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Sample records for intergalactic space

  1. Intergalactic Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.

    2002-12-01

    We study the composition and sizes of intergalactic dust based on the expulsion of interstellar dust from the galactic disk. Interstellar grains in the Galactic disk are modelled as a mixture of amorphous silicate dust and carbonaceous dust consisting of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules and larger graphitic grains (Li & Draine 2001) with size distributions like those of the Milky Way dust (Weingartner & Draine 2001). We model their dynamic evolution in terms of the collective effects caused by (1) radiative acceleration, (2) gravitational attraction, (3) gas drag, (4) thermal sputtering, and (5) Lorenz force from the galactic magnetic field (Ferrara et al. 1991). Radiation pressure from the stellar disk exerts an upward force on dust grains and may ultimately expel them out of the entire galaxy. Gravitational force from the stellar, dust and gas disk as well as the dark matter halo exerts a downward force. Thermal sputtering erodes all grains to some degree but more efficiently destroys small grains. This, together with the fact that (1) very small grains (with small radiation pressure efficiencies) are not well coupled to starlight; (2) for large grains the radiative force to the gravitational force is approximately inversely proportional to grain size, acts as a size ``filter'' for dust leaking into the intergalactic space. Since the radiation pressure efficiency and the grain destruction rate are sensitive to dust composition, the relative importance of carbon dust compared to silicate dust expelled into the intergalactic space differs from that in the galactic plane. We derive the size distributions of both silicate and carbonaceous dust finally getting into the intergalactic space and obtain an intergalactic extinction curve. The predicted intergalactic infrared emission spectrum is calculated. References: Ferrara, A., Ferrini, F., Franco, J., & Barsella, B. 1991, ApJ, 381, 137 Li, A., & Draine, B.T. 2001, ApJ, 554, 778 Weingartner, J.C., & Draine, B.T. 2001, ApJ, 548, 296

  2. Intergalactic dust

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, K.

    1984-08-01

    In the 1970s, through theoretical work related to the 3 deg cosmic background radiation spectrum, investigations involving the search for intergalactic dark matter were conducted. The origin and distribution of the matter, and the intergalactic medium's effect on light and on cosmology were general topics of interest. Data collected in 1974 for 15,000 galaxies located in the Jagiellonian Field may confirm that the spectral characteristics of the reddening of extragalactic objects may be similar to those of interstellar matter. The invisibility of some extragalactic nebulae in the plane of the Milky Way might have several possible explanations: the Galaxy may be in a special position in the universe, the nebulae may be associated with the Galaxy, or obscuring material in the galactic plane may hide the nebulae located in the Zone of Avoidance.

  3. Intergalactic Travel Bureau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koski, Olivia; Rosin, Mark; Guerilla Science Team

    2014-03-01

    The Intergalactic Travel Bureau is an interactive theater outreach experience that engages the public in the incredible possibilities of space tourism. The Bureau is staffed by professional actors, who play the role of space travel agents, and professional astrophysicists, who play the role of resident scientists. Members of the public of all ages were invited to visit with bureau staff to plan the vacation of their dreams-to space. We describe the project's successful nine day run in New York in August 2013. Funded by the American Physical Society Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants.

  4. Dusty intergalactic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszolek, Bogdan

    The history of investigations of intergalactic dust is given. Zwicky's role in the development of the research of intergalactic extinction is stressed. Methods and results of investigation of four known intergalactic dust clouds are described. Some preliminary results concerning the infrared emission from the region of Okroy's intergalactic dust cloud are given.

  5. An Intergalactic Voyage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wethered, Peggy Ann

    1997-01-01

    Describes an event called Star Week that involved families joining in their children's projects, attending an educational presentation by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and participating in a schoolwide star party. Contains resources for both students and teachers. (JRH)

  6. Tramp Classical Novae as Tracers of Intergalactic Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shara, Michael M.

    2006-06-01

    Simulations predict that collisions between galaxies must liberate stars into intergalactic space. The stripping of a galaxy's stars by the potential of a cluster in which it resides must also occur. This prediction is verified by the detections of classical novae, red giants, and planetary nebulae between the galaxies of the Virgo and Fornax Clusters. These tracers suggest a tramp stellar component of 10%-40% of the cluster baryonic mass. I point out that classical novae can usefully extend these results to the 250,000 Mpc3 of intergalactic space outside of galaxy clusters surrounding the Local Group. This is because individual novae are well-understood standard candles, with light curves and spectra that are distinct from all other astrophysical phenomena. In addition, the frequency of nova outbursts in any given galaxy is measured to be directly proportional to that galaxy's K-band luminosity (and independent of its Hubble type). Thus, intergalactic novae should be excellent tracers of the fraction of stars liberated from galaxies over the past 13 Gyr. Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and other large-area synoptic survey telescopes will begin to regularly discover tramp classical novae out to 20-40 Mpc in the coming decade. I estimate the expected discovery rates with LSST-like surveys to be hundreds of intergalactic tramp novae per year, and suggest survey parameters to optimize detections of these tramps.

  7. The intergalactic medium and galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, P.R. )

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the intergalactic medium (IGM), defined as the component of the baryon-electron matter which now occupies the space between galaxies and which filled the pregalactic universe, are reviewed. Topics addressed include the Gunn-Peterson constraint on the history of the IGM, the mean mass density of the IGM at high redshift, requirements for ionizing the IGM, the observed quasar contribution, the thermal and ionization history of the IGM (quasar photoionization, stellar sources of the ionizing background, and alternative sources such as protogalactic shock radiation and the decay of exotic particles), and the hydrodynamical evolution of the IGM. Typical results from observations and numerical simulations are presented graphically. 57 refs.

  8. The intergalactic medium and galaxy formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observational and theoretical investigations of the intergalactic medium (IGM), defined as the component of the baryon-electron matter which now occupies the space between galaxies and which filled the pregalactic universe, are reviewed. Topics addressed include the Gunn-Peterson constraint on the history of the IGM, the mean mass density of the IGM at high redshift, requirements for ionizing the IGM, the observed quasar contribution, the thermal and ionization history of the IGM (quasar photoionization, stellar sources of the ionizing background, and alternative sources such as protogalactic shock radiation and the decay of exotic particles), and the hydrodynamical evolution of the IGM. Typical results from observations and numerical simulations are presented graphically.

  9. A SEARCH FOR DUST EMISSION IN THE LEO INTERGALACTIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Puget, Jeremie; Latter, William B.; Schneider, Stephen; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-08-15

    We present a search for infrared dust emission associated with the Leo cloud, a large intergalactic cloud in the M96 group. Mid-infrared and far-infrared images were obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis of these maps is done at each wavelength relative to the H I spatial distribution. We observe a probable detection at 8 {mu}m and a marginal detection at 24 {mu}m associated with the highest H I column densities in the cloud. At 70 and 160 {mu}m, upper limits on the dust emission are deduced. The level of the detection is low so that the possibility of a fortuitous cirrus clump or of an overdensity of extragalactic sources along the line of sight cannot be excluded. If this detection is confirmed, the quantities of dust inferred imply a dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic cloud up to a few times solar but no less than 1/20 solar. A confirmed detection would therefore exclude the possibility that the intergalactic cloud has a primordial origin. Instead, this large intergalactic cloud could therefore have been formed through interactions between galaxies in the group.

  10. TEN MORE NEW SIGHTLINES FOR THE STUDY OF INTERGALACTIC HELIUM, AND HUNDREDS OF FAR-ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT QUASARS, FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY, GALAXY EVOLUTION EXPLORER, AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, David; Anderson, Scott F.; Haggard, Daryl; Zheng Wei; Meiksin, Avery; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G. E-mail: anderson@astro.washington.edu

    2009-11-01

    Absorption along quasar sightlines remains among the most sensitive direct measures of He II reionization in much of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Until recently, fewer than a half-dozen unobscured quasar sightlines suitable for the He II Gunn-Peterson test were known; although these handful demonstrated great promise, the small sample size limited confidence in cosmological inferences. We have recently added nine more such clean He II quasars, exploiting Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar samples, broadband ultraviolet (UV) imaging from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX), and high-yield UV spectroscopic confirmations from Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Here we markedly expand this approach by cross-correlating SDSS DR7 and GALEX GR4+5 to catalog 428 SDSS and 165 other quasars with z > 2.78 having likely ({approx}70%) GALEX detections, suggesting they are bright into the far-UV. Reconnaissance HST Cycle 16 Supplemental prism data for 29 of these new quasar-GALEX matches spectroscopically confirm 17 as indeed far-UV bright. At least 10 of these confirmations have clean sightlines all the way down to He II Ly{alpha}, substantially expanding the number of known clean He II quasars, and reaffirming the order of magnitude enhanced efficiency of our selection technique. Combined confirmations from this and our past programs yield more than 20 He II quasars, quintupling the sample. These provide substantial progress toward a sample of He II quasar sightlines large enough, and spanning a sufficient redshift range, to enable statistical IGM studies that may avoid individual object peculiarity and sightline variance. Our expanded catalog of hundreds of high-likelihood far-UV-bright QSOs additionally will be useful for understanding the extreme-UV properties of the quasars themselves.

  11. Turbulence in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, Carmelo; Ferrara, Andrea

    2011-06-01

    We study supernova-driven galactic outflows as a mechanism for injecting turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) far from galaxies. To this aim, we follow the evolution of a 1013-M⊙ galaxy along its merger tree, with carefully calibrated prescriptions for star formation and wind efficiencies. At z ≈ 3, the majority of the bubbles around galaxies are old (ages > 1 Gyr), that is, they contain metals expelled by their progenitors at earlier times; their filling factor increases with time, reaching about 10 per cent at z < 2. The energy deposited by these expanding shocks in the IGM is predominantly in kinetic form (mean energy density of 1 μeV cm-3, about two to three times the thermal one), which is rapidly converted in disordered motions by instabilities, finally resulting in a fully developed turbulent spectrum whose evolution is followed through a spectral transfer function approach. The derived mean IGM turbulent Doppler parameter, bt, peaks at z ≈ 1 at about 1.5 km s-1 with the maximum bt= 25 km s-1. The shape of the bt distribution does not significantly evolve with redshift but undergoes a continuous shift towards lower bt values with time, as a result of bubble ageing. We also find a clear trend of decreasing bt with ? and a more complex dependence on Rs resulting from the age spread of the bubbles. We have attempted a preliminary comparison with the data, hampered by the scarcity of the latter and by the challenge provided by the subtraction of peculiar and thermal motions. Finally, we comment on the implications of turbulence for various cosmological studies.

  12. INTERGALACTIC 'PIPELINE' FUNNELS MATTER BETWEEN COLLIDING GALAXIES

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This visible-light picture, taken by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, reveals an intergalactic 'pipeline' of material flowing between two battered galaxies that bumped into each other about 100 million years ago. The pipeline [the dark string of matter] begins in NGC 1410 [the galaxy at left], crosses over 20,000 light-years of intergalactic space, and wraps around NGC 1409 [the companion galaxy at right] like a ribbon around a package. Although astronomers have taken many stunning pictures of galaxies slamming into each other, this image represents the clearest view of how some interacting galaxies dump material onto their companions. These results are being presented today at the 197th meeting of the American Astronomical Society in San Diego, CA. Astronomers used the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to confirm that the pipeline is a continuous string of material linking both galaxies. Scientists believe that the tussle between these compact galaxies somehow created the pipeline, but they're not certain why NGC 1409 was the one to begin gravitationally siphoning material from its partner. And they don't know where the pipeline begins in NGC 1410. More perplexing to astronomers is that NGC 1409 is seemingly unaware that it is gobbling up a steady flow of material. A stream of matter funneling into the galaxy should have fueled a spate of star birth. But astronomers don't see it. They speculate that the gas flowing into NGC 1409 is too hot to gravitationally collapse and form stars. Astronomers also believe that the pipeline itself may contribute to the star-forming draught. The pipeline, a pencil-thin, 500 light-year-wide string of material, is moving a mere 0.02 solar masses of matter a year. Astronomers estimate that NGC 1409 has consumed only about a million solar masses of gas and dust, which is not enough material to spawn some of the star-forming regions seen in our Milky Way. The low amount means that there may not be enough material to ignite star birth in NGC 1409, either. The glancing blow between the galaxies was enough, however, to toss stars deep into space and ignite a rash of star birth in NGC 1410. The arms of NGC 1410, an active, gas-rich spiral galaxy classified as a Seyfert, are awash in blue, the signature color of star-forming regions. The bar of material bisecting the center of NGC 1409 also is a typical byproduct of galaxy collisions. Astronomers expect more fireworks to come. The galaxies are doomed to continue their game of 'bumper cars,' hitting each other and moving apart several times until finally merging in another 200 million years. The galaxies' centers are only 23,000 light-years apart, which is slightly less than Earth's distance from the center of the Milky Way. They are bound together by gravity, orbiting each other at 670,000 miles an hour (1 million kilometers an hour). The galaxies reside about 300 million light-years from Earth in the constellation Taurus. The Hubble picture was taken Oct. 25, 1999. Credits: NASA, William C. Keel (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa)

  13. Limits on Intergalactic Dust during Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imara, N.; Loeb, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this Letter, we constrain the dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshifts. We employ models for dust in the local universe to constrain the dust-to-gas ratio during the epoch of reionization at redshifts z ˜ 6-10. The observed level of reddening of high redshift galaxies implies that the IGM was enriched to an intergalactic dust-to-gas ratio of less than 3% of the Milky Way value by a redshift of z = 10.

  14. The physics and early history of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkana, Rennan; Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    The intergalactic medium—the cosmic gas that fills the great spaces between the galaxies—is affected by processes ranging from quantum fluctuations in the very early Universe to radiative emission from newly formed stars. This gives the intergalactic medium a dual role as a powerful probe both of fundamental physics and of astrophysics. The heading of fundamental physics includes conditions in the very early Universe and cosmological parameters that determine the age of the Universe and its matter content. The astrophysics refers to chapters of the long cosmic history of stars and galaxies that are being revealed through the effects of stellar feedback on the cosmic gas. This review describes the physics of the intergalactic medium, focusing on recent theoretical and observational developments in understanding early cosmic history. In particular, the earliest generation of stars is thought to have transformed the Universe from darkness to light and to have had an enormous impact on the intergalactic medium. Half a million years after the Big Bang the Universe was filled with atomic hydrogen. As gravity pulled gas clouds together, the first stars ignited and their radiation turned the surrounding atoms back into free electrons and ions. From the observed spectral absorption signatures of the gas between us and distant sources, we know that the process of reionization pervaded most of space a billion years after the Big Bang, so that only a small fraction of the primordial hydrogen atoms remained between galaxies. Knowing exactly when and how the reionization process happened is a primary goal of cosmologists, because this would tell us when the early stars and black holes formed and in what kinds of galaxies. The distribution and clustering of these galaxies is particularly interesting since it is driven by primordial density fluctuations in the dark matter. Cosmic reionization is beginning to be understood with the help of theoretical models and computer simulations. Numerical simulations of reionization are computationally challenging, as they require radiative transfer across large cosmological volumes as well as sufficiently high resolution to identify the sources of the ionizing radiation in the infant Universe. Rapid progress in our understanding is expected with additional observational input. A wide variety of instruments currently under design—including large-aperture infrared telescopes on the ground or in space (JWST), and low-frequency radio telescope arrays for the detection of redshifted 21 cm radiation—will probe the first sources of light during an epoch in cosmic history that has been largely unexplored so far. The new observations and the challenges for theoretical models and numerical simulations will motivate intense work in this field over the coming decade.

  15. Thermal Evolution of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe; McQuinn, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The thermal evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) can provide clues regarding the reionization history of the IGM. Recent temperature measurements of the IGM from Lyman alpha forest data have given insight into the timeline of these reionization events, specifically the reionization of HeII at z~3. We model the thermal history of the IGM from HI reionization through HeII reionization based on well established heating and cooling processes. We present a comparison of such modeling of the thermal evolution with the recent observational constraints anddiscuss additional heating mechanisms.

  16. Can quasars ionize the intergalactic medium?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donahue, Megan; Shull, J. Michael

    1987-01-01

    The intergalactic environmental impact of quasars is studied in the light of recent QSO observations, addressing in particular whether QSOs can ionize the IGM at z greater than 3.0. After deriving the expansion law for cosmological ionization fronts in a Friedmann universe, it is investigated whether the QSO population is sufficient for these ionized regions to overlap by z of roughly 3.5. The effects of cosmological I-fronts on Lyman-alpha clouds in QSO absorption spectra are discussed.

  17. Ensemble fluctuations of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the intergalactic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.

    2015-06-01

    The origin of the most energetic cosmic ray particles is one of the most important open problems in astrophysics. Despite a big experimental effort done in the past years, the sources of these very energetic particles remain unidentified. Therefore, their distribution on the Universe and even their space density are still unknown. It has been shown that different spatial configurations of the sources lead to different energy spectra and composition profiles (in the case of sources injecting heavy nuclei) at Earth. These ensemble fluctuations are more important at the highest energies, because only nearby sources, which are necessarily few, can contribute to the flux observed at Earth. This is due to the interaction of the cosmic rays with the low energy photons of the radiation field, present in the intergalactic medium, during propagation. It is believed that the intergalactic medium is permeated by a turbulent magnetic field. Although at present it is still unknown, there are several constraints for its intensity and coherence length obtained from different observational techniques. Charged cosmic rays are affected by the intergalactic magnetic field because of the bending of their trajectories during propagation through the intergalactic medium. In this work, the influence of the intergalactic magnetic field on the ensemble fluctuations is studied. Sources injecting only protons and only iron nuclei are considered. The ensemble fluctuations are studied for different values of the density of sources compatible with the constraints recently obtained from cosmic ray data. Also, the possible detection of the ensemble fluctuations in the context of the future JEM-EUSO mission is discussed.

  18. On the intergalactic temperature-density relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Matthew; Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe R.

    2016-02-01

    Cosmological simulations of the low-density intergalactic medium exhibit a strikingly tight power-law relation between temperature and density that holds over two decades in density. It is found that this relation should roughly apply Δz ˜ 1-2 after a reionization event, and this limiting behaviour has motivated the power-law parameterizations used in most analyses of the Ly α forest. This relation has been explained by using equations linearized in the baryonic overdensity (which does not address why a tight power-law relation holds over two decades in density) or by equating the photoheating rate with the cooling rate from cosmological expansion (which we show is incorrect). Previous explanations also did not address why recombination cooling and Compton cooling off of the cosmic microwave background, which are never negligible, do not alter the character of this relation. We provide an understanding for why a tight power-law relation arises for unshocked gas at all densities for which collisional cooling is unimportant. We also use our results to comment on (1) how quickly fluctuations in temperature redshift away after reionization processes, (2) how much shock heating occurs in the low-density intergalactic medium, and (3) how the temperatures of collapsing gas parcels evolve.

  19. The Ionization History of The Intergalactic Medium:

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madau, Piero

    2003-01-01

    The funded project seeked a unified description of the ionization, physical structure, and evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and quasar intervening absorption systems. We proposed to conduct theoretical studies of the IGM and QSO absorbers in the context of current theories of galaxy formation, developing and using numerical and analytical techniques aimed at a detailed modeling of cosmological radiative transfer, gas dynamics, and thermal and ionization evolution. The ionization history of the IGM has important implications for the metagalactic UV background, intergalactic helium absorption 21-cm tomography, metal absorption systems, fluctuations in the microwave background, and the cosmic rate of structure and star formation. All the original objectives of our program have been achieved, and the results widely used and quoted by the community. Indeed, they remain relevant as the level and complexity of research in this area has increased substantially since our proposal was submitted, due to new discoveries on galaxy formation and evolution, a flood of high-quality data on the distant universe, new theoretical ideas and direct numerical simulations of structure formation in hierarchical clustering theories.

  20. QSO evolution and the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A model is developed of a cold, photoionized intergalactic medium in which only discrete, evolving sources (quasars) produce the observed extragalactic hard X-ray background. Constraints on the model are imposed by observed optical depth limits to various redshifts, far UV and visible flux measurements, X-ray background and source counts in the region 2-6 keV, and it makes use of results of the Palomar Bright Quasar Survey and the Braccesi Quasar survey to obtain expressions for the quasar evolution function, absolute luminosity, present number density and switch-on redshift. Results of computer modeling reveal an intergalactic medium with a density with respect to closure less than 0.35, temperature of 16,000 K and fractional ion abundances of approximately 0.000001 for H I and 0.001 for He II, under the assumption of a Hubble constant of 50 km/sec per Mpc. In addition, spectral indices of -0.4 and -1.3 are obtained for the regions of the emission spectrum above and below 4 x 10 to the 18th Hz.

  1. Intergalactic magnetogenesis at Cosmic Dawn by photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrive, J.-B.; Langer, M.

    2015-10-01

    We present a detailed analysis of an astrophysical mechanism that generates cosmological magnetic fields during the Epoch of Reionization. It is based on the photoionization of the intergalactic medium by the first sources formed in the Universe. First the induction equation is derived, then the characteristic length and time-scales of the mechanism are identified, and finally numerical applications are carried out for first stars, primordial galaxies and distant powerful quasars. In these simple examples, the strength of the generated magnetic fields varies between the order of 10-23 G on hundreds of kiloparsecs and 10-19 G on hundreds of parsecs in the neutral intergalactic medium between the Strömgren spheres of the sources. Thus, this mechanism contributes to the premagnetization of the whole Universe before large-scale structures are in place. It operates with any ionizing source, at any time during the Epoch of Reionization. Finally, the generated fields possess a characteristic spatial configuration which may help discriminate these seeds from those produced by different mechanisms.

  2. The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Jeffrey (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This grant is associated to a 5-year LTSA grant, on "Studying the Largest Reservoir of Baryons in the Universe: The Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium". The first year of work within this program has been very rich, and has already produced several important results, as detailed in this paper. Table 2 of our original proposal justification, listed the planned year-by-year program, divided into two sub-fields: (A) the study of the z=0 (or Local Group WHIM) system, and (B) the study of the z greater than 0 (i.e- intervening WHIM) systems. For each of the two sub-fields we had planned to analyze, in the first year, a number of archival (Chandra, XMM and FUSE) and new (if observed) sightlines. Moreover, the plan for the z=0 system included the search for new interesting sightlines. We have accomplished all these tasks.

  3. Constraints on dark matter from intergalactic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overduin, J. M.; Wesson, P. S.

    1992-01-01

    Several of the dark matter candidates that have been proposed are believed to be unstable to decay, which would contribute photons to the radiation field between galaxies. The main candidates of this type are light neutrinos and axions, primordial mini-black holes, and a nonzero 'vacuum' energy. All of these can be constrained in nature by observational data on the extragalactic background light and the microwave background radiation. Black holes and the vacuum can be ruled out as significant contributors to the 'missing mass'. Light axions are also unlikely candidates; however, those with extremely small rest energies (the so-called 'invisible' axions) remain feasible. Light neutrinos, like those proposed by Sciama, are marginally viable. In general, we believe that the intergalactic radiation field is an important way of constraining all types of dark matter.

  4. Effects of a hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Gregory B.; Wright, Edward L.

    1989-01-01

    One effect a hot intergalactic medium (IGM) would have would be to produce an isotropic X-ray background through thermal bremsstrahlung. Such a background was modeled including both relativistic electron-ion and electron-electron emission; the observed X-ray measurements could be fit with a current temperature of 10.2 keV and Omega (IGM) of 0.27, assuming that the IGM was instantaneously heated at a redshift of 5 and cools by relativistic adiabatic expansion and Compton cooling. Such a hot IGM would also distort the cosmic microwave background spectrum by inverse Compton scattering off relativistic electrons. This distortion was modeled using the relativistic treatment. When including the recent data of Matsumoto et al., an undistorted radiation temperature of 2.86 K and an Omega (IGM) of 0.41 was found.

  5. Effects of a hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.B.; Wright, E.L.

    1989-04-01

    One effect a hot intergalactic medium (IGM) would have would be to produce an isotropic X-ray background through thermal bremsstrahlung. Such a background was modeled including both relativistic electron-ion and electron-electron emission; the observed X-ray measurements could be fit with a current temperature of 10.2 keV and Omega (IGM) of 0.27, assuming that the IGM was instantaneously heated at a redshift of 5 and cools by relativistic adiabatic expansion and Compton cooling. Such a hot IGM would also distort the cosmic microwave background spectrum by inverse Compton scattering off relativistic electrons. This distortion was modeled using the relativistic treatment. When including the recent data of Matsumoto et al., an undistorted radiation temperature of 2.86 K and an Omega (IGM) of 0.41 was found. 31 refs.

  6. Reheating the intergalactic medium under extremal conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Sherman (1982) commenced the investigation of a hypothetical closure density intergalactic medium (IGM) in the recombination epoch and found present acceptable temperatures in the range from 160,000 to 4,200,000 K for IGM heating. The present investigation has the objective to complete these calculations by finding extreme bounds on the reheating epoch which preceded recombination. The final results are presented in a table. Three models have been generated. The presented models suggest that a closure density IGM is constrained to be heated by a source in the range from 10 to the -31st to 10 to the -27th ergs per s per cu cm. The heating had to originate no earlier than z approximately 28.

  7. Intergalactic medium metal enrichment through dust sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Simone; Ferrara, Andrea

    2005-04-01

    We study the motion of dust grains into the intergalactic medium (IGM) around redshift z= 3, to test the hypothesis that grains can efficiently pollute the gas with metals through sputtering. We use the results available in the literature for radiation-driven dust ejection from galaxies as initial conditions and follow the motion onwards. Via this mechanism, grains are ejected into the IGM with velocities >100 km s-1 as they move supersonically, grains can be efficiently eroded by non-thermal sputtering. However, Coulomb and collisional drag forces effectively reduce the charged grain velocity. Up-to-date sputtering yields for graphite and silicate (olivine) grains have been derived using the code TRANSPORT OF IONS IN MATTER (TRIM), for which we provide analytic fits. After training our method on a homogeneous density case, we analyse the grain motion and sputtering in the IGM density field as derived from a Λ cold dark matter (CDM) cosmological simulation at z= 3.27. We found that only large (a>~ 0.1μm) grains can travel up to considerable distances (few ×100 kpc physical) before being stopped. Resulting metallicities show a well-defined trend with overdensity δ. The maximum metallicities are reached for 10 < δ < 100[corresponding to systems, in quasi-stellar object (QSO) absorption spectra, with 14.5 < log N(HI) < 16]. However the distribution of sputtered metals is very inhomogeneous, with only a small fraction of the IGM volume polluted by dust sputtering (filling factors of 18 per cent for Si and 6 per cent for C). For the adopted size distribution, grains are never completely destroyed; nevertheless, the extinction and gas photoelectric heating effects resulting from this population of intergalactic grains are well below current detection limits.

  8. Athena and the Missing Baryons in a Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Kaastra, Jelle; Finoguenov, Alexis

    Baryons are missing at all astronomical scales in the Universe, from galaxies to the large scales of structure formation and the Universe as a whole. Hydro-dynamical simulations for the formation of structures, tend to reconcile the different 'missing-baryon' problems and predict that most of the baryonic matter of the Universe is hiding in a hot and tenuous gaseous phase (dubbed the 'Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium, or WHIM), surrounding virialized structures and more at large in the low-redshift inter-galactic space. The only way to secure the detection of this important and highly elusive baryonic component of the Universe, to constrain its physical, chemical and dynamical states, and so to measure its cosmological mass density, is by observing the intergalactic medium with instruments characterized by large collecting areas at the energies at which these baryons are supposed to shine, the soft X-ray band, and spectral resolution sufficient to resolve the weak emission and absorption lines produced by the hot light metals (mainly C, O, Ne) in the WHIM. The X-IFU of Athena, with its 2 m2 effective area at 1 keV and its superb 2.5 eV spectral resolution, will be a powerful WHIM machine. Here I will first summarize the current state of the art and will then focus on the large impulse that Athena will provide for such a rich and still relatively unexplored field of research.

  9. Particle energy cascade in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés, M.; Evoli, C.; Ferrara, A.

    2010-05-01

    We study the development of high-energy (Ein <= 1 TeV) cascades produced by a primary electron of energy Ein injected into the intergalactic medium (IGM). To this aim we have developed the new code MEDEA (Monte Carlo Energy Deposition Analysis) which includes Bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton (IC) processes, along with H/He collisional ionizations and excitations, and electron-electron collisions. The cascade energy partition into heating, excitations and ionizations depends primarily not only on the IGM ionized fraction, xe, but also on redshift, z, due to IC on cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons. While Bremsstrahlung is unimportant under most conditions, IC becomes largely dominant at energies Ein >= 1 MeV. The main effect of IC at injection energies Ein <= 100 MeV is a significant boost of the fraction of energy converted into low-energy photons (hν < 10.2 eV) which do not further interact with the IGM. For energies Ein >= 1 GeV CMB photons are preferentially upscattered within the X-ray spectrum (hν > 104 eV) and can free stream to the observer. Complete tables of the fractional energy depositions as a function of redshift, Ein and ionized fraction are given. Our results can be used in many astrophysical contexts, with an obvious application related to the study of decaying/annihilating dark matter (DM) candidates in the high-z Universe.

  10. VORTICITY OF INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM VELOCITY FIELD ON LARGE SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Weishan; Feng Longlong; Fang Lizhi

    2010-03-20

    We investigate the vorticity of the intergalactic medium (IGM) velocity field on large scales with cosmological hydrodynamic simulation of the concordance model of LAMBDACDM. We show that the vorticity field is significantly increasing with time as it can effectively be generated by shocks and complex structures in the IGM. Therefore, the vorticity field is an effective tool to reveal the nonlinear behavior of the IGM, especially the formation and evolution of turbulence in the IGM. We find that the vorticity field does not follow the filament and sheet structures of the underlying dark matter density field and shows highly non-Gaussian and intermittent features. The power spectrum of the vorticity field is then used to measure the development of turbulence in Fourier space. We show that the relation between the power spectra of vorticity and velocity fields is perfectly in agreement with the prediction of a fully developed homogeneous and isotropic turbulence in the scale range from 0.2 to about 3 h {sup -1} Mpc at z {approx} 0. This indicates that the cosmic baryonic field is in the state of fully developed turbulence on scales less than about 3 h {sup -1} Mpc. The random field of the turbulent fluid yields turbulent pressure to prevent the gravitational collapsing of the IGM. The vorticity and turbulent pressure are strong inside and even outside of high density regions. In IGM regions with 10 times mean overdensity, the turbulent pressure can be on an average equivalent to the thermal pressure of the baryonic gas with a temperature of 1.0 x 10{sup 5} K. Thus, the fully developed turbulence would prevent the baryons in the IGM from falling into the gravitational well of dark matter halos. Moreover, turbulent pressure essentially is dynamical and non-thermal, which makes it different from a pre-heating mechanism, as it does not affect the thermal state and ionizing process of hydrogen in the IGM.

  11. Characterizing the Pressure Smoothing Scale of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Oñorbe, Jose; Rorai, Alberto; Springel, Volker

    2015-10-01

    The thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 6 constrains the nature and timing of cosmic reionization events, but its inference from the Lyα forest is degenerate with the 3D structure of the IGM on ˜100 kpc scales, where, analogous to the classical Jeans argument, the pressure of the T ≃ 104 K gas supports it against gravity. We simulate the IGM using smoothed particle hydrodynamics, and find that, at z < 6, the gas density power spectrum does not exhibit the expected filtering scale cutoff, because dense gas in collapsed halos dominates the small-scale power masking pressure smoothing effects. We introduce a new statistic, the real-space Lyα flux, Freal, which naturally suppresses dense gas, and is thus robust against the poorly understood physics of galaxy formation, revealing pressure smoothing in the diffuse IGM. The Freal power spectrum is accurately described by a simple fitting function with cutoff at λF, allowing us to rigorously quantify the pressure smoothing scale for the first time: we find λF = 79 kpc (comoving) at z = 3 for our fiducial thermal model. This statistic has the added advantage that it directly relates to observations of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, recently proposed as a method to measure the pressure smoothing scale. Our results enable one to quantify the pressure smoothing scale in simulations, and ask meaningful questions about its dependence on reionization and thermal history. Accordingly, the standard description of the IGM in terms of the amplitude T0 and slope γ of the temperature-density relation T={T}0{(ρ /\\bar{ρ })}γ -1 should be augmented with a third pressure smoothing scale parameter λF.

  12. Turbulence Effect of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W. S.

    2013-07-01

    The turbulence in the intergalactic medium (IGM) and its impact on the clustering of baryonic matter are investigated with the cosmological hydrodynamic simulation in the ΛCDM framework. The observational tools that may be used to verify the possibility of the turbulence in the IGM are also discussed. A brief review of modern cosmology is given in chapter 1, mainly focusing on the dynamical equation of the scale factor -- Friedmann equation, and the theory background of the structure formation. Then the method of cosmological numerical simulation is introduced, as well as the cosmological hydrodynamic code WIGEON. After a short review of the turbulence in classic fluid mechanics, the IGM turbulence on large scales is investigated with simulations in chapter 2. The vorticity in the IGM velocity field significantly increases with time, as it can be effectively generated by shocks and complex structures. The vorticity field shows highly non-Gaussian and intermittent features. Its power spectrum is then used to measure the development of turbulence. The relation between the power spectra of vorticity and velocity indicates that the cosmic baryonic and velocity fields are in the state of fully developed turbulence within the scale range of 0.2h^{-1}˜ 3.0h^{-1} Mpc at z≈0. The dynamical effect of the IGM turbulence on the baryon clustering is studied in chapter 3. The random motion of the turbulent fluid yields non-thermal turbulent pressure, which would enlarge the Jeans length, and hence delay and partly prevent the IGM from falling into the gravitational well of dark matter halos. Consequently, the baryon fraction f_{b} will deviate from its cosmic mean f_{b}^{cosmic}, and become highly nonuniform on the scales from a few hundred kpc to several Mpc, varying from as low as 1% to a few times of f_{b}^{cosmic}. The turbulence pressure in the IGM is weakly scale-dependent, and comparable to the gravitational energy density of the halos with masses of approximate 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. f_{b} decreases from 0.8f_{b}^{cosmic} in the halos with masses of approximate 10^{12}h^{-1} M_{⊙} to 0.3f_{b}^{cosmic} in the halos with masses of approximate 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}, and shows further decrease when the halo mass is under 10^{11}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. The trend is similar to the observations, although the simulated f_{b} in halos is higher than the observed value by a factor of 2˜4. The turbulence of the IGM should be an important dynamical factor leading to the remarkable missing of the baryonic matter in the halos with masses of less than 10^{12}h^{-1} M_{⊙}. The IGM turbulence may introduce uncertainties to the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect and the Lyman alpha forest, and in turn could be constrained by future observations, which are discussed in chapter 4. The kSZ effect is sensitive to the curl component of the motions of the IGM. The structure functions of 2D simulated kSZ maps show strong intermittence, and the intermittent exponents follow a law similar to the She-Leveque scaling of fully developed turbulence. On the other hand, the intermittence is weak in the maps of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. Nevertheless, the superposition of the kSZ and tSZ effects still contains significant intermittence. The turbulent behavior of the IGM may be revealed by the observation of the SZ effect on angular scales equal to or less than 0.5'. The main results in this thesis are summarized in chapter 5, where future works are also discussed.

  13. Distortion of the microwave background by a hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1979-01-01

    The distortion of the cosmic microwave background by a hot, optically thin intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated using the full frequency redistribution function. Even if the IGM produces all of the cosmic X-ray background, the distortion of the microwave background is not detectable in the present observational data.

  14. Soft X-Ray Absorption by High-Redshift Intergalactic Helium.

    PubMed

    Miralda-Escudé

    2000-01-01

    The Lyalpha absorption from intergalactic, once-ionized helium (He ii) has been measured with the Hubble Space Telescope in four quasars over the last few years in the redshift range 2.4intergalactic medium (IGM) can be completely optically thick to Lyalpha photons when only a small fraction of the helium remains as He ii. In addition, finding quasars in which the He ii Lyalpha absorption can be observed becomes increasingly difficult at higher redshift owing to the large abundance of hydrogen Lyman limit systems. It is pointed out here that He ii in the IGM should also cause detectable continuum absorption in the soft X-rays. The spectrum of a high-redshift source seen behind the IGM when most of the helium was He ii should recover from the He ii Lyman continuum absorption at an observed energy of approximately 0.1 keV. Galactic absorption will generally be stronger, but not by a large factor; the intergalactic He ii absorption can be detected as an excess over the expected Galactic absorption from the 21 cm H i column density. In principle, this method allows a direct determination of the fraction of helium that was singly ionized as a function of redshift if the measurement is done on a large sample of high-redshift sources over a range of redshifts. PMID:10587481

  15. Future Japanese X-ray TES Calorimeter Satellite: DIOS (Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, S.; Ohashi, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Ezoe, Y.; Miyazaki, N.; Kuwabara, K.; Kuromaru, G.; Suzuki, S.; Mitsuda, K.; Yamasaki, N. Y.; Takei, Y.; Sakai, K.; Nagayoshi, K.; Yamamoto, R.; Hayashi, T.; Muramatsu, H.; Tawara, Y.; Mitsuishi, I.; Babazaki, Y.; Nakamichi, R.; Bandai, A.; Yuasa, T.; Ota, N.

    2015-12-01

    We present the latest update and progress on the future Japanese X-ray satellite mission Diffuse Intergalactic Oxygen Surveyor (DIOS). DIOS is proposed to JAXA as a small satellite mission, and would be launched with an Epsilon rocket. DIOS would carry on the legacy of ASTRO-H, which carries semiconductor-based microcalorimeters and is scheduled to be launched in 2016, in high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy. A 400-pixel array of transition-edge sensors (TESs) would be employed, so DIOS would also provide valuable lessons for the next ESA X-ray mission ATHENA on TES operation and cryogen-free cooling in space. We have been sophisticating the entire design of the satellite to meet the requirement for the Epsilon payload for the next call. The primary goal of the mission is to search for warm-hot intergalactic medium with high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy by detecting redshifted emission lines from OVII and OVIII ions. The results would have significant impacts on our understanding of the nature of "dark baryons," their total amount and spatial distribution, as well as their evolution over cosmological timescales.

  16. Flows of matter between galaxies and the intergalactic medium at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Galaxies are thought to grow through the infall of gas from the intergalactic medium (IGM) and through the accretion of smaller building blocks. At the same time, galaxies return chemically enriched gas and radiation to intergalactic space. At high redshift, where these processes are most active, our understanding of the underlying physical processes is largely limited to theoretical modeling, as the constituents of a galactic halo (tenuous gas and distributed stellar populations) are hard to observe.I will report on how ultra-deep spectroscopic searches for HI Lyman alpha and other emission features combined with deep HST imaging can be used to pinpoint actively forming galactic halos and to observe their gaseous and stellar ingredients, giving us detailed observational insights into exchanges of matter and radiation between high z galaxies and the IGM.Galaxies hosting extended, often spatially asymmetric Lyman alpha halos have started to yield plausible glimpses of accretion streams. Such observations suggest a more complicated picture of the metal enrichment of the IGM than often implied by the simplest "outflow" paradigm, emphasizing the role of satellite galaxies and interactions within a halo, and of relative motions between galaxies and the IGM.

  17. Intergalactic Helium Absorption toward High-Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Fardal, Mark A.; Shull, J. Michael

    1995-01-01

    The recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the z(q) = 3.286 quasar Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et at. 1994) and the z(q) = 3.185 quasar Q1935-67 by Tytler (1995) show absorption edges at the redshifted wavelength of He II 304 A. A key goal is to distinguish between contributions from discrete Ly-alpha forest clouds and a smoothly distributed intergalactic medium (IGM). We model the contributions from each of these sources of He II absorption, including the distribution of line Doppler widths and column densities, the 'He II proximity effect' from the quasar, and a self-consistent derivation of the He II opacity of the universe as a function of the spectrum of ionizing sources, with the assumption that both the clouds and the IGM are photoionized. The He II edge can be fully accounted for by He II line blanketing for reasonable distributions of line widths and column densities in the Ly-alpha forest, provided that the ionizing sources have spectral index alpha(s) greater than 1.5, and any He II proximity effect is neglected. Even with some contribution from a diffuse IGM, it is difficult to account for the edge observed by Jakobsen et al. (1994) with a 'hard' source spectrum (alpha(s) less than 1.3). The proximity effect modifies the relative contributions of the clouds and IGM to tau(He II) near the quasar (z approx. less than z(q)) and markedly increases the amount of He II absorption required. This implies, for example, that to account for the He II edge with line blanketing alone, the minimum spectral index alpha(s) must be increased from 1.5 to 1.9. We demonstrate the need for higher resolution observations that characterize the change in transmission as z approaches z(q) and resolve line-free gaps in the continuum. We set limits on the density of the diffuse IGM and suggest that the IGM and Ly-alpha clouds are likely to be a significant repository for dark baryons.

  18. Towards discrimination between galactic and intergalactic axion-photon mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitsky, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    There exists a growing evidence for the anomalous transparency of the Universe for energetic gamma rays. Popular explanations include conversion of photons into hypothetical axionlike particles (ALPs) and back in astrophysical magnetic fields. Two distinctive scenarios of this conversion have been put forward: either it happens in the (host galaxy of the) gamma-ray source and in the Milky Way, or the photon-ALP oscillations take place in the intergalactic magnetic fields all along the way between the source and the observer. Here we point out that, given recent astrophysical constraints on ALPs and on intergalactic magnetic fields, these two mechanisms imply very different ALP masses and couplings. Therefore, confirmation of the anomalies and identification of one of the scenarios would mean cornering of ALP parameters to a particular narrow region. We discuss approaches to distinguish between the two mechanisms and present some preliminary indications in favor of the galactic scenario.

  19. Missing baryons and the warm-hot intergalactic medium.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Fabrizio; Mathur, Smita; Elvis, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Stars and gas in galaxies, hot intracluster medium, and intergalactic photo-ionized gas make up at most half of the baryons that are expected to be present in the universe. The majority of baryons are still missing and are expected to be hidden in a web of warm-hot intergalactic medium. This matter was shock-heated during the collapse of density perturbations that led to the formation of the relaxed structures that we see today. Finding the missing baryons and thereby producing a complete inventory of possibly the only detectable component of the energy-mass budget of the universe is crucial to validate or invalidate our standard cosmological model. PMID:18174432

  20. Cosmic far ultraviolet background. [observations for intergalactic medium properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, A.; Bowyer, S.; Lampton, M.

    1974-01-01

    The expected intensities of various possible components of the far ultraviolet background are discussed. It is concluded that existing results do not place interesting constraints on the density of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Current techniques and instrumentation for far ultraviolet astronomy are, however, sufficient to achieve vastly improved limits. New observations are required to determine whether the IGM can be detected in the far ultraviolet or whether the extragalactic component of the background is masked by radiation with a more local origin.

  1. An updated analytic model for attenuation by the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio K.; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Iwata, Ikuru; Tanaka, Masayuki

    2014-08-01

    We present an updated version of the so-called Madau model for attenuation of the radiation from distant objects by intergalactic neutral hydrogen. First, we derive the distribution function of intergalactic absorbers from the latest observational statistics of the Lyα forest, Lyman-limit systems and damped Lyα systems. The distribution function reproduces the observed redshift evolution of the Lyα depression and the mean-free path of the Lyman continuum excellently and simultaneously. We then derive a set of analytic functions describing the mean intergalactic attenuation curve for objects at z > 0.5. The new model predicts less (or more) Lyα attenuation for z ≃ 3-5 (z > 6) sources through the usual broad-band filters relative to the original Madau model. This may cause a systematic difference in the photometric redshift estimates, which is, however, still small: about 0.05. Finally, we find a more than 0.5 mag overestimation of Lyman-continuum attenuation in the original Madau model at z > 3, which causes a significant overcorrection against direct observations of the Lyman continuum of galaxies.

  2. Intergalactic thermonuclear gamma-ray line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of thermonculear reactions occurring in dilute space is briefly considered. X-ray emission from clusters of galaxies demonstrates that perhaps as much as 10 to the 14th solar masses of hot gas (T of about 100 million K) may often surround galaxies in clusters with a density of perhaps 0.004/cu cm. If the ion temperature is 100 million K, the thermonuclear reaction p + d to He-3 + gamma ray should emit gamma rays at a rate of roughly 4 x 10 to the 41st/sec with energy 5.516 + or -0.016 MeV. Such a source in teh virgo cluster at 15.7 Mpc would present a line flux of 1 x 10 to the -11th/sq cm/sec.

  3. Hunting for the missing baryons in the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Savage, B. D.; Tripp, T. M.; Sembach, K. R.

    2005-03-01

    We discuss the physical properties and the baryonic content of the warm-hot intergalactic medium (whim) at low redshifts. Cosmological simulations predict that the whim contains a large fraction of the baryons at z=0 in the form of highly-ionised gas at temperatures between 105 and 107 k. Using high-resolution ultraviolet spectra obtained with the space telescope imaging spectrograph (stis) and the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer (FUSE) we have studied the whim at low redshifts by searching for intervening O VI and thermally broadened Lyman α (bla) absorption toward a number of quasars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our measurements imply cosmological mass densities of ωb(O VI)≥0.0022 h75-1 and ωb(bla)≥0.0035 h75-1. Our results suggest that the whim at low z contains more baryonic mass than stars and gas in galaxies.

  4. FUSE and STIS Observations of the Warm-hot Intergalactic Medium toward PG 1259+593

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Philipp; Savage, Blair D.; Tripp, Todd M.; Sembach, Kenneth R.

    2004-07-01

    We use Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) spectra to study intergalactic absorption toward the quasar PG 1259+593 (zem=0.478), with a particular emphasis on the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The combined FUSE and STIS spectrum of PG 1259+593 covers the full wavelength range between 905 and 1730 Å at a spectral resolution of ~25 km s-1 for the FUSE bandpass (λ<=1180 Å) and ~7 km s-1 for the STIS range (λ>1150 Å). The signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) per resolution element are ~10-30 (FUSE) and ~7-17 (STIS). We identify 135 intergalactic absorption lines with equivalent widths >=10 mÅ, tracing 78 absorption components in 72 Lyα/Lyβ absorption-line systems. Metal-line absorption by species such as C III, C IV, O III, O IV, O VI, and Si III is clearly detected in four systems and is possibly seen in four additional cases. We study the distribution and physical properties of the WHIM as sampled by O VI and intrinsically broad Lyα lines. The number of intervening O VI absorbers for equivalent widths Wτ>=24 mÅ is 3-6 over an unobscured redshift path of Δz~0.368. This implies a number density of O VI systems, dNOIV/dz, of ~8-16 above this equivalent width limit along this sight line. A seventh intervening O VI absorber is possibly detected with Wr(OVI)~15 mÅ. The range of dNOIV/dz=8-16 for Wτ>=24 mÅ is consistent with estimates from other sight lines, supporting the idea that intervening intergalactic O VI absorbers contain an substantial fraction of the baryonic mass in the low-redshift universe. We identify a number of broad Lyα absorbers with large Doppler parameters (b~40-200 km s-1) and low column densities [N(HI)<1014 cm-2]. For pure thermal broadening, these widths correspond to temperatures of ~1×105-3×106 K. While these broad absorbers could be caused by blends of multiple, unresolved lines, continuum undulations, or by kinematic flows and Hubble broadening, we consider the possibility that some of these features are single-component, thermally broadened Lyα lines. These systems could represent WHIM absorbers that are too weak, too metal-poor, and/or too hot to be detected in O VI. If so, their widths and their frequency in the PG 1259+593 spectrum imply that these absorbers trace an even larger fraction of the baryons in the low-redshift universe than the O VI absorbing systems. A thermal Doppler broadening explanation for one of these broad features is supported by the probable detection of O VI near the velocity of a broad Lyα and Lyβ absorber with an O VI line width ~4 times smaller than for H I. ID="FN1"> 1Based partly on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  5. COSMOLOGICAL X-RAY SCATTERING FROM INTERGALACTIC DUST

    SciTech Connect

    Corrales, Lia; Paerels, Frits

    2012-06-01

    High-resolution X-ray imaging offers a unique opportunity to probe the nature of dust in the z {approx}< 2 universe. Dust grains 0.1-1 {mu}m in size will scatter soft X-rays, producing a diffuse 'halo' image around an X-ray point source, with a brightness of {approx} few percent confined to an arcminute-sized region. We derive the formulae for scattering in a cosmological context and calculate the surface brightness of the scattering halo due to (1) an intergalactic medium (IGM) uniformly enriched ({Omega}{sub d} {approx} 10{sup -5}) by a power-law distribution of grain sizes and (2) a damped Ly{alpha} type (N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -2}) dust screen at cosmological distances. The morphology of the surface brightness profile can distinguish between the two scenarios above, place size constraints on dusty clumps, and constrain the homogeneity of the IGM. Thus, X-ray scattering can gauge the relative contribution of the first stars, dwarf galaxies, and galactic outflows to the cosmic metallicity budget and cosmic history of dust. We show that, because the amount of intergalactic scattering is overestimated for photon energies <1 keV, the non-detection of an X-ray scattering halo by Petric et al. is consistent with 'gray' intergalactic dust grains ({Omega}{sub d} {approx} 10{sup -5}) when the data are restricted to the 1-8 keV band. We also calculate the systematic offset in magnitude, {delta}m {approx} 0.01, for such a population of graphite grains, which would affect the type of supernova survey ideal for measuring dark energy parameters within {approx}1% precision.

  6. Hydrodynamic Simulations and Tomographic Reconstructions of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Casey William

    The Intergalactic Medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of matter in the Universe from which the cosmic web and galaxies form. The structure and physical state of the IGM provides insight into the cosmological model of the Universe, the origin and timeline of the reionization of the Universe, as well as being an essential ingredient in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Our primary handle on this information is a signal known as the Lyman-alpha forest (or Ly-alpha forest) -- the collection of absorption features in high-redshift sources due to intervening neutral hydrogen, which scatters HI Ly-alpha photons out of the line of sight. The Ly-alpha forest flux traces density fluctuations at high redshift and at moderate overdensities, making it an excellent tool for mapping large-scale structure and constraining cosmological parameters. Although the computational methodology for simulating the Ly-alpha forest has existed for over a decade, we are just now approaching the scale of computing power required to simultaneously capture large cosmological scales and the scales of the smallest absorption systems. My thesis focuses on using simulations at the edge of modern computing to produce precise predictions of the statistics of the Ly-alpha forest and to better understand the structure of the IGM. In the first part of my thesis, I review the state of hydrodynamic simulations of the IGM, including pitfalls of the existing under-resolved simulations. Our group developed a new cosmological hydrodynamics code to tackle the computational challenge, and I developed a distributed analysis framework to compute flux statistics from our simulations. I present flux statistics derived from a suite of our large hydrodynamic simulations and demonstrate convergence to the per cent level. I also compare flux statistics derived from simulations using different discretizations and hydrodynamic schemes (Eulerian finite volume vs. smoothed particle hydrodynamics) and discuss differences in their convergence behavior, their overall agreement, and the implications for cosmological constraints. In the second part of my thesis, I present a tomographic reconstruction method that allows us to make 3D maps of the IGM with Mpc resolution. In order to make reconstructions of large surveys computationally feasible, I developed a new Wiener Filter application with an algorithm specialized to our problem, which significantly reduces the space and time complexity compared to previous implementations. I explore two scientific applications of the maps: finding protoclusters by searching the maps for large, contiguous regions of low flux and finding cosmic voids by searching the maps for regions of high flux. Using a large N-body simulation, I identify and characterize both protoclusters and voids at z = 2.5, in the middle of the redshift range being mapped by ongoing surveys. I provide simple methods for identifying protocluster and void candidates in the tomographic flux maps, and then test them on mock surveys and reconstructions. I present forecasts for sample purity and completeness and other scientific applications of these large, high-redshift objects.

  7. Current QSO statistics - Implications for the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.

    1981-01-01

    The results of numerous QSO surveys have been compiled and analyzed to form a single spatially averaged QSO ionizing function that is independent of evolution mode (number density or luminosity). An intergalactic medium (IGM) that satisfies the observational constraints may now have a density with respect to closure of approximately 0.1, which is substantially less than hitherto modeled. The aggregate of QSO data also indicate that if evolution is due to number density, then, when split into luminosity classes, an exponential in look-back time fits the data better than a power law, and the evolution rates increase roughly with absolute luminosity if analyzed by the exponential.

  8. Time delay and extended halo for constraints on the intergalactic magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuan-Pei; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2015-12-01

    Primary gamma rays emitted from extragalactic very-high-energy (VHE) sources, such as blazars, will generate cascade radiation in intergalactic space with a scale of ˜ 100 Mpc, for z ˜ 0.1 and Eγ ˜ 1TeV. These cascades proceed through electron-positron pair production and inverse Compton (IC) scattering in the cosmic background radiation fields, mainly cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and extragalactic background light in the voids of the universe. The existence of an intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) would deflect paths of electron-positron pairs that scatter CMB photons, causing some observable effects, such as time delay, an extended halo, and a spectral change. Here we reanalyze the diffusion of an electron jet deflected by IGMF and propose a unified semi-analytical model. By using publicly available data from the Fermi/LAT detector and contemporaneous TeV observations, we find that the cascade photon flux is not significantly affected by the IGMF strength for non-variable blazars when the IGMF is weaker than ˜ 10-16 G. This result is clearly different from previous works that analyzed the extended halo and time delay separately for non-variable blazars and flaring blazars. By applying our model to two extreme blazars (1ES 0229+200 and 1ES 1218+304), we obtain the IGMF lower limit of order ≳ 10-13 ˜ 10-14 G in the non-variable case, which is a stronger constraint on the IGMF strength than previous works (≳ 10-16 ˜ 10-18 G), and ≳ 10-18 ˜ 10-19 G in the case of flaring blazars. Furthermore, we study the light curves and extended halo of the cascade photons by considering the effects of the IGMF.

  9. Physics of the Intergalactic Medium During the Epoch of Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam

    A major goal of observational and theoretical cosmology is to observe the largely unexplored time period in the history of our universe when the first galaxies form, and to interpret these measurements. Early galaxies dramatically impacted the gas around them in the surrounding intergalactic medium (IGM) by photoionzing the gas during the "Epoch of Reionization" (EoR). This epoch likely spanned an extended stretch in cosmic time: ionized regions formed and grew around early generations of galaxies, gradually filling a larger and larger fraction of the volume of the universe. At some time—thus far uncertain, but within the first billion years or so after the big bang—essentially the entire volume of the universe became filled with ionized gas. The properties of the IGM provide valuable information regarding the formation time and nature of early galaxy populations, and many approaches for studying the first luminous sources are hence based on measurements of the surrounding intergalactic gas. The prospects for improved reionization-era observations of the IGM and early galaxy populations over the next decade are outstanding. Motivated by this, we review the current state of models of the IGM during reionization. We focus on a few key aspects of reionization-era phenomenology and describe: the redshift evolution of the volume-averaged ionization fraction, the properties of the sources and sinks of ionizing photons, along with models describing the spatial variations in the ionization fraction, the ultraviolet radiation field, the temperature of the IGM, and the gas density distribution.

  10. Turbulence production and turbulent pressure support in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iapichino, L.; Schmidt, W.; Niemeyer, J. C.; Merklein, J.

    2011-07-01

    The injection and evolution of turbulence in the intergalactic medium is studied by means of mesh-based hydrodynamical simulations, including a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for small-scale unresolved turbulence. The simulations show that the production of turbulence has a different redshift dependence in the intracluster medium (ICM) and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). We show that the turbulence in the ICM is produced chiefly by merger-induced shear flows, whereas the production in the WHIM is dominated by shock interactions. Secondly, the effect of dynamical pressure support on the gravitational contraction has been studied. This turbulent support is stronger in the WHIM gas at baryon overdensities 1 ≲δ≲ 100 and less relevant for the ICM. Although the relative mass fraction of the gas with large vorticity is considerable (52 per cent in the ICM), we find that for only about 10 per cent in mass this is dynamically relevant, namely not associated with an equally large thermal pressure support. According to this result, a significant non-thermal pressure support counteracting the gravitational contraction is a localized characteristic in the cosmic flow, rather than a widespread feature.

  11. Intergalactic Extinction of High Energy Gamma-Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the determination of the intergalactic pair-production absorption coefficient as derived by Stecker and De Jager by making use of a new empirically based calculation of the spectral energy distribution of the intergalactic infrared radiation field as given by Malkan and Stecker. We show that the results of the Malkan and Stecker calculation agree well with recent data on the infrared background. We then show that Whipple observations of the flaring gamma-ray spectrum of Mrk 421 hint at extragalactic absorption and that the HEGRA observations of the flaring spectrum of Mrk 501 appear to strongly indicate extragalactic absorption. We also discuss the determination of the y-ray opacity at higher redshifts, following the treatment of Salamon and Stecker. We give a predicted spectrum, with absorption included for PKS 2155-304. This XBL lies at a redshift of 0.12, the highest redshift source yet observed at an energy above 0.3 TeV. This source should have its spectrum steepened by approx. 1 in its spectral index between approx. 0.3 and approx. 3 TeV and should show an absorption cutoff above approx. 6 TeV.

  12. Probing the Intergalactic Medium with Fast Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Z.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Neill, J. D.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-01

    The recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs), presumably of extragalactic origin, have the potential to become a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We point out a few such potential applications. We provide expressions for the dispersion measure and rotation measure as a function of redshift, and we discuss the sensitivity of these measures to the He II reionization and the IGM magnetic field. Finally, we calculate the microlensing effect from an isolated, extragalactic stellar-mass compact object on the FRB spectrum. The time delays between the two lensing images will induce constructive and destructive interference, leaving a specific imprint on the spectra of FRBs. With a high all-sky rate, a large statistical sample of FRBs is expected to make these applications feasible.

  13. Intergalactic obscuring matter and holes between cluster structures of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnicki, K.; Grabinska, T.; Zabierowski, M.

    1985-08-01

    Spectral and statistical data show that the intergalactic extinction is a continuous function of wavelength and suggest that the extinction is caused by interstellar dust. Irregular gravitational forces and other physical processes could pull matter from galaxies, or the dust may be primordial matter. An attempt is made to apply the Kwast theta-quotient to analytically predict the presence of an obscuring dust cloud in a scantly-populated region of the sky by using clustering correlations. Sample computations for a 1.34 sq deg of sky in the Jagiellonian Field Catalog demonstrate that large error magnitudes persist in the calculations. It is concluded that the current database on interstellar extinction and galactic spectra is insufficient for identifying obscuring dust clouds in holes between galactic clusters.

  14. A search for intergalactic hydrogen in the virgo cluster.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, S J

    1966-01-01

    A fixed-horn antenna having a beam 10 degrees by 10 degrees , and a switched-load radiometer with traveling-wave-maser preamplifier were used to observe the 21-cm spectrum of the Virgo cluster of galaxies. An upper limit to the antenna temperature is 0.024 degrees K relative to regions outside the cluster with filters whose width is 2 Mc/sec. If the excitation temperature of the intergalactic hydrogen is enough greater than the background continuum radiation so that absorption can be ignored, and if the velocity spectrum is that defined by the galaxies, the density of optically thin neutral hydrogen in the cluster does not exceed that outside of the cluster by an amount that gives 5.6 x 10(12) solar masses in the cluster. PMID:17842090

  15. An Improved Treatment of Cosmological Intergalactic Medium Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manrique, Alberto; Salvador-Solé, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The modeling of galaxy formation and reionization, two central issues of modern cosmology, relies on the accurate follow-up of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Unfortunately, owing to the complex nature of this medium, the differential equations governing its ionization state and temperature are only approximate. In this paper, we improve these master equations. We derive new expressions for the distinct composite inhomogeneous IGM phases, including all relevant ionizing/recombining and cooling/heating mechanisms, taking into account inflows/outflows into/from halos, and using more accurate recombination coefficients. Furthermore, to better compute the source functions in the equations we provide an analytic procedure for calculating the halo mass function in ionized environments, accounting for the bias due to the ionization state of their environment. Such an improved treatment of IGM evolution is part of a complete realistic model of galaxy formation presented elsewhere.

  16. Probing the intergalactic medium with fast radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Z.; Ofek, E. O.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Neill, J. D.; Juric, M.

    2014-12-10

    The recently discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs), presumably of extragalactic origin, have the potential to become a powerful probe of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We point out a few such potential applications. We provide expressions for the dispersion measure and rotation measure as a function of redshift, and we discuss the sensitivity of these measures to the He II reionization and the IGM magnetic field. Finally, we calculate the microlensing effect from an isolated, extragalactic stellar-mass compact object on the FRB spectrum. The time delays between the two lensing images will induce constructive and destructive interference, leaving a specific imprint on the spectra of FRBs. With a high all-sky rate, a large statistical sample of FRBs is expected to make these applications feasible.

  17. Observational Search for Negative Matter in Intergalactic Voids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forward, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Negative matter is a hypothetical form of matter with negative rest mass, inertial mass, and gravitational mass. It is not antimatter. If negative matter could be collected in macroscopic amounts, its negative inertial property could be used to make an continuously operating propulsion system which requires neither energy nor reaction mass, yet still violates no laws of physics. Negative matter has never been observed, but its existence is not forbidden by the laws of physics. We propose that NASA support an extension to an ongoing astrophysical observational effort by da Costa, et al. (1996) which could possibly determine whether or not negative matter exists in the well-documented but little-understood intergalactic voids.

  18. X-ray constraints on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldcroft, Thomas; Elvis, Martin; Mcdowell, Jonathan; Fiore, Fabrizio

    1994-01-01

    We use ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) spectra of z approximately equal 3 quasars to constrain the density and temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Strong low-energy cutoffs in PSPC spectra of high-redshift quasars are common. However, the absence of absorption toward some high-redshift quasars can be used to put limits on the possible cosmological density, Omega(sub G), of a hot diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM), via an X-ray Gunn-Peterson test using edge and line opacity in the soft X-rays. The K-edges of oxygen, neon, and carbon and the L-edge of iron produce most of the absorption which is spread out by the redshift of the source. We assume an isotropic, isothermal, nonevolving model of the IGM and calculate the optical depth of this absorption. We find that this test can constrain an enriched IGM at temperatures near 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 6) K, intermediate between the hot IGM ruled out by COBE, and the cold IGM ruled out by the traditional Ly alpha Gunn -Peterson test. Photoionization if the IGM by the ultraviolet and X-ray background has a large effect. We give results for three z approximately equal 3 quasars and discuss how the various trade-offs among temperature, abundance, and backgroud radiation strength affect the limits on Omega (sub G). In addition to the high-redshift case, we discuss techniques for constraining the IGM using X-ray spectra of low-redhift quasars (z approximately equal 0.1 - 0.3). Currently available X-ray spectral data have insufficient energy resolution to constrain the IGM umambiguously, and so expected detection limits for future high-resolution spectrometers are presented. We find that with a large effective area (approximately 2000 sq cm), it is possible to substantially constrain or detect the IGM at the densities which are typically predicted.

  19. Visual light and infrared observations as complementary sources of data on intergalactic dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wszolek, Bogdan; Rudnicki, Konrad; de Bernardis, Paolo; Masi, Silvia

    The significance of investigations of intergalactic dust in absorption, as well as of complementary observations in emission, is discussed. Infrared observations, particularly interesting for the Okroy Cloud, are cited. A program for further investigations is suggested.

  20. Effects of AGN feedback in galaxy groups and Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagos, C.; Padilla, N.; Cora, S.

    2009-05-01

    The combination of Cosmological numerical simulations and semi-analytical models of galaxy formation is a very appropriate method to study how different phenomena influence the galaxy and galaxy cluster formation. The main advantage of this combination consists in the fact that N-body simulations do not need to be rerun every time a change in the assumptions about baryonic processes is made since these are included in the semi-analytical models which run on the final N-Body simulation output. The Semi-analytic model takes into account radiative cooling of gas, stellar formation and different types of SN contribution, which eject energy and metals to the interstellar medium, allowing the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium. In this project we use the semi-analytic hybrid model by Cora (2006, MNRAS, 368, 1540) and implement the AGN feedback, in two modes, the QSO mode (which takes into account mergers and galactic disk instabilities), and the Radio mode, which modifies the cooling in the galaxies These two processes allow to suppress the super flows in the hybrid model, and allows the study of QSOs in galaxy groups. This new implementation opens different possibles studies including the QSO luminosity function, the anti-hierarchical evolution of Mass Function, the BH mass and bulge mass relation, Color-Magnitude diagrams, TF relation, the galaxy luminosity function, the effects of AGN in neighbor galaxies and the behavior of QSOs in the sub-millimeter window.

  1. Galaxy formation in an intergalactic medium dominated by explosions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, J. P.; Cowie, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    The evolution of galaxies in an intergalactic medium dominated by explosions of star systems is considered analogously to star formation by nonlinearly interacting processes in the interstellar medium. Conditions for the existence of a hydrodynamic instability by which galaxy formation leads to more galaxy formation due to the propagation of the energy released at the death of massive stars are examined, and it is shown that such an explosive amplification is possible at redshifts less than about 5 and stellar system masses between 10 to the 8th and 10 to the 12th solar masses. Explosions before a redshift of about 5 are found to lead primarily to the formation of massive stars rather than galaxies, while those at a redshift close to 5 will result in objects of normal galactic scale. The model also predicts a dusty interstellar medium preventing the detection of objects of redshift greater than 3, numbers and luminosities of protogalaxies comparable to present observations, unvirialized groups of galaxies lying on two-dimensional surfaces, and a significant number of black holes in the mass range 1000-10,000 solar masses.

  2. A Search for Intergalactic Globular Clusters in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Tullio Zinn, Graziella; Zinn, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The whole Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, 14,555 {{deg }2}) has been searched for intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group (LG). Using optical, infrared, and ultraviolet photometric selection criteria and photometric redshifts, the 2.1× {{10}8} objects in the SDSS Galaxy Catalog were reduced to only 183,791 brighter than {{r}0}=19 that might be GCs. Visual examination of their SDSS images recovered 84% of the confirmed GCs in M31 and M33 and yielded 17 new GC candidates, 5 of them of high confidence, which we could confirm as GCs in MegaPrime images from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. These 5 GCs are within M31's halo, but the other 12 candidates are not close to LG galaxies or galaxies within 3 Mpc of the LG. Even though this search covers only one-third of the sky and some GCs could have been missed, it suggests that the LG does not contain a large population of IGCs more luminous than {{M}V}˜ -6. In the direction of the M81 Group, the search yielded five candidate GCs, probable members of that group.

  3. Model for the evolution of the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, W.H.; Ryu, D.; Vishniac, E.T.

    1988-11-01

    The way that baryonic matter left over from galaxy formation would evolve in a cold dark matter-dominated universe if there was significant energy feedback from pregalactic objects is investigated. It is found that the growth of density fluctuations on small scales in the gas component is substantially reduced during the period of galaxy heating. Large connected structures dominate the distribution of the model intergalactic matter (IGM). The gas is mostly ionized, with less than one percent of the gas with temperatures below 10,000 K, whereas about 40 percent is above 10 to the 6th K. Pressure equilibrium is absent in the model IGM. Condensed gas is confined by the gravity of the dark matter, except during the very short period of galaxy heating. At late times the power spectrum of the model IGM is substantially depressed at short wavelengths. The two-point correlation function of the model IGM fits the observed galaxy-galaxy two-point correlation function for separations between 0.3/h Mpc and 2.4/h Mpc. 19 references.

  4. A model for the distribution of the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, E.T.; Chiang, Wwihwan Texas Univ., Austin IBM Corp., Kingston, NY )

    1990-05-01

    The evolution and distribution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a universe dominated by cold dark matter with Omega(0) = 1 and h = 0.5 are investigated. Galaxies form and eject energy into the IGM from z about 20 up to the present, and the distribution of the IGM is dominated by large connected structures. The power spectrum and two-point correlation function of the IGM show a suppressed growth due to the energy injected from galaxies and the mass subtraction to form galaxies. The high-temperature regions of the IGM correspond to the low-density regions and the low-temperature regions correspond to the high-density regions. The temperature of the IGM increases from z = 1 to z = 0, while the prsssure decreases. The present temperature distribution shows a peak at about 10 million K. The mass fraction of the IGM with temperature below 100,000 K is negligible, indicating almost all the hydrogen is ionized. 29 refs.

  5. Constraints on the intergalactic transport of cosmic rays

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, F.C.; Freese, K.; Laughlin, G.; Schwadron, N.; Tarle, G.

    1997-12-01

    Motivated by recent experimental proposals to search for extragalactic cosmic rays (including antimatter from distant galaxies), we study particle propagation through the intergalactic medium (IGM). We first use estimates of the magnetic field strength between galaxies to constrain the mean free path for diffusion of particles through the IGM. We then develop a simple analytic model to describe the diffusion of cosmic rays. Given the current age of galaxies, our results indicate that, in reasonable models, a completely negligible number of particles can enter our Galaxy from distances greater than {approximately}100Mpc for relatively low energies (E{lt}10{sup 6}GeVnucleon{sup {minus}1}). We also find that particle destruction in galaxies along the diffusion path produces an exponential suppression of the possible flux of extragalactic cosmic rays. Finally, we use gamma-ray constraints to argue that the distance to any hypothetical domains of antimatter must be roughly comparable to the horizon scale. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  6. A model for the distribution of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1990-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a universe dominated by cold dark matter with Omega(0) = 1 and h = 0.5 are investigated. Galaxies form and eject energy into the IGM from z about 20 up to the present, and the distribution of the IGM is dominated by large connected structures. The power spectrum and two-point correlation function of the IGM show a suppressed growth due to the energy injected from galaxies and the mass subtraction to form galaxies. The high-temperature regions of the IGM correspond to the low-density regions and the low-temperature regions correspond to the high-density regions. The temperature of the IGM increases from z = 1 to z = 0, while the prsssure decreases. The present temperature distribution shows a peak at about 10 million K. The mass fraction of the IGM with temperature below 100,000 K is negligible, indicating almost all the hydrogen is ionized.

  7. The photoheating of the intergalactic medium in synthesis models of the UV background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchwein, Ewald; Bolton, James S.; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Madau, Piero; Becker, George D.; Haardt, Francesco

    2015-07-01

    We compare cosmological hydrodynamical simulations combined with the homogeneous metagalactic UV background (UVB) of Haardt & Madau (hereafter HM2012) to observations of the Lyman α forest that are sensitive to the thermal and ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). The transition from optically thick to thin photoheating predicted by the simple one-zone, radiative transfer model implemented by HM2012 predicts a thermal history that is in remarkably good agreement with the observed rise of the IGM temperature at z ˜ 3 if we account for the expected evolution of the volume filling factor of He III. Our simulations indicate that there may be, however, some tension between the observed peak in the temperature evolution and the rather slow evolution of the He II opacities suggested by recent Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph measurements. The HM2012 UVB also underpredicts the metagalactic hydrogen photoionization rate required by our simulations to match the observed opacity of the forest at z > 4 and z < 2.

  8. The faint intergalactic redshifted emission balloon and the cosmic web imager : two integral field spectrographs designed to study emission from the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matuszewski, Mateusz Konrad

    Gas in the intergalactic medium serves as the fuel for galaxies. It carries signatures of galactic feedback, including matter and energy outflows. Understanding the morphology, thermodynamics, chemistry, and kinematics of this gas is key to understanding galaxy formation and evolution. The principal method of characterizing this gas has been the study of the Lyman α forest and associated metal systems. While this work has yielded deep insights into the nature of intergalactic matter, the scarcity of suitable background sources does allow for a full three-dimensional picture. Numerical simulations and theoretical work indicate that this gas produces faint and extended recombinant line emission. Its signatures in Lyα(1216 Å), OVI(1033 Å), CIV(1550 Å) are expected to be the strongest. Recent advances in technology and fresh ideas in instrumentation are allowing access to the predicted surface brightness of intergalactic emission. The Faint Intergalactic Redshifted Emission Balloon (FIREBall) and the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI) are two integral field spectrographs probing different redshift regimes, which have been designed for the specific purpose of detecting and mapping emission from the intergalactic medium. FIREBall, operating in the balloon ultraviolet window around 2000 Å, probes the redshift range 0.3 < z < 1, while CWI, a ground-based optical instrument, studies the Universe at 2.5 < z < 7.0. Both instruments collected their first science data in mid-2009. This manuscript discusses the science case for the spectrographs, focuses on their designs, construction, testing, first light, target selection, observations, data reduction, and analysis. Initial results are presented and discussed.

  9. Probing Weak Intergalactic Absorption with Flaring Blazar Spectra 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, John

    2012-10-01

    We propose to exploit the flaring states of high- and unknown-redshift blazars to obtain very high S/N > 25 COS spectra in order to study details of the local intergalactic medium {IGM} not accessible for study using the plethora of lower S/N data being obtained. Only with very high S/N spectra is it possible to detect the weakest Ly alpha and metal lines wherein may lie a substantial portion of the cosmic baryons. The numbers of weak OVI absorbers can discriminate between collisionally ionized and photoionized models, as well as determine which of several galactic outflow models best matches the IGM metal enrichment. Most importantly, high S/N spectra plus the featureless UV power-law continuum of blazars facilitates the detection of broad, shallow absorbers ["broad Ly alpha" {BLA} and broad OVI-only absorbers] which uniquely probe the T = 3 x 10^5 - 3 x 10^6 K range in the IGM where many cosmic baryons are predicted to be "hiding."In addition, these same spectra will be used to obtain lower limits on, or estimates of, the redshift for any featureless blazars observed using the foreground Ly-alpha forest absorbers. In some cases weak Lyman alpha emission may also be detected, as was recently discovered for a few well-known low-redshift BL Lac objects using COS spectra. We request up to three *non-disruptive ToOs* to carry out this program in Cycle 19. Ground-based monitoring will select objects flaring to V 13.5 mag for HST observations, out of a set of about 200 monitored blazars.

  10. Probing Weak Intergalactic Absorption with Flaring Blazar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocke, John

    2011-10-01

    We propose to exploit the flaring states of high- and unknown-redshift blazars to obtain very high S/N > 25 COS spectra in order to study details of the local intergalactic medium {IGM} not accessible for study using the plethora of lower S/N data being obtained. Only with very high S/N spectra is it possible to detect the weakest Ly alpha and metal lines wherein may lie a substantial portion of the cosmic baryons. The numbers of weak OVI absorbers can discriminate between collisionally ionized and photoionized models, as well as determine which of several galactic outflow models best matches the IGM metal enrichment. Most importantly, high S/N spectra plus the featureless UV power-law continuum of blazars facilitates the detection of broad, shallow absorbers ["broad Ly alpha" {BLA} and broad OVI-only absorbers] which uniquely probe the T = 3 x 10^5 - 3 x 10^6 K range in the IGM where many cosmic baryons are predicted to be "hiding."In addition, these same spectra will be used to obtain lower limits on, or estimates of, the redshift for any featureless blazars observed using the foreground Ly-alpha forest absorbers. In some cases weak Lyman alpha emission may also be detected, as was recently discovered for a few well-known low-redshift BL Lac objects using COS spectra. We request up to three *non-disruptive ToOs* to carry out this program in Cycle 19. Ground-based monitoring will select objects flaring to V 13.5 mag for HST observations, out of a set of about 30 monitored blazars.

  11. TEMPORAL SMEARING OF TRANSIENT RADIO SOURCES BY THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Macquart, Jean-Pierre; Koay, Jun Yi

    2013-10-20

    The temporal smearing of impulsive radio events at cosmological redshifts probes the properties of the ionized intergalactic medium (IGM). We relate the degree of temporal smearing and the profile of a scattered source to the evolution of a turbulent structure in the IGM as a function of redshift. We estimate the degree of scattering expected by analyzing the contributions to the scattering measure of the various components of baryonic matter embedded in the IGM, including the diffuse IGM, intervening galaxies, and intracluster gas. These estimates predict that the amount of temporal smearing expected at 300 MHz is typically as low as ∼1 ms and suggests that these bursts may be detectable with low-frequency widefield arrays. A generalization of the dispersion-measure-scattering-measure relation observed for Galactic scattering to the densities and turbulent conditions relevant to the IGM suggests that scattering measures on the order of 10{sup –6} kpc m{sup –20/3} would be expected at z ∼ 1. This scattering is sufficiently low enough that its effects would not, for most lines of sight, be manifested in existing observations of the scatter broadening in images of extragalactic compact sources. The redshift dependence on the temporal smearing discriminates between scattering that occurs in the host galaxy of the burst and the IGM, with τ{sub host}∝(1 + z){sup –3} if the scattering probes length scales below the inner scale of the turbulence or τ{sub host}∝(1 + z){sup –17/5} if the turbulence follows a Kolmogorov spectrum. This differs strongly from the expected IGM scaling τ{sub IGM} ∼ z {sup 2} for z ∼< 1 and (1 + z){sup 0.2–0.5} for z ∼> 1.

  12. Theoretical studies of QSO absorption lines and the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    A new numerical approximation is offered for the effective recombination coefficient. The approximation is accurate for all sizes of nebulae and all temperatures. The new effective recombination coefficient is used to model instability in Lyman alpha forest clouds because of radiation pressure. Clouds are modeled at the epoch of initial ionization, z(sub on) = 5, 10, and 20, and at the epoch z = 2.5. The neutral hydrogen column density of the Lyman alpha clouds at z = 2.5 is limited to N(sub H I) is less than or equal to 10{sup 16.5}=/sq cm because of this instability. The distribution function for the Lyman alpha clouds is then integrated over the allowed column densities to determine the fractional amount of baryons contained in the clouds. It is found that the fractional mass of the clouds is omega(sub clouds) = 0.6 H{sub 100} omega(sub b). With the assumption of pressure equilibrium between the Lyman alpha clouds and the intergalactic medium, IGM, and the previous results, a lower limit can be set upon the temperature of the IGM at the epoch z = 2.5, T(sub e) is greater than or equal to 1.5 x 10{sup 7} K, for H{sub 0} = 75 km/s/Mpc. With this boundary condition, the thermal history of the IGM, and its effect upon the cosmic microwave background, CMBR, is calculated. It is shown that this model of a hot ionized IGM remains constant with the preliminary results of the Cosmic Background Explorer, COBE.

  13. Can quasars photoionize the intergalactic medium at high redshift?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meiksin, Avery; Madau, Piero

    1993-01-01

    The reionization of the intergalactic medium (IGM) by quasar sources at high redshift are discussed. The integrated UV background from observed QSO's, taking into account the hydrogen opacity associated with intervening Ly-alpha clouds and Lyman limit systems are computed. It is noted that the published data appear to indicate a significant underdensity of absorption systems in the Ly-alpha forest with column densities N(sub HI) greater than 10(exp 15) cm(sup -2). This deficit results in a reduction of the opacity of the universe by a factor of 1.5-3 at z = 3-5 relative to previous estimates. The QSO contribution to the metagalactic flux at the Lyman edge may be as large as J(sub 912)(z) is approximately 6((1 + z)/4.5)(sup 0.5) x 10(exp -22) erg cm(sup -2) s(sup -1) Hz(sup -1) sr(sup -1) for q(sup o) = O, and slightly lower for q(sub o) = 1/2. For a density of the diffuse component of the IGM of omega(sub D)(h(sub 50)(sup 2)) less than 0.025, QSO's could photoionize a smooth IGM sufficiently to satisfy the constraints imposed by the Gunn-Peterson effect. The epoch of reionization could be as recent as z is approximately greater than 5. As a result, neutral patches of IGM would be detectable in the spectra of high redshift quasars. The patches would appear as absorption line systems with typical column densities of 10(exp 19) - 10(exp 20) cm(sup -2), and velocity widths of 100 - 1000 km s(sup -1).

  14. STUDYING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Y.; Mitsuda, K.; Ursino, E.; Branchini, E.; Ohashi, T.; Kawahara, H.; Piro, L.; Corsi, A.; Amati, L.; Den Herder, J. W.; Kaastra, J.; Galeazzi, M.; Moscardini, L.; Roncarelli, M.; Nicastro, F.; Paerels, F.; Viel, M.

    2011-06-20

    We assess the possibility of detecting the warm-hot intergalactic medium in emission and characterizing its physical conditions and spatial distribution through spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy, in the framework of the recently proposed DIOS, EDGE, Xenia, and ORIGIN missions, all of which are equipped with microcalorimeter-based detectors. For this purpose, we analyze a large set of mock emission spectra, extracted from a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation. These mock X-ray spectra are searched for emission features showing both the O VII K{alpha} triplet and O VIII Ly{alpha} line, which constitute a typical signature of the warm-hot gas. Our analysis shows that 1 Ms long exposures and energy resolution of 2.5 eV will allow us to detect about 400 such features per deg{sup 2} with a significance {>=}5{sigma} and reveals that these emission systems are typically associated with density {approx}100 above the mean. The temperature can be estimated from the line ratio with a precision of {approx}20%. The combined effect of contamination from other lines, variation in the level of the continuum, and degradation of the energy resolution reduces these estimates. Yet, with an energy resolution of 7 eV and all these effects taken into account, one still expects about 160 detections per deg{sup 2}. These line systems are sufficient for tracing the spatial distribution of the line-emitting gas, which constitute an additional information, independent from line statistics, to constrain the poorly known cosmic chemical enrichment history and the stellar feedback processes.

  15. Broad H I Absorbers as Metallicity-independent Tracers of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael

    2010-02-01

    Thermally broadened Lyα absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternative method to highly ionized metal lines for tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at T>105 K. However, observing BLAs requires data of high quality and accurate continuum definition to detect the low-contrast features, and a good knowledge of the velocity structure to differentiate multiple blended components from a single broad line. Even for well-characterized absorption profiles, disentangling the thermal line width from the various thermal and non-thermal contributors to the observed line width is ambiguous. We compile a catalog of reliable BLA candidates along seven active galactic nucleus sight lines from a larger set of Lyα absorbers observed by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We compare our measurements based on independent reduction and analysis of the data to those published by other research groups. We examine the detailed structure of each absorber and determine a reliable line width and column density. Purported BLAs are grouped into probable (15), possible (48), and non-BLA (56) categories. Combining the first two categories, we infer a line frequency (d{N}/dz)_BLA=18± 11, comparable to observed O VI absorbers, also thought to trace the WHIM. We discuss the overlap between BLA and O VI absorbers (20%-40%) and the distribution of BLAs in relation to nearby galaxies (O VI detections in BLAs are found closer to galaxies than O VI nondetections). We assume that the line width determined through a multi-line curve of growth (COG) is a close approximation to the thermal line width. Based on 164 measured COG H I line measurements, we statistically correct the observed line widths via a Monte Carlo simulation. Gas temperature and neutral fraction f_H I are inferred from these statistically corrected line widths and lead to a distribution of total hydrogen columns. Summing the total column density over the total observed path length, we find a BLA contribution to the closure density of ΩBLA = 6.3+1.1 -0.8 × 10-3 h -1 70 based on 104 Monte Carlo simulations of each BLA system. There are a number of critical systematic assumptions implicit in this calculation, and we discuss how each affects our results and those of previously published work. In particular, the most comparable previous study by Lehner et al. gave ΩBLA = 3.6 × 10-3 h -1 70 or 9.1 × 10-3 h -1 70, depending on which assumptions were made about hydrogen neutral fraction. Taking our value, current O VI and BLA surveys can account for ~ 20% of the baryons in the local universe while an additional ~ 29% can be accounted for in the photoionized Lyα forest; about half of all baryons in the low-z universe are found in the intergalactic medium. Finally, we present new, high signal-to-noise ratio observations of several of the BLA candidate lines from Early Release Observations made by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on HST. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  16. Multifrequency survey of the intergalactic cloud in the M96 group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Hacking, Perry B.; Young, Judith S.; Dickman, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The intergalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen in the M96 group are examined for signs of emission over a wide range of frequencies, from radio waves to X rays. Past or present stellar activity in the gas might have been expected to produce detectable visual infrared, CO, OH, or radio recombination-line emission. None was detected. The limits are used to study physical conditions in the intergalactic gas. In particular, B and V band limits on starlight and IRAS limits on the presence of dust strongly constrain the presence of stars or stellar by-products. However, given the uncertainties about physical conditions in the intergalactic environment, it is difficult to rule out entirely the presence of stellar-processed materials. Results of neutral hydrogen mapping from a large-scale survey of the intergalactic cloud and surrounding region are also presented. These observations confirm that the gas is confined to a large ringlike structure. The simplest interpretation remains that the intergalactic gas in Leo is primordial.

  17. Multifrequency survey of the intergalactic cloud in the M96 group

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, S.E.; Skrutskie, M.F.; Hacking, P.B.; Young, J.S.; Dickman, R.L.

    1989-03-01

    The intergalactic cloud of neutral hydrogen in the M96 group are examined for signs of emission over a wide range of frequencies, from radio waves to X rays. Past or present stellar activity in the gas might have been expected to produce detectable visual infrared, CO, OH, or radio recombination-line emission. None was detected. The limits are used to study physical conditions in the intergalactic gas. In particular, B and V band limits on starlight and IRAS limits on the presence of dust strongly constrain the presence of stars or stellar by-products. However, given the uncertainties about physical conditions in the intergalactic environment, it is difficult to rule out entirely the presence of stellar-processed materials. Results of neutral hydrogen mapping from a large-scale survey of the intergalactic cloud and surrounding region are also presented. These observations confirm that the gas is confined to a large ringlike structure. The simplest interpretation remains that the intergalactic gas in Leo is primordial. 36 references.

  18. Ensemble fluctuations of the cosmic ray energy spectrum and the magnetic field of the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supanitsky, A. D.; Medina-Tanco, G.

    2015-08-01

    The energy spectrum of the ultra high energy cosmic rays depends on the spatial distribution of their sources. Given a value of the density of sources, different realizations of the source distribution generate different spectral shapes. At the highest energies ( eV) only sources that are close to the Earth contribute significantly to the observed flux due to the interaction of the cosmic rays with the radiation fields present in the intergalactic medium. Therefore, in this energy region the fluctuations are larger. It is believed that the intergalactic medium is permeated by a magnetic field. Although it is poorly known, its strength and coherence length are constrained by observations. In this work we study the influence of the intergalactic magnetic field on the ensemble fluctuations of the cosmic ray flux for a given configuration of the magnetic field and for different values of the density of sources.

  19. Evolution of the intergalactic medium - What happened during the epoch z = 3-10?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikeuchi, S.; Ostriker, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to model consistently the thermal and dynamic history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) from the era of reheating (z = 10-5) to the present, and to provide a unified explanation for the origin of ordinary galaxies, blue compact objects, and Lyman-alpha clouds. The evolution of the intergalactic gas is analyzed, treating the IGM as perfectly homogeneous at every epoch and taking into account radiative and Compton cooling, adiabatic cooling, shock heating, and heating produced by the diffuse UV flux. It is suggested that the IGM must have been heated to higher than a 10 to the 6th K by shock heasting caused either by explosions of pregalactic objects or expanding voids. The formation of intergalactic clouds by fragmentation of the resulting shells and the subsequent collapse of the shells to form galaxies are studied. An attempt is made to determine model parameters on the basis of an analysis of Lyman-alpha absorption lines.

  20. BROAD H I ABSORBERS AS METALLICITY-INDEPENDENT TRACERS OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: john.stocke@colorado.ed

    2010-02-10

    Thermally broadened Lyalpha absorbers (BLAs) offer an alternative method to highly ionized metal lines for tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at T>10{sup 5} K. However, observing BLAs requires data of high quality and accurate continuum definition to detect the low-contrast features, and a good knowledge of the velocity structure to differentiate multiple blended components from a single broad line. Even for well-characterized absorption profiles, disentangling the thermal line width from the various thermal and non-thermal contributors to the observed line width is ambiguous. We compile a catalog of reliable BLA candidates along seven active galactic nucleus sight lines from a larger set of Lyalpha absorbers observed by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We compare our measurements based on independent reduction and analysis of the data to those published by other research groups. We examine the detailed structure of each absorber and determine a reliable line width and column density. Purported BLAs are grouped into probable (15), possible (48), and non-BLA (56) categories. Combining the first two categories, we infer a line frequency (dN/dz){sub BLA}=18+-11, comparable to observed O VI absorbers, also thought to trace the WHIM. We discuss the overlap between BLA and O VI absorbers (20%-40%) and the distribution of BLAs in relation to nearby galaxies (O VI detections in BLAs are found closer to galaxies than O VI nondetections). We assume that the line width determined through a multi-line curve of growth (COG) is a close approximation to the thermal line width. Based on 164 measured COG H I line measurements, we statistically correct the observed line widths via a Monte Carlo simulation. Gas temperature and neutral fraction f{sub H{sub I}} are inferred from these statistically corrected line widths and lead to a distribution of total hydrogen columns. Summing the total column density over the total observed path length, we find a BLA contribution to the closure density of OMEGA{sub BLA} = 6.3{sup +1.1}{sub -0.8} x 10{sup -3} h {sup -1}{sub 70} based on 10{sup 4} Monte Carlo simulations of each BLA system. There are a number of critical systematic assumptions implicit in this calculation, and we discuss how each affects our results and those of previously published work. In particular, the most comparable previous study by Lehner et al. gave OMEGA{sub BLA} = 3.6 x 10{sup -3} h {sup -1}{sub 70} or 9.1 x 10{sup -3} h {sup -1}{sub 70}, depending on which assumptions were made about hydrogen neutral fraction. Taking our value, current O VI and BLA surveys can account for {approx} 20% of the baryons in the local universe while an additional {approx} 29% can be accounted for in the photoionized Lyalpha forest; about half of all baryons in the low-z universe are found in the intergalactic medium. Finally, we present new, high signal-to-noise ratio observations of several of the BLA candidate lines from Early Release Observations made by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on HST.

  1. Cosmic far-ultraviolet background radiation - Probe of a dense hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    Line and continuum radiation fluxes have been computed for a wide range of enriched intergalactic medium (IGM) models. Observations of the diffuse extragalactic light at optical and far-ultraviolet wavelengths are found to provide a potentially important probe of a dense hot intergalactic medium. If the diffuse X-ray background is produced by this gas, the models constrain the cosmological density parameter (Omega) to be less than 0.4. The associated Compton distortions of the cosmic blackbody background radiation and the optical depths to distant quasars at X-ray wavelengths are also evaluated.

  2. Navy Space and Astronautics Orientation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herron, R. G.

    Fundamental concepts of the spatial environment, technologies, and applications are presented in this manual prepared for senior officers and key civilian employees. Following basic information on the atmosphere, solar system, and intergalactic space, a detailed review is included of astrodynamics, rocket propulsion, bioastronautics, auxiliary…

  3. The Reionization of the Intergalactic Medium and Its Observational Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1996-02-01

    We have calculated the thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform density intergalactic medium (IGM) composed of H and He in a postrecombination Friedmann universe as sources inject ionizing radiation and energy into it. We have solved nonequilibrium rate equations for ionization and recombination, together with the equations of energy conservation, including the effects of cosmological expansion, radiative and Compton cooling, and the diffuse flux emitted by the gas, and radiative transfer, in this coarse-grained-average description of the IGM. For the radiative transfer, we also include the mean effect of gas clumps (the quasar absorption-line clouds [QALCs]) embedded in the smoothly distributed ambient gas. We focus on the presumed transition within the IGM from cold neutral gas to a highly ionized state. We have considered the effect of a metagalactic ionizing radiation background, such as would be contributed by quasar and primeval galaxies, as well as the possibility that hydrodynamical processes deposit thermal energy in the IGM. We describe our numerical method and apply this method here for the purpose of elucidating the minimum requirements for reionizing the IGM by z ~ 5 to the extent required by the hydrogen Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint by the energy release associated with cosmological structure formation. These minimum requirements are a significant constraint on theories of the origin of structure in the universe. For a photoionized universe, we determine the minimum required ionizing photon emissivity of the universe at z > 4. We find that the required emissivity exceeds that due to the observed quasar population unless the IGM density {OMEGA}_IGM_h^2^ < 4-6 x 10^-3^. We consider the consequences for primordial galaxy luminosity density and metal production if early-type stars are the photoionization source instead. Such reionization by stars implies that a substantial metallicity per galactic baryon was generated at high redshift (i.e., z > 3). We also consider scenarios in which the IGM is primarily collisionally ionized as a result of heating to temperatures T > 10^5^K by bulk hydrodynamical heating processes. In this case, the GP constraint may he satisfied with no violation of current COBE limits on the Compton γ-parameter. If the source of this heating is the supernova explosions of early-type stars, then there is a substantial metallicity production at high redshift implied that is similar to that of the photoionized case. If such bulk heating occurs in conjunction with photoionization, however, then the average ionizing photon emissivity from sources at high z required to photoionize the universe enough to satisfy the GP constraint is substantially reduced. Our calculations yield a set of observational diagnostics of the nature and source of the ionization of the IGM and of quasar absorption- line clouds. This includes predictions of the H, He I, and He II Gunn- Peterson Lyα absorption troughs from the smoothly distributed IGM, dependent on the nature of the ionizing source and the physical state of the Lyα cloud absorbers. We compare our results with the latest observational constraints.

  4. Redshifted intergalactic {sup 3}He{sup +} 8.7 GHz hyperfine absorption

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Matthew; Switzer, Eric R.

    2009-09-15

    Motivated by recent interest in redshifted 21 cm emission of intergalactic hydrogen, we investigate the 8.7 GHz {sup 2}S{sub 1/2} F=0-1 hyperfine transition of {sup 3}He{sup +}. While the primordial abundance of {sup 3}He relative to hydrogen is 10{sup -5}, the hyperfine spontaneous decay rate is 680 times larger. Furthermore, the antenna temperature is much lower at the frequencies relevant for the {sup 3}He{sup +} transition compared to that of z>6 21 cm emission. We find that the spin temperature of this 8.7 GHz line in the intergalactic medium is approximately the cosmic microwave background temperature, such that this transition is best observed in absorption against high-redshift, radio-bright quasars. We show that intergalactic 8.7 GHz absorption is a promising, unsaturated observable of the ionization history of intergalactic helium (for which He II{yields}He III reionization is believed to complete at z{approx}3) and of the primordial {sup 3}He abundance. Instruments must reach {approx}1 {mu}Jy RMS noise in bands of 1 MHz on a 1 Jy source to directly resolve this absorption. However, in combination with H i Ly{alpha} forest measurements, an instrument can statistically detect this absorption from z>3 with 30 {mu}Jy RMS noise in 0.1 MHz spectral bands over 100 MHz, which may be within the reach of present instruments.

  5. Combined constraints on intergalactic dust from quasar colours and the soft X-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Joel; Mörtsell, Edvard

    2012-11-01

    Unless properly corrected for, the existence of intergalactic dust will introduce a redshift-dependent magnitude offset to standard candle sources. This would lead to overestimated luminosity distances compared to a dust-free universe and bias the cosmological parameter estimation as derived from, e.g., Type Ia supernova observations. In this paper, we model the optical extinction and X-ray scattering properties of intergalactic dust grains to constrain the intergalactic opacity using a combined analysis of observed quasar colours and the soft X-ray background. Quasar colours effectively constrain the amount of intergalactic dust grains smaller than ˜0.2 μm, to the point where we expect the corresponding systematic error in the Type Ia supernova magnitude-redshift relation to be sub-dominant. Soft X-ray background observations are helpful in improving the constraints on very large dust grains for which the amount of optical reddening is very small and therefore is more difficult to correct for. Our current upper limit corresponds to ˜0.25 mag dimming at optical wavelengths for a source at redshift z = 1, which is too small to alleviate the need for dark energy but large in terms of relative error. However, we expect it to be possible to lower this bound considerably with an improved understanding of the possible sources of the X-ray background, in combination with observations of compact X-ray sources such as active galactic nuclei.

  6. Can the intergalactic medium cause a rapid drop in Lyα emission at z > 6?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesinger, Andrei; Aykutalp, Aycin; Vanzella, Eros; Pentericci, Laura; Ferrara, Andrea; Dijkstra, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The large cross-section of the Lyα line makes it a sensitive probe of the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we present the most complete study to date of the IGM Lyα opacity, and its application to the redshift evolution of the `Lyα fraction', i.e. the fraction of colour-selected galaxies with a detectable Lyα emission line. We use a tiered approach, which combines large-scale seminumeric simulations of reionization with moderate-scale hydrodynamic simulations of the ionized IGM. This allows us to simultaneously account for evolution in both: (i) the opacity from an incomplete (patchy) reionization, parametrized by the filling factor of ionized regions, QH II; and (ii) the opacity from self-shielded systems in the ionized IGM, parametrized by the average photoionization rate inside H II regions, <Γ12>H II. In contrast to recent empirical models, attenuation from patchy reionization has a unimodal distribution along different sightlines, while attenuation from self-shielded systems is more bimodal. We quantify the average IGM transmission in our (QH II, <Γ12>H II) parameter space, which can easily be used to interpret new data sets. Our new, improved models highly disfavour an evolution in <Γ12>H II as the sole driver of a large change in IGM opacity. Using current observations, we predict that the Lyα fraction cannot drop by more than a factor of ≈2 with IGM attenuation alone, even for H II filling factors as low as QH II ≳ 0.1. Larger changes in the Lyα fraction could result from a co-evolution with galaxy properties. Marginalizing over <Γ12>H II, we find that current observations constrain QH II(z ≈ 7) ≤ 0.6, at a 68 per cent confidence level (CL). However, all of our parameter space is consistent with observations at 95 per cent CL, highlighting the need for larger observational samples at z ≥ 6.

  7. Intergalactic Hydrogen Clouds at Low Redshift: Connections to Voids and Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Penton, Steve

    1996-01-01

    We provide new post-COSTAR data on one sightline (Mrk 421) and updated data from another (I Zw 1) from our Hubble Space Telescope (HST) survey of intergalactic Ly(alpha) clouds located along sightlines to four bright quasars passing through well-mapped galaxy voids (16000 km/s pathlength) and superclusters (18000 km/s). We report two more definite detections of low-redshift Ly(alpha) clouds in voids: one at 3047 km/s (heliocentric) toward Mrk 421 and a second just beyond the Local Supercluster at 2861 km/s toward I Zw 1, confirming our earlier discovery of Ly(alpha) absorption clouds in voids (Stocke et al., ApJ, 451, 24). We have now identified ten definite and one probable low-redshift neutral hydrogen absorption clouds toward four targets, a frequency of approximately one absorber every 3400 km/s above 10(exp 12.7/sq cm column density. Of these ten absorption systems, three lie within voids; the probable absorber also lies in a void. Thus, the tendency of Ly(alpha) absorbers to 'avoid the voids' is not as clear as we found previously. If the Ly(alpha) clouds are approximated as homogeneous spheres of 100 kpc radius, their masses are approximately 10(exp 9)solar mass (about 0.01 times that of bright L* galaxies) and they are 40 times more numerous, comparable to the density of dwarf galaxies and of low-mass halos in numerical CDM simulations. The Ly(alpha) clouds contribute a fraction Omega(sub cl)approximately equals 0.003/h(sub 75) to the closure density of the universe, comparable to that of luminous matter. These clouds probably require a substantial amount of nonbaryonic dark matter for gravitational binding. They may represent extended haloes of low-mass protogalaxies which have not experienced significant star formation or low-mass dwarf galaxies whose star formation ceased long ago, but blew out significant gaseous material.

  8. Hubble/COS Observations of Intergalactic Gas Toward PKS 0405-123

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, C.; Froning, C.; Green, J.; Keeney, B.; Stocke, J.; Yao, Y.; Savage, B.; Narayanan, A.; Sembach, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of far-UV Hubble Space Telescope observations (1150-1780 A, at 17 km/s resolution) taken by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) of the QSO PKS 0405-123 at redshift zem = 0.5726 and FUV flux 3.5x10-14 erg/s/cm2/A. This spectrum illustrates the the power of COS for studying metal-enriched gas between the galaxies, distributed throughout the multiphase intergalactic medium (IGM). We used 7 orbits with 9 FP-split positions, obtained S/N = 35-45 over much of the G130M band (1150-1440 A), and detected numerous absorption features of hydrogen (Lya, Lyb) and heavy-element probes of metallicity. Ions that can be studied include lines (O VI, N V, Ne VIII) sensitive to hot gas produced by strong shocks produced in gravitational inflows to the Cosmic Web, in circumgalactic gas, and in galactic winds. The high S/N allows a search for broad Ly-alpha possibly associated with O VI in hot gas (105 to 106 K). This sight line also intercepts a high-velocity cloud seen in Si III at 110-170 km/s (LSR) and b = -37.55 in the Galactic halo. In the absorption system at z = 0.495, the Ne VIII doublet (770.41, 780.32 A) shifts into the COS band, allowing us to probe the warm-hot IGM at log T = 5.5-6.0, several times deeper than previous (STIS) studies (Prochaska et al. 2004; Howk et al. 2009). In other posters, members of the COS science team describe the detection of O VI absorbers at redshifts z = 0.16710, 0.18292, 0.36156, 0.36332, and 0.49501, including a Lyman Limit system at z = 0.16710 with log N(HI) = 16.45 +/- 0.05. The high S/N observations allow us to measure important ions previously not detected and to evaluate the kinematical relationships and physical conditions among the detected ions.

  9. MULTIPLE ABSORPTION-LINE SPECTROSCOPY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yangsen; Michael Shull, J.; Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Stocke, John T.

    2011-04-01

    We present a physically based absorption-line model for the spectroscopic study of the intergalactic medium (IGM). This model adopts results from Cloudy simulations and theoretical calculations by Gnat and Sternberg to examine the resulting observational signatures of the absorbing gas with the following ionization scenarios: collisional ionization equilibrium (CIE), photoionization equilibrium, hybrid (photo- plus collisional ionization), and non-equilibrium cooling. As a demonstration, we apply this model to new observations made with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope of the IGM absorbers at z {approx} 0.1877 along the 1ES 1553+113 sight line. We identify Ly{alpha}, C III, O VI, and N V absorption lines with two distinct velocity components (blue at z{sub b} = 0.18757; red at z{sub r} = 0.18772) separated by {Delta}(cz)/(1 + z) {approx} 38 km s{sup -1}. Joint analyses of these lines indicate that none of the examined ionization scenarios can be applied with confidence to the blue velocity component, although photoionization seems to play a dominant role. For the red component, CIE can be ruled out, but pure photoionization and hybrid scenarios (with T < 1.3 x 10{sup 5} K) are more acceptable. The constrained ranges of hydrogen density and metallicity of the absorbing gas are n{sub H} = (1.9-2.3) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -3} and Z = (0.43-0.67) Z{sub sun}. These constraints indicate O VI and H I ionization fractions, f{sub OVI} = 0.10-0.15 and f{sub HI} = (3.2-5.1) x 10{sup -5}, with total hydrogen column density N{sub H} = (0.7-1.2) x 10{sup 18} cm{sup -2}. This demonstration shows that the joint analysis of multiple absorption lines can constrain the ionization state of an absorber, and results used to estimate the baryonic matter contained in the absorber.

  10. PAPER-64 Constraints On Reionization. II. The Temperature of the z =8.4 Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pober, Jonathan C.; Ali, Zaki S.; Parsons, Aaron R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Aguirre, James E.; Bernardi, Gianni; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; Cheng, Carina; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; Grobbelaar, Jasper; Horrell, Jasper; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Patricia J.; Kohn, Saul A.; Liu, Adrian; MacMahon, David H. E.; Maree, Matthys; Mesinger, Andrei; Moore, David F.; Razavi-Ghods, Nima; Stefan, Irina I.; Walbrugh, William P.; Walker, Andre; Zheng, Haoxuan

    2015-08-01

    We present constraints on both the kinetic temperature of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z = 8.4, and on models for heating the IGM at high-redshift with X-ray emission from the first collapsed objects. These constraints are derived using a semi-analytic method to explore the new measurements of the 21 cm power spectrum from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER), which were presented in a companion paper, Ali et al. Twenty-one cm power spectra with amplitudes of hundreds of mK2 can be generically produced if the kinetic temperature of the IGM is significantly below the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB); as such, the new results from PAPER place lower limits on the IGM temperature at z = 8.4. Allowing for the unknown ionization state of the IGM, our measurements find the IGM temperature to be above ≈5 K for neutral fractions between 10% and 85%, above ≈7 K for neutral fractions between 15% and 80%, or above ≈10 K for neutral fractions between 30% and 70%. We also calculate the heating of the IGM that would be provided by the observed high redshift galaxy population, and find that for most models, these galaxies are sufficient to bring the IGM temperature above our lower limits. However, there are significant ranges of parameter space that could produce a signal ruled out by the PAPER measurements; models with a steep drop-off in the star formation rate density at high redshifts or with relatively low values for the X-ray to star formation rate efficiency of high redshift galaxies are generally disfavored. The PAPER measurements are consistent with (but do not constrain) a hydrogen spin temperature above the CMB temperature, a situation which we find to be generally predicted if galaxies fainter than the current detection limits of optical/NIR surveys are included in calculations of X-ray heating.

  11. The Galactic 511 keV Line and the Intergalactic Positron Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Aaron C.; Vecchio, Antonio; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Garay, Carlos Peña

    1043 positrons per second annihilate in a compact spherical region around the centre of the Milky Way. At present, known astrophysical sources cannot account for this signal. In Ref. [1] we propose a novel scenario in which extragalactic positron sources such as radio jets of active galactic nuclei (AGN) fill the intergalactic medium (IGM) with MeV-scale e+e- pairs, which are then accreted into galaxies like the Milky Way. Interpreting the diffuse cosmic radio background (CRB) as arising from synchrotron radiation by such sources suggests that the intergalactic positron-to-electron ratio may be as high as 10-6. Assuming a simple spherical accretion model, this could account for the 511 keV emission of the galaxy.

  12. Stars outside galaxies: a census of intergalactic HII regions in the tidal debris of mergers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; de Mello, Duilia; Freeman, Ken C.; Gerhard, Ortwin; Arnaboldi, Magda; Torres-Flores, Sergio

    2008-02-01

    We propose to use GMOS to measure the velocities of the HII regions associated with two nearby peculiar galaxies at v = 2600 km/s. The systems to be observed, NGC 7135 and NGC 2865, contain HI tidal debris coincident with young stellar objects (identified from GALEX data) supposedly formed due to recent collisions. We plan to employ a new, but well tested, multi-slit imaging spectroscopy technique, successfully used with Subaru in the blind search for planetary nebulae in Coma. The main goal of this proposal is to make a complete census of star forming regions in these two systems, and to determine their properties. Finding widespread, young, star-forming regions coincident with the HI intergalactic clouds, will be strong evidence that galaxy-galaxy interaction, with consequent expulsion of HI to the IGM and creation of new objects is an efficient mechanism for producing and mixing metals in the intergalactic medium.

  13. The intergalactic medium - Initial and boundary conditions for galaxy and primeval star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1990-01-01

    New detailed numerical calculations are presented of the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a post recombination Friedmann universe, including a solution of the nonequilibrium rate equations for the ionization and recombination of H and He, the energy equation, and the equation of radiative transfer. The implications of this study for the characteristic mass scale and the epoch of gravitational collapse for the average 'first' star-forming clouds are discussed. The star-formation rate and associated metallicity generation implied if the IGM is fully ionized by starlight by redshift greater than 4 as suggested by recent interpretations of the Gunn-Peterson effect are examined. It is shown that the relative strengths of metal lines from a quasar absorption-line Lyman limit system cloud at z = 3 photoionized by the present intergalactic UV radiation background are compatible with the observations, at least for background sources of either AGN-type or star-forming galaxy spectra.

  14. The ultimate fate of cosmic rays from galaxies and their role in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Brian C.

    2015-03-01

    The majority of cosmic rays (CRs) generated by star-forming galaxies escape them and enter the intergalactic medium (IGM). Galactic wind termination shocks might also accelerate CRs. I show that the mean pressure of these CRs can reach to within an order of magnitude of the mean Lyman α forest thermal pressure. At z ≳ 1, their pressure may have even been dominant. I also demonstrate that, whichever IGM phase the CRs reside in, they contribute significantly to its pressure if its temperature is ˜104 K, as long as pionic and Coulomb losses are negligible. Where CRs end up depends on the structure and strength of intergalactic magnetic fields. I argue that CRs end up at least 30 kpc from their progenitor galaxies. CRs may self-confine in the IGM to the sound speed, generating ≳ 10- 13 G magnetic fields. These considerations imply the existence and importance of a non-thermal IGM.

  15. Intergalactic Photon Spectra from the Far-IR to the UV Lyman Limit for 0 < z < 6 and the Optical Depth of the Universe to High-Energy Gamma Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; Malkan, M. A.; Scully, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    We calculate the intergalactic photon density as a function of both energy and redshift for 0intergalactic photon densities to extend previous work on the absorption of high-energy Gamma-rays in intergalactic space owing to interactions with low-energy photons and the 2.7 K cosmic microwave background radiation. We calculate the optical depth of the universe, Tau , for Gamma-rays having energies from 4 GeV to 100 TeV emitted by sources at redshifts from 0 to 5. We also give an analytic fit with numerical coefficients for approximating (E(Gamma), z). As an example of the application of our results, we calculate the absorbed spectrum of the blazar PKS 2155-304 at z=0.117 and compare it with the spectrum observed by the HESS air Cerenkov Gamma-ray telescope array.

  16. Studies of X-ray clusters of galaxies/intergalactic plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Intergalactic plasmas were investigated from both an observational and theoretical point of view. A multiobject spectrometer, the MX spectrograph was used to obtain detailed dynamical information on clusters of galaxies; this information was then compared with X ray emission from hot gas in these clusters. Several spectra of galaxies are presented, and data reduction of the spectra was discussed. The existence of quasar winds in Seyfert galaxies and the interaction between such a wind and the interstellar medium also were considered.

  17. ON LYMAN-LIMIT SYSTEMS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE INTERGALACTIC IONIZING BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Matthew; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Peng Oh, S.

    2011-12-10

    We study the properties of self-shielding intergalactic absorption systems and their implications for the ionizing background. We find that cosmological simulations post-processed with detailed radiative transfer calculations generally are able to reproduce the observed abundance of Lyman-limit systems, and we highlight possible discrepancies between the observations and simulations. This comparison tests cosmological simulations at overdensities of {approx}100. Furthermore, we show that the properties of Lyman-limit systems in these simulations, in simple semianalytic arguments, and as suggested by recent observations indicate that a small change in the ionizing emissivity of the sources would have resulted in a much larger change in the amplitude of the intergalactic H I-ionizing background (with this scaling strengthening with increasing redshift). This strong scaling could explain the rapid evolution in the Ly{alpha} forest transmission observed at z Almost-Equal-To 6. Our calculations agree with the suggestion of simpler models that the comoving ionizing emissivity was constant or even increasing from z = 3 to 6. Our calculations also provide a more rigorous estimate than in previous studies for the clumping factor of intergalactic gas after reionization, which we estimate was Almost-Equal-To 2-3 at z = 6.

  18. The relationships between galaxies/AGN and the circum-/intergalactic medium at z<1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sean; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Mulchaey, John S.

    2016-01-01

    The growth and evolution of galaxies is governed by gas accretion from circum-/intergalactic gas reservoirs and satellites that is regulated by feedback from stars and active galactic nuclei. To constrain the relationship between these gas reservoirs and galaxy properties, I have carried out deep and highly complete surveys of several thousand galaxies in fields with high quality absorption spectra of background quasars from the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. The survey results imply that (1) highly ionized, heavy-element enriched gas traced by OVI absorption primarily arise in low-mass, gas-rich galaxy groups rather than the warm-hot phase of the intergalactic medium and that (2) galaxies with nearby neighbors exhibit more extened OVI absorbing gas than isolated galaxies. Together, these observations suggest that galaxy and group interactions play a role in stripping bound, heavy element enriched halo gas to enrich the intergalactic medium. In addition, I carried out the first large survey of circumgalactic gas around active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars. The cool, heavy-element enriched gas content of AGN and quasar host halos is strongly correlated with AGN luminosity, and the gas exhibit extreme kinematics with velocity spread inconsistent with gas bound to the AGN host. These observations provide tantalizing hints at the widespread impact of AGN feedback on the extended gas reservoirs around galaxies.

  19. X-ray Scattering through the Intergalactic Medium: Time Variability and Ghost Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Lia

    2014-08-01

    Dust grains polluting the intergalactic medium (IGM) have a chance of being detected through the phenomenon of X-ray scattering, which produces a diffuse arcminute-scale halo around bright X-ray point sources. We present follow up work to Corrales & Paerels (2012) by calculating the expected intensity of intergalactic dust scattering halos using the more exact Mie scattering treatment. This adjustment is necessary to check for large 0.1-1 micron sized dust grains that would interfere with the photometry needed for high precision measurements of cosmological constants. Even with the supreme focusing power of Chandra, we find that the dust scattering halo intensity is much dimmer than the Chandra PSF wings. However, scattered light takes a longer path to reach the observer, causing intergalactic scattering halos to be delayed ~10,000 years. I investigate the possibility of detecting a scattering halo around a quasar that has recently become dim, or ghost halos from quasars that are no longer visible.

  20. INTERGALACTIC GAS IN GROUPS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR DWARF SPHEROIDAL FORMATION AND THE MISSING BARYONS PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect

    Freeland, E.; Wilcots, E. E-mail: ewilcots@astro.wisc.edu

    2011-09-10

    Radio galaxies with bent jets are predominantly located in groups and clusters of galaxies. We use bent-double radio sources, under the assumption that their jets are bent by ram pressure, to probe intragroup medium (IGM) gas densities in galaxy groups. This method provides a direct measurement of the intergalactic gas density and allows us to probe intergalactic gas at large radii and in systems whose IGM is too cool to be detected by the current generation of X-ray telescopes. We find gas with densities of 10{sup -3} to 10{sup -4} cm{sup -3} at group radii from 15 to 700 kpc. A rough estimate of the total baryonic mass in intergalactic gas is consistent with the missing baryons being located in the IGM of galaxy groups. The neutral gas will be easily stripped from dwarf galaxies with total masses of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun} in the groups studied here. Indications are that intragroup gas densities in less-massive systems like the Local Group should be high enough to strip gas from dwarfs like Leo T and, in combination with tides, produce dwarf spheroidals.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR GAMMA-RAY HALOS AROUND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE FIRST MEASUREMENT OF INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Kusenko, Alexander E-mail: kusenko@ucla.ed

    2010-10-10

    Intergalactic magnetic fields (IGMFs) can cause the appearance of halos around the gamma-ray images of distant objects because an electromagnetic cascade initiated by a high-energy gamma-ray interaction with the photon background is broadened by magnetic deflections. We report evidence of such gamma-ray halos in the stacked images of the 170 brightest active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 11 month source catalog of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. Excess over the point-spread function in the surface brightness profile is statistically significant at 3.5{sigma} (99.95% confidence level), for the nearby, hard population of AGNs. The halo size and brightness are consistent with IGMF, B {sub IGMF} {approx} 10{sup -15} G. The knowledge of IGMF will facilitate the future gamma-ray and charged-particle astronomy. Furthermore, since IGMFs are likely to originate from the primordial seed fields created shortly after the big bang, this potentially opens a new window on the origin of cosmological magnetic fields, inflation, and the phase transitions in the early universe.

  2. Light dispersion in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, L. C.

    2015-09-01

    Considering an idea of F. Arago in 1853 regarding light dispersion through the light ether in the interstellar space, this paper presents a new idea on an alternative interpretation of the cosmological red shift of the galaxies in the universe. The model is based on an analogy with the temporal material dispersion that occurs with light in the optical fiber core. Since intergalactic space is transparent, according to the model, this phenomenon is related to the gravitational potential existing in the whole space. Thus, it is possible to find a new interpretation to Hubble's constant. In space, light undergoes a dispersion process in its path, which is interpreted by a red shift equation of the type Δz = HL, since H = (d2n/dλ2 Δv Δλ), where H means the Hubble constant, n is the refractive index of the intergalactic space, Δλ is the spectral width of the extragalactic source, and Δv is the variation of the speed of light caused by the gravitational potential. We observe that this "constant" is governed by three new parameters. Light traveling the intergalactic space undergoes red shift due to this mechanism, while light amplitude decreases with time, and the wavelength always increases, thus producing the same type of behavior given by Hubble's Law. It can be demonstrated that the dark matter phenomenon is produced by the apparent speed of light of the stars on the periphery of the galaxies, without the existence of dark energy. Based on this new idea, the model of the universe is static, lacking expansion. Other phenomena may be interpreted based on this new model of the universe. We have what we call temporal gravitational dispersion of light in space produced by the variations of the speed of light, due to the presence of the gravitational potential in the whole space.

  3. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Scully, Sean T.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  4. A DETERMINATION OF THE INTERGALACTIC REDSHIFT-DEPENDENT ULTRAVIOLET-OPTICAL-NIR PHOTON DENSITY USING DEEP GALAXY SURVEY DATA AND THE GAMMA-RAY OPACITY OF THE UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T. E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of redshift using an approach based on observational data obtained in many different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. This allows us to obtain an empirical determination of the IBL and to quantify its observationally based uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place 68% confidence upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to {gamma}-rays, free of the theoretical assumptions that were needed for past calculations. We compare our results with measurements of the extragalactic background light and upper limits obtained from observations made by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.

  5. Tracing the cosmic metal evolution in the low-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Shull, J.; Danforth, Charles W.; Tilton, Evan M. E-mail: danforth@colorado.edu

    2014-11-20

    Using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope, we measured the abundances of six ions (C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, N V, and O VI) in the low-redshift (z ≤ 0.4) intergalactic medium (IGM). Both C IV and Si IV have increased in abundance by a factor of ∼10 from z ≈ 5.5 to the present. We derive ion mass densities, ρ{sub ion} ≡ Ω{sub ion}ρ{sub cr}, with Ω{sub ion} expressed relative to the closure density. Our models of mass-abundance ratios, (Si III/Si IV) =0.67{sub −0.19}{sup +0.35}, (C III/C IV) =0.70{sub −0.20}{sup +0.43}, and (Ω{sub C} {sub III}+Ω{sub C} {sub IV})/(Ω{sub Si} {sub III}+Ω{sub Si} {sub IV})=4.9{sub −1.1}{sup +2.2}, are consistent with the photoionization parameter log U = –1.5 ± 0.4, hydrogen photoionization rate Γ{sub H} = (8 ± 2) × 10{sup –14} s{sup –1} at z < 0.4, and specific intensity I {sub 0} = (3 ± 1) × 10{sup –23} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1} sr{sup –1} at the Lyman limit. Consistent ionization corrections for C and Si are scaled to an ionizing photon flux Φ{sub 0} = 10{sup 4} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, baryon overdensity Δ {sub b} ≈ 200 ± 50, and ''alpha-enhancement'' (Si/C enhanced to three times its solar ratio). We compare these metal abundances to the expected IGM enrichment and abundances in higher photoionized states of carbon (C V) and silicon (Si V, Si VI, and Si VII). Our ionization modeling infers IGM metal densities of (5.4 ± 0.5) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in the photoionized Lyα forest traced by the C and Si ions and (9.1 ± 0.6) × 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} in hotter gas traced by O VI. Combining both phases, the heavy elements in the IGM have mass density ρ {sub Z} = (1.5 ± 0.8) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} or Ω {sub Z} ≈ 10{sup –5}. This represents 10% ± 5% of the metals produced by (6 ± 2) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} of integrated star formation with yield y{sub m} = 0.025 ± 0.010. The missing metals at low redshift may reside within galaxies and in undetected ionized gas in galactic halos and circumgalactic medium.

  6. Fluctuations in microwave background radiation due to secondary ionization of the intergalactic gas in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunyayev, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    Secondary heating and ionization of the intergalactic gas at redshifts z approximately 10-30 could lead to the large optical depth of the Universe for Thomson scattering and could smooth the primordial fluctuations formed at z approximately 1500. It is shown that the gas motions connected with the large scale density perturbations at z approximately 10-15 must lead to the generation of secondary fluctuations of microwave background. The contribution of the rich clusters of galaxies and young galaxies to the fluctuations of microwave background is also estimated.

  7. Quasi-stellar objects in the intergalactic medium - Source for the cosmic X-ray background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherman, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Current estimates of QSO luminosity, number density, evolution, and spectral index are used to study whether the diffuse cosmic ray background is (1) entirely due to thermal bremmstrahlung of the intergalactic medium (IGM), (2) completely supplied by QSO X-rays, or (3) a combination of both. The upper limits on an IGM fractional density with respect to closure are Omega = 0.26, 0.24, and 0.21 for pure collisional, photo/collisional, and pure photoionization, respectively. These calculations give emission spectra, Compton distortion of the microwave background, and optical depths to distant QSOs for comparison with relevant data.

  8. Constraints on a hot intergalactic medium from the X-ray and submillimeter backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lahav, O.; Loeb, A.; Mckee, C.F. California Univ., Berkeley )

    1990-01-01

    If the X-ray background is due to emission from a hot intergalactic medium (IGM), the cosmic microwave background is expected to be distorted as a result of Compton scattering. Recently, an excess in the submillimeter band has been measured by the Nagoya-Berkeley group. It is shown that even if the initial electron distribution function is non-Maxwellian, the reported distortion at 0.3 mm is too small to be consistent with a hot, homogeneous IGM model for the X-ray background. 25 refs.

  9. Effect of an intergalactic medium on the average sizes of extragalactic jets

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, A. )

    1990-09-01

    Jets emanating from active galactic nuclei are simulated here by a boundary-following code as they propagate through a bimodal external medium consisting of an isothermal galactic halo and a hotter, less dense, uniform intergalactic medium (IGM). The maximum linear sizes of the beams are found as functions of the beam and media parameters, and some of the observed radio source size statistics are produced in a theoretical model which includes an IGM with a constant local density and temperature. Monte Carlo simulations are used to find the median distance for plausible distributions of various input parameters for a number of constant values of IGM density and temperature. 31 refs.

  10. Evolution of the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Weihwan; Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, E.T.

    1989-04-01

    The evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a cold dark matter-dominated universe is studied. The dark matter is approximated as a pressureless ideal fluid while the IGM is approximated as an ordinary fluid. Several three-dimensional numerical simulations were carried out to trace the evolution of the model universe from z of about 100 to the present time. It is found that the growth of the rms density fluctuations in the IGM is greatly reduced during the period of heating, but it picks up at late times as gravity dominates again. 28 refs.

  11. The Galactic halo and local intergalactic medium toward PKS 2155-304

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruhweiler, Frederick C.; Boggess, A.; Norman, Dara J.; Grady, C. A.; Urry, C. M.; Kondo, Yoji

    1993-01-01

    Low-resolution UV observations of the bright, low-redshift BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 have been obtained by the HST's high-resolution spectrograph. Attention is here given to results on the number of intergalactic H I Ly-alpha components in the line-of-sight toward this object. The highest-redshift of the observed Ly-alpha systems furnishes a lower limit on the distance of the BL Lac object; this distance is consistent with the approximate redshift deduced from CCD imagery of the probable host galaxy for PKS 2155-304.

  12. An HST/COS Survey of the Low-redshift Intergalactic Medium. I. Survey, Methodology, and Overall Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Keeney, Brian A.; Tilton, Evan M.; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Stevans, Matthew; Pieri, Matthew M.; Savage, Blair D.; France, Kevin; Syphers, David; Smith, Britton D.; Green, James C.; Froning, Cynthia; Penton, Steven V.; Osterman, Steven N.

    2016-02-01

    We use high-quality, medium-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (HST/COS) observations of 82 UV-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at redshifts zAGN < 0.85 to construct the largest survey of the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) to date: 5138 individual extragalactic absorption lines in H i and 25 different metal-ion species grouped into 2611 distinct redshift systems at zabs < 0.75 covering total redshift pathlengths ΔzH i = 21.7 and ΔzO vi = 14.5. Our semi-automated line-finding and measurement technique renders the catalog as objectively defined as possible. The cumulative column density distribution of H i systems can be parametrized d{ N }(\\gt N)/{dz} = {C}14{(N/{10}14{{cm}}-2)}-(β -1), with C14 = 25 ± 1 and β = 1.65 ± 0.02. This distribution is seen to evolve both in amplitude, {C}14\\propto {(1+z)}2.3+/- 0.1, and slope β(z) = 1.75-0.31 z for z ≤ 0.47. We observe metal lines in 418 systems, and find that the fraction of IGM absorbers detected in metals is strongly dependent on {N}{{H}{{I}}}. The distribution of O vi absorbers appears to evolve in the same sense as the Lyα forest. We calculate contributions to Ωb from different components of the low-z IGM and determine the Lyα decrement as a function of redshift. IGM absorbers are analyzed via a two-point correlation function in velocity space. We find substantial clustering of H i absorbers on scales of Δv = 50-300 km s-1 with no significant clustering at Δv ≳ 1000 km s-1. Splitting the sample into strong and weak absorbers, we see that most of the clustering occurs in strong, NH i ≳ 1013.5 cm-2, metal-bearing IGM systems. The full catalog of absorption lines and fully reduced spectra is available via the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST) as a high-level science product at http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/igm/. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the data archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  13. Intergalactic matter and radiation and its bearing on galaxy formation and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burbidge, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    An up-dated review is given of the evidence for the presence of intergalactic matter and radiation in the Universe. It is concluded that the only important constituents which may make a sizable contribution to the total mass-energy are intergalactic gas and condensed objects with a very high mass-to-light ratio. If the QSOs are not at cosmological distances, cold atomic hydrogen may still be the most important constituent and may contribute much more mass than do the galaxies. The X-ray observations still do not unambiguously show that very hot gas is present, though it is very likely on general grounds that some hot gas is present in clusters of galaxies. The question of whether or not large amounts of matter, enough to close the Universe, are present, remains unsettled. From the theoretical standpoint the answer depends almost completely on the approach taken to the problem of galaxy formation and to the cosmological model which is favored.

  14. A uniform metal distribution in the intergalactic medium of the Perseus cluster of galaxies.

    PubMed

    Werner, Norbert; Urban, Ondrej; Simionescu, Aurora; Allen, Steven W

    2013-10-31

    Most of the metals (elements heavier than helium) produced by stars in the member galaxies of clusters currently reside within the hot, X-ray-emitting intra-cluster gas. Observations of X-ray line emission from this intergalactic medium have suggested a relatively small cluster-to-cluster scatter outside the cluster centres and enrichment with iron out to large radii, leading to the idea that the metal enrichment occurred early in the history of the Universe. Models with early enrichment predict a uniform metal distribution at large radii in clusters, whereas those with late-time enrichment are expected to introduce significant spatial variations of the metallicity. To discriminate clearly between these competing models, it is essential to test for potential inhomogeneities by measuring the abundances out to large radii along multiple directions in clusters, which has not hitherto been done. Here we report a remarkably uniform iron abundance, as a function of radius and azimuth, that is statistically consistent with a constant value of ZFe = 0.306 ± 0.012 in solar units out to the edge of the nearby Perseus cluster. This homogeneous distribution requires that most of the metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium occurred before the cluster formed, probably more than ten billion years ago, during the period of maximal star formation and black hole activity. PMID:24172976

  15. On modeling and measuring the temperature of the z ∼ 5 intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Lidz, Adam; Malloy, Matthew

    2014-06-20

    The temperature of the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) at high redshift is sensitive to the timing and nature of hydrogen and He II reionization, and can be measured from Lyman-alpha (Lyα) forest absorption spectra. Since the memory of intergalactic gas to heating during reionization gradually fades, measurements as close as possible to reionization are desirable. In addition, measuring the IGM temperature at sufficiently high redshifts should help to isolate the effects of hydrogen reionization since He II reionization starts later, at lower redshift. Motivated by this, we model the IGM temperature at z ≳ 5 using semi-numeric models of patchy reionization. We construct mock Lyα forest spectra from these models and consider their observable implications. We find that the small-scale structure in the Lyα forest is sensitive to the temperature of the IGM even at redshifts where the average absorption in the forest is as high as 90%. We forecast the accuracy at which the z ≳ 5 IGM temperature can be measured using existing samples of high resolution quasar spectra, and find that interesting constraints are possible. For example, an early reionization model in which reionization ends at z ∼ 10 should be distinguishable—at high statistical significance—from a lower redshift model where reionization completes at z ∼ 6. We discuss improvements to our modeling that may be required to robustly interpret future measurements.

  16. Constraints on the temperature of the intergalactic medium at z = 8.4 with 21-cm observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, Bradley; Mesinger, Andrei; Pober, Jonathan C.

    2016-02-01

    We compute robust lower limits on the spin temperature, TS, of the z = 8.4 intergalactic medium (IGM), implied by the upper limits on the 21-cm power spectrum recently measured by PAPER-64. Unlike previous studies which used a single epoch of reionization (EoR) model, our approach samples a large parameter space of EoR models: the dominant uncertainty when estimating constraints on TS. Allowing TS to be a free parameter and marginalizing over EoR parameters in our Markov Chain Monte Carlo code 21CMMC, we infer TS ≥ 3 K (corresponding approximately to 1σ) for a mean IGM neutral fraction of bar{x}_{HI}≳ 0.1. We further improve on these limits by folding-in additional EoR constraints based on: (i) the dark fraction in QSO spectra, which implies a strict upper limit of bar{x}_{HI}[z=5.9]≤ 0.06+0.05 (1σ ); and (ii) the electron scattering optical depth, τe = 0.066 ± 0.016 (1σ) measured by the Planck satellite. By restricting the allowed EoR models, these additional observations tighten the approximate 1σ lower limits on the spin temperature to TS ≥ 6 K. Thus, even such preliminary 21-cm observations begin to rule out extreme scenarios such as `cold reionization', implying at least some prior heating of the IGM. The analysis framework developed here can be applied to upcoming 21-cm observations, thereby providing unique insights into the sources which heated and subsequently reionized the very early Universe.

  17. Constraints on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signal from the warm-hot intergalactic medium from WMAP and SPT data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, Ricardo; Suárez-Velásquez, I.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Mücket, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    The fraction of ionized gas in the warm-hot intergalactic medium induces temperature anisotropies on the cosmic microwave background similar to those of clusters of galaxies. The Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) anisotropies due to these low-density, weakly non-linear, baryon filaments cannot be distinguished from that of clusters using frequency information, but they can be separated since their angular scales are very different. To determine the relative contribution of the WHIM SZ signal to the radiation power spectrum of temperature anisotropies, we explore the parameter space of the concordance Λ cold dark matter model using Monte Carlo Markov chains and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 yr and South Pole Telescope data. We find marginal evidence of a contribution by diffuse gas, with amplitudes of AWHIM = 10-20 μK2, but the results are also compatible with a null contribution from the WHIM, allowing us to set an upper limit of AWHIM < 43 μK2 (95.4 per cent CL). The signal produced by galaxy clusters remains at ACL = 4.5 μK2, a value similar to what is obtained when no WHIM is included. From the measured WHIM amplitude, we constrain the temperature-density phase diagram of the diffuse gas, and find it to be compatible with numerical simulations. The corresponding baryon fraction in the WHIM varies from 0.43 to 0.47, depending on model parameters. The forthcoming Planck data could set tighter constraints on the temperature-density relation.

  18. Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This annotated subject guide to Web sites and additional resources focuses on space and astronomy. Specifies age levels for resources that include Web sites, CD-ROMS and software, videos, books, audios, and magazines; offers professional resources; and presents a relevant class activity. (LRW)

  19. The Low-z Intergalactic Medium. I. O VI Baryon Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Charles W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2005-05-01

    Intergalactic absorbers along lines of sight to distant quasars are a powerful diagnostic for the evolution and content of the intergalactic medium (IGM). In this study, we use the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite to search 129 known Lyα absorption systems at z<0.15 toward 31 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for corresponding absorption from higher Lyman lines and the important metal ions O VI and C III. We detect O VI in 40 systems, over a smaller range of column density (logNOVI=13.0-14.35) than seen in H I (logNHI=13.0-16.0). The coexistence of O VI and H I suggests a multiphase IGM with warm photoionized and hot ionized components. With improved O VI detection statistics, we find a steep distribution in O VI column density, dNOVI/dNOVI~N-2.2+/-0.1OVI, suggesting that numerous weak O VI absorbers contain baryonic mass comparable to the rare strong absorbers. Down to 30 mÅ equivalent width (O VI λ1032) we find an absorber frequency dNOVI/dz~17+/-3. The total cosmological mass fraction in this hot gas is at least ΩWHIM=(0.0022+/-0.0003)[h70(ZO/0.1Zsolar)(fOVI/0.2)]-1, where we have scaled to fiducial values of oxygen metallicity, O VI ionization fraction, and the Hubble constant. Gas in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at 105-106 K contributes at least 4.8%+/-0.9% of the total baryonic mass at z<0.15. We then combine empirical scaling relations for the observed ``multiphase ratio,'' NHI/NOVI~N0.9+/-0.1HI, and for hydrogen overdensity in cosmological simulations, NHI~δ0.7H, with the H I photoionization correction to derive the mean oxygen metallicity, ZO~(0.09Zsolar)(fOVI/0.2)-1 in the low-z multiphase gas. Given the spread in the empirical relations and in fOVI, the baryon content in the O VI WHIM could be as large as 10%. Our survey is based on a large improvement in the number of O VI absorbers (40 vs. 10) and total redshift path length (Δz~2.2 vs. Δz~0.5) compared to earlier surveys.

  20. A preliminary optical study of the intergalactic H I cloud in Virgo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.

    1990-01-01

    A possible optical counterpart of the intergalactic H I cloud in the Virgo Cluster, discovered by Giovanelli and Haynes, is reported. It is a blue, 17 mag, irregular galaxy, and it is located near the peak of the H I emission. No other optical objects which can be obviously associated with the cloud are found in the area from which the H I emission was detected, and no extended, low surface brightness counterpart is seen in these data. If the irregular galaxy is really associated with the H I cloud, the overall properties of the system would be similar to those of a number of other known gas-rich dwarf galaxies. However, the system has an unusually large hydrogen to light ratio, and a large spatial extent, and it could be dynamically young. Optical spectroscopy is needed in order to establish whether the proposed optical counterpart is indeed correct, and if so, to determine the stage of its chemical evolution.

  1. No sign (yet) of intergalactic globular clusters in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackey, A. D.; Beasley, M. A.; Leaman, R.

    2016-04-01

    We present Gemini/GMOS imaging of twelve candidate intergalactic globular clusters (IGCs) in the Local Group, identified in a recent survey of the SDSS footprint by di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015). Our image quality is sufficiently high, at ˜0.4″ - 0.7″, that we are able to unambiguously classify all twelve targets as distant galaxies. To reinforce this conclusion we use GMOS images of globular clusters in the M31 halo, taken under very similar conditions, to show that any genuine clusters in the putative IGC sample would be straightforward to distinguish. Based on the stated sensitivity of the di Tullio Zinn & Zinn (2015) search algorithm, we conclude that there cannot be a significant number of IGCs with MV ≤ -6 lying unseen in the SDSS area if their properties mirror those of globular clusters in the outskirts of M31 - even a population of 4 would have only a ≈1% chance of non-detection.

  2. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2013-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the angular anisotropy of the extragalactic gamma-ray background through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thereby inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that current Fermi data already seem to prefer nonnegligible IGMF values. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  3. Probing the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with the Anisotropy of the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venters, T. M.; Pavlidou, V.

    2012-01-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) may leave an imprint on the anisotropy properties of the extragalactic gamma-ray background, through its effect on electromagnetic cascades triggered by interactions between very high energy photons and the extragalactic background light. A strong IGMF will deflect secondary particles produced in these cascades and will thus tend to isotropize lower energy cascade photons, thus inducing a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the gamma-ray background. Here we present a simple, proof-of-concept calculation of the magnitude of this effect and demonstrate that the two extreme cases (zero IGMF and IGMF strong enough to completely isotropize cascade photons) would be separable by ten years of Fermi observations and reasonable model parameters for the gamma-ray background. The anisotropy energy spectrum of the Fermi gamma-ray background could thus be used as a probe of the IGMF strength.

  4. A census of Hα emitters in the intergalactic medium of the NGC 2865 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Viscarra, F.; Arnaboldi, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Gerhard, O.; Torres-Flores, S.; Carrasco, E. R.; de Mello, D.

    2014-09-01

    Tidal debris, which are rich in HI gas and formed in interacting and merging systems, are suitable laboratories to study star formation outside galaxies. Recently, several such systems were observed, which contained many young star forming regions outside the galaxies. In previous works, we have studied young star forming regions outside galaxies in different systems with optical and/or gaseous tidal debris, in order to understand how often they occur and in which type of environments. In this paper, we searched for star forming regions around the galaxy NGC 2865, a shell galaxy that is circled by a ring of HI with a total mass of 1.2 × 109 M⊙. Using the multi-slit imaging spectroscopy technique with the Gemini telescope, we detected all Hα emitting sources in the surroundings of the galaxy NGC 2865, down to a flux limit of 10-18 erg cm-2 s-1 Å-1. With the spectra information and the near and far-ultraviolet flux, we characterize the star formation rates, masses, ages, and metallicities for these HII regions. In total, we found 26 emission-line sources in a 60 × 60 Kpc field centered over the southeastern tail of the HI gas present around the galaxy NGC 2865. Out of the 26 Hα emitters, 19 are in the satellite galaxy FGCE 0745, and seven are intergalactic HII regions scattered over the south tail of the HI gas around NGC 2865. We found that the intergalactic HII regions are young (<200 Myr) with stellar masses in the range 4 × 103 M⊙ to 17 × 106 M⊙. These are found in a region of low HI gas density, where the probability of forming stars is expected to be low. For one of the intergalactic HII regions, we estimated a solar oxygen abundance of 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.7. We also were able to estimate the metallicity for the satellite galaxy FGCE 0745 to be 12 + log(O/H) ~ 8.0. Given these physical parameters, the intergalactic HII regions are consistent with young star forming regions (or clusters), which are born in situ outside the NGC 2865 galaxy from a pre-enriched gas removed from the host galaxies in a merger event. The relevance of these observations is discussed. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina) - Observing runs: GS-2008A-Q-35.

  5. The evolution of the intergalactic medium and the origin of the galaxy luminosity function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valls-Gabaud, David; Blanchard, Alain; Mamon, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The coupling of the Press and Schechter prescription with the CDM scenario and the Hoyle-Rees-Ostriker cooling criterion leads to a galaxy formation scenario in which galaxies are overproduced by a large factor. Although star formation might be suppressed in the smaller halos, a large amount of energy per galactic mass is needed to account for the present number density of galaxies. The evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) provides a simple criterion to prevent galaxy formation without requiring feedback, since halos with small virial temperatures are not able to retain the infalling hot gas of the IGM. If the ionizing background has decreased since z is approximately 1 - 2, then this criterion explains the slope of the luminosity function at the faint end. In addition, this scenario predicts two populations of dwarf galaxies, well differentiated in age, gas content, stellar populations, and clustering properties, which can be identified with dE and dIm galaxies.

  6. Measuring the equation of state of the high-z intergalactic medium using curvature statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padmanabhan, Hamsa; Srianand, R.; Choudhury, T. Roy

    2015-06-01

    Using hydrodynamical simulations, we explore the use of the mean and percentiles of the curvature distribution function to recover the equation of state of the high-z (2 < z < 4) intergalactic medium (IGM). We find that the mean and percentiles of the absolute curvature distribution exhibit tight correlation with the temperatures measured at respective characteristic overdensities bar{Δ }_is at each redshift. Hence, they provide complementary probes of the same underlying temperature-density distribution, and can in principle be used to simultaneously recover both parameters T0 and γ of the IGM effective equation of state. We quantify the associated errors in the recovered parameters T0 and γ from the intrinsic scatter in the characteristic overdensities and the uncertainties in the curvature measurement.

  7. The effect of feedback on the emission properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roncarelli, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Moscardini, L.

    2012-08-01

    At present, 30-40 per cent of the baryons in the local Universe is still undetected. According to theoretical predictions, this gas should reside in filaments filling the large-scale structure (LSS) in the form of a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), at temperatures 105-107 K, thus emitting in the soft X-ray energies via free-free interaction and line emission from heavy elements. In this work, we characterize the properties of the X-ray emission of the WHIM, and the LSS in general, focusing on the influence of different physical mechanisms, namely galactic winds (GWs), black hole feedback and star formation, and providing estimates of possible observational constraints. To this purpose, we use a set of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations that include a self-consistent treatment of star formation and chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium, which allows us to follow the evolution of different metal species. We construct a set of simulated light cones to make predictions of the emission in the 0.3-10 keV energy range. We obtain that GWs increase the emission of both galaxy clusters and WHIM by a factor of 2. The amount of oxygen at average temperature and, consequently, the amount of expected bright O VII and O VIII lines are increased by a factor of 3 due to GWs and by 20 per cent when assuming a top-heavy initial mass function. We compare our results with current observational constraints and find that the emission from faint groups and WHIM should account for half to all of the unresolved X-ray background in the 1-2 keV band.

  8. Spontaneous magnetization of a vacuum in the hot Universe and intergalactic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demchik, V.; Skalozub, V.

    2015-01-01

    We review the spontaneous magnetization of the vacuum of non-Abelian gauge fields at high temperature. The standard model of particles is investigated as a particular example. By using both analytic methods of quantum field theory and gauge field theory on a lattice, we determine the Abelian (chromo)magnetic fields in the restored phase of the model at high temperatures T ≥ T ew . The fields are stable and temperature dependent, B = B( T). We investigate the mechanisms of the field stabilization in detail. The screening parameters for electric and magnetic fields—the Debye, m D ( B, T), and magnetic, m magn ( B, T), masses—are calculated. It is shown that, in the field presence, the former one is smaller than at zero field. The magnetic mass of the (chromo)magnetic fields is determined to be zero, as for usual U(1) magnetic field. We also show that the vacuum magnetization stops at temperatures below the electroweak phase transition temperature, T ≤ T ew , when a scalar condensate creates. These properties make reasonable a possibility that the intergalactic magnetic fields observed recently were spontaneously generated in the hot Universe at the reheating epoch due to vacuum polarization of non-Abelian gauge fields. We present a procedure for estimating the field strengths B( T) at different temperatures. In particular, the value of B( T ew ) ˜ 1014 G, at T ew is estimated with taking into consideration the observed intergalactic magnetic field B 0 ˜ 10-15 G. The magnetic field scale is also estimated. Some model dependent peculiarities of the phenomena studied are briefly discussed.

  9. The reionization of the universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.

    1993-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium (IGM) composed of H and He, undergoing reionization, including the mean effect of gas clumps embedded in a smoothly distributed ambient gas were calculated. The rate equations for ionization and recombination were solved together with the equations of energy conservation, including the effects of cosmological expansion, radiative and Compton cooling, and the diffuse flux emitted by the gas, and radiative transfer. The contribution to the continuum opacity of the universe due to the observed quasar absorption line clouds (QALC'S) were included. A variety of sources of photoionization, including quasars and primeval galaxies, as well as the possibility that hydrodynamical processes deposit thermal energy in the IGM were considered. Applications of these calculations including the evolution of the Ly-alpha forest clouds are described. A self-consistent treatment of the thermal and ionization history of the intergalactic medium (IGM) must take account of the growth of structure in the universe, since the mean density of the IGM corresponds primarily to the time-varying uncollapsed fraction of the baryon-electron component of the matter, and the collapsed fraction, in turn, can have a feedback effect on this uncollapsed fraction by releasing ionizing radiation and thermal energy and by contributing to the opacity of the universe. The coupled evolution of the IGM and the emerging structure with a special focus on the reionization of the IGM, which is believed to have been completed by some redshift z is approximately greater than 4, as inferred from the absence of the Gunn-Peterson effect in the spectra of high z quasars, are studied. The results and implications of detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He, including the mean effect of an evolving distribution of gas clumps embedded in a smoothly distributed ambient gas is described.

  10. The proximity profile of intergalactic He II resonance absorption toward high-redshift QSOs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Wei; Davidsen, Arthur

    1995-01-01

    The Gunn-Peterson effect predicts that an absorption trough should be associated with any resonance line arising in the intergalactic medium (IGM), extending blueward of the line in the QSO's rest frame. We show that such an absorption trough will not generally have a sharp edge at the QSO's redshift but should develop gradually toward shorter wavelengths. This proximity profile of the Gunn-Peterson trough arises because diffuse intergalactic gas in the vicinity of the QSO is more highly ionized than the general IGM. We consider the case of a uniform IGM in approximate photoionization equilibrium with a metagalactic UV background and investigate the proximity profile of He II lambda 304, which might be observable in QSOs with Z(sub Q) approximately 3. Assuming the QSO continuum extends beyond the He II ionization edge, the proximity profile has a characteristic width of delta z(sub p) = delta lambda/304 is approximately 0.1 f is the QSO Lyman limit luminosity in units of 10(exp 31) ergs/s/Hz averaged over the past approximately 10(exp 7) yr, omega(sub I) is the IGM density near (is less than or equal to 10 Mpc) the QSO, omega(sub b) is the normalized baryon density predicted by standard big band necleosynthesis, and f is a factor of order unity which depends weakly on several other factors. Application of this result to the reported detection of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect in Q0302-003 (Jakobsen et al. 1994) suggests that omega(sub I) is approximately equal to omega(sub b), some three orders of magnitude larger than the minimum density that may be inferred from application of the ordinary Gunn-Peterson effect to this QSO. Future observations of the He II proximity profile at higher resolution and signal-to-noise ratio in serveral ASOs should provide the means to measure the IGM density accurately.

  11. DETECTING THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM THROUGH X-RAY ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Cash, Webster; Wang, Q. Daniel

    2012-02-20

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance ({approx}< 3{sigma}) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of {approx}90 and 190 per 50 mA spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N{sub Ovii}{approx}10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mA for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s{sup -1}) at {approx}> 3{sigma} significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N{sub Ovii} at {>=}4{sigma} from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of {approx}0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R {approx} 4000 and effective area A {>=} 100 cm{sup 2} to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of {approx}2 Ms and would require {approx}11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux {approx}> 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  12. Detecting the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium through X-Ray Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yangsen; Shull, J. Michael; Wang, Q. Daniel; Cash, Webster

    2012-02-01

    The warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) at temperatures 105-107 K is believed to contain 30%-50% of the baryons in the local universe. However, all current X-ray detections of the WHIM at redshifts z > 0 are of low statistical significance (lsim 3σ) and/or controversial. In this work, we aim to establish the detection limits of current X-ray observatories and explore requirements for next-generation X-ray telescopes for studying the WHIM through X-ray absorption lines. We analyze all available grating observations of Mrk 421 and obtain spectra with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) of ~90 and 190 per 50 mÅ spectral bin from Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, respectively. Although these spectra are two of the best ever collected with Chandra and XMM-Newton, we cannot confirm the two WHIM systems reported by Nicastro et al. in 2005. Our bootstrap simulations indicate that spectra with such high S/N cannot constrain the WHIM with O VII column densities N_{O VII}≈ 10^{15} cm^{-2} (corresponding to an equivalent width of 2.5 mÅ for a Doppler velocity of 50 km s-1) at >~ 3σ significance level. The simulation results also suggest that it would take >60 Ms for Chandra and 140 Ms for XMM-Newton to measure the N_{OVII} at >=4σ from a spectrum of a background QSO with flux of ~0.2 mCrab (1 Crab = 2 × 10-8 erg s-1 cm-2 at 0.5-2 keV). Future X-ray spectrographs need to be equipped with spectral resolution R ~ 4000 and effective area A >= 100 cm2 to accomplish the similar constraints with an exposure time of ~2 Ms and would require ~11 Ms to survey the 15 QSOs with flux >~ 0.2 mCrab along which clear intergalactic O VI absorbers have been detected.

  13. Evolution of Structure in the Intergalactic Medium and the Nature of the LY-Alpha Forest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bi, Hongguang; Davidsen, Arthur F.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed a detailed statistical study of the evolution of structure in a photoionized intergalactic medium (IGM) using analytical simulations to extend the calculation into the mildly nonlinear density regime found to prevail at z = 3. Our work is based on a simple fundamental conjecture: that the probability distribution function of the density of baryonic diffuse matter in the universe is described by a lognormal (LN) random field. The LN distribution has several attractive features and follows plausibly from the assumption of initial linear Gaussian density and velocity fluctuations at arbitrarily early times. Starting with a suitably normalized power spectrum of primordial fluctuations in a universe dominated by cold dark matter (CDM), we compute the behavior of the baryonic matter, which moves slowly toward minima in the dark matter potential on scales larger than the Jeans length. We have computed two models that succeed in matching observations. One is a nonstandard CDM model with OMEGA = 1, h = 0.5, and GAMMA = 0.3, and the other is a low-density flat model with a cosmological constant (LCDM), with OMEGA = 0.4, OMEGA(sub LAMBDA) = 0.6, and h = 0.65. In both models, the variance of the density distribution function grows with time, reaching unity at about z = 4, where the simulation yields spectra that closely resemble the Ly-alpha forest absorption seen in the spectra of high-z quasars. The calculations also successfully predict the observed properties of the Ly-alpha forest clouds and their evolution from z = 4 down to at least z = 2, assuming a constant intensity for the metagalactic UV background over this redshift range. However, in our model the forest is not due to discrete clouds, but rather to fluctuations in a continuous intergalactic medium. At z = 3; typical clouds with measured neutral hydrogen column densities N(sub H I) = 10(exp 13.3), 10(exp 13.5), and 10(exp 11.5) /sq cm correspond to fluctuations with mean total densities approximately 10, 1, and 0.1 times the universal mean baryon density. Perhaps surprisingly, fluctuations whose amplitudes are less than or equal to the mean density still appear as "clouds" because in our model more than 70% of the volume of the IGM at z = 3 is filled with gas at densities below the mean value.

  14. Diagnosing the reionization of the universe - The absorption spectrum of the intergalactic medium and Lyman alpha clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giroux, Mark L.; Shapiro, Paul R.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal and ionization evolution of a uniform intergalactic medium composed of H and He and undergoing reionization is studied. The diagnosis of the metagalactic ionizing radiation background at z of about three using metal line ratios for Lyman limit quasar absorption line systems is addressed. The use of the He II Gunn-Peterson effect to diagnose the reionization source and/or nature of the Hy-alpha forest clouds is considered.

  15. Intergalactic magnetic fields and gamma-ray observations of extreme TeV blazars

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, Timothy C.; Vassilev, Vladimir V.; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P.; Shafi, S. Yusef

    2014-11-20

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in cosmic voids can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, 'extreme TeV blazars', can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from inverse Compton scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature that utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars, 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same framework. Through a recently developed, detailed, three-dimensional particle-tracking Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research the effects of major uncertainties, such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the ultraviolet and far-infrared extragalactic background light, undersampled very high energy (energy ≥100 GeV) coverage, past history of gamma-ray emission, source versus observer geometry, and the jet AGN Doppler factor. The implications of these effects on the recently reported lower limits of the IGMF are thoroughly examined to conclude that the presently available data are compatible with a zero-IGMF hypothesis.

  16. On the source of ionization of the intergalactic medium at z~2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sethi, Shiv K.; Nath, Biman B.

    1997-08-01

    We use the recent detection of H ii absorption at z=2.2-2.6 in the line of sight of the quasar HS 1700+64 to put bounds on the sources of ionization. We find that, given the uncertainty in tau^HI_GP and the model of absorption in the intergalactic medium (IGM), a wide range of possible sources of ionization is still allowed by the observations. We show that a significant contribution from star-forming galaxies is allowed and is consistent with the proximity effect. In the case of photoionization by the UV background radiation, the contribution of star-forming galaxies to the intensity at 912 A can be within a range of ~1-15 times that of the quasars. We also investigate the case of a collisionally ionized IGM. We show that although collisional ionization can be a dominant source of ionization at z~2.4 (taking into account the upper limit on the Compton y-parameter of the microwave background radiation), the thermal state of the IGM cannot yet be determined. We also consider Sciama's model of radiatively decaying neutrinos, and show that the model of decaying neutrinos is consistent with the observations.

  17. Probing the Statistics of the Temperature-Density Relation of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Taotao; White, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Gravitational instability induces a simple correlation between the large- and small-scale fluctuations of the Lyα flux spectrum. However, nongravitational processes involved in structure formation and evolution will alter such a correlation. In this Letter, we explore how scatter in the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium reduces the gravitationally induced scale-scale correlation. By examining whether or not observations of the correlation are close to that predicted by pure gravity, we put constraints on the scatter in the ρ-T relation and in turn on any physical process that would lead to scatter, e.g., strong fluctuations in the UV background or radiative transfer effects. By applying this method to high-resolution Keck spectra of Q1422+231 and HS 1946+7658, we find the predicted correlation signal induced by gravity and the diminishing of this correlation signal at small scales. This suggests extra physics affects the small-scale structure of the forest, and we can constrain the scatter in the ρ-T relation to a conservative 20% upper limit. A crude model suggests, if there is any spatial correlation of temperature, the coherence length scale must be smaller than ~0.3 h-1 Mpc to be consistent with the Keck data.

  18. Strength of the spontaneously emitted collective aperiodic magnetic field fluctuations in the reionized early intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Schlickeiser, R.; Felten, T. E-mail: tim.felten@rub.de

    2013-11-20

    Nonmagnetized, fully ionized plasmas spontaneously emit aperiodic turbulent magnetic field fluctuations. Its fluctuation intensities are dominated by the contribution from a recently discovered collective, damped mode, which modifies the earlier estimate of the total magnetic field strength in a thermal nonrelativistic electron-proton plasma to |δB|=24β{sub e}{sup 1/4}(gn{sub e}m{sub e}c{sup 2}){sup 1/2} G, where g denotes the plasma parameter and β {sub e} the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light, in the case of no collisional damping. Accounting for simultaneous viscous damping reduces the estimate to |δB|{sub eq} = 2305g(n{sub e}m{sub e}c {sup 2}){sup 1/2} G, depending only on the plasma parameter g and the electron density n{sub e} . For the unmagnetized intergalactic medium, immediately after the reionization onset the field strengths from this mechanism are about 6.8 × 10{sup –13} G for no collisional damping and 1.5 × 10{sup –16} G for viscous damping. Maximum spatial scales of 10{sup 15} cm of the emitted aperiodic fluctuations in cosmic voids are possible.

  19. The evolving intergalactic medium - The uncollapsed baryon fraction in a cold dark matter universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1991-01-01

    The time-varying density of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is calculated by coupling detailed numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform IGM of H and He to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both gases and a dark component in a cold dark matter universe. The IGM density is identified with the collapsed baryon fraction. It is found that even if the IGM is never reheated, a significant fraction of the baryons remain uncollapsed at redshifts of four. If instead the collapsed fraction releases enough ionizing radiation or thermal energy to reionize the IGM by z greater than four as required by the Gunn-Peterson (GP) constraint, the uncollapsed fraction at z of four is even higher. The known quasar distribution is insufficient to supply the ionizing radiation necessary to satisfy the GP constraint in this case and, if stars are instead responsible, a substantial metallicity must have been produced by z of four.

  20. Quasar ionization front Lyα emission in an inhomogeneous intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Frederick B.; Furlanetto, Steven R.; McQuinn, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The conditions within the ionization front of a quasar during reionization (T ˜ 30 000 K, neutral hydrogen fraction x_H I˜ 0.5) are ideal for producing Lyα emission via collisional excitation of hydrogen atoms. Observations of this emission, which could subtend ≳ 10 arcmin2 on the sky, would definitively demonstrate the presence of a neutral intergalactic medium at the observed epoch, placing valuable constraints on the progress of reionization. We find that the expected Lyα surface brightness is significantly weaker than previously determined and may be impossible to observe with current and near-future instruments. Past work calculated the Lyα emission from a quasar ionization front in a homogeneous medium with a clumping factor approximation to account for inhomogeneities. We find using 1D radiative transfer calculations that this approximation overestimates the emission by a factor of ≳ 3. Our calculations model the propagation of ionizing photons and compute the Lyα emission from quasar ionization fronts on sightlines from a hydrodynamic cosmological simulation at z = 7.1. To better understand the physical properties of the emission, we also develop an analytic model that accurately describes the results of the full radiative transfer calculation.

  1. A study of galaxy groups and clusters - The case for a clumpy intergalactic medium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silk, J.; Tarter, J.

    1973-01-01

    A nonuniform model for a dense intergalactic medium is constructed under the assumption that all groups and clusters of galaxies are gravitationally bound by ionized gas. Catalogs by de Vaucouleurs and Abell are utilized to provide an almost complete sample of the spatial distribution of groups and clusters over a wide range of richness, and a distribution function is derived for galaxy groups and clusters as a function of velocity dispersion. A simple scaling law is applied to predict velocity dispersions for the very rich Abell clusters. Thermal bremsstrahlung emission from the intracluster gas accounts for the observed emission over 2 to 10 keV from several rich clusters, and also contributes up to 20% of the diffuse X-ray background over a considerable fraction of the observed range. The amount of X-ray emitting gas is restricted to a small fraction of the virial mass, with the remainder of the binding mass present as cooler ionized clouds. Available soft X-ray and ultraviolet diffuse background observations are used to define a narrow range of permissible temperatures and densities for these clouds.

  2. A consistent determination of the temperature of the intergalactic medium at redshift z = 2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, James S.; Becker, George D.; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Viel, Matteo

    2014-03-01

    We present new measurements of the thermal state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z 2.4 derived from absorption line profiles in the Ly? forest. We use a large set of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations to calibrate the relationship between the temperature-density (T-?) relation in the IGM and the distribution of H I column densities, NH I, and velocity widths, NH I, of discrete Ly? forest absorbers. This calibration is then applied to the measurement of the lower cut-off of the NH I-NH I distribution recently presented by Rudie et al. We infer a power-law T-? relation, T = T0?? - 1, with a temperature at mean density, T0 = [1.00^{+0.32}_{-0.21}] 104 K and slope (? - 1) = 0.54 0.11. The slope is fully consistent with that advocated by the analysis of Rudie et al.; however, the temperature at mean density is lower by almost a factor of 2, primarily due to an adjustment in the relationship between column density and physical density assumed by these authors. These new results are in excellent agreement with the recent temperature measurements of Becker et al., based on the curvature of the transmitted flux in the Ly? forest. This suggests that the thermal state of the IGM at this redshift is reasonably well characterized over the range of densities probed by these methods.

  3. Non-parametric 3D map of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman-alpha forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisewski, Jessi; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Khandai, Nishikanta; Ozbek, Melih; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-05-01

    Visualizing the high-redshift Universe is difficult due to the dearth of available data; however, the Lyman-alpha forest provides a means to map the intergalactic medium at redshifts not accessible to large galaxy surveys. Large-scale structure surveys, such as the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), have collected quasar (QSO) spectra that enable the reconstruction of H I density fluctuations. The data fall on a collection of lines defined by the lines of sight (LOS) of the QSO, and a major issue with producing a 3D reconstruction is determining how to model the regions between the LOS. We present a method that produces a 3D map of this relatively uncharted portion of the Universe by employing local polynomial smoothing, a non-parametric methodology. The performance of the method is analysed on simulated data that mimics the varying number of LOS expected in real data, and then is applied to a sample region selected from BOSS. Evaluation of the reconstruction is assessed by considering various features of the predicted 3D maps including visual comparison of slices, probability density functions (PDFs), counts of local minima and maxima, and standardized correlation functions. This 3D reconstruction allows for an initial investigation of the topology of this portion of the Universe using persistent homology.

  4. Constraints on the Intergalactic Magnetic Field with Gamma-Ray Observations of Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finke, Justin D.; Reyes, Luis C.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Reynolds, Kaeleigh; Ajello, Marco; Fegan, Stephen J.; McCann, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Distant BL Lacertae objects emit γ-rays that interact with the extragalactic background light (EBL), creating electron-positron pairs, and reducing the flux measured by ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs) at very-high energies (VHE). These pairs can Compton-scatter the cosmic microwave background, creating a γ-ray signature at slightly lower energies that is observable by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This signal is strongly dependent on the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) strength (B) and its coherence length (LB). We use IACT spectra taken from the literature for 5 VHE-detected BL Lac objects and combine them with LAT spectra for these sources to constrain these IGMF parameters. Low B values can be ruled out by the constraint that the cascade flux cannot exceed that observed by the LAT. High values of B can be ruled out from the constraint that the EBL-deabsorbed IACT spectrum cannot be greater than the LAT spectrum extrapolated into the VHE band, unless the cascade spectrum contributes a sizable fraction of the LAT flux. We rule out low B values (B ≲ 10-19 G for LB ≥ 1 Mpc) at >5σ in all trials with different EBL models and data selection, except when using >1 GeV spectra and the lowest EBL models. We were not able to constrain high values of B.

  5. Search for Oxygen Emission from Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium around A2218 with Suzaku

    SciTech Connect

    Takei, Yoh; Ohashi, Takaya; Henry, J.Patrick; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Fujimoto, Ryuichi; Tamura, Takayuki; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Hayashida, Kiyoshi; Tawa, Noriaki; Matsushita, Kyoko; Bautz, Mark W.; Hughes, John P.; Madejski, Grzegorz M.; Kelley, Richard L.; Arnaud, Keith A.; /JAXA, Sagamihara /Tokyo Metropolitan U. /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Osaka U. /Sci. U., Tokyo /MIT, MKI /Rutgers U., Piscataway /SLAC /NASA, Goddard

    2006-09-08

    We searched for redshifted O emission lines from the possible warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) surrounding the cluster of galaxies A2218 at z = 0.1756 using the XIS instrument on Suzaku. This cluster is thought to have an elongated structure along the line of sight based on previous studies. We studied systematic uncertainties in the spectrum of the Galactic emission and in the soft X-ray response of the detectors due to the contamination building up on the XIS filters. We detected no significant redshifted O lines, and set a tight constraint on the intensity with upper limits for the surface brightness of O{sub VII} and O{sub VIII} lines of 1.1 x 10{sup -7} and 3.0 x 10{sup -7} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} arcmin{sup -2}, respectively. These upper limits are significantly lower than the previously reported fluxes from the WHIM around other clusters of galaxies. We also discuss the prospect for the detection of the WHIM lines with Suzaku XIS in the future.

  6. Intergalactic Magnetic Fields and Gamma-Ray Observations of Extreme TeV Blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlen, Timothy C.; Vassilev, Vladimir V.; Weisgarber, Thomas; Wakely, Scott P.; Yusef Shafi, S.

    2014-11-01

    The intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in cosmic voids can be indirectly probed through its effect on electromagnetic cascades initiated by a source of teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-rays, such as active galactic nuclei (AGNs). AGNs that are sufficiently luminous at TeV energies, "extreme TeV blazars", can produce detectable levels of secondary radiation from inverse Compton scattering of the electrons in the cascade, provided that the IGMF is not too large. We review recent work in the literature that utilizes this idea to derive constraints on the IGMF for three TeV-detected blazars, 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 1218+304, and RGB J0710+591, and we also investigate four other hard-spectrum TeV blazars in the same framework. Through a recently developed, detailed, three-dimensional particle-tracking Monte Carlo code, incorporating all major effects of QED and cosmological expansion, we research the effects of major uncertainties, such as the spectral properties of the source, uncertainty in the ultraviolet and far-infrared extragalactic background light, undersampled very high energy (energy >=100 GeV) coverage, past history of gamma-ray emission, source versus observer geometry, and the jet AGN Doppler factor. The implications of these effects on the recently reported lower limits of the IGMF are thoroughly examined to conclude that the presently available data are compatible with a zero-IGMF hypothesis.

  7. Constraints on high redshift galaxy formation and its impact on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijkstra, Mark

    2005-12-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxies and the thermodynamic state of the inter-galactic medium (IGM) are fundamentally intertwined. The formation of stars is associated with various mechanisms that can drastically perturb the IGM. Since the IGM contains the gas reservoir for the subsequent generation of galaxies, its distribution and thermodynamic state has direct consequence for the galaxies that have yet to form. Observational constraints on the evolution of the galaxy population translate directly to constraints on the evolution of the IGM and vice versa. In this thesis we focus on exploring techniques to phenomenologically constrain galaxy formation at high redshift and its impact on the IGM. We discuss a new way to determine the relation between temperature and density in the IGM, by analyzing the Lyb forest in the spectra of distant quasars. We address how neutral hydrogen gas may be detected in absorption in the X-Ray band and in emission in the Lya line during the first stages of galaxy formation. We investigate how the cooling and collapse of this gas is affected by the presence of a photoionizing background, that was generated by a population of sources that formed at an earlier epoch. The nature of these first sources is poorly known. The most popular candidates are stars and miniquasars. In this thesis we constrain the abundance of these miniquasars at high redshift.

  8. MAST Interface to Synthetic Telescopes with yt {MISTY}: Observing Simulations of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peeples, Molly

    2014-10-01

    The COS instrument has shed new light on the metal-rich, massive, multi-phase reservoirs of gas surrounding galaxies. Numerical modeling has greatly enhanced the scientific understanding of the large body of of circumgalactic medium {CGM} and intergalactic medium {IGM} observations taken with COS. These numerical models produce synthetic spectra for direct comparison against COS outputs, a useful data resource for both simulators and observers alike, yet different groups apply different methods and formats, and there is no public archive of this scientific resource. We propose to construct a uniform and public simulation-to-archive pipeline for generating, analyzing, and providing to the community such synthetic spectra. By enabling rigorous and consistent comparisons between COS data and simulations, this project will advance our detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical conditions in CGM/IGM absorbers {density, temperature, metallicity ionization, ionization process}, and of the connection between observed velocity structure and galactic inflows and outflows. The results of our pipeline will be searchable via a MAST interface allowing users to specify subsets of synthetic spectra they wish to download and analyze.

  9. Distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    SciTech Connect

    Ryu, D.; Vishniac, E.T.; Chiang, W.H.

    1988-11-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  10. Lyα heating of inhomogeneous high-redshift intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Oklopčić, Antonija; Hirata, Christopher M.

    2013-12-20

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) prior to the epoch of reionization consists mostly of neutral hydrogen gas. Lyman-α (Lyα) photons produced by early stars resonantly scatter off hydrogen atoms, causing energy exchange between the radiation field and the gas. This interaction results in moderate heating of the gas due to the recoil of the atoms upon scattering, which is of great interest for future studies of the pre-reionization IGM in the H I 21 cm line. We investigate the effect of this Lyα heating in the IGM with linear density, temperature, and velocity perturbations. Perturbations smaller than the diffusion length of photons could be damped due to heat conduction by Lyα photons. The scale at which damping occurs and the strength of this effect depend on various properties of the gas, the flux of Lyα photons, and the way in which photon frequencies are redistributed upon scattering. To find the relevant length scale and the extent to which Lyα heating affects perturbations, we calculate the gas heating rates by numerically solving linearized Boltzmann equations in which scattering is treated by the Fokker-Planck approximation. We find that (1) perturbations add a small correction to the gas heating rate, and (2) the damping of temperature perturbations occurs at scales with comoving wavenumber k ≳ 10{sup 4} Mpc{sup –1}, which are much smaller than the Jeans scale and thus unlikely to substantially affect the observed 21 cm signal.

  11. ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. METAL DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Germain, Joel; Barai, Paramita; Martel, Hugo

    2009-10-20

    We investigate the cosmological-scale influence of outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on metal enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). AGNs are located in dense cosmological structures which tend to be anisotropic. We designed a semianalytical model for anisotropic AGN outflows which expand away along the direction of least resistance. This model was implemented into a cosmological numerical simulation algorithm for simulating the growth of large-scale structure in the universe. Using this modified algorithm, we perform a series of nine simulations inside cosmological volumes of size (128 h {sup -1} Mpc){sup 3}, in a concordance LAMBDACDM universe, varying the opening angle of the outflows, the lifetimes of the AGNs, their kinetic fractions, and their level of clustering. For each simulation, we compute the volume fraction of the IGM enriched in metals by the outflows. The resulting enriched volume fractions are relatively small at z approx> 2.5, and then grow rapidly afterward up to z = 0. We find that AGN outflows enrich from 65% to 100% of the entire universe at the present epoch, for different values of the model parameters. The enriched volume fraction depends weakly on the opening angle of the outflows. However, increasingly anisotropic outflows preferentially enrich underdense regions, a trend found more prominent at higher redshifts and decreasing at lower redshifts. The enriched volume fraction increases with increasing kinetic fraction and decreasing AGN lifetime, and level of clustering.

  12. Measurement of Intergalactic Magnetic and Photon Fields with Secondary Photons and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essey, Warren James

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) can produce both gamma rays and cosmic rays. The observed high-energy gamma-ray signals from distant blazars may be dominated by secondary gamma rays produced along the line of sight by the interactions of cosmic-ray protons and gamma rays with background photons. This explains the surprisingly low attenuation observed for distant blazars, because the production of secondary gamma rays occurs, on average, much closer to Earth than the distance to the source. Thus the observed spectrum in the TeV range depends on the combination of secondary and primary signals. We apply this hypothesis to a number of sources and, in every case, we obtain an excellent fit, strengthening the interpretation of the observed spectra as being due to secondary gamma rays. We explore the ramifications of this interpretation for limits on the intergalactic magnetics fields, extragalactic background light and AGN properties. We also make predictions for the neutrino signals, which can help probe the acceleration of cosmic rays in AGN.

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray background from structure formation in the intergalactic medium

    PubMed

    Loeb; Waxman

    2000-05-11

    The Universe is filled with a diffuse background of gamma-ray radiation, the origin of which remains one of the unsolved puzzles of cosmology. Less than one-quarter of the gamma-ray flux can be attributed to unresolved discrete sources, such as active galactic nuclei; the remainder appears to constitute a truly diffuse background. Here we show that the shock waves induced by gravity in the gas of the intergalactic medium, during the formation of large-scale structures like filaments and sheets of galaxies, produce a population of highly relativistic electrons. These electrons scatter a small fraction of the cosmic microwave background photons in the local Universe up to gamma-ray energies, thereby providing the gamma-ray background. The predicted diffuse flux agrees with the observed background across more than four orders of magnitude in photon energy, and the model predicts that the gamma-ray background, though generated locally, is isotropic to better than five per cent on angular scales larger than a degree. Moreover, the agreement between the predicted and observed background fluxes implies a mean cosmological density of baryons that is consistent with Big Bang nucleosynthesis. PMID:10821264

  14. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich properties of the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Huffenberger, K.

    2014-07-01

    We use numerical simulations to predict the soft X-ray ([0.4-0.6] keV) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal (at 150 GHz) from a large-scale structure in the universe and then compute two-point statistics to study the spatial distribution and time evolution of the signals. The average X-ray signal predicted for the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) is in good agreement with observational constraints that set it at about 10% of the total diffuse X-ray background. The characteristic angle computed with the autocorrelation function is of the order of some arcminutes and becomes smaller at higher redshift. The power spectrum peak of the SZ due to the WHIM is at l ∼ 10,000 and has an amplitude of ∼0.2 μK{sup 2}, about one order of magnitude below the signal measured with telescopes like Planck, Atacama Cosmology Telescope, and South Pole Telescope. Even if the high-redshift WHIM signal is too weak to be detected using X-rays only, the small-scale correlation between X-ray and SZ maps is dominated by the high-redshift WHIM. This makes the analysis of the SZ signal in support of X-rays a promising tool to study the early time WHIM.

  15. EFFECT OF METALLICITY ON X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Ursino, E.; Galeazzi, M.; Roncarelli, M.

    2010-09-20

    Hydrodynamic simulations predict that a significant fraction of the gas in the current universe is in the form of high temperature, highly ionized plasma emitting and absorbing primarily in the soft X-ray and UV bands, dubbed the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). Its signature should be observable in redshifted emission and absorption lines from highly ionized elements. To determine the expected WHIM emission in the soft X-ray band we used the output of a large scale smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation to generate images and spectra with angular resolution of 14'' and energy resolution of 1 eV. The current biggest limit of any hydrodynamic simulation in predicting the X-ray emission comes from metal diffusion. In our investigation, by using four different models for the WHIM metallicity we have found a strong dependence of the emission on the model used, with differences up to almost an order of magnitude. For each model, we have investigated the redshift distribution and angular scale of the emission, confirming that most photons come from redshift z < 1.2 and that the emission has a typical angular scale of less than a few arcminutes. We also compared our simulations with the few currently available observations and found that, within the variation of the metallicity models, our predictions are in good agreement with current constraints on the WHIM emission, and at this time the weak experimental constraints on the WHIM emission are not sufficient to exclude any of the models used.

  16. STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK AND METAL-ENRICHMENT HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue; Chisari, Nora Elisa E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-04-10

    Using the state-of-the-art cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of the standard cold dark matter model with star formation feedback strength normalized to match the observed star formation history of the universe at z= 0-6, we compute the metal-enrichment history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Overall we show that galactic superwind (GSW) feedback from star formation can transport metals to the IGM and that the properties of simulated metal absorbers match current observations. The distance of influence of GSW from galaxies is typically limited to about {<=}0.5 Mpc and within regions of overdensity {delta} {>=} 10. Most C IV and O VI absorbers are located within shocked regions of elevated temperature (T {>=} 2 x 10{sup 4} K), overdensity ({delta} {>=} 10), and metallicity ([Z/Z{sub sun}] = [ - 2.5, - 0.5]), enclosed by double shocks propagating outward. O VI absorbers have typically higher metallicity, lower density, and higher temperature than C IV absorbers. For O VI absorbers, collisional ionization dominates over the entire redshift range z= 0-6, whereas for C IV absorbers the transition occurs at moderate redshift z {approx} 3 from collisionally dominated to photoionization dominated. We find that the observed column density distributions for C IV and O VI in the range log N cm{sup 2}=12-15 are reasonably reproduced by the simulations. The evolution of mass densities contained in C IV and O VI lines, {Omega}{sub CIV} and {Omega}{sub OVI}, is also in good agreement with observations, which shows a near constancy at low redshifts and an exponential drop beyond redshift z= 3-4. For both C IV and O VI, most absorbers are transient and the amount of metals probed by C IV and O VI lines of column log N cm{sup 2}=12-15 is only {approx}2% of total metal density at any epoch. While gravitational shocks from large-scale structure formation dominate the energy budget (80%-90%) for turning about 50% of the IGM to the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) by z = 0, GSW feedback shocks are energetically dominant over gravitational shocks at z{>=}1-2. Most of the so-called missing metals at z= 2-3 are hidden in a warm-hot (T = 10{sup 4.5}-10{sup 7} K) gaseous phase, heated up by GSW feedback shocks. Their mass distribution is broadly peaked at {delta}=1-10 in the IGM, outside virialized halos. Approximately 37%, 46%, 10%, and 7% of the total metals at z = 0 are in stars, WHIM, X-ray gas, and cold gas, respectively; the distributions stand at 23%, 57%, 2%, and 18% and 14%, 51%, 4%, and 31% at z = 2 and z = 4, respectively.

  17. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopy of the Intergalactic and Interstellar Absorption Toward 3C 273

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sembach, Kenneth R.; Howk, J. Christopher; Savage, Blair D.; Shull, J. Michael; Oegerle, William R.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer observations of the molecular, neutral atomic, weakly ionized, and highly ionized components of the interstellar and intergalactic material toward the quasar 3C273. We identify Ly-beta absorption in eight of the known intergalactic Ly-alpha absorbers along the sight line with the rest-frame equivalent widths W(sub r)(Ly-alpha) > 50 micro-angstroms. Refined estimates of the H(I) column densities and Doppler parameters (b) of the clouds are presented. We find a range of b = 16-46 km/s. We detect multiple H(I) lines (Ly-beta - Ly-theta) in the 1590 km/s Virgo absorber and estimate logN(H(I)) = 15.85 +/- 0.10, ten times more H(I) than all of the other absorbers along the sight line combined. The Doppler width of this absorber, b = 16 km/s, implies T < 15,000 K. We detect O(VI) absorption at 1015 km/s at the 2-3(sigma) level that may be associated with hot, X-ray emitting gas in the Virgo Cluster. We detect weak C(III) and O(VI) absorption in the IGM at z=0.12007; this absorber is predominantly ionized and has N(H+)/N(H(I)) > 4000/Z, where Z is the metallicity. Strong Galactic interstellar O(VI) is present between -100 and +100 km/s with an additional high-velocity wing containing about 13% of the total O(VI) between +100 and +240 km/s. The Galactic O(VI), N(V), and C(IV) lines have similar shapes, with roughly constant ratios across the -100 to +100 km/s velocity range. The high velocity O(VI) wing is not detected in other species. Much of the interstellar high ion absorption probably occurs within a highly fragmented medium within the Loop IV remnant or in the outer cavity walls of the remnant. Multiple hot gas production mechanisms are required. The broad O(VI) absorption wing likely traces the expulsion of hot gas out of the Galactic disk into the halo. A flux limit of 5.4 x 10(epx -16) erg/sq cm/s on the amount of diffuse O(VI) emission present = 3.5' off the 3C273 sight line combined with the observed O(VI) column density toward 3C273, logN O(VI) = 14.73 +/- 0.04, implies n(sub e) < 0.02/cubic cm and P/k < 11,500/cubic cm for an assumed temperature of 3 x 10(exp 5) K. The elemental abundances in the neutral and weakly-ionized interstellar clouds are similar to those found for other halo clouds. The warm neutral and warm ionized clouds along the sight line have similar dust-phase abundances, implying that the properties of the dust grains in the two types of clouds are similar. Interstellar H2 absorption is present at positive velocities at a level of logN(H2) = 15.71, but is very weak at the velocities of the main column density concentration along the sight line observed in H(I) 21 cm emission.

  18. X-Ray Constraints on the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuntz, K. D.; Snowden, S. I.; Mushotzky, R. F.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three observational constraints can be placed on a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) using ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) pointed and survey data, the emission strength, the energy spectrum, and the fluctuation spectrum. The upper limit to the emission strength of the WHIM is 7.5 +/- 1.0 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) in the 3/4 keV band, an unknown portion of which value may be due to our own Galactic halo. The spectral stape of the WHIM emission can be described as thermal emission with logT = 6.42, although the true spectrum is more likely to come from a range of temperatures. The values of emission strength and spectral shape are in reasonable agreement with hydrodynamical cosmological models. The autocorrelation function in the 0.44 keV < E < 1.21 keV band range, w(theta), for the extragalactic soft X-ray background (SXRB) which includes both the WHIM and contributions due to point sources, is approx. < 0.002 for 10 min < 0 < 20 min in the 3/4 keV band. This value is lower than the Croft et al. (2000) cosmological model by a factor of approx. 5, but is still not inconsistent with cosmological models. It is also found that the normalization of the extragalactic power law component of the soft X-ray background spectrum must be 9.5 +/- 0.9 keV/(s*sq cm*sr*keV) to be consistent with the ROSAT All-Sky Survey.

  19. Large-scale 3D mapping of the intergalactic medium using the Lyman α forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozbek, Melih; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Khandai, Nishikanta

    2016-03-01

    Maps of the large-scale structure of the Universe at redshifts 2-4 can be made with the Lyman α forest which are complementary to low-redshift galaxy surveys. We apply the Wiener interpolation method of Caucci et al. to construct three-dimensional maps from sets of Lyman α forest spectra taken from cosmological hydrodynamic simulations. We mimic some current and future quasar redshift surveys [Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), extended BOSS (eBOSS) and Mid-Scale Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (MS-DESI)] by choosing similar sightline densities. We use these appropriate subsets of the Lyman α absorption sightlines to reconstruct the full three-dimensional Lyman α flux field and perform comparisons between the true and the reconstructed fields. We study global statistical properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) maps with autocorrelation and cross-correlation analysis, slice plots, local peaks and point-by-point scatter. We find that both the density field and the statistical properties of the IGM are recovered well enough that the resulting IGM maps can be meaningfully considered to represent large-scale maps of the Universe in agreement with Caucci et al., on larger scales and for sparser sightlines than had been tested previously. Quantitatively, for sightline parameters comparable to current and near future surveys the correlation coefficient between true and reconstructed fields is r > 0.9 on scales >30 h-1 Mpc. The properties of the maps are relatively insensitive to the precise form of the covariance matrix used. The final BOSS quasar Lyman α forest sample will allow maps to be made with a resolution of ˜30 h-1 Mpc over a volume of ˜15 h-3 Gpc3 between redshifts 1.9 and 2.3.

  20. The Temperature-Density Relation of the Intergalactic Medium after Hydrogen Reionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

    2009-08-01

    We use an analytic model to study how inhomogeneous hydrogen reionization affects the temperature distribution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). During this process, the residual energy of each ionizing photon is deposited in the IGM as heat, increasing its temperature to 20,000-30,000 K; subsequent expansion of the universe then cools the gas. Because reionization most likely proceeds from high to low densities, underdense voids are ionized last, have less time to cool, and are (on average) warmer than mean-density gas immediately after reionization is complete (an "inverted" temperature-density relation). From this initial configuration, the low-density gas cools quickly and eventually returns to a more normal temperature-density relation. The rapidly evolving temperature introduces systematic uncertainties in measurements of the ionizing background at z ~ 6. For example, late reionization implies rapid cooling, so that the ionizing background would have to evolve even more rapidly at z ~ 5-6 than typically claimed. This degeneracy is difficult to disentangle, because the Lyα forest probes only a narrow range in densities (over which the gas is nearly isothermal). However, higher Lyman-series transitions probe wider density ranges, sampling different effective temperatures, and offer a new way to measure the IGM temperature-density relation that should work even where nearly saturated absorption precludes other methods. This will help to separate evolution in temperature from that in the ionizing background. While more detailed study with hydrodynamic simulations is needed, we show that such measurements could potentially distinguish early and late reionization using only a handful of lines of sight.

  1. Unlocking the secrets of absorption line complexes in the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Shea, Brian

    2013-10-01

    It is well-established that the fraction of baryons in the Universe that are observable drops from nearly 100% at z 3 to less than 50% by z 0. Simulations predict that most of the missing baryons are located in the IGM at moderate densities and at temperatures of 10^5-10^7 K - gas that is generally in the filaments of the cosmic web and in circumgalactic regions. This gas is typically detected in the low-z Lyman alpha forest by measuring UV absorption lines of highly ionized metals, such as CIV and OVI. However, significant uncertainties exist relating to the physical conditions of the gas associated with these lines {such as temperature, metallicity, and ionization state}, which severely limits our ability to understand the physical environment of these absorbers. We propose to clarify the relationship between the multi-species absorption line complexes seen in QSO spectra and the physical conditions of the corresponding absorbing gas. We will do this using synthetic observing tools and the largest, most detailed simulations of the IGM to date, which include a new sophisticated treatment of non-equilibrium gas chemistry. We will create catalogs that enable conversion between specific combinations of observed absorption lines and the equivalent physical gas distribition, will calculate the total baryon content that is traceable with each ion, and will devise tests to distinguish between the circumgalactic and truly intergalactic medium. This work will be critical to the interpretation of previous and ongoing HST studies of the IGM - particularly those using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph - and directly addresses the HST Cycle 21 Ultraviolet Initiative.

  2. COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM EVOLUTION. I. TEST OF THE SUBGRID CHEMICAL ENRICHMENT MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Côté, Benoit; Martel, Hugo; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-11-10

    We present a one-zone galactic chemical enrichment model that takes into account the contribution of stellar winds from massive stars under the effect of rotation, Type II supernovae, hypernovae, stellar winds from low- and intermediate-mass stars, and Type Ia supernovae. This enrichment model will be implemented in a galactic model designed to be used as a subgrid treatment for galaxy evolution and outflow generation in large-scale cosmological simulations, in order to study the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We test our enrichment prescription by comparing its predictions with the metallicity distribution function and the abundance patterns of 14 chemical elements observed in the Milky Way stars. To do so, we combine the effect of many stellar populations created from the star formation history of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood. For each stellar population, we keep track of its specific mass, initial metallicity, and age. We follow the time evolution of every population in order to respect the time delay between the various stellar phases. Our model is able to reproduce the observed abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and Ca. For Si, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, the fits are still reasonable, but improvements are needed. We marginally reproduce the nitrogen abundance in very low metallicity stars. Overall, our results are consistent with the predicted abundance ratios seen in previous studies of the enrichment history of the Milky Way. We have demonstrated that our semi-analytic one-zone model, which cannot deal with spatial information such as the metallicity gradient, can nevertheless successfully reproduce the global Galactic enrichment evolution obtained by more complex models, at a fraction of the computational cost. This model is therefore suitable for a subgrid treatment of chemical enrichment in large-scale cosmological simulations.

  3. ALMA imprint of intergalactic dark structures in the gravitational lens SDP.81

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Kaiki Taro; Minezaki, Takeo; Matsushita, Satoki; Chiba, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    We present an analysis of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array long baseline science verification data of the gravitational lens system SDP.81. We fit the positions of the brightest clumps at redshift z = 3.042 and a possible active galactic nucleus component of the lensing galaxy at redshift z = 0.2999 in the band 7 continuum image using a canonical lens model, a singular isothermal ellipsoid plus an external shear. Then, we measure the ratio of fluxes in some apertures at the source plane where the lensed images are inversely mapped. We find that the aperture flux ratios of band 7 continuum image are perturbed by 10-20 per cent with a significance at 2 ˜ 3σ level. Moreover, we measure the astrometric shifts of multiply lensed images near the caustic using the CO(8-7) line. Using a lens model best fitted to the band 7 continuum image, we reconstruct the source image of the CO(8-7) line by taking linear combination of inverted quadruply lensed images. At the 50th channel (rest-frame velocity 28.6 km s-1) of the CO(8-7) line, we find an imprint of astrometric shifts of the order of 0.01 arcsec in the source image. Based on a semi-analytic calculation, we find that the observed anomalous flux ratios and the astrometric shifts can be explained by intergalactic dark structures in the line of sight. A compensated homogeneous spherical clump with a mean surface mass density of the order of 108 M⊙ h-1 arcsec-2 can explain the observed anomaly and astrometric shifts simultaneously.

  4. Cosmological Simulations of Intergalactic Medium Evolution. I. Test of the Subgrid Chemical Enrichment Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Benoit; Martel, Hugo; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-11-01

    We present a one-zone galactic chemical enrichment model that takes into account the contribution of stellar winds from massive stars under the effect of rotation, Type II supernovae, hypernovae, stellar winds from low- and intermediate-mass stars, and Type Ia supernovae. This enrichment model will be implemented in a galactic model designed to be used as a subgrid treatment for galaxy evolution and outflow generation in large-scale cosmological simulations, in order to study the evolution of the intergalactic medium. We test our enrichment prescription by comparing its predictions with the metallicity distribution function and the abundance patterns of 14 chemical elements observed in the Milky Way stars. To do so, we combine the effect of many stellar populations created from the star formation history of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood. For each stellar population, we keep track of its specific mass, initial metallicity, and age. We follow the time evolution of every population in order to respect the time delay between the various stellar phases. Our model is able to reproduce the observed abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Al, S, and Ca. For Si, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Zn, the fits are still reasonable, but improvements are needed. We marginally reproduce the nitrogen abundance in very low metallicity stars. Overall, our results are consistent with the predicted abundance ratios seen in previous studies of the enrichment history of the Milky Way. We have demonstrated that our semi-analytic one-zone model, which cannot deal with spatial information such as the metallicity gradient, can nevertheless successfully reproduce the global Galactic enrichment evolution obtained by more complex models, at a fraction of the computational cost. This model is therefore suitable for a subgrid treatment of chemical enrichment in large-scale cosmological simulations.

  5. TURBULENCE IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: SOLENOIDAL AND DILATATIONAL MOTIONS AND THE IMPACT OF NUMERICAL VISCOSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Weishan; Gu, Qiusheng; Feng, Long-long; Xia, Yinhua; Shu, Chi-Wang; Fang, Li-Zhi

    2013-11-01

    We use a suite of cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, run by two fixed grid codes, to investigate the properties of solenoidal and dilatational motions of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the impact of numerical viscosity on turbulence in an ΛCDM universe. The codes differ only in the spatial difference discretization. We find that (1) The vortical motion grows rapidly since z = 2 and reaches ∼10 km s{sup –1}-90 km s{sup –1} at z = 0. Meanwhile, the small-scale compressive ratio r{sub CS} drops from 0.84 to 0.47, indicating comparable vortical and compressive motions at z = 0. (2) Power spectra of the solenoidal velocity possess two regimes, ∝k {sup –0.89} and ∝k {sup –2.02}, while the total and dilatational velocity follow the scaling k {sup –1.88} and k {sup –2.20}, respectively, in the turbulent range. The IGM turbulence may contain two distinct phases, the supersonic and post-supersonic phases. (3) The non-thermal pressure support, measured by the vortical kinetic energy, is comparable with the thermal pressure for ρ{sub b} ≅ 10-100, or T < 10{sup 5.5} K at z = 0.0. The deviation of the baryon fraction from the cosmic mean shows a preliminary positive correlation with the turbulence pressure support. (4) A relatively higher numerical viscosity would dissipate both the compressive and vortical motions of the IGM into thermal energy more effectively, resulting in less developed vorticity, remarkably shortened inertial range, and leading to a non-negligible uncertainty in the thermal history of gas accretion. Shocks in regions outside of clusters are significantly suppressed by numerical viscosity since z = 2, which may directly cause the different levels of turbulence between the two codes.

  6. Patchy Blazar Heating: Diversifying the Thermal History of the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamberts, Astrid; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph; Puchwein, Ewald; Broderick, Avery E.; Shalaby, Mohamad

    2015-09-01

    TeV-blazars potentially heat the intergalactic medium (IGM) as their gamma rays interact with photons of the extragalactic background light to produce electron-positron pairs, which lose their kinetic energy to the surrounding medium through plasma instabilities. This results in a heating mechanism that is only weakly sensitive to the local density, and therefore approximately spatially uniform, naturally producing an inverted temperature-density relation in underdense regions. In this paper we go beyond the approximation of uniform heating and quantify the heating rate fluctuations due to the clustered distribution of blazars and how this impacts the thermal history of the IGM. We analytically compute a filtering function that relates the heating rate fluctuations to the underlying dark matter density field. We implement it in the cosmological code GADGET-3 and perform large-scale simulations to determine the impact of inhomogeneous heating. We show that because of blazar clustering, blazar heating is inhomogeneous for z ≳ 2. At high redshift, the temperature-density relation shows an important scatter and presents a low temperature envelope of unheated regions, in particular at low densities and within voids. However, the median temperature of the IGM is close to that in the uniform case, albeit slightly lower at low redshift. We find that blazar heating is more complex than initially assumed and that the temperature-density relation is not unique. Our analytic model for the heating rate fluctuations couples well with large-scale simulations and provides a cost-effective alternative to subgrid models.

  7. THE TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AFTER HYDROGEN REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Furlanetto, Steven R.; Oh, S. Peng

    2009-08-10

    We use an analytic model to study how inhomogeneous hydrogen reionization affects the temperature distribution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). During this process, the residual energy of each ionizing photon is deposited in the IGM as heat, increasing its temperature to 20,000-30,000 K; subsequent expansion of the universe then cools the gas. Because reionization most likely proceeds from high to low densities, underdense voids are ionized last, have less time to cool, and are (on average) warmer than mean-density gas immediately after reionization is complete (an 'inverted' temperature-density relation). From this initial configuration, the low-density gas cools quickly and eventually returns to a more normal temperature-density relation. The rapidly evolving temperature introduces systematic uncertainties in measurements of the ionizing background at z {approx} 6. For example, late reionization implies rapid cooling, so that the ionizing background would have to evolve even more rapidly at z {approx} 5-6 than typically claimed. This degeneracy is difficult to disentangle, because the Ly{alpha} forest probes only a narrow range in densities (over which the gas is nearly isothermal). However, higher Lyman-series transitions probe wider density ranges, sampling different effective temperatures, and offer a new way to measure the IGM temperature-density relation that should work even where nearly saturated absorption precludes other methods. This will help to separate evolution in temperature from that in the ionizing background. While more detailed study with hydrodynamic simulations is needed, we show that such measurements could potentially distinguish early and late reionization using only a handful of lines of sight.

  8. Bringing simulation and observation together to better understand the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, Hilary; Smith, Britton D.; O'Shea, Brian W.; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-08-10

    The methods by which one characterizes the distribution of matter in cosmological simulations is intrinsically different from how one performs the same task observationally. In this paper, we make substantial steps toward comparing simulations and observations of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in a more sensible way. We present a pipeline that generates and fits synthetic QSO absorption spectra using sight lines cast through a cosmological simulation, and simultaneously identifies structure by directly analyzing the variations in H I and O VI number density. We compare synthetic absorption spectra with a less observationally motivated, but more straightforward density threshold-based method for finding absorbers. Our efforts focus on H I and O VI to better characterize the warm/hot IGM, a subset of the IGM that is challenging to conclusively identify observationally. We find that the two methods trace roughly the same quantities of H I and O VI above observable column density limits, but the synthetic spectra typically identify more substructure in absorbers. We use both methods to characterize H I and O VI absorber properties. We find that both integrated and differential column density distributions from both methods generally agree with observations. The distribution of Doppler parameters between the two methods are similar for Lyα and compare reasonably with observational results, but while the two methods agree with each other with O VI systems, they both are systematically different from observations. We find a strong correlation between O VI baryon fraction and O VI column density. We also discuss a possible bimodality in the temperature distribution of the gas traced by O VI.

  9. THE STATE OF STAR FORMATION AND THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AT z {approx} 6

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2010-12-10

    In the context of stellar reionization in the standard cold dark matter model, we analyze observations at z {approx} 6 and are able to draw three significant conclusions with respect to star formation and the state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at z {approx} 6. (1) An initial stellar mass function (IMF) more efficient, by a factor of 10-20, in producing ionizing photons than the standard Salpeter IMF is required at z {approx} 6. This may be achieved by having either (a) a metal-enriched IMF with a lower mass cutoff of {>=}30 M{sub sun} or (b) 2%-4% of stellar mass being Population III massive metal-free stars at z {approx} 6. While there is no compelling physical reason or observational evidence to support (a), (b) could plausibly be fulfilled by continued existence of some pockets of uncontaminated, metal-free gas for star formation. (2) The volume-weighted neutral fraction of the IGM of {sub V}{approx}10{sup -4} at z = 5.8 inferred from the SDSS observations of QSO absorption spectra provides enough information to ascertain that reionization is basically complete with at most {approx}0.1%-1% of IGM that is unionized at z = 5.8. (3) Barring some extreme evolution of the IMF, the neutral fraction of the IGM is expected to rise quickly toward high redshift from the point of H II bubble percolation, with the mean neutral fraction of the IGM expected to reach 6%-12% at z = 6.5, 13%-27% at z = 7.7, and 22%-38% at z = 8.8.

  10. THE TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION IN THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Pettini, Max

    2012-10-01

    We present new measurements of the temperature-density (T-{rho}) relation for neutral hydrogen in the 2.0 < z < 2.8 intergalactic medium (IGM) using a sample of {approx}6000 individual H I absorbers fitted with Voigt profiles constrained in all cases by multiple Lyman series transitions. We find model-independent evidence for a positive correlation between the column density of H I (N{sub HI}) and the minimum observed velocity width of absorbers (b{sub min}). With minimal interpretation, this implies that the T-{rho} relation in the IGM is not 'inverted', contrary to many recent studies. Fitting b{sub min} as a function of N{sub HI} results in line-width-column-density dependence of the form b{sub min} = b{sub 0}(N{sub HI}/N{sub HI,0}){sup {Gamma}-1} with a minimum line width at mean density ({rho}/{rho}-bar = 1, N{sub HI,0} = 10{sup 13.6} cm{sup -2}) of b{sub 0} = 17.9 {+-} 0.2 km s{sup -1} and a power-law index of ({Gamma} - 1) = 0.15 {+-} 0.02. Using analytic arguments, these measurements imply an 'equation of state' for the IGM at (z) = 2.4 of the form T=T{sub 0} ({rho}/{rho}-bar){sup {gamma}-1} with a temperature at mean density of T{sub 0} = [1.94 {+-} 0.05] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} K and a power-law index ({gamma} - 1) = 0.46 {+-} 0.05.

  11. The effect of neutrinos on the matter distribution as probed by the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Viel, Matteo; Haehnelt, Martin G.; Springel, Volker E-mail: haehnelt@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2010-06-01

    We present a suite of full hydrodynamical cosmological simulations that quantitatively address the impact of neutrinos on the (mildly non-linear) spatial distribution of matter and in particular on the neutral hydrogen distribution in the Intergalactic Medium (IGM), which is responsible for the intervening Lyman-α absorption in quasar spectra. The free-streaming of neutrinos results in a (non-linear) scale-dependent suppression of power spectrum of the total matter distribution at scales probed by Lyman-α forest data which is larger than the linear theory prediction by about 25 % and strongly redshift dependent. By extracting a set of realistic mock quasar spectra, we quantify the effect of neutrinos on the flux probability distribution function and flux power spectrum. The differences in the matter power spectra translate into a ∼ 2.5% (5%) difference in the flux power spectrum for neutrino masses with Σm{sub ν} = 0.3 eV (0.6 eV). This rather small effect is difficult to detect from present Lyman-α forest data and nearly perfectly degenerate with the overall amplitude of the matter power spectrum as characterised by σ{sub 8}. If the results of the numerical simulations are normalized to have the same σ{sub 8} in the initial conditions, then neutrinos produce a smaller suppression in the flux power of about 3% (5%) for Σm{sub ν} = 0.6 eV (1.2 eV) when compared to a simulation without neutrinos. We present constraints on neutrino masses using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey flux power spectrum alone and find an upper limit of Σm{sub ν} < 0.9 eV (2σ C.L.), comparable to constraints obtained from the cosmic microwave background data or other large scale structure probes.

  12. THE OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM DURING REIONIZATION: RESOLVING SMALL-SCALE STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Emberson, J. D.; Thomas, Rajat M.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2013-02-15

    Early in the reionization process, the intergalactic medium (IGM) would have been quite inhomogeneous on small scales, due to the low Jeans mass in the neutral IGM and the hierarchical growth of structure in a cold dark matter universe. This small-scale structure acted as an important sink during the epoch of reionization, impeding the progress of the ionization fronts that swept out from the first sources of ionizing radiation. Here we present results of high-resolution cosmological hydrodynamics simulations that resolve the cosmological Jeans mass of the neutral IGM in representative volumes several Mpc across. The adiabatic hydrodynamics we follow are appropriate in an unheated IGM, before the gas has had a chance to respond to the photoionization heating. Our focus is determination of the resolution required in cosmological simulations in order to sufficiently sample and resolve small-scale structure regulating the opacity of an unheated IGM. We find that a dark matter particle mass of m {sub dm} {approx}< 50 M {sub Sun} and box size of L {approx}> 1 Mpc are required. With our converged results we show how the mean free path of ionizing radiation and clumping factor of ionized hydrogen depend on the ultraviolet background flux and redshift. We find, for example at z = 10, clumping factors typically of 10-20 for an ionization rate of {Gamma} {approx} (0.3-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} s{sup -1}, with corresponding mean free paths of {approx}3-15 Mpc, extending previous work on the evolving mean free path to considerably smaller scales and earlier times.

  13. A DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM OPACITY TO H I IONIZING PHOTONS

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Worseck, Gabor

    2009-11-10

    We present a new method to directly measure the opacity from H I Lyman limit (LL) absorption kappa{sub LL} along quasar sight lines by the intergalactic medium (IGM). The approach analyzes the average ('stacked') spectrum of an ensemble of quasars at a common redshift to infer the mean free path lambda{sup 912}{sub mfp} to ionizing radiation. We apply this technique to 1800 quasars at z = 3.50-4.34 drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), giving the most precise measurements on kappa{sub LL} at any redshift. From z = 3.6 to 4.3, the opacity increases steadily as expected and is well parameterized by lambda{sup 912}{sub mfp} = lambda{sub 0} - b {sub l}ambda(z - 3.6) with lambda{sub 0} = (48.4 +- 2.1) h{sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc and b{sub l}ambda = (38.0 +- 5.3) h {sup -1}{sub 72} Mpc (proper distance). The relatively high lambda{sup 912} {sub mfp} values indicate that the incidence of systems which dominate kappa{sub LL} evolves less strongly at z > 3 than that of the Lyalpha forest. We infer a mean free path three times higher than some previous estimates, a result which has important implications for the photoionization rate derived from the emissivity of star-forming galaxies and quasars. Finally, our analysis reveals a previously unreported, systematic bias in the SDSS quasar sample related to the survey's color targeting criteria. This bias potentially affects all z approx 3 IGM studies using the SDSS database.

  14. Constraining the Baryon Fraction in the Warm Hot Intergalactic Medium at Low Redshifts with Planck Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Génova-Santos, R.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kitaura, F.-S.; Mücket, J. P.

    2015-06-01

    We cross-correlate foreground cleaned Planck Nominal cosmic microwave background (CMB) maps with two templates constructed from the Two-Micron All-Sky Redshift Survey of galaxies. The first template traces the large-scale filamentary distribution characteristic of the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM) out to ˜ 90 {{h}-1} Mpc. The second preferentially traces the virialized gas in unresolved halos around galaxies. We find a marginal signal from the correlation of Planck data and the WHIM template with a signal to noise from 0.84 to 1.39 at the different Planck frequencies, and with a frequency dependence compatible with the thermal Sunyaev-Zel’dovich effect. When we restrict our analysis to the 60% of the sky outside the plane of the Galaxy and known point sources and galaxy clusters, the cross-correlation at zero lag is 0.064+/- 0.051 μ K. The correlation extends out to ≈ 6{}^\\circ , which at the median depth of our template corresponds to a physical length of ˜ 6--8 {{h}-1} Mpc. On the same fraction of the sky, the cross-correlation of the CMB data with the second template is \\lt 0.17 μ K (95% C.L.), providing no statistically significant evidence of a contribution from bound gas to the previous result. This limit translates into a physical constraint on the properties of the shock-heated WHIM of a log-normal model describing the weakly nonlinear density field. We find that our upper limit is compatible with a fraction of 45% of all baryons residing in filaments at overdensities ˜1-100 and with temperatures in the range {{10}4.5}--{{10}7.5} K, in agreement with the detection at redshift z˜ 0.5 of Van Waerbeke et al..

  15. Statistical techniques for detecting the intergalactic magnetic field from large samples of extragalactic Faraday rotation data

    SciTech Connect

    Akahori, Takuya; Gaensler, B. M.; Ryu, Dongsu E-mail: bryan.gaensler@sydney.edu.au

    2014-08-01

    Rotation measure (RM) grids of extragalactic radio sources have been widely used for studying cosmic magnetism. However, their potential for exploring the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) in filaments of galaxies is unclear, since other Faraday-rotation media such as the radio source itself, intervening galaxies, and the interstellar medium of our Galaxy are all significant contributors. We study statistical techniques for discriminating the Faraday rotation of filaments from other sources of Faraday rotation in future large-scale surveys of radio polarization. We consider a 30° × 30° field of view toward the south Galactic pole, while varying the number of sources detected in both present and future observations. We select sources located at high redshifts and toward which depolarization and optical absorption systems are not observed so as to reduce the RM contributions from the sources and intervening galaxies. It is found that a high-pass filter can satisfactorily reduce the RM contribution from the Galaxy since the angular scale of this component toward high Galactic latitudes would be much larger than that expected for the IGMF. Present observations do not yet provide a sufficient source density to be able to estimate the RM of filaments. However, from the proposed approach with forthcoming surveys, we predict significant residuals of RM that should be ascribable to filaments. The predicted structure of the IGMF down to scales of 0.°1 should be observable with data from the Square Kilometre Array, if we achieve selections of sources toward which sightlines do not contain intervening galaxies and RM errors are less than a few rad m{sup –2}.

  16. THE BARYON CENSUS IN A MULTIPHASE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM: 30% OF THE BARYONS MAY STILL BE MISSING

    SciTech Connect

    Shull, J. Michael; Danforth, Charles W.; Smith, Britton D. E-mail: smit1685@msu.edu

    2012-11-01

    Although galaxies, groups, and clusters contain {approx}10% of the baryons, many more reside in the photoionized and shocked-heated intergalactic medium (IGM) and in the circumgalactic medium (CGM). We update the baryon census in the (H I) Ly{alpha} forest and warm-hot IGM (WHIM) at 10{sup 5-6} K traced by O VI {lambda}1032, 1038 absorption. From Enzo cosmological simulations of heating, cooling, and metal transport, we improve the H I and O VI baryon surveys using spatially averaged corrections for metallicity (Z/Z {sub Sun }) and ionization fractions (f {sub HI}, f {sub OVI}). Statistically, the O VI correction product correlates with column density, (Z/Z {sub Sun })f {sub OVI} Almost-Equal-To (0.015)(N {sub OVI}/10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}){sup 0.70}, with an N {sub OVI}-weighted mean of 0.01, which doubles previous estimates of WHIM baryon content. We also update the Ly{alpha} forest contribution to baryon density out to z = 0.4, correcting for the (1 + z){sup 3} increase in absorber density, the (1 + z){sup 4.4} rise in photoionizing background, and cosmological proper length dl/dz. We find substantial baryon fractions in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest (28% {+-} 11%) and WHIM traced by O VI and broad-Ly{alpha} absorbers (25% {+-} 8%). The collapsed phase (galaxies, groups, clusters, CGM) contains 18% {+-} 4%, leaving an apparent baryon shortfall of 29% {+-} 13%. Our simulations suggest that {approx}15% reside in hotter WHIM (T {>=} 10{sup 6} K). Additional baryons could be detected in weaker Ly{alpha} and O VI absorbers. Further progress requires higher-precision baryon surveys of weak absorbers, down to minimum column densities N {sub HI} {>=} 10{sup 12.0} cm{sup -2}, N {sub OVI} {>=} 10{sup 12.5} cm{sup -2}, N {sub OVII} {>=} 10{sup 14.5} cm{sup -2}, using high signal-to-noise data from high-resolution UV and X-ray spectrographs.

  17. Impact of primordial ultracompact minihaloes on the intergalactic medium and first structure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dark matter annihilation on the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the early Universe will be more important if the dark matter structure is more concentrated. Ultracompact minihaloes (UCMHs), which formed through dark matter accretion on to primordial black holes (PBHs) or an initial dark matter overdensity produced by a primordial density perturbation, provide a new type of compact dark matter structure to ionize and heat the IGM after matter-radiation equality zeq, which is much earlier than the formation of the first cosmological dark halo structure and later the first stars. We show that the dark matter annihilation density contributed by UCMHs can completely dominate over the homogeneous dark matter annihilation background, even for a tiny UCMH fraction fUCMH=ΩUCMH(zeq)/ΩDM≥ 10-15(1 +z)2(mχc2/100 GeV)-2/3 with a standard thermal-relic dark matter annihilation cross-section, and can provide a new gamma-ray background in the early Universe. UCMH annihilation becomes important to IGM evolution for approximately fUCMH > 10-6(mχc2/100 GeV). The IGM ionization fraction xion and gas temperature Tm can be increased from the recombination residual xion˜ 10-4 and adiabatically cooling Tm∝ (1 +z)2 in the absence of energy injection, to a maximum value of xion˜ 0.1 and Tm˜ 5000 K at z≥ 10 for the upper bound on UCMH abundance constrained by the cosmic microwave background optical depth. A small fraction of UCMHs are seeded by PBHs. The X-ray emission from gas accretion on to PBHs may totally dominate over dark matter annihilation, and may become the main cosmic ionization source for a PBH abundance fPBH=ΩPBH/ΩDM≫ 10-11 (10-12) with PBH mass MPBH˜ 10-6 M⊙ (102 M⊙). However, the constraints on gas accretion rate and X-ray absorption by baryon accumulation within UCMHs, together with accretion feedback, show that X-ray emission can only be a promising source much later than UCMH annihilation at z < zm≪ 1000, where zm depends on the PBH masses, their host UCMHs and the dark matter particles. Also, UCMH radiation including both annihilation and X-ray emission can significantly suppress the low-mass first baryonic structure formation. The effects of UCMH radiation on baryonic structure evolution are quite small as regards the gas temperature after virialization, but more significant in enhancing gas chemical quantities such as the ionization fraction and molecular hydrogen abundance in baryonic objects.

  18. The evolution of the intergalactic medium and the formation of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre

    Galaxies form out of the collapse of dense regions of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and continued accretion from the latter fuels star formation across cosmic time At the same time, galaxies fundamentally affect the evolution of the IGM through ionizing, thermal, mechanical, and chemical feedback. The interplay between the IGM and galaxies is therefore central to a holistic understanding of both phenomena. This thesis addresses aspects of this connection in a series of investigations combining empirical input with analytic and numerical theory. After measuring the evolution of the effective Lyalpha optical depth of the IGM between z=2 and z=4.2 from a sample of 86 quasar spectra in chapter 2, we synthesize in chapter 3 the implications of this measurement for the evolution of the cosmic ionizing background and its sources, quasars and galaxies. The empirical constraints thus obtained serve as the basis for a new calculation of the evolution of the spectrum of the ionizing background versus redshift in chapter 4. As the ionizing background spectrum is a fundamental ingredient to metal abundance studies and hydrodynamical simulations, this new model will allow more accurate studies of both the IGM and galaxy formation. We also present in this chapter analytic models of the effects of HeII reionization on the spectrum of the ionizing background and on the thermal history of the IGM. In chapter 5, we focus more specifically on the assembly of galaxies and its observational signatures. We introduce a new three-dimensional Lyalpha radiative transfer code, alphaRT, and for the first time combine it with hydrodynamical simulations to predict the properties of the cooling radiation released by the cold accretion that dominates the baryonic build up of galaxies. In addition to predicting the morphologies and spectra of the cold streams, we find that the predicted Lyalpha cooling luminosities are critically sensitive to the thermal state of the self-shielded gas, which has not previously been adequately modeled. Using a simple approximation for the self-consistent thermal evolution of the dense gas in the simulations, we obtain the most robust cooling luminosity predictions to date.

  19. Tracing baryons in the warm-hot intergalactic medium with broad Ly α absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Savage, B. D.; Sembach, K. R.; Tripp, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss physical properties and baryonic content of broad Ly α absorbers (BLAs) at low redshift. These absorption systems, recently discovered in high-resolution, high-signal to noise quasar absorption line spectra, possibly trace the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) in the temperature range between 105 and 106 K. The central idea is that in ionization equilibrium WHIM filaments should contain a very small fraction of neutral gas (fH I˜ 10-5{-}10-6, typically), giving rise to weak intervening H i Ly α absorption. Due to the high temperature of the WHIM, these Ly α absorbers must be thermally broadened to Doppler parameters (b values) ≥ 40 km s-1. It is expected, however, that also non-thermal line broadening processes, line blends, and noise features can mimic broad spectral features, complicating the quantitative estimate of the baryon content of the BLAs. To extend previous BLA measurements we have reanalyzed archival STIS data of the two quasars H 1821+643 and PG 0953+415 and have identified 13 BLA candidates along a total (unblocked) redshift path of Δ z=0.440. Combining our measurements with previous results for the lines of sight toward PG 1259+593 and PG 1116+215, the resulting new BLA sample consists of 20 reliably detected systems as well as 29 additional tentative cases, implying a BLA number density of dN_BLA/dz=22{-}53. Eight BLAs show associated absorption from H i Ly β and/or O vi. The comparison between Ly α, Ly β, and O vi line widths suggests that non-thermal broadening and noise features substantially affect the observed BLA b value distribution. However, it remains unclear whether BLAs and O vi absorbers trace the same gas phase in the WHIM filaments. We estimate that the contribution of BLAs to the baryon density at z=0 is Ω_b(BLA)≥ 0.0027 h70 -1 for absorbers with log [N(cm-2)/b(km s-1)] ≳ 11.3. This number indicates that WHIM broad Ly α absorbers contain a substantial fraction of the baryons in the local Universe.

  20. Cosmological Simulations of the Intergalactic Medium Evolution. II. Galaxy Model and Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Benoit; Martel, Hugo; Drissen, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    We present a semi-analytical model designed to be included in large-scale cosmological simulations to treat the evolution of galaxies. The goal of this paper is to test our model to make sure that it behaves in a realistic manner. We consider galaxies with current stellar masses between {{10}6.54} and {{10}11.65} {{M}⊙ }. Our model includes radiative cooling, gas inflow, star formation, chemical enrichment, and stellar and AGN feedback. The evolution of each stellar population that forms in our model is individually followed in time by using stellar models found in the literature. Our stellar feedback prescription is based on the production of galactic outflows, which are powered by the mechanical energy (Energy-driven) and the radiative pressure (Momentum-driven). We implemented the physics of bubbles blown by stars to treat the feedback generated by mechanical energy. By keeping track of the energy gained and lost inside bubbles, we can compute the fraction of the stellar mechanical energy that is used to launch an outflow. Our model predicts that E-driven outflows dominate the evolution of low-mass galaxies with current stellar masses below {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }, whereas intermediate-mass galaxies with current stellar masses up to {{10}10.7} {{M}⊙ } are dominated by M-driven outflows. AGN feedback dominates the evolution of the most massive galaxies. With these three sources of feedback, we are able to reproduce the current observed stellar-to-dark-halo mass relation, as well as the current average stellar metallicity of galaxies. Outflows are very efficient in expelling metals out of galaxies, especially with E-driven outflows, which is consistent with the observed trend that metals are ejected more efficiently in low-mass galaxies. At the end of our simulations, a significant fraction of the metals produced by stars is located in the halos of galaxies. Metals can escape efficiently into the intergalactic medium for galaxies with current stellar masses below {{10}8} {{M}⊙ } and above {{10}10.7} {{M}⊙ }. The results presented in this paper are preliminary, since we do not yet consider the full interactions between galaxies and the effect of different types of environment. Nevertheless, since we are able to reproduce characteristics that are consistent with observations, we believe that our model is ready to be implemented in large-scale cosmological simulations to study the interactions between galaxies and their surrounding.

  1. ANISOTROPIC GALACTIC OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, Steeve; Martel, Hugo; Pieri, Matthew M.

    2010-12-20

    We combine an analytic model for anisotropic outflows and galaxy formation with numerical simulations of large-scale structure and halo formation to study the impact of galactic outflows on the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Using this algorithm, we have simulated the evolution of a comoving volume of size (15 Mpc){sup 3} in the {Lambda}CDM universe. Using an N-body simulation starting at redshift z = 24, we follow the formation of galaxies and simulate the galactic outflows produced by these galaxies. Outflows are modeled as bipolar cones with opening angle {alpha}, which expand along the direction of least resistance. We consider five opening angles: {alpha} = 60{sup 0}, 90{sup 0}, 120{sup 0}, 150{sup 0}, and 180{sup 0} (isotropic outflows). We also consider the effect of photoionization suppression of galaxy formation by reionization at redshift z = 6. Anisotropic outflows travel preferentially into low-density regions, away from cosmological structures (filaments and pancakes) where galaxies form. These anisotropic outflows are less likely to overlap with one another than isotropic ones. They are also less likely to hit pre-galactic collapsing halos and strip them of their gas, preventing a galaxy from forming. Going from 180{sup 0} to 60{sup 0}, the number of galaxies that actually form doubles, producing twice as many outflows, and these outflows overlap to a lesser extent. As a result, the metal volume filling factor of the IGM goes from 8% for isotropic outflows up to 28% for anisotropic ones. High-density regions are more efficiently enriched than low-density ones ({approx}80% compared to {approx}20% by volume), even though most enriched regions are low densities. Increasing the anisotropy of outflows increases the extent of enrichment at all densities, low and high. This is in part because anisotropic outflows are more numerous. When this effect is factored out, we find that the probability a galaxy will enrich systems at densities up to 10 {rho}-bar is higher for increasingly anisotropic outflows. This is interpreted as an effect of the dynamical evolution of the IGM. Anisotropic outflows expand preferentially into underdense gas, but that gas can later accrete onto overdense structures. The inclusion of photoionization greatly reduces the formation of low-mass galaxies at redshifts z < 3. The result is a decline in the physical extent of galactic outflows after z = 3 as accretion overwhelms the expansion of new outflows and reduces feedback in underdense regions.

  2. ANISOTROPIC ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OUTFLOWS AND ENRICHMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. II. METALLICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Barai, Paramita; Martel, Hugo; Germain, Joel

    2011-01-20

    We investigate the large-scale influence of outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) with metals in a cosmological context. We combine cosmological simulations of large-scale structure formation with a detailed model of metal enrichment, in which outflows expand anisotropically along the direction of least resistance, distributing metals into the IGM. The metals carried by the outflows are generated by two separate stellar populations: stars located near the central AGN, and stars located in the greater galaxy. Using this algorithm, we performed a series of five simulations of the propagation of AGN-driven outflows in a cosmological volume of size (128 h{sup -1} Mpc){sup 3} in a {Lambda}CDM universe, and analyze the resulting metal enrichment of the IGM. We found that the metallicity induced in the IGM is greatly dominated by AGNs having bolometric luminosity L>10{sup 9} L{sub sun}, sources with 10{sup 8} < L/L{sub sun} < 10{sup 9} having a negligible contribution. Our simulations produced an average IGM metallicity of [O/H] = -5 at z = 5.5, which then rises gradually, and remains relatively flat at a value [O/H] = -2.8 between z = 2 and z = 0. The ejection of metals from AGN host galaxies by AGN-driven outflows is found to enrich the IGM to >10%-20% of the observed values, the number dependent on redshift. The enriched IGM volume fractions are small at z>3, then rise rapidly to the following values at z = 0: 6%-10% of the volume enriched to [O/H]> - 2.5, 14%-24% volume to [O/H]> - 3, and 34%-45% volume to [O/H]> - 4. At z {>=} 2, there is a gradient of the induced enrichment, the metallicity decreasing with increasing IGM density, enriching the underdense IGM to higher metallicities, a trend more prominent with increasing anisotropy of the outflows. This can explain observations of the metal-enriched low-density IGM at z {approx} 3-4.

  3. A Monte Carlo simulation of the intergalactic absorption and the detectability of the Lyman continuum from distant galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Akio K.; Iwata, Ikuru

    2008-07-01

    We have made a Monte Carlo simulation of the intergalactic absorption in order to model the Lyman continuum absorption, which is required to estimate the escape fraction of the Lyman continuum from distant galaxies. To input into the simulation, we derive an empirical distribution function of the intergalactic absorbers which reproduces recent observational statistics of the Lyman α forest, Lyman limit systems (LLSs) and damped Lyman α systems (DLAs) simultaneously. In particular, we assume a common functional form of the number evolution along the redshift for all types of absorbers. The Lyman series transmissions in our simulation reproduce the observed redshift evolution of the transmissions excellently, and the Lyman continuum transmission also agrees with an observed estimation which is still quite rare in the literature. The probability distribution of the Lyman α opacity in our simulation is lognormal with a tail towards a large opacity. This tail is produced by DLAs. The probability distribution of the Lyman continuum opacity in our simulation also shows a broad tail towards a large opacity. This tail is produced by LLSs. Because of the rarity of LLSs, we have a chance to have a clean line of sight in the Lyman continuum even for z ~ 4 with a probability of about 20 per cent. Our simulation expects a good correlation between the Lyman continuum opacity and the Lyman α opacity, which may be useful to estimate the former from the latter for an individual line of sight.

  4. Intergalactic and galactic clouds on the line of sight to SN 1993J in M81 seen in IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Pascual, P. Rodriguez; Wamsteker, W.; Sonneborn, G.; Fransson, C.; Bomans, D. J.; Kirshner, R. P.

    1993-01-01

    High resolution IUE spectra of SN 1993J in M81 show the existence of several clouds on the line of sight. These include local galactic gas at 0 km/s, gas in M81 at -130 km/s, a cloud in the halo in of the Milky Way near -45 km/s, and an intergalactic cloud near +140 km/s. Arguments for each of these locations are given. There is little gas in M81 in front of SN 1993J and no detectable CIV at or near -130 km/s. The gas of the halo of the Milky Way shows a large amount of CIV and SiIV. The intergalactic cloud shows a large velocity width extending from +100 km/s to +200 km/s and is very prominent in the absorption lines of AlIII, SiIV, and CIV. It may be related to energetic events in the M81 group galaxies.

  5. On the connection between the metal-enriched intergalactic medium and galaxies: an O VI-galaxy cross-correlation study at z < 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finn, Charles W.; Morris, Simon L.; Tejos, Nicolas; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Perry, Robert; Fumagalli, Michele; Bielby, Rich; Theuns, Tom; Schaye, Joop; Shanks, Tom; Liske, Jochen; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Bartle, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    We present new results on the auto- and cross-correlation functions of galaxies and O VI absorbers in a ˜18~Gpc3 comoving volume at z < 1. We use a sample of 51 296 galaxies and 140 O VIabsorbers in the column density range 13 ≲ log N ≲ 15 to measure two-point correlation functions in the two dimensions transverse and orthogonal to the line-of-sight ξ(r⊥, r∥). We furthermore infer the corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), by projecting ξ(r⊥, r∥) along r∥, and assuming a power-law form, ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from the absorber-galaxy cross-correlation function, ξag, the galaxy auto-correlation function, ξgg, and the absorber auto-correlation function, ξaa, we constrain the statistical connection between galaxies and the metal-enriched intergalactic medium as a function of star-formation activity. We also compare these results to predictions from the EAGLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulation and find a reasonable agreement. We find that: (i) O VI absorbers show very little velocity dispersion with respect to galaxies on ˜ Mpc scales, likely ≲ 100 km s-1; (ii) O VI absorbers are less clustered, and potentially more extended around galaxies than galaxies are around themselves; (iii) On ≳ 100 kpc scales, the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around star-forming galaxies is similar to the likelihood of finding O VI absorbers around non star-forming galaxies; and (iv) O VI absorbers are either not ubiquitous to galaxies in our sample, or their distribution around them is patchy on scales ≳ 100 kpc (or both), at least for the column densities at which most are currently detected.

  6. TURBULENT MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE SHOCKED INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM OF STEPHAN'S QUINTET

    SciTech Connect

    Guillard, P.; Cluver, M. E.; Lisenfeld, U.; Ogle, P. M.; Boulanger, F.; Pineau des Forets, G.; Falgarone, E.; Gusdorf, A.; Appleton, P. N.; Duc, P.-A.; Xu, C. K.

    2012-04-20

    The Stephan's Quintet (hereafter SQ) is a template source to study the impact of galaxies interaction on the physical state and energetics of their gas. We report on IRAM single-dish CO observations of the SQ compact group of galaxies. These observations follow up the Spitzer discovery of bright mid-IR H{sub 2} rotational line emission (L(H{sub 2}) Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 35} W) from warm (10{sup 2-3} K) molecular gas, associated with a 30 kpc long shock between a galaxy, NGC 7318b, and NGC 7319's tidal arm. We detect CO(1-0), (2-1) and (3-2) line emission in the inter-galactic medium (IGM) with complex profiles, spanning a velocity range of Almost-Equal-To 1000 km s{sup -1}. The spectra exhibit the pre-shock recession velocities of the two colliding gas systems (5700 and 6700 km s{sup -1}), but also intermediate velocities. This shows that much of the molecular gas has formed out of diffuse gas accelerated by the galaxy-tidal arm collision. CO emission is also detected in a bridge feature that connects the shock to the Seyfert member of the group, NGC 7319, and in the northern star forming region, SQ-A, where a new velocity component is identified at 6900 km s{sup -1}, in addition to the two velocity components already known. Assuming a Galactic CO(1-0) emission to H{sub 2} mass conversion factor, a total H{sub 2} mass of Almost-Equal-To 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} is detected in the shock. The ratio between the warm H{sub 2} mass derived from Spitzer spectroscopy, and the H{sub 2} mass derived from CO fluxes is Almost-Equal-To 0.3 in the IGM of SQ, which is 10--100 times higher than in star-forming galaxies. The molecular gas carries a large fraction of the gas kinetic energy involved in the collision, meaning that this energy has not been thermalized yet. The kinetic energy of the H{sub 2} gas derived from CO observations is comparable to that of the warm H{sub 2} gas from Spitzer spectroscopy, and a factor Almost-Equal-To 5 greater than the thermal energy of the hot plasma heated by the collision. In the shock and bridge regions, the ratio of the PAH-to-CO surface luminosities, commonly used to measure the star formation efficiency of the H{sub 2} gas, is lower (up to a factor 75) than the observed values in star-forming galaxies. We suggest that turbulence fed by the galaxy-tidal arm collision maintains a high heating rate within the H{sub 2} gas. This interpretation implies that the velocity dispersion on the scale of giant molecular clouds in SQ is one order of magnitude larger than the Galactic value. The high amplitude of turbulence may explain why this gas is not forming stars efficiently.

  7. High redshift in greatness scale caused by Interstellar and Intergalactic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to QFT it is deduced that the gravitation is likely to originate from the polarization effect of Dirac vacuum fluctuation (Chen Shao-Guang, Nuovo Cimento B 104, 611, 1989) . In Dirac vacuum the lowest-energy virtual neutrinos u possess most number, which exert isotropic colliding pressure to isolated mass-point A (m ) , the net force on A is zero. For another masspoint B (M ) near A to obstruct u flux shooting to A, the u number along the line connecting A and B will decrease and destroy isotropic distribution of u, which leads to not only the change in momentum P (produces net u flux and net force Fp) but also the change in energy E or rest mass m (produces net force Fm). From the definition of force: F = Fp + Fm, Fp = m ( d v / d t ) , Fm = v (d m / d t ) (1) on A (or B) net force F Q (quasi-Casimir pressure of weak interaction) is: F Q = Fp + Fm = - K (m M /r 2 ) ( r/r ) + (v/c ) (2) According to the change in masses caused by Bondi's inductive transfer of energy in GR (H. Bondi, Proc. R. Soc. London A 427, 249, 1990) and Eq. (1) a new gravitational formula is deduced: F G = Fp + Fm = - G (m M /r 2 ) (r/r ) + (v/c ) (3) F G is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then we can solve the multi-bodies gravitational problems. K calculated from the weak-electromagnetism unified theory (W-EUT) has the same order of magnitude as experimental gravitational constant G. F G and F Q as a bridge joins QFT and GR. If K = G, gravitational theory would be merged into W-EUT. The gravitational laws predicted by F G and F Q are identical except that F Q has quantum effects but F G has not, F G has Lense- Thirring effect but FQ has not. Because Fp • d s= 0, the relative loss rate of total energy of A in a period T of circular motion around B calculated from Fm = - G (m M /r 2 ) (v/c ) is: lr = F m d s / m c 2 = - 4 (pi) 2 G M / c 3 T (4) Eq.(4) is a typical dipole radiation formula and approves directly Will's conjecture (C.M.Will, Phys. Rep. 113, 345,1984) . A gravitational wave of dipole radiation will be produced from the change in masses of A and B caused by the nonlinearity of Einstein's equation or by mass renormalization of QFT. The change in period of energy loss of pulsar binary PSR1913+16 calculated with Eq. (4) is consistent with the observation value of Taylar et al. The change in mass of photons on the way calculated from F Q or F G is the redshift ratio: Red=(E-Ei)/Ei= F G ds / Ei = - 4 GM / c 2 D (5) Where E is actual energy, Ei is in inertial system energy, which is just the metrical definition of redshift. The redshift ratio of Eq. (5) is numerically equal to the deflection ratio of GR, which is consistent with relativistic combination of energy and momentum. When light sweep the sun once maximal redshift ratio is 4GM / c2 R =-8×10-6 . When photons pass through greatness scale interstellar and intergalactic media high gravitational redshift will arises, e.g., if universal luminosity mass density ( about 10-31 g cm -3 )is entirely constituted by stars with M in homogeneous distribution, the distance of two stars is about 800 PC, maximal redshift constant is 3000 km s-1 / MPC, average value is 62.5 km s-1 / MPC ( near the observational Hubble's constant ), which will influence astronomical distance estimated by redshift and many astrophysical parameter.

  8. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-01-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega (sub B) significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to Omega(sub B) imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (Omega(sub B) h(sup 2) greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find Omega(sub IGM)(sup min) (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and Omega(sub IGM)(sup min)(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  9. Reionization in a cold dark matter universe: The feedback of galaxy formation on the intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Paul R.; Giroux, Mark L.; Babul, Arif

    1994-05-01

    We study the coupled evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM) and the emerging structure in the universe in the context of the cold dark matter (CDM) model, with a special focus on the consequences of imposing reionization and the Gunn-Peterson constraint as a boundary condition on the model. We have calculated the time-varying density of the IGM by coupling our detailed, numerical calculations of the thermal and ionization balance and radiative transfer in a uniform, spatially averaged IGM of H and He, including the mean opacity of an evolving distribution of gas clumps which correspond to quasar absorption line clouds, to the linearized equations for the growth of density fluctuations in both the gaseous and dark matter components in a CDM universe. We use the linear growth equations to identify the fraction of the gas which must have collapsed out at each epoch, an approach similar in spirit to the so-called Press-Schechter formalism. We identify the IGM density with the uncollapsed baryon fraction. The collapsed fraction is postulated to be a source of energy injection into the IGM, by radiation or bulk hydrodynamical heating (e.g., via shocks) or both, at a rate which is marginally enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint at z less than 5. Our results include the following: (1) We find that the IGM in a CDM model must have contained a substantial fraction of the total baryon density of the universe both during and after its reionization epoch. (2) As a result, our previous conclusion that the observed Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) at high redshift are not sufficient to ionize the IGM enough to satisfy the Gunn-Peterson constraint is confirmed. (3) We predict a detectable He II Gunn-Peterson effect at 304(1 + z) A in the spectra of quasars at a range of redshift z greater than or approx. 3, depending on the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (4) We find, moreover, that a CDM model with high bias parameter b (i.e., b greater than or approx. 2) cannot account for the baryon content of the universe at z approximately 3 observed in quasar absorption line gas unless Omega B significantly exceeds the maximum value allowed by big bang nucleocynthesis. (5) For a CDM model with bias parameter within the allowed range of (lower) values, the lower limit to OmegaB imposed by big bang nucleosynthesis (OmegaB h2 greater than or equal to 0.01) combines with our results to yield the minimum IGM density for the CDM fodel. For CDM with b = 1 (Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) normalization), we find OmegaIGMmin (z approximately 4) approx. equal 0.02-0.03, and OmegaIGMmin(z approximately 0) approx. equal 0.005-0.03, depending upon the nature of the sources of IGM reionization. (6) In general, we find that self-consistent reionization of the IGM by the collapsed baryon fraction has a strong effect on the rate of collapse. (7) As a further example, we show that the feedback effect on the IGM of energy release by the collapsed baryon fraction may explain the slow evolution of the observed comoving QSO number density between z = 5 and z = 2, followed by the sharp decline after z = 2.

  10. A High Yield of New Sightlines for the Study of Intergalactic Helium: Far-UV-Bright Quasars from the SDSS, GALEX, AND HST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syphers, David; Anderson, Scott F.; Zheng, Wei; Haggard, Daryl; Meiksin, Avery; Chiu, Kuenley; Hogan, Craig; Schneider, Donald P.; York, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Investigations of He II Lyα (304 Å rest-frame) absorption toward a half-dozen quasars at z ~ 3-4 have demonstrated the great potential of helium studies of the intergalactic medium, but the current critically small sample size of clean sightlines for the He II Gunn-Peterson test limits confidence in cosmological inferences, and a larger sample is required. Although the unobscured quasar sightlines to high redshift are extremely rare, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR6 provides thousands of z > 2.8 quasars. We have cross-correlated these SDSS quasars with the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) GR2/GR3 to establish a catalog of 200 higher-confidence (~70% secure) cases of quasars at z = 2.8-5.1 potentially having surviving far-UV (rest-frame) flux. We also catalog another 112 likely far-UV-bright quasars from GALEX cross-correlation with other (non-SDSS) quasar compilations. Reconnaissance UV prism observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) of 24 of our SDSS/GALEX candidates confirm 12 as detected in the far-UV, with at least nine having flux extending to very near the He II break; with refinements our success rate is even higher. Our SDSS/GALEX selection approach is thereby confirmed to be an order of magnitude more efficient than previous He II quasar searches, more than doubles the number of spectroscopically confirmed clean sightlines to high redshift, and provides a resource list of hundreds of high-confidence sightlines for upcoming He II and other far-UV studies from the HST. Our reconnaissance HST prism spectra suggest some far-UV diversity, confirming the need to obtain a large sample of independent quasar sightlines across a broad redshift range to assess such issues as the epoch(s) of helium reionization, while averaging over individual-object pathology and/or cosmic variance. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  11. Observations of Chemically Enriched QSO Absorbers near z~2.3 Galaxies: Galaxy Formation Feedback Signatures in the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Sargent, Wallace L. W.; Rauch, Michael; Becker, George

    2006-02-01

    We present a comparative study of galaxies and intergalactic gas toward the z=2.73 quasar HS 1700+6416, to explore the effects of galaxy formation feedback on the IGM. Our observations and ionization simulations indicate that the volume within 100-200 h-171 physical kpc of high-redshift galaxies is populated by very small (ΔL<~1 kpc), dense (ρ/ρ¯~1000), and metal-rich (Z>~1/10-1/3 Zsolar) absorption-line regions. These systems often contain shock-heated gas seen in O VI and may exhibit [Si/C] abundance enhancements suggestive of preferential enrichment by Type II supernovae. We argue that the absorber geometries resemble thin sheets or bubbles and that their unusual physical properties can be explained using a simple model of radiatively efficient shocks plowing through moderately overdense intergalactic filaments. The high metallicities suggest that these shocks are being expelled from, rather than falling into, star-forming galaxies. There is a drop-off in the intergalactic gas density at galaxy impact parameters of >~300 physical kpc (>~1 comoving Mpc) that may represent boundaries of the gas structures where galaxies reside. The heavy-element enhancement near galaxies covers smaller distances: at galactocentric radii between 100 and 200 h-171 kpc the observed abundances blend into the general metallicity field of the IGM. Our results suggest that either supernova-driven winds or dynamical stripping of interstellar gas alters the IGM near massive galaxies, even at R>~100 kpc. However, only a few percent of the total mass in the Lyα forest is encompassed by this active feedback at z~2.5. The effects could be more widespread if the more numerous metal-poor C IV systems at impact parameters >~200 h-171 kpc are the tepid remnants of very powerful late-time winds. However, based on present observations it is not clear that this scenario is to be favored over one involving preenrichment by smaller galaxies at z>~6. Includes observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership between the California Institute of Technology and the University of California; it was made possible by the generous support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. The baryon density at z = 0.9-1.9. Tracing the warm-hot intergalactic medium with broad Lyman α absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prause, N.; Reimers, D.; Fechner, C.; Janknecht, E.

    2007-07-01

    Aims:We present an analysis of the Lyman α forests of five quasar spectra in the near UV. Properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM) at an intermediate redshift interval (0.9≤ z≤1.9) are studied. The amount of baryons in the diffuse photoionised IGM and the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) are traced to get constraints on the redshift evolution of the different phases of the intergalactic gas. Methods: The baryon density of the diffuse IGM is determined with photoionisation calculations under the assumption of local hydrostatic equilibrium. We assume that the gas is ionised by a metagalactic background radiation with a Haardt & Madau (2001, Clusters of Galaxies and the High Redshift Universe Observed in X-rays) spectrum. The WHIM is traced with broad Lyman α (BLA) absorption. The properties of a number of BLA detections are studied. Under the assumption of collisional ionisation equilibrium a lower limit to the baryon density could be estimated. Results: It is found that the diffuse photoionised IGM contains at least ~25% of the total baryonic matter at redshifts 1≲ z≲2. For the WHIM a lower limit of ~2.4% could be determined. Furthermore, the data indicates that the intergalactic gas is in a state of evolution at z˜1.5. We confirm that a considerable part of the WHIM is created between z=1 and z=2.

  13. Constraining the temperature-density relation of the intergalactic medium with the Lyman α and β forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boera, Elisa; Murphy, Michael T.; Becker, George D.; Bolton, James S.

    2016-02-01

    The post-reionization thermal state of the intergalactic medium is characterized by a power-law relationship between temperature and density, with a slope determined by the parameter γ. We describe a new method to measure γ using the ratio of flux curvature in the Lyman α and β forests. At a given redshift, this curvature ratio incorporates information from the different gas densities traced by Lyman α and β absorption. It is relatively simple and fast to compute and appears robust against several observational uncertainties. We apply this technique to a sample of 27 high-resolution quasar spectra from the Very Large Telescope. While promising statistical errors on γ appear to be achievable with these spectra, to reach its full potential, the dependence of the curvature ratio on the thermal state of the gas in the foreground Lyman α forest will require further, detailed forward modelling.

  14. TeV gamma rays from 3C 279 - A possible probe of origin and intergalactic infrared radiation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.; De Jager, O. C.; Salamon, M. H.

    1992-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 during 1991 June exhibited a near-perfect power law between 50 MeV and over 5 GeV with a differential spectral index of -(2.02 +/- 0.07). If extrapolated, the gamma-ray spectrum of 3C 279 should be easily detectable with first-generation air Cerenkov detectors operating above about 0.3 TeV provided there is no intergalactic absorption. However, by using model-dependent lower and upper limits for the extragalactic infrared background radiation field, a sharp cutoff of the 3C 279 spectrum is predicted at between about 0.1 and about 1 TeV. The sensitivity of present air Cerenkov detectors is good enough to measure such a cutoff, which would provide the first opportunity to obtain a measurement of the extragalactic background infrared radiation field.

  15. Towards the statistical detection of the warm-hot intergalactic medium in intercluster filaments of the cosmic web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Morris, Simon L.; Werk, Jessica K.; Theuns, Tom; Padilla, Nelson; Bielby, Rich M.; Finn, Charles W.

    2016-01-01

    Modern analyses of structure formation predict a universe tangled in a `cosmic web' of dark matter and diffuse baryons. These theories further predict that at low z, a significant fraction of the baryons will be shock-heated to T ˜ 105-107 K yielding a warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM), but whose actual existence has eluded a firm observational confirmation. We present a novel experiment to detect the WHIM, by targeting the putative filaments connecting galaxy clusters. We use HST/COS to observe a remarkable quasi-stellar object (QSO) sightline that passes within Δd = 3 Mpc from the seven intercluster axes connecting seven independent cluster pairs at redshifts 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.5. We find tentative excesses of total H I, narrow H I (NLA; Doppler parameters b < 50 km s-1), broad H I (BLA; b ≥ 50 km s-1) and O VI absorption lines within rest-frame velocities of Δv ≲ 1000 km s-1 from the cluster-pairs redshifts, corresponding to ˜2, ˜1.7, ˜6 and ˜4 times their field expectations, respectively. Although the excess of O VI likely comes from gas close to individual galaxies, we conclude that most of the excesses of NLAs and BLAs are truly intergalactic. We find the covering fractions, fc, of BLAs close to cluster pairs are ˜4-7 times higher than the random expectation (at the ˜2σ c.l.), whereas the fc of NLAs and O VI are not significantly enhanced. We argue that a larger relative excess of BLAs compared to those of NLAs close to cluster pairs may be a signature of the WHIM in intercluster filaments. By extending this analysis to tens of sightlines, our experiment offers a promising route to detect the WHIM.

  16. The Fluctuating Intergalactic Radiation Field at Redshifts z = 2.3-2.9 from He II and H I Absorption toward HE 2347-4342

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shull, J. Michael; Tumlinson, Jason; Giroux, Mark L.; Kriss, Gerard A.; Reimers, Dieter

    2004-01-01

    We provide an in-depth analysis of the He II and H I absorption in the intergalactic medium (IGM) at redshifts z=2.3-2.9 toward HE 2347-4342, using spectra from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer and the Ultraviolet-Visual Echelle Spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. Following up on our earlier study, we focus here on two major topics: (1) small-scale variability (?z~10-3) in the ratio ?=N(HeII)/N(HI) and (2) an observed correlation of high-? absorbers (soft radiation fields) with voids in the (H I) Ly? distribution. These effects may reflect fluctuations in the ionizing sources on scales of 1 Mpc, together with radiative transfer through a filamentary IGM whose opacity variations control the penetration of 1-5 ryd radiation over 30-40 Mpc distances. Given the photon statistics and backgrounds, we can measure optical depths over the ranges 0.1200 may require additional contributions from starburst galaxies, heavily filtered quasar radiation, or density variations. Regions with ?<30 may indicate the presence of local hard sources. We find that ? is higher in ``void'' regions, where H I is weak or undetected and ~80% of the path length has ?>100. These voids may be ionized by local soft sources (dwarf starbursts) or by QSO radiation softened by escape from the active galactic nucleus cores or transfer through the ``cosmic web.'' The apparent differences in ionizing spectra may help to explain the 1.45 Gyr lag between the reionization epochs of H I (zHI~6.2+/-0.2) and He II (zHeII~2.8+/-0.2). This work is based on FUSE data obtained for the Guaranteed Time Team by the NASA-CNES-CSA FUSE mission, operated by the Johns Hopkins University under NASA contract NAS5-32985. Observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope were supported by the Space Telescope Science Institute, operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555. The VLT/UVES observations were obtained at the Paranal Observatory of the European Southern Observatory for program 166.A-0106(A).

  17. Where Am I? My Place in Time and Space. First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Jaime

    In this activity, first grade students learn their addresses and their places in space. Each student pretends they are a student in Ms. Frizzle's class and are to help the class figure out how to get home. The students create their own intergalactic address book, so that on their next trip into the universe they will have a map to guide them back…

  18. THE LOW-REDSHIFT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AS SEEN IN ARCHIVAL LEGACY HST/STIS AND FUSE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Evan M.; Danforth, Charles W.; Michael Shull, J.; Ross, Teresa L. E-mail: charles.danforth@colorado.edu E-mail: rosst@nmsu.edu

    2012-11-10

    We present a comprehensive catalog of ultraviolet (HST/STIS and FUSE) absorbers in the low-redshift intergalactic medium (IGM) at z < 0.4. The catalog draws from much of the extensive literature on IGM absorption and reconciles discrepancies among several previous catalogs through a critical evaluation of all reported absorption features in light of new HST/COS data. We report on 746 H I absorbers down to a rest-frame equivalent width of 12 mA over a maximum redshift path length {Delta}z = 5.38. We also confirm 111 O VI absorbers, 29 C IV absorbers, and numerous absorption lines due to other metal ions. We characterize the bivariate distribution of absorbers in redshift and column density as a power law, {partial_derivative}{sup 2}N/{partial_derivative}z{partial_derivative}N) {proportional_to} N{sup -{beta}}, where {beta} = 2.08 {+-} 0.12 for O VI and {beta} = 1.68 {+-} 0.03 for H I. Utilizing a more sophisticated accounting technique than past work, our catalog accounts for {approx}43% of the baryons: 24% {+-} 2% in the photoionized Ly{alpha} forest and 19% {+-} 2% in the warm-hot IGM as traced by O VI. We discuss the large systematic effects of various assumed metallicities and ionization states on these calculations, and we implement recent simulation results in our estimates.

  19. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE-SCALE GALAXY FILAMENT NEAR A CANDIDATE INTERGALACTIC X-RAY ABSORPTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Rik J.; Mulchaey, John S.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Cox, Thomas J.

    2010-11-20

    We present an analysis of the large-scale galaxy distribution around two possible warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) absorption systems reported along the Markarian 421 sight line. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we find a prominent galaxy filament at the redshift of the z = 0.027 X-ray absorption line system. The filament exhibits a width of 3.2 Mpc and a length of at least 20 Mpc, comparable to the size of WHIM filaments seen in cosmological simulations. No individual galaxies fall within 350 projected kpc so it is unlikely that the absorption is associated with gas in a galaxy halo or outflow. Another, lower-significance X-ray absorption system was reported in the same Chandra spectrum at z = 0.011, but the large-scale structure in its vicinity is far weaker and may be a spurious alignment. By searching for similar galaxy structures in 140 random smoothed SDSS fields, we estimate an {approx}5%-10% probability of the z = 0.027 absorber-filament alignment occurring by chance. If these two systems are indeed physically associated, this would represent the first known coincidence between a large-scale galaxy structure and a blind X-ray WHIM detection.

  20. TIME DELAY OF CASCADE RADIATION FOR TeV BLAZARS AND THE MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Dermer, Charles D.; Razzaque, Soebur; Finke, Justin D.; Cavadini, Massimo; Chiang, James; Lott, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Recent claims that the strength B{sub IGMF} of the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF) is {approx}> 10{sup -15} G are based on upper limits to the expected cascade flux in the GeV band produced by blazar TeV photons absorbed by the extragalactic background light. This limit depends on an assumption that the mean blazar TeV flux remains constant on timescales {approx}> 2(B{sub IGMF}/10{sup -18}G){sup 2}/(E/10 GeV){sup 2} yr for an IGMF coherence length {approx}1 Mpc, where E is the measured photon energy. Restricting TeV activity of 1ES 0229+200 to {approx}3-4 years during which the source has been observed leads to a more robust lower limit of B{sub IGMF} {approx}> 10{sup -18} G, which can be larger by an order of magnitude if the intrinsic source flux above {approx}5-10 TeV from 1ES 0229+200 is strong.

  1. X-Ray Scattering Echoes and Ghost Halos from the Intergalactic Medium: Relation to the Nature of AGN Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrales, Lia

    2015-05-01

    X-ray bright quasars might be used to trace dust in the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium through the phenomenon of X-ray scattering, which is observed around Galactic objects whose light passes through a sufficient column of interstellar gas and dust. Of particular interest is the abundance of gray dust larger than 0.1 μ m, which is difficult to detect at other wavelengths. To calculate X-ray scattering from large grains, one must abandon the traditional Rayleigh-Gans approximation. The Mie solution for the X-ray scattering optical depth of the universe is ∼ 1%. This presents a great difficulty for distinguishing dust scattered photons from the point source image of Chandra, which is currently unsurpassed in imaging resolution. The variable nature of AGNs offers a solution to this problem, as scattered light takes a longer path and thus experiences a time delay with respect to non-scattered light. If an AGN dims significantly (≳ 3 dex) due to a major feedback event, the Chandra point source image will be suppressed relative to the scattering halo, and an X-ray echo or ghost halo may become visible. I estimate the total number of scattering echoes visible by Chandra over the entire sky: {{N}ech}∼ {{10}3}({{ν }fb}/y{{r}-1}), where {{ν }fb} is the characteristic frequency of feedback events capable of dimming an AGN quickly.

  2. On the Beam Induced Quasi-instability Transformation of the Damped Aperiodic Mode in the Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolberg, U.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-02-01

    Highly relativistic electron-positron pair beams considerably affect the spontaneously emitted field fluctuations in the unmagnetized intergalactic medium (IGM). In view of the considered small density ratio of beam and background plasma, a perturbative treatment is employed in order to derive the spectral balance equations for the fluctuating fields from first principles of plasma kinetic theory that are covariantly correct within the limits of special relativity. They self-consistently account for the competing effects of spontaneous and induced emission and absorption in the perturbed thermal plasma. It is found that the presence of the beam transforms the growth rate of the dominating transverse damped aperiodic mode into an effective growth rate that displays positive values in certain spectral regions if beam velocity and wave vector are perpendicular or almost perpendicular to each other. This corresponds to a quasi-instability that induces an amplification of the fluctuations for these wavenumbers. Such an effect can greatly influence the cosmic magnetogenesis as it affects the strengths of the spontaneously emitted magnetic seed fields in the IGM, thereby possibly lowering the required growth time and effectivity of any further amplification mechanism such as an astrophysical dynamo.

  3. INTERMITTENCE OF THE MAP OF THE KINETIC SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH EFFECT AND TURBULENCE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Weishan; Feng Longlong; Fang Lizhi

    2011-06-10

    We investigate the possibility of detecting the turbulent state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) with the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect. Being sensitive to the divergence-free component of the momentum field of the IGM, the kSZ effect might be used to probe the vorticity of the turbulent IGM. With cosmological hydrodynamical simulation in the concordance {Lambda}CDM universe, we find that the structure functions of two-dimensional kSZ maps show strong intermittence, and the intermittent exponents follow a law similar to the She-Leveque scaling formula of fully developed turbulence. We also find that the intermittence is weak in the maps of thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (tSZ) effect. Nevertheless, the superposition of the kSZ and tSZ effects still contain significant intermittence. We conclude that the turbulent behavior of the IGM may be revealed by the observation of the SZ effect on angular scales equal to or less than 0.5 arcmin, corresponding to the multipole parameter l {>=} 2 x 10{sup 4}.

  4. The distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1988-01-01

    The evolution and distribution of galaxies and the intergalactic medium (IGM) have been studied, along with collisionless dark matter in a Universe dominated by cold dark matter. The Einstein-deSitter universe with omega sub 0 = 1 and h = 0.5 was considered (here h = H sub 0 bar 100/kms/Mpc and H sub 0 is the present value of the Hubble constant). It is assumed that initially dark matter composes 90 pct and baryonic matter composes 10 pct of total mass, and that the primordial baryonic matter is comprised of H and He, with the abundance of He equal to 10 pct of H by number. Galaxies are allowed to form out of the IGM, if the total density and baryonic density satisfy an overdensity criterion. Subsequently, the newly formed galaxies release 10 to the 60th ergs of energy into the IGM over a period of 10 to the 8th years. Calculations have been performed with 32 to the 3rd dark matter particles and 32 to the 3rd cells in a cube with comoving side length L = 9.6/h Mpc. Dark matter particles and galaxies have been followed with an N-body code, while the IGM has been followed with a fluid code.

  5. Eternity in six hours: Intergalactic spreading of intelligent life and sharpening the Fermi paradox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Stuart; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-08-01

    The Fermi paradox is the discrepancy between the strong likelihood of alien intelligent life emerging (under a wide variety of assumptions) and the absence of any visible evidence for such emergence. In this paper, we extend the Fermi paradox to not only life in this galaxy, but to other galaxies as well. We do this by demonstrating that travelling between galaxies - indeed even launching a colonisation project for the entire reachable universe - is a relatively simple task for a star-spanning civilisation, requiring modest amounts of energy and resources. We start by demonstrating that humanity itself could likely accomplish such a colonisation project in the foreseeable future, should we want to. Given certain technological assumptions, such as improved automation, the task of constructing Dyson spheres, designing replicating probes, and launching them at distant galaxies, become quite feasible. We extensively analyse the dynamics of such a project, including issues of deceleration and collision with particles in space. Using similar methods, there are millions of galaxies that could have reached us by now. This results in a considerable sharpening of the Fermi paradox.

  6. A Snapshot Survey of AGNS/QSOS for Intergalactic Medium Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonneborn, George (Technical Monitor); Sembach, George

    2005-01-01

    This spectroscopic program with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program was designed to identify ultraviolet-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) for follow-up spectroscopy with FUSE and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). All of the FUSE spectra obtained for this snapshot program (FUSE identifier D808) have been examined for data quality and flux levels. As expected, only a small number of objects observed (4/19) have flux levels suitable for follow-up spectroscopy. A portion of our effort in this program was devoted to comparing the spectra obtained in these snapshot exposures to others to determine if the spectra could be used for detailed scientific analyses. The resulting effort demonstrated that some of the brighter sources are relatively stable (non- variable), as determined through comparisons of the spectra at multiple epochs. For these brighter sources, the exposure times are simply too short to perform meaningful detailed analyses. Comparisons of the absorption lines in these spectra with those of higher signal-to-noise spectra, like those of PG1116+215 and H1821+643, showed that many of the lines of interest could not be characterized adequately at the S/N levels reached in the short snapshot exposures. As a result, the FUSE D808 observations are suitable only for their original purpose - flux determination. Several bright objects identified as part of this program include: HE0153-4520, flux >2x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 at 1000 Angstroms IRASF04250-5718, flux >4x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms RXJ2154.1-4414, flux > 1.6x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms S50716+714, flux >2.5x10E-14 erg cm^-2s^-1 A^-1 at 1000 Angstroms. All of these objects have been incorporated into the primary target lists for the HST Cosmic Origins Spectrograph. Identifying such objects for follow-up observations with HST/COS was the primary goal of this program, so the program wa successful. In addition, some of the objects were included in proposed target lists for future FUSE observations. Given that the state of the FUSE observatory is uncertain at this time, it is unknown whether anyjof htese objects will be re-observed with FUSE. The results of this program have been communicated to the astronomical community via email and by word of mouth since the resuts in and of themselves do not warrant publication in an astronomical journal. However, these lists will be maintained for future observers. The data are archived in the Multi-Mission Archive at the Space Telescioe Science INstitute.

  7. Tomography of the intergalactic medium with Lyα forests in close QSO pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, V.; Viel, M.; Saitta, F.; Cristiani, S.; Bianchi, S.; Boyle, B.; Lopez, S.; Maza, J.; Outram, P.

    2006-11-01

    We study the three-dimensional distribution of non-virialized matter at z ~ 2 using high-resolution spectra of quasi-stellar object (QSO) pairs and simulated spectra drawn from cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We have collected the largest sample of QSO pairs ever observed with Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) at the European Southern Observatory-Very Large Telescope (ESO-VLT), with angular separations between ~1 and 14arcmin. The observed correlation functions of the transmitted flux in the HI Lyman α forest along and transverse to the lines of sight are in good agreement implying that the distortions in redshift space due to peculiar velocities are small. The clustering signal is significant up to velocity separations of ~200kms-1, or about 3h-1 comoving Mpc. The regions at lower overdensity are still clustered but on smaller scales (Δv <~ 100kms-1). The observed and simulated correlation functions are compatible at the 3σ level. A better concordance is obtained when only the low overdensity regions are selected for the analysis or when the effective optical depth of the simulated spectra is increased artificially, suggesting a deficiency of strong lines in the simulated spectra. We found that also a lower value of the power-law index of the temperature-density relation for the Lyman α forest gas improves the agreement between observed and simulated results. If confirmed, this would be consistent with other observations favouring a late HeII reionization epoch (at z ~ 3). We remark the detection of a significant clustering signal in the cross-correlation coefficient at a transverse velocity separation Δv⊥ ~ 500kms-1 whose origin needs further investigation. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory Very Large Telescope, Cerro Paranal, Chile - Programs 65.O-0299(A), 68.A-0216(A), 69.A-0204(A), 69.A-0586(A), 70.A-0031(A), 166.A-0106(A). E-mail: dodorico@oats.inaf.it

  8. A Direct Precision Measurement of the Intergalactic Lyα Opacity at 2 <= z <= 4.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Prochaska, Jason X.; Lidz, Adam; Hernquist, Lars; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2008-07-01

    We measure the evolution of the intergalactic Lyα effective optical depth, τeff, over the redshift range 2 <= z<= 4.2 from a sample of 86 high-resolution, high-S/N quasar spectra obtained with the ESI and HIRES spectrographs on Keck and with the MIKE spectrograph on Magellan. This represents an improvement over previous analyses of the Lyα forest from high-resolution spectra in this redshift interval of a factor of 2 in the size of the data set alone. We pay particular attention to robust error estimation and extensively test for systematic effects. We find that our estimates of the quasar continuum levels in the Lyα forest obtained by spline fitting are systematically biased low, with the magnitude of the bias increasing with redshift, but that this bias can be accounted for using mock spectra. The mean fractional error langle Δ C/Ctruerangle is <1% at z = 2, 4% at z = 3, and 12% at z = 4. Previous measurements of τeff at zgtrsim 3 based on directly fitting the quasar continua in the Lyα forest, which have generally neglected this effect, are therefore likely biased low. We provide estimates of the level of absorption arising from metals in the Lyα forest based on both direct and statistical metal removal results in the literature, finding that this contribution is ≈6%-9% at z = 3 and decreases monotonically with redshift. The high precision of our measurement, attaining 3% in redshift bins of width Δ z = 0.2 around z = 3, indicates significant departures from the best-fit power-law redshift evolution [τeff = 0.0018(1 + z)3.92, when metals are left in], particularly near z = 3.2. The observed downward departure is statistically consistent with a similar feature detected in a precision statistical measurement using SDSS spectra by Bernardi and coworkers using an independent approach.

  9. THE NATURE OF THE WARM/HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM. I. NUMERICAL METHODS, CONVERGENCE, AND O VI ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Britton D.; Hallman, Eric J.; Shull, J. Michael; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2011-04-10

    We perform a series of cosmological simulations using Enzo, an Eulerian adaptive-mesh refinement, N-body + hydrodynamical code, applied to study the warm/hot intergalactic medium (WHIM). The WHIM may be an important component of the baryons missing observationally at low redshift. We investigate the dependence of the global star formation rate and mass fraction in various baryonic phases on spatial resolution and methods of incorporating stellar feedback. Although both resolution and feedback significantly affect the total mass in the WHIM, all of our simulations find that the WHIM fraction peaks at z {approx} 0.5, declining to 35%-40% at z = 0. We construct samples of synthetic O VI absorption lines from our highest-resolution simulations, using several models of oxygen ionization balance. Models that include both collisional ionization and photoionization provide excellent fits to the observed number density of absorbers per unit redshift over the full range of column densities (10{sup 13} cm{sup -2} {approx}< N{sub OVI} {approx}< 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}). Models that include only collisional ionization provide better fits for high column density absorbers (N{sub OVI} {approx}> 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}). The distribution of O VI in density and temperature exhibits two populations: one at T {approx} 10{sup 5.5} K (collisionally ionized, 55% of total O VI) and one at T {approx} 10{sup 4.5} K (photoionized, 37%) with the remainder located in dense gas near galaxies. While not a perfect tracer of hot gas, O VI provides an important tool for a WHIM baryon census.

  10. Simulations of thermally broadened H I Ly α absorption arising in the warm-hot intergalactic medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, P.; Fang, T.; Bryan, G. L.

    2006-06-01

    Recent far-ultraviolet (FUV) absorption line measurements of low-redshift quasars have unveiled a population of intervening broad H i Ly α absorbers (BLAs) with large Doppler parameters (b≥ 40 km s-1). If the large width of these lines is dominated by thermal line broadening, the BLAs may trace highly-ionized gas in the warm-hot intergalactic medium (WHIM) in the temperature range T≈ 10^5{-}106 K, a gas phase that is expected to contain a large fraction of the baryons at low redshift. In this paper we use a hydrodynamical simulation to study frequency, distribution, physical conditions, and baryon content of the BLAs at z≈ 0. From our simulated spectra we derive a number of BLAs per unit redshift of (dN/dz)_BLA≈ 38 for H i absorbers with log (N(cm-2)/b(km s-1))≥ 10.7, b≥40 km s-1, and total hydrogen column densities N(H ii)≤ 1020.5 cm-2. The baryon content of these systems is Ω_b(BLA)=0.0121 h65 -1, which represents ˜ 25 percent of the total baryon budget in our simulation. Our results thus support the idea that BLAs represent a significant baryon reservoir at low redshift. BLAs predominantly trace shock-heated collisionally ionized WHIM gas at temperatures log T≈ 4.4{-}6.2. About 27 percent of the BLAs in our simulation originate in the photoionized Ly α forest (log T<4.3) and their large line widths are determined by non-thermal broadening effects such as unresolved velocity structure and macroscopic turbulence. Our simulation implies that for a large-enough sample of BLAs in FUV spectra it is possible to obtain a reasonable approximation of the baryon content of these systems solely from the measured H i column densities and b values.

  11. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  12. THE 21 cm FOREST AS A PROBE OF THE REIONIZATION AND THE TEMPERATURE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Yidong; Fan Zuhui; Chen Xuelei; Trac, Hy; Cen, Renyue

    2009-10-20

    Using high-redshift radio sources as background, the 21 cm forest observations probe the neutral hydrogen absorption signatures of early structures along the lines of sight. Directly sensitive to the spin temperature of the hydrogen atoms, it complements the 21 cm tomography observations, and provides information on the temperature as well as the ionization state of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We use a radiative transfer simulation to investigate the 21 cm forest signals during the epoch of reionization. We first confirmed that the optical depth and equivalent width (EW) are good representations of the ionization and thermal state of the IGM. The features selected by their relative optical depth are excellent tracers of ionization fields, and the features selected by their absolute optical depth are very sensitive to the IGM temperature, so the IGM temperature information could potentially be extracted from 21 cm forest observation, thus breaking a degeneracy in 21 cm tomographic observation. With the EW statistics, we predict some observational consequences for 21 cm forest. From the distributions of EWs and the number evolution of absorbers and leakers with different EWs, we see clearly the cosmological evolution of ionization state of the IGM. The number density of potentially observable features decreases rapidly with increasing gas temperature. The sensitivity of the proposed EW statistic to the IGM temperature makes it a unique and potentially powerful probe of reionization. Missing small-scale structures, such as small filaments and minihalos that are unresolved in our current simulation, and lack of an accurate calculation of the IGM temperature, however, likely have rendered the presented signals quantitatively inaccurate. Finally, we discuss the requirements of the background radio sources for such observations, and find that signals with equivalent widths larger than 1 kHz are hopeful to be detected.

  13. A model for the distribution of dark matter, galaxies, and the intergalactic medium in a cold dark matter-dominated universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryu, Dongsu; Vishniac, Ethan T.; Chiang, Wei-Hwan

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the cold-dark-matter (CDM) and baryonic components of CDM-dominated cosmological models are characterized, summarizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. The evolution and distribution of matter in an Einstein-de Sitter universe on length scales small enough so that the Newtonian approximation is valid is followed chronologically, assuming (1) that the galaxies, CDM, and the intergalactic medium (IGM) are coupled by gravity, (2) that galaxies form by taking mass and momentum from the IGM, and (3) that the IGM responds to the energy input from the galaxies. The results of the numerical computations are presented in extensive graphs and discussed in detail.

  14. A Determination of the Intergalactic Redshift Dependent UV-Optical-NIR Photon Density Using Deep Galaxy Survey Data and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2012-01-01

    We calculate the intensity and photon spectrum of the intergalactic background light (IBL) as a function of red shift using an approach based on observational data obtained at in different wavelength bands from local to deep galaxy surveys. Our empirically based approach allows us, for the firs.t time, to obtain a completely model independent determination of the IBL and to quantify its uncertainties. Using our results on the IBL, we then place upper and lower limits on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays, independent of previous constraints.

  15. The Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockman, H. S.; Mather, John C.

    2001-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) will be an 8 m deployable telescope, radiatively cooled to around 30 K and diffraction limited at 2 μm, operating at the Sun-Earth Lagrange point L2. It will be built by a partnership of NASA, ESA, and the CSA (Canadian Space Agency). The camera sensitivity should be limited by the zodiacal light for wavelengths < 10 μm. The main scientific objectives are the study of the origin and evolution of galaxies, stars, and planets, beginning with the first luminous objects to form from the Big Bang. Other objectives include studies of dark matter, supernovae, the intergalactic medium, gamma ray bursts, star ages, and exobiology. The telescope will be operated like the Hubble Space Telescope by the Space Telescope Science Institute, with all observing programs selected from proposals. The NGST scientific requirements originated with the Dressler ``HST and Beyond" report of 1996. The instruments recommended by the ASWG (Ad Hoc Science Working Group) include 1) a wide field near IR camera with an 8K2 detector array covering 0.6 to 5 μm, 2) a multi-object near IR spectrograph capable of simultaneously observing >100 objects with a resolution of R = λ/δλ = 1000, and 3) a combined mid-IR camera and spectrograph from 5 to 27 μm, with a spectral resolution of R=3000.

  16. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. II. REWRITING THE THERMAL HISTORY OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.; Pfrommer, Christoph E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-10

    The universe is opaque to extragalactic very high energy gamma rays (VHEGRs, E > 100 GeV) because they annihilate and pair produce on the extragalactic background light. The resulting ultrarelativistic pairs are commonly assumed to lose energy primarily through inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons, reprocessing the original emission from TeV to GeV energies. In Broderick et al., we argued that this is not the case; powerful plasma instabilities driven by the highly anisotropic nature of the ultrarelativistic pair distribution provide a plausible way to dissipate the kinetic energy of the TeV-generated pairs locally, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here, we explore the effect of this heating on the thermal history of the IGM. We collate the observed extragalactic VHEGR sources to determine a local VHEGR heating rate. Given the pointed nature of VHEGR observations, we estimate the correction for the various selection effects using Fermi observations of high- and intermediate-peaked BL Lac objects. As the extragalactic component of the local VHEGR flux is dominated by TeV blazars, we then estimate the evolution of the TeV blazar luminosity density by tying it to the well-observed quasar luminosity density and producing a VHEGR heating rate as a function of redshift. This heating is relatively homogeneous for z {approx}< 4, but there is greater spatial variation at higher redshift (order unity at z {approx} 6) because of the reduced number of blazars that contribute to local heating. We show that this new heating process dominates photoheating in the low-redshift evolution of the IGM and calculate the effect of this heating in a one-zone model. As a consequence, the inclusion of TeV blazar heating qualitatively and quantitatively changes the structure and history of the IGM. Due to the homogeneous nature of the extragalactic background light, TeV blazars produce a uniform volumetric heating rate. This heating is sufficient to increase the temperature of the mean density IGM by nearly an order of magnitude, and at low densities by substantially more. It also naturally produces the inverted temperature-density relation inferred by recent observations of the high-redshift Ly{alpha} forest, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with standard reionization models. Finally, we close with a discussion on the possibility of detecting this hot low-density IGM suggested by our model either directly or indirectly via the local Ly{alpha} forest, the Comptonized CMB, or free-free emission, but we find that such measurements are currently not feasible.

  17. On the Cross-Correlation between Dark Matter Distribution and Secondary Cosmic Microwave Background Anisotropies of the Ionized Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2002-04-01

    We investigate a cross-correlation between the weak gravitational lensing field of the large-scale structure ? and the secondary temperature fluctuation field ? of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) induced by Thomson scattering of CMB photons off the ionized medium in the mildly nonlinear structure. The cross-correlation is expected to observationally unveil the biasing relation between the dark matter and ionized medium distributions in the large-scale structure. We develop a formalism for calculating the cross-correlation function and its angular power spectrum based on the small angle approximation. As a result, we find that the leading contribution to the cross-correlation comes from the secondary CMB fluctuation field induced by the quadratic Doppler effects of the bulk velocity field v of the ionized medium since the cross-correlations with the O(v) Doppler effect and the Ostriker-Vishniac effect of O(v?) are suppressed on relevant angular scales because the linear dependence on the bulk velocity field leads to cancellations between positive and negative contributions among the scatterers for the ensemble average. The magnitude of the cross-correlation can be estimated as ~10-10 on small angular scales (l>~1000) under the currently favored cold dark matter model of the structure formation and the simplest scenario of homogeneous reionization after a given redshift of zion>~5. Although the magnitude turns out to be small, we find several interesting aspects of the effect. One of them is that the density-modulated quadratic Doppler effect of O(?ev2) produces the cross-correlation with the weak lensing field that has linear dependence on the electron density fluctuation field ?e or, equivalently, on the biasing relation between the dark matter and electron distributions. In other words, the angular power spectrum could be either positive or negative, depending on the positive biasing or antibiasing, respectively. Detection of the cross-correlation thus offers a new opportunity to observationally understand the reionization history of intergalactic medium connected to the dark matter clustering.

  18. Relativistic pair beams from TeV blazars: A source of reprocessed GeV emission rather than intergalactic heating

    SciTech Connect

    Sironi, Lorenzo; Giannios, Dimitrios E-mail: dgiannio@purdue.edu

    2014-05-20

    The interaction of TeV photons from blazars with the extragalactic background light produces a relativistic beam of electron-positron pairs streaming through the intergalactic medium (IGM). The fate of the beam energy is uncertain. By means of two- and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we study the nonlinear evolution of dilute ultra-relativistic pair beams propagating through the IGM. We explore a wide range of beam Lorentz factors γ {sub b} >> 1 and beam-to-plasma density ratios α << 1, so that our results can be extrapolated to the extreme parameters of blazar-induced beams (γ {sub b} ∼ 10{sup 6} and α ∼ 10{sup –15}, for powerful blazars). For cold beams, we show that the oblique instability governs the early stages of evolution, but its exponential growth terminates—due to self-heating of the beam in the transverse direction—when only a negligible fraction ∼(α/γ {sub b}){sup 1/3} ∼ 10{sup –7} of the beam energy has been transferred to the IGM plasma. Further relaxation of the beam proceeds through quasi-longitudinal modes, until the momentum dispersion in the direction of propagation saturates at Δp {sub b,} {sub ∥}/γ{sub b} m{sub e}c ∼ 0.2. This corresponds to a fraction ∼10% of the beam energy—irrespective of γ {sub b} or α—being ultimately transferred to the IGM plasma (as compared to the heating efficiency of ∼50% predicted by one-dimensional models, which cannot properly account for the transverse broadening of the beam). For the warm beams generated by TeV blazars, the development of the longitudinal relaxation is suppressed, since the initial dispersion in beam momentum is already Δp {sub b0,} {sub ∥}/γ {sub b} m{sub e}c ≳ 1. Here, the fraction of beam energy ultimately deposited into the IGM is only ∼α γ {sub b} ∼ 10{sup –9}. It follows that most of the beam energy is still available to power the GeV emission produced by inverse Compton up-scattering of the cosmic microwave background by the beam pairs.

  19. THE COLUMN DENSITY DISTRIBUTION AND CONTINUUM OPACITY OF THE INTERGALACTIC AND CIRCUMGALACTIC MEDIUM AT REDSHIFT (z) = 2.4

    SciTech Connect

    Rudie, Gwen C.; Steidel, Charles C.; Shapley, Alice E.; Pettini, Max

    2013-06-01

    We present new high-precision measurements of the opacity of the intergalactic and circumgalactic medium (IGM; CGM) at (z) = 2.4. Using Voigt profile fits to the full Ly{alpha} and Ly{beta} forests in 15 high-resolution high-S/N spectra of hyperluminous QSOs, we make the first statistically robust measurement of the frequency of absorbers with H I column densities 14{approx}< log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}){approx}<17.2. We also present the first measurements of the frequency distribution of H I absorbers in the volume surrounding high-z galaxies (the CGM, 300 pkpc), finding that the incidence of absorbers in the CGM is much higher than in the IGM. In agreement with Rudie et al., we find that there are fractionally more high-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers than low-N{sub H{sub I}} absorbers in the CGM compared to the IGM, leading to a shallower power law fit to the CGM frequency distribution. We use these new measurements to calculate the total opacity of the IGM and CGM to hydrogen-ionizing photons, finding significantly higher opacity than most previous studies, especially from absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2}) < 17.2. Reproducing the opacity measured in our data as well as the incidence of absorbers with log (N{sub H{sub I}}/cm{sup -2})>17.2 requires a broken power law parameterization of the frequency distribution with a break near N{sub H{sub I}} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. We compute new estimates of the mean free path ({lambda}{sub mfp}) to hydrogen-ionizing photons at z{sub em} = 2.4, finding {lambda}{sub mfp} = 147 {+-} 15 Mpc when considering only IGM opacity. If instead, we consider photons emanating from a high-z star-forming galaxy and account for the local excess opacity due to the surrounding CGM of the galaxy itself, the mean free path is reduced to {lambda}{sub mfp} = 121 {+-} 15 Mpc. These {lambda}{sub mfp} measurements are smaller than recent estimates and should inform future studies of the metagalactic UV background and of ionizing sources at z Almost-Equal-To 2-3.

  20. A NEW METHOD TO DIRECTLY MEASURE THE JEANS SCALE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM USING CLOSE QUASAR PAIRS

    SciTech Connect

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ∼100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ∼100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of only 20 close quasar pair spectra can pinpoint the Jeans scale to ≅ 5% precision, independent of the amplitude T{sub 0} and slope γ of the temperature-density relation of the IGM T=T{sub 0}(ρ/ ρ-bar ){sup γ-1}. This exquisite sensitivity arises because even long-wavelength one-dimensional Fourier modes ∼10 Mpc, i.e., two orders of magnitude larger than the Jeans scale, are nevertheless dominated by projected small-scale three-dimensional (3D) power. Hence phase angle differences between all modes of quasar pair spectra actually probe the shape of the 3D power spectrum on scales comparable to the pair separation. We show that this new method for measuring the Jeans scale is unbiased and is insensitive to a battery of systematics that typically plague Lyα forest measurements, such as continuum fitting errors, imprecise knowledge of the noise level and/or spectral resolution, and metal-line absorption.

  1. A New Method to Directly Measure the Jeans Scale of the Intergalactic Medium Using Close Quasar Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rorai, Alberto; Hennawi, Joseph F.; White, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Although the baryons in the intergalactic medium (IGM) trace dark matter fluctuations on megaparsec scales, on smaller scales ~100 kpc, fluctuations are suppressed because the finite temperature gas is pressure supported against gravity, analogous to the classical Jeans argument. This Jeans filtering scale, which quantifies the small-scale structure of the IGM, has fundamental cosmological implications. First, it provides a thermal record of heat injected by ultraviolet photons during cosmic reionization events, and thus constrains the thermal and reionization history of the universe. Second, the Jeans scale determines the clumpiness of the IGM, a critical ingredient in models of cosmic reionization. Third, it sets the minimum mass scale for gravitational collapse from the IGM, and hence plays a pivotal role in galaxy formation. Unfortunately, it is extremely challenging to measure the Jeans scale via the standard technique of analyzing purely longitudinal Lyα forest spectra, because the thermal Doppler broadening of absorption lines along the line-of-sight, is highly degenerate with Jeans smoothing. In this work, we show that the Jeans filtering scale can be directly measured by characterizing the coherence of correlated Lyα forest absorption in close quasar pairs, with separations small enough ~100 kpc to resolve it. We present a novel technique for this purpose, based on the probability density function (PDF) of phase angle differences of homologous longitudinal Fourier modes in close quasar pair spectra. A Bayesian formalism is introduced based on the phase angle PDF, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques are used to characterize the precision of a hypothetical Jeans scale measurement, and explore degeneracies with other thermal parameters governing the IGM. A semi-analytical model of the Lyα forest is used to generate a large grid (500) of thermal models from a dark matter only simulation. Our full parameter study indicates that a realistic sample of only 20 close quasar pair spectra can pinpoint the Jeans scale to ~= 5% precision, independent of the amplitude T 0 and slope γ of the temperature-density relation of the IGM T=T_0(\\rho / {\\bar{\\rho }})^{\\gamma -1}. This exquisite sensitivity arises because even long-wavelength one-dimensional Fourier modes ~10 Mpc, i.e., two orders of magnitude larger than the Jeans scale, are nevertheless dominated by projected small-scale three-dimensional (3D) power. Hence phase angle differences between all modes of quasar pair spectra actually probe the shape of the 3D power spectrum on scales comparable to the pair separation. We show that this new method for measuring the Jeans scale is unbiased and is insensitive to a battery of systematics that typically plague Lyα forest measurements, such as continuum fitting errors, imprecise knowledge of the noise level and/or spectral resolution, and metal-line absorption.

  2. A meeting with the universe: Science discoveries from the space program

    SciTech Connect

    French, B.M.; Maran, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    A general history of space exploration is presented. The solar system is discussed. The Sun-Earth relationship is considered, including magnetic fields, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the Sun-weather relationship. The universe beyond the solar system is discussed. Topics include stellar and galactic evolution, quasars and intergalactic space. The effects of weightlessness and ionizing radiation on human beings are considered. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is discussed. Lunar and planetary exploration, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, biomedical research and exobiology are reviewed. Numerous color illustrations are included.

  3. A meeting with the universe: Science discoveries from the space program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, B. M.; Maran, S. P.

    A general history of space exploration is presented. The solar system is discussed. The Sun-Earth relationship is considered, including magnetic fields, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the Sun-weather relationship. The universe beyond the solar system is discussed. Topics include stellar and galactic evolution, quasars and intergalactic space. The effects of weightlessness and ionizing radiation on human beings are considered. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is discussed. Lunar and planetary exploration, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, biomedical research and exobiology are reviewed. Numerous color illustrations are included.

  4. A meeting with the universe: Science discoveries from the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M. (Editor); Maran, S. P. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    A general history of space exploration is presented. The solar system is discussed. The Sun-Earth relationship is considered, including magnetic fields, solar wind, the magnetosphere, and the Sun-weather relationship. The universe beyond the solar system is discussed. Topics include stellar and galactic evolution, quasars and intergalactic space. The effects of weightlessness and ionizing radiation on human beings are considered. The possibility of extraterrestrial life is discussed. Lunar and planetary exploration, solar-terrestrial physics, astrophysics, biomedical research and exobiology are reviewed. Numerons color illustrations are included.

  5. High Resolution Spectroscopy of X-ray Quasars: Searching for the X-ray Absorption from the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fang, Taotao; Canizares, Claude R.; Marshall, Herman L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a survey of six low to moderate redshift quasars with Chandra and XMM-Newton. The primary goal is to search for the narrow X-ray absorption lines produced by highly ionized metals in the Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium. All the X-ray spectra can be well fitted by a power law with neutral hydrogen absorption. Only one feature is detected at above 3-sigma level in all the spectra, which is consistent with statistic fluctuation. We discuss the implications in our understanding of the baryon content of the universe. We also discuss the implication of the non-detection of the local (z approx. 0) X-ray absorption.

  6. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. I. IMPLICATIONS OF PLASMA INSTABILITIES FOR THE INTERGALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD AND EXTRAGALACTIC GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, Avery E.; Chang, Philip; Pfrommer, Christoph E-mail: pchang@cita.utoronto.ca

    2012-06-10

    Inverse Compton cascades (ICCs) initiated by energetic gamma rays (E {approx}> 100 GeV) enhance the GeV emission from bright, extragalactic TeV sources. The absence of this emission from bright TeV blazars has been used to constrain the intergalactic magnetic field (IGMF), and the stringent limits placed on the unresolved extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGRB) by Fermi have been used to argue against a large number of such objects at high redshifts. However, these are predicated on the assumption that inverse Compton scattering is the primary energy-loss mechanism for the ultrarelativistic pairs produced by the annihilation of the energetic gamma rays on extragalactic background light photons. Here, we show that for sufficiently bright TeV sources (isotropic-equivalent luminosities {approx}> 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}) plasma beam instabilities, specifically the 'oblique' instability, present a plausible mechanism by which the energy of these pairs can be dissipated locally, heating the intergalactic medium. Since these instabilities typically grow on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling rate, they necessarily suppress the ICCs. As a consequence, this places a severe constraint on efforts to limit the IGMF from the lack of a discernible GeV bump in TeV sources. Similarly, it considerably weakens the Fermi limits on the evolution of blazar populations. Specifically, we construct a TeV-blazar luminosity function from those objects currently observed and find that it is very well described by the quasar luminosity function at z {approx} 0.1, shifted to lower luminosities and number densities, suggesting that both classes of sources are regulated by similar processes. Extending this relationship to higher redshifts, we show that the magnitude and shape of the EGRB above {approx}10 GeV are naturally reproduced with this particular example of a rapidly evolving TeV-blazar luminosity function.

  7. Laboratory spectroscopy and space astrophysics: A tribute to Joe Reader

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckrone, David S.

    2013-07-01

    Beginning with the launch of the Copernicus Satellite in 1973, and continuing with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), and the state-of-the-art spectrographs on the Hubble Space Telescope (GHRS, FOS, STIS and COS), astrophysics experienced dramatic advancements in capabilities to study the composition and physical properties of planets, comets, stars, nebulae, the interstellar medium, galaxies, quasars and the intergalactic medium at visible and ultraviolet wavelengths. It became clear almost immediately that the available atomic data needed to calibrate and quantitatively analyze these superb spectroscopic observations, obtained at great cost from space observatories, was not up to that task. Over the past 3+ decades, Joe Reader and his collaborators at NIST have provided, essentially "on demand", laboratory observations and analyses of extraordinary quality to help astrophysicists extract the maximum possible physical understanding of objects in the cosmos from their space observations. This talk is one scientist's grateful retrospective about these invaluable collaborations.

  8. Line-emitting galaxies beyond a redshift of 7: an improved method for estimating the evolving neutrality of the intergalactic medium

    SciTech Connect

    Schenker, Matthew A.; Ellis, Richard S.; Konidaris, Nick P.; Stark, Daniel P.

    2014-11-01

    The redshift-dependent fraction of color-selected galaxies revealing Lyman alpha (Lyα) emission, x {sub Lyα} has become the most valuable constraint on the evolving neutrality of the early intergalactic medium. However, in addition to resonant scattering by neutral gas, the visibility of Lyα is also dependent on the intrinsic properties of the host galaxy, including its stellar population, dust content, and the nature of outflowing gas. Taking advantage of significant progress we have made in determining the line-emitting properties of z ≅ 4-6 galaxies, we propose an improved method, based on using the measured slopes of the rest-frame ultraviolet continua of galaxies, to interpret the growing body of near-infrared spectra of z > 7 galaxies in order to take into account these host galaxy dependencies. In a first application of our new method, we demonstrate its potential via a new spectroscopic survey of 7 < z < 8 galaxies undertaken with the Keck MOSFIRE spectrograph. Together with earlier published data, our data provide improved estimates of the evolving visibility of Lyα, particularly at redshift z ≅ 8. As a by-product, we also present a promising new line-emitting galaxy candidate, detected at 4.0σ at redshift z = 7.62. We discuss the improving constraints on the evolving neutral fraction over 6 < z < 8 and the implications for cosmic reionization.

  9. Probing intergalactic neutral hydrogen by the Lyman alpha red damping wing of gamma-ray burst 130606A afterglow spectrum at z = 5.913

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totani, Tomonori; Aoki, Kentaro; Hattori, Takashi; Kosugi, George; Niino, Yuu; Hashimoto, Tetsuya; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Kouji; Sakamoto, Takanori; Yamada, Toru

    2014-06-01

    The unprecedentedly bright optical afterglow of GRB 130606A located by Swift at a redshift close to the reionization era (z = 5.913) provides a new opportunity to probe the ionization status of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Here we present an analysis of the red Lyα damping wing of the afterglow spectrum taken by Subaru/FOCAS during 10.4-13.2 hr after the burst. We find that the minimal model including only the baseline power-law and H I absorption in the host galaxy does not give a good fit, leaving residuals showing concave curvature in 8400-8900 Å with an amplitude of about 0.6% of the flux. Such a curvature in the short wavelength range cannot be explained either by extinction at the host with standard extinction curves, intrinsic curvature of afterglow spectra, or by the known systematic uncertainties in the observed spectrum. The red damping wing by intervening H I gas outside the host can reduce the residual by about 3 σ statistical significance. We find that a damped Lyα system is not favored as the origin of this intervening H I absorption, from the observed Lyβ and metal absorption features. Therefore absorption by diffuse IGM remains as a plausible explanation. A fit by a simple uniform IGM model requires an H I neutral fraction of fH I ˜ 0.1-0.5 depending on the distance to the GRB host, implying high fH I IGM associated with the observed dark Gunn-Peterson (GP) troughs. This gives new evidence that the reionization is not yet complete at z = 6.

  10. New limits on 21 cm epoch of reionization from paper-32 consistent with an x-ray heated intergalactic medium at z = 7.7

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, Aaron R.; Liu, Adrian; Ali, Zaki S.; Pober, Jonathan C.; Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F.; Bradley, Richard F.; Carilli, Chris L.; DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, David H. E.; Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Jacobs, Daniel C.; Klima, Pat; Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P.; Stefan, Irina I.

    2014-06-20

    We present new constraints on the 21 cm Epoch of Reionization (EoR) power spectrum derived from three months of observing with a 32 antenna, dual-polarization deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization in South Africa. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficacy of the delay-spectrum approach to avoiding foregrounds, achieving over eight orders of magnitude of foreground suppression (in mK{sup 2}). Combining this approach with a procedure for removing off-diagonal covariances arising from instrumental systematics, we achieve a best 2σ upper limit of (41 mK){sup 2} for k = 0.27 h Mpc{sup –1} at z = 7.7. This limit falls within an order of magnitude of the brighter predictions of the expected 21 cm EoR signal level. Using the upper limits set by these measurements, we generate new constraints on the brightness temperature of 21 cm emission in neutral regions for various reionization models. We show that for several ionization scenarios, our measurements are inconsistent with cold reionization. That is, heating of the neutral intergalactic medium (IGM) is necessary to remain consistent with the constraints we report. Hence, we have suggestive evidence that by z = 7.7, the H I has been warmed from its cold primordial state, probably by X-rays from high-mass X-ray binaries or miniquasars. The strength of this evidence depends on the ionization state of the IGM, which we are not yet able to constrain. This result is consistent with standard predictions for how reionization might have proceeded.

  11. Space Tug

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This Space Tug concept, proposed as a reusable multipurpose space vehicle to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations, was intended to serve as an important link between the Space Shuttle and the Space Station or any other orbital element requiring crew and/or cargo transportation. The Marshall Space Flight Center managed NASA's Space Tug activities. The Space Tug program was cancelled and did not become a reality.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope: UV, Visible, and Near-Infrared Pursuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope continues to push the limits on world-class astrophysics. Cameras including the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the new panchromatic Wide Field Camera 3 which was installed nu last year's successful servicing mission S2N4,o{fer imaging from near-infrared through ultraviolet wavelengths. Spectroscopic studies of sources from black holes to exoplanet atmospheres are making great advances through the versatile use of STIS, the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. The new Cosmic Origins Spectrograph, also installed last year, is the most sensitive UV spectrograph to fly io space and is uniquely suited to address particular scientific questions on galaxy halos, the intergalactic medium, and the cosmic web. With these outstanding capabilities on HST come complex needs for laboratory astrophysics support including atomic and line identification data. I will provide an overview of Hubble's current capabilities and the scientific programs and goals that particularly benefit from the studies of laboratory astrophysics.

  13. Servicing Mission 4 and the Extraordinary Science of the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Just two years ago, NASA astronauts performed a challenging and flawless final Space Shuttle servicing mission to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. With science instruments repaired on board and two new ones installed, the observatory. is more powerful now than ever before. I will show the dramatic highlights of the servicing mission and present some of the early scientific results from the refurbished telescope. Its high sensitivity and multi-wavelength capabilities are revealing the highest redshift galaxies ever seen, as well as details of the cosmic web of intergalactic medium, large scale structure formation, solar system bodies, and stellar evolution. Enlightening studies of dark matter, dark energy, and exoplanet atmospheres add to the profound contributions to astrophysics that are being made with Hubble, setting a critical stage for future observatories such as the James Webb Space Telescope.

  14. Space Discovery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackman, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Describes one teacher's experience taking Space Discovery courses that were sponsored by the United States Space Foundation (USSF). These courses examine the history of space science, theory of orbits and rocketry, the effects of living in outer space on humans, and space weather. (DDR)

  15. Star formation and the interstellar medium in nearby tidal streams (SAINTS): Spitzer mid-infrared spectroscopy and imaging of intergalactic star-forming objects

    SciTech Connect

    Higdon, S. J. U.; Higdon, J. L.; Smith, B. J.; Hancock, M.

    2014-06-01

    A spectroscopic analysis of 10 intergalactic star-forming objects (ISFOs) and a photometric analysis of 67 ISFOs in a sample of 14 interacting systems is presented. The majority of the ISFOs have relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) band strengths similar to those of nearby spiral and starburst galaxies. In contrast to what is observed in blue compact dwarfs (BCDs) and local giant H II regions in the Milky Way (NGC 3603) and the Magellanic Clouds (30 Doradus and N 66), the relative PAH band strengths in ISFOs correspond to models with a significant PAH ion fraction (<50%) and bright emission from large PAHs (∼100 carbon atoms). The [Ne III]/[Ne II] and [S IV]/[S III] line flux ratios indicate moderate levels of excitation with an interstellar radiation field that is harder than the majority of the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey and starburst galaxies, but softer than BCDs and local giant H II regions. The ISFO neon line flux ratios are consistent with a burst of star formation ≲6 million years ago. Most of the ISFOs have ∼10{sup 6} M {sub ☉} of warm H{sub 2} with a likely origin in photo-dissociation regions (PDRs). Infrared Array Camera photometry shows the ISFOs to be bright at 8 μm, with one-third having [4.5] – [8.0] > 3.7, i.e., enhanced non-stellar emission, most likely due to PAHs, relative to normal spirals, dwarf irregulars, and BCD galaxies. The relative strength of the 8 μm emission compared to that at 3.6 μm or 24 μm separates ISFOs from dwarf galaxies in Spitzer two-color diagrams. The infrared power in two-thirds of the ISFOs is dominated by emission from grains in a diffuse interstellar medium. One in six ISFOs have significant emission from PDRs, contributing ∼30%-60% of the total power. ISFOs are young knots of intense star formation.

  16. CHANDRA VIEW OF THE WARM-HOT INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM TOWARD 1ES 1553+113: ABSORPTION-LINE DETECTIONS AND IDENTIFICATIONS. I

    SciTech Connect

    Nicastro, F.; Zappacosta, L.; Elvis, M.; Krongold, Y.; Mathur, S.; Gupta, A.; Danforth, C.; Shull, J. M.; Barcons, X.; Borgani, S.; Branchini, E.; Cen, R.; Dave, R.; Kaastra, J.; Paerels, F.; Piro, L.; Takei, Y.

    2013-06-01

    We present the first results from our pilot 500 ks Chandra Low Energy Transmission Grating Large Program observation of the soft X-ray brightest source in the z {approx}> 0.4 sky, the blazar 1ES 1553+113, aimed to secure the first uncontroversial detections of the missing baryons in the X-rays. We identify a total of 11 possible absorption lines, with single-line statistical significances between 2.2{sigma} and 4.1{sigma}. Six of these lines are detected at high single-line statistical significance (3.6 {<=} {sigma} {<=} 4.1), while the remaining five are regarded as marginal detections in association with either other X-ray lines detected at higher significance and/or far-ultraviolet (FUV) signposts. Three of these lines are consistent with metal absorption at z {approx_equal} 0, and we identify them with Galactic O I and C II. The remaining eight lines may be imprinted by intervening absorbers and are all consistent with being high-ionization counterparts of FUV H I and/or O VI intergalactic medium signposts. In particular, five of these eight possible intervening absorption lines (single-line statistical significances of 4.1{sigma}, 4.1{sigma}, 3.9{sigma}, 3.8{sigma}, and 2.7{sigma}), are identified as C V and C VI K{alpha} absorbers belonging to three WHIM systems at z{sub X} = 0.312, z{sub X} = 0.237, and (z{sub X} ) = 0.133, which also produce broad H I (and O VI for the z{sub X} = 0.312 system) absorption in the FUV. For two of these systems (z{sub X} = 0.312 and 0.237), the Chandra X-ray data led the a posteriori discovery of physically consistent broad H I associations in the FUV (for the third system the opposite applies), so confirming the power of the X-ray-FUV synergy for WHIM studies. The true statistical significances of these three X-ray absorption systems, after properly accounting for the number of redshift trials, are 5.8{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.312; 6.3{sigma} if the low-significance O V and C V K{beta} associations are considered), 3.9{sigma} (z{sub X} = 0.237), and 3.8{sigma} ((z{sub X} ) = 0.133), respectively.

  17. GRB 130606A as a Probe of the Intergalactic Medium and the Interstellar Medium in a Star-forming Galaxy in the First Gyr after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Fox, Derek B.; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Drout, Maria R.; Fong, Wen-fai; Laskar, Tanmoy; Roth, Katherine C.

    2013-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z ≈ 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 Å due to absorption from Lyα at redshift z ≈ 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Lyα forest between 7000 and 7800 Å. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain the metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] >~ -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] <~ -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Lyα seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of Δz = 0.12 in the Lyα forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3σ upper limit on the mean Lyα transmission fraction of lsim0.2% (or \\tau _{{GP}}^{{eff}} (Lyα) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Lyβ and Lyγ transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2σ upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Lyα red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.

  18. Intergalactic medium emission observations with the cosmic web imager. II. Discovery of extended, kinematically linked emission around SSA22 Lyα BLOB 2

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Martin, D.; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-05-10

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and coaligned angular momentum, strengthening the case for their association.

  19. GRB 130606A AS A PROBE OF THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM AND THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM IN A STAR-FORMING GALAXY IN THE FIRST Gyr AFTER THE BIG BANG

    SciTech Connect

    Chornock, Ryan; Berger, Edo; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Drout, Maria R.; Fong Wenfai; Laskar, Tanmoy; Fox, Derek B.; Roth, Katherine C.

    2013-09-01

    We present high signal-to-noise ratio Gemini and MMT spectroscopy of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130606A at redshift z = 5.913, discovered by Swift. This is the first high-redshift GRB afterglow to have spectra of comparable quality to those of z Almost-Equal-To 6 quasars. The data exhibit a smooth continuum at near-infrared wavelengths that is sharply cut off blueward of 8410 A due to absorption from Ly{alpha} at redshift z Almost-Equal-To 5.91, with some flux transmitted through the Ly{alpha} forest between 7000 and 7800 A. We use column densities inferred from metal absorption lines to constrain the metallicity of the host galaxy between a lower limit of [Si/H] {approx}> -1.7 and an upper limit of [S/H] {approx}< -0.5 set by the non-detection of S II absorption. We demonstrate consistency between the dramatic evolution in the transmission fraction of Ly{alpha} seen in this spectrum over the redshift range z = 4.9-5.85 with that previously measured from observations of high-redshift quasars. There is an extended redshift interval of {Delta}z = 0.12 in the Ly{alpha} forest at z = 5.77 with no detected transmission, leading to a 3{sigma} upper limit on the mean Ly{alpha} transmission fraction of {approx}<0.2% (or {tau}{sub GP}{sup eff} (Ly{alpha}) > 6.4). This is comparable to the lowest-redshift Gunn-Peterson troughs found in quasar spectra. Some Ly{beta} and Ly{gamma} transmission is detected in this redshift window, indicating that it is not completely opaque, and hence that the intergalactic medium (IGM) is nonetheless mostly ionized at these redshifts. We set a 2{sigma} upper limit of 0.11 on the neutral fraction of the IGM at the redshift of the GRB from the lack of a Ly{alpha} red damping wing, assuming a model with a constant neutral density. GRB 130606A thus for the first time realizes the promise of GRBs as probes of the first galaxies and cosmic reionization.

  20. Intergalactic Medium Emission Observations with the Cosmic Web Imager. II. Discovery of Extended, Kinematically Linked Emission around SSA22 Lyα Blob 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, D. Christopher; Chang, Daphne; Matuszewski, Matt; Morrissey, Patrick; Rahman, Shahin; Moore, Anna; Steidel, Charles C.; Matsuda, Yuichi

    2014-05-01

    The intergalactic medium (IGM) is the dominant reservoir of baryons, delineates the large-scale structure of the universe at low to moderate overdensities, and provides gas from which galaxies form and evolve. Simulations of a cold-dark-matter- (CDM-) dominated universe predict that the IGM is distributed in a cosmic web of filaments and that galaxies should form along and at the intersections of these filaments. While observations of QSO absorption lines and the large-scale distribution of galaxies have confirmed the CDM paradigm, the cosmic web of IGM has never been confirmed by direct imaging. Here we report our observation of the Lyα blob 2 (LAB2) in SSA22 with the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI). This is an integral field spectrograph optimized for low surface brightness, extended emission. With 22 hr of total on- and off-source exposure, CWI has revealed that LAB2 has extended Lyα emission that is organized into azimuthal zones consistent with filaments. We perform numerous tests with simulations and the data to secure the robustness of this result, which relies on data with modest signal-to-noise ratios. We have developed a smoothing algorithm that permits visualization of data cube slices along image or spectral image planes. With both raw and smoothed data cubes we demonstrate that the filaments are kinematically associated with LAB2 and display double-peaked profiles characteristic of optically thick Lyα emission. The flux is 10-20 times brighter than expected for the average emission from the IGM but is consistent with boosted fluorescence from a buried QSO or gravitation cooling radiation. Using simple emission models, we infer a baryon mass in the filaments of at least 1-4 × 1011 M ⊙, and the dark halo mass is at least 2 × 1012 M ⊙. The spatial-kinematic morphology is more consistent with inflow from the cosmic web than outflow from LAB2, although an outflow feature maybe present at one azimuth. LAB2 and the surrounding gas have significant and coaligned angular momentum, strengthening the case for their association.

  1. PROBING THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM/GALAXY CONNECTION. V. ON THE ORIGIN OF Ly{alpha} AND O VI ABSORPTION AT z < 0.2

    SciTech Connect

    Prochaska, J. Xavier; Chen, H.-W.; Mulchaey, J.; Cooksey, K. E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu E-mail: mulchaey@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2011-10-20

    We analyze the association of galaxies with Ly{alpha} and O VI absorption, the most commonly detected transitions of the low-z intergalactic medium (IGM), in the fields of 14 quasars with z{sub em} = 0.06-0.57. Confirming previous studies, we observe a high covering fraction for Ly{alpha} absorption to impact parameter {rho} = 300 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc: 33/37 of our L > 0.01 L* galaxies show Ly{alpha} equivalent width W{sup Ly{alpha}} {>=} 50 mA. Galaxies of all luminosity L > 0.01 L* and spectral type are surrounded by a diffuse and ionized circumgalactic medium (CGM), whose baryonic mass is estimated at {approx}10{sup 10.5{+-}0.3} M{sub sun} for a constant N{sub H} = 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2}. The virialized halos and extended CGM of present-day galaxies are responsible for most strong Ly{alpha} absorbers (W{sup Ly{alpha}} > 300 mA) but cannot reproduce the majority of observed lines in the Ly{alpha} forest. We conclude that the majority of Ly{alpha} absorption with W{sup Ly{alpha}} = 30-300 mA occurs in the cosmic web predicted by cosmological simulations and estimate a characteristic width for these filaments of {approx}400 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc. Regarding O VI, we observe a near unity covering fraction to {rho} = 200 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc for L > 0.1 L* galaxies and to {rho} = 300 h{sup -1}{sub 72} kpc for sub-L* (0.1 L* < L < L*) galaxies. Similar to our Ly{alpha} results, stronger O VI systems (W{sup 1031} > 70 mA) arise in the virialized halos of L > 0.1 L* galaxies. Unlike Ly{alpha}, the weaker O VI systems (W{sup 1031} {approx} 30 mA) arise in the extended CGM of sub-L* galaxies. The majority of O VI gas observed in the low-z IGM is associated with a diffuse medium surrounding individual galaxies with L {approx} 0.3 L* and rarely originates in the so-called warm-hot IGM (predicted by cosmological simulations.

  2. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  3. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  4. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  5. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Fletcher, A.

    This course-tested textbook conveys the fundamentals of magnetic fields and relativistic plasma in diffuse cosmic media, with a primary focus on phenomena that have been observed at different wavelengths. Theoretical concepts are addressed wherever necessary, with derivations presented in sufficient detail to be generally accessible. In the first few chapters the authors present an introduction to various astrophysical phenomena related to cosmic magnetism, with scales ranging from molecular clouds in star-forming regions and supernova remnants in the Milky Way, to clusters of galaxies. Later chapters address the role of magnetic fields in the evolution of the interstellar medium, galaxies and galaxy clusters. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students in astronomy and physics and will serve as an entry point for those starting their first research projects in the field.

  6. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical

  7. Space Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Appropriate directions for the applied research and technology programs that will develop space power systems for U.S. future space missions beyond 1995 are explored. Spacecraft power supplies; space stations, space power reactors, solar arrays, thermoelectric generators, energy storage, and communication satellites are among the topics discussed.

  8. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    2002-12-01

    NASA interest in colonization encompasses space tourism; space exploration; space bases in orbit, at L1, on the Moon, or on Mars; in-situ resource utilization; and planetary terraforming. Activities progressed during 2002 in areas such as Mars colonies, hoppers, and biomass; space elevators and construction; and in-situ consumables. PMID:12506926

  9. Themed Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Christopher O.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a classroom activity that introduces students to the concept of themed space. Students learn to think critically about the spaces they encounter on a regular basis by analyzing existing spaces and by working in groups to create their own themed space. This exercise gives students the chance to see the relevance of critical…

  10. A LYMAN BREAK GALAXY IN THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE GRISM SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya; Stern, Daniel; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A.; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Hathi, Nimish; Budavari, Tamas; Ferreras, Ignacio; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Haiman, Zoltan; Kuemmel, Martin; Meurer, Gerhardt; and others

    2013-08-10

    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  11. Space prospects. [european space programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A strategy for keeping the Common Market's space effort independent of and competitive with NASA and the space shuttle is discussed. Limited financing is the chief obstacle to this. Proposals include an outer space materials processing project and further development of the Ariane rocket. A manned space program is excluded for the foreseeable future.

  12. The Crossroads between the Galactic Disk and Interstellar Space, Ablaze in 3/4 keV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Robin L.

    2016-04-01

    The halo is the crossroads between the Galactic disk and intergalactic space. This region is inhabited by hot gas that has risen from the disk, gas heated in situ, and hot material that has fallen in from intergalactic space. Owing to high spectral resolution observations made by by XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra of the hot plasma's 3/4 keV emission and absorption, increasingly sophisticated and CPU intensive computer modeling, and an awareness that charge exchange can contaminate 3/4 keV observations, we are now better able to understand the hot halo gas than ever before.Spectral analyses indicate that the 3/4 keV emission comes from T ~ 2.2 million Kelvin gas. Although observations suggest that the gas may be convectively unstable and the spectra's temperature is similar to that predicted by recent sophisticated models of the galactic fountain, the observed emission measure is significantly brighter than that predicted by fountain models. This brightness disparity presents us with another type of crossroads: should we continue down the road of adding physics to already sophisticated modeling or should we seek out other sources? In this presentation, I will discuss the galactic fountain crossroads, note the latitudinal and longitudinal distribution of the hot halo gas, provide an update on charge exchange, and explain how shadowing observations have helped to fine tune our understanding of the hot gas.

  13. Marshall Space Flight Center Faculty Fellowship Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, N. F. (Compiler)

    2015-01-01

    The Faculty Fellowship program was revived in the summer of 2015 at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, following a period of diminished faculty research activity here since 2006 when budget cuts in the Headquarters' Education Office required realignment. Several senior Marshall managers recognized the need to involve the Nation's academic research talent in NASA's missions and projects to the benefit of both entities. These managers invested their funds required to establish the renewed Faculty Fellowship program in 2015, a 10-week residential research involvement of 16 faculty in the laboratories and offices at Marshall. These faculty engineers and scientists worked with NASA collaborators on NASA projects, bringing new perspectives and solutions to bear. This Technical Memorandum is a compilation of the research reports of the 2015 Marshall Faculty Fellowship program, along with the Program Announcement (appendix A) and the Program Description (appendix B). The research touched on seven areas-propulsion, materials, instrumentation, fluid dynamics, human factors, control systems, and astrophysics. The propulsion studies included green propellants, gas bubble dynamics, and simulations of fluid and thermal transients. The materials investigations involved sandwich structures in composites, plug and friction stir welding, and additive manufacturing, including both strength characterization and thermosets curing in space. The instrumentation projects involved spectral interfero- metry, emissivity, and strain sensing in structures. The fluid dynamics project studied the water hammer effect. The human factors project investigated the requirements for close proximity operations in confined spaces. Another team proposed a controls system for small launch vehicles, while in astrophysics, one faculty researcher estimated the practicality of weather modification by blocking the Sun's insolation, and another found evidence in satellite data of the detection of a warm-hot intergalactic medium filament. Our goal is to continue the Faculty Fellowship effort with Center funds in succeeding summers.

  14. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  15. Space Basics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbert, Dexter (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    In this education video series, 'Liftoff to Learning', astronauts (Bruce Melnick, Thomas Akers, William Shepherd, Robert Cabana, and Richard Richards) describe the historical beginnings of space exploration from the time of Robert H. Goddard (considered the Father of Rocketry), who, in 1929, invented the first propellant rocket, the prototype of modern liquid propellant rockets, up to the modern Space Shuttles. The questions - where is space, what is space, and how do astronauts get to, stay in, and come back from space are answered through historical footage, computer graphics, and animation. The space environment effects, temperature effects, and gravitational effects on the launching, orbiting, and descent of the Shuttles are discussed. Included is historical still photos and film footage of past space programs and space vehicles.

  16. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The medical aspects of space flight are briefly discussed. The problems of space adaptation syndrome, commonly known as space sickness, are described, and its cause is shown. The adaptation of the cardiovascular system to weightlessness, the problems of radiation in space, atrophy of bones and muscles, and loss of blood volume are addressed. The difficulties associated with the reexperience of gravity on return to earth are briefly considered.

  17. Multipurpose Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butin, Dan

    This paper examines the emerging trend of multipurpose class spaces, including educational trends influencing multipurpose classroom use, and key issues when using these spaces. Issues discussed include room location, technology integration, food services, acoustics, lighting, outdoor space, capacity, and storage. Design principles emphasized

  18. Multipurpose Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The concept of multipurpose spaces in schools is certainly not new. Especially in elementary schools, the combination of cafeteria and auditorium (and sometimes indoor physical activity space as well) is a well-established approach to maximizing the use of school space and a school district's budget. Nonetheless, there continue to be refinements…

  19. Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2010-01-01

    This video provides a narrated exploration of the history and affects of space weather. It includes information the earth's magnetic field, solar radiation, magnetic storms, and how solar winds affect electronics on earth, with specific information on how space weather affects space exploration in the future.

  20. Space Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Julian

    2006-01-01

    This chapter examines the salient characteristics of Space Law. It analyzes the origins and evolution of Space Law, its main international principles, and some current topics of interest to the scientific community: the delimitation of airspace and outer space, intellectual property, and criminal responsibility.

  1. An empirical determination of the intergalactic background light using near-infrared deep galaxy survey data out to 5 ?m and the gamma-ray opacity of the universe

    SciTech Connect

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-04-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 ?m. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to ?-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) TeV. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  2. An Empirical Determination of the Intergalactic Background Light Using Near-Infrared Deep Galaxy Survey Data Out to 5 Micrometers and the Gamma-Ray Opacity of the Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scully, Sean T.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stecker, Floyd W.

    2014-01-01

    We extend our previous model-independent determination of the intergalactic background light, based purely on galaxy survey data, out to a wavelength of 5 micrometers. Our approach enables us to constrain the range of photon densities, based on the uncertainties from observationally determined luminosity densities and colors. We further determine a 68% confidence upper and lower limit on the opacity of the universe to gamma-rays up to energies of 1.6/(1 + z) terraelectron volts. A comparison of our lower limit redshift-dependent opacity curves to the opacity limits derived from the results of both ground-based air Cerenkov telescope and Fermi-LAT observations of PKS 1424+240 allows us to place a new upper limit on the redshift of this source, independent of IBL modeling.

  3. Cognitive Space and Information Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    2001-01-01

    Considers information retrieval systems as a subset of information systems and examines the information spaces of systems and cognitive spaces of users. Presents a method for automatically generating information spaces from document collections that uses term cooccurrence, eigensystems analysis, and Principal Components Analysis, and discusses

  4. Cognitive Space and Information Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Gregory B.

    2001-01-01

    Considers information retrieval systems as a subset of information systems and examines the information spaces of systems and cognitive spaces of users. Presents a method for automatically generating information spaces from document collections that uses term cooccurrence, eigensystems analysis, and Principal Components Analysis, and discusses…

  5. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  6. Space law and space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, Nathan C.

    1992-01-01

    Space industrialization is confronting space law with problems that are changing old and shaping new legal principles. The return to the Moon, the next logical step beyond the space station, will establish a permanent human presence there. Science and engineering, manufacturing and mining will involve the astronauts in the settlement of the solar system. These pioneers, from many nations, will need a legal, political, and social framework to structure their lives and interactions. International and even domestic space law are only the beginning of this framework. Dispute resolution and simple experience will be needed in order to develop, over time, a new social system for the new regime of space.

  7. Space America's commercial space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macleod, N. H.

    1984-01-01

    Space America prepared a private sector land observing space system which includes a sensor system with eight spectral channels configured for stereoscopic data acquisition of four stereo pairs, a spacecraft bus with active three-axis stabilization, a ground station for data acquisition, preprocessing and retransmission. The land observing system is a component of Space America's end-to-end system for Earth resources management, monitoring and exploration. In the context of the Federal Government's program of commercialization of the US land remote sensing program, Space America's space system is characteristic of US industry's use of advanced technology and of commercial, entrepreneurial management. Well before the issuance of the Request for Proposals for Transfer of the United States Land Remote Sensing Program to the Private Sector by the US Department of Commerce, Space Services, Inc., the managing venturer of Space America, used private funds to develop and manage its sub-orbital launch of its Conestoga launch vehicle.

  8. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clampin, Mark; Flanagan, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Space telescopes have been a dominant force in astrophysics and astronomy over the last two decades. As Lyman Spitzer predicted in 1946, space telescopes have opened up much of the electromagnetic spectrum to astronomers, and provided the opportunity to exploit the optical performance of telescopes uncompromised by the turbulent atmosphere. This special section of Optical Engineering is devoted to space telescopes. It focuses on the design and implementation of major space observatories from the gamma-ray to far-infrared, and highlights the scientific and technical breakthroughs enabled by these telescopes. The papers accepted for publication include reviews of major space telescopes spanning the last two decades, in-depth discussions of the design considerations for visible and x-ray telescopes, and papers discussing concepts and technical challenges for future space telescopes.

  9. Space suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepard, L. F.; Durney, G. P.; Case, M. C.; Kenneway, A. J., III; Wise, R. C.; Rinehart, D.; Bessette, R. J.; Pulling, R. C. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A pressure suit for high altitude flights, particularly space missions is reported. The suit is designed for astronauts in the Apollo space program and may be worn both inside and outside a space vehicle, as well as on the lunar surface. It comprises an integrated assembly of inner comfort liner, intermediate pressure garment, and outer thermal protective garment with removable helmet, and gloves. The pressure garment comprises an inner convoluted sealing bladder and outer fabric restraint to which are attached a plurality of cable restraint assemblies. It provides versitility in combination with improved sealing and increased mobility for internal pressures suitable for life support in the near vacuum of outer space.

  10. Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2000-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences Committee on Space Biology and Medicine points out that space medicine is unique among space sciences, because in addition to addressing questions of fundamental scientific interest, it must address clinical or human health and safety issues as well. Efforts to identify how microgravity affects human physiology began in earnest by the United States in 1960 with the establishment of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA's) Life Sciences program. Before the first human space missions, prediction about the physiological effects of microgravity in space ranged from extremely severe to none at all. The understanding that has developed from our experiences in space to date allows us to be guardedly optimistic about the ultimate accommodations of humans to space flight. Only by our travels into the microgravity environment of space have we begun to unravel the mysteries associated with gravity's role in shaping human physiology. Space medicine is still at its very earliest stages. Development of this field has been slow for several reasons, including the limited number of space flights, the small number of research subjects, and the competition within the life sciences community and other disciplines for flight opportunities. The physiological changes incurred during space flight may have a dramatic effect on the course of an injury or illness. These physiological changes present an exciting challenge for the field of space medicine: how to best preserve human health and safety while simultaneously deciphering the effects of microgravity on human performance. As the United States considers the future of humans in long-term space travel, it is essential that the many mysteries as to how microgravity affects human systems be addressed with vigor. Based on the current state of our knowledge, the justification is excellent indeed compelling- for NASA to develop a sophisticated capability in space medicine. Teams of physicians and scientists should be actively engaged in fundamental and applied research designed to ensure that it is safe for humans to routinely and repeatedly stay and work in the microgravity environment of space.

  11. Space Telescope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This pamphlet describes the Space Telescope, an unmanned multi-purpose telescope observatory planned for launch into orbit by the Space Shuttle in the 1980s. The unique capabilities of this telescope are detailed, the major elements of the telescope are described, and its proposed mission operations are outlined. (CS)

  12. Collaborative Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    When architects discuss the educational facilities of the next century and beyond, the conversation turns to collaborative spaces. They envision flexible and fluid spaces that will encourage creative and critical thinking, and free students to communicate clearly about the task at hand. While these are admirable ideals, there are some fundamental…

  13. Space psychology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  14. Space Microbiology

    PubMed Central

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  15. Space engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  16. Space Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dávila, C. R.; Rojas, M.

    2002-12-01

    In 1957, the first man-made satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched into the space. This important event has brought many technological advances and important discoveries for mankind. However a new challenge to mankind has become a reality because of the more than 5,000 satellites that have been launched, a great number of them have stopped operating and remain floating uncontrollably in space and have become space debris. Debris is artificial matter floating uncontrollably in space. Among the debris floating around the Earth, are not just old satellites, but also parts that have broken off spacecraft, paint chips or tiles, gloves that astronauts have dropped - and a multitude of objects. In this paper we present and discuss the impact of artificial space debris.

  17. Space polypropulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  18. Space making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    With discoveries from Mars, the Hubble Deep Field, and Ganymede reawakening Washington's interest in space, the U.S. federal government has started fine-tuning its stance on space flight and exploration. The attention comes as prelude to a proposed November meeting to discuss astronomical and planetary discoveries, and to a rumored space summit in December between Vice President Al Gore and congressional leaders.On September 17, the House of Representatives passed by voice vote H.R. 3936, the Space Commercialization Promotion Act. A measure with strong bipartisan support, the bill officially encourages private companies to participate in the space industry and requires NASA to find more ways to work with the private sector. Updating and amending several existing U.S. policies about commerce in space, H.R. 3936 gives the Department of Transportation the authority to provide and administer licenses for commercial spacecraft to reenter American airspace from orbit and outer space. It also prods NASA to purchase scientific data about the Earth and the solar system from the private sector, whenever possible.

  19. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  20. Space Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Mary Fae (Editor); McKay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael S. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. The pioneers refilled their water barrels at each river they forded; moonbase inhabitants may use chemical reactors to combine hydrogen brought from Earth with oxygen found in lunar soil to make their water. The pioneers sought temporary shelter under trees or in the lee of a cliff and built sod houses as their first homes on the new land; settlers of the Moon may seek out lava tubes for their shelter or cover space station modules with lunar regolith for radiation protection. The pioneers moved further west from their first settlements, using wagons they had built from local wood and pack animals they had raised; space explorers may use propellant made at a lunar base to take them on to Mars. The concept for this report was developed at a NASA-sponsored summer study in 1984. The program was held on the Scripps campus of the University of California at San Diego (UCSD), under the auspices of the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE). It was jointly managed under the California Space Inst. and the NASA Johnson Space Center, under the direction of the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) at NASA Headquarters. The study participants (listed in the addendum) included a group of 18 university teachers and researchers (faculty fellows) who were present for the entire 10-week period and a larger group of attendees from universities, Government, and industry who came for a series of four 1-week workshops. The organization of this report follows that of the summer study. Space Resources consists of a brief overview and four detailed technical volumes: (1) Scenarios; (2) Energy, Power, and Transport; (3) Materials; (4) Social Concerns. Although many of the included papers got their impetus from workshop discussions, most have been written since then, thus allowing the authors to base new applications on established information and tested technology. All these papers have been updated to include the authors' current work. This overview, drafted by faculty fellow Jim Burke, describes the findings of the summer study, as participants explored the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defined the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs. This is certainly not the first report to urge the utilization of space resources in the development of space activities. In fact, Space Resources may be seen as the third of a trilogy of NASA Special Publications reporting such ideas arising from similar studies. It has been preceded by Space Settlements: A Design Study (NASA SP-413) and Space Resources and Space Settlements (NASA SP-428). And other, contemporaneous reports have responded to the same themes. The National Commission on Space, led by Thomas Paine, in Pioneering the Space Frontier, and the NASA task force led by astronaut Sally Ride, in Leadership and America's Future in Space, also emphasize expansion of the space Infrastructure; more detailed exploration of the Moon, Mars, and asteroids; an early start on the development of the technology necessary for using space resources; and systematic development of the skills necessary for long-term human presence in space. Our report does not represent any Government-authorized view or official NASA policy. NASA's official response to these challenging opportunities must be found in the reports of its Office of Exploration, which was established in 1987. That office's report, released in November 1989, of a 90-day study of possible plans for human exploration of the Moon and Mars is NASA's response to the new initiative proposed by President Bush on July 20, 1989, the 20th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing on the Moon: "First, for the coming decade, for the 1990s, Space Station Freedom, our critical next step in all our space endeavors. And next, for the new century, back to the Moon, back to the future, and this time, back to stay. And then a journey into tomorrow, a journey to another planet, a manned mission to Mars." This report, Space Resources, offers substantiation for NASA's bid to carry out that new initiative.

  1. Space medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper attempts to underscore the importance of continued studies on the effects of space on human physiology. With particular reference to the Space Station, it is pointed out that there are two aspects which are challenging to life scientists: first is the development of a research capability for the life sciences which will be used to conduct investigations necessary to extend the time humans can remain in space; second is the challenge to develop a medical capability to provide prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. A discussion of physiological changes that have been observed in spacecrews follows along the lines of the two aspects mentioned.

  2. Hubble space telescope/cosmic origins spectrograph observations of the quasar Q0302–003: Probing the He II reionization epoch and QSO proximity effects

    SciTech Connect

    Syphers, David; Shull, J. Michael

    2014-03-20

    Q0302–003 (z = 3.2860 ± 0.0005) was the first quasar discovered that showed a He II Gunn-Peterson trough, a sign of incomplete helium reionization at z ≳ 2.9. We present its Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph far-UV medium-resolution spectrum, which resolves many spectral features for the first time, allowing study of the quasar itself, the intergalactic medium, and quasar proximity effects. Q0302–003 has a harder intrinsic extreme-UV spectral index than previously claimed, as determined from both a direct fit to the spectrum (yielding α{sub ν} ≈ –0.8) and the helium-to-hydrogen ion ratio in the quasar's line-of-sight proximity zone. Intergalactic absorption along this sightline shows that the helium Gunn-Peterson trough is largely black in the range 2.87 < z < 3.20, apart from ionization due to local sources, indicating that helium reionization has not completed at these redshifts. However, we tentatively report a detection of nonzero flux in the high-redshift trough when looking at low-density regions, but zero flux in higher-density regions. This constrains the He II fraction to be about 1% in the low-density intergalactic medium (IGM) and possibly a factor of a few higher in the IGM as a whole, suggesting helium reionization has progressed substantially by z ∼ 3.1. The Gunn-Peterson trough recovers to a He II Lyα forest at z < 2.87. We confirm a transmission feature due to the ionization zone around a z = 3.05 quasar just off the sightline, and resolve the feature for the first time. We discover a similar such feature possibly caused by a luminous z = 3.23 quasar further from the sightline, which suggests that this quasar has been luminous for >34 Myr.

  3. Space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, Philippe; Aschenbach, Bernd; Seely, John F.

    A brief survey of normal and grazing incidence space telescope types is given. The optimization of telescope efficiency either by dedicated single, bi-layer or multilayer coatings is described. An outlook of solar and stellar coronagraphs is included.

  4. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierly, Ken; Dalheim, Mary

    1981-01-01

    Presents an elementary teaching unit on NASA's space program, including teacher background information, suggested student activities, and a list of resources. Appended is a transcript of an interview conducted by elementary children with astronaut candidate Sherwood (Woody) Spring. (SJL)

  5. Space Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Nikon's F3 35mm camera was specially modified for use by Space Shuttle astronauts. The modification work produced a spinoff lubricant. Because lubricants in space have a tendency to migrate within the camera, Nikon conducted extensive development to produce nonmigratory lubricants; variations of these lubricants are used in the commercial F3, giving it better performance than conventional lubricants. Another spinoff is the coreless motor which allows the F3 to shoot 140 rolls of film on one set of batteries.

  6. Space science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A fact sheet on the NASA space science program is presented. Some of the subjects considered include the following: (1) the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory, (2) the Orbiting Solar Observatory, (3) the Small Astronomy Satellite, (4) lunar programs, (5) planetary programs using the Mariner, Pioneer 10, and Viking space probes, and (6) the Scout, Thor-Delta, and Atlas-Centaur launch vehicles. For each program there is a description of the effort, the schedule, management, program officials, and funding aspects in outline form.

  7. Space Rescue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  8. Space Resources and Space Settlements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J. (Editor); Gilbreath, W. P. (Editor); Oleary, B. (Editor); Gosset, B. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The technical papers from the five tasks groups that took part in the 1977 Ames Summer Study on Space Settlements and Industrialization Using Nonterrestrial Materials are presented. The papers are presented under the following general topics: (1) research needs for regenerative life-support systems; (2) habitat design; (3) dynamics and design of electromagnetic mass drivers; (4) asteroids as resources for space manufacturing; and (5) processing of nonterrestrial materials.

  9. Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2006-01-01

    This abstract covers a one hour presentation on Space Exploration. The audience is elementary students; therefore there are few words on the slides, mostly pictures of living and working in space. The presentation opens with a few slides describing a day in the life of a space explorer. It begins with a launch, discussions of day-night cycles, eating, exercising, housekeeping, EVA, relaxation, and sleeping. The next section of the presentation shows photos of astronauts performing experiments on the ISS. Yokomi Elementary School launched this fall with the most advanced educational technology tools available in schools today. The science and technology magnet school is equipped with interactive white boards, digital projectors, integrated sound systems and several computers for use by teachers and students. The only elementary school in Fresno Unified with a science focus also houses dedicated science classrooms equipped specifically for elementary students to experience hands-on science instruction in addition to the regular elementary curriculum.

  10. Space Alive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, M.-P.

    2014-04-01

    This paper looks at earthly architectural applications of scientific research on space orientation in reduced gravity conditions. It asks how unprecedented forms of perception experienced in reduced gravity conditions give rise to unconventional modes of living. Looking at different technical lineages for achieving weightlessness: on the one hand, outer space exploration and its habitats, and on the other, technologies of suspension associated with experimental architecture, it questions the pragmatics of exchangeability between art and science. Instead of insisting on systems of valuation, that is, instead of opposing the functionality of outer space habitats with the aesthetic of experimental architecture, both practices will be approached in their own terms and on their terrain, that is, in the pragmatics of their effectiveness.

  11. Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, Jane R.

    2011-01-01

    The science of astronomy depends on modern-day temples called telescopes. Astronomers make pilgrimages to remote mountaintops where these large, intricate, precise machines gather light that rains down from the Universe. Bit, since Earth is a bright, turbulent planet, our finest telescopes are those that have been launched into the dark stillness of space. These space telescopes, named after heroes of astronomy (Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, Herschel), are some of the best ideas our species has ever had. They show us, over 13 billion years of cosmic history, how galaxies and quasars evolve. They study planets orbiting other stars. They've helped us determine that 95% of the Universe is of unknown composition. In short, they tell us about our place in the Universe. The next step in this journey is the James Webb Space Telescope, being built by NASA, Europe, and Canada for a 2018 launch; Webb will reveal the first galaxies that ever formed.

  12. Entering Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert

    The authors is giving a classification of civilisations depending on the degree of colonisation of the Earth, Solar System and Our Galaxy. The problems of: History of geographic discoveries (The great geographical discoveries during the Middle Age, the concurence of Chinnese and Europeans in this Area); The Astrophysics, such as: Asteroids, Water and Atmosphere on outer planets, Planet Mars Planet, Agriculture on outer planets, Minerals on outer planets; Cosmic flights: Fuels, Robotics, Moon (as an intermediary basis for interplanetary flights), Mars colonisation; Interstellar flights, Space research costs, strategy and tactics of the space colonisation; Policy: War and Peace, International Collaboration are discussed.

  13. Space vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A space vehicle having an improved ascent configuration for use in traveling in space is presented. Components of the vehicle are: (1) a winged orbiter having an elongater fuselage and rearwardly directed main engines fixed to the fuselage; (2) an elongated tank assembly of an improved configuration disposed forwardly of the fuselage and connected with the main engines of the vehicle for supplying liquid propellants; and (3) a booster stage comprising a pair of integrated solid rocket boosters connected with the orbiter immediately beneath the fuselage and extended in substantial parallelism.

  14. Space bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Todd, P

    1985-09-01

    The field of space bioprocessing or biotechnology is comprised of three major areas: separation and purification of biologicial materials for therapeutic or diagnostic applications; enhanced protein crystallization for use in pharmaceutical research; and research into the effects of weightlessness on basic biological processes. This paper reviews these areas and describes research currently being done in free zone electrophoresis, continuous flow electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing, two-phase aqueous polymer extraction, and the growth of protein crystals. Also discussed are basic cell biology experiments being conducted in space and research programs and facilities involved in this work. PMID:11540937

  15. Space languages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hays, Dan

    1987-01-01

    Applications of linguistic principles to potential problems of human and machine communication in space settings are discussed. Variations in language among speakers of different backgrounds and change in language forms resulting from new experiences or reduced contact with other groups need to be considered in the design of intelligent machine systems.

  16. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies

  17. Training Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  18. Trading Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  19. Trading Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that

  20. Friendly Spaces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Elia, William

    1996-01-01

    The creation of usable space for gatherings and socializing is an important consideration in any campus planning program. The University of California-San Diego has a large outdoor assembly area. An addition at Cal Poly-San Luis Obispo encompasses an existing pedestrian path. A new building at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, is designed as a…

  1. Appealing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittoe, William; Porter, Nat

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, educators and designers have been moving tentatively into uncharted waters. This article reports that administrators, faculty, and planners now recognize that learning spaces should be developed for reasons beyond utilization numbers. With declining retention and graduation rates, education institutions are acknowledging…

  2. Reserving Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greischar, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    Presents the criteria schools can use to evaluate furniture and casework in K-12 educational spaces. Tips include keeping furniture or casework flexible in its placement, making color schemes simple, and minimizing use of built-in casework for administrative stations and offices. (GR)

  3. Space Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutler, G.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Geodesy is the science studying the size and the figure of the Earth including the determination of the Earth's gravitational field. Geodetic astronomy is that part of astronomy dealing with the definition and realization of a terrestrial and a celestial reference frame (see TERRESTRIAL COORDINATE SYSTEMS AND FRAMES). By space geodesy we mean, then, those aspects of geodesy and geodetic astronomy...

  4. Space Gerontology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  5. Appealing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittoe, William; Porter, Nat

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, educators and designers have been moving tentatively into uncharted waters. This article reports that administrators, faculty, and planners now recognize that learning spaces should be developed for reasons beyond utilization numbers. With declining retention and graduation rates, education institutions are acknowledging

  6. Children's Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Nicola J.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence of the ways in which children utilise neighbourhood spaces for play and socalising is presented here. Findings are based on research conducted on the social and environmental geographies of children in middle childhood in Fife, Scotland. Photographs and maps produced by the children are used to illustrate their active, emotional and

  7. Inherit Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giarratano, Joseph C.; Jenks, K. C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin development of a unique educational tool targeted at educating and inspiring young people 12-16 years old about NASA and the Space Program. Since these young people are the future engineers, scientists and space pioneers, the nurturing of their enthusiasm and interest is of critical importance to the Nation. This summer the basic infrastructure of the tool was developed in the context of an educational game paradigm. The game paradigm has achieved remarkable success in maintaining the interest of young people in a self-paced, student-directed learning environment. This type of environment encourages student exploration and curiosity which are exactly the traits that future space pioneers need to develop to prepare for the unexpected. The Inherit Space Educational Tool is an open-ended learning environment consisting of a finite-state machine classic adventure game paradigm. As the young person explores this world, different obstacles must be overcome. Rewards will be offered such as using the flight simulator to fly around and explore Titan. This simulator was modeled on conventional Earth flight simulators but has been considerably enhanced to add texture mapping of Titan's atmosphere utilizing the latest information from the NASA Galileo Space Probe. Additional scenery was added to provide color VGA graphics of a futuristic research station on Titan as well as an interesting story to keep the youngster's attention. This summer the game infrastructure has been developed as well as the Titan Flight Simulator. A number of other enhancements are planned.

  8. Second Symposium on Space Industrialization. [space commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jernigan, C. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The policy, legal, and economic aspects of space industrialization are considered along with satellite communications, material processing, remote sensing, and the role of space carriers and a space station in space industrialization.

  9. Recycled Space and Found Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morisseau, James J.

    1973-01-01

    This paper, based on a Society for College and University Planning conference, outlines some of the alternatives and procedures for effective utilization, modernization, and renovation of existing space at institutions of higher education. Various options to alleviate the need for new campus construction are presented with examples of…

  10. Space Toxicology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  11. Communication spaces

    PubMed Central

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. Methods A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Results Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Discussion Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, ‘programming through annotation’. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Conclusions Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment. PMID:24005797

  12. Space colonization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Clyde F

    2003-12-01

    A series of workshops were sponsored by the Physical Science Division of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research to address operational gravity-compliant in-situ resource utilization and life support techologies. Workshop participants explored a Mars simulation study on Devon Island, Canada; the processing of carbon dioxide in regenerative life support systems; space tourism; rocket technology; plant growth research for closed ecological systems; and propellant extraction of planetary regoliths. PMID:14696587

  13. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  14. Space propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-02-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  15. Space propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Lewis Research Center is developing broad-based new technologies for space chemical engines to satisfy long-term needs of ETO launch vehicles and other vehicles operating in and beyond Earth orbit. Specific objectives are focused on high performance LO2/LH2 engines providing moderate thrusts of 7,5-200 klb. This effort encompasses research related to design analysis and manufacturing processes needed to apply advanced materials to subcomponents, components, and subsystems of space-based systems and related ground-support equipment. High-performance space-based chemical engines face a number of technical challenges. Liquid hydrogen turbopump impellers are often so large that they cannot be machined from a single piece, yet high stress at the vane/shroud interface makes bonding extremely difficult. Tolerances on fillets are critical on large impellers. Advanced materials and fabricating techniques are needed to address these and other issues of interest. Turbopump bearings are needed which can provide reliable, long life operation at high speed and high load with low friction losses. Hydrostatic bearings provide good performance, but transients during pump starts and stops may be an issue because no pressurized fluid is available unless a separate bearing pressurization system is included. Durable materials and/or coatings are needed that can demonstrate low wear in the harsh LO2/LH2 environment. Advanced materials are also needed to improve the lifetime, reliability and performance of other propulsion system elements such as seals and chambers.

  16. Space transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, H.

    1982-01-01

    The physical laws governing launch vehicles are reviewed, together with the performance of launch vehicles thus far used and expected developments in space transportation systems. Launches are generally made in the direction of earth rotation to take advantage of the initial velocity in that direction, which can amount to about 0.46 km/sec at the equator. Spacecraft usually attain a parking orbit, where spacecraft conditions are assessed before moving on to final orbit or interplanetary trajectory. Rocket batteries were first used in a battle near Beijing in 1232, and manned space flight began with the Vostok flight in 1961, followed by the Apollo lunar landings in the later 1960s. Rocket thrust performance is analyzed, together with the thrust/mass ratio for ascent and descent. The Shuttle, capable of placing 29.5 t in LEO, will be or is equipped to also carry IUS and PAM engines for transferring payloads from LEO to GEO. Parallel burn boosters may be added to increase the payload capability, and Shuttle-derived launch vehicles may be developed to carry construction materials to space and return to earth for a runway landing. Alternatively, the Shuttle engines may be modularized in order to develop a heavy-lift launch vehicle for unmanned cargo ascents.

  17. An Evolvable Space Telescope for NASA’s Next UVOIR Flagship Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, Charles F.; Breckinridge, James B.; MacEwen, Howard A.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Flannery, Martin; Dailey, Dean

    2015-01-01

    NASA has sponsored several studies to develop conceptual designs for the next UVOIR Flagship mission, including an Advanced Technology Large Space Telescope (ATLAST). These studies concluded that a space observatory launched in ~2030 will require a telescope aperture of 8 to 16 meters to address the most compelling astrophysical questions raised by missions such as HST, Kepler, TESS, JWST and WFIRST as well as the large ground based telescopes that will coming on-line in the next decade. This telescope will be designed to search for the bio-signatures of life in the universe as well as to study the physics of star formation and to unravel the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies and the intergalactic medium.Unfortunately, telescopes with this aperture will have a long development time with peak funding requirements that will absorb most NASA's Astrophysics budget for many years. To minimize this impact on NASA's budget and to drastically shorten the time between program start and 'first light' for this UVOIR space observatory we have been developing conceptual designs for an Evolvable Space Telescope (EST) that would be assembled on-orbit in three stages, beginning with the launch of a 2 mirror 4 x 12 meter telescope with 2 instruments 5 to 7 years after program start, and then adding mirror segments and instruments ay ~ 5 year intervals to obtain a 12-m filled aperture, and then a 20-m filled aperture telescope. We describe our approach in this presentation.

  18. Humans in Space &Space Biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legner, Klaus

    Inevitably, members of the human species will again walk on the face of the moon and ultimately establish a permanently occupied lunar base. Also, inevitably, humans will venture to the planets within the solar system, most likely beginning with Mars or the Martian satellite, Phobos. These missions will take place because the species that contemplates them is driven by an insatiable desire for knowledge and understanding and because the technical means to accomplish these objectives are possible. There is no question that humans will establish outposts on Earth's moon and make interplanetary journeys. The only uncertainties concern when and how these expeditions are to be made. Just as a 90- or 120-day tour onboard an international space station is fundamentally different from a brief space shuttle mission; a one-year lunar base tour or a two- or three-year mission to Mars will be unique. Despite superficial similarities to other space missions and analogues, the extended durations and astronomical distances involved in lunar and Martian missions will make these activities far more difficult and dangerous. Crowded conditions, language and cultural differences, logistics problems, radiation concerns, communications lag times, workloads, and a variety of additional issues will conspire to impair the performance and affect the behaviour of long duration crew personnel. Above all stressors, however, the durations of the missions will impose the greatest burdens and extract the most severe tolls on the humans involved. On long-duration space missions, time will be the factor that can compound all issues, however trivial, into serious problems.

  19. Space Technospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn't realize that began to transform into Homo Sapiens. Human's departure from the 'cradle' of the mankind - Earth - has the same value in the making new environment habitable.

  20. Space Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  1. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  2. On the connection between the intergalactic medium and galaxies: the H I-galaxy cross-correlation at z ≲ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tejos, Nicolas; Morris, Simon L.; Finn, Charles W.; Crighton, Neil H. M.; Bechtold, Jill; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Altay, Gabriel; Le Fèvre, Olivier; Ryan-Weber, Emma; Davé, Romeel

    2014-01-01

    We present a new optical spectroscopic survey of 1777 `star-forming' (`SF') and 366 `non-star-forming' (`non-SF') galaxies at redshifts z ˜ 0-1 (2143 in total), 22 AGN and 423 stars, observed by instruments such as the Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph, the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph and the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph, in three fields containing five quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ultraviolet spectroscopy. We also present a new spectroscopic survey of 173 `strong' (1014 ≤ NHI≲ 1017 cm-2) and 496 `weak' (1013 ≲ NHI < 1014 cm-2) intervening H I (Lyα) absorption-line systems at z ≲ 1 (669 in total), observed in the spectra of eight QSOs at z ˜ 1 by the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Faint Object Spectrograph on the HST. Combining these new data with previously published galaxy catalogues such as the Very Large Telescope Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph Deep Survey and the Gemini Deep Deep Survey, we have gathered a sample of 654 H I absorption systems and 17 509 galaxies at transverse scales ≲50 Mpc, suitable for a two-point correlation function analysis. We present observational results on the H I-galaxy (ξag) and galaxy-galaxy (ξgg) correlations at transverse scales r⊥ ≲ 10 Mpc, and the H I-H I autocorrelation (ξaa) at transverse scales r⊥ ≲ 2 Mpc. The two-point correlation functions are measured both along and transverse to the line of sight, ξ(r⊥, r∥). We also infer the shape of their corresponding `real-space' correlation functions, ξ(r), from the projected along the line-of-sight correlations, assuming power laws of the form ξ(r) = (r/r0)-γ. Comparing the results from ξag, ξgg and ξaa, we constrain the H I-galaxy statistical connection, as a function of both H I column density and galaxy star formation activity. Our results are consistent with the following conclusions: (i) the bulk of H I systems on ˜ Mpc scales have little velocity dispersion (≲120 km s-1) with respect to the bulk of galaxies (i.e. no strong galaxy outflow/inflow signal is detected); (ii) the vast majority (˜100 per cent) of `strong' H I systems and `SF' galaxies are distributed in the same locations, together with 75 ± 15 per cent of `non-SF' galaxies, all of which typically reside in dark matter haloes of similar masses; (iii) 25 ± 15 per cent of `non-SF' galaxies reside in galaxy clusters and are not correlated with `strong' H I systems at scales ≲2 Mpc; and (iv) >50 per cent of `weak' H I systems reside within galaxy voids (hence not correlated with galaxies), and are confined in dark matter haloes of masses smaller than those hosting `strong' systems and/or galaxies. We speculate that H I systems within galaxy voids might still be evolving in the linear regime even at scales ≲2 Mpc.

  3. Commercial Space Tourism and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Ronald

    2007-08-01

    Space tourism, a concept which even a few years ago was perveived as science fantasy, is now a credible industry. Five individuals have paid up to $25 M to spend more than a week on the International Space Station. Several enterprises are working toward viable suborbital and orbital private space operations. while operational space weather support to human space flight has been the domain of government entities the emergence of space tourism now presents a new opportunity for the commercial space weather community. This article examines the space weather impact on crews and passengers of the future space tourism industry.

  4. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the

  5. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  6. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  7. Space habitats. [prognosis for space colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1978-01-01

    Differences between space industrialization and space colonization are outlined along with the physiological, psychological, and esthetic needs of the inhabitants of a space habitat. The detrimental effects of zero gravity on human physiology are reviewed, and the necessity of providing artificial gravity, an acceptable atmosphere, and comfortable relative humidity and temperature in a space habitat is discussed. Consideration is also given to social organization and governance, supply of food and water, and design criteria for space colonies.

  8. Soft mappings space.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  9. Soft Mappings Space

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Taha Yasin; Bayramov, Sadi

    2014-01-01

    Various soft topologies are being introduced on a given function space soft topological spaces. In this paper, soft compact-open topology is defined in functional spaces of soft topological spaces. Further, these functional spaces are studied and interrelations between various functional spaces with soft compact-open topology are established. PMID:25374936

  10. "Space, the Final Frontier"; Books on Space and Space Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Advocates play in a child's life. Describes how science fiction seizes the imaginations of young readers with its tales of the future and of outer space. Talks about various nonfiction books about space. Elaborates a workshop on books about space exploration. Gives 10 questions about stimulating student response. (PA)

  11. Space Biosciences, Space-X, and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Space Biosciences Research on the International Space Station uses living organisms to study a variety of research questions. To enhance our understanding of fundamental biological processes. To develop the fundations for a safe, productive human exploration of space. To improve the quality of life on earth.

  12. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan F.; Barbier, L. M.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Cummings, J. R.; Fenimore, E. E.; Gehrels, N.; Hullinger, D. D.; Markwardt, C. B.; Palmer, D. M.; Parsons, A. M.; Sakamoto, T.

    2006-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts 2-6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 27 microns. In addition to JWST s ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  13. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts 2x3, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>lO, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  14. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z greater than 6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z greater than 10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (less than 50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth-Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems, and discuss recent progress in constructing the observatory.

  15. Studying Galaxy Formation and Reionization with the James Webb Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. I will review the current status of the project.

  16. 8 Meter Advanced Technology Large-Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST-8m)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2010-01-01

    ATLAST-8m (Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope) is a proposed 8-meter monolithic UV/optical/NIR space observatory (wavelength range 110 to 2500 nm) to be placed in orbit at Sun-Earth L2 by NASA's planned Ares V heavy lift vehicle. Given its very high angular resolution (15 mas @ 500 nm), sensitivity and performance stability, ATLAST-8m is capable of achieving breakthroughs in a broad range of astrophysics including: Is there life elsewhere in the Galaxy? An 8-meter UVOIR observatory has the performance required to detect habitability (H2O, atmospheric column density) and biosignatures (O2, O3, CH4) in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres, to reveal the underlying physics that drives star formation, and to trace the complex interactions between dark matter, galaxies, and intergalactic medium. The ATLAST Astrophysics Strategic Mission Concept Study developed a detailed point design for an 8-m monolithic observatory including optical design; structural design/analysis including primary mirror support structure, sun shade and secondary mirror support structure; thermal analysis; spacecraft including structure, propulsion, GN&C, avionics, power systems and reaction wheels; mass and power budgets; and system cost. The results of which were submitted by invitation to NRC's 2010 Astronomy & Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  17. Studying Galaxy Formation with the Hubble, Spitzer and James Webb Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    The deepest optical to infrared observations of the universe include the Hubble Deep Fields, the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and the recent Hubble Ultra-Deep Field. Galaxies are seen in these surveys at redshifts z>6, less than 1 Gyr after the Big Bang, at the end of a period when light from the galaxies has reionized Hydrogen in the inter-galactic medium. These observations, combined with theoretical understanding, indicate that the first stars and galaxies formed at z>10, beyond the reach of the Hubble and Spitzer Space Telescopes. To observe the first galaxies, NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), a large (6.5m), cold (<50K), infrared-optimized observatory to be launched early in the next decade into orbit around the second Earth- Sun Lagrange point. JWST will have four instruments: The Near-Infrared Camera, the Near-Infrared multi-object Spectrograph, and the Tunable Filter Imager will cover the wavelength range 0.6 to 5 microns, while the Mid-Infrared Instrument will do both imaging and spectroscopy from 5 to 28.5 microns. In addition to JWST's ability to study the formation and evolution of galaxies, I will also briefly review its expected contributions to studies of the formation of stars and planetary systems.

  18. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;

  19. Space on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ideas for applying research from space programs to life science instruction including plants in space, exercise and diet on space flights, environmental advantages from space exploration, and the effects of microgravity on health. Discusses space spinoffs used in medicine including digital imaging processing and the Ingestible Thermal

  20. Space Flight. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on space flight. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Future Flight; Space Fun; Mission: Draw); (2) "Geography" (Space Places); (3) "History" (Space and Time); (4) "Information" (Space Transportation System;…

  1. Space on Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ideas for applying research from space programs to life science instruction including plants in space, exercise and diet on space flights, environmental advantages from space exploration, and the effects of microgravity on health. Discusses space spinoffs used in medicine including digital imaging processing and the Ingestible Thermal…

  2. Space Station planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA Space Station planning activities is given. Among the specific topics addressed are: the role of private contractors in the construction and operation of Space Station; international cooperation in planning Space Station configurations; and optimum management strategies for Space Station planning activities. The division of work packages for the preliminary design definition phase of the Space Station program is described.

  3. Space Station initiates permanent space facility development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The proposed development of the Space Station is examined. The functions and advantages of the Space Station are described. The use of a solar array system for power generation on the Station is studied; the capabilities of various other generation systems are also evaluated. The Space Station's development schedule is discussed.

  4. The Space Shuttle and deep space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of deep space missions being planned for launch on the Space Shuttle, one element of the Space Transportation System (STS). A comparison is made between mission requirements and the planned capabilities of the STS. Finally, a potential evolution of the STS in order to accomodate these missions with adequate mass margins is discussed.

  5. Space history, space policy, and executive leadership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraemer, Sylvia K.

    1993-01-01

    A lecture that attempts to establish the role of space historians in formulating space policy is presented. The discussion focusses on two adages and their relevance to space policy. The adages are as follows: 'write about what you know;' and 'good managers do things right; good executives do the right things.'

  6. Space-to-Space Communications System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tu, Kwei; Gaylor, Kent; Vitalpur, Sharada; Sham, Cathy

    1999-01-01

    The Space-to-Space Communications System (SSCS) is an Ultra High Frequency (UHF) Time-Division-Multiple Access (TDMA) system that is designed, developed, and deployed by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to provide voice, commands, telemetry and data services in close proximity among three space elements: International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Orbiter, and Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMU). The SSCS consists of a family of three radios which are, Space-to-Space Station Radio (SSSR), Space-to-Space Orbiter Radio (SSOR), and Space-to-Space Extravehicular Mobility Radio (SSER). The SSCS can support up to five such radios at a time. Each user has its own time slot within which to transmit voice and data. Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) carrier modulation with a burst data rate of 695 kbps and a frequency deviation of 486.5 kHz is employed by the system. Reed-Solomon (R-S) coding is also adopted to ensure data quality. In this paper, the SSCS system requirements, operational scenario, detailed system architecture and parameters, link acquisition strategy, and link performance analysis will be presented and discussed

  7. The partnership: Space shuttle, space science, and space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Philip E.; Freitag, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the NASA Space Station Program functions, design, and planned implementation is presented. The discussed functions for the permanently manned space facility include: (1) development of new technologies and related commercial products; (2) observations of the Earth and the universe; (3) provision of service facilities for resupply, maintenance, upgrade and repair of payloads and spacecraft; (4) provision of a transportation node for stationing, processing and dispatching payloads and vehicles; (5) provision of manufacturing and assembly facilities; (6) provision of a storage depot for parts and payloads; and (7) provision of a staging base for future space endeavors. The fundamental concept for the Space Station, as given, is that it be designed, operated, and evolved in response to a broad variety of scientific, technological, and commercial user interests. The Space Shuttle's role as the principal transportation system for the construction and maintenance of the Space Station and the servicing and support of the station crew is also discussed.

  8. Redshift-space distortion of the 21-cm background from the epoch of reionization - I. Methodology re-examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yi; Shapiro, Paul R.; Mellema, Garrelt; Iliev, Ilian T.; Koda, Jun; Ahn, Kyungjin

    2012-05-01

    The peculiar velocity of the intergalactic gas responsible for the cosmic 21-cm background from the epoch of reionization and beyond introduces an anisotropy in the three-dimensional power spectrum of brightness temperature fluctuations. Measurement of this anisotropy by future 21-cm surveys is a promising tool for separating cosmology from 21-cm astrophysics. However, previous attempts to model the signal have often neglected peculiar velocity or only approximated it crudely. This paper re-examines the effects of peculiar velocity on the 21-cm signal in detail, improving upon past treatment and addressing several issues for the first time. (1) We show that even the angle-averaged power spectrum, P(k), is affected significantly by the peculiar velocity. (2) We re-derive the brightness temperature dependence on atomic hydrogen density, spin temperature, peculiar velocity and its gradient and redshift to clarify the roles of thermal versus velocity broadening and finite optical depth. (3) We show that properly accounting for finite optical depth eliminates the unphysical divergence of the 21-cm brightness temperature in overdense regions of the intergalactic medium found by previous work that employed the usual optically thin approximation. (4) We find that the approximation made previously to circumvent the diverging brightness temperature problem by capping the velocity gradient can misestimate the power spectrum on all scales. (5) We further show that the observed power spectrum in redshift space remains finite even in the optically thin approximation if one properly accounts for the redshift-space distortion. However, results that take full account of finite optical depth show that this approximation is only accurate in the limit of high spin temperature. (6) We also show that the linear theory for redshift-space distortion widely employed to predict the 21-cm power spectrum results in a ˜30 per cent error in the observationally relevant wavenumber range k˜ 0.1-1 h Mpc-1, when strong ionization fluctuations exist (e.g. at the 50 per cent ionized epoch). We derive an alternative, quasi-linear formulation which improves upon the accuracy of the linear theory. (7) We describe and test two numerical schemes to calculate the 21-cm signal from reionization simulations to incorporate peculiar velocity effects in the optically thin approximation accurately, by real- to redshift-space re-mapping of the H I density. One is particle based, the other grid based, and while the former is most accurate, we demonstrate that the latter is computationally more efficient and can be optimized so as to achieve sufficient accuracy.

  9. The Second Space Race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  10. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  11. The International Space Station in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenmaier, William H.; McKay, Meredith M.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Program has many lessons to offer for the future of space exploration. Among these lessons of the ISS Program, three stand out as instrumental for the next generation of explorers. These include: 1) resourcefulness and the value of a strong international partnership; 2) flexibility as illustrated by the evolution of the ISS Program and 3) designing with dissimilar redundancy and simplicity of sparing. These lessons graphically demonstrate that the ISS Program can serve as a test bed for future programs. As the ISS Program builds upon the strong foundation of previous space programs, it can provide insight into the prospects for continued growth and cooperation in space exploration. As the capacity for spacefaring increases worldwide and as more nations invest in space exploration and space sector development, the potential for advancement in space exploration is unlimited. By building on its engineering and research achievements and international cooperation, the ISS Program is inspiring tomorrow s explorers today.

  12. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  13. Nutrition in space.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Davis-Street, J; Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted. PMID:11540643

  14. The International Space University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaerts, Roger; Peeters, Walter

    2006-05-01

    The International Space University (ISU) offers, with the support of the world space community and within an international and intercultural environment, interdisciplinary post-graduate programmes in space studies. These graduate programmes prepare professionals from all sectors to meet the challenges of international space cooperation and the restructuring of the space sector. Although it was created as recently as 1987, the ISU is remarkably successful: by 2005 it had around 2400 alumni, forming a strong network in the space community.

  15. Spaced Retrieval: Absolute Spacing Enhances Learning Regardless of Relative Spacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpicke, Jeffrey D.; Bauernschmidt, Althea

    2011-01-01

    Repeated retrieval enhances long-term retention, and spaced repetition also enhances retention. A question with practical and theoretical significance is whether there are particular schedules of spaced retrieval (e.g., gradually expanding the interval between tests) that produce the best learning. In the present experiment, subjects studied and…

  16. National Space Policy and Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2006-12-01

    The new national space policy, authorized by President Bush on 31 August 2006, has been the cause of considerable discussion among space professionals. The policy statement is a broad umbrella that lays out the nation's objectives in space, from science to commercial to national security and intelligence. The policy appears to support numerous national space objectives that were contained in the previous (1996) policy statement, of the Clinton administration. It also articulates in one location many of the pronouncements on space activities that have been promulgated since 2001. Some of the unhappiness expressed in editorial comments would seem to occur because words such as "Mars" and "Moon" do not appear explicitly. At the same time, neither do the words "space weather."

  17. Space Toxicology: Human Health during Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan-Mayberry, Noreen; James, John T.; Tyl, ROchelle; Lam, Chiu-Wing

    2010-01-01

    Space Toxicology is a unique and targeted discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids. Astronaut explorers face distinctive health challenges and limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. A central goal of space toxicology is to protect the health of the astronaut by assessing potential chemical exposures during spaceflight and setting safe limits that will protect the astronaut against chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space on the International Space Station (ISS), toxicological risks must be assessed and managed within the context of isolation continuous exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the need to use highly toxic compounds for propulsion. As we begin to explore other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of reactive mineral dusts, must also be managed.

  18. Space vehicle propulsion systems: Environmental space hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disimile, P. J.; Bahr, G. K.

    1990-01-01

    The hazards that exist in geolunar space which may degrade, disrupt, or terminate the performance of space-based LOX/LH2 rocket engines are evaluated. Accordingly, a summary of the open literature pertaining to the geolunar space hazards is provided. Approximately 350 citations and about 200 documents and abstracts were reviewed; the documents selected give current and quantitative detail. The methodology was to categorize the various space hazards in relation to their importance in specified regions of geolunar space. Additionally, the effect of the various space hazards in relation to spacecraft and their systems were investigated. It was found that further investigation of the literature would be required to assess the effects of these hazards on propulsion systems per se; in particular, possible degrading effects on exterior nozzle structure, directional gimbals, and internal combustion chamber integrity and geometry.

  19. Organic chemistry in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  20. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)

  1. Space: The New Frontier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This document is designed primarily to describe the U.S. Space Program, its history, its current state of development, and its goals for the future. Chapter headings include: Space and You; The Early History of Space Flight; The Solar System; Space Probes and Satellites; Scientific Satellites and Sounding Rockets; Application Satellites, Unmanned…

  2. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  3. Using space resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Thomas A.; Mckay, David S.

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: reducing the cost of space exploration; the high cost of shipping; lunar raw materials; some useful space products; energy from the moon; ceramic, glass, and concrete construction materials; mars atmosphere resources; relationship to the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI); an evolutionary approach to using space resources; technology development; and oxygen and metal coproduction.

  4. Budgeting Academic Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Watson

    2011-01-01

    There are many articles about space management, including those that discuss space calculations, metrics, and categories. Fewer articles discuss the space budgeting processes used by administrators to allocate space. The author attempts to fill this void by discussing her administrative experiences with Middle Tennessee State University's (MTSU)…

  5. Space Physiology and Operational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this slide presentation are to teach a level of familiarity with: the effects of short and long duration space flight on the human body, the major medical concerns regarding future long duration missions, the environmental issues that have potential medical impact on the crew, the role and capabilities of the Space Medicine Flight Surgeon and the environmental impacts experienced by the Apollo crews. The main physiological effects of space flight on the human body reviewed in this presentation are: space motion sickness (SMS), neurovestibular, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, immune/hematopoietic system and behavioral/psycho-social. Some countermeasures are discussed to these effects.

  6. Bioprocessing in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. R. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    Proceedings are presented of the 1976 NASA Colloquium on bioprocessing in space. The program included general sessions and formal presentations on the following topics: NASA's Space Shuttle, Spacelab, and space-processing programs; the known unusual behavior of materials in space; space-processing experiment results; cell biology, gravity sensors in cells, space electrophoresis of living cells, new approaches to biosynthesis of biologicals from cell culture in space, and zero-g fermentation concepts; and upcoming flight opportunities and industrial application planning studies already underway.

  7. Space educators' handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodfill, Jerry

    1992-01-01

    The Space Educators' Handbook is a collection of space exploration information available on Hypercard as a space education reference book. Ranging from early dreams of space ships to current manned missions, the more than four thousand cards include entries of statistics, historical facts and anecdotes, technical articles, accounts of NASA missions from Mercury through the space shuttle, biographical information on women and men who have contributed to space exploration, scientific facts, and various other space-related data. The means of presenting the data range from cartoons and drawings to lists and narratives, some briefly quoted and some reproduced in full.

  8. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  9. Space Science Curricula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Johnson High School, Huntsville, Alabama started an international magnet program in 1987. One of the courses in the curriculum was in space science. They appealed to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) when they couldn't find a suitable textbook, nor locate other classes in space science to provide a guideline. MSFC agreed to help and placed the school under an official 'Adopt-A-School' program. MSFC's chief scientist and others at the space center helped prepare a very comprehensive space science program. Examples of the subjects covered include problems of space travel, materials processing in space, technology utilization, robotics, space colonization, etc. MSFC followed up by working with Johnson High to determine if the curriculum is generally usable and workable. If it is, MSFC may make it available to other schools. MSFC not only developed the space science curriculum; they continue to support the program by sponsoring hands- on activities and tours of space research facilities.

  10. Space Transfer Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    In June 1989 the Marshall Space Flight Center initiated studies of Space Transfer Vehicle (STV) concepts. A successor to the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) concept, the STV would be a high-performance space vehicle capable of transferring automated payloads from a Space Station to geosynchronous orbits, the Moon, or planets. Illustrated in this artist's concept are two STV's undergoing aerobraking maneuvers as they approach a Space Station.

  11. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  12. The Austrian Space Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pseiner, K.; Balogh, W.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of preparation and discussion among the involved players, the Austrian Space Plan was approved for implementation in November 2001. Based on careful benchmarking and analysis of the capabilities of the Austrian space sector it aims to create excellent conditions for the sector's further development. The new space strategy embraces Austria's participation in the mandatory and optional programmes of the European Space Agency and establishes a National Space Programme supported by separate funding opportunities. A set of clearly-defined indicators ensures that the progress in implementing the Space Plan can be objectively judged through independent, annual reviews. The National Space Programme promotes international cooperation in space research and space activities with the aim to strengthen the role of space science and to better prepare Austrian space industry for the commercial space market. In the framework of the Space Plan the Austrian Space Agency has been tasked with integrating the industry's growing involvement in aeronautics activities to better utilize synergies with the space sector. This paper reviews the various steps leading to the approval of the new space strategy and discusses the hurdles mastered in this process. It reports on the Space Plan's first results, specifically taking into account projects involving international cooperation. For the first the Austria aerospace-sector can rely on an integrated strategy for aeronautics- and space activities which is firmly rooted in the efforts to enhance the country's R&D activities. It may also act as a useful example for other small space- using countries planning to enhance their involvement in space activities.

  13. Man in Space, Space in the Seventies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Walter

    Included is a summary of the Apollo lunar program to date. Projected future NASA programs planned for the 1970's are discussed under the headings Skylab, Space Shuttle, and Space Station. Possibilities for the 1980's are outlined in the final section. (Author/AL)

  14. First results from the HST Grism Lens-Amplified Survey from Space (GLASS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, XIN; Schmidt, K. B.; Treu, T.; GLASS Team

    2014-01-01

    GLASS is a cycle-21 large program with the Hubble Space Telescope, targeting 10 massive clusters, including the 6 Frontier Fields, using the WFC3 and ACS grisms. The program consists of 140 primary orbits and 140 parallel orbits. Using the clusters as cosmic telescopes, GLASS is taking spectra of faint background galaxies with unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution. GLASS has 3 primary science drivers, although a variety of other science investigations are possible in combination with existing and planned imaging campaigns. The first key science goal is to shed light upon the role of galaxies in reionizing the universe, the topology of high redshift intergalactic/interstellar medium and Lyman alpha escape fraction. The second key science goal is to study gas accretion, star formation and outflows by mapping spatially resolved star formation and metallicity gradients in galaxies at z=1.3-2.3. The third key science goal is to study the environmental dependence of galaxy evolution, by mapping spatially resolved star formation in galaxies in the cluster cores and infalling regions. We present the details of the program and results from the first cluster observed by GLASS MACS0717.5+3745.

  15. SpaceTech—Postgraduate space education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruijn, Ferdi J.; Ashford, Edward W.; Larson, Wiley J.

    2008-07-01

    SpaceTech is a postgraduate program geared primarily for mid-career space professionals seeking to gain or improve their expertise in space systems engineering and in business engineering. SpaceTech provides a lifelong impact on its participants by broadening their capabilities, encouraging systematic "end-to-end" thinking and preparing them for any technical or business-related engineering challenges they may encounter. This flexible 1-year program offers high competency gain and increased business skills. It is held in attractive locations in a flexible, multi-cultural environment. SpaceTech is a highly effective master's program certified by the esteemed Technical University of Delft (TUD), Netherlands. SpaceTech provides expert instructors who place no barriers between themselves and participants. The program combines innovative and flexible new approaches with time-tested methods to give participants the skills required for future missions and new business, while allowing participants to meet their work commitments at the same time as they study for their master's degree. The SpaceTech program is conducted in separate sessions, generally each of 2-week duration, separated by periods of some 6-8 weeks, during which time participants may return to their normal jobs. It also includes introductory online course material that the participants can study at their leisure. The first session is held at the TUD, with subsequent sessions held at strategic space agency locations. By participating at two or more of these sessions, attendees can earn certificates of satisfactory completion from TU Delft. By participating in all of the sessions, as well as taking part in the companion Central Case Project (CCP), participants earn an accredited and highly respected master's degree in Space Systems Engineering from the TUD. Seven distinct SpaceTech modules are provided during these sessions: Space Mission Analysis and Design, Systems Engineering, Business Engineering, Interpersonal Skills, Telecommunications, Earth Observation and Navigation. A group CCP, a major asset of this unique program, is a focused project, aimed at the formation of a credible virtual commercial space-related business. Participants exercise space systems engineering fundamentals as well as marketing and business engineering tools, with the goal of creating a financially viable business opportunity. They then present the result, in the form of an unsolicited proposal to potential investors, as well as a varied group of engineers, managers and executives from the space community. During the CCP, participants learn the ties between mission and system design and the potential return to investors. They develop an instinct for the technical concepts and which of the parameters to adjust to make their newly conceived business more effective and profitable.

  16. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  17. Access to space studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently considering possible directions in Earth-to-orbit vehicle development under a study called 'Access to Space.' This agency-wide study is considering commercial launch vehicles, human transportation, space station logistics, and other space transportation requirements over the next 40 years. Three options are being considered for human transportation: continued use of the Space Shuttle; development of a small personnel carrier (personnel logistics system (PLS)); or development of an advanced vehicle such as a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO). Several studies related to the overall Access to Space study are reported in this document.

  18. Supercoset space geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Kleppe, A. F.; Wainwright, Chris

    2007-05-15

    Supercoset spaces play an important role in the formulation of supersymmetric theories. The aim of this paper is to review and discuss the geometry of supercoset spaces with particular focus on the way the geometrical structures of the supercoset space G/H are inherited from the super-Lie group G. The isometries of the supercoset space are discussed and a definition of Killing supervectors--the supervectors associated with infinitesimal isometries--is given that can be easily extended to spaces other than coset spaces.

  19. Overview and Recent Accomplishments of the Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) for Large Aperture UVOIR Space Telescopes Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2013-01-01

    Per Astro2010, a new, larger UVO telescope is needed to answer fundamental scientific questions, such as: is there life on Earth-like exoplanets; how galaxies assemble stellar populations; how baryonic matter interacts with intergalactic medium; and how solar systems form and evolve. And, present technology is not mature enough to affordably build and launch any potential UVO concept. Advanced Mirror Technology Development (AMTD) is a funded SAT project. Our objective is to mature to TRL-6 the critical technologies needed to produce 4-m or larger flight-qualified UVOIR mirrors by 2018 so that a viable mission can be considered by the 2020 Decadal Review. AMTD uses a science-driven systems engineering approach. We mature technologies required to enable the highest priority science AND result in a high-performance low-cost low-risk system. To provide the science community with options, we are pursuing multiple technology paths. We have assembled an outstanding team from academia, industry, and government with extensive expertise in astrophysics and exoplanet characterization, and in the design/manufacture of monolithic and segmented space telescopes. One of our key accomplishments is that we have derived engineering specifications for advanced normal-incidence monolithic and segmented mirror systems needed to enable both general astrophysics and ultra-high contrast observations of exoplanets missions as a function of potential launch vehicle and its inherent mass and volume constraints. We defined and initiated a program to mature 6 key technologies required to fabricate monolithic and segmented space mirrors.

  20. Space transfer vehicles and space basing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Joe

    1991-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) space basing agenda; (2) mission scenario 4E-5B, crew and Lunar Excursion Vehicle (LEV) delivery; (3) final concept candidate, crew concept 4E-2B; (4) space transfer vehicle (STV) concept 4E-5B; (5) configuration summary for crew concept 4E-5B; (6) configuration definition for crew concept 4E-5B; (7) low earth orbit node assembly and checkout operations; (8) criteria for operation objectives; (9) LTV and STV main engines; (10) Space Station Freedom impacts; (11) aerobrakes; and (12) on orbit operations. This document is presented in viewgraph form.

  1. Space for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksen, Aase

    1973-01-01

    Author feels that our understanding of educational space has not developed simultaneously with new concepts of the learning process. We must begin to think of using space in terms of user needs rather than in terms of curriculum divisions. (Editor)

  2. Space spider crane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, Ian O. (Inventor); Mikulas, Martin M., Jr. (Inventor); Pennington, Jack E. (Inventor); Kinkead, Rebecca L. (Inventor); Bryan, Charles F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A space spider crane for the movement, placement, and or assembly of various components on or in the vicinity of a space structure is described. As permanent space structures are utilized by the space program, a means will be required to transport cargo and perform various repair tasks. A space spider crane comprising a small central body with attached manipulators and legs fulfills this requirement. The manipulators may be equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors or tools to accomplish various repair tasks. The legs are also equipped with constant pressure gripping end effectors to grip the space structure. Control of the space spider crane may be achieved either by computer software or a remotely situated human operator, who maintains visual contact via television cameras mounted on the space spider crane. One possible walking program consists of a parallel motion walking program whereby the small central body alternatively leans forward and backward relative to end effectors.

  3. Welding in Space Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    The potential was discussed for welding in space, its advantages and disadvantages, and what type of programs can benefit from the capability. Review of the various presentations and comments made in the course of the workshop suggests several routes to obtaining a better understanding of how welding processes can be used in NASA's initiatives in space. They are as follows: (1) development of a document identifying well processes and equipment requirements applicable to space and lunar environments; (2) more demonstrations of welding particular hardware which are to be used in the above environments, especially for space repair operations; (3) increased awareness among contractors responsible for building space equipment as to the potential for welding operations in space and on other planetary bodies; and (4) continuation of space welding research projects is important to maintain awareness within NASA that welding in space is viable and beneficial.

  4. Space Traveler Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Describes the winners of the Space Traveler Project, a contest jointly sponsored by Rockwell International, NASA, and this magazine to identify worthwhile elementary science programs relating to the Space Shuttle. (SJL)

  5. Space Studies Board, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This 1994 report of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council summarizes the charter and organization of the board, activities and membership, major and short reports, and congressional testimony. A cumulative bibliography of the Space Studies (formerly Space Science) Board and its committees is provided. An appendix contains reports of the panel to review Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) plans. Major reports cover scientific opportunities in the human exploration of space, the dichotomy between funding and effectiveness in space physics, an integrated strategy for the planetary sciences for the years 1995-2010, and Office of Naval Research (ONR) research opportunities in upper atmospheric sciences. Short reports cover utilization of the space station, life and microgravity sciences and the space station program, Space Infrared Telescope Facility and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility and Cassini Saturn Probe.

  6. Pathfinder: Humans in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on the Pathfinder program. Information is given on human exploration of the solar system, technical requirements interfaces, program objectives, space suits, human performance, man-machine systems, space habitats, life support systems, and artificial gravity

  7. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  8. Global space fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latyshev, L. A.; Semashko, N. N.

    The possibility of meeting future global energy demands by producing energy in space is addressed. Comparisons are made between the parameters of space plants producing solar electric power, nuclear electric power, and thermonuclear electric power.

  9. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  10. Space Day 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Introduces three design challenges for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students created by the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Presents information on Space Day and the National Classroom and provides Internet site addresses. (YDS)

  11. Occupational Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarver, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Learning Objectives are: (1) Understand the unique work environment of astronauts. (2) Understand the effect microgravity has on human physiology (3) Understand how NASA Space Medicine Division is mitigating the health risks of space missions.

  12. VOIP over Space Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okino, C.; Kwong, W.; Pang, Jackson; Gao, Jerry; Clare, L.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews Voice over Internet Protocol (VOIP) over a space networking environment. The topics include: 1) Drivers for VOIP in Space; 2) Challenges in the Space Networking Environment: Long Latencies, Path errors, Simplex paths, Asymmetric paths, QoS requirements, Team-based operations, and Overhead concerns; 3) Possible VOIPOSN approaches; 4) Study of BER, code type and voice frame length on PESQ-MOS; 5) Codec Latency Trade Space; and 6) Testbed.

  13. Space Fence Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haimerl, J.; Fonder, G.

    Space is no longer a vast, empty void. Unprecedented quantities of new satellites, derelict satellites, and debris litter the skies, posing an imminent threat to America's space assets. The Space Fence System is a ground-based system of S-band radars designed to greatly enhance the Air Force Space Surveillance network. Space Fence provides unprecedented sensitivity, coverage and tracking accuracy, and contributes to key mission threads with the ability to detect, track and catalog small objects in LEO, MEO and GEO. Space Fence capabilities will revolutionize space situational awareness. Space Fence includes up to two minimally-manned radar sites and the Space Fence Operations Center. Each radar site features a design with closely-spaced, but separate, Transmit and Receive Arrays that are mission-optimized for high availability and low lifetime support costs, including prime power. The radar architecture is based on Digital Beam-forming. This capability permits tremendous user-defined flexibility to customize volume surveillance and track sectors instantaneously without impacting routine surveillance functions. Space Fence offers assured surveillance coverage for improved custody and features the capability to develop long arc tracks for accurate orbit determination, while simultaneously maintaining a persistent surveillance volume. Space Fence allows operators to reconstruct recent events such as collisions or satellite break-ups and accurately predict future events. For high-interest objects, a micro fence can be electronically constructed to gather more track data, focusing radar resources specifically on that object, providing more timely and accurate information. The Space Fence System is net-centric and will seamlessly integrate into the existing Space Surveillance Network, providing services to external users such as JSpOC and coordinating handoffs to other SSN sites. Space Fence is a robust, flexible, advanced end-to-end system that will meet the warfighters operational needs and revolutionize Space Situational Awareness.

  14. US space commerce, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, Scott

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: the US share of commercial payloads in comparison with Ariane's share; world communications satellite orders; the US share of prime contracts for construction of commercial communications satellites; emerging markets; space activities at the Commerce Department (DOC); Office of Space Commerce (OSC) mission description; key drivers for commercial space; and general DOC space policy themes.

  15. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  16. Animals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Angela

    1988-01-01

    Animals are indispensable to the space program. Their continued use could have many significant results. Those who are opposed to using animals in space should remember that space animals are treated humanely; they are necessary because results can be obtained from them that would be unobtainable from humans; and results from animal experiments can be applied to human systems. Therefore, NASA should continue to use animals in space research.

  17. Giving women their space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an attempt to spark greater interest in space sciences among high school girls, the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics has been distributing a booklet entitled “Space for Women: Perspectives on Careers in Science.” The 20-page color booklet offers advice and encouragement to young women interested in space physics, astronomy, and other space-related fields. More than 10,000 copies have already been distributed to students, teachers, and career counselors.

  18. Man's future in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.

  19. Clinical Space Medicine Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baisden, Denise L.; Billica, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The practice of space medicine is diverse. It includes routine preventive medical care of astronauts and pilots, the development of inflight medical capability and training of flight crews as well as the preflight, inflight, and postflight medical assessment and monitoring. The Johnson Space Center Medical Operations Branch is a leader in the practice of space medicine. The papers presented in this panel will demonstrate some of the unique aspects of space medicine.

  20. Space tourism risks: A space insurance perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensoussan, Denis

    2010-06-01

    Space transportation is inherently risky to humans, whether they are trained astronauts or paying tourists, given that spaceflight is still in its relative infancy. However, this is easy to forget when subjected to the hype often associated with space tourism and the ventures seeking to enter that market. The development of commercial spaceflight constitutes a challenge as much as a great opportunity to the insurance industry as new risks emerge and standards, policies and procedures to minimise/mitigate and cover them still to be engineered. Therefore the creation of a viable and affordable insurance regime for future space tourists is a critical step in the development of a real space tourism market to address burning risk management issues that may otherwise ultimately hamper this nascent industry before it has a chance to prove itself.

  1. Fundamental Physics from Space and in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, M.

    Whereas most of the key questions in particle physics are still addressed with accelerators, one sees at present an increasing activity in cosmic rays, based on the use of large and sophisticated detectors on the ground and underground (or under water). A new discipline, "astroparticle physics" is born and rapidly expanding. Whereas much of this research is carried out on Earth, it is likely that part of it will eventually transfer to space. The detection of gravitational waves is now attempted with a new promising vigor, using interferometers. This physics at present on the ground will have to extend to space. The talk reviews facts and trends in this research in fun damental physics from space now, but increasingly in space later on.

  2. Affordable Space Tourism: SpaceStationSim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    For over 5 years, people have been living and working in space on the International Space Station (ISS), a state-of-the-art laboratory complex orbiting high above the Earth. Offering a large, sustained microgravity environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth, the ISS furthers humankind s knowledge of science and how the body functions for extended periods of time in space all of which will prove vital on long-duration missions to Mars. On-orbit construction of the station began in November 1998, with the launch of the Russian Zarya Control Module, which provided battery power and fuel storage. This module was followed by additional components and supplies over the course of several months. In November 2000, the first ISS Expedition crew moved in. Since then, the ISS has continued to change and evolve. The space station is currently 240 feet wide, measured across the solar arrays, and 171 feet long, from the NASA Destiny Laboratory to the Russian Zvezda Habitation Module. It is 90 feet tall, and it weighs approximately 404,000 pounds. Crews inhabit a living space of about 15,000 cubic feet. To date, 90 scientific investigations have been conducted on the space station. New results from space station research, from basic science to exploration research, are being published each month, and more breakthroughs are likely to come. It is not all work on the space station, though. The orbiting home affords many of the comforts one finds on Earth. There is a weightless "weight room" and even a musical keyboard alongside research facilities. Holidays are observed, and with them, traditional foods such as turkey and cobbler are eaten, with lemonade to wash them down

  3. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  4. Radiation effects in space

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1987-07-01

    As more people spend more time in space, and the return to the moon and exploratory missions are considered, the risks require continuing examination. The effects of microgravity and radiation are two potential risks in space. These risks increase with increasing mission duration. This document considers the risk of radiation effects in space workers and explorers. 17 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Radars in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delnore, Victor E.

    1990-01-01

    The capabilities of active microwave devices operating from space (typically, radar, scatterometers, interferometers, and altimeters) are discussed. General radar parameters and basic radar principles are explained. Applications of these parameters and principles are also explained. Trends in space radar technology, and where space radars and active microwave sensors in orbit are going are discussed.

  6. Space methods in oceanology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolshakov, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    The study of Earth from space with specialized satellites, and from manned orbiting stations, has become important in the space programs. The broad complex of methods used for probing Earth from space are different methods of the study of ocean, dynamics. The different methods of ocean observation are described.

  7. Dependent Probability Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, William F.; Shiflett, Ray C.; Shultz, Harris

    2008-01-01

    The mathematical model used to describe independence between two events in probability has a non-intuitive consequence called dependent spaces. The paper begins with a very brief history of the development of probability, then defines dependent spaces, and reviews what is known about finite spaces with uniform probability. The study of finite…

  8. Deep Space Telecommunications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Resch, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    The increasing load on NASA's deep Space Network, the new capabilities for deep space missions inherent in a next-generation radio telescope, and the potential of new telescope technology for reducing construction and operation costs suggest a natural marriage between radio astronomy and deep space telecommunications in developing advanced radio telescope concepts.

  9. Pseudoneglect in Back Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cocchini, Gianna; Watling, Rosamond; Della Sala, Sergio; Jansari, Ashok

    2007-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends upon our ability to retain and update visuo-spatial information of both front and back egocentric space. Several studies have observed that healthy people tend to show a displacement of the egocentric frame of reference towards the left. However representation of space behind us (back space) has…

  10. Space processing applications bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This special bibliography lists 724 articles, papers, and reports which discuss various aspects of the use of the space environment for materials science research or for commercial enterprise. The potentialities of space processing and the improved materials processes that are made possible by the unique aspects of the space environment are emphasized. References identified in April, 1978 are cited.

  11. Economical space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  12. Space laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Proposed laser transmission applications are reviewed. Technologies for laser power transmissions are assessed. Feasible laser mission systems are set out. Components by wavelength are summarized. Feasible space to space laser power transmission systems are summarized. Space laser transmitter masses for 1 MW and 100 KW output power are summarized.

  13. Teacher in Space Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Prepared by NASA, this guide contains lessons dealing with space for use in elementary and secondary social studies classes. Activities are many and varied. For example, students analyze the costs and benefits of space travel, develop their own space station, and explore the decision-making processes involved in the shuttle. (RM)

  14. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1210 - Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing... Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Area: Mechanical Ventilation System § 154.1210 Hold space, void space, cofferdam, and spaces containing cargo piping. (a) Each hold space, void space, cofferdam,...

  19. Space vehicle deployment from Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Paul K.

    1990-01-01

    When launching a spacecraft from Earth parking orbit to deep space, it is highly desirable to have the hyperbolic excess velocity vector (v-infinity) contained in the parking orbit plane. Ground launches can force the parking orbit plane to contain the v-infinity vector by using launch azimuth and lift-off time as independent variables. When launching from the Space Station, a new set of variables comes into play. The Space Station orbit is of fixed inclination but precessing due to the Earth's oblateness. Its plane will seldom (and may never) contain the desired v-infinity vector. Consequently, the departure strategy will usually require multiple burns and include a plane change. Also, the concept of 'launch window' will be somewhat different from Earth surface launches. An analysis of the deployment of interplanetary spacecraft from the Space Station is described, with emphasis on the effect of the trajectory characteristics on station operations. Several planetary mission types are analyzed, including manned Mars missions and unmanned high declination departures. The constraint of Space Station orbit nodal position is quantified and the operational implications for Space Station reboost strategy are examined.

  20. The Ninth National Space Symposium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipskin, Beth Ann; Patterson, Sara; Brescia, David A.; Burk, Donna; Flannery, Jack; St. John, Pat; Zimkas, Chuck

    Proceedings of the Ninth National Space Symposium held 13-16 April 1993 by the United States Space Foundation are presented. Presentations made at the symposium are included. Topics discussed include: Change, Challenge and Opportunity; Washington Insiders: National Space Policy and Budget Issues; Civil Space: a Vision for the Future; Space Power for an Expanded Vision; Unparalled Launch Vehicle Propulsion Capabilities; National Security Space Issues; Perspectives on the Air Force in Space; Future Technology: Space Propulsion, Earth Observation and International Cooperation; Achieving Efficient Space Transportation; the Future in Space Exploration; Kids, Parents and Teachers are into Space; and Public Congressional Forum on Space - International Space Issues.

  1. Swamp to Space exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The menacing-looking alligator is really harmless. It is one of the realistic props to help convince visitors that the feel of the swamp is real in StenniSphere's Swamp to Space exhibit at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss. The historical section of the Swamp to Space exhibit tells the story of why and how Stennis Space Center came to be. It also pays tribute to the families who moved their homes to make way for the space age in Mississippi.

  2. Storms in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, John W.

    2012-11-01

    Introduction; The cast of characters; Vignettes of the storm; 1. Two kinds of weather; 2. The saga of the storm; 3. Weather stations in space; 4. Lights in the night: the signature of the storm; 5. A walking tour of the magnetosphere; 6. The sun: where it all begins; 7. Nowcasting and forecasting storms in space; 8. Technology and the risks from storms in space; 9. A conversation with Joe Allen; 10. Manned exploration and space weather hazards; 11. The present and future of space weather forecasting; Mathematical appendix. A closer look; Glossary; Figure captions.

  3. System requirements. [Space systems

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, R.E.

    1982-06-01

    Requirements of future space systems, including large space systems, that operate beyond the space shuttle are discussed. Typical functions required of propulsion systems in this operational regime include payload placement, retrieval, observation, servicing, space debris control and support to large space systems. These functional requirements are discussed in conjunction with two classes of propulsion systems: (1) primary or orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) and (2) secondary or systems that generally operate within or relatively near an operational base orbit. Three propulsion system types are described in relation to these requirements: cryogenic OTV, teleoperator maneuvering system and a solar electric OTV.

  4. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  5. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida and the Bahamas. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating in the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  6. International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This artist's digital concept depicts the completely assembled International Space Station (ISS) passing over Florida. As a gateway to permanent human presence in space, the Space Station Program is to expand knowledge benefiting all people and nations. The ISS is a multidisciplinary laboratory, technology test bed, and observatory that will provide unprecedented undertakings in scientific, technological, and international experimentation. Experiments to be conducted in the ISS include: microgravity research, Earth science, space science, life sciences, space product development, and engineering research and technology. The sixteen countries participating the ISS are: United States, Russian Federation, Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, France, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Sweden, Switzerland, and Brazil.

  7. Developments in space medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, S.

    1973-01-01

    The principal directions and results of space medicine studies are reviewed, starting with the early 1950s. The effects of prolonged inaction, a gravity-free environment, and isolation on the survival and functioning of man in space are examined. Quarantine and other measures developed to guard the health of astronauts during space missions are described. Space radiation hazards and means of overcoming them are discussed. The development of exobiology as a new field of science from our increasing knowledge of the universe is noted, together with some technological and medical advances resulting from space research.

  8. Madrid space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahnestock, R. J.; Renzetti, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    The Madrid space station, operated under bilateral agreements between the governments of the United States and Spain, is described in both Spanish and English. The space station utilizes two tracking and data acquisition networks: the Deep Space Network (DSN) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network (STDN) operated under the direction of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The station, which is staffed by Spanish employees, comprises four facilities: Robledo 1, Cebreros, and Fresnedillas-Navalagamella, all with 26-meter-diameter antennas, and Robledo 2, with a 64-meter antenna.

  9. Space science setbacks discussed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Making the best of a difficult situation seemed to be the recurring theme of a forum on the future of U.S. space science held earlier this month at the meeting of the American Physical Society's Division of Plasma Physics in Baltimore, Md. The loss of the space shuttle Challenger has had “immediate and very substantial” effects on space science, according to Jeffrey D. Rosendhal of the Office of Space Science and Applications at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), one of four speakers at the forum.

  10. Space Acquired Photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Interested in a photograph of the first space walk by an American astronaut, or the first photograph from space of a solar eclipse? Or maybe your interest is in a specific geologic, oceanic, or meteorological phenomenon? The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center is making photographs of the Earth taken from space available for search, download, and ordering. These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984. Space photographs are distributed by EROS only as high-resolution scanned or medium-resolution digital products.

  11. Suited for Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the basic functions of space suits for EVA astronauts. Space suits are also described from the past, present and future space missions. The contents include: 1) Why Do You Need A Space Suit?; 2) Generic EVA System Requirements; 3) Apollo Lunar Surface Cycling Certification; 4) EVA Operating Cycles for Mars Surface Missions; 5) Mars Surface EVA Mission Cycle Requirements; 6) Robustness Durability Requirements Comparison; 7) Carry-Weight Capabilities; 8) EVA System Challenges (Mars); 9) Human Planetary Surface Exploration Experience; 10) NASA Johnson Space Center Planetary Analog Activities; 11) Why Perform Remote Field Tests; and 12) Other Reasons Why We Perform Remote Field Tests.

  12. Space stations and space platforms - Concepts, design, infrastructure, and uses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekey, I. (Editor); Herman, D. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed include space infrastructures and early Space Station and platform planning. Consideration is given to the supportive role of the Space Station and platform in future astronomy, earth observation, planetary, and communication space missions. Papers are presented on the history of the Space Station and space platform concepts, potential designs of space stations and space platforms, and long-range plans for space research.

  13. Center for Space Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Renjeng

    1998-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the Center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The Center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences. The College has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction represents prominent evidence of this record. The basic concept on which the Center was founded is the in-space construction of large space systems, such as space stations, interplanetary space vehicles, and extraterrestrial space structures. Since 1993, the scope of CSC research has evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. With the broadened scope our research projects seek to impact the technological basis for spacecraft such as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites and other special-purpose spacecraft, as well as large space platforms. A summary of accomplishments, including student participation and degrees awarded, during the contract period is presented.

  14. Space Food Systems Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Russo, Dane M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Food Systems Laboratory (SFSL) is a multipurpose laboratory responsible for space food and package research and development. It is located on-site at Johnson Space Center in Building 17. The facility supports the development of flight food, menus, packaging and food related hardware for Shuttle, International Space Station, and Advanced Life Support food systems. All foods used to support NASA ground tests and/or missions must meet the highest standards before they are 'accepted' for use on actual space flights. The foods are evaluated for nutritional content, sensory acceptability, safety, storage and shelf life, and suitability for use in micro-gravity. The food packaging is also tested to determine its functionality and suitability for use in space. Food Scientist, Registered Dieticians, Packaging Engineers, Food Systems Engineers, and Technicians staff the Space Food Systems Laboratory.

  15. Space Suit Thermal Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Anthony B.; Nair, Satish S.; Miles, John B.; Iovine, John V.; Lin, Chin H.

    1998-01-01

    The present NASA space suit (the Shuttle EMU) is a self-contained environmental control system, providing life support, environmental protection, earth-like mobility, and communications. This study considers the thermal dynamics of the space suit as they relate to astronaut thermal comfort control. A detailed dynamic lumped capacitance thermal model of the present space suit is used to analyze the thermal dynamics of the suit with observations verified using experimental and flight data. Prior to using the model to define performance characteristics and limitations for the space suit, the model is first evaluated and improved. This evaluation includes determining the effect of various model parameters on model performance and quantifying various temperature prediction errors in terms of heat transfer and heat storage. The observations from this study are being utilized in two future design efforts, automatic thermal comfort control design for the present space suit and design of future space suit systems for Space Station, Lunar, and Martian missions.

  16. Ion chemistry in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, M.; Geppert, W. D.; Nyman, G.

    2012-06-01

    We review the gas-phase chemistry in extraterrestrial space that is driven by reactions with atomic and molecular ions. Ions are ubiquitous in space and are potentially responsible for the formation of increasingly complex interstellar molecules. Until recently, positively charged atoms and molecules were the only ions known in space; however, this situation has changed with the discovery of various molecular anions. This review covers not only the observation, distribution and reactions of ions in space, but also laboratory-based experimental and theoretical methods for studying these ions. Recent results from space-based instruments, such as those on the Cassini-Huygens space mission and the Herschel Space Observatory, are highlighted.

  17. RBSP Space Weather data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, M.; Fox, N. J.; Mauk, B. H.; Barnes, R. J.; Potter, M.; Romeo, G.; Smith, D.

    2012-12-01

    On August 23, 2012, NASA will launch two identical probes into the radiation belts to provide unprecedented insight into the physical processes and dynamics of near-Earth space. The RBSP mission in addition to the scientific data return, provides a 1Kbps real-time space weather broadcast data in support of real time space weather modeling, forecast and prediction efforts. Networks of ground stations have been identified to downlink the space weather data. The RBSP instrument suites have selected space weather data to be broadcast from their collected space data on board the spacecraft, a subset from measurements based on information normally available to the instrument. The data subset includes particle fluxes at a variety of energies, and magnetic and electric field data. This selected space weather data is broadcast at all times through the primary spacecraft science downlink antennas when an observatory is not in a primary mission-related ground contact. The collected data will resolve important scientific issues and help researchers develop and improve various models for the radiation belts that can be used by forecasters to predict space weather phenomena and alert astronauts and spacecraft operators to potential hazards. The near real-time data from RBSP will be available to monitor and analyze current environmental conditions, forecast natural environmental changes and support anomaly resolution. The space weather data will be available on the RBSP Science Gateway at http://athena.jhuapl.edu/ and will provide access to the space weather data received from the RBSP real-time space weather broadcast. The near real-time data will be calibrated and displayed on the web as soon as possible. The CCMC will ingest the RBSP space weather data into real-time models. The raw space weather data will be permanently archived at APL. This presentation will provide a first look at RBSP space weather data products.

  18. Space Management for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agro, Dino

    1978-01-01

    A reference on current methods and procedures for managing space in academic medical centers is provided. Focus is on elements of space management systems that can enhance the effectiveness of space allocation decisions. These include: space inventory, space standards, evaluation of space utilization, and space allocation. A bibliography is…

  19. Space Debris and Space Safety - Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ailor, W.; Krag, H.

    Man's activities in space are creating a shell of space debris around planet Earth which provides a growing risk of collision with operating satellites and manned systems. Including both the larger tracked objects and the small, untracked debris, more than 98% of the estimated 600,000 objects larger than 1 cm currently in orbit are “space junk”--dead satellites, expended rocket stages, debris from normal operations, fragments from explosions and collisions, and other material. Recognizing the problem, space faring nations have joined together to develop three basic principles for minimizing the growth of the debris population: prevent on-orbit breakups, remove spacecraft and orbital stages that have reached the end of their mission operations from the useful densely populated orbit regions, and limit the objects released during normal operations. This paper provides an overview of what is being done to support these three principles and describes proposals that an active space traffic control service to warn satellite operators of pending collisions with large objects combined with a program to actively remove large objects may reduce the rate of future collisions. The paper notes that cost and cost effectiveness are important considerations that will affect the evolution of such systems.

  20. The Space Weather Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kihn, E. A.; Ridley, A. J.; Zhizhin, M.

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this project is to generate a complete 11 year space weather representation using physically consistent data-driven space weather models. The project will create a consistent, integrated historical record of the near Earth space environment by coupling observational data from space environmental monitoring systems archived at NGDC with data-driven, physically based numerical models. The resulting product will be an enhanced look at the space environment on consistent grids, time resolution, coordinate systems and containing key fields allowing an interested user to quickly and easily incorporate the impact of the near-Earth space climate in environmentally sensitive models. Currently there are no easily accessible long term climate archives available for the space-weather environment. Just as with terrestrial weather it is crucial to understand both daily weather forecasts as well as long term climate changes, so this project will demonstrate the ability to generate a meaningful and physically derived space weather climatology. The results of this project strongly support the DOD's Environmental Scenario Generator (ESG) project. The ESG project provides tools for intellegent data mining, classification and event detection which could be applied to a historical space-weather database. The two projects together provide a suite of tools for the user interested in modeling the effect of the near-earth space environment. We will present results and methodologies developed during the first two years of effort in the project.

  1. Science in space with the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Peter M.

    1987-01-01

    The potential of the Space Station as a versatile scientific laboratory is discussed, reviewing plans under consideration by the NASA Task Force on Scientific Uses of the Space Station. The special advantages offered by the Station for expanding the scope of 'space science' beyond astrophysics, geophysics, and terrestrial remote sensing are stressed. Topics examined include the advantages of a manned presence, the scientific value and cost effectiveness of smaller, more quickly performable experiments, improved communications for ground control of Station experiments, the international nature of the Station, the need for more scientist astronauts for the Station crew, Station on-orbit maintenance and repair services for coorbiting platforms, and the need for Shuttle testing of proposed Station laboratory equipment and procedures.

  2. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  3. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  4. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  5. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  6. 46 CFR 108.205 - Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. 108.205... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.205 Wash spaces; toilet spaces; and shower spaces. (a) For the purposes of this section— (1) “Private facility” means...

  7. Space Resources Roundtable 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ignatiev, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contents include following: Developing Technologies for Space Resource Utilization - Concept for a Planetary Engineering Research Institute. Results of a Conceptual Systems Analysis of Systems for 200 m Deep Sampling of the Martian Subsurface. The Role of Near-Earth Asteroids in Long-Term Platinum Supply. Core Drilling for Extra-Terrestrial Mining. Recommendations by the "LSP and Manufacturing" Group to the NSF-NASA Workshop on Autonomous Construction and Manufacturing for Space Electrical Power Systems. Plasma Processing of Lunar and Planetary Materials. Percussive Force Magnitude in Permafrost. Summary of the Issues Regarding the Martian Subsurface Explorer. A Costing Strategy for Manufacturing in Orbit Using Extraterrestrial Resources. Mine Planning for Asteroid Orebodies. Organic-based Dissolution of Silicates: A New Approach to Element Extraction from LunarRegohth. Historic Frontier Processes Active in Future Space-based Mineral Extraction. The Near-Earth Space Surveillance (NIESS) Mission: Discovery, Tracking, and Characterization of Asteroids, Comets, and Artificial Satellites with a microsatellite. Privatized Space Resource Property Ownership. The Fabrication of Silicon Solar Cells on the Moon Using In-Situ Resources. A New Strategy for Exploration Technology Development: The Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) Exploratiori/Commercialization Technology Initiative. Space Resources for Space Tourism. Recovery of Volatiles from the Moon and Associated Issues. Preliminary Analysis of a Small Robot for Martian Regolith Excavation. The Registration of Space-based Property. Continuous Processing with Mars Gases. Drilling and Logging in Space; An Oil-Well Perspective. LORPEX for Power Surges: Drilling, Rock Crushing. An End-To-End Near-Earth Asteroid Resource Exploitation Plan. An Engineering and Cost Model for Human Space Settlement Architectures: Focus on Space Hotels and Moon/Mars Exploration. The Development and Realization of a Silicon-60-based Economy in CisLunar Space. Our Lunar Destiny: Creating a Lunar Economy. Cost-Effective Approaches to Lunar Passenger Transportation. Lunar Mineral Resources: Extraction and Application. Space Resources Development - The Link Between Human Exploration and the Long-term Commercialization of Space. Toward a More Comprehensive Evaluation of Space Information. Development of Metal Casting Molds by Sol-Gel Technology Using Planetary Resources. A New Concept in Planetary Exploration: ISRU with Power Bursts. Bold Space Ventures Require Fervent Public Support. Hot-pressed Iron from Lunar Soil. The Lunar Dust Problem: A Possible Remedy. Considerations on Use of Lunar Regolith in Lunar Constructions. Experimental Study on Water Production by Hydrogen Reduction of Lunar Soil Simulant in a Fixed Bed Reactor.

  8. Ultrasound in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, David S.; South, Donna A.; Garcia, Kathleen M.; Arbeille, Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Physiology of the human body in space has been a major concern for space-faring nations since the beginning of the space era. Ultrasound (US) is one of the most cost effective and versatile forms of medical imaging. As such, its use in characterizing microgravity-induced changes in physiology is being realized. In addition to the use of US in related ground-based studies, equipment has also been modified to fly in space. This involves alteration to handle the stresses of launch and different power and cooling requirements. Study protocols also have been altered to accommodate the microgravity environment. Ultrasound studies to date have shown a pattern of adaptation to microgravity that includes changes in cardiac chamber sizes and vertebral spacing. Ultrasound has been and will continue to be an important component in the investigation of physiological and, possibly, pathologic changes occurring in space or as a result of spaceflight.

  9. Space biology research development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonting, Sjoerd L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Institute is to conduct and promote research related activities regarding the search for extraterrestrial life, particularly intelligent life. Such research encompasses the broad discipline of 'Life in the Universe', including all scientific and technological aspects of astronomy and the planetary sciences, chemical evolution, the origin of life, biological evolution, and cultural evolution. The primary purpose was to provide funding for the Principal Investigator to collaborate with the personnel of the SETI Institute and the NASA-Ames Research center in order to plan and develop space biology research on and in connection with Space Station Freedom; to promote cooperation with the international partners in the space station; to conduct a study on the use of biosensors in space biology research and life support system operation; and to promote space biology research through the initiation of an annual publication 'Advances in Space Biology and Medicine'.

  10. Space platforms/stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, C. C.

    1981-01-01

    Platforms in low-earth orbit are examined as simple and cost-effective solutions to the problem of long-duration space flight, providing stability, utilities and access for a variety of Shuttle-tended replaceable payloads over extended periods of time. The requirements for space platforms, which will encompass the advantages of both the free-flying and Shuttle-Spacelab operational modes, are discussed, with consideration given to payloads, operations and platform systems, and the status of the space platform concept, which is expected to begin development in early 1983 following definition studies and design selection, is noted. Possible paths in the evolution of space platform facilities to more advanced concepts are then outlined. Finally, the concept of the Science and Applications Manned Space Platform is examined as the first step toward a permanent manned United States presence in space.

  11. Gymnastics in Phase Space

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Alexander Wu; /SLAC

    2012-03-01

    As accelerator technology advances, the requirements on accelerator beam quality become increasingly demanding. Facing these new demands, the topic of phase space gymnastics is becoming a new focus of accelerator physics R&D. In a phase space gymnastics, the beam's phase space distribution is manipulated and precision tailored to meet the required beam qualities. On the other hand, all realization of such gymnastics will have to obey accelerator physics principles as well as technological limitations. Recent examples of phase space gymnastics include Emittance exchanges, Phase space exchanges, Emittance partitioning, Seeded FELs and Microbunched beams. The emittance related topics of this list are reviewed in this report. The accelerator physics basis, the optics design principles that provide these phase space manipulations, and the possible applications of these gymnastics, are discussed. This fascinating new field promises to be a powerful tool of the future.

  12. The International Space University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidian, Kenneth J.

    1990-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) was founded on the premise that any major space program in the future would require international cooperation as a necessary first step toward its successful completion. ISU is devoted to being a leading center for educating future authorities in the world space industry. ISU's background, goals, current form, and future plans are described. The results and benefits of the type of education and experience gained from ISU include technical reports describing the design projects undertaken by the students, an exposure to the many different disciplines which are a part of a large space project, an awareness of the existing activities from around the world in the space community, and an international professional network which spans all aspects of space activities and covers the globe.

  13. Space resources. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Mary Fae (Editor); Mckay, David S. (Editor); Duke, Michael B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Space resources must be used to support life on the Moon and in the exploration of Mars. Just as the pioneers applied the tools they brought with them to resources they found along the way rather than trying to haul all their needs over a long supply line, so too must space travelers apply their high technology tools to local resources. This overview describes the findings of a study on the use of space resources in the development of future space activities and defines the necessary research and development that must precede the practical utilization of these resources. Space resources considered included lunar soil, oxygen derived from lunar soil, material retrieved from near-Earth asteroids, abundant sunlight, low gravity, and high vacuum. The study participants analyzed the direct use of these resources, the potential demand for products from them, the techniques for retrieving and processing space resources, the necessary infrastructure, and the economic tradeoffs.

  14. Space motion sickness.

    PubMed

    Lackner, James R; Dizio, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Motion sickness remains a persistent problem in spaceflight. The present review summarizes available knowledge concerning the incidence and onset of space motion sickness and aspects of the physiology of motion sickness. Proposed etiological factors in the elicitation of space motion sickness are evaluated including fluid shifts, head movements, visual orientation illusions, Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation, and otolith asymmetries. Current modes of treating space motion sickness are described. Theoretical models and proposed ground-based paradigms for understanding and studying space motion sickness are critically analyzed. Prediction tests and questionnaires for assessing susceptibility to space motion sickness and their limitations are discussed. We conclude that space motion sickness does represent a form of motion sickness and that it does not represent a unique diagnostic entity. Motion sickness arises when movements are made during exposure to unusual force backgrounds both higher and lower in magnitude than 1 g earth gravity. PMID:17021896

  15. The Space Elevator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.

    2005-09-01

    The Space Elevator is conceived to be a carbon nanotube ribbon stretching from an Earth station in the ocean on the equator to far beyond geosynchronous altitude. This elevator co-rotates with the Earth. Climbers ascend the ribbon using power beamed from Earth to launch spacecraft in orbit or to other worlds. The requirements of the ribbon material, challenges to the building of the space elevator, deployment and the promise of the space elevator are briefly discussed in this paper.

  16. Space Mechanisms Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a workshop to discuss the state of drive systems technology needed for space exploration. The Workshop was held Thursday, November 2, 2000. About 70 space mechanisms experts shared their experiences from working in this field and considered technology development that will be needed to support future space exploration in the next 10 to 30 years.

  17. Space Station galley design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  18. Space construction data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Construction of large systems in space is a technology requiring the development of construction methods to deploy, assemble, and fabricate the elements comprising such systems. A construction method is comprised of all essential functions and operations and related support equipment necessary to accomplish a specific construction task in a particular way. The data base objective is to provide to the designers of large space systems a compendium of the various space construction methods which could have application to their projects.

  19. Aging and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The matter of aging and its relation to space vehicle crewmembers undertaking prolonged space missions is addressed. The capabilities of the older space traveler to recover from bone demineralization and muscle atrophy are discussed. Certain advantages of the older person are noted, for example, a greater tolerance of monotony and repetitious activities. Additional parameters are delineated including the cardiovascular system, the reproductive system, ionizing radiation, performance, and group dynamics.

  20. Space Odyssey Gift Shop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Space Odyssey Gift Shop located in StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., offers every visitor the opportunity to go home with 'the right stuff' from his or her StenniSphere visit. The gift shop is located just inside the front doors to StenniSphere and offers a wide range of space-related apparel, memorabilia, toys, books, mission patches and more.

  1. International Space Station exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  2. Space applications of superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. B.; Vorreiter, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    Some potential applications of superconductivity in space are summarized, e.g., the use of high field magnets for cosmic ray analysis or energy storage and generation, space applications of digital superconducting devices, such as the Josephson switch and, in the future, a superconducting computer. Other superconducting instrumentation which could be used in space includes: low frequency superconducting sensors, microwave and infrared detectors, instruments for gravitational studies, and high-Q cavities for use as stabilizing elements in clocks and oscillators.

  3. Technology for space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colladay, R. S.; Carlisle, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Some of the most significant advances made in the space station discipline technology program are examined. Technological tasks and advances in the areas of systems/operations, environmental control and life support systems, data management, power, thermal considerations, attitude control and stabilization, auxiliary propulsion, human capabilities, communications, and structures, materials, and mechanisms are discussed. An overview of NASA technology planning to support the initial space station and the evolutionary growth of the space station is given.

  4. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Summaries are given of Deep Space Network progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  5. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  6. Space support forum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posvar, Wesley W.; Laidlaw, Donald A.; Brown, Robert; King, Douglas; Graham, Daniel O.; Strine, Linda; Hopkins, Mark; Mcnair, Carl

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the discussions held by the Space Support Forum on the subject of education as an investment in the future. The Space Support Forum is a gathering of representatives of various space-related organizations that interact or overlap with the mission of the Space Foundation. They reported that an international science assessment in 17 countries ranked the United States either near or at the bottom in biology, chemistry, and physics. The U.S. Department of Education has laid out 6 National Education Goals to turn this status around and is helping hundreds of communities to work towards these goals, referred to as America 2000.

  7. Space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are considered for use in those particular spacecraft applications for which nuclear power systems offer unique advantages over solar and/or chemical space power systems. Both isotopic and reactor heated space electrical power units are described in an attempt to illustrate their operating characteristics, spacecraft integration aspects, and factory-to-end of mission operational considerations. The status of technology developments in nuclear power systems is presented. Some projections of those technologies are made to form a basis for the applications of space nuclear power systems to be expected over the next 10-15 years.

  8. Modular assembled space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-09-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  9. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Among 2011's many accomplishments, we safely retired the Space Shuttle Program after 30 incredible years; completed the International Space Station and are taking steps to enable it to reach its full potential as a multi-purpose laboratory; and helped to expand scientific knowledge with missions like Aquarius, GRAIL, and the Mars Science Laboratory. Responding to national budget challenges, we are prioritizing critical capabilities and divesting ourselves of assets no longer needed for NASA's future exploration programs. Since these facilities do not have to be maintained or demolished, the government saves money. At the same time, our commercial partners save money because they do not have to build new facilities. It is a win-win for everyone. Moving forward, 2012 will be even more historically significant as we celebrate the 50th Anniversary of Kennedy Space Center. In the coming year, KSC will facilitate commercial transportation to low-Earth orbit and support the evolution of the Space Launch System and Orion crew vehicle as they ready for exploration missions, which will shape how human beings view the universe. While NASA's Vision is to lead scientific and technological advances in aeronautics and space for a Nation on the frontier of discovery KSC's vision is to be the world's preeminent launch complex for government and commercial space access, enabling the world to explore and work in space. KSC's Mission is to safely manage, develop, integrate, and sustain space systems through partnerships that enable innovative, diverse access to space and inspires the Nation's future explorers.

  10. Start of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Makoto

    1993-03-01

    Space tourism means commercialization of manned space flight. From the early stage of space development, space commercialization is a profound theme in multidisciplinary fields, on the basis of a principle that the outcomes of advanced technique developed by tax should be returned to citizens. In these days, space satellite system in which users pay a fee for utilization has succeeded commercially in business such as communication network or broadcasting, and an attempt has been made to observe the earth from outer space to resolve global problems, such as environmental destruction. There is also an increasing interest in space tourism, however, many obstacles should be overcome for the realization, especially the medical problems such as effect of acceleration, cosmic ray, noise or weightless condition. In addition, the space flight business should be managed on the commercial base so that reasonable cost and large number of passengers are essential. It is necessary to design rockets suitable for tourism. For attractive design, the policy of space tourism should be clarified.

  11. Space support forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posvar, Wesley W.; Laidlaw, Donald A.; Brown, Robert; King, Douglas; Graham, Daniel O.; Strine, Linda; Hopkins, Mark; McNair, Carl

    This is a report of the discussions held by the Space Support Forum on the subject of education as an investment in the future. The Space Support Forum is a gathering of representatives of various space-related organizations that interact or overlap with the mission of the Space Foundation. They reported that an international science assessment in 17 countries ranked the United States either near or at the bottom in biology, chemistry, and physics. The U.S. Department of Education has laid out 6 National Education Goals to turn this status around and is helping hundreds of communities to work towards these goals, referred to as America 2000.

  12. Space Transportation Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Stewart, Mark E.; Suresh, Ambady; Owen, A. Karl

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the Space Transportation Propulsion Systems for the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) program. Topics include: 1) a review of Engine/Inlet Coupling Work; 2) Background/Organization of Space Transportation Initiative; 3) Synergy between High Performance Computing and Communications Program (HPCCP) and Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP); 4) Status of Space Transportation Effort, including planned deliverables for FY01-FY06, FY00 accomplishments (HPCCP Funded) and FY01 Major Milestones (HPCCP and ASTP); and 5) a review current technical efforts, including a review of the Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle (RBCC), Scope of Work, RBCC Concept Aerodynamic Analysis and RBCC Concept Multidisciplinary Analysis.

  13. Radiation protection in space.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Facius, R; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    Radiation environment, basic concepts of radiation protection, and specific aspects of the space radiation field are reviewed. The discussion of physico-chemical and subcellular radiation effects includes mechanisms of radiation action and cellular consequences. The discussion of radiobiological effects includes unique aspects of HZE particle effects, space flight findings, terrestrial findings, analysis of somatic radiation effects and effects on critical organs, and early and delayed effects. Other topics include the impact of the space flight environment, measurement of radiation exposure, establishing radiation protection limits, limitations in establishing space-based radiation exposure limits, radiation protection measures, and recommendations. PMID:11541474

  14. Modular Assembled Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.; Budinoff, Jason; MacEwen, Howard; Matthews, Gary; Postman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    We present a new approach to building a modular segmented space telescope that greatly leverages the heritage of the Hubble Space Telescope and the James Webb Space Telescope. The modular design in which mirror segments are assembled into identical panels allows for economies of scale and for efficient space assembly that make a 20-m aperture approach cost effective. This assembly approach can leverage NASA's future capabilities and has the power to excite the public's imagination. We discuss the science drivers, basic architecture, technology, and leveraged NASA infrastructure, concluding with a proposed plan for going forward.

  15. The space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Abraham

    1988-01-01

    Conceived since the beginning of time, living in space is no longer a dream but rather a very near reality. The concept of a Space Station is not a new one, but a redefined one. Many investigations on the kinds of experiments and work assignments the Space Station will need to accommodate have been completed, but NASA specialists are constantly talking with potential users of the Station to learn more about the work they, the users, want to do in space. Present configurations are examined along with possible new ones.

  16. Adventures in Space Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger D.

    1999-01-01

    Human space flight experience has demonstrated a variety of hazards and risks to health and performance. In developing ways to help respond to these issues, the field of space medicine has developed a comprehensive program of space flight health risk management that has resulted in positive contributions to medicine and society in general. Examples include accelerated focus on critical health issues such as aging and osteoporosis, and development of new technologies such as non-invasive diagnostic testing for diabetics. The role of health care professionals in human space exploration represents a fulfillment of new adventures and expanding frontiers.

  17. Space construction activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space Construction at the University of Colorado at Boulder was established in 1988 as a University Space Engineering Research Center. The mission of the Center is to conduct interdisciplinary engineering research which is critical to the construction of future space structures and systems and to educate students who will have the vision and technical skills to successfully lead future space construction activities. The research activities are currently organized around two central projects: Orbital Construction and Lunar Construction. Summaries of the research projects are included.

  18. Space station structures development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teller, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    A study of three interrelated tasks focusing on deployable Space Station truss structures is discussed. Task 1, the development of an alternate deployment system for linear truss, resulted in the preliminary design of an in-space reloadable linear motor deployer. Task 2, advanced composites deployable truss development, resulted in the testing and evaluation of composite materials for struts used in a deployable linear truss. Task 3, assembly of structures in space/erectable structures, resulted in the preliminary design of Space Station pressurized module support structures. An independent, redundant support system was developed for the common United States modules.

  19. Growing plant in space.

    PubMed

    Tibbitts, T W; Bula, R J; Tibbits, T W

    1989-11-01

    Space agencies in several countries are planning for the culture of plants in long duration space bases. The challenge of developing crop production procedures suitable for space projects will result in a new approach of problems we may meet today or in the near future in our common production systems. You may keep in mind subjects as: minimizing wastes or pollution problems, saving materials, introductions robotic helps. Discussion between scientists involved with food production for space programmes and protected horticultural cultivation may open new perspectives. PMID:11538379

  20. Growing plant in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbitts, T. W.; Bula, R. J.; Tibbits, T. W.

    1989-01-01

    Space agencies in several countries are planning for the culture of plants in long duration space bases. The challenge of developing crop production procedures suitable for space projects will result in a new approach of problems we may meet today or in the near future in our common production systems. You may keep in mind subjects as: minimizing wastes or pollution problems, saving materials, introductions robotic helps. Discussion between scientists involved with food production for space programmes and protected horticultural cultivation may open new perspectives.

  1. The deep space network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Presented is Deep Space Network (DSN) progress in flight project support, tracking and data acquisition (TDA) research and technology, network engineering, hardware and software implementation, and operations.

  2. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  3. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  4. Space Radiation Protection, Space Weather, and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, Neal; Fry, Dan; Lee, Kerry

    2010-01-01

    Management of crew exposure to radiation is a major concern for manned spaceflight and will be even more important for the modern concept of longer-duration exploration. The inherent protection afforded to astronauts by the magnetic field of the Earth in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) makes operations on the space shuttle or space station very different from operations during a deep space exploration mission. In order to experience significant radiation-derived Loss of Mission (LOM) or Loss of Crew (LOC) risk for LEO operations, one is almost driven to dictate extreme duration or to dictate an extreme sequence of solar activity. Outside of the geo-magnetosphere, however, this scenario changes dramatically. Exposures to the same event on the ISS and on the surface of the Moon may differ by multiple orders of magnitude. This change in magnitude, coupled with the logistical constraints present in implementing any practical operational mitigation make situational awareness with regard to space weather a limiting factor for our ability to conduct exploration operations. With these differences in risk to crew, vehicle and mission in mind, we present the status of the efforts currently underway as the required development to enable exploration operations. The changes in the operating environment as crewed operations begin to stretch away from the Earth are changing the way we think about the lines between research and operations . The real, practical work to enable a permanent human presence away from Earth has already begun

  5. International Space Station from Space Shuttle Endeavour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The crew of the Space Shuttle Endeavour took this spectacular image of the International Space Station during the STS118 mission, August 8-21, 2007. The image was acquired by an astronaut through one of the crew cabin windows, looking back over the length of the Shuttle. This oblique (looking at an angle from vertical, rather than straight down towards the Earth) image was acquired almost one hour after late inspection activities had begun. The sensor head of the Orbiter Boom Sensor System is visible at image top left. The entire Space Station is visible at image bottom center, set against the backdrop of the Ionian Sea approximately 330 kilometers below it. Other visible features of the southeastern Mediterranean region include the toe and heel of Italy's 'boot' at image lower left, and the western coastlines of Albania and Greece, which extend across image center. Farther towards the horizon, the Aegean and Black Seas are also visible. Featured astronaut photograph STS118-E-9469 was acquired by the STS-118 crew on August 19, 2007, with a Kodak 760C digital camera using a 28 mm lens, and is provided by the ISS Crew Earth Observations experiment and Image Science and Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center.

  6. Physiologic adaptation to space - Space adaptation syndrome

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderploeg, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    The adaptive changes of the neurovestibular system to microgravity, which result in space motion sickness (SMS), are studied. A list of symptoms, which range from vomiting to drowsiness, is provided. The two patterns of symptom development, rapid and gradual, and the duration of the symptoms are described. The concept of sensory conflict and rearrangements to explain SMS is being investigated.

  7. Commercialization of the Space Frontier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piland, William M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the current outlook for space business, how growing space business will improve the quality of life for all, and identified strategies for better relating international space research, technology, and space system operations to commercial interests in space. By drawing on recent assessments of the future potential for business in space, opportunities will be defined for encouraging the growth of business uses of space and regaining the public's awareness and support for expanding the space frontier.

  8. Cognitive neuroscience in space.

    PubMed

    De la Torre, Gabriel G

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  9. Cognitive Neuroscience in Space

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Gabriel G.

    2014-01-01

    Humans are the most adaptable species on this planet, able to live in vastly different environments on Earth. Space represents the ultimate frontier and a true challenge to human adaptive capabilities. As a group, astronauts and cosmonauts are selected for their ability to work in the highly perilous environment of space, giving their best. Terrestrial research has shown that human cognitive and perceptual motor performances deteriorate under stress. We would expect to observe these effects in space, which currently represents an exceptionally stressful environment for humans. Understanding the neurocognitive and neuropsychological parameters influencing space flight is of high relevance to neuroscientists, as well as psychologists. Many of the environmental characteristics specific to space missions, some of which are also present in space flight simulations, may affect neurocognitive performance. Previous work in space has shown that various psychomotor functions degrade during space flight, including central postural functions, the speed and accuracy of aimed movements, internal timekeeping, attentional processes, sensing of limb position and the central management of concurrent tasks. Other factors that might affect neurocognitive performance in space are illness, injury, toxic exposure, decompression accidents, medication side effects and excessive exposure to radiation. Different tools have been developed to assess and counteract these deficits and problems, including computerized tests and physical exercise devices. It is yet unknown how the brain will adapt to long-term space travel to the asteroids, Mars and beyond. This work represents a comprehensive review of the current knowledge and future challenges of cognitive neuroscience in space from simulations and analog missions to low Earth orbit and beyond. PMID:25370373

  10. Space Operations in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Highlights activities/accomplishments and future endeavors related to space operations. Topics discussed include the Space Shuttle, recovery/refurbishment operations, payload manipulator, upper stages operations, tracking and data relay, spacelab, space power systems, space exposure facility, space construction, and space station. (JN)

  11. Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The topics addressed in Space Station Freedom Utilization Conference are: (1) space station freedom overview and research capabilities; (2) space station freedom research plans and opportunities; (3) life sciences research on space station freedom; (4) technology research on space station freedom; (5) microgravity research and biotechnology on space station freedom; and (6) closing plenary.

  12. SpaceFibre Discussion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses the future use of SpaceFibre, a high speed optical extension to the SpaceWire, for NASA and DOD missions. NASA, and US industries would like to work with the European developers currently working on this standard.

  13. Reframing Children's Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Like professional photographers, early childhood teachers can reframe their perspectives to create innovative and inspiring spaces for young children by concentrating on reframing two design elements: color and texture. When thinking about designing spaces for young children, one of the first considerations is the equipment and its arrangement.…

  14. Solar space vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.E.

    1982-10-19

    This invention relates to space vehicle where solar energy is used to generate steam, which in turn, propels the vehicle in space. A copper boiler is provided and a novel solar radiation condensing means is used to focus the sunlight on said boiler. Steam generated in said boiler is exhausted to the environment to provide a thrust for the vehicle.

  15. Space charge stopband correction

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Lee, S.Y.; /Indiana U.

    2005-09-01

    It is speculated that the space charge effect cause beam emittance growth through the resonant envelope oscillation. Based on this theory, we propose an approach, called space charge stopband correction, to reduce such emittance growth by compensation of the half-integer stopband width of the resonant oscillation. It is illustrated with the Fermilab Booster model.

  16. International Space Station Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is an unparalleled international scientific and technological cooperative venture that will usher in a new era of human space exploration and research and provide benefits to people on Earth. On-Orbit assembly began on November 20, 1998, with the launch of the first ISS component, Zarya, on a Russian Proton rocket. The Space Shuttle followed on December 4, 1998, carrying the U.S.-built Unity cornecting Module. Sixteen nations are participating in the ISS program: the United States, Canada, Japan, Russia, Brazil, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The ISS will include six laboratories and be four times larger and more capable than any previous space station. The United States provides two laboratories (United States Laboratory and Centrifuge Accommodation Module) and a habitation module. There will be two Russian research modules, one Japanese laboratory, referred to as the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), and one European Space Agency (ESA) laboratory called the Columbus Orbital Facility (COF). The station's internal volume will be roughly equivalent to the passenger cabin volume of two 747 jets. Over five years, a total of more than 40 space flights by at least three different vehicles - the Space Shuttle, the Russian Proton Rocket, and the Russian Soyuz rocket - will bring together more than 100 different station components and the ISS crew. Astronauts will perform many spacewalks and use new robotics and other technologies to assemble ISS components in space.

  17. Dedicated Space | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The three-story, 330,000-square-foot Advanced Technology Research Facility has nearly 40,000 square feet designated as partnership space (shown in blue) for co-location of collaborators from industry, academia, nonprofit sectors, and other government agencies. The partnership space, combined with multiple conference rooms and meeting areas, encourages both internal and external collaborations.

  18. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a

  19. Space Transportation Systems Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laue, Jay H.

    2001-01-01

    This document is the final report by the Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) on contracted support provided to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Contract NAS8-99060, 'Space Transportation Systems Technologies'. This contract, initiated by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on February 8, 1999, was focused on space systems technologies that directly support NASA's space flight goals. It was awarded as a Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF) contract to SAIC, following a competitive procurement via NASA Research Announcement, NRA 8-21. This NRA was specifically focused on tasks related to Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). Through Task Area 3 (TA-3), "Other Related Technology" of this NRA contract, SAIC extensively supported the Space Transportation Directorate of MSFC in effectively directing, integrating, and setting its mission, operations, and safety priorities for future RLV-focused space flight. Following an initially contracted Base Year (February 8, 1999 through September 30, 1999), two option years were added to the contract. These were Option Year 1 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000) and Option Year 2 (October 1, 2000 through September 30, 2001). This report overviews SAIC's accomplishments for the Base Year, Option Year 1, and Option Year 2, and summarizes the support provided by SAIC to the Space Transportation Directorate, NASA/MSFC.

  20. Meeting Library Space Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngren, Ralph P.

    The physical arrangement of reading, storage, and service areas for the microform department of the Joseph Regenstein Library can serve as a case study for the estimation of space requirements for microform storage and retrieval. The library uses mechanical readers at carrel stations, each utilizing 31.5 square feet of floor space. The best…