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Sample records for interior ballistics launch

  1. Study on turbulence in interior ballistics flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, R.; Garloff, J.

    1992-02-01

    The compressible, viscous, turbulent gas expansion flow behind an accelerating projectile moving in a gun tube is investigated by solving the Navier-Stokes equations. For future theoretical investigations of the heat transfer from the hot gases to the walls, a reliable modeling of the turbulence is needed. Turbulence is described by two algebraic models, namely, the models by Cebeci-Smith-Mosinskis and Baldwin-Lomax, as well as by a one-equation model for the turbulent kinetic energy. Computational results obtained by application of these models are compared to experimental data obtained with two low-pressure gun simulators. Also, numerical predictions are reported for the flow behind a projectile under more realistic interior ballistic conditions.

  2. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  3. A numerical model for ETC gun interior ballistics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, C.-C.; Phillips, G. T.; Su, F. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A multidimensional, transient, fluid dynamic model, BISON, has been developed to study the interior ballistic processes in an electrothermal chemical (ETC) gun. The model solves the full Navier-Stokes equations and uses a high-order numerical scheme to integrate the governing equations. Most of the important physical processes pertinent to ETC gun interior ballistics, including multiphase flow, chemical reactions, and plasma dynamics, are incorporated. Examples of applications to the study of ETC gun phenomena, such as plasma jet penetration and real gun design component analyses, are discussed. The modeling results not only compare well with experimental data, but also provide a better understanding of interior ballistics physics. The multidimensional BISON model is useful for ETC simulations.

  4. An investigation of interior ballistics ignition phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porterie, B.; Loraud, J. C.

    1994-09-01

    An axisymmetric viscous two-phase model is presented which describes the transient combustion of granular propellants during the ignition phase of a ballistic charge. Details of the model are presented along with computational results for a low-pressure ballistic simulator. Predicted pressure time evolutions are compared with experimental data of a real test-firing in which an unexpected pressure excursion occurred. Gun propellant breakup effects, due to bed compaction, are taken into consideration to explain the discrepancies between the numerical and experimental results. Finally, a discussion is presented of the mechanisms by which the behavior of pressure waves can be strongly influenced and thus controlled by the manner in which the propelling charge is ignited.

  5. Measurement of interior ballistic performance using FM/FM radio telemetry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. W.

    1985-12-01

    The continuous measurement of ballistic performance during the interior ballistic cycle of cannon launched projectiles is important to on-going research programs being conducted at the Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL). These measurements, such as propelling gas pressure, projectile acceleration, and projectile-bore interactions, are necessary to evaluate existing weapon systems and validate newly formulated interior ballistic models. Of particular interest is the resistance to projectile motion and the behavior of the projectile during the engraving process. The measurement of forces on projectiles and projectile-bore interactions requires that transducers be located on-board the projectile. In-bore measurements of ballistic performance are made at the BRL using an FM/FM, S-band telemeter. Standard artillery projectiles are modified and instrumented with telemetry transmitting systems. These projectiles are test fired and data extracted via the real time telemetry link. The projectile systems are expendable free-flight rounds and those modified for recovery in the BRL Large Caliber Soft Recovery System (LCSRS). The instrumentation package for the recoverable rounds is configured so it can be removed from the projectile, recalibrated after exposure to the launch environment, and used on subsequent rounds.

  6. Performance and design analysis of ballistic reusable SSTO launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    Based on previous system studies of MBB on single-stage ballistic launch vehicles with vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) from 1969 and 1986, a review is presented of the performance and design criteria of such advanced launch systems with respect to the present 'state of the art'. This type of launch vehicle is a prime candidate for an economical future space transportation system in the medium-size payload class. Ascent trajectory optimization, which is more difficult than for a multistage rocket, reveals the requirement for a careful thrust variation (reduction) during ascent as well as a high takeoff acceleration in order to achieve the minimum velocity requirement and maximum payload. Further, the impact of vehicle net mass and average specific impulse are presented as well as the design options for the single-stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion system and other specific design features.

  7. 49. Interior of launch support building, buck boost transformer at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Interior of launch support building, buck boost transformer at center, view towards southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  8. 53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Interior of launch support building, brine chiller, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  9. 12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF GENERATOR ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  10. 9. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF KITCHEN. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  11. 11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF MECHANICAL ROOM. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. 10. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF BEDROOM. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  13. 7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO NORTH. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  14. 6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF SECURITY OFFICE. VIEW TO WEST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  15. 55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    55. Interior of launch support building, diesel motor generator at center left, diesel electric unit at upper center, batteries at bottom center, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  16. 54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Interior of launch support building, fuel transfer pump at lower left, instrument air compressor at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. 52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Interior of launch support building, hydraulic pumping unit at lower center, service disconnect at right, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. 50. Interior of launch support building, service disconnect at bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Interior of launch support building, service disconnect at bottom center, repeater rack at right, view towards southwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. 51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Interior of launch support building, minuteman power processor at lower left, power distribution panel at center, old diesel control panel at lower right, diesel battery at upper right, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. Modeling and Simulation of Interior Ballistics Based on Actual Combustion Characteristics of Propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xin; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Bin; Wang, Ze-Shan

    2015-07-01

    A novel interior ballistic model was established by revising actual combustion characteristics describing the relationship between burned propellants (ψ) and pressure impulse (It). The discrepancy between theory and experiment for gas releasing of porous propellant was investigated. Furthermore, the model was tested for multiperforated propellants, with relative errors less than 1 and 3% for the maximum pressure and velocity, respectively, indicating that this is a good model to estimate the interior ballistics performance for multiperforated propellants.

  1. 30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Launch Area, Generator Building, interior view showing diesel fuel tank, fuel pump (foreground) and fuel lines leading to power-generating units (removed) VIEW NORTHWEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  2. 57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. INTERIOR VIEW OF VAL BRIDGE STRUCTURE SHOWING LAUNCHING TUBE, STAIRS AND PORTION OF LAUNCHING DECK. NOTE SUPPORT CARRIAGE ASSEMBLY IN DISTANCE. Date unknown, circa March 1948. (Original photograph in possession of Dave Willis, San Diego, California.) - Variable Angle Launcher Complex, Variable Angle Launcher, CA State Highway 39 at Morris Reservior, Azusa, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. Interior noise control of spacecraft launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello, G.; Pinder, J. N.; Borchers, I. U.

    1989-10-01

    The efforts undertaken in the Ariane 5 program to achieve a quieter vibroacoustic environment at lift-off either by a careful design of the ELA 3 launching pad or by an attempt to optimize the acoustic transmission loss of the fairing are discussed. A review of the potential efficiency of different acoustic protection systems is presented, with comments on the main design sensitive parameters and associated predictive methods.

  4. Space-based tactical ballistic missile launch parameter estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danis, Norman J.

    1993-04-01

    The influence of a priori uncertainties in launch time and trajectory fly-out profiles, along with sensor angle measurement errors, on the estimation of missile launch location and heading angle is examined. An error model was developed to compute the statistics of the estimation errors using a single pair of angle measurements, one from each of two satellites, or both from the same satellite platform. The measurements and estimation methods are described, and the estimation errors are derived for the hypothetical case of perfect knowledge of trajectory and launch time. On the basis of this ideal case, the errors are generalized to include trajectory and launch time uncertainties. The results are discussed with the aid of graphics output from a computer model which was run parametrically to highlight important dependences and sensitivities.

  5. Experimental study of ELF signatures developed by ballistic missile launch

    SciTech Connect

    Peglow, S.G.; Rynne, T.M.

    1993-04-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (Livermore, CA) and SARA, Inc. participated in the ATMD missile launch activities that occurred at WSMR during January 1993. These tests involved the launch of Lance missiles with a subsequent direction of F-15Es into the launch area for subsequent detection and simulated destruction of redeployed missile launchers, LLNL and SARA deployed SARN`s ELF sensors and various data acquisition systems for monitoring of basic phenomena. On 25 January 1993, a single missile launch allowed initial measurements of the phenomena and an assessment of appropriate sensor sensitivity settings as well as the appropriateness of the sensor deployment sites (e.g., with respect to man-made ELF sources such as power distributions and communication lines). On 27 January 1993, a measurement of a double launch of Lance missiles was performed. This technical report covers the results of the analysis of latter measurements. An attempt was made to measure low frequency electromagnetic signatures that may be produced during a missile launch. Hypothetical signature production mechanisms include: (1) Perturbations of the earth geo-potential during the launch of the missile. This signature may arise from the interaction of the ambient electric field with the conducting body of the missile as well as the partially ionized exhaust plume. (2) Production of spatial, charge sources from triboelectric-like mechanisms. Such effects may occur during the initial interaction of the missile plume with the ground material and lead to an initial {open_quotes}spike{close_quotes} output, Additionally, there may exist charge transfer mechanisms produced during the exhausting of the burnt fuel oxidizer.

  6. Aero-Assisted Pre-Stage for Ballistic and Aero-Assisted Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustinov, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    A concept of an aero-assisted pre-stage is proposed, which enables launch of both ballistic and aero-assisted launch vehicles from conventional runways. The pre-stage can be implemented as a delta-wing with a suitable undercarriage, which is mated with the launch vehicle, so that their flight directions are coaligned. The ample wing area of the pre-stage combined with the thrust of the launch vehicle ensure prompt roll-out and take-off of the stack at airspeeds typical for a conventional jet airliner. The launch vehicle is separated from the pre-stage as soon as safe altitude is achieved, and the desired ascent trajectory is reached. Nominally, the pre-stage is non-powered. As an option, to save the propellant of the launch vehicle, the pre-stage may have its own short-burn propulsion system, whereas the propulsion system of the launch vehicle is activated at the separation point. A general non-dimensional analysis of performance of the pre-stage from roll-out to separation is carried out and applications to existing ballistic launch vehicle and hypothetical aero-assisted vehicles (spaceplanes) are considered.

  7. Stationarity conditions for physicochemical processes in the interior ballistics of a gun

    SciTech Connect

    Lipanov, A.M.

    1995-09-01

    An original method is proposed for ensuring time-invariant (stationary) interior ballistic parameters in the postprojectile space of a gun barrel. Stationarity of the parameters is achieved by investing the solid-propellant charge with highly original structures that produce the required pressure condition and linear growth of the projectile velocity. Simple relations are obtained for calculating the principal characteristics.

  8. ONEGUN: an interior ballistics code for closed breech guns

    SciTech Connect

    Reis, G.E.

    1982-07-01

    This program computes the gun and projectile motion and the gas thermodynamic properties (the internal ballistics) of a closed breech gun. Heat losses and friction losses are taken into account. A dual grain charge can be used. The inputs required are the usual propellant characteristics (density, impetus, gamma, burn rate coefficient and exponent, grain geometry, covolume and isochoric flame temperature). The gun characteristics (chamber volume and length, rifle twist rate, bore diameter, gun weight and start pressure) and the projectile characteristics (projectile weight, radius of gyration and start pressure). The output consists of the motion (displacement, velocity, and acceleration) of both the projectile and the recoiling gun and the gas pressures and temperature, all as a function of time.

  9. Cost analysis for single-stage (SSTO) reusable ballistic launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The ballistic SSTO Vehicle seems to be the prime candidate for a future reusable launch system for medium-size cargo due to its inherent technical and operational simplicity by limiting the number of stages to just one, and by using conventional rocket propulsion. Based on the MBB vehicle studies from 1969/70 and 1986 (BETA II) and taking into account requirements of the recent SDIO-Contract ("Delta Clipper") a cost and cost driver analysis is presented using the TRANSCOST Model. First, the potential development cost for ballistic SSTO vehicles in the range of 200 to 1000 tons propellant mass are presented and the main influencal parameters - including the so-called "non-technical" factors - are discussed. The results are compared with actual total development cost of other launch systems. Then the potential ground and flight operations cost are discussed, based on the proposed "Standardized Launch Cost Definition (SLC, Level I, Level II Cost). In this case especially the impact of annual launch frequency on the cost per launch is shown, and the expected specific transportation cost compared with the present values of expendable launchers. A substantial cost reduction is to be expected, even under non-optimistic assumptions.

  10. Sabots, Obturator and Gas-In-Launch Tube Techniques for Heat Flux Models in Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Wilder, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    For thermal protection system (heat shield) design for space vehicle entry into earth and other planetary atmospheres, it is essential to know the augmentation of the heat flux due to vehicle surface roughness. At the NASA Ames Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamic Facility (HFFAF) ballistic range, a campaign of heat flux studies on rough models, using infrared camera techniques, has been initiated. Several phenomena can interfere with obtaining good heat flux data when using this measuring technique. These include leakage of the hot drive gas in the gun barrel through joints in the sabot (model carrier) to create spurious thermal imprints on the model forebody, deposition of sabot material on the model forebody, thereby changing the thermal properties of the model surface and unknown in-barrel heating of the model. This report presents developments in launch techniques to greatly reduce or eliminate these problems. The techniques include the use of obturator cups behind the launch package, enclosed versus open front sabot designs and the use of hydrogen gas in the launch tube. Attention also had to be paid to the problem of the obturator drafting behind the model and impacting the model. Of the techniques presented, the obturator cups and hydrogen in the launch tube were successful when properly implemented

  11. 8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. INTERIOR OF DINING/RECREATION ROOM. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  12. New Diagnostic, Launch and Model Control Techniques in the NASA Ames HFFAF Ballistic Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdanoff, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents new diagnostic, launch and model control techniques used in the NASA Ames HFFAF ballistic range. High speed movies were used to view the sabot separation process and the passage of the model through the model splap paper. Cavities in the rear of the sabot, to catch the muzzle blast of the gun, were used to control sabot finger separation angles and distances. Inserts were installed in the powder chamber to greatly reduce the ullage volume (empty space) in the chamber. This resulted in much more complete and repeatable combustion of the powder and hence, in much more repeatable muzzle velocities. Sheets of paper or cardstock, impacting one half of the model, were used to control the amplitudes of the model pitch oscillations.

  13. Modeling and numerical simulation of interior ballistic processes in a 120mm mortar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Ragini

    Numerical Simulation of interior ballistic processes in gun and mortar systems is a very difficult and interesting problem. The mathematical model for the physical processes in the mortar systems consists of a system of non-linear coupled partial differential equations, which also contain non-homogeneity in form of the source terms. This work includes the development of a three-dimensional mortar interior ballistic (3D-MIB) code for a 120mm mortar system and its stage-wise validation with multiple sets of experimental data. The 120mm mortar system consists of a flash tube contained within an ignition cartridge, tail-boom, fin region, charge increments containing granular propellants, and a projectile payload. The ignition cartridge discharges hot gas-phase products and unburned granular propellants into the mortar tube through vent-holes on its surface. In view of the complexity of interior ballistic processes in the mortar propulsion system, the overall problem was solved in a modular fashion, i.e., simulating each physical component of the mortar propulsion system separately. These modules were coupled together with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The ignition cartridge and mortar tube contain nitrocellulose-based ball propellants. Therefore, the gas dynamical processes in the 120mm mortar system are two-phase, which were simulated by considering both phases as an interpenetrating continuum. Mass and energy fluxes from the flash tube into the granular bed of ignition cartridge were determined from a semi-empirical technique. For the tail-boom section, a transient one-dimensional two-phase compressible flow solver based on method of characteristics was developed. The mathematical model for the interior ballistic processes in the mortar tube posed an initial value problem with discontinuous initial conditions with the characteristics of the Riemann problem due to the discontinuity of the initial conditions. Therefore, the mortar tube model was solved

  14. Coupled Solid Rocket Motor Ballistics and Trajectory Modeling for Higher Fidelity Launch Vehicle Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ables, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Multi-stage launch vehicles with solid rocket motors (SRMs) face design optimization challenges, especially when the mission scope changes frequently. Significant performance benefits can be realized if the solid rocket motors are optimized to the changing requirements. While SRMs represent a fixed performance at launch, rapid design iterations enable flexibility at design time, yielding significant performance gains. The streamlining and integration of SRM design and analysis can be achieved with improved analysis tools. While powerful and versatile, the Solid Performance Program (SPP) is not conducive to rapid design iteration. Performing a design iteration with SPP and a trajectory solver is a labor intensive process. To enable a better workflow, SPP, the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories (POST), and the interfaces between them have been improved and automated, and a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed. The GUI enables real-time visual feedback of grain and nozzle design inputs, enforces parameter dependencies, removes redundancies, and simplifies manipulation of SPP and POST's numerous options. Automating the analysis also simplifies batch analyses and trade studies. Finally, the GUI provides post-processing, visualization, and comparison of results. Wrapping legacy high-fidelity analysis codes with modern software provides the improved interface necessary to enable rapid coupled SRM ballistics and vehicle trajectory analysis. Low cost trade studies demonstrate the sensitivities of flight performance metrics to propulsion characteristics. Incorporating high fidelity analysis from SPP into vehicle design reduces performance margins and improves reliability. By flying an SRM designed with the same assumptions as the rest of the vehicle, accurate comparisons can be made between competing architectures. In summary, this flexible workflow is a critical component to designing a versatile launch vehicle model that can accommodate a volatile

  15. Modeling of Interior Ballistic Gas-Solid Flow Using a Coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaobing

    2013-05-01

    In conventional models for two-phase reactive flow of interior ballistic, the dynamic collision phenomenon of particles is neglected or empirically simplified. However, the particle collision between particles may play an important role in dilute two-phase flow because the distribution of particles is extremely nonuniform. The collision force may be one of the key factors to influence the particle movement. This paper presents the CFD-DEM approach for simulation of interior ballistic two-phase flow considering the dynamic collision process. The gas phase is treated as a Eulerian continuum and described by a computational fluid dynamic method (CFD). The solid phase is modeled by discrete element method (DEM) using a soft sphere approach for the particle collision dynamic. The model takes into account grain combustion, particle-particle collisions, particle-wall collisions, interphase drag and heat transfer between gas and solid phases. The continuous gas phase equations are discretized in finite volume form and solved by the AUSM+-up scheme with the higher order accurate reconstruction method. Translational and rotational motions of discrete particles are solved by explicit time integrations. The direct mapping contact detection algorithm is used. The multigrid method is applied in the void fraction calculation, the contact detection procedure, and CFD solving procedure. Several verification tests demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this approach. The simulation of an experimental igniter device in open air shows good agreement between the model and experimental measurements. This paper has implications for improving the ability to capture the complex physics phenomena of two-phase flow during the interior ballistic cycle and to predict dynamic collision phenomena at the individual particle scale. PMID:24891728

  16. 33. Lower level, ballistic gas generator at left (opens launcher ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Lower level, ballistic gas generator at left (opens launcher door during launch), LDB panel at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  17. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman Ill Ballistic Missiles At Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF requested the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) analyze VAFB sounding data to determine the probability of violating (PoV) upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a graphical user interface (GUI) that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. The AMU suggested also including forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh (RAP) model. This would provide further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast on launch day.

  18. Features of optical phenomena connected with launches of solid-propellant ballistic rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Chernouss, S. A.; Alpatov, V. V.

    2013-04-01

    Specific optical phenomena observed in the upper atmosphere layers and connected with launches of powerful solid-propellant rockets are considered: the development of spherically symmetric gas-dust formations having the shape of an extending torus in the image plane and the formation of regions with intense blue-green (turquoise) glow observed under twilight conditions along a rocket's flight path. The development of clouds can be represented by the model of a strong explosion occurring at the stage separation of solid-propellant rockets in the upper atmosphere. A turquoise glow arises as a result of resonance scattering of solar radiation on AlO molecules that are formed when metallic aluminum in the composition of fuel interacts with atmosphere components and combustion products.

  19. The famous son of Ukrainian people V.I. Voznyuk who has provided launch of all ballistic missiles of the cosmodrome Kapustin Yar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisniakov, V. F.; Platonov, V. P.

    2007-12-01

    The history of the life of V.I. Voznyuk is a history of the phenomenon of the Soviet rocket progress when the engineers with experience of launch of military rocket of small radius of action were testing the ballistic missiles. The remarkable and little-known destiny of Voznuk is the history of the Soviet rocket technology experts who had a severe practical schooling of command by the military forces of the first combat missiles "Katucha" during the grim military years (including the grandiose fight in Stalingrad) and then they have continued to launch the ballistic missiles. V.I. Voznyuk worked as the chief of the first Soviet cosmodrome Kapustin Yar for almost 30 years—since the most difficult moment of its organization. He organized a launch of the first Soviet ballistic missiles R-1, R-2, R-5M of S. Korolev. This report is about the outstanding achievement of the organizing ability of V.I. Voznyuk—about the launch of a missile with a nuclear warhead in 1956. V.I. Voznyuk closes a unique chain in the world of outstanding figures of space-rocket technology who were born or lived in Ukraine from designers of missile up to the organizers of its manufacture and now up to the organizers of the tests of rockets—J. Aizenberg, V. Budnik, O. Baclanov, V. Dogujiev, M. Galasj, N. Gerasuta, V. Gluschko, B. Gubanov, A. Gudimenko, I. Ivanov, G. Kesunjko, B. Konoplev, S. Korolev, V. Kovtunenko, V. Kukuschkin, O. Makarov, A. Nedaivoda, M. Reshetniyov, Yu. Semenov, V. Sergeev, Yu. Smetanin, V. Tchelomey, D. Torchiy, V. Utkin and M. Yangel.

  20. 10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left front - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. 11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Storage and shipping container, ballistic missile, mounted on ballistic missile trailer, view from left side - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, 10 mile radius around Exit 127 off Interstate 90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. Determining the Probability of Violating Upper-Level Wind Constraints for the Launch of Minuteman III Ballistic Missiles at Vandenberg Air Force Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Brock, Tyler M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman Ill ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum wind shear datasets and applied this information when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition, the AMU included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on the day of launch. The AMU developed an interactive graphical user interface (GUI) in Microsoft Excel using Visual Basic for Applications. The GUI displays the critical sounding data easily and quickly for LWOs on day of launch. This tool will replace the existing one used by the 30 OSSWF, assist the LWOs in determining the probability of exceeding specific wind threshold values, and help to improve the overall upper winds forecast for

  3. Applications of computational modeling in ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturek, Walter B.

    1987-01-01

    The development of the technology of ballistics as applied to gun launched Army weapon systems is the main objective of research at the U.S. Army Ballistic Research Laboratory (BRL). The primary research programs at the BRL consist of three major ballistic disciplines: exterior, interior, and terminal. The work done at the BRL in these areas was traditionally highly dependent on experimental testing. A considerable emphasis was placed on the development of computational modeling to augment the experimental testing in the development cycle; however, the impact of the computational modeling to this date is modest. With the availability of supercomputer computational resources recently installed at the BRL, a new emphasis on the application of computational modeling to ballistics technology is taking place. The major application areas are outlined which are receiving considerable attention at the BRL at present and to indicate the modeling approaches involved. An attempt was made to give some information as to the degree of success achieved and indicate the areas of greatest need.

  4. Ballistic trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The only ballistic trajectory mode feasible for a close solar probe or for an orbit inclined approximately 90 degrees to the ecliptic is the Jupiter gravity assisted mode. A comparison of the trajectories of the Solar Polar and the Solar Probe Mission for 1983 launches is shown. The geometry of the solar encounter phase is practically the same for the 4.3 year orbit achieved by a Jupiter gravity assist and for a one year orbit. Data describing the geometry of an orbit with perihelion at 4 solar radii and aphelion at Jupiter are listed. The range of apparent directions of the solar wind if it is flowing radially outward from the Sun with a speed of either 150 or 300 km/sec is shown. The minimum sun-earth-probe angle during the solar encounter as a function of the earth-node angle and the orbital inclination is also shown. If the inclination is 60 degrees or more, the minimum SEP angle is not greatly different from the 90 degree value.

  5. Direct launch using the electric rail gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The concept explored involves using a large single stage electric rail gun to achieve orbital velocities. Exit aerodynamics, launch package design and size, interior ballistics, system and component sizing and design concepts are treated. Technology development status and development requirements are identified and described. The expense of placing payloads in Earth orbit using conventional chemical rockets is considerable. Chemical rockets are very inefficient in converting chemical energy into payload kinetic energy. A rocket motor is relatively expensive and is usually expended on each launch. In addition specialized and expensive forms of fuel are required. Gun launching payloads directly to orbit from the Earth's surface is a possible alternative. Guns are much more energy efficient than rockets. The high capital cost of the gun installation can be recovered by reusing it over and over again. Finally, relatively inexpensive fuel and large quantities of energy are readily available to a fixed installation on the Earth's surface.

  6. Ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Fackler, M L

    1986-12-01

    Wound profiles made under controlled conditions in the wound ballistics laboratory at the Letterman Army Institute of Research showed the location along their tissue path at which projectiles cause tissue disruption and the type of disruption (crush from direct contact with the projectile or stretch from temporary cavitation). Comparison of wound profiles showed the fallacy in attempting to judge wound severity using velocity alone, and laid to rest the common belief that in treating a wound caused by a high-velocity missile, one needs to excise tissue far in excess of that which appears damaged. All penetrating projectile wounds, whether civilian or military, therefore should be treated the same regardless of projectile velocity. Diagnosis of the approximate amount and location of tissue disruption is made by physical examination and appropriate radiographic studies. These wounds are contaminated, and coverage with a penicillin-type antibiotic should be provided. PMID:3777618

  7. Ballistic representation for kinematic access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfano, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    This work uses simple two-body orbital dynamics to initially determine the kinematic access for a ballistic vehicle. Primarily this analysis was developed to assess when a rocket body might conjunct with an orbiting satellite platform. A family of access opportunities can be represented as a volume for a specific rocket relative to its launch platform. Alternately, the opportunities can be represented as a geographical footprint relative to aircraft or satellite position that encompasses all possible launcher locations for a specific rocket. A thrusting rocket is treated as a ballistic vehicle that receives all its energy at launch and follows a coasting trajectory. To do so, the rocket's burnout energy is used to find its equivalent initial velocity for a given launcher's altitude. Three kinematic access solutions are then found that account for spherical Earth rotation. One solution finds the maximum range for an ascent-only trajectory while another solution accommodates a descending trajectory. In addition, the ascent engagement for the descending trajectory is used to depict a rapid access scenario. These preliminary solutions are formulated to address ground-, sea-, or air-launched vehicles.

  8. Frantic Third World quest for ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Karp, A.

    1988-06-01

    Belatedly, Western Nations are trying to staunch the flow of technology that has helped create a number of new ballistic missile forces in the Third World. Ballistic missiles already are being used in one Third World conflict. Since the end of February, Iran and Iraq have fired more than 100 short-range, inaccurate missiles at each other's cities, causing thousands of casualties. These events illustrate that ballistic missiles are becoming an ominous reality in the Third World. Indeed, 20 Third World countries, including Israel and Brazil, currently possess ballistic missiles or are striving to develop them. On one level, these missiles - which are propelled by rockets into the upper atmosphere, travel in a ballistic trajectory, and are pulled by gravity to their targets - are for these nations a logical step in building up their military forces. While the missiles vary in range and accuracy, they can reach many targets in regional conflicts. Unlike manned aircraft, the do not require large, vulnerable bases. They are not as easily intercepted as slow bombers. And they are easier to develop because they are less sophisticated than modern cruise missiles such as the U.S. air-launched cruise missiles. In terms of global security, the most worrisome aspect of Third World ballistic missiles is their potential as nuclear weapons delivery systems.

  9. Earth-Mars transfers with ballistic capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topputo, F.; Belbruno, E.

    2015-04-01

    We construct a new type of transfer from the Earth to Mars, which ends in ballistic capture. This results in substantial savings in capture from that of a classical Hohmann transfer under certain assumptions as well as an alternate way for spacecraft to transfer to Mars. This is accomplished by first becoming captured at Mars, very distant from the planet, and then from there, following a ballistic capture transfer to a desired altitude within a ballistic capture set. This is achieved by using stable sets, which are sets of initial conditions whose orbits satisfy a definition of orbital stability. This transfer type may be of interest for Mars missions because of low capture , flexibility of launch period from the Earth, moderate flight time, and the benign nature of the capture process.

  10. Targeting Low-Energy Ballistic Lunar Transfers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous low-energy ballistic transfers exist between the Earth and Moon that require less fuel than conventional transfers, but require three or more months of transfer time. An entirely ballistic lunar transfer departs the Earth from a particular declination at some time in order to arrive at the Moon at a given time along a desirable approach. Maneuvers may be added to the trajectory in order to adjust the Earth departure to meet mission requirements. In this paper, we characterize the (Delta)V cost required to adjust a low-energy ballistic lunar transfer such that a spacecraft may depart the Earth at a desirable declination, e.g., 28.5(white bullet), on a designated date. This study identifies the optimal locations to place one or two maneuvers along a transfer to minimize the (Delta)V cost of the transfer. One practical application of this study is to characterize the launch period for a mission that aims to launch from a particular launch site, such as Cape Canaveral, Florida, and arrive at a particular orbit at the Moon on a given date using a three-month low-energy transfer.

  11. Pioneer Launch on Delta Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    NASA launches the last in the series of interplanetary Pioneer spacecraft, Pioneer 10 from Cape Kennedy, Florida. The long-tank Delta launch vehicle placed the spacecraft in a solar orbit along the path of Earth's orbit. The spacecraft then passed inside and outside Earth's orbit, alternately speeding up and slowing down relative to Earth. The Delta launch vehicle family started development in 1959. The Delta was composed of parts from the Thor, an intermediate-range ballistic missile, as its first stage, and the Vanguard as its second. The first Delta was launched from Cape Canaveral on May 13, 1960 and was powerful enough to deliver a 100-pound spacecraft into geostationary transfer orbit. Delta has been used to launch civil, commercial, and military satellites into orbit. For more information about Delta, please see Chapter 3 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  12. Chicxulub High-Altitude Ballistic Ejecta from Central Belize

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, K. O.; Ocampo, A. C.

    2000-01-01

    Chicxulub ejecta are found in central Belize, 475 km southeast of the impact crater center. These deposits are ballistic ejecta launched along high-altitude trajectories above the atmosphere and deposited as a discontinuous sheet on the terminal Cretaceous land surface.

  13. 2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Missile transfer building, interior, transporter/erector on left, storage and shipping container, ballistic missile (SSCBM) containing minuteman II missile on right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Missile Roll Transfer Building, 920 Kennedy Road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  14. Mission design for a ballistic slow flyby Comet Encke 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Mccarthy, D. K.; Muhonen, D. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary mission analyses for a proposed 1980 slow flyby (7-9 km/s) of comet Encke are presented. Among the topics covered are science objectives, Encke's physical activity and ephemeris accuracy, trajectory and launch-window analysis, terminal guidance, and spacecraft concepts. The nominal mission plan calls for a near-perihelion intercept with two spacecraft launched on a single launch vehicle. Both spacecraft will arrive at the same time, one passing within 500 km from Encke's nucleus on its sunward side, the other cutting through the tail region. By applying a small propulsive correction about three weeks after the encounter, it is possible to retarget both spacecraft for a second Encke intercept in 1984. The potential science return from the ballistic slow flyby is compared with other proposed mission modes for the 1980 Encke flyby mission, including the widely advocated slow flyby using solar-electric propulsion. It is shown that the ballistic slow flyby is superior in every respect.

  15. Trajectory tracking and backfitting techniques against theater ballistic missiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; Britt, Patrick T.

    1999-10-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, fast track initiation, backfitting for launch point determination, and tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper focuses on track initiation and backfitting techniques, as well as extending some earlier results on tracking a TBM during boost phase cutoff. Results indicate that Kalman techniques are superior to third order polynomial extrapolations in estimating the launch point, and that some knowledge of missile parameters, especially thrust, is extremely helpful in track initiation.

  16. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 2: Earth to Mars ballistic mission opportunities, 1990-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Cunniff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Mars are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Mars arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1990 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Mars probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  17. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 1: Earth to Venus ballistic mission opportunities, 1991-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Yin, N. H.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Venus is presented. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and arrival parameters, are presented in launch data/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1991 through 2005. An extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Venus probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  18. Design of a ballistic fluxon qubit readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna; Fedorov, Arkady; Shnirman, Alexander; Il'ichev, Evgeny; Schön, Gerd

    2007-11-01

    A detailed design is given for a flux qubit readout using ballistic fluxons. In this scheme, fluxons propagate through an underdamped Josephson transmission line (JTL) coupled to the qubit, whose state affects the fluxon propagation time. For strong qubit-JTL coupling, and far from the symmetry point, a qubit can be measured with fidelity greater than 99% and measurement time of 4 ns. The readout circuit requires additional rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) interface circuitry to launch and receive the delayed flux solitons. The parameters of this driver and receiver have been optimized to produce low fluxon speed at launch and impedance matching at the receiver. The delayed solitons are compared to a reference line using a detector with time resolution of better than 16 ps. Both the JTL and RSFQ interface were designed for the Nb 30 A cm-2 process developed at VTT, Finland, with postdeposition of the Al qubit at IPHT, Germany.

  19. IMM tracking of a theater ballistic missile during boost phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchins, Robert G.; San Jose, Anthony

    1998-09-01

    Since the SCUD launches in the Gulf War, theater ballistic missile (TBM) systems have become a growing concern for the US military. Detection, tracking and engagement during boost phase or shortly after booster cutoff are goals that grow in importance with the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. This paper addresses the performance of tracking algorithms for TBMs during boost phase and across the transition to ballistic flight. Three families of tracking algorithms are examined: alpha-beta-gamma trackers, Kalman-based trackers, and the interactive multiple model (IMM) tracker. In addition, a variation on the IMM to include prior knowledge of a booster cutoff parameter is examined. Simulated data is used to compare algorithms. Also, the IMM tracker is run on an actual ballistic missile trajectory. Results indicate that IMM trackers show significant advantage in tracking through the model transition represented by booster cutoff.

  20. Zvezda Launch Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Footage shows the Proton Rocket (containing the Zvezda module) ready for launch at the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, Russia. The interior and exterior of Zvezda are seen during construction. Computerized simulations show the solar arrays deploying on Zvezda in space, the maneuvers of the module as it approaches and connects with the International Space Station (ISS), the installation of the Z1 truss on the ISS and its solar arrays deploying, and the installations of the Destiny Laboratory, Remote Manipulator System, and Kibo Experiment Module. Live footage then shows the successful launch of the Proton Rocket.

  1. Redstone Missile on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the 'reliable workhorse' for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  2. Ballistic skin simulant.

    PubMed

    Jussila, Jorma; Leppäniemi, Ari; Paronen, Mikael; Kulomäki, Erkki

    2005-05-28

    Hydrogels prepared from water solutions containing 10-20 mass% gelatine are generally accepted muscle tissue simulants in terminal ballistic research. They, however, do not have a surface layer which simulates the effect of human skin. The purpose of this research was to find a suitable skin simulant for enhancing the testing fidelity and the credibility of the results with gelatine-based materials when assessing the injury potential of not only high energy bullets, but also especially that of non-penetrating "less lethal" kinetic impact ammunition and relatively low energy ricochet fragments. A skin simulant also permits the simulation and assessment of exit wounds. The mechanical and ballistic properties of human skin and target simulant were established on the basis of results found in the literature. Some errors in these were found. The corrected values are included in this paper for comparison. The target values of the mechanical properties of the skin simulant were the following: threshold velocity v(th)=94+/-4 m/s, tensile strength 18+/-2 N/mm2 and elongation at break 65+/-5%. A selection of synthetic and natural materials was evaluated as skin simulants by analysing their mechanical and ballistic properties. The results were compared to literature values obtained with human cadavers. The tests showed that the best skin simulant of the ones evaluated was semi-finished chrome tanned upholstery "crust" cowhide of 0.9-1.1 mm nominal thickness. Its threshold velocity was 90.7 m/s, tensile strength 20.89+/-4.11 MPa and elongation at break 61+/-9%. These values are the same as the average values of human skin. Of the synthetic materials evaluated, 1mm thick natural rubber can be used on impact side as a threshold velocity filter with some reservations although its theoretical threshold velocity is only 82.9 m/s. PMID:15837009

  3. Brownian motion goes ballistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin, Ernst-Ludwig

    2012-02-01

    It is the randomness that is considered the hallmark of Brownian motion, but already in Einstein's seminal 1905 paper on Brownian motion it is implied that this randomness must break down at short time scales when the inertia of the particle kicks in. As a result, the particle's trajectories should lose its randomness and become smooth. The characteristic time scale for this transition is given by the ratio of the particle's mass to its viscous drag coefficient. For a 1 μm glass particle in water and at room temperature, this timescale is on the order of 100 ns. Early calculations, however, neglected the inertia of the liquid surrounding the particle which induces a transition from random diffusive to non-diffusive Brownian motion already at much larger timescales. In this first non-diffusive regime, particles of the same size but with different densities still move at almost the same rate as a result of hydrodynamic correlations. To observe Brownian motion that is dominated by the inertia of the particle, i.e. ballistic motion, one has to observe the particle at significantly shorter time scales on the order of nanoseconds. Due to the lack of sufficiently fast and precise detectors, such experiments were so far not possible on individual particles. I will describe how we were able to observe the transition from hydrodynamically dominated Brownian motion to ballistic Brownian motion in a liquid. I will compare our data with current theories for Brownian motion on fast timescales that take into account the inertia of both the liquid and the particle. The newly gained ability to measure the fast Brownian motion of an individual particle paves the way for detailed studies of confined Brownian motion and Brownian motion in heterogeneous media. [4pt] [1] Einstein, A. "Uber die von der molekularkinetischen Theorie der W"arme geforderte Bewegung von in ruhenden Fl"ussigkeiten suspendierten Teilchen. Ann. Phys. 322, 549--560 (1905). [0pt] [2] Lukic, B., S. Jeney, C

  4. Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  5. Launch, Jupiter-C, Explorer 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    Launch of Jupiter-C/Explorer 1 at Cape Canaveral, Florida on January 31, 1958. After the Russian Sputnik 1 was launched in October 1957, the launching of an American satellite assumed much greater importance. After the Vanguard rocket exploded on the pad in December 1957, the ability to orbit a satellite became a matter of national prestige. On January 31, 1958, slightly more than four weeks after the launch of Sputnik.The ABMA (Army Ballistic Missile Agency) in Redstone Arsenal, Huntsville, Alabama, in cooperation with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, launched a Jupiter from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The rocket consisted of a modified version of the Redstone rocket's first stage and two upper stages of clustered Baby Sergeant rockets developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later designated as Juno boosters for space launches

  6. Airborne ballistic camera tracking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redish, W. L.

    1976-01-01

    An operational airborne ballistic camera tracking system was tested for operational and data reduction feasibility. The acquisition and data processing requirements of the system are discussed. Suggestions for future improvements are also noted. A description of the data reduction mathematics is outlined. Results from a successful reentry test mission are tabulated. The test mission indicated that airborne ballistic camera tracking systems are feasible.

  7. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, T.J.

    1997-05-20

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile. 8 figs.

  8. Ballistic projectile trajectory determining system

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    A computer controlled system determines the three-dimensional trajectory of a ballistic projectile. To initialize the system, predictions of state parameters for a ballistic projectile are received at an estimator. The estimator uses the predictions of the state parameters to estimate first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A single stationary monocular sensor then observes the actual first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. A comparator generates an error value related to the predicted state parameters by comparing the estimated first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile with the observed first trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile. If the error value is equal to or greater than a selected limit, the predictions of the state parameters are adjusted. New estimates for the trajectory characteristics of the ballistic projectile are made and are then compared with actual observed trajectory characteristics. This process is repeated until the error value is less than the selected limit. Once the error value is less than the selected limit, a calculator calculates trajectory characteristics such a the origin and destination of the ballistic projectile.

  9. Scout Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    Scout Launch. James Hansen wrote: 'As this sequence of photos demonstrates, the launch of ST-5 on 30 June 1961 went well; however, a failure of the rocket's third stage doomed the payload, a scientific satellite known as S-55 designed for micrometeorite studies in orbit.'

  10. [Ballistic quality assurance].

    PubMed

    Cassol, E; Bonnet, J; Porcheron, D; Mazeron, J-J; Peiffert, D; Alapetite, C

    2012-06-01

    This review describes the ballistic quality assurance for stereotactic intracranial irradiation treatments delivered with Gamma Knife® either dedicated or adapted medical linear accelerators. Specific and periodic controls should be performed in order to check the mechanical stability for both irradiation and collimation systems. If this step remains under the responsibility of the medical physicist, it should be done in agreement with the manufacturer's technical support. At this time, there are no recent published guidelines. With technological developments, both frequency and accuracy should be assessed in each institution according to the treatment mode: single versus hypofractionnated dose, circular collimator versus micro-multileaf collimators. In addition, "end-to-end" techniques are mandatory to find the origin of potential discrepancies and to estimate the global ballistic accuracy of the delivered treatment. Indeed, they include frames, non-invasive immobilization devices, localizers, multimodal imaging for delineation and in-room positioning imaging systems. The final precision that could be reasonably achieved is more or less 1mm. PMID:22632786

  11. Third World Ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan, J.E.; Wheelon, A.D.

    1990-08-01

    Ballistic missiles and other means of long-range destruction, traditionally limited to a handful of industrialized nations, are fast becoming a fixture in many regional conflicts. The Third World military buildup is perhaps even more worrisome than its First World prototype, for it is far more likely to find expression in war. There are several reasons why this should be so. In the past decade the number of countries in the missile club has more than doubled, to 18. Many of the new members have been at war or are embroiled in disputes. Unlike the major powers, these countries have not had time enough to perfect systems of command and control over their new strategic forces. They have had little time to learn to manage the complexities of military brinksmanship. Finally, because many regional conflicts overlap, an escalation in the arms race tends to convey itself from one area of tension to another. For many years the big industrialized countries ignored the proliferation of ballistic missiles and sought political advantage by arming their clients. In doing so, they presumed that the bipolar alignment of power would restrain regional conflicts. The preoccupation with East-West issues overshadowed problems in the Third World. Smaller industrialized powers sold missiles to generate revenues to support their own military industries. Meanwhile the developing countries eagerly acquired missiles for the same reasons that had motivated their predecessors: to deter attack, intimidate enemies, build a technological base and win prestige.

  12. Reusable launch vehicle development research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA has generated a program approach for a SSTO reusable launch vehicle technology (RLV) development which includes a follow-on to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) successful DC-X program, the DC-XA (Advanced). Also, a separate sub-scale flight demonstrator, designated the X-33, will be built and flight tested along with numerous ground based technologies programs. For this to be a successful effort, a balance between technical, schedule, and budgetary risks must be attained. The adoption of BMDO's 'fast track' management practices will be a key element in the eventual success of NASA's effort.

  13. NPP Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System Preparatory Project (NPP) spacecraft was launched aboard a Delta II rocket at 5:48 a.m. EDT today, on a mission to measure ...

  14. [Terminal ballistics. 3].

    PubMed

    Marini, F; Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Della Giacoma, G; Tosi, D; Merico, G; Tenci, A

    1993-01-01

    This brief chapter, focusing essentially on a single topic, has been written in homage to Emile Theodor Kocker, a masterful exponent of the art of surgery and founder of the culture of terminal ballistics. For most of the literature we are indebted to Fackler and Dougherty, who, with the particular grasp, and fair of historians, act as guides on a trial which is only apparently retrograde, but which actually bears eloquent witness to the fact that even in the most physically tangible of arts, namely the art of surgery, inspired curiosity may help us to go well beyond the limits of our day and age. This chapter is also dedicated to the memory of another great surgeon, Vittorio Pettinari, who for one of the authors was an incomparable mentor and past-master of such curiosity. PMID:7923495

  15. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    PubMed

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems. PMID:17748077

  16. Interior Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an eight-unit secondary education vocational home economics course on interior design. The units cover period styles of interiors, furniture and accessories, surface treatments and lighting, appliances and equipment, design and space planning in home and business settings, occupant needs, acquisition…

  17. 5. Launch closure, close up of track and concrete apron, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Launch closure, close up of track and concrete apron, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  18. 3. Launch closure, close up of motor and controls, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Launch closure, close up of motor and controls, view towards west - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  19. 6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Launch closure, close up of closure motor, view towards north - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  20. 24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Personnel access ladder, from upper level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. 25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Personnel access ladder, from lower level of launch facility - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. 83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Shock absorber attaching "egg" to the launch control center, southwest corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. 48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Bottom of shock absorber, bottom of launch tube, soda bottle liter at right - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. 86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Shock absorber, top of launch control center, southeast corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  5. 70. Commander's launch control console, plexiglass shield down, looking southeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. Commander's launch control console, plexiglass shield down, looking southeast, filing cabinet in corner - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Control Facility, County Road CS23A, North of Exit 127, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  6. Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, John S.; Wilby, John F.

    1991-01-01

    The generation and control of flight vehicle interior noise is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the mechanisms of transmission through airborne and structure-borne paths and the control of cabin noise by path modification. Techniques for identifying the relative contributions of the various source-path combinations are also discussed along with methods for the prediction of aircraft interior noise such as those based on the general modal theory and statistical energy analysis.

  7. [Terminal ballistics. 1].

    PubMed

    Mangiante, G; Dagradi, V; Radin, S; Carolo, F; Giarolli, M; Tenci, A; Merico, G; Tosi, D; Acerbi, A; Della Giacoma, G

    1993-01-01

    We have chosen to conceive of terminal ballistics as a violent and extremely rapid confrontation between two forms of resistance before the final state of rest is reached. This definition, which cannot help but don the admittedly loud and outlandish garb of physics, is the most promising for the purposes of biological interpretation. The main characters on this stage are two, but only one of these really plays the lead, namely the human target, which acts out the basic roles inherent in its physical make-up; the other, the bullet, remains a background figure, frozen in its walk-on part, and ready for the next performance. This modus operandi, which is no simplification, but rather an academic necessity, enables us to focus on images which stand out more clearly as a result of an intensive macroscopic spotlight which brings out the features of the individual phenomena, broken down into a succession of close-ups, and subtracts them from the cold physical nature of this or that form of inert matter, which here is merely an occasional, disagreeable witness, or even more, a standing from time to time for but one of the infinite facets of the biological composite being. Here, then, faced with a kind of exploded macrophotograph of a complex kaleidoscope, we see the animal universe, of which we capture so far the plasticity, the subdivisibility, the anisotropy and the cavitation. PMID:7923493

  8. 106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    106. INTERIOR OF CABLE TRAY TUNNEL, FROM LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770), TOWARDS CABLE TRAY SHED - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 28. INTERIOR OF MST, FROM STATION 111. UMBILICAL MAST CUTOUTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. INTERIOR OF MST, FROM STATION 111. UMBILICAL MAST CUTOUTS ON SOUTH SIDE OF MST. STATION 63 PLATFORM DOWN. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. INTERIOR OF RELAY BOX FOR HYDRAULIC CONTROL PANEL IN UMBILICAL MAST PUMP ROOM (209), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. 18. DETAIL OF MISSILE PRESSURIZATION CONTROL PANEL ON INTERIOR, EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF MISSILE PRESSURIZATION CONTROL PANEL ON INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. INTERIOR OF NORTHEAST PHOTO TOWER WITH WINDOW OPEN; ELECTRICAL POWER BOX BELOW WINDOW - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  14. Thermoplastic composites for ballistic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, John Whachong

    2003-08-01

    Systematic studies of thermoplastic composites on ballistic impact failure and kinetic energy absorption mechanisms were examined on both semicrystalline and amorphous polymer matrix composites. By taking advantages of the nature of thermoplastic polymers, the main objective of this research was to develop armor grade composites with thermoplastic resin matrices through a understanding of the microscopic as well as macroscopic characteristics of the composites. In both semicrystalline neat resin and composites, the crystal formation and the degree of crystallinity of the polymer matrix were greatly influenced by processing conditions, especially, the cooling rate. As the cooling rate is decreased, more perfect crystal formation and amorphous rearrangements were evident vs cooling at higher rates. The relative degree of crystallinity of semicrystalline matrix composites was calculated using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). These values were in good agreement with neat resin values obtained via differantial scanning calorimeter (DSC). Unfortunately, the morphological perfection of the semicrystalline matrix exhibits negligible advantage on ballistic impact resistance. Failure of the composites under ballistic impact was localized and the kinetic energy absorption was low. Amorphous polymers were also greatly influenced by processing conditions. Furthermore, amorphous polymers exhibit large processing windows in terms of processing temperature, which allows the various processing manipulations for ballistic composite fabrication. As increasing processing temperature, glass transition temperature of the polymer and stiffness of the composite increased due to the morphological perfection and level of wetting, respectively. Ballistic impact resistance was found to be inversely proportional to the stiffness of the composites. Fiber wetting characteristics and polymer morphology changes during the cooling process are considered to be major contributors of this behavior

  15. Ballistics/mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drendel, Albert S.; Richards, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Morton Thiokol's RSRM-4 motors, which were assigned to the STS-30R launch, are presented. The composite type solid propellant burn rates were close to predicted. The performance of the pair of motors were compared to some CEI Specification CPW1-3600 for compliance. Some aspects of the CEI Specification could not be compared because of low sampling of data. The performance of the motors were well within the CEI specification requirements. Post flight reconstructured RSRM mass properties are within expected values for the RSRM quarterweight and halfweight configurations.

  16. The Launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    The launch of the MA-6, Friendship 7, on February 20, 1962. Boosted by the Mercury-Atlas vehicle, a modified Atlas Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM), Friendship 7 was the first U.S. marned orbital flight and carried Astronaut John H. Glenn into orbit. Astronaut Glenn became the first American to orbit the Earth.

  17. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 3: Earth to Jupiter ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1982-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Jupiter are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Jupiter arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Jupiter probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations relating various parameters.

  18. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, part 4: Earth to Saturn ballistic mission opportunities, 1985-2005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.

    1981-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions to Saturn are provided. Contours of launch energy requirements as well as many other launch and Saturn arrival parameters, are presented in launch date/arrival date space for all launch opportunities from 1985 through 2005. In addition, an extensive text is included which explains mission design methods, from launch window development to Saturn probe and orbiter arrival design, utilizing the graphical data in this volume as well as numerous equations elating various parameters. This is the first of a planned series of mission design documents which will apply to all planets and some other bodies in the solar system.

  19. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AT GROUND FLOOR LEVEL SHOWING AIR COMPRESSOR TANKS AND CURVING STEEL PIECE. VIEW FACING EAST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  20. 77. View of interior of room 115, building no. 102, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    77. View of interior of room 115, building no. 102, with technical publications and equipment for testing. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  1. 79. View of interior of room 114, supervisor's office, transmitter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. View of interior of room 114, supervisor's office, transmitter building no. 102, with microfiche viewer and technical publications. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. Current Testing Capabilities at the NASA Ames Ballistic Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Alvin; Tam, Tim; Bogdanoff, David; Gage, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Capabilities for designing and performing ballistic range tests at the NASA Ames Research Center are presented. Computational tools to assist in designing and developing ballistic range models and to predict the flight characteristics of these models are described. A CFD code modeling two-stage gun performance is available, allowing muzzle velocity, maximum projectile base pressure, and gun erosion to be predicted. Aerodynamic characteristics such as drag and stability can be obtained at speeds ranging from 0.2 km/s to 8 km/s. The composition and density of the test gas can be controlled, which allows for an assessment of Reynolds number and specific heat ratio effects under conditions that closely match those encountered during planetary entry. Pressure transducers have been installed in the gun breech to record the time history of the pressure during launch, and pressure transducers have also been installed in the walls of the range to measure sonic boom effects. To illustrate the testing capabilities of the Ames ballistic ranges, an overview of some of the recent tests is given.

  3. Loading of Launch Vehicle when Launching from Floating Launch Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarkov, A. V.; Pyrig, V. A.

    2002-01-01

    equator, which is a most effective way from payload capability standpoint. But mobility of the Launch Platform conditions an increase in LV loading as compared with onground launch. Therefore, to provide efficiency of lounching from LP requires solving certain issues to minimize LV loading at launch processing. The paper at hand describes ways to solve these issues while creating and operating the international space launch system Sea Launch, which provides commercial spacecraft launches onboard Zenit-3SL launch vehicle from the floating launch platform located at the equator in the Pacific. Methods to decrease these loads by selecting the optimum position of LP and by correcting LP trim and heel were described. In order to account for impact of weather changing (i.e. waves and winds) and launch support operations on the launch capability, a system of predicted load calculation was designed. By measuring LP roll and pitch parameters as well as wind speed and direction, the system defines loading at LV root section, compares it with the allowable value and, based on the compavision, forms a conclusion on launch capability. launches by Sea Launch.

  4. A new nonpenetrating ballistic injury.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, A W; Soderstrom, C A

    1978-01-01

    A new, nonpenetrating ballistic injury mechanism involving individuals protected by soft body armor is described. Experimental studies using laboratory animals have demonstrated that despite stopping missile penetration, the heart, liver, spleen, and spinal cord are vulnerable to injury. The rapid jolting force of an impacting bullet is contrasted with the usually encountered mechanisms producing blunt trauma injury. The experimental methodology used to assess a 20% increase in survival probability and an 80% decrease in the need for surgical intervention with a new soft body armor is reviewed. Five cases of ballistic assaults on law enforcement personnel protected by soft body armor are presented. Four emphasize the potentially lifesaving qualities of the armor, while the fifth indicates the need for torso encircling design. Hospitalization should follow all assaults, regardless of the innocuous appearance of the skin lesion and the apparent well being on the assaulted individual. Therapeutic guidelines for patient management are suggested. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:736653

  5. A new nonpenetrating ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Carroll, A W; Soderstrom, C A

    1978-12-01

    A new, nonpenetrating ballistic injury mechanism involving individuals protected by soft body armor is described. Experimental studies using laboratory animals have demonstrated that despite stopping missile penetration, the heart, liver, spleen, and spinal cord are vulnerable to injury. The rapid jolting force of an impacting bullet is contrasted with the usually encountered mechanisms producing blunt trauma injury. The experimental methodology used to assess a 20% increase in survival probability and an 80% decrease in the need for surgical intervention with a new soft body armor is reviewed. Five cases of ballistic assaults on law enforcement personnel protected by soft body armor are presented. Four emphasize the potentially lifesaving qualities of the armor, while the fifth indicates the need for torso encircling design. Hospitalization should follow all assaults, regardless of the innocuous appearance of the skin lesion and the apparent well being on the assaulted individual. Therapeutic guidelines for patient management are suggested. PMID:736653

  6. 19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF MST INTERIOR, WEST SIDE AND CENTER, FROM EAST SIDE OF LAUNCH PAD LOOKING UP INTO MST. NOTE: LOWER PLATFORMS FOLDED UP. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Reference ballistic imaging database performance.

    PubMed

    De Kinder, Jan; Tulleners, Frederic; Thiebaut, Hugues

    2004-03-10

    Ballistic imaging databases allow law enforcement to link recovered cartridge cases to other crime scenes and to firearms. The success of these databases has led many to propose that all firearms in circulation be entered into a reference ballistic image database (RBID). To assess the performance of an RBID, we fired 4200 cartridge cases from 600 9mm Para Sig Sauer model P226 series pistols. Each pistol fired two Remington cartridges, one of which was imaged in the RBID, and five additional cartridges, consisting of Federal, Speer, Winchester, Wolf, and CCI brands. Randomly selected samples from the second series of Remington cartridge cases and from the five additional brands were then correlated against the RBID. Of the 32 cartridges of the same make correlated against the RBID, 72% ranked in the top 10 positions. Likewise, of the 160 cartridges of the five different brands correlated against the database, 21% ranked in the top 10 positions. Generally, the ranking position increased as the size of the RBID increased. We obtained similar results when we expanded the RBID to include firearms with the same class characteristics for breech face marks, firing pin impressions, and extractor marks. The results of our six queries against the RBID indicate that a reference ballistics image database of new guns is currently fraught with too many difficulties to be an effective and efficient law enforcement tool. PMID:15036442

  8. Planetary Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerdt, W. Bruce; Abercrombie, Rachel; Keddie, Susan; Mizutani, Hitoshi; Nagihara, Seiichi; Nakamura, Yosio; Pike, W. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    This report identifies two main themes to guide planetary science in the next two decades: understanding planetary origins, and understanding the constitution and fundamental processes of the planets themselves. Within the latter theme, four specific goals related to interior measurements addressing the theme. These are: (1) Understanding the internal structure and dynamics of at least one solid body, other than the Earth or Moon, that is actively convecting, (2) Determine the characteristics of the magnetic fields of Mercury and the outer planets to provide insight into the generation of planetary magnetic fields, (3) Specify the nature and sources of stress that are responsible for the global tectonics of Mars, Venus, and several icy satellites of the outer planets, and (4) Advance significantly our understanding of crust-mantle structure for all the solid planets. These goals can be addressed almost exclusively by measurements made on the surfaces of planetary bodies.

  9. Reduction of lunar landing fuel requirements by utilizing lunar ballistic capture.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D; Belbruno, Edward A

    2005-12-01

    Ballistic lunar capture trajectories have been successfully utilized for lunar orbital missions since 1991. Recent interest in lunar landing trajectories has occurred due to a directive from President Bush to return humans to the Moon by 2015. NASA requirements for humans to return to the lunar surface include separation of crew and cargo missions, all lunar surface access, and anytime-abort to return to Earth. Such requirements are very demanding from a propellant standpoint. The subject of this paper is the application of lunar ballistic capture for the reduction of lunar landing propellant requirements. Preliminary studies of the application of weak stability boundary (WSB) trajectories and ballistic capture have shown that considerable savings in low Earth orbit (LEO) mission mass may be realized, on the order of 36% less than conventional Hohmann transfer orbit missions. Other advantages, such as reduction in launch window constraints and reduction of lunar orbit maintenance propellant requirements, have also surfaced from this study. PMID:16510407

  10. The Demeter micro satellite launch campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, V.; Kainov, V.; Thoby, M.; Silkin, O.; Solovey, V.

    The CNES Micro satellite DEMETER is planned for launch by the end of June 2004 on a DNEPR launcher, from the Baíkonur cosmodrome. DEMETER will be the main payload among nine co-passengers. DEMETER, initiated by CNES in 1998, is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of product; at the time when this abstract is issued, the satellite is going through the final integration tests, as well as the last system validation phase. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian YSDO company, and a successful fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 and January 2004 that allowed confirming the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interface. The launch campaign is in process of preparation, implying a close partnership between the satellite team at CNES and Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER is a pioneer not only for the satellite concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (3 axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) being launched on a Russian space adapted intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service is contracted and managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it will also be the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. Thus the launch preparation proved to be a very challenging endeavour providing all the actors with very rich human experience, as well as technical exchanges, in the fields of launcher technology and interfaces, facilities adaptation, logistics and project coordination. In the coming paper, a short presentation of the DEMETER satellite and of the DNEPR launcher will be made, but the main purpose is to present: the launch campaign preparation milestones, the launch campaign itself and related preliminary results and the lessons learnt from this first CNES/DNEPR experience to open the way to the future MYRIADE launches. A common CNES/KOSMOTRAS presentation is proposed at the

  11. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at Popocatépetl volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatorre-Ibargüengoitia, Miguel A.; Delgado-Granados, Hugo; Dingwell, Donald B.

    2012-11-01

    During volcanic explosions, volcanic ballistic projectiles (VBP) are frequently ejected. These projectiles represent a threat to people, infrastructure, vegetation, and aircraft due to their high temperatures and impact velocities. In order to protect people adequately, it is necessary to delimit the projectiles' maximum range within well-defined explosion scenarios likely to occur in a particular volcano. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for VBP during volcanic eruptions is applied to Popocatépetl volcano. Three explosion scenarios with different intensities have been defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with VBP ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of VBP observed in the field. In the case of Vulcanian eruptions, the most common type of activity at Popocatépetl, the ballistic model was used in concert with an eruptive model to correlate ballistic range with initial pressure and gas content, parameters that can be estimated by monitoring techniques. The results are validated with field data and video observations of different Vulcanian eruptions at Popocatépetl. For each scenario, the ballistic model is used to calculate the maximum range of VBP under optimum "launching" conditions: ballistic diameter, ejection angle, topography, and wind velocity. Our results are presented in the form of a VBP hazard map with topographic profiles that depict the likely maximum ranges of VBP under explosion scenarios defined specifically for Popocatépetl volcano. The hazard zones shown on the map allow the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  12. Solid rocket booster performance evaluation model. Volume 3: Sample case. [propellant combustion simulation/internal ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The solid rocket booster performance evaluation model (SRB-11) is used to predict internal ballistics in a sample motor. This motor contains a five segmented grain. The first segment has a 14 pointed star configuration with a web which wraps partially around the forward dome. The other segments are circular in cross-section and are tapered along the interior burning surface. Two of the segments are inhibited on the forward face. The nozzle is not assumed to be submerged. The performance prediction is broken into two simulation parts: the delivered end item specific impulse and the propellant properties which are required as inputs for the internal ballistics module are determined; and the internal ballistics for the entire burn duration of the motor are simulated.

  13. Hazard map for volcanic ballistic impacts at El Chichón volcano (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatorre-Ibarguengoitia, Miguel; Ramos-Hernández, Silvia; Jiménez-Aguilar, Julio

    2014-05-01

    The 1982 eruption of El Chichón Volcano in southeastern Mexico had a strong social and environmental impact. The eruption resulted in the worst volcanic disaster in the recorded history of Mexico, causing about 2,000 casualties, displacing thousands, and producing severe economic losses. Even when some villages were relocated after the 1982 eruption, many people still live and work in the vicinities of the volcano and may be affected in the case of a new eruption. The hazard map of El Chichón volcano (Macías et al., 2008) comprises pyroclastic flows, pyroclastic surges, lahars and ash fall but not ballistic projectiles, which represent an important threat to people, infrastructure and vegetation in the case of an eruption. In fact, the fatalities reported in the first stage of the 1982 eruption were caused by roof collapse induced by ashfall and lithic ballistic projectiles. In this study, a general methodology to delimit the hazard zones for volcanic ballistic projectiles during volcanic eruptions is applied to El Chichón volcano. Different scenarios are defined based on the past activity of the volcano and parameterized by considering the maximum kinetic energy associated with ballistic projectiles ejected during previous eruptions. A ballistic model is used to reconstruct the "launching" kinetic energy of the projectiles observed in the field. The maximum ranges expected for the ballistics in the different explosive scenarios defined for El Chichón volcano are presented in a ballistic hazard map which complements the published hazard map. These maps assist the responsible authorities to plan the definition and mitigation of restricted areas during volcanic crises.

  14. Ballistic-Electron-Emission Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J.; Bell, L. Douglas

    1990-01-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscope (BEEM) employs scanning tunneling-microscopy (STM) methods for nondestructive, direct electrical investigation of buried interfaces, such as interface between semiconductor and thin metal film. In BEEM, there are at least three electrodes: emitting tip, biasing electrode, and collecting electrode, receiving current crossing interface under investigation. Signal-processing device amplifies electrode signals and converts them into form usable by computer. Produces spatial images of surface by scanning tip; in addition, provides high-resolution images of buried interface under investigation. Spectroscopic information extracted by measuring collecting-electrode current as function of one of interelectrode voltages.

  15. Ballistic piston fissioning plasma experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, B. E.; Schneider, R. T.; Thom, K.; Lalos, G. T.

    1971-01-01

    The production of fissioning uranium plasma samples such that the fission fragment stopping distance is less than the dimensions of the plasma is approached by using a ballistic piston device for the compression of uranium hexafluoride. The experimental apparatus is described. At room temperature the gun can be loaded up to 100 torr UF6 partial pressure, but at compression a thousand fold increase of pressure can be obtained at a particle density on the order of 10 to the 19th power per cu cm. Limited spectral studies of UF6 were performed while obtaining the pressure-volume data. The results obtained and their implications are discussed.

  16. Launch summary for 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sounding rocket, satellite, and space probe launchings are presented. Time, date, and location of the launches are provided. The sponsoring countries and the institutions responsible for the launch are listed.

  17. Mission design for a ballistic slow-flyby of comet Encke 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Mccarthy, D. K.; Muhonen, D. P.; Yeomans, D. K.

    1974-01-01

    Preliminary mission analyses for a proposed 1980 slow flyby (7 to 9 km/sec) of comet Encke are presented. Among the topics covered are: science objectives, Encke's physical activity and ephemeris accuracy, trajectory and launch-window analysis, terminal guidance, and spacecraft concepts. The nominal mission plan calls for a near-perihelion intercept with two spacecraft using a single launch vehicle. Both spacecraft arrive at the same time, one passing within 500 km from Encke's nucleus on its sunward side, the other cutting through the tail region. By applying a small propulsive correction about three weeks after the encounter, it is possible to retarget both spacecraft for a second Encke intercept in 1984. The potential science return from the ballistic slow flyby is compared with other proposed mission modes for the 1980 Encke flyby mission including the widely advocated slow flyby using solar-electric propulsion. It is shown that the ballistic slow flyby is superior in every respect.

  18. Tunnel and field effect carrier ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Bell, L. Douglas (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for interacting carriers with a structure of matter employ an electrode for emitting said carriers at a distance from a surface of that structure, and cause such carriers to travel along ballistic trajectories inside that structure by providing along the mentioned distance a gap for performance of a process selected from the group of carrier tunneling and field emission and injecting carriers emitted by the mentioned electrode and that process ballistically into the structure through the gap and the mentioned surface. The carriers are collected or analyzed after their travel along ballistic trajectories in the structure of matter. Pertinent information on the inside of the structure is obtained by conducting inside that structure what conventionally would have been considered external ballistics, while performing the carrier-propelling internal ballistics conversely outside that structure.

  19. Cytologic manifestations of ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Nichols, C A; Sens, M A

    1991-05-01

    The adherent residue from 60 projectiles in 38 consecutive gunshot wound deaths was analyzed by cytologic technique to determine whether a bullet, while passing through the body or intermediate target, retains tissue and other trace evidence. The projectiles, which were recovered from both the body and shooting area, contained microscopically recognizable cellular and inert material in all cases. Direct ballistic trauma could be documented in several tissue types, most notably in muscular tissue. Progressive damage to skeletal and cardiac muscle was seen in multiple preparations. This ranged from partial separation of the fascicles to cytoplasmic homogenization and nuclear rupture. Except in cases of severe ballistic trauma, skeletal and cardiac muscle could be distinguished on the preparations. In addition to neural tissue, projectiles traversing the central nervous system (CNS) contained elongated fragments of intact microvascular structures, sheets of cerebral covering cells, and connective tissue from the scalp. The vascular structures present in CNS preparations may clarify some of the clinical findings in victims of gunshot wounds and elucidate possible pathophysiologic mechanisms in craniocerebral projectile injuries. PMID:2024623

  20. 7. Launch closure, transporter/erector halfway up, view towards northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Launch closure, transporter/erector halfway up, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  1. 8. Launch closure, transporter/erector nearly vertical, view towards northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Launch closure, transporter/erector nearly vertical, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. 48. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior detail of water and hydraulic pumps VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  3. 100. INTERIOR OF SKID 9A: VENT VALVE AND RELIEF VALVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    100. INTERIOR OF SKID 9A: VENT VALVE AND RELIEF VALVE FOR RAPID-LOAD LIQUID OXYGEN TANK - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  4. Josephson effect in ballistic graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, M.; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2006-07-01

    We solve the Dirac Bogoliubov de Gennes equation in an impurity-free superconductor normal-metal superconductor junction, to determine the maximal supercurrent Ic that can flow through an undoped strip of graphene with heavily doped superconducting electrodes. The result Ic≃(W/L)eΔ0/ℏ is determined by the superconducting gap Δ0 and by the aspect ratio of the junction (length L small relative to the width W and to the superconducting coherence length). Moving away from the Dirac point of zero doping, we recover the usual ballistic result Ic≃(W/λF)eΔ0/ℏ , in which the Fermi wavelength λF takes over from L . The product IcRN≃Δ0/e of the critical current and normal-state resistance retains its universal value (up to a numerical prefactor) on approaching the Dirac point.

  5. Defending against ballistic missile attacks

    SciTech Connect

    Frelk, J.J.; Tait, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a compendium of information on the proliferation of ballistic missiles and other defense issues. This volume describes recent SDI advances in crystal clear language. It explains how the marriage of ultra-compact electronics and rocketry has created the smart bullet or brilliant pebble--a projectile with a tiny but powerful compute brain. The brilliant pebble tracks it target by sensing the heat the target emits, as a snake does when tracking a small mammal. Then, guided by its miniaturized computer brain, the brilliant pebble steers itself into the target and destroys it by force of the impact. In this latest form, the brilliant pebble even has the ability to take sightings on the stars, setting its course by celestial navigation.

  6. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    PubMed

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. PMID:26773228

  7. Implications of defenses against tactical ballistic missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Flax, A.

    1994-05-01

    The growing number of short- to medium-range ballistic missiles (SMBMs) in the inventories of many smaller states that have had recent or less recent armed conflicts with one another has been a source of concern to many countries. Inevitably this concern over ballistic missiles had been linked to their use as delivery vehicles for {open_quotes}weapons of mass destruction{close_quotes}, a category that now includes nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. But it can be argued that this categorization is not particularly useful as a point of departure for discussions of ballistic missile defense (BMD) against SMBMs.

  8. RSRM-11 (36OW011) ballistics mass properties (STS-35)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchinson, B. J.; Gruet, L. P.; Richards, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Thiolol's RSRM-11 motors which were assigned to the STS-35 launch are contained. The Thiokol manufacturing designations for the motors were 360W011A/360W011B, which are referred to as RSRM-11A and RSRM-B, respectively. The launch of STS-35 occurred on 2 December 1990 at the Eastern Test Range (ETR). The data contained herein was input to the STS-35 Flight Evaluation Report. The SRM propellant, TP-H1148, is a composite type solid propellants, formulated of polybutediene acrylic acid, acryonitrile terpolymer binder, epoxy curing agent, ammonium perchlorate oxidizer, and aluminum powder fuel. A small amount of burning rate catalyst (iron oxide) was added to achieve the desired propellant burn rate. The propellant evaluation and raw material information for the RSRM-11 are included. The ballistic performance presented was based on the Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) 12.5 sample per second pressure data for the steady state and tail off portion of the pressure trace. Recent studies have shown that the transducers are affected by the measuring system at KSC and temperature gradients created by the igniter heaters. Therefore, an adjustment to the data from each transducer is made to make the initial reading match the atmospheric pressure at the time of launch.

  9. 6. PHOTOCOPY, INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE LOOKING FROM GROUND LEVEL. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. PHOTOCOPY, INTERIOR OF MAGAZINE LOOKING FROM GROUND LEVEL. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Southwesternmost end of launch area, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  10. 15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, ELEVATOR OPERATIONS BUTTON DETAIL. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  11. 7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. MAGAZINE P STAIRWAY INTO THE INTERIOR, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  12. 9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. NIKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. MAGAZINE P INTERIOR, LOOKING TO DOORWAY ENTRANCE. - NIKE Missile Base C-84, Underground Storage Magazines & Launcher-Loader Assemblies, Easternmost portion of launch area, Barrington, Cook County, IL

  13. 5. INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH ROOM SHOWING ALIGNMENT GUIDANCE EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INTERIOR VIEW OF SOUTH ROOM SHOWING ALIGNMENT GUIDANCE EQUIPMENT MOUNT; VIEW TO EAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28403, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. 4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CURRENT USE AS MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING CURRENT USE AS MAGNETIC TAPE STORAGE FACILITY; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 36002, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  15. 7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING JOINTS, PUMPS, PIPES AND TRAPS; VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING JOINTS, PUMPS, PIPES AND TRAPS; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28422, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Ballistic missile proliferation: An emerging threat 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Nagler, R.G.

    1992-10-01

    This report, based solely on information available from unclassified sources, provides a coherent picture of the scope and trends of ballistic missile proliferation. The focus is on countries developing, producing, or owning ballistic missiles capable of threatening the military forces, assets, or populations of neighboring or geographically remote countries. The report also identifies other countries expected to obtain operational ballistic missile capabilities, discusses expected growth in performance, and examines the projected availability of warheads of mass destruction. The emphasis is on ballistic missiles of ranges greater than approximately 300 km, though shorter range battlefield weapons are discussed as forerunners. The assessment excludes principal U.S. allies and countries formerly in the Warsaw Pact, except where these countries have sold missiles, technology; or personnel services to developing nations in support of their missile programs.

  17. DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF OPEN HATCH SHOWING INTERIOR OF MISSILE TUBE AND OPEN HATCH AND DOOR ON OPPOSITE SIDE OF TUBE (AT THIRD LEVEL OF MISSILE LAB). VIEW FACING WEST - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ford Island Polaris Missile Lab & U.S. Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine Training Center, Between Lexington Boulvevard and the sea plane ramps on the southwest side of Ford Island, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. Quantum Mechanical Modeling of Ballistic MOSFETs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svizhenko, Alexei; Anantram, M. P.; Govindan, T. R.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop theory, approximations, and computer code to model quasi 1D structures such as nanotubes, DNA, and MOSFETs: (1) Nanotubes: Influence of defects on ballistic transport, electro-mechanical properties, and metal-nanotube coupling; (2) DNA: Model electron transfer (biochemistry) and transport experiments, and sequence dependence of conductance; and (3) MOSFETs: 2D doping profiles, polysilicon depletion, source to drain and gate tunneling, understand ballistic limit.

  19. Strypi VII R launch vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Wente, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Strypi VII R is a three-stage solid propellant launch vehicle designed to boost payloads ranging from 50 to 300 pounds to re-entry environment conditions. The first stage, a fin-stabilized ballistic rocket boosts the final two stages into an exoatmospheric trajectory where an attitude control system (ACS) precesses the spinning stages into the re-entry attitude. The ACS section is then jettisoned, and ignition of the spin-stabilized upper stages is initiated at a time determined to provide a zero angle-of-attack at beginning of re-entry. Four vehicles have been flown carrying three different re-entry test vehicles. Originally designed for use with a Castor II motor, the highly aluminized propellant in the first stage spinning environment contributed to a case rupture resulting in failure of the second flight. The last two flights were flown successfully using Castor I motors. Typically, the Strypi VII R can boost a 100 lbm RV to a speed of 19,500 fps on a flight path of -30 degrees at 300,000 feet altitude.

  20. Fifth FLTSATCOM to be launched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Launch of the FLTSATOOM-E, into an elliptical orbit by the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle is announced. The launch and relevant launch operations are described. A chart of the launch sequence for FLTSATCOM-E communication satellite is given.

  1. 1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Launch facility, delta 6, approach road and gate, pole marking the hardened intersite cable system in right center, commercial power pole outside fence in left center, view towards south - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  2. 31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Lower level, battery at extreme lower right, launch tube heater control panel at right, looking east - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  3. 4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Inside perimeter fence, view towards east and launch closure, sensor EMP antenna left center - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility D-6, 4 miles north of Badlands National Park Headquarters, 4.5 miles east of Jackson County line on county road, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. 18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. LAUNCH CONTROL SUPPORT BUILDING. 'MISSILE ART' MURAL PAINTED ON INTERIOR WALL OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. VIEW TO EAST. - Minuteman III ICBM Launch Control Facility November-1, 1.5 miles North of New Raymer & State Highway 14, New Raymer, Weld County, CO

  5. Ballistics considerations for small-caliber, low-density projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    One major application for single- and two-stage light gas guns is for fueling magnetic fusion confinement devices. Powder guns are not a feasible alternative due to possible plasma contamination by residual powder gases and the eventual requirement of steady-state operation at {approximately} 1 Hz, which will dictate a closed gas handling system where propellant gases are recovered, processed and recompressed. Interior ballistic calculations for single-stage light gas guns, both analytical and numerical, are compared to an extensive data base for low density hydrogenic projectiles (pellets). Some innovative range diagnostics are described for determining the size and velocity of these small (several mm) size projectiles. A conceptual design of a closed cycle propellant gas system is presented including tradeoffs between different light propellant gases.

  6. Launch Pad in a Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mantovani, J. G.; Tamasy, G. J.; Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, I. I.; Sampson, J. W.; Lane, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing a new deployable launch system capability to support a small class of launch vehicles for NASA and commercial space companies to test and launch their vehicles. The deployable launch pad concept was first demonstrated on a smaller scale at KSC in 2012 in support of NASA Johnson Space Center's Morpheus Lander Project. The main objective of the Morpheus Project was to test a prototype planetary lander as a vertical takeoff and landing test-bed for advanced spacecraft technologies using a hazard field that KSC had constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). A steel pad for launch or landing was constructed using a modular design that allowed it to be reconfigurable and expandable. A steel flame trench was designed as an optional module that could be easily inserted in place of any modular steel plate component. The concept of a transportable modular launch and landing pad may also be applicable to planetary surfaces where the effects of rocket exhaust plume on surface regolith is problematic for hardware on the surface that may either be damaged by direct impact of high speed dust particles, or impaired by the accumulation of dust (e.g., solar array panels and thermal radiators). During the Morpheus free flight campaign in 2013-14, KSC performed two studies related to rocket plume effects. One study compared four different thermal ablatives that were applied to the interior of a steel flame trench that KSC had designed and built. The second study monitored the erosion of a concrete landing pad following each landing of the Morpheus vehicle on the same pad located in the hazard field. All surfaces of a portable flame trench that could be directly exposed to hot gas during launch of the Morpheus vehicle were coated with four types of ablatives. All ablative products had been tested by NASA KSC and/or the manufacturer. The ablative thicknesses were measured periodically following the twelve Morpheus free flight tests

  7. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  8. IRIS Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation demonstrates the launch and deployment of NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) mission satellite via a Pegasus rocket. The launch is scheduled for June 26, 2013 from V...

  9. Space Launch System Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA is ready to move forward with the development of the Space Launch System -- an advanced heavy-lift launch vehicle that will provide an entirely new national capability for human exploration be...

  10. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  11. 131. INTERIOR OF PAYLOAD CABLE INTERCONNECTING BOX, FACING EAST, AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    131. INTERIOR OF PAYLOAD CABLE INTERCONNECTING BOX, FACING EAST, AT SOUTH SIDE OF MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL ROOM (210), LSB (BLDG. 751) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. 18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF EAST SIDE INTERIOR OF MST AT STATIONS 3 AND 12, FACING WEST. COMPRESSED AIR TANK AND GENERATOR AT STATION 3. CURTAIN FOR NORTH ENVIRONMENTAL DOOR VISIBLE ON LEFT SIDE OF PHOTOGRAPH; RAIL VISIBLE AT BOTTOM OF PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF INTERIOR, EAST SIDE, DECK LEVEL OF MST. NOTE CANVAS CURTAIN (RIGHT) USED TO COVER SOUTH SIDE OF MST BELOW LOWEST ENVIRONMENTAL DOORS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  14. Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackledge, J. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Saturn Launch Vehicle Operations Simulator (LVOS) was developed for NASA at Kennedy Space Center. LVOS simulates the Saturn launch vehicle and its ground support equipment. The simulator was intended primarily to be used as a launch crew trainer but it is also being used for test procedure and software validation. A NASA/contractor team of engineers and programmers implemented the simulator after the Apollo XI lunar landing during the low activity periods between launches.

  15. Launch Summary for 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1980-01-01

    Spacecraft launching for 1979 are identified and listed under the categories of (1) sounding rockets, and (2) artificial Earth satellites and space probes. The sounding rockets section includes a listing of the experiments, index of launch sites and tables of the meanings and codes used in the launch listing.

  16. Projectile penetration into ballistic gelatin.

    PubMed

    Swain, M V; Kieser, D C; Shah, S; Kieser, J A

    2014-01-01

    Ballistic gelatin is frequently used as a model for soft biological tissues that experience projectile impact. In this paper we investigate the response of a number of gelatin materials to the penetration of spherical steel projectiles (7 to 11mm diameter) with a range of lower impacting velocities (<120m/s). The results of sphere penetration depth versus projectile velocity are found to be linear for all systems above a certain threshold velocity required for initiating penetration. The data for a specific material impacted with different diameter spheres were able to be condensed to a single curve when the penetration depth was normalised by the projectile diameter. When the results are compared with a number of predictive relationships available in the literature, it is found that over the range of projectiles and compositions used, the results fit a simple relationship that takes into account the projectile diameter, the threshold velocity for penetration into the gelatin and a value of the shear modulus of the gelatin estimated from the threshold velocity for penetration. The normalised depth is found to fit the elastic Froude number when this is modified to allow for a threshold impact velocity. The normalised penetration data are found to best fit this modified elastic Froude number with a slope of 1/2 instead of 1/3 as suggested by Akers and Belmonte (2006). Possible explanations for this difference are discussed. PMID:24184862

  17. Launch summary for 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Sounding rockets, artificial Earth satellites, and space probes launched betweeen January 1 and December 31, 1980 are listed. Data tabulated for the rocket launchings show launching site, instruments carried, date of launch, agency rocket identification, sponsoring country, experiment discipline, peak altitude, and the experimenter or institution responsible. Tables for satellites and space probes show COSPAR designation, spacecraft name, country, launch date, epoch date, orbit type, apoapsis, periapsis and inclination period. The functions and responsibilities of the World Data Center and the areas of scientific interest at the seven subcenters are defined. An alphabetical listing of experimenters using the sounding rockets is also provided.

  18. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.; Savage, M.E.

    1992-03-17

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors. 5 figs.

  19. Electron launching voltage monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W.; Savage, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An electron launching voltage monitor measures MITL voltage using a relationship between anode electric field and electron current launched from a cathode-mounted perturbation. An electron launching probe extends through and is spaced from the edge of an opening in a first MITL conductor, one end of the launching probe being in the gap between the MITL conductor, the other end being adjacent a first side of the first conductor away from the second conductor. A housing surrounds the launching probe and electrically connects the first side of the first conductor to the other end of the launching probe. A detector detects the current passing through the housing to the launching probe, the detected current being representative of the voltage between the conductors.

  20. Launch operations efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diloreto, Clem; Fischer, Carl; Atkins, Bob

    1988-01-01

    The paper discusses launch operations from a program perspective. Launch operations cost is a significant part of program cost. New approaches to launch operations, integrated with lessons learned, have the potential to increase safety and reliability as well as reduce cost. Operational efficiency must be an initial program goal. Design technology and management philosophy must be implemented early to ensure operational cost goals. Manufacturing cost and launch cost are related to operational efficiency. True program savings can be realized through implementation of launch operations cost saving approaches which do not correspondingly increase cost in other program areas such as manufacturing and software development and maintenance. Launch rate is a key factor in the cost/flight analysis and the determination of launch operations efficiency goals.

  1. Ballistic Energy Transport in Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Natalia I; Qasim, Layla N; Kurnosov, Arkady A; Burin, Alexander L; Rubtsov, Igor V

    2015-09-15

    The development of nanocomposite materials with desired heat management properties, including nanowires, layered semiconductor structures, and self-assembled monolayer (SAM) junctions, attracts broad interest. Such materials often involve polymeric/oligomeric components and can feature high or low thermal conductivity, depending on their design. For example, in SAM junctions made of alkane chains sandwiched between metal layers, the thermal conductivity can be very low, whereas the fibers of ordered polyethylene chains feature high thermal conductivity, exceeding that of many pure metals. The thermal conductivity of nanostructured materials is determined by the energy transport between and within each component of the material, which all need to be understood for optimizing the properties. For example, in the SAM junctions, the energy transport across the metal-chain interface as well as the transport through the chains both determine the overall heat conductivity, however, to separate these contributions is difficult. Recently developed relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared (RA 2DIR) spectroscopy is capable of studying energy transport in individual molecules in the time domain. The transport in a molecule is initiated by exciting an IR-active group (a tag); the method records the influence of the excess energy on another mode in the molecule (a reporter). The energy transport time can be measured for different reporters, and the transport speed through the molecule is evaluated. Various molecules were interrogated by RA 2DIR: in molecules without repeating units (disordered), the transport mechanism was expected and found to be diffusive. The transport via an oligomer backbone can potentially be ballistic, as the chain offers delocalized vibrational states. Indeed, the transport regime via three tested types of oligomers, alkanes, polyethyleneglycols, and perfluoroalkanes was found to be ballistic, whereas the transport within the end groups was diffusive

  2. The effect of parking orbit constraints on the optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, C. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization of ballistic planetary trajectories is developed which includes constraints on departure parking orbit inclination and node. This problem is formulated to result in a minimum total Delta V where the entire constrained injection Delta V is included in the optimization. An additional Delta V is also defined to allow for possible optimization of parking orbit inclination when the launch vehicle orbit capability varies as a function of parking orbit inclination. The optimization problem is formulated using primer vector theory to derive partial derivatives of total Delta V with respect to possible free parameters. Minimization of total Delta V is accomplished using a quasi-Newton gradient search routine. The analysis is applied to an Eros rendezvous mission whose transfer trajectories are characterized by high values of launch asymptote declination during particular launch opportunities. Comparisons in performance are made between trajectories where parking orbit constraints are included in the optimization and trajectories where the constraints are not included.

  3. A Simplified Guidance for Target Missiles Used in Ballistic Missile Defence Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhakar, N.; Kumar, I. D.; Tata, S. K.; Vaithiyanathan, V.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified guidance scheme for the target missiles used in Ballistic Missile Defence is presented in this paper. The proposed method has two major components, a Ground Guidance Computation (GGC) and an In-Flight Guidance Computation. The GGC which runs on the ground uses a missile model to generate attitude history in pitch plane and computes launch azimuth of the missile to compensate for the effect of earth rotation. The vehicle follows the pre launch computed attitude (theta) history in pitch plane and also applies the course correction in azimuth plane based on its deviation from the pre launch computed azimuth plane. This scheme requires less computations and counters In-flight disturbances such as wind, gust etc. quite efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides the satisfactory performance and robustness.

  4. COSMOS Launch Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalnins, Indulis

    2002-01-01

    COSMOS-3M is a two stage launcher with liquid propellant rocket engines. Since 1960's COSMOS has launched satellites of up to 1.500kg in both circular low Earth and elliptical orbits with high inclination. The direct SSO ascent is available from Plesetsk launch site. The very high number of 759 launches and the achieved success rate of 97,4% makes this space transportation system one of the most reliable and successful launchers in the world. The German small satellite company OHB System co-operates since 1994 with the COSMOS manufacturer POLYOT, Omsk, in Russia. They have created the joint venture COSMOS International and successfully launched five German and Italian satellites in 1999 and 2000. The next commercial launches are contracted for 2002 and 2003. In 2005 -2007 COSMOS will be also used for the new German reconnaissance satellite launches. This paper provides an overview of COSMOS-3M launcher: its heritage and performance, examples of scientific and commercial primary and piggyback payload launches, the launch service organization and international cooperation. The COSMOS launch service business strategy main points are depicted. The current and future position of COSMOS in the worldwide market of launch services is outlined.

  5. Modeling terminal ballistics using blending-type spline surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Aleksander; Bratlie, Jostein; Dalmo, Rune

    2014-12-01

    We explore using GERBS, a blending-type spline construction, to represent deform able thin-plates and model terminal ballistics. Strategies to construct geometry for different scenarios of terminal ballistics are proposed.

  6. Deterrence of ballistic missile systems and their effects on today's air operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durak, Hasan

    2015-05-01

    Lately, the effect-based approach has gained importance in executing air operations. Thus, it makes more successful in obtaining the desired results by breaking the enemy's determination in a short time. Air force is the first option to be chosen in order to defuse the strategic targets. However, the problems such as the defense of targets and country, radars, range…etc. becoming serious problems. At this level ballistic missiles emerge as a strategic weapon. Ultimate emerging technologies guided by the INS and GPS can also be embedded with multiple warheads and reinforced with conventional explosive, ballistic missiles are weapons that can destroy targets with precision. They have the advantage of high speed, being easily launched from every platform and not being easily detected by air defense systems contrary to other air platforms. While these are the advantages, there are also disadvantages of the ballistic missiles. The high cost, unavailability of nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, and its limited effect while using conventional explosives against destroying the fortified targets are the disadvantages. The features mentioned above should be considered as limitation to the impact of the ballistic missiles. The aim is to impose the requests on enemies without starting a war with all components and to ensure better implementation of the operation functions during the air operations. In this study, effects of ballistic missiles in the future on air battle theatre will be discussed in the beginning, during the process and at the end phase of air operations within the scope of an effect-based approach.

  7. Early management of ballistic hand trauma.

    PubMed

    Eardley, W G P; Stewart, M P M

    2010-02-01

    Complex hand wounds are an unfortunate consequence of conflict. Increased battlefield survival rates have resulted in an evolving range of ballistic hand trauma encountered by deployed surgical teams, requiring increased knowledge and understanding of these injuries. In the civilian setting, the combined threats of gun crime and acts of terrorism warrant appreciation for such injury among all surgeons. Surgeons often have to relearn the management of ballistic hand trauma and other aspects of war surgery under difficult circumstances because the experiences of their predecessors may be forgotten. Current evidence regarding these injuries is scarce. Ballistic hand trauma is rarely isolated. The demand on surgical resources from combat injury is significant, and it is imperative that a phased strategy be followed in this setting. Minimal, accurate débridement and decompression with early stability are crucial. Delayed primary closure and an awareness of future reconstructive options are fundamental. PMID:20118328

  8. Ballistic transport in graphene beyond linear response

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.; Korniyenko, Y.; Lewkowicz, M.; Kao, H. C.

    2010-01-15

    The process of coherent creation of particle-hole excitations by an electric field in graphene is quantitatively described beyond linear response. We calculate the evolution of current density, number of pairs and energy in ballistic regime for electric field E using the tight-binding model. While for ballistic flight times smaller than t{sub nl}propor toE{sup -1/2} current is linear in E and independent of time, for larger ballistic times the current increases after t{sub nl} as Jpropor toE{sup 3/2}t and finally at yet larger times (t>t{sub B}propor toE{sup -1}) Bloch oscillations set in. It is shown that the number of pairs follows the 2D generalization of the Schwinger's creation rate npropor toE{sup 3/2} only on certain time segments with a prefactor different from that obtained using the asymptotic formula.

  9. Ballistic damage in hybrid composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadnis, Vaibhav A.; Pandya, Kedar S.; Naik, Niranjan K.; Roy, Anish; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.

    2015-07-01

    Ballistic damage of hybrid woven-fabric composites made of plain-weave E-glass- fabric/epoxy and 8H satin-weave T300 carbon-fabric/epoxy is studied using a combination of experimental tests, microstructural studies and finite-element (FE) analysis. Ballistic tests were conducted with a single-stage gas gun. Fibre damage and delamination were observed to be dominating failure modes. A ply-level FE model was developed, with a fabric-reinforced ply modelled as a homogeneous orthotropic material with capacity to sustain progressive stiffness degradation due to fibre/matrix cracking, fibre breaking and plastic deformation under shear loading. Simulated damage patterns on the front and back faces of fabric-reinforced composite plates provided an insight into their damage mechanisms under ballistic loading.

  10. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  11. 66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. DETAIL OF LAUNCH CONDUCTOR AND ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONDUCTOR PANELS IN CONSOLE LOCATED CENTRALLY IN SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT IN BACKGROUND: LAUNCH OPERATOR, LAUNCH ANALYST, AND FACILITIES PANELS. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Launch facilities as infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trial, Mike

    The idea is put forth that launch facilities in the U.S. impose inefficiencies on launch service providers due to the way they have been constructed. Rather than constructing facilities for a specific program, then discarding them when the program is complete, a better use of the facilities investment would be in constructing facilities flexible enough for use by multiple vehicle types over the course of a 25-year design lifetime. The planned National Launch System (NLS) program offers one possible avenue for the federal government to provide a nucleus of launch infrastructure which can improve launch efficiencies. The NLS goals are to develop a new space launch system to meet civil and national needs. The new system will be jointly funded by DOD and NASA but will actively consider commercial space needs. The NLS will improve reliability, responsiveness, and mission performance, and reduce operating costs. The specifics of the infrastructure concept are discussed.

  13. On the simulation of ballistic shock loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollburg, Uwe

    1987-01-01

    Blast or penetrator-impact induced shocks are characterized by high acceleration levels, particularily in the higher frequency range and for a short time duration. These shocks are dangerous for the equipment of ships, combat vehicles, airplanes or spacecraft structures. As ballistic shock loads are insufficiently simulated by laboratory test machines, researchers designed a ballistic shock simulator. The impact induced shocks are simulated by an explosive and the vehicle to be bombarded is replaced by a simplified structure. This structure is suitable to accommodate any equipment which can be tested up to their load limits.

  14. Ballistic intercept missions to Comet Encke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mumma, M. (Compiler)

    1975-01-01

    The optimum ballistic intercept of a spacecraft with the comet Encke is determined. The following factors are considered in the analysis: energy requirements, encounter conditions, targeting error, comet activity, spacecraft engineering requirements and restraints, communications, and scientific return of the mission. A baseline model is formulated which includes the basic elements necessary to estimate the scientific return for the different missions considered. Tradeoffs which have major impact on the cost and/or scientific return of a ballistic mission to comet Encke are identified and discussed. Recommendations are included.

  15. Ballistic thermal rectification in nanoscale three-terminal junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen

    2010-03-01

    We study ballistic thermal transport in three-terminal atomic nanojunctions by the nonequilibrium Green’s function method. We find that there is ballistic thermal rectification in asymmetric three-terminal structures because of the incoherent phonon scattering from the control terminal. With spin-phonon interaction, we also find the ballistic thermal rectification even in symmetric three-terminal paramagnetic structures.

  16. Launch Services Safety Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    NASA/KSC Launch Services Division Safety (SA-D) services include: (1) Assessing the safety of the launch vehicle (2) Assessing the safety of NASA ELV spacecraft (S/C) / launch vehicle (LV) interfaces (3) Assessing the safety of spacecraft processing to ensure resource protection of: - KSC facilities - KSC VAFB facilities - KSC controlled property - Other NASA assets (4) NASA personnel safety (5) Interfacing with payload organizations to review spacecraft for adequate safety implementation and compliance for integrated activities (6) Assisting in the integration of safety activities between the payload, launch vehicle, and processing facilities

  17. Kestrel balloon launch system

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.J.

    1991-10-01

    Kestrel is a high-altitude, Helium-gas-filled-balloon system used to launch scientific payloads in winds up to 20 knots, from small platforms or ships, anywhere over land or water, with a minimal crew and be able to hold in standby conditions. Its major components consist of two balloons (a tow balloon and a main balloon), the main deployment system, helium measurement system, a parachute recovery unit, and the scientific payload package. The main scope of the launch system was to eliminate the problems of being dependent of launching on long airfield runways, low wind conditions, and long launch preparation time. These objectives were clearly met with Kestrel 3.

  18. GPM: Waiting for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission's Core Observatory is poised for launch from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Tanegashima Space Center, scheduled for the afternoon of Feb. 27, ...

  19. Determination of the Trajectory of Ballistic Missiles Using a Dense GPS Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Ozeki, M.

    2009-12-01

    The dense array of ~1000 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in Japan provides useful information on atmosphere and ionosphere in terms of delays of microwaves in propagation media. Here we introduce its brand-new application, determination of the trajectories of ballistic missiles by using their electron depletion signatures in ionosphere. Booker (1961) first detected F-region ion depletion associated with a missile passage. Later, formation of an ionospheric hole by the launch of Skylab was observed, and Mendillo et al. (1975) attributed the electron depletion to the water molecules in the rocket exhaust. In Japan, ionospheric depletion after the launch of the H-IIA rocket was observed at GPS receivers in southern Japan using differences in phases between the two carrier frequencies L1 and L2 (Furuya & Heki, 2008). The so-called Taepodong-1, and -2 (the North Korean government claims that they successfully launched satellites), ballistic missiles with liquid fuel engines, were launched from Musudanri, North Korea, in August 1998, and April 2009, respectively. Their first stage engines splashed down onto the Japan Sea, and their second stage engines flew over northeastern Japan and reached the Pacific Ocean. We investigated GPS data before and after the launches, and detected that linear electron depletion areas appear in the northern part of the Japan Sea (~300 km east of the launch pad) approximately six minutes after the launch. Such electron depletion occurs as a result of exchange of positive charges between oxygen ions and water molecules, and dissociative recombination of water with electrons. The ionospheric hole rapidly grows and gradually decays as the water molecules diffuse. By comparing the numerical simulation results of ionospheric hole formation (water diffusion and chemical reaction) and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content (TEC), we conclude that the Taepodong-1 exhaust included water molecules ~0.5 percent of those in

  20. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  1. Launch Collision Probability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenbacher, Gary; Guptill, James D.

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes the probability of a launch vehicle colliding with one of the nearly 10,000 tracked objects orbiting the Earth, given that an object on a near-collision course with the launch vehicle has been identified. Knowledge of the probability of collision throughout the launch window can be used to avoid launching at times when the probability of collision is unacceptably high. The analysis in this report assumes that the positions of the orbiting objects and the launch vehicle can be predicted as a function of time and therefore that any tracked object which comes close to the launch vehicle can be identified. The analysis further assumes that the position uncertainty of the launch vehicle and the approaching space object can be described with position covariance matrices. With these and some additional simplifying assumptions, a closed-form solution is developed using two approaches. The solution shows that the probability of collision is a function of position uncertainties, the size of the two potentially colliding objects, and the nominal separation distance at the point of closest approach. ne impact of the simplifying assumptions on the accuracy of the final result is assessed and the application of the results to the Cassini mission, launched in October 1997, is described. Other factors that affect the probability of collision are also discussed. Finally, the report offers alternative approaches that can be used to evaluate the probability of collision.

  2. Foreign launch competition growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  3. Quantifying Ballistic Armor Performance: A Minimally Invasive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, Gale; Kim, Jaehyun; Blair, William; McDonough, Walter; Snyder, Chad

    2006-03-01

    Theoretical and non-dimensional analyses suggest a critical link between the performance of ballistic resistant armor and the fundamental mechanical properties of the polymeric materials that comprise them. Therefore, a test methodology that quantifies these properties without compromising an armored vest that is exposed to the industry standard V-50 ballistic performance test is needed. Currently, there is considerable speculation about the impact that competing degradation mechanisms (e.g., mechanical, humidity, ultraviolet) may have on ballistic resistant armor. We report on the use of a new test methodology that quantifies the mechanical properties of ballistic fibers and how each proposed degradation mechanism may impact a vest's ballistic performance.

  4. Promoting Improved Ballistic Resistance of Transparent Armor

    SciTech Connect

    Wereszczak, Andrew A; Patel, P; Templeton, D W

    2011-01-01

    Transparent armor is a material or system of materials designed to be optically transparent, yet protect from fragmentation or ballistic impacts. Although engineered to defeat specific threats, or a range of threats, there are general requirements common to all of these designs. The primary requirement for a transparent armor system is to not only defeat the designated threat but also provide a multi-hit capability with minimized distortion of surrounding areas. Ground platforms have several parameters that must be optimized, such as weight, space efficiency, and cost versus performance. Glass exhibits tensile failure stress that is very much dependent on the amount of material being stressed, the side being tensile-stressed (i.e., air-versus tin-side if a float glass), and where it is being tensile stressed (i.e., in the middle or near an edge). An axiom arising from those effects is a greater amount of allowable deflection (i.e., higher failure stress) of a ballistically impacted transparent armor will result in improved ballistic resistance. Therefore, the interpretation and management of those tensile-failure-stress dependencies shall ultimately improve ballistic resistance and its predictability of transparent armor. Each of those three dependencies (size, side, and location) in a soda-lime silicate glass is described.

  5. The National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) project.

    PubMed

    Song, J; Vorburger, T V; Ballou, S; Thompson, R M; Yen, J; Renegar, T B; Zheng, A; Silver, R M; Ols, M

    2012-03-10

    In response to the guidelines issued by the American Society of Crime Laboratory Directors/Laboratory Accreditation Board (ASCLD/LAB-International) to establish traceability and quality assurance in U.S. crime laboratories, a NIST/ATF joint project entitled National Ballistics Imaging Comparison (NBIC) was initialized in 2008. The NBIC project aims to establish a National Traceability and Quality System for ballistics identifications in crime laboratories within the National Integrated Ballistics Information Network (NIBIN) of the U.S. NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 bullets and 2461 cartridge cases are used as reference standards. 19 ballistics examiners from 13 U.S. crime laboratories participated in this project. They each performed 24 periodic image acquisitions and correlations of the SRM bullets and cartridge cases over the course of a year, but one examiner only participated in Phase 1 tests of SRM cartridge case. The correlation scores were collected by NIST for statistical analyses, from which control charts and control limits were developed for the proposed Quality System and for promoting future assessments and accreditations for firearm evidence in U.S. forensic laboratories in accordance with the ISO 17025 Standard. PMID:22014973

  6. The Ballistic Cart on an Incline Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serway, Raymond A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents the theory behind the mechanics demonstration that involves projecting a ball vertically upward from a ballistic cart moving along an inclined plane. The measured overshoot is believed to be due, in part, to the presence of rolling friction and the inertial properties of the cart wheels. (JRH)

  7. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder…

  8. Solid propellant grain design and internal ballistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ballistic aspects of grain design were studied to outline the steps necessary to achieve a successful grain design. The relationships of the grain design to steady-state mass balance and erosive burning are considered. Grain design criteria is reviewed, and recommended design criteria are included.

  9. NASA launch schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a record-setting launch schedule for 1984—10 space shuttle flights (see Table 1), 10 satellite deployments from the space shuttle in orbit and 12 unmanned missions using expendable launch vehicles. Also scheduled is the launch on March 1 for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of Landsat D‧, the nation's second earth resources satellite.The launch activity will begin February 3 with the launch of shuttle mission 41-B using the orbiter Challenger. Two communications satellites will be deployed from 41-B: Westar-VI, for Western Union, and Palapa B-2 for the government of Indonesia. The 8-day mission will feature the first shuttle landing at Kennedy Space Center in Florida; and the first flight of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, a self-contained, propulsive backpack that will allow astronauts to move about in space without being tethered to the spacecraft.

  10. Interplanetary mission design handbook. Volume 1, Part 5: Mars-to-Earth ballistic mission opportunities, 1992-2007

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sergeyevsky, Andrey; Cunniff, Ross

    1987-01-01

    This document contains graphical data necessary for the preliminary design of ballistic missions returning from Mars. Contours of Mars-departure energy requirements, as well as many other launch and Earth-arrival parameters are presented in arrival-date/launch-date space for all departure opportunities from 1992 through 2007. In addition, an extensive companion document (Part 2) is available; it contains Earth-Mars graphical data and explains mission design methods, using the graphical data as well as numerous equations relating various parameters. This is one of a planned series of mission design handbooks.

  11. Principles of ballistics applicable to the treatment of gunshot wounds.

    PubMed

    Swan, K G; Swan, R C

    1991-04-01

    Ballistics is the science of the motion of a projectile through the barrel of a firearm (internal ballistics), during its subsequent flight (external ballistics), and during its final complicated motion after it strikes a target (terminal ballistics). Wound ballistics is a special case of terminal ballistics. Although wound ballistics is at best sets of approximations, its principles enter usefully into an evaluation of a gunshot wound and its treatment. A special consideration in these cases is their medicolegal aspects. At a minimum, the medical team receiving the patient should exert care not to destroy the clothing and in particular to cut around and not through bullet holes, to turn over to law enforcement officials any metallic foreign body recovered from the patient, and to describe precisely, or even to photograph, any entrance or exit wounds. PMID:2003247

  12. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A Boeing Delta 7326 rocket with two solid rocket boosters attached sits on Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. The Delta 7236, which has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage, will launch Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program. It is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  13. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    - A solid rocket booster is maneuvered into place for installation on the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  14. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    (Left) A solid rocket booster is lifted for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  15. Delta II rocket prepared for launch of Deep Space 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A solid rocket booster (left) is raised for installation onto the Boeing Delta 7326 rocket that will launch Deep Space 1 at Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station. Delta II rockets are medium capacity expendable launch vehicles derived from the Delta family of rockets built and launched since 1960. Since then there have been more than 245 Delta launches. Delta's origins go back to the Thor intermediate-range ballistic missile, which was developed in the mid-1950s for the U.S. Air Force. The Thor -- a single-stage, liquid-fueled rocket -- later was modified to become the Delta launch vehicle. The Delta 7236 has three solid rocket boosters and a Star 37 upper stage. Delta IIs are manufactured in Huntington Beach, Calif. Rocketdyne, a division of The Boeing Company, builds Delta II's main engine in Canoga Park, Calif. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing facility in Pueblo, Colo. Deep Space 1, the first flight in NASA's New Millennium Program, is designed to validate 12 new technologies for scientific space missions of the next century. Onboard experiments include an ion propulsion engine and software that tracks celestial bodies so the spacecraft can make its own navigation decisions without the intervention of ground controllers. Deep Space 1 will complete most of its mission objectives within the first two months, but may also do a flyby of a near-Earth asteroid, 1992 KD, in July 1999.

  16. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-wall Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum pressure generated under threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of void that is available for expansion. Ensuring the minimum pressure is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the minimum pressure achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs and dynamic concerns making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. In this paper a fourth key parameter is identified related to fragmentation, which corresponds to the ratio of the size of the projectile relative to the transition from brittle to ductile hole growth in the projectile. Ballistic limit equations have been developed to define the failure limits of a MMOD shield, generally in terms of projectile diameter (or mass), impact velocity, and angle. Within the range of impact velocities relevant for Earth-orbiting spacecraft, three distinct regions of penetration phenomenology have been identified for Whipple shields: center dot Low velocity: the projectile is eroded (and possibly deformed) during its passage through the bumper plate, but is not fragmented. Thus, perforation of the rear wall is by a fragment

  17. 65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. DETAIL OF ASSISTANT LAUNCH CONTROLLER AND LAUNCH CONTROLLER PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. NOTE 30-CHANNEL COMMUNICATIONS PANELS. PAYLOAD ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL AND MONITORING PANELS (LEFT) AND LAUNCH OPERATORS PANEL (RIGHT) IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  18. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2009-11-03

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  20. Optically measuring interior cavities

    DOEpatents

    Stone, Gary Franklin

    2008-12-21

    A method of measuring the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of an interior cavity includes the steps of collecting a first optical slice of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, collecting additional optical slices of data that represents a partial volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity, and combining the first optical slice of data and the additional optical slices of data to calculate of the three-dimensional volume or perimeter shape of the interior cavity.

  1. An experimental study on characteristics of cavitation and ballistic of axisymmetric slender body underwater movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cheng-Gong; Wang, Cong; Wei, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Shi

    2015-12-01

    An experimental study of the axisymmetric slender body underwater movement was conducted using high-speed photography technology. From the results of the experiment, the characteristics of cavitation and ballistic of the axisymmetric, including the formation, development, evolution and collapse of the cavity, are presented in the paper. The experimental results show that the axisymmetric slender body moves in a supercavity, and the slender body rotate in the supercavity on its head at the same time due to the perturbation of launching. The supercavity wall is transparent and smooth except the tail itself. The impact between the tail of slender body and supercavity wall resulted from the slender body's rotation is termed as tail- slap which is one way to keep the stabilization of the movement. Series of different flow mechanisms and the relationship between ballistic characteristics and cavity characteristics with defferent initial velocities are discussed. The slender bodies have different accelerations and ballistics with different initial velocity which means they have different drag forces.

  2. Experimental investigation on ballistic stability of high-speed projectile in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Qi, Yafei; Huang, Wei; Li, Dacheng; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team

    2015-06-01

    The investigation on ballistic stability of high-speed projectile in granular materials is important to the study of the earth penetrating weapon(EPW). Laboratory-scaled sand entry experiments for the trajectory in the sand have been performed with four different nosed projectiles at a range of velocities from 20 m/s to 250 m/s. The slender projectiles were designed into flat, ogival, hemi-sperical, truncated-ogival nose shapes to make comparisons on the trajectory when those projectiles were launched at vertical and oblique impact angles (0° ~ 25°) along a view window. A high-speed camera placed at the side of the window was employed to capture the entire process of projectiles' penetration. Basing on the comparison of different tests, theoretical analysis is carried out on the relationships between ballistic stability and associated conditions. It can be obtained that projectile with flat nose has the best ballistic stability, followed by truncated-ogival nose, and ogival nose is the least at the same velocity. Additionally, a semi-empirical model based on a corrected drag coefficient is established to predict the depth of penetration. National Natural Science Foundation of China (NO.: 11372088)

  3. High-speed Imaging of Global Surface Temperature Distributions on Hypersonic Ballistic-Range Projectiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilder, Michael C.; Reda, Daniel C.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA-Ames ballistic range provides a unique capability for aerothermodynamic testing of configurations in hypersonic, real-gas, free-flight environments. The facility can closely simulate conditions at any point along practically any trajectory of interest experienced by a spacecraft entering an atmosphere. Sub-scale models of blunt atmospheric entry vehicles are accelerated by a two-stage light-gas gun to speeds as high as 20 times the speed of sound to fly ballistic trajectories through an 24 m long vacuum-rated test section. The test-section pressure (effective altitude), the launch velocity of the model (flight Mach number), and the test-section working gas (planetary atmosphere) are independently variable. The model travels at hypersonic speeds through a quiescent test gas, creating a strong bow-shock wave and real-gas effects that closely match conditions achieved during actual atmospheric entry. The challenge with ballistic range experiments is to obtain quantitative surface measurements from a model traveling at hypersonic speeds. The models are relatively small (less than 3.8 cm in diameter), which limits the spatial resolution possible with surface mounted sensors. Furthermore, since the model is in flight, surface-mounted sensors require some form of on-board telemetry, which must survive the massive acceleration loads experienced during launch (up to 500,000 gravities). Finally, the model and any on-board instrumentation will be destroyed at the terminal wall of the range. For these reasons, optical measurement techniques are the most practical means of acquiring data. High-speed thermal imaging has been employed in the Ames ballistic range to measure global surface temperature distributions and to visualize the onset of transition to turbulent-flow on the forward regions of hypersonic blunt bodies. Both visible wavelength and infrared high-speed cameras are in use. The visible wavelength cameras are intensified CCD imagers capable of integration

  4. GPM Launch Coverage

    NASA Video Gallery

    A Japanese H-IIA rocket with the NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory aboard, launched from the Tanegashima Space Center in Japan o...

  5. Advanced launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is presented. The costs, reliability, capabilities, infrastructure are briefly described. Quality approach, failure modes, structural design, technology benefits, and key facilities are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  6. Expedition 27 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA astronaut Ron Garan and Russian cosmonauts Andrey Borisenko and Alexander Samokutyaev launch in their Soyuz TMA-21 spacecraft from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan on April 4, 2011 (April...

  7. IRVE 3 Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Inflatable Reentry Vehicle Experiment, or IRVE-3, launched on July 23, 2012, from NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The purpose of the IRVE-3 test was to show that a space capsule can use an infl...

  8. Launch of Juno!

    NASA Video Gallery

    An Atlas V rocket lofted the Juno spacecraft toward Jupiter from Space Launch Complex-41. The 4-ton Juno spacecraft will take five years to reach Jupiter on a mission to study its structure and dec...

  9. Commercial space launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robb, David W.

    1984-04-01

    While the space shuttle is expected to be the principle Space Transportation System (STS) of the United States, the Reagan Administration is moving ahead with the President's declared space policy of encouraging private sector operation of expendable launch vehicles (ELV's). With the signing of the “Commercial Space Launch Law” on October 30, the administration hopes that it has opened up the door for commercial ventures into space by streamlining regulations and coordinating applications for launches. The administration considers the development and operation of private sector ELV's as an important part of an overall U.S. space policy, complementing the space shuttle and government ELV's. The law follows by nearly a year the creation of the Office of Commercial Space Transportation at the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), which will coordinate applications for commercial space launches.

  10. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Cancer.gov

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  11. Hi-C Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    The High resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) was launched on a NASA Black Brant IX two-stage rocket from White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico July 11, 2012. The experiment reached a maximum velocit...

  12. Anchor Trial Launch

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  13. NASA Now: Glory Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this episode of NASA Now, Dr. Hal Maring joins us to explain why the upcoming launch of the Glory satellite is so important to further our understanding of climate change. He also will speak on ...

  14. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Passing through some of the trailer clouds of an overcast sky which temporarily postponed its launch, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th Earth orbital flight. Several kilometers away, astronaut John H. Casper, Jr., who took this picture, was piloting the Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) from which the launch and landing area weather was being monitored. Onboard Discovery were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Jr., Mark C. Lee, Carl J. Meade, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger.

  15. Dynamics Explorer launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Simultaneously launched from the WSMC, two satellites are to be placed into polar, copolar orbit in order to acquire data on the coupling phenomena between Earth's lower thermosphere and the magnetosphere, as part of the Solar-Terrestrial Program. The mission sequence, instruments, and science data processing system are described as well as the characteristics of the Delta 3913 launch vehicle, and payload separation staging.

  16. Ionospheric holes made by ballistic missiles from North Korea detected with a Japanese dense GPS array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozeki, Masaru; Heki, Kosuke

    2010-09-01

    A dense array of global positioning system (GPS) receivers is a useful tool to study ionospheric disturbances. Here we report observations by a Japanese GPS array of ionospheric holes, i.e., localized electron depletion. They were made by neutral molecules in exhaust plumes (e.g., water) of ballistic missiles from North Korea, Taepodong-1 and -2, launched on 31 August, 1998, and 5 April, 2009, respectively. Negative anomaly of electron density emerged ˜6 min after the launches in the middle of the Japan Sea, and extended eastward along the missile tracks. By comparing the numerical simulation of electron depletion and the observed change in ionospheric total electron content, we suggest that the exhaust plumes from the Taepodong-2 second stage effused up to ˜1.5 × 1026 water molecules per second. The ionospheric hole signature was used to constrain the Taepodong-2 trajectory together with other information, e.g., coordinates of the launch pad, time and coordinates of the first stage splashdown, and height and time of the second stage passage over Japan. The Taepodong-2 is considered to have reached the ionospheric F region in ˜6 min, flown above northeastern Japan ˜7 min after the launch, and crashed to the Pacific Ocean without attaining the first astronautical velocity. The ionospheric hole in the 1998 Taepodong-1 launch was much less in size, but it is difficult to compare directly the thrusts of the two missiles due to uncertainty of the Taepodong-1 trajectory.

  17. Opportunities for ballistic missions to Halley's comet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquhar, R. W.; Wooden, W. H., II

    1977-01-01

    Alternative strategies for ballistic missions to Halley's comet in 1985-86 are described. A large scientific return would be acquired from a ballistic Halley intercept in spite of the high flyby speeds that are associated with this mission mode. The possibility of retargeting the cometary spacecraft to additional comets after the Halley intercept also exists. Two cometary spacecraft of identical design would be used to carry out four separate cometary encounters over a 3 year period. One spacecraft would intercept Halley's comet before its perihelion passage in December 1985 and then go on to comet Borrelly with an encounter in January 1988. The other spacecraft would be targeted for a postperihelion Halley intercept in March 1986 before proceeding toward an encounter with comet Tempel 2 in September 1988.

  18. Ballistic electron transport in wrinkled superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitran, T. L.; Nemnes, G. A.; Ion, L.; Dragoman, Daniela

    2016-07-01

    Inspired by the problem of elastic wave scattering on wrinkled interfaces, we studied the scattering of ballistic electrons on a wrinkled potential energy region. The electron transmission coefficient depends on both wrinkle amplitude and periodicity, having different behaviors for positive and negative scattering potential energies. For scattering on potential barriers, minibands appear in the electron transmission, as in superlattices, whereas for scattering on periodic potential wells the transmission coefficient has a more complex form. Besides suggesting that tuning of electron transmission is possible by modifying the scattering potential via voltages on wrinkled gate electrodes, our results emphasize the analogies between ballistic electrons and elastic waves even in scattering problems on non-typical configurations.

  19. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in Graphene Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M. Javad; Boland, Mathias; Nasseri, Mohsen; Strachan, Douglas

    Through the extreme size scaling of electronic devices, there is great potential to achieve highly efficient and ultrafast electronics. By scaling down the channel length in graphene transistors to the point where the mean free path exceeds the relevant channel length, the electron transport can transition from a diffusive regime to an intrinsic ballistic regime. In such a regime, both quantum tunneling at the electrode-channel interface and the screening length, as determined by electrode-channel barrier width, can have a strong effect on current nonlinearity and asymmetric gate response. Here we discuss our experimental results on nangap electrodes to graphene channels that show quantitative agreement with an intrinsic ballistic model. Moreover, this behavior persists to room temperature and on standard oxide substrates, providing strong evidence for a new regime of nonlinearity in graphene devices that could be of potential use for electronic applications.

  20. Ballistic injuries in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bruner, David; Gustafson, Corey G; Visintainer, Catherine

    2011-12-01

    According to 2007 data, gunshot wounds from homicides, suicides, and accidents caused 31,000 deaths in the United States, with even higher numbers of serious, nonfatal injuries. In recent years, new evidence on effective treatment of patients with gunshot wounds has come from military settings and is being adapted for civilian emergency departments (EDs). Effective, evidence-based management of ballistic injuries in the ED is vital. This issue reviews the physics of ballistics as it relates to the tracts and patterns of tissue injury caused by different types of firearms and missiles, and it takes a regional approach to reviewing the current evidence for managing gunshot wounds to the head, neck, thorax, abdomen, genitourinary (GU) system, extremities, and soft tissues. Current guidelines as well as new research and evidence regarding fluid resuscitation, airway management, evaluation strategies, drug therapies, and documentation are discussed. PMID:22232864

  1. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  2. Non-Ballistic Motions in Relativistic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, D. C.

    2002-12-01

    We present results from the 2cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of motions in relativistic jets (Kellermann et al. 1998; Zensus et al. 2002). In particular, we discuss the distribution of non-ballistic motions and present several examples from our sample. The non-ballistic motions we observe are generally in the direction of the downstream jet emission, providing evidence that jet features follow streaming flows in curved, bent jets. We also discuss the jet of the quasar 3C279, which displays a distinct change in the motion of a bright superluminal component. The new motion for this component is along a parallel track to the motion of an older superluminal component, suggesting collimation of the jet may still be occurring at radii (de-projected) of a kiloparsec or more.

  3. [Wound Ballistics – a Brief Overview].

    PubMed

    Bolliger, Stephan A; Eggert, Sebastian; Thali, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    Wound ballistics examines the specific effect, namely the wound profile, of bullets on the body by firing at synthetic models made of ordnance gelatine, glycerin soap and synthetic bones, validated with real cases from (battlefield) surgery and forensic pathology. Wound profile refers to the penetration depth, the bullet deformation/ fragmentation, the diameter of the permanent and the temporary wound cavity. Knowing these features and the used ammunition a surgeon can rapidly assess the amount damage within a patient. The forensic pathologist can draw conclusions as to the used ammunition based on the wound profile. By measuring of the destructive capability of different ammunition types, wound ballistics lays the foundation for guidelines concerning the maximum effect of military ammunition. PMID:26837321

  4. Ballistic versus diffusive transport in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borunda, Mario F.; Hennig, H.; Heller, Eric J.

    2013-09-01

    We investigate the transport of electrons in disordered and pristine graphene devices. Fano shot noise, a standard metric to assess the mechanism for electronic transport in mesoscopic devices, has been shown to produce almost the same magnitude (≈1/3) in ballistic and diffusive graphene devices and is therefore of limited applicability. We consider a two-terminal geometry where the graphene flake is contacted by narrow metallic leads. We propose that the dependence of the conductance on the position of one of the leads, a conductance profile, can give us insight into the charge flow, which can in turn be used to analyze the transport mechanism. Moreover, we simulate scanning probe microscopy (SPM) measurements for the same devices, which can visualize the flow of charge inside the device, thus complementing the transport calculations. From our simulations, we find that both the conductance profile and SPM measurements are excellent tools to assess the transport mechanism differentiating ballistic and diffusive graphene systems.

  5. RSRM-9 (360L009): Ballistics mass properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drendel, Albert S.; Richards, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Thiokol's RSRM-9 motors which were assigned to the STS-36 launch are presented. The SRM propellant, TP-H1148, is a composite type solid propellant, formulated of polybutadiene acrylic acid acryonitrile terpolymer binder (PBAN), epoxy curing agent, ammonium perchlorate oxidizer and aluminum powder fuel. A small amount of burning rate catalyst (iron oxide) was added to achieve the desired propellant burn rate. The propellant evaluation and raw material information for the RSRM-9 are included. The propellant grain design consists of four segments. There is a forward segment with an eleven point star with a transition into a tapered circular perforated (CP) configuration. There are two center segments that result in a double tapered CP configuration and an aft segment with a triple taper CP configuration and a cutout for the partially submerged nozzle. The ballistic performance presented is based on the Operational Flight Instrumentation (OFI) 12.5 sample per second pressure data for the steady state and tail off portion of the pressure trace. No high sample rate pressure gauges, Development Flight Instrumentation (DFI), were used on this flight and therefore no ignition data is presented.

  6. Modeling internal ballistics of gas combustion guns.

    PubMed

    Schorge, Volker; Grossjohann, Rico; Schönekess, Holger C; Herbst, Jörg; Bockholdt, Britta; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Frank, Matthias

    2016-05-01

    Potato guns are popular homemade guns which work on the principle of gas combustion. They are usually constructed for recreational rather than criminal purposes. Yet some serious injuries and fatalities due to these guns are reported. As information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion-powered guns is scarce, it is the aim of this work to provide an experimental model of the internal ballistics of these devices and to investigate their basic physical parameters. A gas combustion gun was constructed with a steel tube as the main component. Gas/air mixtures of acetylene, hydrogen, and ethylene were used as propellants for discharging a 46-mm caliber test projectile. Gas pressure in the combustion chamber was captured with a piezoelectric pressure sensor. Projectile velocity was measured with a ballistic speed measurement system. The maximum gas pressure, the maximum rate of pressure rise, the time parameters of the pressure curve, and the velocity and path of the projectile through the barrel as a function of time were determined according to the pressure-time curve. The maximum gas pressure was measured to be between 1.4 bar (ethylene) and 4.5 bar (acetylene). The highest maximum rate of pressure rise was determined for hydrogen at (dp/dt)max = 607 bar/s. The muzzle energy was calculated to be between 67 J (ethylene) and 204 J (acetylene). To conclude, this work provides basic information on the internal ballistics of homemade gas combustion guns. The risk of injury to the operator or bystanders is high, because accidental explosions of the gun due to the high-pressure rise during combustion of the gas/air mixture may occur. PMID:26239103

  7. Ballistic Experiments with Titanium and Aluminum Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Gogolewski, R.; Morgan, B.R.

    1999-11-23

    During the course of the project we conducted two sets of fundamental experiments in penetration mechanics in the LLNL Terminal Ballistics Laboratory of the Physics Directorate. The first set of full-scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm air propelled launcher. The object of the experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V-alloy titanium, low fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 2024-T3 alloy aluminum flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the targets. The second set of one-third scale experiments was conducted with a 14.5mm powder launcher. The object of these experiments was to determine the ballistic limit speed of 6Al-4V alloy titanium high fineness ratio projectiles centrally impacting 6Al-4V alloy titanium flat plates and the failure modes of the projectiles and the target. We employed radiography to observe a projectile just before and after interaction with a target plate. Early on, we employed a non-damaging ''soft-catch'' technique to capture projectiles after they perforated targets. Once we realized that a projectile was not damaged during interaction with a target, we used a 4-inch thick 6061-T6-alloy aluminum witness block with a 6.0-inch x 6.0-inch cross-section to measure projectile residual penetration. We have recorded and tabulated below projectile impact speed, projectile residual (post-impact) speed, projectile failure mode, target failure mode, and pertinent comments for the experiments. The ballistic techniques employed for the experiments are similar to those employed in an earlier study.

  8. Highly efficient spin filtering of ballistic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmuller, S. J.; Trypiniotis, T.; Cho, W. S.; Hirohata, A.; Lew, W. S.; Vaz, C. A.; Bland, J. A.

    2004-04-01

    Spin dependent electron transport in hybrid Au/Co/Cu/NiFe/n-GaAs spin valve Schottky barrier structures was investigated using photoexcitation at various wavelengths. For excitation with the photon energy well above the Schottky barrier height we found a ˜2400% increase in helicity dependent photocurrent on switching the spin valve from parallel to antiparallel alignment. Our observations provide clear evidence for highly efficient spin filtering of spin polarized ballistic electrons.

  9. Ballistic mode Mercury orbiter mission opportunity handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbeck, G. R.; Roos, D. G.; Lewis, P. S.

    1973-01-01

    Significant payloads in Mercury orbit can be achieved through use of high-thrust, chemical propulsion systems on ballistic trajectories. Interplanetary trajectory characteristics are presented, for Venus swingbys to Mercury, were multiple revolutions about the sun are allowed on each leg to provide low energy mission in 1977, 1980, 1985 and 1988. Guidance and navigation results are shown for each opportunity. Additionally, the use of midcourse maneuvers and multiple Venus swingbys are explored as means of further reducing the energy requirements.

  10. 97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    97. VIEW OF CENTER OF INTERIOR ROW OF EQUIPMENT CABINETS ON SOUTH SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM. THREE ADDITIONAL GOULD BRUSH CHART RECORDERS ARE IN THIS ROW (NOT VISIBLE IN PHOTOGRAPH) LOCATED IMMEDIATELY EAST (LEFT) OF THESE CABINETS. Another row of cabinets south of (behind) this one is not accessible for photography. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Thermo-Electron Ballistic Coolers or Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sang H.

    2003-01-01

    Electronic heat-transfer devices of a proposed type would exploit some of the quantum-wire-like, pseudo-superconducting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes or, optionally, room-temperature-superconducting polymers (RTSPs). The devices are denoted thermo-electron ballistic (TEB) coolers or heaters because one of the properties that they exploit is the totally or nearly ballistic (dissipation or scattering free) transport of electrons. This property is observed in RTSPs and carbon nanotubes that are free of material and geometric defects, except under conditions in which oscillatory electron motions become coupled with vibrations of the nanotubes. Another relevant property is the high number density of electrons passing through carbon nanotubes -- sufficient to sustain electron current densities as large as 100 MA/square cm. The combination of ballistic motion and large current density should make it possible for TEB devices to operate at low applied potentials while pumping heat at rates several orders of magnitude greater than those of thermoelectric devices. It may also enable them to operate with efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the proposed TEB devices are expected to operate over a wider temperature range

  12. Ballistic transfection of mammalian cells in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Kolesnikov, V.A.; Zelenin, A.V.; Zelenina, I.A.

    1995-11-01

    The method of ballistic transfection initially proposed for genetic transformation of plants was used for animal cells in vitro and in situ. The method consists in bombarding the transfected cells with microparticles of heavy metals carrying foreign DNA. Penetrating the cell nucleus, the microparticles transport the introduced gene. Successful genetic transformation of the cultured mouse cells and fish embryos was realized, and this allowed the study of mammalian cells in situ. The performed studies allowed us to demonstrate expression of the reporter genes of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase, galactosidase, and neomycin phosphotransferase in the mouse liver, mammary gland and kidney explants, in the liver and cross-striated muscle of mouse and rat in situ, and in developing mouse embryos at the stages of two-cell embryo, morula, and blastocyst. All these genes were introduced by ballistic transfection. In the liver and cross-striated muscle the transgene activity was detected within two to three months after transfection. Thus, the ballistic introduction of the foreign genes in the cells in situ was demonstrated, and this opens possibilities for the use of this method in gene therapy. Methodical aspects of the bombarding and transfection are considered in detail, and the published data on transfection and genetic transformation of mammalian cells are discussed. 41 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Characteristics of ballistic and blast injuries.

    PubMed

    Powers, David B; Delo, Robert I

    2013-03-01

    Ballistic injury wounds are formed by variable interrelated factors, such as the nature of the tissue, the compositional makeup of the bullet, distance to the target, and the velocity, shape, and mass of the of the projectile. This complex arrangement, with the ultimate outcome dependent on each other, makes the prediction of wounding potential difficult to assess. As the facial features are the component of the body most involved in a patient's personality and interaction with society, preservation of form, cosmesis, and functional outcome should remain the primary goals in the management of ballistic injury. A logical, sequential analysis of the injury patterns to the facial complex is an absolutely necessary component for the treatment of craniomaxillofacial ballistic injuries. Fortunately, these skill sets should be well honed in all craniomaxillofacial surgeons through their exposure to generalized trauma, orthognathic, oncologic, and cosmetic surgery patients. Identification of injured tissues, understanding the functional limitations of these injuries, and preservation of both hard and soft tissues minimizing the need for tissue replacement are paramount. PMID:23498328

  14. Space-based ballistic-missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Bethe, H.A.; Garwin, R.L.; Gottfried, K.; Kendall, H.W.

    1984-10-01

    This article, based on a forthcoming book by the Union for Concerned Scientists, focuses on the technical aspects of the issue of space-based ballistic-missile defense. After analysis, the authors conclude that the questionable performance of the proposed defense, the ease with which it could be overwhelmed or circumvented, and its potential as an antisatellite system would cause grievous damage to the security of the US if the Strategic Defense Initiative were to be pursued. The path toward greater security lies in quite another direction, they feel. Although research on ballistic-missile defense should continue at the traditional level of expenditure and within the constraints of the ABM Treaty, every effort should be made to negotiate a bilateral ban on the testing and use of space weapons. The authors think it is essential that such an agreement cover all altitudes, because a ban on high-altitude antisatellite weapons alone would not viable if directed energy weapons were developed for ballistic-missile defense. Further, the Star Wars program, unlikely ever to protect the entire nation against a nuclear attack, would nonetheless trigger a major expansion of the arms race.

  15. Historical overview of wound ballistics research.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Ballistics involves the study of the scientific properties of projectiles, their behavior and their terminal effects on biological tissues and other materials. Wound ballistics deals with the analysis of injuries caused by projectiles and the behavior of projectiles within human or other biological tissues. The nineteenth century witnessed the development of both of these areas with Kocher's hydrodynamic theory and the understanding of the significance of bullet deformation in causing tissue injury. The degree of traumatic disruption of tissues and organs was also related to direct energy transfer from projectiles. While subsequent research has concentrated on elucidating further mechanisms of injury, the exact cause of remote tissue damage from high energy projectiles is still the subject of ongoing research. Much of the contemporary literature regarding wound ballistics concentrates on the forensic aspects and their application for legal purposes, in particular the investigation of shooting scenes. There have been many advances in this area, particularly in relation to the identification of various types of gunshot wounds and how their appearance can be used to establish if a shooting was accidental, deliberate (homicidal) or self inflicted (suicidal). PMID:19466590

  16. Optimal ballistically captured Earth-Moon transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricord Griesemer, Paul; Ocampo, Cesar; Cooley, D. S.

    2012-07-01

    The optimality of a low-energy Earth-Moon transfer terminating in ballistic capture is examined for the first time using primer vector theory. An optimal control problem is formed with the following free variables: the location, time, and magnitude of the transfer insertion burn, and the transfer time. A constraint is placed on the initial state of the spacecraft to bind it to a given initial orbit around a first body, and on the final state of the spacecraft to limit its Keplerian energy with respect to a second body. Optimal transfers in the system are shown to meet certain conditions placed on the primer vector and its time derivative. A two point boundary value problem containing these necessary conditions is created for use in targeting optimal transfers. The two point boundary value problem is then applied to the ballistic lunar capture problem, and an optimal trajectory is shown. Additionally, the problem is then modified to fix the time of transfer, allowing for optimal multi-impulse transfers. The tradeoff between transfer time and fuel cost is shown for Earth-Moon ballistic lunar capture transfers.

  17. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  18. 102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    102. Interior view of utilidor passageway link between building nos. 101 and 102 showing waveguides on left and cable tray system on right sides. Note fire suppression water supply piping (upper center). Small maintenance 3-wheel vehicle at center (Note: similar vehicles still in use in 2001.) Official photograph BMEWS Project by Hansen, Photographic Services, Riverton, NJ, BMEWS, clear as negative no. A-101123. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. Chunk projectile launch using the Sandia Hypervelocity Launcher Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, L.C.; Trucano, T.G.; Reinhart, W.D.; Hall, C.A.

    1994-07-01

    An experimental technique is described to launch an intact ``chunk,`` i.e. a 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm diameter cylindrical titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) flyer, to 10.2 km/s. The ability to launch fragments having such an aspect ratio is important for hypervelocity impact phenomenology studies. The experimental techniques used to accomplish this launch were similar but not identical to techniques developed for the Sandia HyperVelocity Launcher (HVL). A confined barrel impact is crucial in preventing the two-dimensional effects from dominating the loading response of the projectile chunk. The length to diameter ratio of the metallic chunk that is launched to 10.2 km/s is 0.5 and is an order of magnitude larger than those accomplished using the conventional hypervelocity launcher. The multi-dimensional, finite-difference (finite-volume), hydrodynamic code CTH was used to evaluate and assess the acceleration characteristics i.e., the in-bore ballistics of the chunky projectile launch. A critical analysis of the CTH calculational results led to the final design and the experimental conditions that were used in this study. However, the predicted velocity of the projectile chunk based on CTH calculations was {approximately} 6% lower than the measured velocity of {approximately}10.2 km/S.

  20. The impact of launch vehicle type and size on development cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The technical development trend of future launch vehicle systems is towards fully reusable systems, in order to reduce space transportation cost. However, different types of launch vehicles are feasible, as there are —winged two-stage systems (WTS) —ballistic single-stage vehicles (BSS) —ballistic two-stage vehicles (BTS) The performance of those systems is compared according to the present state of the art as well as the development cost, based on the "TRANSCOST-Model". The development costs are shown versus launch mass (GLOW) and pay-load for the three types of reusable systems mentioned above. It is shown that performance optimization and cost minimization lead to different results. It is more economic to increase the vehicle size for achieving higher performance, instead of increasing technical complexity. Finally it is described that due to the essentially lower launch cost of reusable vehicles it will be feasible to recover the development cost by an amortization charge on the launch cost. This possibility, however, would allow commercial funding of future launch vehicle developments.

  1. Injuries of the head from backface deformation of ballistic protective helmets under ballistic impact.

    PubMed

    Rafaels, Karin A; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Salzar, Robert S; Davis, Martin; Boggess, Brian; Bush, Bryan; Harris, Robert; Rountree, Mark Steve; Sanderson, Ellory; Campman, Steven; Koch, Spencer; Dale Bass, Cameron R

    2015-01-01

    Modern ballistic helmets defeat penetrating bullets by energy transfer from the projectile to the helmet, producing helmet deformation. This deformation may cause severe injuries without completely perforating the helmet, termed "behind armor blunt trauma" (BABT). As helmets become lighter, the likelihood of larger helmet backface deformation under ballistic impact increases. To characterize the potential for BABT, seven postmortem human head/neck specimens wearing a ballistic protective helmet were exposed to nonperforating impact, using a 9 mm, full metal jacket, 124 grain bullet with velocities of 400-460 m/s. An increasing trend of injury severity was observed, ranging from simple linear fractures to combinations of linear and depressed fractures. Overall, the ability to identify skull fractures resulting from BABT can be used in forensic investigations. Our results demonstrate a high risk of skull fracture due to BABT and necessitate the prevention of BABT as a design factor in future generations of protective gear. PMID:25039407

  2. Effects of solid-propellant temperature gradients on the internal ballistics of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sforzini, R. H.; Foster, W. A., Jr.; Shackelford, B. W., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The internal ballistic effects of combined radial and circumferential grain temperature gradients are evaluated theoretically for the Space Shuttle solid rocket motors (SRMs). A simplified approach is devised for representing with closed-form mathematical expressions the temperature distribution resulting from the anticipated thermal history prior to launch. The internal ballistic effects of the gradients are established by use of a mathematical model which permits the propellant burning rate to vary circumferentially. Comparative results are presented for uniform and axisymmetric temperature distributions and the anticipated gradients based on an earlier two-dimensional analysis of the center SRM segment. The thrust imbalance potential of the booster stage is also assessed based on the difference in the thermal loading of the individual SRMs of the motor pair which may be encountered in both summer and winter environments at the launch site. Results indicate that grain temperature gradients could cause the thrust imbalance to be approximately 10% higher in the Space Shuttle than the imbalance caused by SRM manufacturing and propellant physical property variability alone.

  3. Wernher von Braun and Saturn IB on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Dr. Wernher von Braun stands in front of a Saturn IB launch vehicle at Kennedy Space Flight Center. Dr. von Braun led a team of German rocket scientists, called the Rocket Team, to the United States, first to Fort Bliss/White Sands, later being transferred to the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama. They were further transferred to the newly established NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama in 1960, and Dr. von Braun became the first Center Director. Under von Braun's direction, MSFC developed the Mercury-Redstone, which put the first American in space; and later the Saturn rockets, Saturn I, Saturn IB, and Saturn V. The Saturn V launch vehicle put the first human on the surface of the Moon, and a modified Saturn V vehicle placed Skylab, the first United States' experimental space station, into Earth orbit. Dr. von Braun was MSFC Director from July 1960 to February 1970.

  4. Role of the gate in ballistic nanowire SOI MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangla, A.; Sallese, J.-M.; Sampedro, C.; Gamiz, F.; Enz, C.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report the results of Monte-Carlo simulations performed on double-gate ballistic MOSFETs with a geometry such that the gates overlap only a fraction of the channel. We present a qualitative analysis of the simulation results highlighting the similarities and differences between ballistic devices of 10 nm and 100 nm channel length, in an attempt to understand the electrostatics in a ballistic channel, especially the influence of the gate, source and drain terminals on the channel.

  5. AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AXONOMETRIC, LAUNCH DOOR AND DOOR CYLINDER, LAUNCH PLATFORM ROLLER GUIDE, CRIB SUSPENSION SHOCK STRUT, LAUNCH PLATFORM - Dyess Air Force Base, Atlas F Missle Site S-8, Launch Facility, Approximately 3 miles east of Winters, 500 feet southwest of Highway 1770, center of complex, Winters, Runnels County, TX

  6. A Computational Investigation of the Multi-Hit Ballistic-Protection Performance of Laminated Transparent-armor Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, Mica; Pandurangan, B.; Coutris, N.

    2012-06-01

    Multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of a prototypical laminated glass/polycarbonate transparent armor is investigated using a series of transient nonlinear dynamics analyses of armor impact with a sequence of four M2AP full metal jacket (FMJ) armor-piercing bullets. All calculations were carried out using ABAQUS/Explicit commercial finite element program (ABAQUS Version 6.7, User Documentation, Dessault Systems, 2007), and the computational results obtained were compared to their experimental counterparts obtained by Dolan (Ballistic Transparent-armor Testing Using a Multi-hit Rifle Pattern, Bachelors, Thesis, Kettering University, December 2007). The comparison revealed that (a) The proposed computational procedure can reasonably well account for the observed multi-hit ballistic-protection performance of the laminated transparent armor; (b) The role of prior bullet hits in reducing armor's ballistic-protection performance is clearly revealed; (c) The role of polycarbonate lamina in preventing glass fragments from entering the vehicle interior is clearly demonstrated; and (d) Experimentally observed inability of the transparent armor to defeat 0.50-caliber Fragment Simulating Projectiles (FSPs) is confirmed.

  7. [The dynamics of projectile wounding. Concepts in ballistic injuries].

    PubMed

    Houdelette, P

    1998-04-01

    Analysis of the structure and terminal ballistic behavior of bullets provides a better understanding of their wounding power. The studies of ballistics specialists serve as a base. The concept of "scientific shot" remains an intellectual approach to a random phenomenon. Wound ballistic studies examine the behavior of projectiles in vivo or in a simulation medium. War events, in which projectiles do not meet requirements of international conventions, sport or hunting accidents, urban violence may confront the surgeon with various types of ballistic pathologies. The appropriate saying of Lindsey that the surgeons has to treat a wound and not a weapon should not justify etiologic ignorance. PMID:9768076

  8. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-05-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  9. Final design report of a personnel launch system and a family of heavy lift launch vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupa, James; Merritt, Debbie; Riha, David; Burton, Lee; Kubinski, Russell; Drake, Kerry; Mann, Darrin; Turner, Ken

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to design both a Personnel Launch System (PLS) and a family of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles (FHLLVs) that provide low cost and efficient operation in missions not suited for the Shuttle. The PLS vehicle is designed primarily for space station crew rotation and emergency crew return. The final design of the PLS vehicle and its interior is given. The mission of the FHLLVs is to place large, massive payloads into Earth orbit with payload flexibility being considered foremost in the design. The final design of three launch vehicles was found to yield a payload capacity range from 20 to 200 mt. These designs include the use of multistaged, high thrust liquid engines mounted on the core stages of the rocket.

  10. Filling the launch gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeser, S.

    1986-05-01

    Vehicles proposed to fill the gap in the U.S. space program's space transport needs for the next decade resulting from the January Challenger disaster, are discussed. Prior to the accident, the Air Force planned to purchase a Complementary Expendable Launch Vehicle system consisting of 10 single-use Titan-34D7 rockets. Another heavy lift booster now considered is the Phoenix H. Commercial launch vehicle systems projected to be available in the necessary time frame include the 215,000-pound thrust 4000-pound LEO payload capacity NASA Delta, the 11,300-pound LEO payload capacity Atlas Centaur the first ICBM, and the all-solid propellant expendable 2000-pound LEO payload Conestoga rocket. Also considered is the man-rated fully reusable Phoenix vertical take-off and vertical-landing launch vehicle.

  11. Juno II Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1958-01-01

    The modified Jupiter C (sometimes called Juno I), used to launch Explorer I, had minimum payload lifting capabilities. Explorer I weighed slightly less than 31 pounds. Juno II was part of America's effort to increase payload lifting capabilities. Among other achievements, the vehicle successfully launched a Pioneer IV satellite on March 3, 1959, and an Explorer VII satellite on October 13, 1959. Responsibility for Juno II passed from the Army to the Marshall Space Flight Center when the Center was activated on July 1, 1960. On November 3, 1960, a Juno II sent Explorer VIII into a 1,000-mile deep orbit within the ionosphere.

  12. STS-64 launch view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    With a crew of six NASA astronauts aboard, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its nineteenth Earth-orbital mission. Launch was delayed because of weather, but all systems were 'go,' and the spacecraft left the launch pad at 6:23 p.m. (EDT) on September 9, 1994. Onboard were astronauts Richard N. Richards, L. Blaine Hammond, Carl J. Meade, Mark C. Lee, Susan J. Helms, and Jerry M. Linenger (051-2); Making a bright reflection in nearby marsh waters, the Space Shuttle Discovery heads for its 19th mission in earth orbit (053).

  13. 76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. INTERIOR, FIRST FLOOR, WING 1200 WEST, INTERIOR DEPARTMENT MUSEUM, LOBBY, BRONZE GRILL (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  14. NASA Launch Services Program Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has need to procure a variety of launch vehicles and services for its unmanned spacecraft. The Launch Services Program (LSP) provides the Agency with a single focus for the acquisition and management of Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) launch services. This presentation will provide an overview of the LSP and its organization, approach, and activities.

  15. Launch Vehicle Description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffey, E. E.; Geye, R. P.

    1970-01-01

    The Thorad-Agena is a two-stage launch vehicle consisting of a Thorad first-stage and an Agena second-stage, connected by a booster adapter. The composite vehicle, including the shroud and the booster adapter, is about 33 meters (109 ft) long. The total weight at lift-off is approximately 91 625 kilograms (202 000 lbm).

  16. Japan's launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, Y.; Hara, N.

    The development of Japan's Mu series scientific research launch vehicles, and N and H series practical applications vehicles, is described. The three-stage M-3C features a second-stage radio inertial guidance system. The evolution to the M-3S includes a first-stage TVC and Solid Motor Roll Control device, and eight 310-m strap-on boosters (SOB's). The M-3SII developed to launch an interplanetary satellite for the 1986 Halley's Comet apparition, employs two 735-mm SOB's and a microprocessor digitalized flight control system, and can put a 770 kg satellite into low earth orbit. The N-1 is a three-stage radio-guided vehicle using first and second stage liquid engines, a solid motor third stage, three SOB's, and having the capability to launch a 145 kg geostationary satellite. N-II improvements include a 350 kg geostationary payload capacity, nine SOB's, and an inertial guidance system. The H-1 planned for 1987 has a 550 kg geostationary payload capacity and a domestically developed cryogenic engine. The H-II planned for 1992 will be capable of launching a two-ton geostationary satellite, or LOX/LH2 plural satellites simultaneously. It will be powered by a single 95-ton thrust LE-7 main engine.

  17. AST Launch Vehicle Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Janice; Counter, D.; Giacomoni, D.

    2015-01-01

    The liftoff phase induces acoustic loading over a broad frequency range for a launch vehicle. These external acoustic environments are then used in the prediction of internal vibration responses of the vehicle and components which result in the qualification levels. Thus, predicting these liftoff acoustic (LOA) environments is critical to the design requirements of any launch vehicle. If there is a significant amount of uncertainty in the predictions or if acoustic mitigation options must be implemented, a subscale acoustic test is a feasible pre-launch test option to verify the LOA environments. The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) program initiated the Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) to verify the predicted SLS LOA environments and to determine the acoustic reduction with an above deck water sound suppression system. The SMAT was conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center and the test article included a 5% scale SLS vehicle model, tower and Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 250 instruments. The SMAT liftoff acoustic results are presented, findings are discussed and a comparison is shown to the Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) results.

  18. AC 67 Launch Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Live footage of the Unmanned Atlas Centaur (AC) 67 launch is presented on March 26, 1987 at the WESH television station in Florida. Lightning is shown after 49 seconds into the flight. The vehicle is totally destroyed due to a cloud-to-ground lightning flash.

  19. NLS Advanced Development - Launch operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Carrie L.

    1992-01-01

    Attention is given to Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO), one of a number of the USAF's National Launch System (NLS) Launch Operations projects whose aim is to research, develop and apply new technologies and more efficient approaches toward launch operations. The goal of the ALO project is to develop generic control and monitor software for launch operation subsystems. The result is enhanced reliability of system design, and reduced software development and retention of expert knowledge throughout the life-cycle of the system.

  20. Successful launch of SOHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-12-01

    "Understanding how the Sun behaves is of crucial importance to all of us on Earth. It affects our everyday lives" said Roger Bonnet, Director of Science at ESA, who witnessed SOHO's spectacular nighttime launch from Cape Canaveral. "When SOHO begins work in four months time, scientists will, for the first time, be able to study this star 24 hours a day, 365 days a year". The 12 instruments on SOHO will probe the Sun inside out, from the star's very centre to the solar wind that blasts its way through the solar system. It will even listen to sounds, like musical notes, deep within the star by recording their vibrations when they reach the surface. SOHO was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station, Florida, atop an Atlas IIAS rocket, at 09:08 CET on Saturday 2 December 1995. The 1.6 tonne observatory was released into its transfer orbit from the rocket's Centaur upper stage about two hours after launch. It will take four months for the satellite to reach its final position, a unique vantage point, located 1.5 million kilometres from Earth, where the gravitational pull of the Earth and Sun are equal. From here, the Lagrange point, SOHO will have an unobstructed view of the Sun all year round. SOHO's launch was delayed from 23 November because a flaw was discovered in a precision regulator, which throttles the power of the booster engine on the Atlas rocket. The system was replaced and retested before the launch. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA. The spacecraft was designed and built in Europe, NASA provided the launch and will operate the satellite from its Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland. European scientists provided eight of the observatory's instruments and US scientists a further three. The spacecraft is part of the international Solar-Terrestrial Science Programme, the next member of which is Cluster, a flotilla of four spacecraft that will study how the Sun affects Earth and surrounding space. Cluster is scheduled for

  1. Scheme of rendezvous mission to lunar orbital station by spacecraft launched from Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great experience has been accumulated in manned flight astronautics for rendezvous in near-Earth orbit. During flights of Apollo spacecraft with crews that landed on the surface of the Moon, the problem of docking a landing module launched from the Moon's surface with the Apollo spacecraft's command module in a circumlunar orbit was successfully solved. A return to the Moon declared by leading space agencies requires a scheme for rendezvous of a spacecraft launched from an earth-based cosmodromee with a lunar orbital station. This paper considers some ballistic schemes making it possible to solve this problem with minimum fuel expenditures.

  2. The reference ballistic imaging database revisited.

    PubMed

    De Ceuster, Jan; Dujardin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    A reference ballistic image database (RBID) contains images of cartridge cases fired in firearms that are in circulation: a ballistic fingerprint database. The performance of an RBID was investigated a decade ago by De Kinder et al. using IBIS(®) Heritage™ technology. The results of that study were published in this journal, issue 214. Since then, technologies have evolved quite significantly and novel apparatus have become available on the market. The current research article investigates the efficiency of another automated ballistic imaging system, Evofinder(®) using the same database as used by De Kinder et al. The results demonstrate a significant increase in correlation efficiency: 38% of all matches were on first position of the Evofinder correlation list in comparison to IBIS(®) Heritage™ where only 19% were on the first position. Average correlation times are comparable to the IBIS(®) Heritage™ system. While Evofinder(®) demonstrates specific improvement for mutually correlating different ammunition brands, ammunition dependence of the markings is still strongly influencing the correlation result because the markings may vary considerably. As a consequence a great deal of potential hits (36%) was still far down in the correlation lists (positions 31 and lower). The large database was used to examine the probability of finding a match as a function of correlation list verification. As an example, the RBID study on Evofinder(®) demonstrates that to find at least 90% of all potential matches, at least 43% of the items in the database need to be compared on screen and this for breech face markings and firing pin impression separately. These results, although a clear improvement to the original RBID study, indicate that the implementation of such a database should still not be considered nowadays. PMID:25616217

  3. Ballistic thermoelectric properties in boron nitride nanoribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhong-Xiang; Tang, Li-Ming; Pan, Chang-Ning; Chen, Qiao; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2013-10-01

    Ballistic thermoelectric properties (TPs) in boron nitride nanoribbons (BNNRs) are studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. A comparative analysis for TPs between BNNRs and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) is made. Results show that the TPs of BNNRs are better than those of GNRs stemming from the higher power factor and smaller thermal conductance of BNNRs. With increasing the ribbon width, the maximum value of ZT (ZTmax) of BNNRs exhibits a transformation from the monotonic decrease to nonlinear increase. We also show that the lattice defect can enhance the ZTmax of these nanoribbons strongly depending on its positions and the edge shape.

  4. THE BALLISTICS OF A RIBBON COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect

    Larcombe, J.; Morley, M.; Earp, S.; Proud, W. G.; Fray, A. J.; French, M. A.

    2009-12-28

    The impact behaviour of composites is of great importance in the field of aerospace and vehicle protection. The combination of formability, lightness and strength make composite systems attractive compared to equivalent monolithic systems. However, their use as optical components has been hampered by their lack of transparency. Transparency is strongly affected by refractive index differences in the materials that form the composite. In this study a number of ribbon-based composites were produced. The impact velocity, sample deformation during the impact process and residual impactor velocity were measured. This allowed comparison between the materials ballistic efficiency. The materials are then compared to other transparent systems.

  5. Hollow ballistic pendulum for plasma momentum measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, S.F.; Pashinin, P.P.; Perov, V.Y.; Serov, R.V.; Yanovsky, V.P.

    1988-05-01

    A novel pendulum design: hollow ballistic pendulum: is suggested for plasma momentum measurements. It has an advantage over the pendula used earlier in laser plasma experiments of being insensitive to a momentum of matter evaporated and scattered by the pendulum wall exposed to the plasma, which usually exceeds plasma momentum to be measured. Simple expressions describing pendulum performance are derived, and requirements of shape and size are established. Using this kind of pendulum in experiments on laser acceleration of thin foils made it possible to measure the momentum of accelerated foil with an accuracy of about 10%.

  6. Officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1956-01-01

    Hermann Oberth (forefront) with officials of the Army Ballistic Missile Agency at Huntsville, Alabama in 1956. Left to right: Dr. Ernst Stuhlinger (seated); Major General H.N. Toftoy, Commanding Officer and person responsible for 'Project Paperclip,' which took scientists and engineers out of Germany after World War II to design rockets for American military use. Many of the scientists later helped to design the Saturn V rocket that took the Apollo 11 astronauts to the Moon. Dr. Eberhard Rees, Deputy Director, Development Operations Division Wernher von Braun, Director, Development Operations Division.

  7. General View of the interior of the Vehicle Assembly Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General View of the interior of the Vehicle Assembly Building at the Kennedy Space Center showing an External Tank being hoisted to be transferred to and mated with the Solid Rocket Boosters which had been previously stacked and assembled on the Mobile Launch Platform - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  8. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  9. Meaning of Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ge; Yu, Hengyong

    2013-01-01

    The classic imaging geometry for computed tomography is for collection of un-truncated projections and reconstruction of a global image, with the Fourier transform as the theoretical foundation that is intrinsically non-local. Recently, interior tomography research has led to theoretically exact relationships between localities in the projection and image spaces and practically promising reconstruction algorithms. Initially, interior tomography was developed for x-ray computed tomography. Then, it has been elevated as a general imaging principle. Finally, a novel framework known as “omni-tomography” is being developed for grand fusion of multiple imaging modalities, allowing tomographic synchrony of diversified features. PMID:23912256

  10. Ballistic Limit Equation for Single Wall Titanium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratliff, J. M.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Bryant, C.

    2009-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests and hydrocode simulations were used to determine the ballistic limit equation (BLE) for perforation of a titanium wall, as a function of wall thickness. Two titanium alloys were considered, and separate BLEs were derived for each. Tested wall thicknesses ranged from 0.5mm to 2.0mm. The single-wall damage equation of Cour-Palais [ref. 1] was used to analyze the Ti wall's shielding effectiveness. It was concluded that the Cour-Palais single-wall equation produced a non-conservative prediction of the ballistic limit for the Ti shield. The inaccurate prediction was not a particularly surprising result; the Cour-Palais single-wall BLE contains shield material properties as parameters, but it was formulated only from tests of different aluminum alloys. Single-wall Ti shield tests were run (thicknesses of 2.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 1.0 mm, and 0.5 mm) on Ti 15-3-3-3 material custom cut from rod stock. Hypervelocity impact (HVI) tests were used to establish the failure threshold empirically, using the additional constraint that the damage scales with impact energy, as was indicated by hydrocode simulations. The criterion for shield failure was defined as no detached spall from the shield back surface during HVI. Based on the test results, which confirmed an approximately energy-dependent shield effectiveness, the Cour-Palais equation was modified.

  11. Short report of an unusual ballistic trauma

    PubMed Central

    Inchingolo, Francesco; Tatullo, Marco; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Alessio D.; Pinto, Giorgia; Inchingolo, Angelo M.; Dipalma, Gianna

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Portable firearms have a relevant medico-legal interest, being a major cause of injury. Bullet entry wounds generally have a particular appearance, including contusion, skin introflection, and simple or excoriated ecchymosis. The skin wound is typically a hole with frayed margins, whose diameter is smaller than that of the bullet. PRESENTATION OF CASE We report the case of a 19-year-old man with ballistic trauma. Examination of the patient's lesions indicated that the bullet had entered from the left mandibular parasymphysis, creating a small hole without the typical bullet wipe and blackening. Subsequently, the bullet seemed to have fractured the left chin region immediately below the lower alveolar process, and it finally stopped in the submandibular area in the suprahyoid region of the neck. DISCUSSION This case is peculiar because the distinctive features of a firearm injury were absent; the lack of bleeding and edema made the case difficult to interpret without additional diagnostic investigations. CONCLUSION Ballistic trauma can manifest in different ways; therefore, internal trauma should be suspected even in the absence of clear external signs. This case report shows how an unusual bullet entry hole can mask quite serious injuries. PMID:22096751

  12. Materials Database Development for Ballistic Impact Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    A set of experimental data is being generated under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Supersonics project to help create and validate accurate computational impact models of jet engine impact events. The data generated will include material property data generated at a range of different strain rates, from 1x10(exp -4)/sec to 5x10(exp 4)/sec, over a range of temperatures. In addition, carefully instrumented ballistic impact tests will be conducted on flat plates and curved structures to provide material and structural response information to help validate the computational models. The material property data and the ballistic impact data will be generated using materials from the same lot, as far as possible. It was found in preliminary testing that the surface finish of test specimens has an effect on measured high strain rate tension response of AL2024. Both the maximum stress and maximum elongation are greater on specimens with a smoother finish. This report gives an overview of the testing that is being conducted and presents results of preliminary testing of the surface finish study.

  13. Endoscopic evaluation of a complex ballistic injury.

    PubMed

    Eardley, W G P; Beaven, A; Sargeant, I

    2011-12-01

    The current conflict in Afghanistan is characterised by significant injuries resulting from the use of Improvised Explosive Devices. Increasing survivability from battlefield injury, escalating musculoskeletal ballistic trauma and the use of blast weaponry combine to produce an injury profile which defines contemporary combat casualty care. Such complex multi-system trauma challenges current wound care rationale. Ballistic injury of the perineum, often associated with proximal femoral injury and significant tissue loss, raises particular management difficulties. These cases demand an individualised, flexible approach due both to the extent of their wounds, logistical issues with positioning and often limited surgical approaches. Routine positioning and approaches around the pelvis may not be available to the surgical team due to presence of external fixators and tenuous skin bridges. The availability of donor skin to cover soft tissue defects is limited and as such, approaches to wounds with minimal additional tissue trauma are of particular use. We describe the benefits of endoscopic techniques and equipment in the evaluation and management of such an injury. PMID:22319987

  14. The Dynamic Behaviour of Ballistic Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, C. J.; Appleby-Thomas, G. J.; Hazell, P. J.; Allsop, D. F.

    2009-12-01

    In order to characterise the effect of projectiles it is necessary to understand the mechanism of both penetration and resultant wounding in biological systems. Porcine gelatin is commonly used as a tissue simulant in ballistic tests because it elastically deforms in a similar manner to muscular tissue. Bullet impacts typically occur in the 350-850 m/s range; thus knowledge of the high strain-rate dynamic properties of both the projectile and target materials are desirable to simulate wounds. Unlike projectile materials, relatively little data exists on the dynamic response of flesh simulants. The Hugoniot for a 20 wt.% porcine gelatin, which exhibits a ballistic response similar to that of human tissues at room temperature, was determined using the plate-impact technique at impact velocities of 75-860 m/s. This resulted in impact stresses around three times higher than investigated elsewhere. In US-uP space the Hugoniot had the form US = 1.57+1.77 uP, while in P-uP space it was essentially hydrodynamic. In both cases this was in good agreement with the limited available data from the literature.

  15. A perfect launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Billows of smoke and steam spread across Launch Pad 39A as Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off on mission STS-92 to the International Space Station. The perfect on-time liftoff occurred at 7:17 p.m. EDT, sending a crew of seven on the 100th launch in the history of the Shuttle program. Discovery carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery's landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  16. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  17. Remote video assessment for missile launch facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.

  18. Expendable launch vehicle propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The current status is reviewed of the U.S. Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) fleet, the international competition, and the propulsion technology of both domestic and foreign ELVs. The ELV propulsion technology areas where research, development, and demonstration are most needed are identified. These propulsion technology recommendations are based on the work performed by the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC), an industry panel established by the Dept. of Transportation.

  19. Space Logistics: Launch Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Furnas, Randall B.

    1989-01-01

    The current maximum launch capability for the United States are shown. The predicted Earth-to-orbit requirements for the United States are presented. Contrasting the two indicates the strong National need for a major increase in Earth-to-orbit lift capability. Approximate weights for planned payloads are shown. NASA is studying the following options to meet the need for a new heavy-lift capability by mid to late 1990's: (1) Shuttle-C for near term (include growth versions); and (2) the Advanced Lauching System (ALS) for the long term. The current baseline two-engine Shuttle-C has a 15 x 82 ft payload bay and an expected lift capability of 82,000 lb to Low Earth Orbit. Several options are being considered which have expanded diameter payload bays. A three-engine Shuttle-C with an expected lift of 145,000 lb to LEO is being evaluated as well. The Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a potential joint development between the Air Force and NASA. This program is focused toward long-term launch requirements, specifically beyond the year 2000. The basic approach is to develop a family of vehicles with the same high reliability as the Shuttle system, yet offering a much greater lift capability at a greatly reduced cost (per pound of payload). The ALS unmanned family of vehicles will provide a low end lift capability equivalent to Titan IV, and a high end lift capability greater than the Soviet Energia if requirements for such a high-end vehicle are defined.In conclusion, the planning of the next generation space telescope should not be constrained to the current launch vehicles. New vehicle designs will be driven by the needs of anticipated heavy users.

  20. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    PubMed

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal. PMID:26853862

  1. Space Probe Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the Space Tug was a reusable multipurpose space vehicle designed to transport payloads to different orbital inclinations. Utilizing mission-specific combinations of its three primary modules (crew, propulsion, and cargo) and a variety of supplementary kits, the Space Tug was capable of numerous space applications. This 1970 artist's concept depicts the Tug's propulsion module launching a space probe into lunar orbit.

  2. 46. Quincy, MA, BO37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Quincy, MA, BO-37, Launch Area, Underground Missile Storage Structure, interior view of elevator system with overhead doors in open position and hydraulic shaft in left foreground VIEW WEST - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, Launch Area, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  3. 4. Launch closure, concrete apron and tracks at left, transporter/erector ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Launch closure, concrete apron and tracks at left, transporter/erector horizontal at right, view towards northwest - Ellsworth Air Force Base, Delta Flight, Launch Facility, On County Road T512, south of Exit 116 off I-90, Interior, Jackson County, SD

  4. 73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. VIEW OF LAUNCH OPERATOR AND LAUNCH ANAYLST PANELS LOCATED NEAR CENTER OF SOUTH WALL OF SLC-3E CONTROL ROOM. FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ON WALL IN BACKGROUND: COMMUNICATIONS HEADSET AND FOOT PEDAL IN FORGROUND. ACCIDENT REPORTING EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEM TELEPHONE, ATLAS H FUEL COUNTER, AND DIGITAL COUNTDOWN CLOCK. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  5. Planetary Interiors and Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehant, Veronique

    2013-04-01

    Lander and orbiter, even rover at the surface of planets or moons of the solar system help in determining their interior properties. First of all orbiters feel the gravity of the planet and its change. In particular, the tidal mass redistribution induces changes in the acceleration of the spacecraft orbiting around a planet. The Love number k2 has been determined for Venus, Mars and the Earth, as well as for Titan and will be deduced for instance for Mercury (MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions) and for the Galilean satellite from new missions such as JUICE (Jupiter Icy satellite Explorer). The properties of the interior can also be determined from the observation of the rotation of the celestial body. Radar observation from the Earth ground stations of Mercury has allowed Margo et al. (2012, JGR) to determine the moments of inertia of Mercury with an unprecedented accuracy. Rovers such as the MERs (Mars Exploration Rovers) allow as well to obtain the precession and nutation of Mars from which the moments of inertia of the planet and its core can be deduced. Future missions such as InSIGHT (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) will further help in the determination of Mars interior and evolution.

  6. Interior of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Basic questions regarding the interior of the Earth in the 1990's are discussed. Research problems in the areas of plate tectonics, the Earth mantle the Earth core, and continental structure are discussed. Observational requirements of the GRAVSAT satellite mission are discussed.

  7. Interior structure of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    Key measurements are discussed which are diagnostic of Uranus interior structure and evolutionary history, and reviews their present status. Typical interior models have chondritic cores, but have the bulk of their mass in an envelope consisting of ice component, principally H2O. The total amount of free H2 in the planet cannot exceed approximately 1 to 2 earth masses. Measurements of the gravitational moments of Uranus are beginning to be accurate enough to constrain models, but are limited in utility by uncertainty in the rotation period. Discussed is evidence that the outermost planetary layers have a gravitationally significant quantity of denser material (ice component) in addition to H2 and He. The He/H ratio and the deuterium abundance in the atmosphere may be diagnostic of the planet's previous evolutionary history. It is argued that the planet's interior is likely to now be at a temperature approximately 10(3) deg K. Uranus interior with Neptune's in a number of ways, considering heat flow, degree of internal differentiation, and possible magnetic field.

  8. Interior Design in Architectural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurel, Meltem O.; Potthoff, Joy K.

    2006-01-01

    The domain of interiors constitutes a point of tension between practicing architects and interior designers. Design of interior spaces is a significant part of architectural profession. Yet, to what extent does architectural education keep pace with changing demands in rendering topics that are identified as pertinent to the design of interiors?…

  9. Assessment and forecasting of lightning potential and its effect on launch operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and John F. Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weems, J.; Wyse, N.; Madura, J.; Secrist, M.; Pinder, C.

    1991-01-01

    Lightning plays a pivotal role in the operation decision process for space and ballistic launches at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Lightning forecasts are the responsibility of Detachment 11, 4th Weather Wing's Cape Canaveral Forecast Facility. These forecasts are important to daily ground processing as well as launch countdown decisions. The methodology and equipment used to forecast lightning are discussed. Impact on a recent mission is summarized.

  10. Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle development phase, Marshall plarners concluded a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) would be needed for successful Space Industrialization. Shown here in this 1976's artist's conception is an early version of the HLLV during launch.

  11. SMAP Launch and Deployment Sequence

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video combines file footage of a Delta II rocket and computer animation to depict the launch and deployment of NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive satellite. SMAP is scheduled to launch on Nov...

  12. Launch Services Program EMC Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    trout, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Presentation covers these issues: (1) Vehicles of the Launch Services Program, (2) RF Environment, (3) Common EMC Launch Vehicle Payload Integration Issues, (4) RF Sensitive Missions and (5) Lightning Monitoring,

  13. Launching Garbage-Bag Balloons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hy

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modification of a procedure for making and launching hot air balloons made out of garbage bags. Student instructions for balloon construction, launching instructions, and scale diagrams are included. (DDR)

  14. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Williams, Randall; McLaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This analysis is a survey of control center architectures of the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures have similarities in basic structure, and differences in functional distribution of responsibilities for the phases of operations: (a) Launch vehicles in the international community vary greatly in configuration and process; (b) Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific configurations; (c) Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site, however the flight operations may be a different control center than the launch center; and (d) The engineering support centers are primarily located at the design center with a small engineering support team at the launch site.

  15. Intelsat satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The launch schedule for Intelsat 5-B, the prime Intelsat satellite to provide communications services between the Americas, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa, is presented. The planned placement of the satellite into an elliptical transfer orbit, and circularization of the orbit at geosynchronous altitude over the equator are described. Characteristics of the Atlas Centaur launch vehicle, AC-56, are given. The launch operation is summarized and the launch sequence presented. The Intelsat team and contractors are listed.

  16. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  17. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  18. Space Shuttle Columbia launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the tremendous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia's seven member crew's mission included continuing experimentation in the Marshall managed payloads including the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) and the keel-mounted accelerometer that characterizes the very low frequency acceleration environment of the orbiter payload bay during space flight, known as the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE).

  19. STS-39 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The crew included seven astronauts: Michael L. Coats, commander; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; and Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  20. Ballistic Transport in Graphene Antidot Lattices.

    PubMed

    Sandner, Andreas; Preis, Tobias; Schell, Christian; Giudici, Paula; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Weiss, Dieter; Eroms, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    The bulk carrier mobility in graphene was shown to be enhanced in graphene-boron nitride heterostructures. However, nanopatterning graphene can add extra damage and drastically degrade the intrinsic properties by edge disorder. Here we show that graphene embedded into a heterostructure with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) on both sides is protected during a nanopatterning step. In this way, we can prepare graphene-based antidot lattices where the high mobility is preserved. We report magnetotransport experiments in those antidot lattices with lattice periods down to 50 nm. We observe pronounced commensurability features stemming from ballistic orbits around one or several antidots. Due to the short lattice period in our samples, we can also explore the boundary between the classical and the quantum transport regime, as the Fermi wavelength of the electrons approaches the smallest length scale of the artificial potential. PMID:26598218

  1. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  2. Ballistic energy transport in PEG oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiwei; Rubtsova, Natalia I.; Kireev, Victor V.; Rubtsov, Igor V.

    2013-03-01

    Energy transport between the terminal groups of the azido-PEG-succinimide ester compounds with a number of repeating PEG units of 0, 4, 8, and 12 was studied using relaxation-assisted two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy. The through-bond energy transport time, evaluated as the waiting time at which the cross peak maximum is reached, Tmax, was found to be linearly dependent on the chain length for chain lengths up to 60 Å suggesting a ballistic energy transport regime. The through-bond energy transport speed is found to be ca. 500 m/s. The cross-peak amplitude at the maximum decays exponentially with the chain length with a characteristic decay distance of 15.7 ± 1 Å. Substantial mode delocalization across the PEG bridge is found, which can support the energy propagation as a wavepacket.

  3. Integrated Detector for Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Biqin; Xu, Jing; Appelbaum, Ian

    2008-03-01

    Ballistic electron emission luminescence (BEEL) uses injected hot electrons to induce interband transitions and light emission in semiconductor collectors. Local hot electron injection and rastering from a scanning tunneling probe can therefore potentially provide a means to image buried luminescent layers. However, a sensitive photon detector is required to compensate for low external efficiency. We have directly integrated a Si photodetector to a GaAs/AlGaAs BEEL structure by UHV thin-film metal wafer bonding. This room-temperature technique overcomes index mismatch and numerical aperture problems associated with far-field detection. We expect this method will make BEEL microscopy generally applicable to the study of buried luminescent layers in light emitting devices based on arbitrary material systems. THis work is funded by US DOE.

  4. Uncertainty Considerations for Ballistic Limit Equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonberg, W. P.; Evans, H. J.; Williamsen, J. E; Boyer, R. L.; Nakayama, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    The overall risk for any spacecraft system is typically determined using a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). A PRA determines the overall risk associated with a particular mission by factoring in all known risks to the spacecraft during its mission. The threat to mission and human life posed by the micro-meteoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment is one of the risks. NASA uses the BUMPER II program to provide point estimate predictions of MMOD risk for the Space Shuttle and the ISS. However, BUMPER II does not provide uncertainty bounds or confidence intervals for its predictions. In this paper, we present possible approaches through which uncertainty bounds can be developed for the various damage prediction and ballistic limit equations encoded within the Shuttle and Station versions of BUMPER II.

  5. Internal Displacements in Cement during Ballistic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grantham, S. G.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-07-01

    The technique of Digital Speckle Radiography (DSR) has been shown to be widely applicable to the field of ballistics through its ability to measure internal displacement fields to a high precision. In a DSR experiment, a flat plane, typically 500 μm thick, of X-ray opaque filings are introduced into the sample during manufacture. Flash X-rays can then be used to image the plane, both before and during an impact event, to produce random speckled images on an X-ray film. Small sub-regions of the images can be tracked relative to each other using a Digital Speckle Photography (DSP) correlation algorithm. This produces a displacement field within the specimen on the seeded plane. By repeating an experiment with identical specimens, but varying the delay of the X-ray exposure, a full time history of the impact event can be obtained.

  6. Probing spin flip scattering in ballistic nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Z. M.; Feng, J. F.; Wang, Y.; Han, Prof. X. F.; Zhan, W. S.; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Because spin-flip scattering length is longer than the electron mean-free-path in a metal, past studies of spin-flip scattering are limited to the diffusive regime. Spin accumulation in the nanometer sized spacer layer of a magnetic double barrier tunnel junction allows the study of spin flip scattering near ballistic limit. We extract the spin-flip conductance $G_s$ of the spacer layer from magnetoresistance measurements. A linear temperature dependence of $G_s$ is found. The bias voltage dependence shows a quantum well resonance which explains the sharp reduction of the magnetoresistance. At 4.2K $G_s$ yields the mean-free-path (70nm) and the spin-flip length ($1.0$-$2.6\\mu$m).

  7. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes; Power, Stephen R.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed by in situ transport measurements at various temperatures. The energies of the resonances are determined by the size of the constrictions, which can be controlled precisely using STM lithography. The temperature and size dependence of the measured conductances are in quantitative agreement with tight-binding calculations. The fact that these interference effects are visible even at room temperature makes the reported devices attractive as building blocks for future carbon based electronics.

  8. The Soviet Union and ballistic missile defense

    SciTech Connect

    Parrott, B.

    1987-01-01

    In recent debate over strategic defense, the Soviet dimension has not been adequately examined. Based on an analysis of Soviet statements and Soviet weaponry, the study surveys Soviet perceptions of the shifting relationship between the superpowers and the effect of BMD on that relationship. The author then traces the evolution of Soviet policies toward ballistic missile defense and the introduction of weapons into space. After exploring the internal budgetary debates that will affect future Soviet decisions on BMD and space systems, the book outlines Soviet responses, political as well as military, to the Strategic Defense Initiative and concludes with recommendations for U.S. policy toward BMD and arms negotiations. Contents: The Central Issues; Soviet Views of the Geopolitical Context; Soviet Policy Toward Soviet BMD and the Military Uses of Space; The resource Allocation Debate and Soviet BMD Decisions; Soviet Responses to the Strategic Defense Initiative; U.S. Policy and the Future of the Superpower Arms Competition.

  9. The Internal Ballistics of an Air Gun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denny, Mark

    2011-02-01

    The internal ballistics of a firearm or artillery piece considers the pellet, bullet, or shell motion while it is still inside the barrel. In general, deriving the muzzle speed of a gunpowder firearm from first principles is difficult because powder combustion is fast and it very rapidly raises the temperature of gas (generated by gunpowder deflagration, or burning), which greatly complicates the analysis. A simple case is provided by air guns, for which we can make reasonable approximations that permit a derivation of muzzle speed. It is perhaps surprising that muzzle speed depends upon barrel length (artillerymen debated this dependence for centuries, until it was established experimentally and, later, theoretically ). Here we see that a simple physical analysis, accessible to high school or freshmen undergraduate physics students, not only derives realistic muzzle speed but also shows how it depends upon barrel length.

  10. Wound ballistics: contemporary and future research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J M; Cooper, G J; Maynard, R L

    1988-10-01

    Wound ballistics research has contributed much to the understanding of the pathophysiology of missile injury that now exists. From this store of knowledge treatment regimes have evolved which have greatly improved the lot of the soldier wounded in war. However, research must keep pace with changes that are taking place in weapons research and development so that the particular needs of the Army Medical Services on a future battlefield can be met. The differing needs of civilian and military medical services are highlighted. The marked differences that exist between the missile wound seen and treated in a late twentieth century hospital and the wounds likely to be encountered on the modern battlefield are enumerated and discussed. PMID:3057188

  11. Electron Interference in Ballistic Graphene Nanoconstrictions.

    PubMed

    Baringhaus, Jens; Settnes, Mikkel; Aprojanz, Johannes; Power, Stephen R; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    We realize nanometer size constrictions in ballistic graphene nanoribbons grown on sidewalls of SiC mesa structures. The high quality of our devices allows the observation of a number of electronic quantum interference phenomena. The transmissions of Fabry-Perot-like resonances are probed by in situ transport measurements at various temperatures. The energies of the resonances are determined by the size of the constrictions, which can be controlled precisely using STM lithography. The temperature and size dependence of the measured conductances are in quantitative agreement with tight-binding calculations. The fact that these interference effects are visible even at room temperature makes the reported devices attractive as building blocks for future carbon based electronics. PMID:27203337

  12. Gate tuneable beamsplitter in ballistic graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Rickhaus, Peter; Makk, Péter Schönenberger, Christian; Liu, Ming-Hao; Richter, Klaus

    2015-12-21

    We present a beam splitter in a suspended, ballistic, multiterminal, bilayer graphene device. By using local bottomgates, a p-n interface tilted with respect to the current direction can be formed. We show that the p-n interface acts as a semi-transparent mirror in the bipolar regime and that the reflectance and transmittance of the p-n interface can be tuned by the gate voltages. Moreover, by studying the conductance features appearing in magnetic field, we demonstrate that the position of the p-n interface can be moved by 1 μm. The herein presented beamsplitter device can form the basis of electron-optic interferometers in graphene.

  13. Heterogeneous propellant internal ballistics: criticism and regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, R. L.

    2011-10-01

    Although heterogeneous propellant and its innately nondeterministic, chemically discrete morphology dominates applications, ballisticcharacterization deterministic time-mean burning rate and acoustic admittance measures' absence of explicit, nondeterministic information requires homogeneous propellant with a smooth, uniformly regressing burning surface: inadequate boundary conditions for heterogeneous propellant grained applications. The past age overcame this dichotomy with one-dimensional (1D) models and empirical knowledge from numerous, adequately supported motor developments and supplementary experiments. However, current cost and risk constraints inhibit this approach. Moreover, its fundamental science approach is more sensitive to incomplete boundary condition information (garbage-in still equals garbage-out) and more is expected. This work critiques this situation and sketches a path forward based on enhanced ballistic and motor characterizations in the workplace and approximate model and apparatus developments mentored by CSAR DNS capabilities (or equivalent).

  14. A Novel Binarization Algorithm for Ballistics Firearm Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongguang

    The identification of ballistics specimens from imaging systems is of paramount importance in criminal investigation. Binarization plays a key role in preprocess of recognizing cartridges in the ballistic imaging systems. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to get the satisfactory binary image using existing binary algorithms. In this paper, we utilize the global and local thresholds to enhance the image binarization. Importantly, we present a novel criterion for effectively detecting edges in the images. Comprehensive experiments have been conducted over sample ballistic images. The empirical results demonstrate the proposed method can provide a better solution than existing binary algorithms.

  15. Ballistic trauma: lessons learned from iraq and afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Shin, Emily H; Sabino, Jennifer M; Nanos, George P; Valerio, Ian L

    2015-02-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  16. Three Steps towards Metrological Traceability for Ballistics Signature Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, J.; Vorburger, T.; Thompson, R.; Renegar, T.; Zheng, A.; Ma, L.; Yen, J.; Ols, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in collaboration with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) has developed the Standard Reference Material (SRM) bullets and casings. NIST and ATF are proposing to establish a National Ballistics Measurement Traceability and Quality System for ballistics signature measurements and correlations using these materials. In this paper, three key steps towards metrological traceability for ballistics signature measurements are discussed that include: 1) Establishing a reference standard; 2) Establishing an unbroken chain of calibrations; and 3) Evaluating measurement uncertainty.

  17. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  18. Laminated metals composites fracture and ballistic impact behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    1998-01-20

    Recent advances in the fracture and ballistic impact response of laminated metal composites (LMCs) are reviewed. The laminate structure can provide significant improvements to these properties relative to the component materials. Typical fracture and ballistic impact properties in LMCs are illustrated for systems containing Al alloys and Al matrix composites. The unique mechanisms operating in a layered structure that contribute to fracture or ballistic impact resistance are discussed. The influence of laminate architecture, component material properties and interface strength on mechanisms and properties are briefly reviewed for these Al-based LMCs.

  19. Synchro-ballistic recording of detonation phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Critchfield, R.R.; Asay, B.W.; Bdzil, J.B.; Davis, W.C.; Ferm, E.N.; Idar, D.J.

    1997-09-01

    Synchro-ballistic use of rotating-mirror streak cameras allows for detailed recording of high-speed events of known velocity and direction. After an introduction to the synchro-ballistic technique, this paper details two diverse applications of the technique as applied in the field of high-explosives research. In the first series of experiments detonation-front shape is recorded as the arriving detonation shock wave tilts an obliquely mounted mirror, causing reflected light to be deflected from the imaging lens. These tests were conducted for the purpose of calibrating and confirming the asymptotic Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory of Bdzil and Stewart. The phase velocities of the events range from ten to thirty millimeters per microsecond. Optical magnification is set for optimal use of the film`s spatial dimension and the phase velocity is adjusted to provide synchronization at the camera`s maximum writing speed. Initial calibration of the technique is undertaken using a cylindrical HE geometry over a range of charge diameters and of sufficient length-to-diameter ratio to insure a stable detonation wave. The final experiment utilizes an arc-shaped explosive charge, resulting in an asymmetric detonation-front record. The second series of experiments consists of photographing a shaped-charge jet having a velocity range of two to nine millimeters per microsecond. To accommodate the range of velocities it is necessary to fire several tests, each synchronized to a different section of the jet. The experimental apparatus consists of a vacuum chamber to preclude atmospheric ablation of the jet tip with shocked-argon back lighting to produce a shadow-graph image.

  20. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatola, Jennifer S.

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mode changes in the fiber fracture when transversely loaded by indenters of different shapes. An experimental design mimicking transverse impact was used to determine any such effects. Three different indenters were used: round, FSP, and razor blade. The indenter height was changed to change the angle of failure tested. Five high performance fibers were examined: KevlarRTM KM2, SpectraRTM 130d, DyneemaRTM SK-62 and SK-76, and ZylonRTM 555. Failed fibers were analyzed using an SEM to determine failure mechanisms. The results show that the round and razor blade indenters produced a constant failure strain, as well as failure mechanisms independent of testing angle. The FSP indenter produced a decrease in failure strain as the angle increased. Fibrillation was the dominant failure mechanism at all angles for the round indenter, while through thickness shearing was the failure mechanism for the razor blade. The FSP indenter showed a transition from fibrillation at low angles to through thickness shearing at high angles, indicating that the round and razor blade indenters are extreme cases of the FSP indenter. The failure mechanisms observed with the FSP indenter at various angles correlated with the experimental strain data obtained during fiber testing. This indicates that geometry of the indenter tip in compression is a contributing factor in lowering the failure strain of the high performance fibers. TEM analysis of the fiber failure mechanisms was also attempted, though without

  1. Interior of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Callisto. The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Callisto's radius is 2403 km, larger than our Moon's radius. Callisto's interior is shown as a relatively uniform mixture of comparable amounts of ice and rock. The surface layer of Callisto is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying ice/rock layer in a variety of ways including, for example, the percentage of rock it contains.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  2. STS-86 Atlantis Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on Sept. 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34:19 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six-minute, 45- second launch window. The 10-day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid-May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about three-and-a-half tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  3. STS-86 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis blazes through the night sky to begin the STS-86 mission, slated to be the seventh of nine planned dockings of the Space Shuttle with the Russian Space Station Mir. Liftoff on September 25 from Launch Pad 39A was at 10:34 p.m. EDT, within seconds of the preferred time, during a six minute, 45 second launch window. The 10 day flight will include the transfer of the sixth U.S. astronaut to live and work aboard the Mir. After the docking, STS-86 Mission Specialist David A. Wolf will become a member of the Mir 24 crew, replacing astronaut C. Michael Foale, who will return to Earth aboard Atlantis with the remainder of the STS-86 crew. Foale has been on the Russian Space Station since mid May. Wolf is scheduled to remain there about four months. Besides Wolf (embarking to Mir) and Foale (returning), the STS-86 crew includes Commander James D. Wetherbee, Pilot Michael J. Bloomfield, and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Scott E. Parazynski, Vladimir Georgievich Titov of the Russian Space Agency, and Jean-Loup J.M. Chretien of the French Space Agency, CNES. Other primary objectives of the mission are a spacewalk by Parazynski and Titov, and the exchange of about 3.5 tons of science/logistical equipment and supplies between Atlantis and the Mir.

  4. New Product Launching Ideas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiruthika, E.

    2012-09-01

    Launching a new product can be a tense time for a small or large business. There are those moments when you wonder if all of the work done to develop the product will pay off in revenue, but there are many things are can do to help increase the likelihood of a successful product launch. An open-minded consumer-oriented approach is imperative in todayís diverse global marketplace so a firm can identify and serve its target market, minimize dissatisfaction, and stay ahead of competitors. Final consumers purchase for personal, family, or household use. Finally, the kind of information that the marketing team needs to provide customers in different buying situations. In high-involvement decisions, the marketer needs to provide a good deal of information about the positive consequences of buying. The sales force may need to stress the important attributes of the product, the advantages compared with the competition; and maybe even encourage ìtrialî or ìsamplingî of the product in the hope of securing the sale. The final stage is the post-purchase evaluation of the decision. It is common for customers to experience concerns after making a purchase decision. This arises from a concept that is known as ìcognitive dissonance

  5. Mortar launched surveillance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Carl E.; Carlton, Lindley A.

    2001-02-01

    Accurate Automation Corporation has completed the conceptual design of a mortar launched air vehicle system to perform close range or over-the-horizon surveillance missions. Law enforcement and military units require an organic capability to obtain real time intelligence information of time critical targets. Our design will permit law enforcement to detect, classify, locate and track these time critical targets. The surveillance system is a simple, unmanned fixed-winged aircraft deployed via a conventional mortar tube. The aircraft's flight surfaces are deployed following mortar launch to permit maximum range and time over target. The aircraft and sensor system are field retrievable. The aircraft can be configured with an engine to permit extended time over target or range. The aircraft has an integrated surveillance sensor system; a programmable CMOS sensor array. The integrated RF transmitted to capable of down- linking real-time video over line-of-sight distances exceeding 10 kilometers. The major benefit of the modular design is the ability to provide surveillance or tracking quickly at a low cost. Vehicle operational radius and sensor field coverage as well as design trade results of vehicle range and endurance performance and payload capacity at operational range are presented for various mortar configurations.

  6. Magnetic Launch Assist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, W. A.

    2000-01-01

    With the ever-increasing cost of getting to space and the need for safe, reliable, and inexpensive ways to access space, NASA is taking a look at technologies that will get us there. One of these technologies is Magnetic Launch Assist (MagLev). This is the concept of using both magnetic levitation and magnetic propulsion to provide an initial velocity by using electrical power from ground sources. The use of ground based power can significantly reduce operational costs over the consumables necessary to attain the same velocity. The technologies to accomplish this are both old and new. The concept of MagLev has been around for a long time and several MagLev Trains have already been made. Where NASA's MagLev diverges from the traditional train is in the immense power required to propel this vehicle to 600 feet per second in less than 10 seconds. New technologies or the upgrade of existing technologies will need to be investigated in areas of energy storage and power switching. Plus the separation of a very large mass (the space vehicle) and the aerodynamics of that vehicle while on the carrier are also of great concern and require considerable study and testing. NASA's plan is to mature these technologies in the next 10 years to achieve our goal of launching a full sized space vehicle off a MagLev rail.

  7. Mercury-Redstone: The first American man-rated space launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhalter, Bettye B.; Sharpe, Mitchell R.

    1990-12-01

    This paper describes the development of the Mercury-Redstone launch vehicle used by the U.S.A. in 1961 to project two manned spacecraft along suborbital ballistic trajectories. It shows that progress in ballistic missile technology dating from World War II contributed to the development of the Redstone missile, which itself was adapted for the Mercury spacecraft launch missions. Among other subjects, the proposal to use a modified Redstone as a manned launch vehicle in the proposed project Adam is recounted as is the role played by the Hermes C1. Particular attention is focused on the engineering adaptations and rigid reliability program of the Redstone missile to fulfill the requirements of launching man. The process of "man-rating" the Mercury-Redstone for this category of mission is explained. Also described are the design, development, and testing procedures developed for Mercury-Redstone. Key points in the design process and decisions made to insure mission success and astronaut safety are reviewed. Finally, the results of the flights of the Mercury Freedom 7 spacecraft piloted by Astronaut Alan B. Shepard on 6 May 1961 and the Mercury Liberty Bell 7 spacecraft piloted by Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom on 21 July 1961 are summarized.

  8. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Quick Time movie demonstrates the Magnetic Launch Assist system, previously referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, for space launch using a 5 foot model of a reusable Bantam Class launch vehicle on a 50 foot track that provided 6-g acceleration and 6-g de-acceleration. Overcoming the grip of Earth's gravity is a supreme challenge for engineers who design rockets that leave the planet. Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the takeoff, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  9. RSRM-13 (360Q013) ballistics mass properties flight designation STS-41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubacher, Brian A.; Richards, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    The propulsion performance and reconstructed mass properties data from Thiokol's RSRM-13 motors which were assigned to the STS-41 launch are presented. The SRM propellant, TP-H1148, is a composite type solid propellant, formulated of polybutadiene acrylic acid acryonitrile terpolymer binder, epoxy curing agent, ammonium perchlorate oxidizer, and aluminum powder fuel. A small amount of burning rate catalyst (iron oxide) was added to achieve the desired propellant burn rate. The propellant evaluation and raw material information are also presented. The presented ballistic performance was based on the Operational Flight Instrumentation. The adjustments made to the raw data on this flight include biasing the data to correct ambient pressure before liftoff. The performance from each motor as well as matched pair performance values were well within the CEI Specification requirements.

  10. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggers, A J , Jr

    1958-01-01

    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  11. 49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. INTERIOR OF GILLEY ROOM: Interior view towards southeast of the Gilley Room on the second floor of the powerhouse and ear barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR VIEW OF PARTITIONS IN DRESSING ROOM; INTERIOR HALLWAY FOR HYDROTHERAPY AREA AT RIGHT - Fort McCoy, Building No. T-1054, South side of South Tenth Avenue, Block 10, Sparta, Monroe County, WI

  13. 28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Interior view of telegrapher's bay, east wall, showing interior finishes, framing, and furring over stonework - Bend Railroad Depot, 1160 Northeast Divion Street (At foot of Kearny Street), Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  14. 48. INTERIOR OF MAIN OFFICE: Interior view towards southeast of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. INTERIOR OF MAIN OFFICE: Interior view towards southeast of Main Office on second floor of the Washington and Mason powerhouse and car barn. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 43. ELEVATOR HEADHOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. ELEVATOR HEAD-HOUSE INTERIOR: Interior view towards southeast of elevator head-house at the Washington and Mason Street powerhouse. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of interior upstairs loft corner, north portion; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Ordnance Warehouse, Blake Avenue, northeast corner of Blake Avenue & Railroad Avenue, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  17. 9. Southeast view interior, typical interior office, supervisor's office, room ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Southeast view interior, typical interior office, supervisor's office, room 24A - Selfridge Field, Building No. 1050, Northwest corner of Doolittle Avenue & D Street; Harrison Township, Mount Clemens, Macomb County, MI

  18. Scanner Buildings Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Scanner Buildings - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  19. Nonideality of drain electrode and ballistic performance of MOSFET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natori, Kenji

    2015-04-01

    The ideal drain electrode assumed in the analysis of MOSFETs accepts carriers from the channel without reflection. The realistic drain, however, backscatters some of the carriers into the channel once again, and the backscattering is intensified if elastic scattering is dominant within the drain. The backscattering strongly affects the ballistic performance of MOSFETs. The channel length dependence of the ballistic performance of MOSFETs is explored in consideration of the backscattering. It is concluded that the ballistic limit of MOSFETs is not realized in the short-channel limit of the device, but, on the contrary, in the comparatively long-channel device in which minimization of the elastic scattering is pursued. The tendency may possibly explain the observed result that the performance of a 0.1 µm MOSFET reported a quarter-century ago showed a good agreement with the ballistic MOSFET characteristics.

  20. Ballistic impact fatigue behavior of spectra fiber-reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.W.; Lee, B.L.

    1994-12-31

    The study examined the penetration failure mechanisms of Spectra fiber-reinforced composites under ballistic impact and assessed the roles played by resin matrix properties in controlling the process of impact damage propagation. In order to observe gradual propagation of damage, a concept of impact fatigue was introduced by subjecting the composite plates to a multiple number of repeated ballistic impact. When the striking velocity of,a projectile was below the ballistic limit, repeated impact resulted in a progressive growth of local delamination until full penetration of the projectile occurs. Preliminary results indicated that the vinyl ester resin matrix composites have a higher ballistic limit and longer impact fatigue life at a given striking velocity than the polyurethane matrix composites. Based on the test results of dynamic mechanical properties, more localized delamination of polyurethane matrix composites was attributed to a greater degree of stress wave attenuation and lower bending stiffness of material system.

  1. Engineering Features Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Engineering Features - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  2. eLaunch Hypersonics: An Advanced Launch System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    This presentation describes a new space launch system that NASA can and should develop. This approach can significantly reduce ground processing and launch costs, improve reliability, and broaden the scope of what we do in near earth orbit. The concept (not new) is to launch a re-usable air-breathing hypersonic vehicle from a ground based electric track. This vehicle launches a final rocket stage at high altitude/velocity for the final leg to orbit. The proposal here differs from past studies in that we will launch above Mach 1.5 (above transonic pinch point) which further improves the efficiency of air breathing, horizontal take-off launch systems. The approach described here significantly reduces cost per kilogram to orbit, increases safety and reliability of the boost systems, and reduces ground costs due to horizontal-processing. Finally, this approach provides significant technology transfer benefits for our national infrastructure.

  3. LAUNCH_BLTMS.DLL

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-12-14

    Postprocessor for the integration of the BLT-MS (Breach Leach Transport-Multi Species) code with GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark}. The program is intended as a DLL for use with a GoldSim{trademark} model file. The code executes BTLMS.EXE using a standard BLT-MS input file and allocated parameters to memory for subsequent input of BLTMS.EXE output dat to a GoldSim{trademark} model file. This DLL is used for performing Monte Carlomore » analyses. The software is used as part of a modeling package that consists of BLTMS.EXE, GoldSim{trademark}, Read_BLT.DLL and Launch_BLTMS.DLL. The modeling package is used to run Monte Crlo analyses for performance assessment of Low level Radioactive Waste Repositories.« less

  4. STS-112 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis hurdles toward space from Launch Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the STS-112 mission. Liftoff occurred at 3:46pm EDT, October 7, 2002. Atlantis carried the Starboard-1 (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart A. The S1 was the second truss structure installed on the International Space Station (ISS). It was attached to the S0 truss which was previously installed by the STS-110 mission. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that ride along the ISS railway, providing mobile work platforms for future space walking astronauts. The 11 day mission performed three space walks to attach the S1 truss.

  5. STS-92 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Viewed from across the waters of Banana Creek, clouds of smoke and steam are illuminated by the flames from Space Shuttle Discovery'''s perfect on-time launch at 7:17 p.m. EDT. Discovery carries a crew of seven on a construction flight to the International Space Station. Discovery also carries a payload that includes the Integrated Truss Structure Z-1, first of 10 trusses that will form the backbone of the Space Station, and the third Pressurized Mating Adapter that will provide a Shuttle docking port for solar array installation on the sixth Station flight and Lab installation on the seventh Station flight. Discovery'''s landing is expected Oct. 22 at 2:10 p.m. EDT.

  6. Payload Launch Lock Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A payload launch lock mechanism includes a base, a preload clamp, a fastener, and a shape memory alloy (SMA) actuator. The preload clamp is configured to releasibly restrain a payload. The fastener extends, along an axis, through the preload clamp and into the base, and supplies a force to the preload clamp sufficient to restrain the payload. The SMA actuator is disposed between the base and the clamp. The SMA actuator is adapted to receive electrical current and is configured, upon receipt of the electrical current, to supply a force that causes the fastener to elongate without fracturing. The preload clamp, in response to the fastener elongation, either rotates or pivots to thereby release the payload.

  7. STS-118 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Enroute to the International Space Station (ISS), Space Shuttle Endeavor and its seven member STS-118 crew, blasted off from the launch pad at Kennedy Space Center on August 8, 2007. Construction resumed on the ISS as STS-118 mission specialists and the Expedition 15 crew completed installation of the third Starboard 5 (S-5) truss segment, removed a faulty Control Moment Gyroscope (CMG-3), installed a new CMG into the Z1 truss, relocated the S-band Antenna Sub-Assembly from the Port 6 (P6) to Port 1 (P1) truss, installed a new transponder on P1, retrieved the P6 transponder, and delivered roughly 5,000 pounds of equipment and supplies.

  8. STS-87 Columbia Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Like a rising sun lighting up the afternoon sky, the Space Shuttle Columbia soars from Launch Pad 39B at 2:46:00 p.m. EST, November 19, on the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload and Spartan-201 satellite. The crew members include Mission Commander Kevin Kregel.; Pilot Steven Lindsey; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Ph.D., Winston Scott, and Takao Doi, Ph.D., of the National Space Development Agency of Japan; and Payload Specialist Leonid Kadenyuk of the National Space Agency of Ukraine. During the 16-day STS-87 mission, the crew will oversee experiments in microgravity; deploy and retrieve a solar satellite; and test a new experimental camera, the AERCam Sprint. Dr. Doi and Scott also will perform a spacewalk to practice International Space Station maneuvers.

  9. The Launch of an Atlas/Centaur Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The launch of an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle is shown in this photograph. The Atlas/Centaur, launched on November 13, 1978, carried the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 into the required orbit. The second observatory, the HEAO-2 (nicknamed the Einstein Observatory in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein) carried the first telescope capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects.

  10. The role of ballistic erosion and sedimentation in lunar stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Aspects of base surge transport are considered along with questions regarding the applicability of base surge transport to lunar sedimentation, the ballistic transport of crater and basin ejecta, Copernicus crater ballistics, and the effects of ejecta impact on preexisting lunar ground. An ejecta emplacement model is discussed and attention is given to the structure of the surface of continuous deposits of craters and basins, the thickness of crater and basin deposits, and the characteristics of impact melts.

  11. Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Radu, A.; Dragoman, D.; Iftimie, S.

    2012-07-15

    We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials' parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.

  12. Steering and collimating ballistic electrons with amphoteric refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, A.; Dragoman, D.; Iftimie, S.

    2012-07-01

    We show that amphoteric refraction of ballistic electrons, i.e., positive or negative refraction depending on the incidence angle, occurs at an interface between an isotropic and an anisotropic medium and can be employed to steer and collimate electron beams. The steering angle is determined by the materials' parameters, but the degree of collimation can be tuned in a significant range by changing the energy of ballistic electrons.

  13. KSC Vertical Launch Site Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Lynne V.

    2007-01-01

    RS&H was tasked to evaluate the potential available launch sites for a combined two user launch pad. The Launch sites were to be contained entirely within current Kennedy Space Center property lines. The user launch vehicles to be used for evaluation are in the one million pounds of first stage thrust range. Additionally a second evaluation criterion was added early on in the study. A single user launch site was to be evaluated for a two million pound first stage thrust vehicle. Both scenarios were to be included in the report. To provide fidelity to the study criteria, a specific launch vehicle in the one million pound thrust range was chosen as a guide post or straw-man launch vehicle. The RpK K-1 vehicle is a current Commercial Orbital Transportation System (COTS), contract awardee along with the SpaceX Falcon 9 vehicle. SpaceX, at the time of writing, is planning to launch COTS and possibly other payloads from Cx-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station property. RpK has yet to declare a specific launch site as their east coast US launch location. As such it was deemed appropriate that RpK's vehicle requirements be used as conceptual criteria. For the purposes of this study those criteria were marginally generalized to make them less specifiC.

  14. Internal Ballistics of a Pneumatic Potato Cannon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungan, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    Basic laws of thermodynamics and mechanics are used to analyse an air gun. Such devices are often employed in outdoor physics demonstrations to launch potatoes using compressed gas that is here assumed to expand reversibly and adiabatically. Reasonable agreement is found with reported muzzle speeds for such homebuilt cannons. The treatment is…

  15. Ballistic imaging in the near-field of an effervescent spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linne, Mark; Sedarsky, David; Meyer, Terrence; Gord, James; Carter, Campbell

    2010-10-01

    We have investigated liquid breakup mechanisms in the near nozzle region of a high-pressure effervescent atomizer using ballistic imaging. This technique has revealed various breakup regimes depending upon total flow rate and the gas-to-liquid ratio (GLR). At low total speeds, the jet does not exhibit the wide spread angle and rapid breakup for which effervescent sprays are known, even at high GLR. Above a distinct threshold value for total flow rate, the jet passes through several recognizable flow regimes depending on GLR and it does achieve the expected wide spread angle and rapid breakup. Intermediate GLR’s produce interesting flow patterns that seem to be generated by surging at the nozzle exit, and this surging can probably be attributed to the flow pattern just at the nozzle exit. Indeed, specific interior flows seem to generate the most rapid breakup and should be investigated further.

  16. Periodic orbits analysis of the form factor: from ballistic to diffusive systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, Oded; Fishman, Shmuel

    1996-05-01

    The energy level correlator K(s) and the form factor 0305-4470/29/9/016/img1 are calculated for a hypercubic billiard with small hyperspheres placed at random in its interior. Various regimes, characterized by the elastic mean free path l, resulting from the scattering on impurities, are identified. The analysis extends from the ballistic regime, where l is much larger than the size of the system, via intermediate regimes, to the diffusive regime, where l is much smaller than its size. Semiclassical expressions for the density of states of chaotic and integrable systems in terms of classical periodic orbits are used. The diagonal approximation for 0305-4470/29/9/016/img1 is made for short times, while non-perturbative methods are used for long times. The analysis makes use of analytic properties of classical dynamical zeta function associated with the Perron - Frobenius operator. The general features are relevant for mesoscopic systems.

  17. Room-temperature ballistic transport in III-nitride heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Matioli, Elison; Palacios, Tomás

    2015-02-11

    Room-temperature (RT) ballistic transport of electrons is experimentally observed and theoretically investigated in III-nitrides. This has been largely investigated at low temperatures in low band gap III-V materials due to their high electron mobilities. However, their application to RT ballistic devices is limited by their low optical phonon energies, close to KT at 300 K. In addition, the short electron mean-free-path at RT requires nanoscale devices for which surface effects are a limitation in these materials. We explore the unique properties of wide band-gap III-nitride semiconductors to demonstrate RT ballistic devices. A theoretical model is proposed to corroborate experimentally their optical phonon energy of 92 meV, which is ∼4× larger than in other III-V semiconductors. This allows RT ballistic devices operating at larger voltages and currents. An additional model is described to determine experimentally a characteristic dimension for ballistic transport of 188 nm. Another remarkable property is their short carrier depletion at device sidewalls, down to 13 nm, which allows top-down nanofabrication of very narrow ballistic devices. These results open a wealth of new systems and basic transport studies possible at RT. PMID:25614931

  18. Interior of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of geophysical measurements made from Earth, from spacecraft in orbit around the Moon, and by astronauts on the lunar surface allow us to probe beyond the lunar surface to learn about its interior. Similarly to the Earth, the Moon is thought to consist of a distinct crust, mantle, and core. The crust is globally asymmetric in thickness, the mantle is largely homogeneous, and the core is probably layered, with evidence for molten material. This chapter will review a range of methods used to infer the Moon's internal structure, and briefly discuss the implications for the Moon's formation and evolution.

  19. 11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail of the interior, looking through an interior doorway toward the front and east window. Note: This photograph shows that the building had been converted to a residence following its use as a school. In addition, the hazardous condition of the structure's interior is evident. Two ceilings which are visible in the photograph, (the upper, probably original plastered ceiling, and a secondary, adapted ceiling) as well as ceiling joists in the southernmost rooms have collapsed. Because of the dangerous condition of the interior of the building, additional interior photography was not attempted at this time. - Perry Township School No. 3, Middle Mount Vernon & Eickhoff Roads, Evansville, Vanderburgh County, IN

  20. A Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method to Compare Armor Materials or Components (Residual Mass Ballistic Testing Method)

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin Langhorst; Thomas M Lillo; Henry S Chu

    2014-05-01

    A statistics based ballistic test method is presented for use when comparing multiple groups of test articles of unknown relative ballistic perforation resistance. The method is intended to be more efficient than many traditional methods for research and development testing. To establish the validity of the method, it is employed in this study to compare test groups of known relative ballistic performance. Multiple groups of test articles were perforated using consistent projectiles and impact conditions. Test groups were made of rolled homogeneous armor (RHA) plates and differed in thickness. After perforation, each residual projectile was captured behind the target and its mass was measured. The residual masses measured for each test group were analyzed to provide ballistic performance rankings with associated confidence levels. When compared to traditional V50 methods, the residual mass (RM) method was found to require fewer test events and be more tolerant of variations in impact conditions.

  1. 14 CFR 417.125 - Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to a launch operator conducting a launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (b) Need for flight safety system. A launch operator must launch an unguided suborbital launch vehicle with a flight safety system...

  2. 14 CFR 417.125 - Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to a launch operator conducting a launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (b) Need for flight safety system. A launch operator must launch an unguided suborbital launch vehicle with a flight safety system...

  3. 14 CFR 417.125 - Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (a) Applicability. This section applies only to a launch operator conducting a launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle. (b) Need for flight safety system. A launch operator must launch an unguided suborbital launch vehicle with a flight safety system...

  4. The application of a calibrated 3D ballistic trajectory model to ballistic hazard assessments at Upper Te Maari, Tongariro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, R. H.; Tsunematsu, K.; Kennedy, B. M.; Breard, E. C. P.; Lube, G.; Wilson, T. M.; Jolly, A. D.; Pawson, J.; Rosenberg, M. D.; Cronin, S. J.

    2014-10-01

    On 6 August, 2012, Upper Te Maari Crater, Tongariro volcano, New Zealand, erupted for the first time in over one hundred years. Multiple vents were activated during the hydrothermal eruption, ejecting blocks up to 2.3 km and impacting ~ 2.6 km of the Tongariro Alpine Crossing (TAC) hiking track. Ballistic impact craters were mapped to calibrate a 3D ballistic trajectory model for the eruption. This was further used to inform future ballistic hazard. Orthophoto mapping revealed 3587 impact craters with a mean diameter of 2.4 m. However, field mapping of accessible regions indicated an average of at least four times more observable impact craters and a smaller mean crater diameter of 1.2 m. By combining the orthophoto and ground-truthed impact frequency and size distribution data, we estimate that approximately 13,200 ballistic projectiles were generated during the eruption. The 3D ballistic trajectory model and a series of inverse models were used to constrain the eruption directions, angles and velocities. When combined with eruption observations and geophysical observations, the model indicates that the blocks were ejected in five variously directed eruption pulses, in total lasting 19 s. The model successfully reproduced the mapped impact distribution using a mean initial particle velocity of 200 m/s with an accompanying average gas flow velocity over a 400 m radius of 150 m/s. We apply the calibrated model to assess ballistic hazard from the August eruption along the TAC. By taking the field mapped spatial density of impacts and an assumption that an average ballistic impact will cause serious injury or death (casualty) over an 8 m2 area, we estimate that the probability of casualty ranges from 1% to 16% along the affected track (assuming an eruption during the time of exposure). Future ballistic hazard and probabilities of casualty along the TAC are also assessed through application of the calibrated model. We model a magnitude larger eruption and illustrate

  5. Ballistic Coefficient Prediction for Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R.; Arora, N.; Vittaldev, V.; Gaylor, D.

    2012-09-01

    Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions remains elusive. In this paper, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients for Resident Space Objects (RSOs), thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we implement a two-pronged strategy that includes elements of time series analysis and physics based simulations. State-of-the-art empirical time series prediction methods are applied and tested on BC time series in the context of both simulation data and actual data provided by the Air Force. An archive of simulated BC data is generated using custom 6DOF high fidelity simulations for RSOs using plate models for shapes. The simulator includes force and torque perturbations due to the nonspherical Earth, third-body perturbations, SRP, and atmospheric drag. The simulated BC profiles demonstrate significant variation over short time spans (due primarily to varying frontal areas), providing motivation to improve future BC estimation strategies. The 6DOF modeling is intended to provide a physics-based BC data set to complement the BC data set provided by the AF. For the ‘black-box' time series algorithms, a variety of approaches are considered, whereas two prediction models showed the most promising performance: a multi-tone harmonic model and an autoregressive (AR) model. Both the multi-tone harmonic model and the AR model are subjected to multiple levels of optimizations resulting in highly optimized final models that are tuned specifically with the 205 BC time series provided by the AF. Two versions of the AR model are developed based on the model prediction methodology. The second version of the AR

  6. Low-energy ballistic lunar transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    A systematic method is developed that uses dynamical systems theory to model, analyze, and construct low-energy ballistic lunar transfers (BLTs). It has been found that low-energy BLTs may be produced by intersecting the stable manifold of an unstable Earth-Moon three-body orbit with the Earth. A spacecraft following such a trajectory is only required to perform a single maneuver, namely, the Trans-Lunar Injection maneuver, in order to complete the transfer. After the Trans-Lunar Injection maneuver, the spacecraft follows an entirely ballistic trajectory that asymptotically approaches and arrives at the target lunar three-body orbit. Because these orbit transfers require no orbit insertion maneuver at the three-body orbit, the transfers may be used to send spacecraft 25--40% more massive than spacecraft sent to the same orbits via conventional, direct transfers. From the targeted three-body orbits, the spacecraft may transfer to nearly any region within the Earth-Moon system, including any location on the surface of the Moon. The systematic methods developed in this research allow low-energy BLTs to be characterized by six parameters. It has been found that BLTs exist in families, where a family of BLTs consists of transfers whose parameters vary in a continuous fashion from one end of the family to the other. The families are easily identified and studied using a BLT State Space Map (BLT Map). The present research studies BLT Maps and has surveyed a wide variety of BLTs that exist in the observed families. It has been found that many types of BLTs may be constructed between 185-km low Earth parking orbits and lunar three-body orbits that require less than 3.27 km/s and fewer than 120 days of transfer time. Under certain conditions, BLTs may be constructed that require less than 3.2 km/s and fewer than 100 days of transfer time. It has been found that BLTs may implement LEO parking orbits with nearly any combination of altitude and inclination; they may depart from

  7. Dynamics and thermal sensitivity of ballistic and non-ballistic feeding in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Deban, Stephen M; Scales, Jeffrey A

    2016-02-01

    Low temperature reduces the performance of muscle-powered movements, but in movements powered by elastic recoil mechanisms, this effect can be mitigated and performance can be increased. To better understand the morphological basis of high performance and thermal robustness of elastically powered movements, we compared feeding dynamics at a range of temperatures (5-25°C) in two species of terrestrial plethodontid salamanders, Plethodon metcalfi and Ensatina eschscholtzii, which differ in tongue muscle architecture and the mechanism of tongue projection. We found that Ensatina is capable of ballistic projection with a mean muscle mass-specific power of 2100 W kg(-1), revealing an elastic mechanism. Plethodon, in contrast, projected its tongue non-ballistically with a mean power of only 18 W kg(-1), indicating it is muscle powered. Ensatina projected its tongue significantly farther than Plethodon and with dynamics that had significantly lower thermal sensitivity at temperatures below 15°C. These performance differences were correlated with morphological differences, namely elongated collagenous aponeuroses in the projector muscle of Ensatina as compared with Plethodon, which are likely the site of energy storage, and the absence in Ensatina of projector muscle fibers attaching to the tongue skeleton that allows projection to be truly ballistic. These findings demonstrate that, in these otherwise similar species, the presence in one species of elaborated connective tissue in series with myofibers confers not only 10-fold greater absolute performance but also greater thermal robustness of performance. We conclude that changes in muscle and connective tissue architecture are sufficient to alter significantly the mechanics, performance and thermal robustness of musculoskeletal systems. PMID:26612894

  8. The lunar interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The compressional velocities are estimated for materials in the lunar interior and compared with lunar seismic results. The lower crust has velocities appropriate for basalts or anorthosites. The high velocities associated with the uppermost mantle imply high densities and a change in composition to a lighter assemblage at depths of the order of 120 km. Calcium and aluminum are probably important components of the upper mantle and are deficient in the lower mantle. Much of the moon may have accreted from material similar in composition to eucrites. The important mineral of the upper mantle is garnet; possible accessory minerals are kyanite, spinel, and rutile. If the seismic results stand up, the high velocity layer in the moon is more likely to be a high pressure form of anorthosite than eclogite, pyroxenite, or dunite. The thickness of the layer is of the order of 50 km. Cosmic abundances can be maintained if the lower mantle is ferromagnesium silicate with minimal amounts of calcium and aluminum. Achondrites such as eucrites and howardites have more of the required characteristics of the lunar interior than carbonaceous chondrites. A density inversion in the moon is a strong possibility.

  9. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This wide lux image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station shows the base of the launch pad as well as the orbiter just clearing the gantry. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  10. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  11. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 70mm camera was used to expose this image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches. The launch pad and orbiter can be seen reflected in the water directly in front of it.

  12. Peer Review of Launch Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Timmy R.

    2011-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of launch vehicles during launch and ascent are currently modeled using equivalent trinitrotoluene (TNT) estimates. This approach tends to over-predict the blast effect with subsequent impact to launch vehicle and crew escape requirements. Bangham Engineering, located in Huntsville, Alabama, assembled a less-conservative model based on historical failure and test data coupled with physical models and estimates. This white paper summarizes NESC's peer review of the Bangham analytical work completed to date.

  13. Rocket Launch Trajectory Simulations Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margasahayam, Ravi; Caimi, Raoul E.; Hauss, Sharon; Voska, N. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The design and development of a Trajectory Simulation Mechanism (TSM) for the Launch Systems Testbed (LST) is outlined. In addition to being one-of-a-kind facility in the world, TSM serves as a platform to study the interaction of rocket launch-induced environments and subsequent dynamic effects on the equipment and structures in the close vicinity of the launch pad. For the first time, researchers and academicians alike will be able to perform tests in a laboratory environment and assess the impact of vibroacoustic behavior of structures in a moving rocket scenario on ground equipment, launch vehicle, and its valuable payload or spacecraft.

  14. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  17. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.121 Launch schedule. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site § 415.119 Launch plans. An applicant's safety review document must... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section...

  20. Saturn I (SA-1) on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    On October 27, 1961, the Marshall Space Flight Center and the Nation marked a high point in the 3-year-old Saturn development program when the first Saturn vehicle, SA-1, flew a flawless 215-mile ballistic trajectory from Cape Canaveral, Florida. SA-1 is pictured here on the launch pad ready for lift off. Developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, SA-1 incorporated a Saturn I, Block I engine. The typical height of a Block I vehicle was approximately 163 feet and had only one live stage. It consisted of eight tanks, each 70 inches in diameter, clustered around a central tank, 105 inches in diameter. Four of the external tanks were fuel tanks for the RP-1 (kerosene) fuel. The other four, spaced alternately with the fuel tanks, were liquid oxygen tanks, as was the large center tank. All fuel tanks and liquid oxygen tanks drained at the same rates respectively. The thrust for the stage came from eight H-1 engines, each producing a thrust of 165,000 pounds, for a total thrust of over 1,300,000 pounds. The engines were arranged in a double pattern. Four engines, located inboard, were fixed in a square pattern around the stage axis and canted outward slightly, while the remaining four engines were located outboard in a larger square pattern offset 40 degrees from the inner pattern. Unlike the inner engines, each outer engine was gimbaled. That is, each could be swung through an arc. They were gimbaled as a means of steering the rocket, by letting the instrumentation of the rocket correct any deviations of its powered trajectory. The block I required engine gimabling as the only method of guiding and stabilizing the rocket through the lower atmosphere. The upper stages of the Block I rocket reflected the three-stage configuration of the Saturn I vehicle.

  1. 7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OVERALL VIEW OF LAUNCH PAD, SHOWING HELIPAD AT LAUNCH AREA, WHEN VIEWED WITH NEGATIVE NO. CA-57-8(BELOW), LOOKING NORTH. BASKETBALL COURT IN BACKGROUND Everett Weinreb, photographer, March 1988 - Mount Gleason Nike Missile Site, Angeles National Forest, South of Soledad Canyon, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Ballistic annihilation and deterministic surface growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belitsky, Vladimir; Ferrari, Pablo A.

    1995-08-01

    A model of deterministic surface growth studied by Krug and Spohn, a model of the annihilating reaction A+B→inert studied by Elskens and Frisch, a one-dimensional three-color cyclic cellular automaton studied by Fisch, and a particular automaton that has the number 184 in the classification of Wolfram can be studied via a cellular automaton with stochastic initial data called ballistic annihilation. This automaton is defined by the following rules: At time t=0, one particle is put at each integer point of ℝ. To each particle, a velocity is assigned in such a way that it may be either +1 or -1 with probabilities 1/2, independent of the velocities of the other particles. As time goes on, each particle moves along ℝ at the velocity assigned to it and annihilates when it collides with another particle. In the present paper we compute the distribution of this automaton for each time t ∈ ℕ. We then use this result to obtain the hydrodynamic limit for the surface profile from the model of deterministic surface growth mentioned above. We also show the relation of this limit process to the process which we call moving local minimum of Brownian motion. The latter is the process B {/x min}, x ∈ ℝ, defined by B {/x min}≔min{ B y ; x-1≤ y≤ x+1} for every x ∈ ℝ, where B x , x ∈ ℝ, is the standard Brownian motion with B 0=0.

  3. Superconducting Graphene Nanodevices in Ballistic Transport Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-An; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero's Group Team

    2013-03-01

    Superconductivity carried by Dirac fermions can be realized through induced superconductivity in grapheme. Observation of novel phenomena anticipated by theories requires graphene devices with low disorder whereas the carrier transport is ballistic. Current fabrication procedures to make graphene devices with low disorder like suspension or ultra-flat substrates all call for certain kinds of annealing to remove organic residues derived from the fabrication process. Applying these methods to superconducting devices can be challenging since the transparency at the graphene/superconductor interface will be destroyed. Here we present a method to do dry transfer of patterned hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) flakes onto graphene. The ultra flatness and lack of dangling bond in the boron nitride substrate reduces the disorder in graphene, and the top layer hBN can protect the graphene from contamination in the nanofabrication procedures and yield the geometry desired for different experimental exploration. National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan

  4. Direct observation of ballistic Andreev reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Klapwijk, T. M.; Ryabchun, S. A.

    2014-12-15

    An overview is presented of experiments on ballistic electrical transport in inhomogeneous superconducting systems which are controlled by the process of Andreev reflection. The initial experiments based on the coexistence of a normal phase and a superconducting phase in the intermediate state led to the concept itself. It was followed by a focus on geometrically inhomogeneous systems like point contacts, which provided a very clear manifestation of the energy and direction dependence of the Andreev reflection process. The point contacts have recently evolved towards the atomic scale owing to the use of mechanical break-junctions, revealing a very detailed dependence of Andreev reflection on the macroscopic phase of the superconducting state. In present-day research, the superconducting in homogeneity is constructed by clean room technology and combines superconducting materials, for example, with low-dimensional materials and topological insulators. Alternatively, the superconductor is combined with nano-objects, such as graphene, carbon nanotubes, or semiconducting nanowires. Each of these “inhomogeneous systems” provides a very interesting range of properties, all rooted in some manifestation of Andreev reflection.

  5. Carbon nanotubes as long ballistic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, C. T.; Todorov, T. N.

    1998-05-01

    Early theoretical work on single-walled carbon nanotubes predicted that a special achiral subset of these structures known as armchair nanotubes should be metallic. Tans et al. have recently confirmed these predictions experimentally and also showed directly that coherent electron transport can be maintained through these nanowires up to distances of at least 140nm. But single-walled armchair nanotubes are one-dimensional conductors with only two open conduction channels (energy subbands in a laterally confined system that cross the Fermi level). Hence, with increasing length, their conduction electrons ultimately become localized owing to residual disorder in the tube which is inevitably produced by interactions between the tube and its environment. We present here calculations which show, however, that unlike normal metallic wires, conduction electrons in armchair nanotubes experience an effective disorder averaged over the tube's circumference, leading to electron mean free paths that increase with nanotube diameter. This increase should result in exceptional ballistic transport properties and localization lengths of 10µm or more for tubes with the diameters that are typically produced experimentally.

  6. Allegany Ballistics Lab: sensor test target system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Deran S.

    2011-06-01

    Leveraging the Naval Surface Warfare Center, Indian Head Division's historical experience in weapon simulation, Naval Sea Systems Command commissioned development of a remote-controlled, digitally programmable Sensor Test Target as part of a modern, outdoor hardware-in-the-loop test system for ordnance-related guidance, navigation and control systems. The overall Target system design invokes a sciences-based, "design of automated experiments" approach meant to close the logistical distance between sensor engineering and developmental T&E in outdoor conditions over useful real world distances. This enables operating modes that employ broad spectrum electromagnetic energy in many a desired combination, variably generated using a Jet Engine Simulator, a multispectral infrared emitter array, optically enhanced incandescent Flare Simulators, Emitter/Detector mounts, and an RF corner reflector kit. As assembled, the recently tested Sensor Test Target prototype being presented can capably provide a full array of useful RF and infrared target source simulations for RDT&E use with developmental and existing sensors. Certain Target technologies are patent pending, with potential spinoffs in aviation, metallurgy and biofuels processing, while others are variations on well-established technology. The Sensor Test Target System is planned for extended installation at Allegany Ballistics Laboratory (Rocket Center, WV).

  7. Load alleviation maneuvers for a launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seywald, Hans; Bless, Robert

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a forward-looking autopilot that is capable of employing a priori knowledge of wind gusts ahead of the flight path to reduce the bending loads experienced by a launch vehicle. The analysis presented in the present paper is only preliminary, employing a very simple vehicle dynamical model and restricting itself to wind gusts of the form of isolated spikes. The main result of the present study is that LQR based feedback laws are inappropriate to handle spike-type wind perturbations with large amplitude and narrow base. The best performance is achieved with an interior-point penalty optimal control formulation which can be well approximated by a simple feedback control law. Reduction of the maximum bending loads by nearly 50 percent is demonstrated.

  8. Load alleviation maneuvers for a launch vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seywald, Hans; Bless, Robert R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the design of a forward-looking autopilot that is capable of employing a priori knowledge of wind gusts ahead of the flight path to reduce the bending loads experienced by a launch vehicle. The analysis presented in the present paper is only preliminary, employing a very simple vehicle dynamical model and restricting itself to wind gusts of the form of isolated spikes. The main result of the present study is that linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based feedback laws are inappropriate to handle spike-type wind perturbations with large amplitude and narrow base. The best performance is achieved with an interior-point penalty optimal control formulation which can be well approximated by a simple feedback control law. Reduction of the maximum bending loads by nearly 50% is demonstrated.

  9. STS-82 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery cuts a bright swath through the early-morning darkness as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on a scheduled 10-day flight to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Liftoff of Mission STS-82 occurred on-time at 3:55:17 a.m. EST, Feb. 11, 1997. Leading the veteran crew is Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox. Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz is the pilot. Mark C. Lee is the payload commander. Rounding out the seven-member crew are Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. Four of the astronauts will be divided into two teams to perform the scheduled four back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks. Lee and Smith will team up for EVAs 1 and 3 on flight days 4 and 6; Harbaugh and Tanner will perform EVAs 2 and 4 on flight days 5 and 7. Among the tasks will be to replace two outdated scientific instruments with two new instruments the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). This is the second servicing mission for HST, which was originally deployed in 1990 and designed to be serviced on-orbit about every three years. Hubble was first serviced in 1993. STS-82 is the second of eight planned flights in 1997. It is the 22nd flight of Discovery and the 82nd Shuttle mission.

  10. STS-82 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery cuts a bright swath through the early-morning darkness as it lifts off from Launch Pad 39A on a scheduled 10-day flight to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Liftoff of Mission STS-82 occurred on-time at 3:55:17 a.m. EST, Feb. 11, 1997. Leading the veteran crew is Mission Commander Kenneth D. Bowersox. Scott J. 'Doc' Horowitz is the pilot. Mark C. Lee is the payload commander. Rounding out the seven-member crew are Mission Specialists Steven L. Smith, Gregory J. Harbaugh, Joseph R. 'Joe' Tanner and Steven A. Hawley. Four of the astronauts will be divided into two teams to perform the scheduled four back-to-back extravehicular activities (EVAs) or spacewalks. Lee and Smith will team up for EVAs 1 and 3 on flight days 4 and 6; Harbaugh and Tanner will perform EVAs 2 and 4 on flight days 5 and 7. Among the tasks will be to replace two outdated scientific instruments with two new instruments - the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) and the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). This is the second servicing mission for HST, which was originally deployed in 1990 and designed to be serviced on-orbit about every three years. Hubble was first serviced in 1993. STS-82 is the second of eight planned flights in 1997. It is the 22nd flight of Discovery and the 82nd Shuttle mission.

  11. STS-85 Discovery Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Blasting through the hazy late morning sky, the Space Shuttle Discovery soars from Launch Pad 39A at 10:41 a.m. EDT Aug. 7 on the 11-day STS-85 mission. Aboard Discovery are Commander Curtis L. Brown, Jr.; Pilot Kent V. Rominger, Payload Commander N. Jan Davis, Mission Specialist Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., Mission Specialist Stephen K. Robinson and Payload Specialist Bjarni V. Tryggvason, a Canadian Space Agency astronaut . The primary payload aboard the Space Shuttle orbiter Discovery is the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS-2) free-flyer. The CRISTA-SPAS-2 will be deployed on flight day 1 to study trace gases in the Earths atmosphere as a part of NASAs Mission to Planet Earth program. Also aboard the free-flying research platform will be the Middle Atmosphere High Resolution Spectrograph Instrument (MAHRSI). Other payloads on the 11-day mission include the Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD), a Japanese Space Agency-sponsored experiment. Also in Discoverys payload bay are the Technology Applications and Science-1 (TAS-1) and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker-2 (IEH-2) experiments.

  12. Launch Support Video Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OFarrell, Zachary L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project is to create a website that displays video, countdown clock, and event times to customers during launches, without needing to be connected to the internal operations network. The requirements of this project are to also minimize the delay in the clock and events to be less than two seconds. The two parts of this are the webpage, which will display the data and videos to the user, and a server to send clock and event data to the webpage. The webpage is written in HTML with CSS and JavaScript. The JavaScript is responsible for connecting to the server, receiving new clock data, and updating the webpage. JavaScript is used for this because it can send custom HTTP requests from the webpage, and provides the ability to update parts of the webpage without having to refresh the entire page. The server application will act as a relay between the operations network, and the open internet. On the operations network side, the application receives multicast packets that contain countdown clock and events data. It will then parse the data into current countdown times and events, and create a packet with that information that can be sent to webpages. The other part will accept HTTP requests from the webpage, and respond to them with current data. The server is written in C# with some C++ files used to define the structure of data packets. The videos for the webpage will be shown in an embedded player from UStream.

  13. Interior of Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Io The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Io's radius is 1821 km, similar to the 1738 km radius of our Moon; Io has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). Io's rock or silicate shell extends to the surface.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  14. Diffusive and inelastic scattering in ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy and ballistic-electron-emission microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.Y.; Turner, B.R.; Schowalter, L.J.

    1993-07-01

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) of Au/Si(001) n type was done to study whether elastic scattering in the Au overlayer is dominant. It was found that there is no dependence of the BEEM current on the relative gradient of the Au surface with respect to the Si interface, and this demonstrates that significant elastic scattering must occur in the Au overlayer. Ballistic-electron-emission spectroscopy (BEES) was also done, and, rather than using the conventional direct-current BEES, alternating-current (ac) BEES was done on Au/Si and also on Au/PtSi/Si(001) n type. The technique of ac BEES was found to give linear threshold for the Schottky barrier, and it also clearly showed the onset of electron-hole pair creation and other inelastic scattering events. The study of device quality PtSi in Au/PtSi/Si(001) yielded an attenuation length of 4 nm for electrons of energy 1 eV above the PtSi Fermi energy. 20 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Delta launch vehicle accident investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-03-01

    The text of the testimony given by several witnesses during the House hearings on the Delta launch vehicle accident of May 3, 1986 is given. Pre-launch procedures, failure analysis, the possibility of sabotage, and design and testing are among the topics discussed.

  16. Launch systems operations cost modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Mark K.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the launch systems operations modeling portion of a larger model development effort, NASA's Space Operations Cost Model (SOCM), led by NASA HQ. The SOCM study team, which includes cost and technical experts from each NASA Field Center and various contractors, has been tasked to model operations costs for all future NASA mission concepts including planetary and Earth orbiting science missions, space facilities, and launch systems. The launch systems operations modeling effort has near term significance for assessing affordability of our next generation launch vehicles and directing technology investments, although it provides only a part of the necessary inputs to assess life cycle costs for all elements that determine affordability for a launch system. Presented here is a methodology to estimate requirements associated with a launch facility infrastructure, or Spaceport, from start-up/initialization into steady-state operation. Included are descriptions of the reference data used, the unique estimating methodology that combines cost lookup tables, parametric relationships, and constructively-developed correlations of cost driver input values to collected reference data, and the output categories that can be used by economic and market models. Also, future plans to improve integration of launch vehicle development cost models, reliability and maintainability models, economic and market models, and this operations model to facilitate overall launch system life cycle performance simulations will be presented.

  17. Vandenberg Air Force Base Upper Level Wind Launch Weather Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Jaclyn A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The 30th Operational Support Squadron Weather Flight (30 OSSWF) provides comprehensive weather services to the space program at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) in California. One of their responsibilities is to monitor upper-level winds to ensure safe launch operations of the Minuteman III ballistic missile. The 30 OSSWF tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to analyze VAFB sounding data with the goal of determining the probability of violating (PoV) their upper-level thresholds for wind speed and shear constraints specific to this launch vehicle, and to develop a tool that will calculate the PoV of each constraint on the day of launch. In order to calculate the probability of exceeding each constraint, the AMU collected and analyzed historical data from VAFB. The historical sounding data were retrieved from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Earth System Research Laboratory archive for the years 1994-2011 and then stratified into four sub-seasons: January-March, April-June, July-September, and October-December. The maximum wind speed and 1000-ft shear values for each sounding in each subseason were determined. To accurately calculate the PoV, the AMU determined the theoretical distributions that best fit the maximum wind speed and maximum shear datasets. Ultimately it was discovered that the maximum wind speeds follow a Gaussian distribution while the maximum shear values follow a lognormal distribution. These results were applied when calculating the averages and standard deviations needed for the historical and real-time PoV calculations. In addition to the requirements outlined in the original task plan, the AMU also included forecast sounding data from the Rapid Refresh model. This information provides further insight for the launch weather officers (LWOs) when determining if a wind constraint violation will occur over the next few hours on day of launch. The interactive graphical user interface (GUI) for this project was developed in

  18. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  19. No Launch Before Its Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Bill

    2004-01-01

    Aura is an Earth-observing satellite developed to help us study the quality of the air we breathe. It will look at the state of the ozone and the atmospheric composition in regards to the Earth's changing climate. I headed to California on July 5, 2004. The plan was that the satellite would launch on the tenth, but we had a few problems getting it off. This was the fifty-ninth launch of my career, and it was also a little different than most of my previous launches. Most of the time it's weather that postpones a launch; there aren't usually that many technical issues this late in the game. This time. however, we had several problems, equally split between the launch vehicle and the spacecraft. I remember a member of the crew asking me, 'Is this normal?' And in my experience, it wasn't.

  20. STS-51 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery takes off from Launch Pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to begin Mission STS-51 on 12 September 1993. The 57th shuttle mission began at 7:45 a.m. EDT, and lasted 9 days, 20 hours, 11 minutes, 11 seconds, while traveling a total distance of 4,106,411 miles. The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) was one of the projects deployed. This satellite serves as a test bed for advanced experimental communications satellite concepts and technology. Another payload on this mission was the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) telescope mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) payload carrier. ORFEUS was designed to investigate very hot and very cold matter in the universe. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into

  1. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  2. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  3. Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in an Atomically Thin Material.

    PubMed

    Boland, Mathias J; Sundararajan, Abhishek; Farrokhi, M Javad; Strachan, Douglas R

    2016-01-26

    Ultrashort devices that incorporate atomically thin components have the potential to be the smallest electronics. Such extremely scaled atomically thin devices are expected to show ballistic nonlinear behavior that could make them tremendously useful for ultrafast applications. While nonlinear diffusive electron transport has been widely reported, clear evidence for intrinsic nonlinear ballistic transport in the growing array of atomically thin conductors has so far been elusive. Here we report nonlinear electron transport of an ultrashort single-layer graphene channel that shows quantitative agreement with intrinsic ballistic transport. This behavior is shown to be distinctly different than that observed in similarly prepared ultrashort devices consisting, instead, of bilayer graphene channels. These results suggest that the addition of only one extra layer of an atomically thin material can make a significant impact on the nonlinear ballistic behavior of ultrashort devices, which is possibly due to the very different chiral tunneling of their charge carriers. The fact that we observe the nonlinear ballistic response at room temperature, with zero applied magnetic field, in non-ultrahigh vacuum conditions and directly on a readily accessible oxide substrate makes the nanogap technology we utilize of great potential for achieving extremely scaled high-speed atomically thin devices. PMID:26630250

  4. STS-29: Pre-Launch Preparations/Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the crewmembers of STS-29, Commander Michael L. Coats, Pilot John E. Blaha, and Mission Specialists James P. Bagian, James F. Buchli, and Robert C. Springer, seated in the White Room with the traditional cake. The crew is seen performing various pre-launch activities including suit-up, and walk out to the Astro-van. This early morning launch shows countdown, main engine start, liftoff, booster separation, and various isolated footage of the launch from different cameras. Also presented are footage of the approach, gear touchdown, rollout at Edwards Air Force Base, and various isolated views of the landing.

  5. The DEMETER micro satellite launch campaign: A cheap access to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Kainov, Vladimir; Thoby, Michel; Silkin, Olexyi; Solovey, Vladislav

    The CNES micro satellite DEMETER has been successfully launched on June 29th 2004 by a DNEPR launcher, from the Baïkonur Cosmodrome. DEMETER was the main payload among eight co-passengers. Initiated by CNES in 1998, DEMETER is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of products; its objectives are both scientific and technological; the satellite has now been flying for science for almost one year. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian company Yuzhnoye, and a complete fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 to confirm the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interfaces. The launch campaign took place at Baïkonur Cosmodrome from the end of May to the end of June 2004, implying a close partnership between the CNES satellite team and the Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER has been a pioneer not only for the concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (three axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) to be launched on a former intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service was managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it was the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. The present paper deals with the details of DEMETER satellite and its launch, and preliminary results.

  6. An investigation into pellet dispersion ballistics.

    PubMed

    Nag, N K; Sinha, P

    1992-08-01

    Existing works on pellet dispersion ballistics are confined to some data-based models derived from statistical analysis of observed patterns on targets but the underlying process causing the dispersion lacks due attention. The present article delves into the relatively unexplored areas of dispersion phenomena, and attempts to develop a theoretical model for general application. The radial velocity distribution of pellets has been worked out by probing into the physical process of dispersion based on transfer of momentum from undispersed shot mass to dispersed pellets. The ratio 2u/v0 (u = root mean square (r.m.s.) radial velocity and v0 = muzzle velocity of the pellets) is found to be fairly constant for a fixed gun-ammunition combination and has been suitably designated as 'Dispersion Index' (DI) characterising its dispersion capability. The present model adequately accounts for pellet distribution on targets and it appears that 'Effective Shot Dispersion' (ESD) as introduced by Mattoo and Nabar [ESD = [(4/N0)sigma Ri2]1/2, where N(0) is the total number of pellets and Ri is the radial distance of the i-th pellet from centre of pattern], gives a faithful numerical measure of overall dispersion at a given distance. A relationship between ESD and firing distance, incorporating the effects of air resistance and gravity has been worked out, which reveals that DI controls the dispersion at a given distance. For small distances (less than 20 m) the relation reduces to a linear one, as already observed empirically and looks like ESD = E0+DI x firing distance, E0 being a parameter dependent on gun and ammunition. The present model, unlike earlier ones, is versatile enough to explain the natures of the dependence of dispersion on firing distance as well as on gun-ammunition parameters, which are essential for a faithful reconstruction of a crime scene. The model has been tested with such experimental data as are available and reasonable agreement is observed. PMID:1398370

  7. Mission Sizing and Trade Studies for Low Ballistic Coefficient Entry Systems to Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Smith, Brandon; Prabhu, Dinesh; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The U.S and the U.S.S.R. have sent seventeen successful atmospheric entry missions to Venus. Past missions to Venus have utilized rigid aeroshell systems for entry. This rigid aeroshell paradigm sets performance limitations since the size of the entry vehicle is constrained by the fairing diameter of the launch vehicle. This has limited ballistic coefficients (beta) to well above 100 kg/m2 for the entry vehicles. In order to maximize the science payload and minimize the Thermal Protection System (TPS) mass, these missions have entered at very steep entry flight path angles (gamma). Due to Venus thick atmosphere and the steep-gamma, high- conditions, these entry vehicles have been exposed to very high heat flux, very high pressures and extreme decelerations (upwards of 100 g's). Deployable aeroshells avoid the launch vehicle fairing diameter constraint by expanding to a larger diameter after the launch. Due to the potentially larger wetted area, deployable aeroshells achieve lower ballistic coefficients (well below 100 kg/m2), and if they are flown at shallower flight path angles, the entry vehicle can access trajectories with far lower decelerations (50-60 g's), peak heat fluxes (400 W/cm2) and peak pressures. The structural and TPS mass of the shallow-gamma, low-beta deployables are lower than their steep-gamma, high-beta rigid aeroshell counterparts at larger diameters, contributing to lower areal densities and potentially higher payload mass fractions. For example, at large diameters, deployables may attain aeroshell areal densities of 10 kg/m2 as opposed to 50 kg/m2 for rigid aeroshells. However, the low-beta, shallow-gamma paradigm also raises issues, such as the possibility of skip-out during entry. The shallow-gamma could also increase the landing footprint of the vehicle. Furthermore, the deployable entry systems may be flexible, so there could be fluid-structure interaction, especially in the high altitude, low-density regimes. The need for precision in

  8. Launch Order, Launch Separation, and Loiter in the Constellation 1 1/2-Launch Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant; Cirillo, William

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program (CxP) is developing a two-element Earth-to-Orbit launch system to enable human exploration of the Moon. The first element, Ares I, is a human-rated system that consists of a first stage based on the Space Shuttle Program's solid rocket booster (SRB) and an upper stage that consists of a four-crew Orion capsule, a service module, and a Launch Escape System. The second element, Ares V, is a Saturn V-plus category launch system that consists of the core stage with a cluster of six RS-68B engines and augmented with two 5.5-segment SRBs, a Saturn-derived J-2X engine powering an Earth Departure Stage (EDS), and the lunar-lander vehicle payload, Altair. Initial plans called for the Ares V to be launched first, followed the next day by the Ares I. After the EDS performs the final portion of ascent and subsequent orbit circularization, the Orion spacecraft then performs a rendezvous and docks with the EDS and its Altair payload. Following checkout, the integrated stack loiters in low Earth orbit (LEO) until the appropriate Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) window opportunity opens, at which time the EDS propels the integrated Orion Altair to the Moon. Successful completion of this 1 1/2-launch solution carries risks related to both the orbital lifetime of the assets and the probability of achieving the launch of the second vehicle within the orbital lifetime of the first. These risks, which are significant in terms of overall system design choices and probability of mission success, dictated a thorough reevaluation of the launch strategy, including the order of vehicle launch and the planned time period between launches. The goal of the effort described in this paper was to select a launch strategy that would result in the greatest possible expected system performance, while accounting for launch risks and the cost of increased orbital lifetime. Discrete Event Simulation (DES) model of the launch strategies was created to determine the probability

  9. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1996-01-01

    Industry/NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  10. STS Derived Exploration Launch Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Best, Joel; Sorge, L.; Siders, J.; Sias, Dave

    2004-01-01

    A key aspect of the new space exploration programs will be the approach to optimize launch operations. A STS Derived Launch Vehicle (SDLV) Program can provide a cost effective, low risk, and logical step to launch all of the elements of the exploration program. Many benefits can be gained by utilizing the synergy of a common launch site as an exploration spaceport as well as evolving the resources of the current Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to meet the challenges of the Vision for Space Exploration. In particular, the launch operation resources of the SSP can be transitioned to the exploration program and combined with the operations efficiencies of unmanned EELVs to obtain the best of both worlds, resulting in lean launch operations for crew and cargo missions of the exploration program. The SDLV Program would then not only capture the extensive human space flight launch operations knowledge, but also provide for the safe fly-out of the SSP through continuity of system critical skills, manufacturing infrastructure, and ability to maintain and attract critical skill personnel. Thus, a SDLV Program can smoothly transition resources from the SSP and meet the transportation needs to continue the voyage of discovery of the space exploration program.

  11. Interior provinces in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kirschner, C.E.; Fisher, M.A.; Bruns, T.R.; Stanley, R.G.

    1985-04-01

    Three types of interior provinces have been tested by exploratory drilling for their petroleum potential: three Tertiary nonmarine basins, two Jurassic and Cretaceous flysch and fold belts, and a Paleozoic thrust belt. Although the presence of hydrocarbons has not yet been demonstrated, the present data base is too limited to make a definitive assessment of hydrocarbon potential. During the 1983-84 field seasons, the authors acquired new gravity data and collected rock samples in and adjacent to the Yukon flats and the Nenana basins. These basins contain upper Tertiary, primarily nonmarine, sedimentary rock in extensional graben and half-graben complexes that are superimposed across preexisting terrane boundaries. The location and development of the basins result from strike-slip motion along the Tintina and Denali fault systems. Adjacent to the basins and within the fault systems are thick sections of nonmarine lower Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in deformed basin remnants. If these lower Tertiary rocks are present beneath the upper Tertiary fill, their greater depth and advanced maturation could enhance the hydrocarbon generative potential. Gravity modelling suggests the Tertiary fill is at least 3 km thick in the deeper parts of the basins and may be significantly thicker.

  12. Interior of Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Cutaway view of the possible internal structure of Europa The surface of the satellite is a mosaic of images obtained in 1979 by NASA's Voyager spacecraft. The interior characteristics are inferred from gravity field and magnetic field measurements by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Europa's radius is 1565 km, not too much smaller than our Moon's radius. Europa has a metallic (iron, nickel) core (shown in gray) drawn to the correct relative size. The core is surrounded by a rock shell (shown in brown). The rock layer of Europa (drawn to correct relative scale) is in turn surrounded by a shell of water in ice or liquid form (shown in blue and white and drawn to the correct relative scale). The surface layer of Europa is shown as white to indicate that it may differ from the underlying layers. Galileo images of Europa suggest that a liquid water ocean might now underlie a surface ice layer several to ten kilometers thick. However, this evidence is also consistent with the existence of a liquid water ocean in the past. It is not certain if there is a liquid water ocean on Europa at present.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  13. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, David H.; Hoffman, Tom L.; Havens, Glen G.

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission, launched in September 2011, successfully completed its Primary Science Mission in June 2012 and is currently in Extended Mission operations. Competitively selected under a NASA Announcement of Opportunity in December 2007, GRAIL is a Discovery Program mission subject to a mandatory project cost cap. The purpose of the mission is to precisely map the gravitational field of the Moon to reveal its internal structure from crust to core, determine its thermal evolution, and extend this knowledge to other planets. The mission uses twin spacecraft flying in tandem to provide the gravity map. The GRAIL Flight System, consisting of the spacecraft and payload, was developed based on significant heritage from previous missions such an experimental U.S. Air Force satellite, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) mission, and the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. The Mission Operations System (MOS) was based on high-heritage multimission operations developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Lockheed Martin. Both the Flight System and MOS were adapted to meet the unique challenges posed by the GRAIL mission design. This paper summarizes the implementation challenges and accomplishments of getting GRAIL ready for launch. It also discusses the in-flight challenges and experiences of operating two spacecraft, and mission results.

  14. ["Piggyback" shot: ballistic parameters of two simultaneously discharged airgun pellets].

    PubMed

    Frank, Matthias; Schönekess, Holger C; Grossjohann, Rico; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Bockholdt, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Green and Good reported an uncommon case of homicide committed with an air rifle in 1982 (Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 3: 361-365). The fatal wound was unusual in that two airgun pellets were loaded in so-called "piggyback" fashion into a single shot air rifle. Lack of further information on the ballistic characteristics of two airgun pellets as opposed to one conventionally loaded projectile led to this investigation. The mean kinetic energy (E) of the two pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion was E = 3.6 J and E = 3.4 J, respectively. In comparison, average kinetic energy values of E = 12.5 J were calculated for conventionally discharged single diabolo pellets. Test shots into ballistic soap confirmed the findings of a single entrance wound as reported by Green and Good. While the ballistic background of pellets discharged in "piggyback" fashion could be clarified, the reason behind this mode of shooting remains unclear. PMID:24855739

  15. Ballistic Anisotropic Magnetoresistance of Single-Atom Contacts.

    PubMed

    Schöneberg, J; Otte, F; Néel, N; Weismann, A; Mokrousov, Y; Kröger, J; Berndt, R; Heinze, S

    2016-02-10

    Anisotropic magnetoresistance, that is, the sensitivity of the electrical resistance of magnetic materials on the magnetization direction, is expected to be strongly enhanced in ballistic transport through nanoscale junctions. However, unambiguous experimental evidence of this effect is difficult to achieve. We utilize single-atom junctions to measure this ballistic anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). Single Co and Ir atoms are deposited on domains and domain walls of ferromagnetic Fe layers on W(110) to control their magnetization directions. They are contacted with nonmagnetic tips in a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope to measure the junction conductances. Large changes of the magnetoresistance occur from the tunneling to the ballistic regime due to the competition of localized and delocalized d-orbitals, which are differently affected by spin-orbit coupling. This work shows that engineering the AMR at the single atom level is feasible. PMID:26783634

  16. A novel navigation method used in a ballistic missile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hua-ming; Sun, Long; Cai, Jia-nan; Peng, Yu

    2013-10-01

    The traditional strapdown inertial/celestial integrated navigation method used in a ballistic missile cannot accurately estimate the accelerometer bias. It might cause a divergence of navigation errors. To solve this problem, a new navigation method named strapdown inertial/starlight refractive celestial integrated navigation is proposed. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a simulated program of a ballistic missile is presented. The simulation results indicated that, when multiple refraction stars are used, the proposed method can accurately estimate the accelerometer bias, and suppress the divergence of navigation errors completely. Specifically, in order to apply this method to a ballistic missile, a novel measurement equation based on stellar refraction was developed. Furthermore a method to calculate the number of refraction stars observed by the stellar sensor was given. Finally, the relationship between the number of refraction stars used and the navigation accuracy is analysed.

  17. Solid rocket history at TRW Ballistic Missiles Division

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.S.; Kovacic, S.M.; Rea, E.C. )

    1992-07-01

    The development of ballistic missiles and particularly intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) by the U.S. space technology manufacturer is examined. Collaboration by the company with the U.S. Air Force is described which began in the 1950s and combined systems engineering and technical assistance. Missile products reviewed in this paper include Atlas, Thor, Titans I and II, Minuteman I, II, III, the Peacekeeper, and the small ICBM. The company developed facilities and programs to support the R and D activities for the missile products, and descriptions are given of the Space Technologies Laboratory and the Ballistic Missiles Division. Contributions to ICBM technologies by the concern include carbon-carbon nozzle materials, propellant formulation data, movable nozzles, casting techniques for large volumes of propellants, and studies of fracture mechanics. 41 refs.

  18. High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology to measure cell mechanics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Hale, Christopher M; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Lee, Jerry S H; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput ballistic injection nanorheology is a method for the quantitative study of cell mechanics. Cell mechanics are measured by ballistic injection of submicron particles into the cytoplasm of living cells and tracking the spontaneous displacement of the particles at high spatial resolution. The trajectories of the cytoplasm-embedded particles are transformed into mean-squared displacements, which are subsequently transformed into frequency-dependent viscoelastic moduli and time-dependent creep compliance of the cytoplasm. This method allows for the study of a wide range of cellular conditions, including cells inside a 3D matrix, cell subjected to shear flows and biochemical stimuli, and cells in a live animal. Ballistic injection lasts <1 min and is followed by overnight incubation. Multiple particle tracking for one cell lasts <1 min. Forty cells can be examined in <1 h. PMID:22222790

  19. Ballistic bipolar junctions in chemically gated graphene ribbons

    PubMed Central

    Baringhaus, Jens; Stöhr, Alexander; Forti, Stiven; Starke, Ulrich; Tegenkamp, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The realization of ballistic graphene pn-junctions is an essential task in order to study Klein tunneling phenomena. Here we show that intercalation of Ge under the buffer layer of pre-structured SiC-samples succeeds to make truly nano-scaled pn-junctions. By means of local tunneling spectroscopy the junction width is found to be as narrow as 5 nm which is a hundred times smaller compared to electrically gated structures. The ballistic transmission across the junction is directly proven by systematic transport measurements with a 4-tip STM. Various npn- and pnp-junctions are studied with respect to the barrier length. The pn-junctions are shown to act as polarizer and analyzer with the second junction becoming transparent in case of a fully ballistic barrier. This can be attributed to the almost full suppression of electron transmission through the junction away from normal incidence. PMID:25898259

  20. Novel formulations of ballistic gelatin. 1. Rheological properties.

    PubMed

    Zecheru, Teodora; Său, Ciprian; Lăzăroaie, Claudiu; Zaharia, Cătălin; Rotariu, Traian; Stănescu, Paul-Octavian

    2016-06-01

    Ballistic gelatin is the simulant of the human body during field tests in forensics and other related fields, due to its physical and mechanical similarities to human trunk and organs. Since the ballistic gelatin used in present has important issues to overcome, an alternative approach is the use of gelatin-polymer composites, where a key factor is the insertion of biocompatible materials, which replicate accurately the human tissues. In order to be able to obtain an improved material in terms of mechanical performances by an easy industrial-scale technology, before the verification of the ballistic parameters by shooting in agreement with military standards, one of the best and cheapest solutions is to perform a thorough check of their rheological properties, in standard conditions. PMID:27139038

  1. 46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTH ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view looking south along the east wall on the second floor of the powerhouse and car barn. Note the cable car truck in the foreground. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST ON SECOND FLOOR: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of main portion of the powerhouse and car barn. This space is used for repair and storage of cable cars. Note wooden trussed roof. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. SECOND FLOOR 'ANNEX' - INTERIOR VIEW TO SOUTHWEST: Interior view towards southwest on second floor of the powerhouse 'annex.' Note the steel column and beam construction and the old shunt car formerly used to move cable cars around the yard. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Hangar no. 2 interior detail of roof structures and interior work spaces. Note concrete piers and cross bracing. Seen at trusses no. 42, 43, & 44. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Southern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Near intersection of Windmill Road & Johnson Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. Mars Pathfinder Status at Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spear, A. J.; Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Flight System is in final test, assembly and launch preparations at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Launch is scheduled for 2 Dec. 1996. The Flight System development, in particular the Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) system, was a major team effort involving JPL, other NASA centers and industry. This paper provides a summary Mars Pathfinder description and status at launch. In addition, a section by NASA's Langley Research Center, a key EDL contributor, is provided on their support to Mars Pathfinder. This section is included as an example of the work performed by Pathfinder team members outside JPL.

  7. Lockheed Martin approach to a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvin, John D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper discusses Lockheed Martin's perspective on the development of a cost effective Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Critical to a successful Single Stage To Orbit (SSTO) program are; an economic development plan sensitive to fiscal constraints; a vehicle concept satisfying present and future US launch needs; and an operations concept commensurate with a market driven program. Participation in the economic plan by government, industry, and the commercial sector is a key element of integrating our development plan and funding profile. The RLV baseline concept design, development evolution and several critical trade studies illustrate the superior performance achieved by our innovative approach to the problem of SSTO. Findings from initial aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic wind tunnel tests and trajectory analyses on this concept confirm the superior characteristics of the lifting body shape combined with the Linear Aerospike rocket engine. This Aero Ballistic Rocket (ABR) concept captures the essence of The Skunk Works approach to SSTO RLV technology integration and system engineering. These programmatic and concept development topics chronicle the key elements to implementing an innovative market driven next generation RLV.

  8. Study of Ballistic Carrier Transport Using Ballistic Electron-Emission Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Edwin Yoon

    Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) was used to study the ballistic carrier transport of electrons and holes. Several distinct transport processes were studied to model transport processes relevant to BEEM, in which a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM) tip functions as an emitter of electrons, and the electrons tunnel across the vacuum energy barrier into a metal overlayer region on a semiconductor substrate. Some of the injected electrons from the STM tip travel into the semiconductor and are collected as the BEEM current. By doing experiments in BEEM and by doing theoretical modeling, it was found that the quantum mechanical reflection and the phonon scattering at the Schottky barrier result in a nearly energy independent reduction of the ballistic transport across the Schottky barrier of Au/Si and of Au/GaAs. Also, the conservation of parallel wave vector and of energy at the plane of the Schottky barrier energy maximum was found necessary to explain the shape of the BEEM spectrum. For the coherent metal/semiconductor (M/S) interface formed by type-B CoSi _2/Si(111) (n-type), the conservation laws were found to hold even at the metallurgical M/S interface, and this gave rise to a novel phenomenon in which the electron transport across the M/S interface was forbidden at the energy of the top of the Schottky barrier. The transport in the metal overlayer was found to be dominated by elastic scattering of the electrons, and this was modeled by the Monte Carlo method. The Monte Carlo modeling showed that the ratio of the inelastic mean free path length to the elastic mean free path length for electron in Au should be about 10 in order to explain a set of existing BEEM data showing the attenuation of the BEEM current as a function of the metal overlayer thickness. The transport across the M/S interface was found to involve scattering involving M/S interface states and states in the semiconductor band gap near the interface. Among these processes, electron

  9. 14 CFR 415.119 - Launch plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch plans. 415.119 Section 415.119 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site §...

  10. 14 CFR 415.121 - Launch schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Launch schedule. 415.121 Section 415.121 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH LICENSE Safety Review and Approval for Launch of an Expendable Launch Vehicle From a Non-Federal Launch Site §...

  11. Ram accelerator direct launch system for space cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A new method of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses (up to several metric tons) to velocities of 0.6 km/sec up to 12 km/sec using chemical energy has been developed. The vehicle travels through a tube filled with a premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixture. There is no propellant on-board the vehicle. The tube acts as the outer cowling of a ram jet and the energy release process travels with the vehicle. The ballistic efficiency remains high up to extremely high velocities and the acceleration can be maintained at a nearly constant level. Five modes of ram accelerator operation have been investigated; these modes differ primarily in the method of chemical heat release and the operational velocity range, and include two subsonic combustion modes (one of which involves thermally choke a combustion behind the vehicle) and three detonation drive modes. These modes of propulsion are capable of efficient acceleration in the range of 0.6-12 km/sec, although aerodynamic heating becomes severe above about 8 km/sec. Experiments carried out to date at the University of Washington up to 2 km/sec have established proof of principle of the ram accelerator concept and have shown close agreement between predicted and measured performance. A launch system capable of delivering two metric tons into low earth orbit was selected for the purposes of the present study. The preliminary analysis indicates that the overall dimensions of a restricted acceleration (less than approx. 1000 g) launch facility would require a tube 1 m in diameter, with an overall length of approximately 4 km. As in any direct launch scheme, a small on-board rocket is required to circularize the otherwise highly elliptical orbit which intersects the Earth. Various orbital insertion scenarios have been explored for the case of a 9 km/sec ram accelerator launch. These include direct insertion through a single circularization maneuver (i.e., on rocket burn), insertion involving two burns, and a

  12. Geometrical optimization of a local ballistic magnetic sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kanda, Yuhsuke; Hara, Masahiro; Nomura, Tatsuya; Kimura, Takashi

    2014-04-07

    We have developed a highly sensitive local magnetic sensor by using a ballistic transport property in a two-dimensional conductor. A semiclassical simulation reveals that the sensitivity increases when the geometry of the sensor and the spatial distribution of the local field are optimized. We have also experimentally demonstrated a clear observation of a magnetization process in a permalloy dot whose size is much smaller than the size of an optimized ballistic magnetic sensor fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron gas.

  13. Theodor Kocher and the Scientific Foundation of Wound Ballistics.

    PubMed

    Fackler, M L; Dougherty, P J

    1991-02-01

    The systemic and rational approach used by Kocher, coupled with his interest in research of wound ballistics for more than 40 years, resulted in a clear elucidation of the principles that form the basic scientific foundation of modern wound ballistics. The validity of his work has been proved repeatedly on the battlefields of the world for more than a century. Presently, more than ever before, the sound scientific precepts revealed by Kocher are essential to keep technologic investigation within the framework of good judgment. PMID:1989122

  14. Infrared thermographic analysis of polymer composites during ballistic impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, C. Y.; Nagarajan, S.; Zee, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    An infrared thermographic system was used to measure the surface temperature profile of composite materials under ballistic impact. The heat deposited was calculated based on the temperature profiles. The extent of damage induced in the materials was determined qualitatively from the measured data. The relative contribution of frictional heat to total energy absorption was evaluated, and the effect of the shape of the projectile on the extent of damage and temperature distribution in the composites was examined. The results show that graphite and polyethylene composite are more effective than Kevlar composite in dissipating heat during the ballistic impact penetration process due to their higher thermal conductivity.

  15. Crossover from Ballistic to Diffusive Thermal Transport in Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Konabe, Satoru; Shiomi, Junichiro; Maruyama, Shigeo

    2009-09-01

    We present a theoretical scheme that seamlessly handles the crossover from fully ballistic to diffusive thermal transport regimes and apply it to carbon nanotubes. At room temperature, micrometer-length nanotubes belong to the intermediate regime in which ballistic and diffusive phonons coexist. According to our scheme, the thermal conductance of these nanotubes exhibit anomalous nonlinear dependence of tube length due to this coexistence. This result is in excellent agreement with molecular-dynamics simulation results showing the nonlinear thermal conductance. Additionally, we clarify the mechanism of crossover in terms of the length-dependent characteristic frequency.

  16. Low-Energy Ballistic Transfers to Lunar Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent lunar missions have begun to take advantage of the benefits of low-energy ballistic transfers between the Earth and the Moon rather than implementing conventional Hohmann-like lunar transfers. Both Artemis and GRAIL plan to implement low-energy lunar transfers in the next few years. This paper explores the characteristics and potential applications of many different families of low-energy ballistic lunar transfers. The transfers presented here begin from a wide variety of different orbits at the Earth and follow several different distinct pathways to the Moon. This paper characterizes these pathways to identify desirable low-energy lunar transfers for future lunar missions.

  17. Research on data fusion in ballistic warning simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Zhihao; Zheng, Hongtao; Peng, Xiaoyuan

    2006-11-01

    Different kinds of sensors distributed in space, sky, ground and sea related in ballistic missile warning system are modeled using object-oriented method. Since each kind of sensor has distinct merit and demerit. The detection precision can be greatly enhanced using proper data fusion methods. A battlefield simulation environment is constructed based on HLA/RTI which could provide flexible interface to evaluate diverse sensors (mainly about infrared sensor and phase array radar) and different data fusion algorithms for ballistic missile defense. The data fusion simulation system can also be reused in computer generate force system to perform lager scale campaign simulation.

  18. Closed end launch tube (CELT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.

    2001-02-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off-the-shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg vehicle to 270 ms-1. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (Generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle. .

  19. Advanced Launch Development Program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgrove, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Launch System is a joint NASA - Air Force program originally directed to define the concept for a modular family of launch vehicles, to continue development programs and preliminary design activities focused primarily on low cost to orbit, and to offer maturing technologies to existing systems. The program was restructed in the spring of 1990 as a result of funding reductions and renamed the Advanced Launch Development Program. This paper addresses the program's status following that restructuring and as NASA and the Air Force commence a period of deliberation over future space launch needs and the budgetary resources available to meet those needs. The program is currently poised to protect a full-scale development decision in the mid-1990's through the appropriate application of program resources. These resources are concentrated upon maintaining the phase II system contractor teams, continuing the Space Transportation Engine development activity, and refocusing the Advanced Development Program demonstrated activities.

  20. STS-135 Fused Launch Video

    NASA Video Gallery

    Imaging experts funded by the Space Shuttle Program and located at NASA's Ames Research Center prepared this video of the STS-135 launch by merging images taken by a set of six cameras capturing fi...

  1. Environmentally-Preferable Launch Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt R.

    2015-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida, has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of NASA and the GSDO Program, the objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of environmentally friendly corrosion protecting coatings for launch facilities and ground support equipment (GSE). The focus of the project is corrosion resistance and survivability with the goal to reduce the amount of maintenance required to preserve the performance of launch facilities while reducing mission risk. The project compares coating performance of the selected alternatives to existing coating systems or standards.

  2. Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, Bruce D.; Hines, John W.; Agasid, Elwood F.; Buckley, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The utility of small spacecraft based on the University cubesat standard is becoming evident as more and more agencies and organizations are launching or planning to include nanosatellites in their mission portfolios. Cubesats are typically launched as secondary spacecraft in enclosed, containerized deployers such as the CalPoly Poly Picosat Orbital Deployer (P-POD) system. The P-POD allows for ease of integration and significantly reduces the risk exposure to the primary spacecraft and mission. NASA/ARC and the Operationally Responsive Space office are collaborating to develop a Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS), which can accommodate multiple cubesat or cubesat-derived spacecraft on a single launch vehicle. NLAS is composed of the adapter structure, P-POD or similar spacecraft dispensers, and a sequencer/deployer system. This paper describes the NLAS system and it s future capabilities, and also provides status on the system s development and potential first use in space.

  3. Re-entry Experiment Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 10, 2009, NASA successfully launched the Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) and proved that spacecraft can use inflatable heat shields to reduce speed and provide protection du...

  4. Robonaut 2 Readied for Launch

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is being prepared for its history making launch to the International Space Station on STS-133. The robot, known as R2, will be the first humanoid machine to work in orbit. With a upper t...

  5. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    As an alternative to magnetic propulsion for launch assist, the authors propose a pneumatic launch assist system. Using off the shelf components, coupled with familiar steel and concrete construction, a launch assist system can be brought from the initial feasibility stage, through a flight capable 5000 kg. demonstrator to a deployed full size launch assist system in 10 years. The final system would be capable of accelerating a 450,000 kg. vehicle to 270 meters per second. The CELT system uses commercially available compressors and valves to build a fail-safe system in less than half the time of a full Mag-Lev (magnetic levitation) system, and at a small fraction of the development cost. The resulting system could be ready in time to support some Gen 2 (generation 2) vehicles, as well as the proposed Gen 3 vehicle.

  6. Launch Abort System Pathfinder Arrival

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Orion Launch Abort System, or LAS, pathfinder returned home to NASA Langley on Oct. 18 on its way to NASA's Kennedy Space Center. The hardware was built at Langley and was used in preparation f...

  7. Space Launch System: Future Frontier

    NASA Video Gallery

    Featuring NASA Marshall’s Foundations of Influence, Relationships, Success & Teamwork (FIRST) employees and student interns, "Future Frontier" discusses the new Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-li...

  8. Lighting the Sky: ATREX Launches

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA successfully launched five suborbital sounding rockets early March 27, 2012 from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia as part of a study of the upper level jet stream. The first rocket was ...

  9. BARREL Team Launching 20 Balloons

    NASA Video Gallery

    A movie made by the NASA-Funded Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses, or BARREL, team on their work launching 20 balloons in Antarctica during the Dec. 2013/Jan. 2014 campa...

  10. Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmel, Glenn S.; Davis, Steven R.; Leucht, Kurt W.; Rowe, Dan A.; Kelly, Andrew O.; Boeloeni, Ladislau

    2005-01-01

    The Spaceport Processing Systems Branch at NASA Kennedy Space Center has developed and deployed a software agent to monitor the Space Shuttle's ground processing telemetry stream. The application, the Launch Commit Criteria Monitoring Agent, increases situational awareness for system and hardware engineers during Shuttle launch countdown. The agent provides autonomous monitoring of the telemetry stream, automatically alerts system engineers when predefined criteria have been met, identifies limit warnings and violations of launch commit criteria, aids Shuttle engineers through troubleshooting procedures, and provides additional insight to verify appropriate troubleshooting of problems by contractors. The agent has successfully detected launch commit criteria warnings and violations on a simulated playback data stream. Efficiency and safety are improved through increased automation.

  11. Japan launches mission to Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The Japanese space agency JAXA has launched its first mission to Venus. The Akatsuki craft, which means "dawn" in Japanese, took off last month from the Tanegashima Space Center on the island of Kagoshima, south-west of mainland Japan.

  12. Maximum horizontal range of volcanic ballistic projectiles ejected during explosive eruptions at Santorini caldera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, K. I.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the hazard posed by Volcanic Ballistic Projectiles (VBPs) to the Santorini islands considering eruption scenarios that include low (VEI = 2-3) and higher energy (VEI > 3) eruptions. A model that describes rapid decompression of pressurized magma below a caprock along with its fragmentation and acceleration of particles is utilized for estimating initial velocities during vulcanian-style eruptions. These initial velocities are inserted into the ballistic equations assuming that VBPs have a cube-like shape, are subjected to gravity/drag forces and are launched into a zone of reduced drag. Four different diameters of VBPs are considered (0.35 m, 1.0 m, 2.0 m, 3.0 m) and also different values of gas fractions and extent of the reduced drag zone are investigated. The results of these calculations show that an area of 1-2 km width along the western coast of Thera will be within the maximum range of VBPs, provided that the eruptive vent will develop either on Nea Kameni or between Nea Kameni and Thera. Initial velocities for higher energy eruptions are estimated by considering the conversion efficiency of thermal to kinetic energy. For the case of an eruption with VEI = 4 and a number of vents centered between Nea and Palea Kameni, calculations show that the coastal areas of Thera and Therasia are within the maximum horizontal range of VBPs with diameter larger than 0.35 m. As the exact position of the eruptive vent seems to be of crucial importance for determining the areas at risk, continuous seismic and geodetic monitoring of the caldera is needed in order to decipher its likely location.

  13. CubeSat Launch Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recognizes the tremendous potential that CubeSats (very small satellites) have to inexpensively demonstrate advanced technologies, collect scientific data, and enhance student engagement in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). The CubeSat Launch Initiative (CSLI) was created to provide launch opportunities for CubeSats developed by academic institutions, non-profit entities, and NASA centers. This presentation will provide an overview of the CSLI, its benefits, and its results.

  14. STS-53 Launch and Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Footage of various stages of the STS-53 Discovery launch is shown, including shots of the crew at breakfast, getting suited up, and departing to board the Orbiter. The launch is seen from many vantage points, as is the landing. On-orbit activities show the crew performing several medical experiments, such as taking a picture of the retina and measuring the pressure on the eyeball. One crewmember demonstrates how to use the rowing machine in an antigravity environment.

  15. Launch of STS-63 Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A 35mm camera was used to expose this close-up image of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it began its race to catch up with Russia's Mir Space Station. Liftoff from Launch Pad 39B, Kennedy Space Center (KSC) occurred at 12:22:04 (EST) February 3, 1995. Discovery is the first in the current fleet of four space shuttle vehicles to make 20 launches.

  16. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. Mercury-Atlas Test Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    A NASA Project Mercury spacecraft was test launched at 11:15 AM EST on April 25, 1961 from Cape Canaveral, Florida, in a test designed to qualify the Mercury Spacecraft and all systems, which must function during orbit and reentry from orbit. The Mercury-Atlas vehicle was destroyed by Range Safety Officer about 40 seconds after liftoff. The spacecraft was recovered and appeared to be in good condition. Atlas was designed to launch payloads into low Earth orbit, geosynchronous transfer orbit or geosynchronous orbit. NASA first launched Atlas as a space launch vehicle in 1958. Project SCORE, the first communications satellite that transmitted President Eisenhower's pre-recorded Christmas speech around the world, was launched on an Atlas. For all three robotic lunar exploration programs, Atlas was used. Atlas/ Centaur vehicles launched both Mariner and Pioneer planetary probes. The current operational Atlas II family has a 100% mission success rating. For more information about Atlas, please see Chapter 2 in Roger Launius and Dennis Jenkins' book To Reach the High Frontier published by The University Press of Kentucky in 2002.

  18. SLI Artist `s Launch Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Space Launch Initiative (SLI), NASA's priority developmental program focused on empowering America's leadership in space. SLI includes commercial, higher education and defense partnerships and contracts to offer widespread participation in both the risk and success of developing our nation's next-generation reusable launch vehicle. This photo depicts an artist's concept of a future second-generation launch vehicle during launch. For SLI, architecture definition includes all components of the next-generation reusable launch system: Earth-to-orbit vehicles (the Space Shuttle is the first generation earth-to-orbit vehicle), crew transfer vehicles, transfer stages, ground processing systems, flight operations systems, and development of business case strategies. Three contractor teams have each been funded to develop potential second generation reusable launch system architectures: The Boeing Company of Seal Beach, California; Lockheed Martin Corporation of Denver, Colorado along with a team including Northrop Grumman of El Segundo, California; and Orbital Sciences Corporation of Dulles, Virginia.

  19. Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Delma C., Jr.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight test. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  20. Reusable launch vehicle technology program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Austin, R. Eugene

    Industry/NASA reusable launch vehicle (RLV) technology program efforts are underway to design, test, and develop technologies and concepts for viable commercial launch systems that also satisfy national needs at acceptable recurring costs. Significant progress has been made in understanding the technical challenges of fully reusable launch systems and the accompanying management and operational approaches for achieving a low-cost program. This paper reviews the current status of the RLV technology program including the DC-XA, X-33 and X-34 flight systems and associated technology programs. It addresses the specific technologies being tested that address the technical and operability challenges of reusable launch systems including reusable cryogenic propellant tanks, composite structures, thermal protection systems, improved propulsion, and subsystem operability enhancements. The recently concluded DC-XA test program demonstrated some of these technologies in ground and flight tests. Contracts were awarded recently for both the X-33 and X-34 flight demonstrator systems. The Orbital Sciences Corporation X-34 flight test vehicle will demonstrate an air-launched reusable vehicle capable of flight to speeds of Mach 8. The Lockheed-Martin X-33 flight test vehicle will expand the test envelope for critical technologies to flight speeds of Mach 15. A propulsion program to test the X-33 linear aerospike rocket engine using a NASA SR-71 high speed aircraft as a test bed is also discussed. The paper also describes the management and operational approaches that address the challenge of new cost-effective, reusable launch vehicle systems.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  2. Spitzer Pre Launch Mission Operations System - The Road to Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Charles P.; Wilson, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on 25 August 2003 into an Earth-trailing solar orbit to acquire infrared observations from space. Development of the Mission Operations System (MOS) portion prior to launch was very different from planetary missions from the stand point that the MOS teams and Ground Data System had to be ready to support all aspects of the mission at launch (i.e., no cruise period for finalizing the implementation). For Spitzer, all mission-critical events post launch happen in hours or days rather than months or years, as is traditional with deep space missions. At the end of 2000 the Project was dealt a major blow when the Mission Operations System (MOS) had an unsuccessful Critical Design Review (CDR). The project made major changes at the beginning of 2001 in an effort to get the MOS (and Project) back on track. The result for the Spitzer Space Telescope was a successful launch of the observatory followed by an extremely successful In Orbit Checkout (IOC) and operations phase. This paper describes how the project was able to recover the MOS to a successful Delta (CDR) by mid 2001, and what changes in philosophies, experiences, and lessons learned followed. It describes how projects must invest early or else invest heavily later in the development phase to achieve a successful operations phase.

  3. Launch site integration for mixed fleet operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, L. P.

    1990-01-01

    Launch site impacts and integration planning issues are presented to support launch operations for a mixed vehicle fleet (manned and cargo). Proposed ground systems and launch site configurations are described. Prelaunch processing scenarios and schedules are developed for candidate launch vehicles. Earth-to-orbit (ETO) vehicle architectures are presented to meet future launch requirements, including the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). Flight vehicle design recommendations to enhance launch processing are discussed. The significance of operational designs for future launch vehicles is shown to be a critical factor in planning for mixed fleet launch site operations.

  4. Models of Ballistic Propagation of Heat at Low Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, R.; Ván, P.

    2016-09-01

    Heat conduction at low temperatures shows several effects that cannot be described by the Fourier law. In this paper, the performance of various theories is compared in case of wave-like and ballistic propagation of heat pulses in NaF.

  5. Time-reversed, flow-reversed ballistics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Zernow, L.; Chapyak, E. J.; Scheffler, D. R.

    2001-01-01

    Two-dimensional simulations of planar sheet jet formation are studied to examine the hydrodynamic issues involved when simulations are carried out in the inverse direction, that is, with reversed time and flow. Both a realistic copper equation of state and a shockless equation of state were used. These studies are an initial step in evaluating this technique as a ballistics design tool.

  6. On the Trajectories of Projectiles Depicted in Early Ballistic Woodcuts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by quaint woodcut depictions often found in many late 16th and 17th century ballistic manuals of cannonballs fired in air, a comparison of their shapes with those calculated for the classic case of a projectile moving in a linear resisting medium is made. In considering the asymmetrical nature of such trajectories, the initial launch…

  7. Controlling ballistic missiles: How important How to do it

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, J.R.; Rubin, U. )

    1992-03-01

    Missiles themselves are not weapons of mass destruction; they do not give states the ability to wreak unimaginable destruction, or to radically shift the balance of power, as nuclear weapons do. Hence, the primary focus of nonproliferation efforts should remain on weapons of mass destruction, particularly nuclear weapons, rather than on one of the many possible means of delivering them. Moreover, as discussed in more detail below, advanced strike aircraft can also be effective in delivering nuclear weapons, and are generally more effective than ballistic missiles for delivering conventional or chemical ordnance. Ultimately, if the industrialized nations seriously desire to control the spread of delivery means for weapons of mass destruction, they need to consider bringing controls over ballistic missiles and advanced strike aircraft more into balance. At the same time, while efforts to control ballistic missile proliferation - centered on the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) - have had some successes and could be strengthened, US policy will be most effective if it recognizes two key realities: the spread of ballistic missiles cannot be as comprehensively controlled as the spread of nuclear weapons, nor need it be as comprehensively controlled.

  8. Evaluation of bone surrogates for indirect and direct ballistic fractures.

    PubMed

    Bir, Cynthia; Andrecovich, Chris; DeMaio, Marlene; Dougherty, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    The mechanism of injury for fractures to long bones has been studied for both direct ballistic loading as well as indirect. However, the majority of these studies have been conducted on both post-mortem human subjects (PMHS) and animal surrogates which have constraints in terms of storage, preparation and testing. The identification of a validated bone surrogate for use in forensic, medical and engineering testing would provide the ability to investigate ballistic loading without these constraints. Two specific bone surrogates, Sawbones and Synbone, were evaluated in comparison to PMHS for both direct and indirect ballistic loading. For the direct loading, the mean velocity to produce fracture was 121 ± 19 m/s for the PMHS, which was statistically different from the Sawbones (140 ± 7 m/s) and Synbone (146 ± 3 m/s). The average distance to fracture in the indirect loading was .70 cm for the PMHS. The Synbone had a statistically similar average distance to fracture (.61 cm, p=0.54) however the Sawbones average distance to fracture was statistically different (.41 cm, p<0.05). Fractures patterns were found to be comparable to the PMHS for tests conducted with Synbones, however the input parameters were slightly varied to produce similar results. The fractures patterns with the Sawbones were not found to be as comparable to the PMHS. An ideal bone surrogate for ballistic testing was not identified and future work is warranted. PMID:26867672

  9. Fiber-modified polyurethane foam for ballistic protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.; Parker, J. A.; Rosser, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Closed-cell, semirigid, fiber-loaded, self-extinguishing polyurethane foam material fills voids around fuel cells in aircraft. Material prevents leakage of fuel and spreading of fire in case of ballistic incendiary impact. It also protects fuel cell in case of exterior fire.

  10. Special case of the elastic collision and the ballistic pendulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröer, H.

    We want to investigate some interesting cases at the elastic collision. We view the ballistic pendulum. A bullet is fired from a gun or pistol. This mass collides inelastic with the mass at the pendulum. We get an expression for the bullet's velocity.

  11. The application of computed tomography in wound ballistics research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiatis, Nick; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Papadodima, Stavroula; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Kelekis, Alexis; Kelesis, Christos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kordolaimi, Sofia; Ploussi, Agapi

    2015-09-01

    In wound ballistics research there is a relationship between the data that characterize a bullet and the injury resulted after shooting when it perforates the human body. The bullet path in the human body following skin perforation as well as the damaging effect cannot always be predictable as they depend on various factors such as the bullet's characteristics (velocity, distance, type of firearm and so on) and the tissue types that the bullet passes through. The purpose of this presentation is to highlight the contribution of Computed Tomography (CT) in wound ballistics research. Using CT technology and studying virtual “slices” of specific areas on scanned human bodies, allows the evaluation of density and thickness of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue, the muscles, the vital organs and the bones. Density data taken from Hounsfield units can be converted in g/ml by using the appropriate software. By evaluating the results of this study, the anatomy of the human body utilizing ballistic gel will be reproduced in order to simulate the path that a bullet follows. The biophysical analysis in wound ballistics provides another application of CT technology, which is commonly used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in various medical disciplines.

  12. Self-Avoiding Walk is Sub-Ballistic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Hammond, Alan

    2013-12-01

    We prove that self-avoiding walk on is sub-ballistic in any dimension d ≥ 2. That is, writing for the Euclidean norm of , and for the uniform measure on self-avoiding walks for which γ 0 = 0, we show that, for each v > 0, there exists such that, for each.

  13. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-10

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  14. Safety evaluation of RTG launches aboard Titan IV launch vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosko, Robert J.; Loughin, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    The analytical tool used to evaluate accidents aboard a Titan IV launch vehicle involving a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) is discussed. The Launch Accident Scenario Evaluation Program-Titan IV version (LASEP-T) uses a Monte Carlo approach to determine the response of an RTG to various threatening environments. The threatening environments arise from a complex interplay of probabilistic and deterministic processes, and are therefore parameterized by a set of random variables with probability distributions. The assessment of the RTG response to a given environment is based on both empirical data and theoretical modeling. Imbedding detailed, complex response models into the LASEP-T calculation was not practical. Simpler response models have been constructed to capture both the inherent variability due to the phenomenology of the accident scenario along with the uncertainty of predicting response behavior. The treatment of variability and uncertainty as it pertains to the launch accident evaluation of RTG response will be discussed.

  15. 22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. INTERIOR VIEW WITH INTERIOR VIEW OF MOLDING SANDS CONTROL AND TEST LAB FOR UNIT NO. 2 GREY IRON DISAMATIC. SAND CASTING TECHNICIAN, ROY BATES, TESTS THE WEIGHT OF THE SAND, DRYS IT, AND WEIGHT IT AGAINST STANDARDS TO CALCULATE THE CORRECT MOISTURE NEEDED FOR DIFFERENT MOLDS. THE SAND MIX VARY WITH THE SIZE AND COMPOSITION OF THE CASTING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  17. The commercial Aquila Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flittie, Kirk J.; McFarlane, Scott

    1991-06-01

    The American Rocket Company's (AMROC) Aquila Launch Vehicle is a ground-launched, four-stage, all-hybrid propulsion, inertially-guided commercial space booster designed to deliver 2000 pound payloads into low earth orbit. By using AMROC's low-cost hybrid propulsion, the Aquila launch service will provide quick, on-demand, routine access to space; high accuracy orbital placement; and an unprecedented degree of production, ground and flight safety. The first launch of the Aquila will be in early 1995. Aquila utilizes AMROc's unique hybrid propulsion systems consisting of an inert solid polybutadiene fuel and either liquid oxygen or nitrous oxide as oxidizer. A hybrid propulsion system is distinct from all other rocket propulsion systems in that hybrids cannot explode; hybrids offer safe handling, operation and launch pad abort; and hybrids offer start/stop and full throttling capability for trajectory optimization and precise payload placement on orbit. In addition, the exhaust products do not contain hydrogen chlorides which are environmentally degrading.

  18. The role of computed tomography in terminal ballistic analysis.

    PubMed

    Rutty, G N; Boyce, P; Robinson, C E; Jeffery, A J; Morgan, B

    2008-01-01

    Terminal ballistics concerns the science of projectile behaviour within a target and includes wound ballistics that considers what happens when a projectile strikes a living being. A number of soft tissue ballistic simulants have been used to assess the damage to tissue caused by projectiles. Standard assessment of these materials, such as ballistic soap or ordnance gelatine, requires the block to be opened or that a mould to be made to visualize the wound track. This is time consuming and may affect the accuracy of the findings especially if the block dries and alters shape during the process. Therefore, accurate numerical analysis of the permanent or temporary cavity is limited. Computed tomography (CT) potentially offers a quicker non-invasive analysis tool for this task. Four commercially purchased ballistic glycerine soap blocks were used. Each had a single firearm discharged into it from a distance of approximately 15 cm using both gunshot and shotgun projectiles. After discharge, each block was imaged by a modern 16 slice multi-detector CT scanner and analysed using 3-D reconstruction software. Using the anterior-posterior and lateral scout views and the multi-plane reconstructed images, it was possible to visualize the temporary cavity, as well as the fragmentation and dispersal pattern of the projectiles, the distance travelled and angle of dispersal within the block of each projectile or fragment. A virtual cast of the temporary cavity can be also be made. Multi-detector CT with 3-D analysis software is shown to create a reliable permanent record of the projectile path allowing rapid analysis of different firearms and projectiles. PMID:17205351

  19. Risk Analysis Methodology for Kistler's K-1 Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkeland, Paul W.

    2002-01-01

    Missile risk analysis methodologies were originally developed in the 1940s as the military experimented with intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) technology. As the range of these missiles increased, it became apparent that some means of assessing the risk posed to neighboring populations was necessary to gauge the relative safety of a given test. There were many unknowns at the time, and technology was unpredictable at best. Risk analysis itself was in its infancy. Uncertainties in technology and methodology led to an ongoing bias toward conservative assumptions to adequately bound the problem. This methodology ultimately became the Casualty Expectation Analysis that is used to license Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELVs). A different risk analysis approach was adopted by the commercial aviation industry in the 1950s. At the time, commercial aviation technology was more firmly in hand than ICBM technology. Consequently commercial aviation risk analysis focused more closely on the hardware characteristics. Over the years, this approach has enabled the advantages of technological and safety advances in commercial aviation hardware to manifest themselves in greater capabilities and opportunities. The Boeing 777, for example, received approval for trans-oceanic operations "out of the box," where all previous aircraft were required, at the very least, to demonstrate operations over thousands of hours before being granted such approval. This "out of the box" approval is likely to become standard for all subsequent designs. In short, the commercial aircraft approach to risk analysis created a more flexible environment for industry evolution and growth. In contrast, the continued use of the Casualty Expectation Analysis by the launch industry is likely to hinder industry maturation. It likely will cause any safety and reliability gains incorporated into RLV design to be masked by the conservative assumptions made to "bound the problem." Consequently, for the launch

  20. STS-120 on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A photographer used a fisheye lens attached to an electronic still camera to record a series of photos of the Space Shuttle Discovery at the launch pad while the STS-120 crew was at Kennedy Space Center for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test in October 2007. The STS-120 mission launched from Kennedy Space Center's launch pad 39A at 11:38:19 a.m. (EDT) on October 23, 2007. The crew included Scott E. Parazynski, Douglas H. Wheelock, Stephanie D. Wilson, all mission specialists; George D. Zamka, pilot; Pamela A. Melroy, commander; Daniel M. Tani, Expedition 16 flight engineer; and Paolo A. Nespoli, mission specialist representing the European Space Agency (ESA). Major objectives included the installation of the P6 solar array of the port truss and delivery and installment of Harmony, the Italian-built U.S. Node 2 on the International Space Station (ISS).

  1. Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartres, James; Cappuccio, Gelsomina

    2015-01-01

    The Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS) was developed to increase access to space while simplifying the integration process of miniature satellites, called nanosats or CubeSats, onto launch vehicles. A standard CubeSat measures about 10 cm square, and is referred to as a 1-unit (1U) CubeSat. A single NLAS provides the capability to deploy 24U of CubeSats. The system is designed to accommodate satellites measuring 1U, 1.5U, 2U, 3U and 6U sizes for deployment into orbit. The NLAS may be configured for use on different launch vehicles. The system also enables flight demonstrations of new technologies in the space environment.

  2. Compressed Sensing Based Interior Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hengyong; Wang, Ge

    2010-01-01

    While the conventional wisdom is that the interior problem does not have a unique solution, by analytic continuation we recently showed that the interior problem can be uniquely and stably solved if we have a known sub-region inside a region-of-interest (ROI). However, such a known sub-region does not always readily available, and it is even impossible to find in some cases. Based on the compressed sensing theory, here we prove that if an object under reconstruction is essentially piecewise constant, a local ROI can be exactly and stably reconstructed via the total variation minimization. Because many objects in CT applications can be approximately modeled as piecewise constant, our approach is practically useful and suggests a new research direction of interior tomography. To illustrate the merits of our finding, we develop an iterative interior reconstruction algorithm that minimizes the total variation of a reconstructed image, and evaluate the performance in numerical simulation. PMID:19369711

  3. Analytic Ballistic Performance Model of Whipple Shields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bjorkman, M. D.; Christiansen, E. L.; Ryan, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    The dual-wall, Whipple shield is the shield of choice for lightweight, long-duration flight. The shield uses an initial sacrificial wall to initiate fragmentation and melt an impacting threat that expands over a void before hitting a subsequent shield wall of a critical component. The key parameters to this type of shield are the rear wall and its mass which stops the debris, as well as the minimum shock wave strength generated by the threat particle impact of the sacrificial wall and the amount of room that is available for expansion. Ensuring the shock wave strength is sufficiently high to achieve large scale fragmentation/melt of the threat particle enables the expansion of the threat and reduces the momentum flux of the debris on the rear wall. Three key factors in the shock wave strength achieved are the thickness of the sacrificial wall relative to the characteristic dimension of the impacting particle, the density and material cohesion contrast of the sacrificial wall relative to the threat particle and the impact speed. The mass of the rear wall and the sacrificial wall are desirable to minimize for launch costs making it important to have an understanding of the effects of density contrast and impact speed. An analytic model is developed here, to describe the influence of these three key factors. In addition this paper develops a description of a fourth key parameter related to fragmentation and its role in establishing the onset of projectile expansion.

  4. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  5. Personnel Launch System (PLS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, Carl F., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is currently studying a personnel launch system (PLS) approach to help satisfy the crew rotation requirements for the Space Station Freedom. Several concepts from low L/D capsules to lifting body vehicles are being examined in a series of studies as a potential augmentation to the Space Shuttle launch system. Rockwell International Corporation, under contract to NASA, analyzed a lifting body concept to determine whether the lifting body class of vehicles is appropriate for the PLS function. The results of the study are given.

  6. The Scout Launch Vehicle program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, L. R., Jr.; Urash, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    The Scout Launch Vehicle Program to utilize solid propellant rockets by the DOD and to provide a reliable, low cost vehicle for scientific and applications aircraft is discussed. The program's history is reviewed and a vehicle description is given. The Vandenberg Air Force Base and the San Marco launch sites are described, and capabilities such as payload weight, orbital inclinations, payload volume and mission integration time spans are discussed. Current and future plans for improvement, including larger heat shields and individual rocket motors are also reviewed.

  7. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS): Launch tradeoff study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A goal of the Phase B study is to define the launch system interfaces for the reusable reentry satellite (RRS) program. The focus of the launch tradeoff study, documented in this report, is to determine which expendable launch vehicles (ELV's) are best suited for the RRS application by understanding the impact of all viable launch systems on RRS design and operation.

  8. Intelsat communications satellite scheduled for launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    To be placed into a highly elliptical transfer orbit by the Atlas Centaur (AC-61) launch vehicle, the INTELSAT V-F satellite has 12,000 voice circuits and 2 color television channels and incorporates a maritime communication system for ship to shore communications. The stages of the launch vehicle and the launch operations are described. A table shows the launch sequence.

  9. Exploring Asteroid Interiors: The Deep Interior Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asphaug, E.; Belton, M. J. S.; Cangahuala, A.; Keith, L.; Klaasen, K.; McFadden, L.; Neumann, G.; Ostro, S. J.; Reinert, R.; Safaeinili, A.

    2003-01-01

    Deep Interior is a mission to determine the geophysical properties of near-Earth objects, including the first volumetric image of the interior of an asteroid. Radio reflection tomography will image the 3D distribution of complex dielectric properties within the 1 km rendezvous target and hence map structural, density or compositional variations. Laser altimetry and visible imaging will provide high-resolution surface topography. Smart surface pods culminating in blast experiments, imaged by the high frame rate camera and scanned by lidar, will characterize active mechanical behavior and structure of surface materials, expose unweathered surface for NIR analysis, and may enable some characterization of bulk seismic response. Multiple flybys en route to this target will characterize a diversity of asteroids, probing their interiors with non-tomographic radar reflectance experiments. Deep Interior is a natural follow-up to the NEARShoemaker mission and will provide essential guidance for future in situ asteroid and comet exploration. While our goal is to learn the interior geology of small bodies and how their surfaces behave, the resulting science will enable pragmatic technologies required of hazard mitigation and resource utilization.

  10. Phase-sensitive optical detection of ballistic phonon heat pulses using frequency-modulation spectroscopy and persistent spectral holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrose, W. P.; Moerner, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    With the use of laser frequency-modulation (FM) spectroscopy and persistent spectral holes, time-resolved phase-sensitive probing of ballistic phonon heat pulses is accomplished in the interior of a NaF crystal. The ballistic phonon heat pulses are generated by the absorption of a Nd:YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser pulse in a Cr film on the sample surface. Local measurement of the propagating stress-strain field is illustrated by detecting the modulation of a spectral hole in the inhomogeneously broadened 607-nm color-center absorption in x-irradiated NaF at liquid-helium temperatures. By examining the dependence of the observed phonon time-of-flight data on the polarization of the probing light, the position within the sample, and the phase of FM detection, an identification of the acoustic polarizations of the propagating phonons may be made. The effects of phonon focusing and mode conversion upon reflection must be taken into account to complete the identification. Along with the ability to determine the sign of the acoustic disturbance, this experiment features a strain detection limit of 4×10-9 at a time resolution of 50 ns.

  11. STS-1 Pre-Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A timed exposure of the Space Shuttle, STS-1, at Launch Pad A, Complex 39, turns the space vehicle and support facilities into a night- time fantasy of light. Structures to the left of the Shuttle are the fixed and the rotating service structure.

  12. VEGA, a small launch vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duret, François; Fabrizi, Antonio

    1999-09-01

    Several studies have been performed in Europe aiming to promote the full development of a small launch vehicle to put into orbit one ton class spacecrafts. But during the last ten years, the european workforce was mainly oriented towards the qualification of the heavy class ARIANE 5 launch vehicle.Then, due also to lack of visibility on this reduced segment of market, when comparing with the geosatcom market, no proposal was sufficiently attractive to get from the potentially interrested authorities a clear go-ahead, i.e. a financial committment. The situation is now rapidly evolving. Several european states, among them ITALY and FRANCE, are now convinced of the necessity of the availability of such a transportation system, an important argument to promote small missions, using small satellites. Application market will be mainly scientific experiments and earth observation; some telecommunications applications may be also envisaged such as placement of little LEO constellation satellites, or replacement after failure of big LEO constellation satellites. FIAT AVIO and AEROSPATIALE have proposed to their national agencies the development of such a small launch vehicle, named VEGA. The paper presents the story of the industrial proposal, and the present status of the project: Mission spectrum, technical definition, launch service and performance, target development plan and target recurring costs, as well as the industrial organisation for development, procurement, marketing and operations.

  13. Skylab Components in Launch Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This cutaway drawing illustrates major Skylab components in launch configuration on top of the Saturn V. In an early effort to extend the use of Apollo for further applications, NASA established the Apollo Applications Program (AAP) in August of 1965. The AAP was to include long duration Earth orbital missions during which astronauts would carry out scientific, technological, and engineering experiments in space by utilizing modified Saturn launch vehicles and the Apollo spacecraft. Established in 1970, the Skylab Program was the forerurner of the AAP. The goals of the Skylab were to enrich our scientific knowledge of the Earth, the Sun, the stars, and cosmic space; to study the effects of weightlessness on living organisms, including man; to study the effects of the processing and manufacturing of materials utilizing the absence of gravity; and to conduct Earth resource observations. The Skylab also conducted 19 selected experiments submitted by high school students. Skylab's 3 different 3-man crews spent up to 84 days in Earth orbit. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) had responsibility for developing and integrating most of the major components of the Skylab: the Orbital Workshop (OWS), Airlock Module (AM), Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Payload Shroud (PS), and most of the experiments. MSFC was also responsible for providing the Saturn IB launch vehicles for three Apollo spacecraft and crews and a Saturn V launch vehicle for the Skylab.

  14. Deep Impact on Launch Pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Deep Impact awaits launch from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla. on Jan. 12, 2005.

    The spacecraft will travel to comet Tempel 1 and release an impactor, creating a crater on the surface of the comet. Scientists believe the exposed materials may give clues to the formation of our solar system.

  15. Electromagnetic launch of lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, William R.; Kolm, Henry H.

    1992-01-01

    Lunar soil can become a source of relatively inexpensive oxygen propellant for vehicles going from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and beyond. This lunar oxygen could replace the oxygen propellant that, in current plans for these missions, is launched from the Earth's surface and amounts to approximately 75 percent of the total mass. The reason for considering the use of oxygen produced on the Moon is that the cost for the energy needed to transport things from the lunar surface to LEO is approximately 5 percent the cost from the surface of the Earth to LEO. Electromagnetic launchers, in particular the superconducting quenchgun, provide a method of getting this lunar oxygen off the lunar surface at minimal cost. This cost savings comes from the fact that the superconducting quenchgun gets its launch energy from locally supplied, solar- or nuclear-generated electrical power. We present a preliminary design to show the main features and components of a lunar-based superconducting quenchgun for use in launching 1-ton containers of liquid oxygen, one every 2 hours. At this rate, nearly 4400 tons of liquid oxygen would be launched into low lunar orbit in a year.

  16. Space Shuttle Launch: STS-129

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-129. Space shuttle Atlantis and its six-member crew began an 11-day delivery flight to the International Space Station on Monday, Nov 16, 2009, with a 2:28 p.m. EST launch from NASA's Kennedy S...

  17. Cryopumping in Cryogenic Insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Weiser, Erik S.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Testing at cryogenic temperatures was performed to verify the material characteristics and manufacturing processes of reusable propellant tank cryogenic insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The unique test apparatus and test methods developed for the investigation of cryopumping in cryogenic insulations are described. Panel level test specimens with various types of cryogenic insulations were subjected to a specific thermal profile where the temperature varied from -262 C to 21 C. Cryopumping occurred if the interior temperature of the specimen exhibited abnormal temperature fluctuations, such as a sudden decrease in temperature during the heating phase.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  19. Deep Interior Mission: Imaging the Interior of Near-Earth Asteroids Using Radio Reflection Tomography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, A.; Asphaug, E.; Rodriquez, E.; Gurrola, E.; Belton, M.; Klaasen, K.; Ostro, S.; Plaut, J.; Yeomans, D.

    2005-01-01

    materials that we are likely to encounter, from undifferentiated to highly evolved. The 5-15 MHz radar is capable of probing more primitive bodies (e.g. comets or C-types) that may be available given other launch schedules. 5 MHz radar easily penetrates, with the required SNR , greater than 1 km of basalt (a good analog for Nyx). Basalt has a greater loss tangent than expected for most asteroids, although iron-rich M-types are probably not appropriate targets. 15 MHz radar penetrates the outer approximately 100 m of rocky 1 km asteroids and the deep interiors of comets. Laboratory studies of the most common NE0 materials expected (S-, C- and V-type meteorite analogs) will commence in 2005.

  20. 14 CFR 420.21 - Launch site location review-launch site boundary.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the debris dispersion radius of the largest launch vehicle type and weight class proposed for the launch point. (b) For a launch site supporting any expendable launch vehicle, an applicant shall use the largest distance provided by table 2 for the type and weight class of any launch vehicle proposed for...