network

    Salvaggio, Carl

    Academic Affairs Space Planning Charge to Academic Affairs Space Coordinator and Academic Affairs Space Planning Team 2008 Academic Affairs Space Coordinator (AASC): Sue Provenzano Academic Affairs Space Planning Team (AASPT): Sue Provenzano (chair), Joan Stone, Ash Rao, Robert Ulin, Kristen

  2. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  3. ASYSTEMFORMANIPULATINGAUDIOINTERFACES USING TIMBRE SPACES

    E-print Network

    Brewster, Stephen

    Chapter 1 ASYSTEMFORMANIPULATINGAUDIOINTERFACES USING TIMBRE SPACES Craig Nicol Stephen Brewster interfaces easier. Using a Timbre Space representation of the sound, it generates output via an FM synthesiser. The Timbre Space has been compiled in both Fourier and Constant Q Transform versions using

  4. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  5. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  6. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  7. Teacher in Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by NASA, this guide contains lessons dealing with space for use in elementary and secondary social studies classes. Activities are many and varied. For example, students analyze the costs and benefits of space travel, develop their own space station, and explore the decision-making processes involved in the shuttle. (RM)

  8. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  9. Deep space optical communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, Martin M.; Lesh, James R.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary concepts and designs of a deep space optical link for planetary and deep space science are described. As a mission application, attention is given to a spacecraft optical transceiver package (OPTRANSDAC) attached to a Mars rover vehicle. Also considered are a preliminary concept for a 1000-AU mission, and to a tentative long-range plan for NASA's deep space optical communications program.

  10. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  11. My Place, My Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostal, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Five- and six-year-olds know a lot about their own homes. Besides school, home is probably where they spend most of their time. But have they ever really thought about their space? Using students' knowledge of their current space will help them design new spaces and think about all the areas that surround them. In this project, students design…

  12. SPACE RESOURCES ROUNDTABLE IX

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    SPACE RESOURCES ROUNDTABLE IX Colorado School of Mines October 25-27, 2007 http://www.ISRUinfo.com Sponsored by: Colorado School of Mines Lunar and Planetary Institute Space Resources Roundtable, Inc. First Space Michael B. Duke, Colorado School of Mines Leslie Gertsch, University of Missouri-Rolla Alex

  13. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  14. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  15. Storms in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, John W.

    2001-10-01

    Introduction; The cast of characters; Vignettes of the storm; 1. Two kinds of weather; 2. The saga of the storm; 3. Weather stations in space; 4. Lights in the night: the signature of the storm; 5. A walking tour of the magnetosphere; 6. The sun: where it all begins; 7. Nowcasting and forecasting storms in space; 8. Technology and the risks from storms in space; 9. A conversation with Joe Allen; 10. Manned exploration and space weather hazards; 11. The present and future of space weather forecasting; Mathematical appendix. A closer look; Glossary; Figure captions.

  16. Storms in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, John W.

    2012-11-01

    Introduction; The cast of characters; Vignettes of the storm; 1. Two kinds of weather; 2. The saga of the storm; 3. Weather stations in space; 4. Lights in the night: the signature of the storm; 5. A walking tour of the magnetosphere; 6. The sun: where it all begins; 7. Nowcasting and forecasting storms in space; 8. Technology and the risks from storms in space; 9. A conversation with Joe Allen; 10. Manned exploration and space weather hazards; 11. The present and future of space weather forecasting; Mathematical appendix. A closer look; Glossary; Figure captions.

  17. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  18. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  19. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  20. Space Acquired Photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  1. Atoms and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryden, Hugh L.

    1959-01-01

    The stated subject of this paper is so broad that it might include everything from the study of the infinitely small recesses of the atom to the vast infinity of galactic space. We will therefore begin by limiting the scope of the subject to a discussion of three questions: --- (1) What are the potentialities of the use of nuclear energy in the exploration of space? --- (2) What uses of nuclear energy in space exploration are expected in the next decade? - - - (3) What is likely to be the impact of space exploration on the development of other applications of nuclear energy? We will discuss these questions in relation to the space activities of the United States as set forth in the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 and in the programs of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the agency established by Congress to carry out the policy established in that Act that activities in space should be devoted to peaceful purposes for the benefit of all mankind. Such activities include at present the exploration of space to gain greater knowledge and understanding of the earth and its atmosphere, the moon, planets, and the universe; the application of available knowledge to develop capabilities for other activities in space for the benefit of mankind; and the beginning of the exploration of space by man himself.

  2. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  3. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  4. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205 Section 108.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  6. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  7. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  8. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  9. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Launch System

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    NASAfacts National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Launch System Core Stage NASA's Space://www.twitter.com/NASA_SLS http://www.facebook.com/NASASLS National Aeronautics and Space Administration George C. Marshall Space where NASA has built spacecraft components for decades--most recently, the space shuttle's external

  11. Space Systems Finland 1 Deployment in the Space Sector

    E-print Network

    Southampton, University of

    © Space Systems Finland 1 Deployment in the Space Sector #12;© Space Systems Finland 2 SW Constraints Design Requirements User Requirements SW Requirements #12;© Space Systems Finland 3 The space, but there is no viable alternative · Many requirements are not testable #12;© Space Systems Finland 4 SSF OBJECTIVES

  12. MONOTONICALLY MONOLITHIC SPACES, CORSON COMPACTS, AND D-SPACES

    E-print Network

    Gruenhage, Gary

    MONOTONICALLY MONOLITHIC SPACES, CORSON COMPACTS, AND D-SPACES GARY GRUENHAGE Abstract. Monotonically monolithic spaces were recently introduced by V.V. Tkachuk, and monotonically -monolithic spaces- tonically -monolithic compact spaces must be Corson compact, yet there is a Corson compact space which

  13. UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP

    E-print Network

    UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC 2012 #12;UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC · Conclusion #12;UCL DEPARTMENT OF SPACE & CLIMATE PHYSICS SPACE PLASMA PHYSICS GROUP 18th September 2012 STFC

  14. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  15. Space telescope history project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Historians of science from the Johns Hopkins University and the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum have begun an historical study of the development of the Space Telescope.The Space Telescope Historical Project, designed to enhance the public's understanding of the Space Telescope, is under the direction of Robert Kargon, the Willis K. Shepard Professor and chairman of the department of history of science at Johns Hopkins, and Paul Hanle, chairman of the department of space science and exploration at the National Air and Space Museum. One of the goals of the project is to write a history of the telescope and to publish it at a time proximate to the telescope's launch, which is scheduled for early 1985.

  16. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  17. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (editor); Mckay, David S. (editor); Duke, Michael B. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  18. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  19. Quantum-Space Attacks

    E-print Network

    Ran Gelles; Tal Mor

    2007-11-25

    Theoretical quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols commonly rely on the use of qubits (quantum bits). In reality, however, due to practical limitations, the legitimate users are forced to employ a larger quantum (Hilbert) space, say a quhexit (quantum six-dimensional) space, or even a much larger quantum Hilbert space. Various specific attacks exploit of these limitations. Although security can still be proved in some very special cases, a general framework that considers such realistic QKD protocols, as well as} attacks on such protocols, is still missing. We describe a general method of attacking realistic QKD protocols, which we call the `quantum-space attack'. The description is based on assessing the enlarged quantum space actually used by a protocol, the `quantum space of the protocol'. We demonstrate these new methods by classifying various (known) recent attacks against several QKD schemes, and by analyzing a novel attack on interferometry-based QKD.

  20. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  1. Space construction data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

  2. Space Mechanisms Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a workshop to discuss the state of drive systems technology needed for space exploration. The Workshop was held Thursday, November 2, 2000. About 70 space mechanisms experts shared their experiences from working in this field and considered technology development that will be needed to support future space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years.

  3. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  4. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  5. Nuclear power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Aftergood, S. ); Hafemeister, D.W. ); Prilutsky, O.F.; Rodionov, S.N. ); Primack, J.R. )

    1991-06-01

    Nuclear reactors have provided energy for satellites-with nearly disastrous results. Now the US government is proposing to build nuclear-powered boosters to launch Star Wars defenses. These authors represent scientific groups that are opposed to the use of nuclear power in near space. The authors feel that the best course for space-borne reactors is to ban them from Earth orbit and use them in deep space.

  6. Matter: Space without Time

    E-print Network

    Yousef Ghazi-Tabatabai

    2012-11-19

    While Quantum Gravity remains elusive and Quantum Field Theory retains the interpretational difficulties of Quantum Mechanics, we have introduced an alternate approach to the unification of particles, fields, space and time, suggesting that the concept of matter as space without time provides a framework which unifies matter with spacetime and in which we anticipate the development of complete theories (ideally a single unified theory) describing observed 'particles, charges, fields and forces' solely with the geometry of our matter-space-time universe.

  7. THz Sources for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Ward, John; Maiwald, Frank; Mehdi, Imran

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz is the primary frequency for line and continuum radiation from cool (5-100K) gas (atoms and molecules) and dust. This viewgraph presentation reviews the reasons for the interest in Terahertz Space Applications; the Terahertz Space Missions: in the past, present and planned for the future, Terahertz source requirements and examples of some JPL instruments; and a case study for a flight deliverable: THz Local Oscillators for ESA s Herschel Space Telescope

  8. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  9. The Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.

    2005-09-01

    The Space Elevator is conceived to be a carbon nanotube ribbon stretching from an Earth station in the ocean on the equator to far beyond geosynchronous altitude. This elevator co-rotates with the Earth. Climbers ascend the ribbon using power beamed from Earth to launch spacecraft in orbit or to other worlds. The requirements of the ribbon material, challenges to the building of the space elevator, deployment and the promise of the space elevator are briefly discussed in this paper.

  10. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Lüttgen, Gerald

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia 23681 state space generators 30 . This work was supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration State-space Generation Gianfranco Ciardo The College of William & Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia Gerald

  11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Launch System A New National Capability Space. The Marshall team is proud to lead development of America's new Space Launch System. National Aeronautics

  12. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  13. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  14. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  15. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Among 2011's many accomplishments, we safely retired the Space Shuttle Program after 30 incredible years; completed the International Space Station and are taking steps to enable it to reach its full potential as a multi-purpose laboratory; and helped to expand scientific knowledge with missions like Aquarius, GRAIL, and the Mars Science Laboratory. Responding to national budget challenges, we are prioritizing critical capabilities and divesting ourselves of assets no longer needed for NASA's future exploration programs. Since these facilities do not have to be maintained or demolished, the government saves money. At the same time, our commercial partners save money because they do not have to build new facilities. It is a win-win for everyone. Moving forward, 2012 will be even more historically significant as we celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Kennedy Space Center. In the coming year, KSC will facilitate commercial transportation to low-Earth orbit and support the evolution of the Space Launch System and Orion crew vehicle as they ready for exploration missions, which will shape how human beings view the universe. While NASA's Vision is to lead scientific and technological advances in aeronautics and space for a Nation on the frontier of discovery KSC's vision is to be the world's preeminent launch complex for government and commercial space access, enabling the world to explore and work in space. KSC's Mission is to safely manage, develop, integrate, and sustain space systems through partnerships that enable innovative, diverse access to space and inspires the Nation's future explorers.

  16. Adventures in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.

  17. Modular Assembled Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  18. Start of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto

    1993-03-01

    Space tourism means commercialization of manned space flight. From the early stage of space development, space commercialization is a profound theme in multidisciplinary fields, on the basis of a principle that the outcomes of advanced technique developed by tax should be returned to citizens. In these days, space satellite system in which users pay a fee for utilization has succeeded commercially in business such as communication network or broadcasting, and an attempt has been made to observe the earth from outer space to resolve global problems, such as environmental destruction. There is also an increasing interest in space tourism, however, many obstacles should be overcome for the realization, especially the medical problems such as effect of acceleration, cosmic ray, noise or weightless condition. In addition, the space flight business should be managed on the commercial base so that reasonable cost and large number of passengers are essential. It is necessary to design rockets suitable for tourism. For attractive design, the policy of space tourism should be clarified.

  19. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  20. AB Space Engine

    E-print Network

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-02

    On 4 January 2007 the author published the article Wireless Transfer of Electricity in Outer Space in http://arxiv.org wherein he offered and researched a new revolutionary method of transferring electric energy in space. In that same article, he offered a new engine which produces a large thrust without throwing away large amounts of reaction mass (unlike the conventional rocket engine). In the current article, the author develops the theory of this kind of impulse engine and computes a sample project which shows the big possibilities opened by this new AB-Space Engine. The AB-Space Engine gets the energy from ground-mounted power; a planet electric station can transfer electricity up to 1000 millions (and more) of kilometers by plasma wires. Author shows that AB-Space Engine can produce thrust of 10 tons (and more). That can accelerate a space ship to some thousands of kilometers/second. AB-Space Engine has a staggering specific impulse owing to the very small mass expended. The AB-Space Engine reacts not by expulsion of its own mass (unlike rocket engine) but against the mass of its planet of origin (located perhaps a thousand of millions of kilometers away) through the magnetic field of its plasma cable. For creating this plasma cable the AB-Space Engine spends only some kg of hydrogen.