Ballooning filament growth in the intermediate nonlinear regime
Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.
2008-09-15
A theory is developed for the description of ballooning instability in the intermediate nonlinear regime for general magnetic configurations including toroidal systems such as tokamaks. The evolution equations for the plasma filament growth induced by the ballooning instability are derived accounting for the dominant nonlinear effects in an ideal magnetohydrodynamic description. The intermediate nonlinear regime of ballooning modes is defined by the ordering that the plasma filament displacement across the magnetic surface is comparable to the linear mode width in the same direction. In the tokamak case, this regime could become particularly relevant for a transport barrier as the width of the barrier (or pedestal) region approaches the mode width of the dominant ballooning mode. A remarkable feature of the nonlinear ballooning equations is that solutions of the associated local linear ballooning mode equations continue to be valid solutions into the intermediate nonlinear regime. The filament growth equations for the intermediate nonlinear ballooning regime may be applicable to the precursor and precollapse phase of edge localized modes observed in both simulations and experiments.
Nonlinear regimes of forced magnetic reconnection
Vekstein, G.; Kusano, K.
2015-09-15
This letter presents a self-consistent description of nonlinear forced magnetic reconnection in Taylor's model of this process. If external boundary perturbation is strong enough, nonlinearity in the current sheet evolution becomes important before resistive effects come into play. This terminates the current sheet shrinking that takes place at the linear stage and brings about its nonlinear equilibrium with a finite thickness. Then, in theory, this equilibrium is destroyed by a finite plasma resistivity during the skin-time, and further reconnection proceeds in the Rutherford regime. However, realization of such a scenario is unlikely because of the plasmoid instability, which is fast enough to develop before the transition to the Rutherford phase occurs. The suggested analytical theory is entirely different from all previous studies and provides proper interpretation of the presently available numerical simulations of nonlinear forced magnetic reconnection.
Henri, P.; Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F.; Faganello, M.
2012-07-15
The understanding of the dynamics at play at the Earth's Magnetopause, the boundary separating the Earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind plasmas, is of primary importance for space plasma modeling. We focus our attention on the low latitude flank of the magnetosphere where the velocity shear between the magnetosheath and the magnetospheric plasmas is the energetic source of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the shoulder of the resulting vortex chain, different secondary instabilities are at play depending on the local plasma parameters and compete with the vortex pairing process. Most important, secondary instabilities, among other magnetic reconnection, control the plasma mixing as well as the entry of solar wind plasma in the magnetosphere. We make use of a two-fluid model, including the Hall term and the electron mass in the generalized Ohm's law, to study the 2D non-linear evolution of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetosheath-magnetosphere interface, in the intermediate regime between subsonic and supersonic regimes. We study the saturation mechanisms, depending on the density jump across the shear layer and the magnetic field strength in the plane. In the presence of a weak in-plane magnetic field, the dynamics of the Kelvin-Helmholtz rolled-up vortices self-consistently generates thin current sheets where reconnection instability eventually enables fast reconnection to develop. Such a system enables to study guide field multiple-island collisionless magnetic reconnection as embedded in a large-scale dynamic system, unlike the classical static, ad hoc reconnection setups. In this regime, reconnection is shown to inhibit the vortex pairing process. This study provides a clear example of nonlinear, cross-scale, collisionless plasma dynamics.
Yoon, Peter H.
2015-09-15
A previous paper [P. H. Yoon, “Kinetic theory of turbulence for parallel propagation revisited: Formal results,” Phys. Plasmas 22, 082309 (2015)] revisited the second-order nonlinear kinetic theory for turbulence propagating in directions parallel/anti-parallel to the ambient magnetic field, in which the original work according to Yoon and Fang [Phys. Plasmas 15, 122312 (2008)] was refined, following the paper by Gaelzer et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 032310 (2015)]. The main finding involved the dimensional correction pertaining to discrete-particle effects in Yoon and Fang's theory. However, the final result was presented in terms of formal linear and nonlinear susceptibility response functions. In the present paper, the formal equations are explicitly written down for the case of low-to-intermediate frequency regime by making use of approximate forms for the response functions. The resulting equations are sufficiently concrete so that they can readily be solved by numerical means or analyzed by theoretical means. The derived set of equations describe nonlinear interactions of quasi-parallel modes whose frequency range covers the Alfvén wave range to ion-cyclotron mode, but is sufficiently lower than the electron cyclotron mode. The application of the present formalism may range from the nonlinear evolution of whistler anisotropy instability in the high-beta regime, and the nonlinear interaction of electrons with whistler-range turbulence.
Investigation of the intermediate oxidation regime of Diesel fuel
Al-Hamamre, Z.; Trimis, D.
2009-09-15
A very high temperature fuel-air mixture is necessary for the thermal partial oxidation process of hydrocarbon fuels in order to have a high reaction temperature which accelerate the reaction kinetics. For Diesel fuel and due to the ignition delay time behavior, different oxidation behavior can be realized at different preheating temperatures. In this work, the intermediate oxidation region of Diesel fuel is investigated. By making use of the ignition delay time behavior, an vaporizer like tube reactor is constructed in order to enable a very high preheating temperature without the risk of self-ignition in a time-independent experiment. The oxidation behavior of Diesel fuel in air is investigated numerically and experimentally. In the numerical part, the ignition delay time was estimated using CHEMIKIN tools for different air-fuel mixtures at different temperatures. The evaporation behavior of the Diesel fuel-air mixtures are investigated at relatively high air preheating temperatures ranging from 500 C up to 680 C. The amount of the process air was varied from an air ratio {lambda} = 0.35 to {lambda} = 0.6. The experiments are also performed with N{sub 2} as an evaporation media and compared with those performed with air to detect any temperature increase in the case of Diesel-air mixtures. The amount of heat release in the low chemistry region as well as in the intermediate region is calculated for the case of Diesel/air mixtures. The experiments show that four different oxidation region of Diesel fuel can be distinguished depending on air inlet temperatures and on the air ratio. At a temperature lower than 723 K (450 C), no chemical reaction takes place. The cool flame reactions start at temperatures above 723 K (450 C). However, no stable cool flame can be achieved unless the air preheating temperature reached about 753 K (480 C). The cool flame region is extended up to about 873 K (600 C), at which the intermediate regime started. This regime stabilized to a
Nonlinear Trapped Electron Mode Pinch in Strong Turbulence Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatch, David; Terry, P. W.
2006-10-01
Recent work has shown that there is an inward flux component in collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence produced by a nonlinear cross phase^2. The result was obtained for a weak turbulence regime, consistent with near threshold conditions. We extend this work to the strong turbulence regime, applying asymptotic analysis to the nonlinear frequency expressions generated from self-consistent statistical closure theory. We first check to see if there is a consistent strong turbulence regime for the previously considered threshold ordering^2, and examine the properties and scalings of the inward flux components. We then examine other orderings that are further above the instability threshold. The orderings will be compared with experimental profiles to determine likely regimes and nonlinear pinch properties. ^2P.W. Terry and R. Gatto, Phys. Plasmas 13, 062309 (2006).
Intermediate tunnelling-hopping regime in DNA charge transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Limin; Palma, Julio L.; Bruot, Christopher; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A.; Tao, Nongjian
2015-03-01
Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA, is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes, and its understanding is critical if they are to be used in electronic devices. This important phenomenon is often described as either coherent tunnelling over a short distance or incoherent hopping over a long distance. Here, we show evidence of an intermediate regime where coherent and incoherent processes coexist in double-stranded DNA. We measure charge transport in single DNA molecules bridged to two electrodes as a function of DNA sequence and length. In general, the resistance of DNA increases linearly with length, as expected for incoherent hopping. However, for DNA sequences with stacked guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs, a periodic oscillation is superimposed on the linear length dependence, indicating partial coherent transport. This result is supported by the finding of strong delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of GC by theoretical simulation and by modelling based on the Büttiker theory of partial coherent charge transport.
Intermediate tunnelling-hopping regime in DNA charge transport.
Xiang, Limin; Palma, Julio L; Bruot, Christopher; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A; Tao, Nongjian
2015-03-01
Charge transport in molecular systems, including DNA, is involved in many basic chemical and biological processes, and its understanding is critical if they are to be used in electronic devices. This important phenomenon is often described as either coherent tunnelling over a short distance or incoherent hopping over a long distance. Here, we show evidence of an intermediate regime where coherent and incoherent processes coexist in double-stranded DNA. We measure charge transport in single DNA molecules bridged to two electrodes as a function of DNA sequence and length. In general, the resistance of DNA increases linearly with length, as expected for incoherent hopping. However, for DNA sequences with stacked guanine-cytosine (GC) base pairs, a periodic oscillation is superimposed on the linear length dependence, indicating partial coherent transport. This result is supported by the finding of strong delocalization of the highest occupied molecular orbitals of GC by theoretical simulation and by modelling based on the Büttiker theory of partial coherent charge transport. PMID:25698331
Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes
Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe
2008-06-15
An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10{sup 2}. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10{sup 2} when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10{sup 2} to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work.
Cosmological probes of modified gravity: the nonlinear regime.
Schmidt, Fabian
2011-12-28
We review the effects of modified gravity on large-scale structure in the nonlinear regime, focusing on f(R) gravity and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, for which full N-body simulations have been performed. In particular, we discuss the abundance of massive halos, the nonlinear matter power spectrum and the dynamics within clusters and galaxies, with particular emphasis on the screening mechanisms present in these models. PMID:22084294
Super Sensitive Mass Detection in Nonlinear Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azizi, Saber; Ahmadian, Iman; Cetinkaya, Cetin; Rezazadeh, Ghader
2015-11-01
Nonlinear dynamics of a clamped-clamped micro-beam exposed to a two sided electrostatic actuation is investigated to determine super sensitive regions for mass detection. The objective is to investigate the sensitivity of the frequency spectrum of various regions in the phase space to the added mass and force the system to operate in its super sensitive regions by applying an appropriate pulse to its control electrodes. The electrostatic actuation in the top electrode is a combination of a DC, AC and a pulse voltage, the excitation on the lower electrode is only a DC and a pulse voltage. The governing equation of the motion, derived using the Hamiltonian principle, is discretized to an equivalent single-degree of freedom system using the Galerkin method. Depending on the applied electrostatic voltage to the micro-beam, it is demonstrated that the number and types of equilibrium points of the system can be modified. In this study, the level of the DC electrostatic voltage is chosen such a way that the system has three equilibrium points including two centers and a saddle node where the homoclinic orbit originates. According to the reported results, the mass sensing sensitivity depends on the operating orbit; some orbits exhibit considerably higher mass detection sensitivity to the added mass compared to that of a typical quartz crystal micro balance instrument.
Terahertz Quantum Plasmonics of Nanoslot Antennas in Nonlinear Regime.
Kim, Joon-Yeon; Kang, Bong Joo; Park, Joohyun; Bahk, Young-Mi; Kim, Won Tae; Rhie, Jiyeah; Jeon, Hyeongtag; Rotermund, Fabian; Kim, Dai-Sik
2015-10-14
Quantum tunneling in plasmonic nanostructures has presented an interesting aspect of incorporating quantum mechanics into classical optics. However, the study has been limited to the subnanometer gap regime. Here, we newly extend quantum plasmonics to gap widths well over 1 nm by taking advantage of the low-frequency terahertz regime. Enhanced electric fields of up to 5 V/nm induce tunneling of electrons in different arrays of ring-shaped nanoslot antennas of gap widths from 1.5 to 10 nm, which lead to a significant nonlinear transmission decrease. These observations are consistent with theoretical calculations considering terahertz-funneling-induced electron tunneling across the gap. PMID:26372787
Strong and moderate nonlinear El Niño regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Ken; Dewitte, Boris
2016-03-01
It has been previously proposed that two El Niño (EN) regimes, strong and moderate, exist but the historical observational record is too short to establish this conclusively. Here, 1200 years of simulations with the GFDL CM2.1 model allowed us to demonstrate their existence in this model and, by showing that the relevant dynamics are also evident in observations, we present a stronger case for their existence in nature. In CM2.1, the robust bimodal probability distribution of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) indices during EN peaks provides evidence for the existence of the regimes, which is also supported by a cluster analysis of these same indices. The observations agree with this distribution, with the EN of 1982-1983 and 1997-1998 corresponding to the strong EN regime and all the other observed EN to the moderate regime. The temporal evolution of various indices during the observed strong EN agrees very well with the events in CM2.1, providing further validation of this model as a proxy for nature. The two regimes differ strongly in the magnitude of the eastern Pacific warming but not much in the central Pacific. Observations and model agree in the existence of a finite positive threshold in the SST anomaly above which the zonal wind response to warming is strongly enhanced. Such nonlinearity in the Bjerknes feedback, which increases the growth rate of EN events if they reach sufficiently large amplitude, is very likely the essential mechanism that gives rise to the existence of the two EN regimes. Oceanic nonlinear advection does not appear essential for the onset of strong EN. The threshold nonlinearity could make the EN regimes very sensitive to stochastic forcing. Observations and model agree that the westerly wind stress anomaly in the central equatorial Pacific in late boreal summer has a substantial role determining the EN regime in the following winter and it is suggested that a stochastic component at this time was key for the
Shear-driven Dynamo Waves in the Fully Nonlinear Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Nigro, G.; Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.
2016-07-01
Large-scale dynamo action is well understood when the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is small, but becomes problematic in the astrophysically relevant large Rm limit since the fluctuations may control the operation of the dynamo, obscuring the large-scale behavior. Recent works by Tobias & Cattaneo demonstrated numerically the existence of large-scale dynamo action in the form of dynamo waves driven by strongly helical turbulence and shear. Their calculations were carried out in the kinematic regime in which the back-reaction of the Lorentz force on the flow is neglected. Here, we have undertaken a systematic extension of their work to the fully nonlinear regime. Helical turbulence and large-scale shear are produced self-consistently by prescribing body forces that, in the kinematic regime, drive flows that resemble the original velocity used by Tobias & Cattaneo. We have found four different solution types in the nonlinear regime for various ratios of the fluctuating velocity to the shear and Reynolds numbers. Some of the solutions are in the form of propagating waves. Some solutions show large-scale helical magnetic structure. Both waves and structures are permanent only when the kinetic helicity is non-zero on average.
Transport processes in magnetically confined plasmas in the nonlinear regime
Sonnino, Giorgio
2006-06-15
A field theory approach to transport phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas is presented. The thermodynamic field theory (TFT), previously developed for treating the generic thermodynamic system out of equilibrium, is applied to plasmas physics. Transport phenomena are treated here as the effect of the field linking the thermodynamic forces with their conjugate flows combined with statistical mechanics. In particular, the Classical and the Pfirsch-Schlueter regimes are analyzed by solving the thermodynamic field equations of the TFT in the weak-field approximation. We found that, the TFT does not correct the expressions of the ionic heat fluxes evaluated by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes. On the other hand, the fluxes of matter and electronic energy (heat flow) is further enhanced in the nonlinear Classical and Pfirsch-Schlueter regimes. These results seem to be in line with the experimental observations. The complete set of the electronic and ionic transport equations in the nonlinear Banana regime, is also reported. A paper showing the comparison between our theoretic results and the experimental observations in the JET machine is currently in preparation.
Femtosecond nonlinear fiber optics in the ionization regime.
Hölzer, P; Chang, W; Travers, J C; Nazarkin, A; Nold, J; Joly, N Y; Saleh, M F; Biancalana, F; Russell, P St J
2011-11-11
By using a gas-filled kagome-style photonic crystal fiber, nonlinear fiber optics is studied in the regime of optically induced ionization. The fiber offers low anomalous dispersion over a broad bandwidth and low loss. Sequences of blueshifted pulses are emitted when 65 fs, few-microjoule pulses, corresponding to high-order solitons, are launched into the fiber and undergo self-compression. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations which suggest that free-electron densities of ∼10(17) cm(-3) are achieved at peak intensities of 10(14) W/cm(2) over length scales of several centimeters. PMID:22181732
Detector noise statistics in the non-linear regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shopbell, P. L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.
1992-01-01
The statistical behavior of an idealized linear detector in the presence of threshold and saturation levels is examined. It is assumed that the noise is governed by the statistical fluctuations in the number of photons emitted by the source during an exposure. Since physical detectors cannot have infinite dynamic range, our model illustrates that all devices have non-linear regimes, particularly at high count rates. The primary effect is a decrease in the statistical variance about the mean signal due to a portion of the expected noise distribution being removed via clipping. Higher order statistical moments are also examined, in particular, skewness and kurtosis. In principle, the expected distortion in the detector noise characteristics can be calibrated using flatfield observations with count rates matched to the observations. For this purpose, some basic statistical methods that utilize Fourier analysis techniques are described.
Transition from linear- to nonlinear-focusing regime in filamentation
Lim, Khan; Durand, Magali; Baudelet, Matthieu; Richardson, Martin
2014-01-01
Laser filamentation in gases is often carried out in the laboratory with focusing optics to better stabilize the filament, whereas real-world applications of filaments frequently involve collimated or near-collimated beams. It is well documented that geometrical focusing can alter the properties of laser filaments and, consequently, a transition between a collimated and a strongly focused filament is expected. Nevertheless, this transition point has not been identified. Here, we propose an analytical method to determine the transition, and show that it corresponds to an actual shift in the balance of physical mechanisms governing filamentation. In high-NA conditions, filamentation is primarily governed by geometrical focusing and plasma effects, while the Kerr nonlinearity plays a more significant role as NA decreases. We find the transition between the two regimes to be relatively insensitive to the intrinsic laser parameters, and our analysis agrees well with a wide range of parameters found in published literature. PMID:25434678
Heteronuclear decoupling in MAS NMR in the intermediate to fast sample spinning regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Equbal, Asif; Bjerring, Morten; Sharma, Kshama; Madhu, P. K.; Nielsen, Niels Chr.
2016-01-01
Heteronuclear spin decoupling in solid-state magic-angle spinning NMR is investigated to present methods overcoming interferences between rf irradiation and sample spinning in the intermediate to fast spinning regime. We demonstrate that a recent phase-alternated variant of refocused CW irradiation (rCWApA) provides efficient and robust decoupling in this regime. An extensive experimental and numerical comparison is presented for rCWApA and PISSARRO (phase-inverted supercycled sequence for attenuation of rotary resonance), previously introduced to quench rotary-resonance recoupling effects, under conditions with spinning frequencies between 30 and 60 kHz. Simulations are used to identify the effect of decoupling for various nuclear spin interactions.
Intermediate regime of charged particle scattering in the field-reversal configuration
Shustov, P. I. Yushkov, E. V.; Artemyev, A. V.
2015-12-15
In this paper, we investigate the charged particle scattering in the magnetic field configuration with stretched magnetic field lines. This scattering results from the violation of the adiabaticity of charged particle motion in the region with the strong gradient of the magnetic field. We consider the intermediate regime of charged particle dynamics, when the violation of the adiabaticity is significant enough, but particle motion is not chaotic. We demonstrate and describe the significant scattering of particles with large adiabatic invariants (magnetic moment). We discuss a possible application of obtained results for description of the peculiarities of pitch-angle diffusion of relativistic electrons in the Earth radiation belts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khatiwala, S.
2003-04-01
perturbations in external parameters or forcing. Here, we apply an intermediate model of the atmosphere to show that the exponential life span of weather regimes may indeed be sensitive to the strength of the external forcing. In particular, small change in the forcing strength (as characterized by the equator--pole temperature difference) lead to order-of-magnitude changes in the probability of occurrence of extremely persistent events. Given the potentially enormous social and environmental impact of extreme events such as persistent drought or storminess, our results are clearly relevant to the current debate on anthropogenic climate change.
Nonlinear-optical frequency-doubling metareflector: pulsed regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popov, A. K.; Myslivets, S. A.
2016-01-01
The properties of backward-wave second-harmonic metareflector operating in pulse regime are investigated. It is made of metamaterial which enables phase matching of contra-propagating fundamental and second-harmonic waves. References are given to the works that prove such a possibility. Physical principles underlying differences in the proposed and standard settings as well as between continuous-wave and pulsed regimes are discussed. Pulsed regime is more practicable and has a broader scope of applications. A set of partial differential equations which describe such a reflector with the account for losses are solved numerically. It is shown that unlike second-harmonic generation in standard settings, contra-propagating pulse of second harmonic may become much longer than the incident fundamental one and the difference grows with decrease in the input pulse length as compared to thickness of the metaslab. The revealed properties are important for applications and may manifest themselves beyond the optical wavelength range.
Perfect photon absorption in the nonlinear regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, G. S.; Di, Ke; Wang, Liyong; Zhu, Yifu
2016-06-01
It has been shown that perfect photon absorption can occur in the linear excitation regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED), in which photons from two identical light fields coupled into two ends of the cavity are completely absorbed and result in excitation of the polariton state of the CQED system. The output light from the cavity is totally suppressed by destructive interference and the polariton state can only decay incoherently back to the ground state. Here we analyze perfect photon absorption and the onset of optical bistability in the nonlinear regime of the CQED and show that perfect photon absorption persists in the nonlinear regime of the CQED below the threshold of optical bistability. Therefore perfect photon absorption is a phenomenon that can be observed in both linear and nonlinear regimes of CQED. Furthermore, our study reveals that optical bistability is influenced by input-light interference and can be manipulated by varying the relative phase of the two input fields.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahamim, Rony; Mahlab, Uri; Dahan, David
2009-10-01
We propose and demonstrate a novel approach to identify linear and nonlinear propagation regimes of an optical signal in an optical fiber link by using chaos analysis. We show that the chaotic characteristics of a propagating optical signal are affected by both the chromatic dispersion and the nonlinear effects in the optical fiber. Linear or nonlinear behavior is detected by determining the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the signal and the use of the recurrence plot technique. An experimental demonstration is performed using 10-Gbps signal propagation in a 100-km fiber link with different launched optical powers. Chaos analysis shows a clear identification of the linear and nonlinear optical propagation regimes by using a classification scheme based on a multilayer neural network. Numerical simulations confirm the experimental results.
Modeling Seismoacoustic Propagation from the Nonlinear to Linear Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chael, E. P.; Preston, L. A.
2015-12-01
Explosions at shallow depth-of-burial can cause nonlinear material response, such as fracturing and spalling, up to the ground surface above the shot point. These motions at the surface affect the generation of acoustic waves into the atmosphere, as well as the surface-reflected compressional and shear waves. Standard source scaling models for explosions do not account for such nonlinear interactions above the shot, while some recent studies introduce a non-isotropic addition to the moment tensor to represent them (e.g., Patton and Taylor, 2011). We are using Sandia's CTH shock physics code to model the material response in the vicinity of underground explosions, up to the overlying ground surface. Across a boundary where the motions have decayed to nearly linear behavior, we couple the signals from CTH into a linear finite-difference (FD) seismoacoustic code to efficiently propagate the wavefields to greater distances. If we assume only one-way transmission of energy through the boundary, then the particle velocities there suffice as inputs for the FD code, simplifying the specification of the boundary condition. The FD algorithm we use applies the wave equations for velocity in an elastic medium and pressure in an acoustic one, and matches the normal traction and displacement across the interface. Initially we are developing and testing a 2D, axisymmetric seismoacoustic routine; CTH can use this geometry in the source region as well. The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) in Nevada has collected seismic and acoustic data on numerous explosions at different scaled depths, providing an excellent testbed for investigating explosion phenomena (Snelson et al., 2013). We present simulations for shots SPE-4' and SPE-5, illustrating the importance of nonlinear behavior up to the ground surface. Our goal is to develop the capability for accurately predicting the relative signal strengths in the air and ground for a given combination of source yield and depth. Sandia National
Nonlinear optics of plasmas in the relativistic regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Szu-Yuan
With the advent of high-intensity short-pulse laser technology, focused laser intensity exceeding 1018 W/cm2 has been achieved. Under such a high laser intensity, electrons quiver at velocities approaching the speed of light in vacuum and, thus, relativistic increase of electron mass and the magnetic field of the laser can affect the electron dynamics significantly. The relativistic motion of electrons has three main effects on laser-plasma interaction. First, because the electron quiver motion in the laser field becomes highly nonlinear, harmonics of the laser pulses can be generated through nonlinear Thomson scattering in a plasma. Second, due to the dependence of the refractive index on electron mass, the spatially- and temporally-dependent modification of the refractive index for a laser pulse propagating in a plasma results in relativistic self-focusing and relativistic self-phase modulation of the laser pulse. Third, the laser ponderomotive force of a tightly-focused high-intensity short laser pulse can drive a plasma wave longitudinally and create a plasma density depression transversely. The combination of the last two effects also leads to Raman forward scattering instability and envelope self-modulation. In this thesis, all of these phenomena were observed and characterized experimentally. Harmonics generated by nonlinear Thomson scattering were identified. Relativistic-ponderomotive self-channeling of a laser pulse was observed. The formation of a plasma waveguide following this process was diagnosed and the guiding of an intense laser pulse in such a waveguide was demonstrated. In addition, electron plasma waves excited through Raman forward scattering instability were characterized and various damping mechanisms were investigated. Lastly, the acceleration of electrons in a self-modulated laser wakefield was studied. The dynamics of electron acceleration is understood by comparing the characteristics of the generated electron beam and the results of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Blöschl, Günter
2015-04-01
Emerging Processes in Flood Regime Dynamics are evaluated on the basis of symmetry breaks in the spatiotemporal sensitivity of flood regimes to changes in annual precipitation and a new dynamical model of flood regime change under nonlinearly interacting landscape-climate dynamics. The spatiotemporal sensitivity analysis is performed at regional scale using data from 804 catchments in Austria from 1976 to 2008. Results show that flood peaks change in a more responsive manner with spatial (regional) than with temporal (decadal) variability. Space-wise a 10% increase in precipitation leads to a 23% increase in flood peaks in Austria, whereas timewise a 10% increase in precipitation leads to an increase of just 6% in flood peaks. Looking at hydroclimatic regions in particular, catchments from stable dry lowlands and high wetlands exhibit similarity between the spatial and temporal flood responses to changes in precipitation (spatiotemporal symmetry) and low landscape-climate codependence. This suggests that these regions are not coevolving significantly. However, intermediate regions show differences between those responses (symmetry breaks) and higher landscape-climate codependence, suggesting undergoing coevolution. The break of symmetry is an emergent behaviour of the coupled system, stemming from the nonlinear interactions in the coevolving hydroclimate system. A dynamic coevolution index is then proposed relating spatiotemporal symmetry with relative characteristic celerities, which need to be taken into account in hydrological space-time trading. Coevolution is expressed here by the scale interaction between slow and fast dynamics, represented respectively by spatial and temporal characteristics. The diagnostic assessment of coevolution is complemented by a stylised nonlinear dynamical model of landscape-climate coevolution, in which landform evolution processes take place at the millennial scale (slow dynamics), and climate adjusts in years to decades (fast
Coherent nonlinear optical response of graphene in the quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetissian, H. K.; Mkrtchian, G. F.
2016-07-01
We study the nonlinear optical response of graphene in the quantum Hall regime to an intense laser pulse. In particular, we consider the harmonic generation process. We demonstrate that the generalized magneto-optical conductivity of graphene on the harmonics of a strong pump laser radiation has a characteristic Hall plateau feature. The plateau heights depend on the laser intensity and broadening of the Landau levels so that they are not quantized exactly. This nonlinear effect remains robust against the significant broadening of the Landau levels. We predict realization of an experiment through the observation of the third-harmonic signal and nonlinear Faraday effect, which are within the experimental feasibility.
Non-linear regime of the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity in critical points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.
2016-03-01
The Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) theory is realized by adding the CS deformation term, the higher derivative deformation term, and an extra term to pure Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant. In the present paper we obtain exact solutions to the GMMG field equations in the non-linear regime of the model. GMMG model about AdS_3 space is conjectured to be dual to a 2-dimensional CFT. We study the theory in critical points corresponding to the central charges c_-=0 or c_+=0, in the non-linear regime. We show that AdS_3 wave solutions are present, and have logarithmic form in critical points. Then we study the AdS_3 non-linear deformation solution. Furthermore we obtain logarithmic deformation of extremal BTZ black hole. After that using Abbott-Deser-Tekin method we calculate the energy and angular momentum of these types of black hole solutions.
Liu, Xiang; Chandrasekhar, S; Winzer, P J; Chraplyvy, A R; Tkach, R W; Zhu, B; Taunay, T F; Fishteyn, M; DiGiovanni, D J
2012-08-13
Coherent superposition of light waves has long been used in various fields of science, and recent advances in digital coherent detection and space-division multiplexing have enabled the coherent superposition of information-carrying optical signals to achieve better communication fidelity on amplified-spontaneous-noise limited communication links. However, fiber nonlinearity introduces highly correlated distortions on identical signals and diminishes the benefit of coherent superposition in nonlinear transmission regime. Here we experimentally demonstrate that through coordinated scrambling of signal constellations at the transmitter, together with appropriate unscrambling at the receiver, the full benefit of coherent superposition is retained in the nonlinear transmission regime of a space-diversity fiber link based on an innovatively engineered multi-core fiber. This scrambled coherent superposition may provide the flexibility of trading communication capacity for performance in future optical fiber networks, and may open new possibilities in high-performance and secure optical communications. PMID:23038549
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Dong-Keun; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Kim, Chang-Wan
2015-11-01
A mass sensor using a nano-resonator has high detection sensitivity, and mass sensitivity is higher with smaller resonators. Therefore, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the ultimate materials for these applications and have been actively studied. In particular, CNT-based nanomechanical devices may experience high temperatures that lead to thermal expansion and residual stress in devices, which affects the device reliability. In this letter, to demonstrate the influence of the temperature change (i.e., thermal effect) on the mass detection sensitivity of CNT-based mass sensor, dynamic analysis is carried out for a CNT resonator with thermal effects in both linear and nonlinear oscillation regimes. Based on the continuum mechanics model, the analytical solution method with an assumed deflection eigenmode is applied to solve the nonlinear differential equation which involves the von Karman nonlinear strain-displacement relation and the additional axial force associated with thermal effects. A thermal effect on the fundamental resonance behavior and resonance frequency shift due to adsorbed mas, i.e., mass detection sensitivity, is examined in high-temperature environment. Results indicate a valid improvement of fundamental resonance frequency by using nonlinear oscillation in a thermal environment. In both linear and nonlinear oscillation regimes, the mass detection sensitivity becomes worse due to the increasing of temperature in a high-temperature environment. The thermal effect on the detection sensitivity is less effective in the nonlinear oscillation regime. It is concluded that a temperature change of a mass sensor with a CNT-based resonator can be utilized to enhance the detection sensitivity depending on the CNT length, linear/nonlinear oscillation behaviors, and the thermal environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Winkler, Christopher R.; Jablonski, Michael L.; Damodaran, Anoop R.; Jambunathan, Karthik; Martin, Lane W.; Taheri, Mitra L.
2012-09-01
BiFeO3 (BFO) is one of the most widely studied magneto-electric multiferroics. The magneto-electric coupling in BiFeO3, which allows for the control of the ferroelectric and magnetic domain structures via applied electric fields, can be used to incorporate BiFeO3 into novel spintronics devices and sensors. Before BiFeO3 can be integrated into such devices, however, a better understanding of the dynamics of ferroelectric switching, particularly in the vicinity of extended defects, is needed. We use in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the response of ferroelectric domains within BiFeO3 thin films to applied electric fields at high temporal and spatial resolution. This technique is well suited to imaging the observed intermediate ferroelectric switching regimes, which occur on a time- and length-scale that are too fine to study via conventional scanning-probe techniques. Additionally, the spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy allows for the direct study of the dynamics of domain nucleation and propagation in the presence of structural defects. In this article, we show how this high resolution technique captures transient ferroelectric structures forming during biasing, and how defects can both pin domains and act as a nucleation source. The observation of continuing domain coalescence over a range of times qualitatively agrees with the nucleation-limited-switching model proposed by Tagantsev et al. We demonstrate that our in situ transmission electron microscopy technique is well-suited to studying the dynamics of ferroelectric domains in BiFeO3 and other ferroelectric materials. These biasing experiments provide a real-time view of the complex dynamics of domain switching and complement scanning-probe techniques.
Improved calibration of the nonlinear regime of a single-beam gradient optical trap.
Wilcox, Jamianne C; Lopez, Benjamin J; Campàs, Otger; Valentine, Megan T
2016-05-15
We report an improved method for calibrating the nonlinear region of a single-beam gradient optical trap. Through analysis of the position fluctuations of a trapped object that is displaced from the trap center by controlled flow we measure the local trap stiffness in both the linear and nonlinear regimes without knowledge of the magnitude of the applied external forces. This approach requires only knowledge of the system temperature, and is especially useful for measurements involving trapped objects of unknown size, or objects in a fluid of unknown viscosity. PMID:27177009
Nonlinear reflectivity of an inhomogeneous plasma in the strongly damped regime
Mounaix, P.; Pesme, D.; Casanova, M.
1997-04-01
The nonlinear reflectivity of an inhomogeneous plasma slab in the strongly damped regime is investigated, taking into account the spatial and temporal characteristics of the thermal noise emission of waves. In the linear approximation, the spectral width corresponding to the frequencies that are effectively amplified is always found to be less than the spectral width of the unstable frequency domain. By conjecturing that this frequency filtering process remains valid in the nonlinear regime, the effective noise term appearing in Tang{close_quote}s formula [J. Appl. Phys. {bold 37}, 2945 (1966)] can be obtained analytically. The validity of this conjecture is numerically checked for different values of the inhomogeneity parameter. Conditions are given that must be satisfied for the validity of one-dimensional modeling of three-dimensional scattering. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sebastian, Indu; Divya, S.; Nampoori, V. P. N.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Thomas, Sheenu
2013-01-01
We present the linear and nonlinear optical studies on nanocolloidal solutions of Ga9Ge27Se64 glass with varying concentrations. Optical bandgap of the material is found to vary with respect to the concentration of the solute in the solution. An intermediate peak in the band tail of the absorption spectra is observed due to the presence of energy band in the forbidden gap. The existence of fluorescence emission confirms the above argument. Nonlinear absorption is studied using open aperture Z-scan technique. The mechanism behind nonlinear absorption is predicted as two photon as well as two step photon absorption. Nonlinearity increases with decrease in optical bandgap which in turn depends on the concentration of the nanocolloidal solutions.
Plasma wakefields in the quasi-nonlinear regime: Experiments at ATF
Rosenzweig, J. B.; Andonian, G.; Barber, S.; Ferrario, M.; Muggli, P.; O'Shea, B.; Sakai, Y.; Valloni, A.; Williams, O.; Xi, Y.; Yakimenko, V.
2012-12-21
In this work we present details of planned experiments to investigate certain aspects of the quasi non linear regime (QNL) of plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). In the QNL regime it is, in principal, possible to combine the benefits of both nonlinear and linear PWFA. That is, beams of high quality can be maintained through acceleration due to the complete ejection of plasma electrons from beam occupied region, while large energy gains can be achieved through use of transformer ratio increasing schemes, such as ramped bunch trains. With the addition of an short focal length PMQ triplet capable of focusing beams to the few micron scale and the ability to generate tunable bunch trains, the Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at Brookhaven National Lab offers the unique capabilities to probe these characteristics of the QNL regime.
Enhanced focus steering abilities of multi-element therapeutic arrays operating in nonlinear regimes
Yuldashev, P. Ilyin, S.; Gavrilov, L.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Khokhlova, V.; Kreider, W.
2015-10-28
Steering abilities of a typical HIFU therapeutic array operated in linear and nonlinear regimes were compared using numerical simulation with the 3D Westervelt equation. The array included 256 elements of 1.2 MHz frequency and 6.6 mm diameter distributed in a quasi-random pattern over a spherical shell with a 130 mm aperture and a focal length of 120 mm. In the case of linear focusing, thermal effects are proportional to the intensity level and the criterion for safe array operation is that the intensity in the grating lobes should be less than 10% of the intensity in the main focus. In the case of nonlinear focusing, the heating effect is no longer proportional to intensity; therefore the heat deposition rate was chosen as the relevant metric, using the same 10% threshold for the secondary lobe in comparison with the focal maximum. When steering the focus, the same linearly predicted intensity level at the main focus was maintained by increasing the array power. Numerical simulations of the acoustic field were performed for nonlinear propagation both in water and in tissue. It was shown that for shock-forming conditions in the main focus, the steering range of safe electronic focusing is larger than that for linear propagation conditions. Nonlinear sonication regimes therefore can be used to enlarge tissue volumes that can be sonicated using electronic steering of the focus of HIFU arrays.
Enhanced focus steering abilities of multi-element therapeutic arrays operating in nonlinear regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuldashev, P.; Ilyin, S.; Gavrilov, L.; Sapozhnikov, O.; Kreider, W.; Khokhlova, V.
2015-10-01
Steering abilities of a typical HIFU therapeutic array operated in linear and nonlinear regimes were compared using numerical simulation with the 3D Westervelt equation. The array included 256 elements of 1.2 MHz frequency and 6.6 mm diameter distributed in a quasi-random pattern over a spherical shell with a 130 mm aperture and a focal length of 120 mm. In the case of linear focusing, thermal effects are proportional to the intensity level and the criterion for safe array operation is that the intensity in the grating lobes should be less than 10% of the intensity in the main focus. In the case of nonlinear focusing, the heating effect is no longer proportional to intensity; therefore the heat deposition rate was chosen as the relevant metric, using the same 10% threshold for the secondary lobe in comparison with the focal maximum. When steering the focus, the same linearly predicted intensity level at the main focus was maintained by increasing the array power. Numerical simulations of the acoustic field were performed for nonlinear propagation both in water and in tissue. It was shown that for shock-forming conditions in the main focus, the steering range of safe electronic focusing is larger than that for linear propagation conditions. Nonlinear sonication regimes therefore can be used to enlarge tissue volumes that can be sonicated using electronic steering of the focus of HIFU arrays.
Nonlinear regime of the mode-coupling instability in 2D plasma crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Röcker, T. B.; Couëdel, L.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.
2014-05-01
The transition between linear and nonlinear regimes of the mode-coupling instability (MCI) operating in a monolayer plasma crystal is studied. The mode coupling is triggered at the centre of the crystal and a melting front is formed, which travels through the crystal. At the nonlinear stage, the mode coupling results in synchronisation of the particle motion and the kinetic temperature of the particles grows exponentially. After melting of the crystalline structure, the mean kinetic energy of the particles continued to grow further, preventing recrystallisation of the melted phase. The anomalous kinetic temperature obtained in the experiments could not be reproduced in simulations employing a simple point-like wake model. This shows that at the nonlinear stage of the MCI a more careful analysis is necessary.
Nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties of graphene oxide dispersion in femtosecond regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Zebo; Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Fuli
2014-08-01
The third-order nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide (GO) dispersion in distilled water were investigated in femtosecond regime, using a single beam z-scan technique. Induced by a focused Gaussian beam (λ~800 nm) with 150 fs pulse duration, the graphene oxide shows strong nonlinear absorption, which was dominated by reverse saturable absorption (RSA), originates from two-photon absorption (TPA) in GO. In addition, the optical limiting performance of GO was experimentally derived, indicating that the occurrence of RSA make GO a candidate for optical limiting. In addition, the further increasing of input intensity would enhance the nonlinear scattering effects in the sample so that the optical limiting threshold was reached.
The Influence of Dust on the Farley-Buneman instability. Nonlinear regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atamaniuk, Barbara
In the lower ionosphere in the E-region, a complex process transforms wind energy into currents creating the E-region electrojet. If these currents exceed a certain critical amplitude, a streaming instability called the Farley-Buneman or a collisional two-stream instability develops. This instability grows more rapidly at shorter wavelengths and the waves propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is well known that even system with finite number of interacting waves can realize a turbulent state in active media. In such cases, when the number of cooperating waves remains small due to a competition of processes of their instability and attenuation, the turbulence appears in the result of their stochastic behavior. The perturbed ionospheric plasma is one of important example of such active media. The regimes of nonlinear stabilization of instability of low frequency waves in magnetized, weakly ionized and inhomogeneous ionospheric dusty plasma are considered. We make assumptions that the Earth magnetic field has no influence on the ions and on the dust particles so only the electrons are magnetized. If characteristic time of plasma density oscillations exceeds an electron collision frequency the basic is drift motion of electrons and, accordingly, the vector nonlinearity is the strongest. We study of nonlinear stabilization and influence of the dust component, conditions of stochasticity and the different regimes in the conditions when the number of interacting waves keeps small by the strong competition of processes wave damping and instabilities are considered. *This research is supported by KBN grant 0TOOA 01429 1. Meers Oppenheim and Niels Otani, Hybrid Simulations of the Saturated Farley-Buneman Instability in the Ionosphere, Geophysical Research Letters, 22, pp. 353-356, 1995 2. Meers Oppenheim and Niels Otani and Corrado Ronchi, Saturation of the Farley-Buneman instability via nonlinear electron ExB drifts, Journal of Geophysical Research, 101
Wu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Li, Z. H.; Tang, C. X.
2012-07-15
In intermediate cavities of a relativistic klystron amplifier (RKA) driven by intense relativistic electron beam, the equivalent circuit model, which is widely adopted to investigate the interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a conventional klystron design, is invalid due to the high gap voltage and the nonlinear beam loading in a RKA. According to Maxwell equations and Lorentz equation, the self-consistent equations for beam-wave interaction in the intermediate cavity are introduced to study the nonlinear interaction between bunched beam and the intermediate cavity in a RKA. Based on the equations, the effects of modulation depth and modulation frequency of the beam on the gap voltage amplitude and its phase are obtained. It is shown that the gap voltage is significantly lower than that estimated by the equivalent circuit model when the beam modulation is high. And the bandwidth becomes wider as the beam modulation depth increases. An S-band high gain relativistic klystron amplifier is designed based on the result. And the corresponding experiment is carried out on the linear transformer driver accelerator. The peak output power has achieved 1.2 GW with an efficiency of 28.6% and a gain of 46 dB in the corresponding experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bao, WeiZhu; Cai, YongYong; Jia, XiaoWei; Yin, Jia
2016-08-01
We present several numerical methods and establish their error estimates for the discretization of the nonlinear Dirac equation in the nonrelativistic limit regime, involving a small dimensionless parameter $0<\\varepsilon\\ll 1$ which is inversely proportional to the speed of light. In this limit regime, the solution is highly oscillatory in time, i.e. there are propagating waves with wavelength $O(\\varepsilon^2)$ and $O(1)$ in time and space, respectively. We begin with the conservative Crank-Nicolson finite difference (CNFD) method and establish rigorously its error estimate which depends explicitly on the mesh size $h$ and time step $\\tau$ as well as the small parameter $0<\\varepsilon\\le 1$. Based on the error bound, in order to obtain `correct' numerical solutions in the nonrelativistic limit regime, i.e. $0<\\varepsilon\\ll 1$, the CNFD method requests the $\\varepsilon$-scalability: $\\tau=O(\\varepsilon^3)$ and $h=O(\\sqrt{\\varepsilon})$. Then we propose and analyze two numerical methods for the discretization of the nonlinear Dirac equation by using the Fourier spectral discretization for spatial derivatives combined with the exponential wave integrator and time-splitting technique for temporal derivatives, respectively. Rigorous error bounds for the two numerical methods show that their $\\varepsilon$-scalability is improved to $\\tau=O(\\varepsilon^2)$ and $h=O(1)$ when $0<\\varepsilon\\ll 1$ compared with the CNFD method. Extensive numerical results are reported to confirm our error estimates.
Nonlinear regime of electrostatic waves propagation in presence of electron-electron collisions
Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi
2015-04-15
The effects are presented of including electron-electron collisions in self-consistent Eulerian simulations of electrostatic wave propagation in nonlinear regime. The electron-electron collisions are approximately modeled through the full three-dimensional Dougherty collisional operator [J. P. Dougherty, Phys. Fluids 7, 1788 (1964)]; this allows the elimination of unphysical byproducts due to reduced dimensionality in velocity space. The effects of non-zero collisionality are discussed in the nonlinear regime of the symmetric bump-on-tail instability and in the propagation of the so-called kinetic electrostatic electron nonlinear (KEEN) waves [T. W. Johnston et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 042105 (2009)]. For both cases, it is shown how collisions work to destroy the phase-space structures created by particle trapping effects and to damp the wave amplitude, as the system returns to the thermal equilibrium. In particular, for the case of the KEEN waves, once collisions have smoothed out the trapped particle population which sustains the KEEN fluctuations, additional oscillations at the Langmuir frequency are observed on the fundamental electric field spectral component, whose amplitude decays in time at the usual collisionless linear Landau damping rate.
Prot, M; Cloete, T J; Saletti, D; Laporte, S
2016-05-01
Previous studies, conducted using quasi-static and dynamic compression tests, have shown that the mechanical strength of cancellous bone is strain rate dependent. However, these studies have not included the intermediate strain rate (ISR) regime (1/s to 100/s), which is important since it is representative of the loading rates at which non-fatal injuries typically occur. In this study, 127 bovine bone specimens were compressed in 3 regimes spanning 8 distinct strain rates, from 0.001/s to 600/s, using three different devices: a conventional quasi-static testing machine, a wedge-bar (WB) apparatus and a conventional split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) implemented with a cone-in-tube (CiT) striker and a tandem momentum trap. Due to the large sample size, a new robust automated algorithm was developed with which the material properties, such as the apparent Young׳s modulus and the yield and ultimate values of stress and strain, were identified for each individual specimen. A statistical summary of the data is presented. Finally, this study demonstrates that results obtained at intermediate strain rates are essential for a fuller understanding of cancellous bone behavior by providing new data describing the transition between the quasi-static and dynamic regimes. PMID:26970887
Laser light triggers increased Raman amplification in the regime of nonlinear Landau damping.
Depierreux, S; Yahia, V; Goyon, C; Loisel, G; Masson-Laborde, P-E; Borisenko, N; Orekhov, A; Rosmej, O; Rienecker, T; Labaune, C
2014-01-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS) has many unwanted effects in megajoule-scale inertially confined fusion (ICF) plasmas. Moreover, attempts to harness SRS to amplify short laser pulses through backward Raman amplification have achieved limited success. In high-temperature fusion plasmas, SRS usually occurs in a kinetic regime where the nonlinear response of the Langmuir wave to the laser drive and its host of complicating factors make it difficult to predict the degree of amplification that can be achieved under given experimental conditions. Here we present experimental evidence of reduced Landau damping with increasing Langmuir wave amplitude and determine its effects on Raman amplification. The threshold for trapping effects to influence the amplification is shown to be very low. Above threshold, the complex SRS dynamics results in increased amplification factors, which partly explains previous ICF experiments. These insights could aid the development of more efficient backward Raman amplification schemes in this regime. PMID:24938756
Laser light triggers increased Raman amplification in the regime of nonlinear Landau damping
Depierreux, S.; Yahia, V.; Goyon, C.; Loisel, G.; Masson-Laborde, P. -E.; Borisenko, N.; Orekhov, A.; Rosmej, O.; Rienecker, T.; Labaune, C.
2014-01-01
Stimulated Raman backscattering (SRS) has many unwanted effects in megajoule-scale inertially confined fusion (ICF) plasmas. Moreover, attempts to harness SRS to amplify short laser pulses through backward Raman amplification have achieved limited success. In high-temperature fusion plasmas, SRS usually occurs in a kinetic regime where the nonlinear response of the Langmuir wave to the laser drive and its host of complicating factors make it difficult to predict the degree of amplification that can be achieved under given experimental conditions. Here we present experimental evidence of reduced Landau damping with increasing Langmuir wave amplitude and determine its effects on Raman amplification. The threshold for trapping effects to influence the amplification is shown to be very low. Above threshold, the complex SRS dynamics results in increased amplification factors, which partly explains previous ICF experiments. These insights could aid the development of more efficient backward Raman amplification schemes in this regime. PMID:24938756
Rao, N.N.
1998-01-01
A systematic analysis of the stationary propagation of nonlinearly coupled electromagnetic and ion-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized plasma via the ponderomotive force is carried out. For small but finite amplitudes, the governing equations have a Hamiltonian structure, but with a kinetic energy term that is not positive definite. The Hamiltonian is similar to the well-known H{acute e}non{endash}Heiles Hamiltonian of nonlinear dynamics, and is completely integrable in three regimes of the allowed parameter space. The corresponding second invariants of motion are also explicitly obtained. The integrable parameter regimes correspond to supersonic values of the Mach number, which characterizes the propagation speed of the coupled waves. On the other hand, in the sub- as well as near-sonic regimes, the coupled mode equations admit different types of exact analytical solutions, which represent nonlinear localized eigenstates of the electromagnetic field trapped in the density cavity due to the ponderomotive potential. While the density cavity has always a single-dip structure, for larger amplitudes it can support higher-order modes having a larger number of nodes in the electromagnetic field. In particular, we show the existence of a new type of localized electromagnetic wave whose field intensity has a triple-hump structure. For typical parameter values, the triple-hump solitons propagate with larger Mach numbers that are closer to the sonic limit than the single- as well as the double-hump solitons, but carry a lesser amount of the electromagnetic field energy. A comparison between the different types of solutions is carried out. The possibility of the existence of trapped electromagnetic modes having a larger number of humps is also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Dielectric Response of Glass-Forming Liquids in the Nonlinear Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samanta, Subarna
Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is a powerful technique for understanding the dynamics in supercooled liquids. It generates information about the timescale of the orientational motions of molecular dipoles within the liquid. However, dynamics of liquids measured in the non-linear response regime has recently become an area of significant interest, because additional information can be obtained compared with linear response measurements. The first part of this thesis describes nonlinear dielectric relaxation experiments performed on various molecular glass forming-liquids, with an emphasis on the response at high frequencies (excess wing). A significant nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) was found to persist in these modes, and the magnitude of this NDE traces the temperature dependence of the activation energy. A time resolved measurement technique monitoring the dielectric loss revealed that for the steady state NDE to develop it would take a very large number of high amplitude alternating current (ac) field cycles. High frequency modes were found to be 'slaved' to the average structural relaxation time, contrary to the standard picture of heterogeneity. Nonlinear measurements were also performed on the Johari-Goldstein beta-relaxation process. High ac fields were found to modify the amplitudes of these secondary modes. The nonlinear features of this secondary process are reminiscent of those found for the excess wing regime, suggesting that these two contributions to dynamics have common origins. The second part of this thesis describes the nonlinear effects observed from the application of high direct current (dc) bias fields superposed with a small amplitude sinusoidal ac field. For several molecular glass formers, the application of a dc field was found to slow down the system via reduction in configurational entropy (Adam-Gibbs relation). Time resolved measurements indicated that the rise of the non-linear effect is slower than its decay, as observed in the
Beam Loading in the Nonlinear Regime of Plasma-Based Acceleration
Tzoufras, M.; Lu, W.; Tsung, F. S.; Huang, C.; Mori, W. B.; Katsouleas, T.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2008-10-03
A theory that describes how to load negative charge into a nonlinear, three-dimensional plasma wakefield is presented. In this regime, a laser or an electron beam blows out the plasma electrons and creates a nearly spherical ion channel, which is modified by the presence of the beam load. Analytical solutions for the fields and the shape of the ion channel are derived. It is shown that very high beam-loading efficiency can be achieved, while the energy spread of the bunch is conserved. The theoretical results are verified with the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS.
Beam loading in the nonlinear regime of plasma-based acceleration.
Tzoufras, M; Lu, W; Tsung, F S; Huang, C; Mori, W B; Katsouleas, T; Vieira, J; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O
2008-10-01
A theory that describes how to load negative charge into a nonlinear, three-dimensional plasma wakefield is presented. In this regime, a laser or an electron beam blows out the plasma electrons and creates a nearly spherical ion channel, which is modified by the presence of the beam load. Analytical solutions for the fields and the shape of the ion channel are derived. It is shown that very high beam-loading efficiency can be achieved, while the energy spread of the bunch is conserved. The theoretical results are verified with the particle-in-cell code OSIRIS. PMID:18851537
On the Transition Regime of Nonlinear Error Field Penetration in Toroidal Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Huihui; Wang, Zhengxiong; Ding, Yonghua; Rao, Bo
2015-07-01
The error field penetration is numerically studied in the frame of the visco-resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model. A transition scaling is obtained to link the Rutherford and Waelbroeck regimes in the nonlinear phase of error field penetration process. Furthermore, a transition density scaling of [br/BT]crit ∼ ne½ is obtained in accord with recent experimental observations in the J-TEXT tokamak. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Nos. 2014GB124001 and 2013GB102000) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11322549, 11275043 and 11275080)
Jenkins, J.E.
1994-12-31
Development of mathematical models that retain adequate fidelity to the physics of airframe aerodynamic and kinematic interactions has not kept pace with flight envelope expansion. Chapman and Yates, in an invited survey paper provide a succinct statement of the problem: {open_quote}With the advent of nonlinear aerodynamic parameter estimation came the question as to what nonlinear representation is {open_quotes}best{close_quotes}... which terms are required or allowed... ? (This question) has to do with fluid physics ... and has received very little attention in the literature on parameter estimation or model structure identification. ...In reviewing the literature on the general subject of nonlinear aerodynamic model identification and parameter estimation, most attention seems to be directed towards the algorithm with little attention paid to the correctness of the model.{close_quotes} There are many reasons for this situation. Two that are particularly important are: (1) model structures based on a sufficiently general theoretical framework are lacking and (2) there have been very few experiments explicitly designed to allow identification of valid model structures for some nonlinear flight regimes.
The Role of Nonlinear Interactions in Causing Transitions into Edge Transport-Barrier Regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cziegler, Istvan
2015-11-01
Transitions of tokamak confinement regimes are studied with a focus on interactions between turbulence and zonal flows (ZF) or geodesic-acoustic modes (GAM). Results show that access to im-proved confinement regimes is profoundly affected by these interactions and clarify the role of GAM and ZF in different types of transitions. In order to understand the underlying dynamics of these transitions, both their trigger mechanism and the parametric dependence of nonlinear transfer processes are studied using gas-puff-imaging. For the L-to-H transition, this work shows that the stress mediated transfer rate of kinetic energy from turbulence into ZF leads in the changes, the turbulence collapses, and finally the pressure gradient forms - establishing the trigger as flow organization. For the I-mode, turbulence is studied with the aim of understanding /emphaccess to the improved confinement regime, which exhibits an edge temperature pedestal, but a relaxed density profile. L-to-I and I-to-H transitions are analyzed in a time-resolved manner analogous to the L-H transition. For the L-to-I transition there is a difference between the scaling of the regime's typical edge fluctuation, the Weakly Coherent Mode (WCM), and GAM, known to be essential in shaping the WCM. Both the WCM and the GAM are necessary for the regime, and regime access is found to be sensitive to the GAM drive and damping. Parametric dependences of nonlinearities are examined in steady state discharges from a range of toroidal field, plasma current, and density; and interactions between flows and turbulence in both L-mode and I-mode are estimated using bispectral methods. The ZF drive increases monotonically with cross-field heat flux, i.e. approaches a transition, while GAM follow more complicated trends. These results advance our progress toward predicting the parametric dependences of transition conditions. Work supported by USDoE, Office of Science, Award Numbers DE-SC-0008689 and DE-FC02-99ER54512.
Murakami, Yuta; Werner, Philipp; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2014-12-31
We reveal that electron-phonon systems described by the Holstein model on a bipartite lattice exhibit, away from half filling, a supersolid (SS) phase characterized by coexisting charge order (CO) and superconductivity (SC), and an accompanying quantum critical point (QCP). The SS phase, demonstrated by the dynamical mean-field theory with a quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver, emerges in the intermediate-coupling regime, where the peak of the Tc dome is located and the metal-insulator crossover occurs. On the other hand, in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes the CO-SC boundary is of first order with no intervening SS phases. The QCP is associated with the continuous transition from SS to SC and characterized by a reentrant behavior of the SS around it. We further show that the SS-SC transition is hallmarked by diverging charge fluctuations and a kink (peak) in the superfluid density. PMID:25615362
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Yuta; Werner, Philipp; Tsuji, Naoto; Aoki, Hideo
2014-12-01
We reveal that electron-phonon systems described by the Holstein model on a bipartite lattice exhibit, away from half filling, a supersolid (SS) phase characterized by coexisting charge order (CO) and superconductivity (SC), and an accompanying quantum critical point (QCP). The SS phase, demonstrated by the dynamical mean-field theory with a quantum Monte Carlo impurity solver, emerges in the intermediate-coupling regime, where the peak of the Tc dome is located and the metal-insulator crossover occurs. On the other hand, in the weak- and strong-coupling regimes the CO-SC boundary is of first order with no intervening SS phases. The QCP is associated with the continuous transition from SS to SC and characterized by a reentrant behavior of the SS around it. We further show that the SS-SC transition is hallmarked by diverging charge fluctuations and a kink (peak) in the superfluid density.
Understanding and optimizing the LWFA in the nonlinear self-guided blowout regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Asher; Yu, Peicheng; Xu, Xinlu; Tsung, Frank; Dalichaouch, Thamine; Lu, Wei; An, Weiming; Mori, Warren
2015-11-01
We report on recent results on LWFA in the nonlinear, self-guided, blowout regime, where the normalized vector potential is larger than 4. In the work of Lu et al. [Phys. Rev. Spec. Top. Accel. Beams 10, 061301 (2007)], matching conditions for the laser spot size were presented as well as scaling laws for the accelerated electron energy in terms of laser and plasma parameters. Recent advances in PIC modeling, including the quasi-3D and boosted frame techniques now make it possible to study these scaling laws for higher laser energies. The quasi-3D algorithm uses a PIC algorithm on an r-z grid and a girdless description in the azimuthal angle. The fields are expanded in azimuthal harmonics that are truncated at a chosen number. We have implemented this algorithm in OSIRIS and here we use it to examine the nonlinear regime for existing and future 15-100 Joule lasers. Excellent agreement with the scaling laws in Lu et al. was found. In addition, we study adjustments to the laser profile characteristics in which the electron beam is optimized for a fixed energy laser.
Nonlinear Brillouin amplification of finite-duration seeds in the strong coupling regime
Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.
2013-07-15
Parametric plasma processes received renewed interest in the context of generating ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses up to the exawatt-zetawatt regime. Both Raman as well as Brillouin amplifications of seed pulses were proposed. Here, we investigate Brillouin processes in the one-dimensional (1D) backscattering geometry with the help of numerical simulations. For optimal seed amplification, Brillouin scattering is considered in the so called strong coupling (sc) regime. Special emphasis lies on the dependence of the amplification process on the finite duration of the initial seed pulses. First, the standard plane-wave instability predictions are generalized to pulse models, and the changes of initial seed pulse forms due to parametric instabilities are investigated. Three-wave-interaction results are compared to predictions by a new (kinetic) Vlasov code. The calculations are then extended to the nonlinear region with pump depletion. Generation of different seed layers is interpreted by self-similar solutions of the three-wave interaction model. Similar to Raman amplification, shadowing of the rear layers by the leading layers of the seed occurs. The shadowing is more pronounced for initially broad seed pulses. The effect is quantified for Brillouin amplification. Kinetic Vlasov simulations agree with the three-wave interaction predictions and thereby affirm the universal validity of self-similar layer formation during Brillouin seed amplification in the strong coupling regime.
Preheating ablation effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the weakly nonlinear regime
Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; He, X. T.; Sheng, Z. M.; Don, Wai-Sun; Li, Y. J.
2010-12-15
The two-dimensional Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) with and without thermal conduction is investigated by numerical simulation in the weakly nonlinear regime. A preheat model {kappa}(T)={kappa}{sub SH}[1+f(T)] is introduced for the thermal conduction [W. H. Ye, W. Y. Zhang, and X. T. He, Phys. Rev. E 65, 057401 (2002)], where {kappa}{sub SH} is the Spitzer-Haerm electron thermal conductivity coefficient and f(T) models the preheating tongue effect in the cold plasma ahead of the ablation front. The preheating ablation effects on the RTI are studied by comparing the RTI with and without thermal conduction with identical density profile relevant to inertial confinement fusion experiments. It is found that the ablation effects strongly influence the mode coupling process, especially with short perturbation wavelength. Overall, the ablation effects stabilize the RTI. First, the linear growth rate is reduced, especially for short perturbation wavelengths and a cutoff wavelength is observed in simulations. Second, the second harmonic generation is reduced for short perturbation wavelengths. Third, the third-order negative feedback to the fundamental mode is strengthened, which plays a stabilization role. Finally, on the contrary, the ablation effects increase the generation of the third harmonic when the perturbation wavelengths are long. Our simulation results indicate that, in the weakly nonlinear regime, the ablation effects are weakened as the perturbation wavelength is increased. Numerical results obtained are in general agreement with the recent weakly nonlinear theories as proposed in [J. Sanz, J. Ramirez, R. Ramis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 195002 (2002); J. Garnier, P.-A. Raviart, C. Cherfils-Clerouin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 185003 (2003)].
Frequency domain holography of laser wakefield accelerators in the nonlinear bubble regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yi, S. A.; Kalmykov, S.; Dong, P.; Reed, S. A.; Downer, M.; Shvets, G.
2009-11-01
We present the theoretical basis of frequency domain holography (FDH), a technique for single-shot visualization of laser driven plasma wakes. In FDH, the nonlinear index modulations of the plasma wake are recorded as phase shifts in a co-propagating probe pulse, and interference with a reference allows for the reconstruction of the wake structure. Earlier experimental work [N. H. Matlis et al., Nature Phys. 2, 749 (2006)] has shown that reconstruction of the probe phase is sufficient for imaging weakly nonlinear periodic wakes. In the highly nonlinear regime, the laser ponderomotive force blows out plasma electrons and forms a density ``bubble'' that strongly focuses the probe light. We show that imaging the bubble requires full (amplitude and phase) reconstruction of the probe pulse, and find reconstructions of simulated frequency domain holograms in full agreement with direct PIC modeling of the probe pulse. We also assess the sensitivity of the technique to the spectral bandwidth of the probe and reference pulses. In combination with ray-tracing techniques which help evaluate the localized frequency up- and down-shifts of the probe light (``photon acceleration''), FDH appears to be a unique tool for visualization of plasma wakes. This work is supported by the US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945.
Optical Nonlinearities of Bis(4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel Solution in the Nanosecond Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hongpu; Ogusu, Kazuhiko
1998-10-01
Nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction of the saturable absorber BDN (bis(4-dimethylaminodithiobenzil)-nickel) in a nitrobenzene solution are studied using a nonlinear transmission method and z-scan methods, respectively, under irradiation with 23 ns laser pulses at 1.047 µm. The z-scan experiment shows that, in contrast to the previous work by Zhu and Garmire [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19 (1983) 1495], the main origin of the intensity-dependent refractive index change in the dye solution is the thermal effect even in the nanosecond regime. The buildup of the thermal lens is attributed to the photoacoustic effect and its rise time is proportional to the beam spot size. For a tightly focused beam, the rise time can be as fast as about ten nanoseconds. The fall time of the thermal lens is determined by thermal diffusion and is generally on the order of milliseconds. Moreover, nanosecond optical limiting and pulse narrowing have been demonstrated using strong self-defocusing induced by the photoacoustic effect.
CONDUCTION IN LOW MACH NUMBER FLOWS. I. LINEAR AND WEAKLY NONLINEAR REGIMES
Lecoanet, Daniel; Brown, Benjamin P.; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Burns, Keaton J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Vasil, Geoffrey M.
2014-12-20
Thermal conduction is an important energy transfer and damping mechanism in astrophysical flows. Fourier's law, in which the heat flux is proportional to the negative temperature gradient, leading to temperature diffusion, is a well-known empirical model of thermal conduction. However, entropy diffusion has emerged as an alternative thermal conduction model, despite not ensuring the monotonicity of entropy. This paper investigates the differences between temperature and entropy diffusion for both linear internal gravity waves and weakly nonlinear convection. In addition to simulating the two thermal conduction models with the fully compressible Navier-Stokes equations, we also study their effects in the reduced ''soundproof'' anelastic and pseudoincompressible (PI) equations. We find that in the linear and weakly nonlinear regime, temperature and entropy diffusion give quantitatively similar results, although there are some larger errors in the PI equations with temperature diffusion due to inaccuracies in the equation of state. Extrapolating our weakly nonlinear results, we speculate that differences between temperature and entropy diffusion might become more important for strongly turbulent convection.
White, A. E. Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.; Reinke, M. L.; and others
2015-05-15
For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
White, A. E.; Howard, N. T.; Creely, A. J.; Chilenski, M. A.; Greenwald, M.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hughes, J. W.; Marmar, E.; Rice, J. E.; Sierchio, J. M.; Sung, C.; Walk, J. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Edlund, E. M.; Kung, C.; Holland, C.; Candy, J.; Petty, C. C.; Reinke, M. L.; Theiler, C.
2015-05-01
For the first time, nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of I-mode plasmas are performed and compared with experiment. I-mode is a high confinement regime, featuring energy confinement similar to H-mode, but without enhanced particle and impurity particle confinement [D. G. Whyte et al., Nucl. Fusion 50, 105005 (2010)]. As a consequence of the separation between heat and particle transport, I-mode exhibits several favorable characteristics compared to H-mode. The nonlinear gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] is used to explore the effects of E × B shear and profile stiffness in I-mode and compare with L-mode. The nonlinear GYRO simulations show that I-mode core ion temperature and electron temperature profiles are more stiff than L-mode core plasmas. Scans of the input E × B shear in GYRO simulations show that E × B shearing of turbulence is a stronger effect in the core of I-mode than L-mode. The nonlinear simulations match the observed reductions in long wavelength density fluctuation levels across the L-I transition but underestimate the reduction of long wavelength electron temperature fluctuation levels. The comparisons between experiment and gyrokinetic simulations for I-mode suggest that increased E × B shearing of turbulence combined with increased profile stiffness are responsible for the reductions in core turbulence observed in the experiment, and that I-mode resembles H-mode plasmas more than L-mode plasmas with regards to marginal stability and temperature profile stiffness.
Numerical investigation of beam-driven PWFA in quasi-nonlinear regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Londrillo, P.; Gatti, C.; Ferrario, M.
2014-03-01
In beam-driven Plasma Based Wakefield Acceleration (PWFA), the quasi-nonlinear model has been designed to combine high efficient 'blowout' regimes, where cold and overdense driving electron beams form a totally rarefied plasma channel, with low charge beam distribution assuring the excited wakefield preserves relevant linear properties. This scheme can have applications in experimental facilities, like SPARC 150 MeV linac at LNF-INFN laboratories, where low-emittance, low-charge narrow electron beams can be produced to be injected on a preformed plasma channel. Here we present a preliminary numerical investigation of this configuration, using the fully 3D ALaDyn PIC code, as a preparatory work to design optimal conditions for the COMB experimental set-up. Specific numerical tools, having computational and diagnostic advantages in PWFA conditions and checks of the numerical outcomes with analytical results, are also presented and discussed.
On the nonlinear characteristics of the axisymmetric flow regime: Cylindrical and spherical systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Higgins, R. W.; Dutton, J. A.; Shirer, H. N.
1985-01-01
The physical relationship between steady axisymmetric flows that might be observed in the atmosphere and in laboratory vessels is investigated theoretically. This is accomplished by comparing both the nonlinear structure and the thermal forcing mechanisms in two truncated spectral models of flow in the atmosphere and the rotating laboratory cylinder, respectively. Under statically stable conditions, the response of the internally forced spherical model (which is developed here from a set of new orthonormal basis functions) exhibits steady behavior different from that in the externally forced cylindrical model. Two regions of multiple steady solutions occur in the cylindrical model, under stable conditions, that are not found in the spherical one. The possible physical relevance of these multiple solutions is investigated by determining their location in parameter space with respect to the classical Hadley-Rossby transition curve. The results suggest that the wave flow regime, in an annulus, might develop catastrophically when an upper symmetric flow ceases to exist.
Mean square stabilisation of complex oscillatory regimes in nonlinear stochastic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev
2016-04-01
A problem of stabilisation of the randomly forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes for nonlinear dynamic systems is considered. For this problem solution, we propose a new theoretical approach to consider these modes as invariant manifolds of the stochastic differential equations with control. The aim of the control is to provide the exponential mean square (EMS) stability for these manifolds. A general method of the stabilisation based on the algebraic criterion of the EMS-stability is elaborated. A constructive technique for the design of the feedback regulators stabilising various types of oscillatory regimes is proposed. A detailed parametric analysis of the problem of the stabilisation for stochastically forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes is given. An illustrative example of stochastic Hopf system is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Efficient calculation of cosmological neutrino clustering in the non-linear regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Archidiacono, Maria; Hannestad, Steen
2016-06-01
We study in detail how neutrino perturbations can be followed in linear theory by using only terms up to l=2 in the Boltzmann hierarchy. We provide a new approximation to the third moment and demonstrate that the neutrino power spectrum can be calculated to a precision of better than ~ 5% for masses up to ~ 1 eV and k lesssim 10 h/Mpc. The matter power spectrum can be calculated far more precisely and typically at least a factor of a few better than with existing approximations. We then proceed to study how the neutrino power spectrum can be reliably calculated even in the non-linear regime by using the non-linear gravitational potential, sourced by dark matter overdensities, as it is derived from semi-analytic methods based on N-body simulations in the Boltzmann evolution hierarchy. Our results agree extremely well with results derived from N-body simulations that include cold dark matter and neutrinos as independent particles with different properties.
Nonequilibrium and nonlinear dynamics in Berea and Fontainebleau sandstones: Low-strain regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasqualini, Donatella; Heitmann, Katrin; Tencate, James A.; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David; Johnson, Paul A.
2007-01-01
Members of a wide class of geomaterials are known to display complex and fascinating nonlinear and nonequilibrium dynamical behaviors over a wide range of bulk strains, down to surprisingly low values, e.g., 10-7. In this paper we investigate two sandstones, Berea and Fontainebleau, and characterize their behavior under the influence of very small external forces via carefully controlled resonant bar experiments. By reducing environmental effects due to temperature and humidity variations, we are able to systematically and reproducibly study dynamical behavior at strains as low as 10-9. Our study establishes the existence of two strain regimes separated by ɛM. At strains below ɛM the material is nonlinear and quasi-equilibrium thermodynamics applies as evidenced by the success of Landau theory and a simple macroscopic description based on the Duffing oscillator. At strains above ɛM the behavior becomes truly nonequilibrium, as demonstrated by the existence of material conditioning, and Landau theory no longer applies. The main focus of this paper is the study of the first region, but we also comment on how our work clarifies and resolves previous experimental conflicts, as well as suggest new directions of research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Sarah; Edmonds, Terrence
Micro-electro-mechanical systems or MEMS are used in a variety of today's technology and can be modeled using equations for nonlinear damped harmonic oscillators. Mathematical expressions have been formulated to determine resonance frequency shifts as a result of hardening and softening effects in MEMS devices. In this work we experimentally test the previous theoretical analysis of MEMS resonance frequency shifts in the nonlinear regime. Devices were put under low pressure at room temperature and swept through a range of frequencies with varying AC and DC excitation voltages to detect shifts in the resonant frequency. The MEMS device studied in this work exhibits a dominating spring softening effect due to the device's physical make-up. The softening effect becomes very dominant as the AC excitation is increased and the frequency shift of the resonance peak becomes quite significant at these larger excitations. Hardening effects are heavily dependent on mechanical factors that make up the MEMS devices. But they are not present in these MEMS devices. I will present our results along with the theoretical analysis of the Duffing oscillator model. This work was supported by NSF grant DMR-1461019 (REU) and DMR-1205891 (YL).
Yi, S. A.; Khudik, V.; Siemon, C.; Shvets, G.
2012-12-21
Self-injection of background electrons in plasma wakefield accelerators in the highly nonlinear bubble regime is analyzed using particle-in-cell and semi-analytic modeling. It is shown that the return current in the bubble sheath layer is crucial for accurate determination of the trapped particle trajectories.
Finnegan, S. M.; Yin, L.; Kline, J. L.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.
2011-03-15
The influence of binary Coulomb collisions on trapped particle nonlinearities related to stimulated Raman scatter (SRS) in a single laser speckle is examined using one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Binary Coulomb collisions are incorporated using a numerical particle-pairing algorithm that reproduces a collision integral of the Landau form. The onset of nonlinearly enhanced levels of SRS reflectivity is shown to coincide with electron trapping in the daughter plasma wave and is sensitive to the collisional scattering rate. Relaxation of trapping-induced perturbations to the electron velocity distribution via collisional velocity space diffusion is predicted to have the largest effect on the onset of SRS when the amplitude of the daughter plasma wave is smallest, and trapping-induced perturbations to the electron velocity distribution function are also small. In the absence of higher dimensional detrapping mechanisms (e.g., electron side-loss), it is shown that the onset threshold for enhanced SRS reflectivity is determined predominantly by the parallel diffusion of trapped electrons scattering from bulk thermal electrons, and that for the conditions studied here, the contribution to detrapping from perpendicular diffusion is non-negligible. Additionally, inverse bremsstrahlung heating of the bulk electrons is shown to shift the daughter plasma wave spectrum upward along the Stoke's resonance to larger wave frequency and smaller wave number, changing the linear parametric coupling conditions to SRS backscatter as a function of time. The reduction in SRS reflectivity from binary Coulomb collisions is greatest for laser intensities near the collisionless onset threshold, ulimately leading to an increase in the onset threshold laser intensity for enhanced SRS reflectivity in the kinetic regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fahlen, Jay Edward
The generation and propagation of nonlinear plasma waves is studied using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We concentrate on regimes of interest to inertial fusion and space physics in which wave-particle interactions are important. Experiments soon to be performed at the National Ignition Facility require the understanding and control of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) for their success. The SRS instability occurs when an incident laser decays into a backscattered light wave and an electron plasma wave. Recent computer simulations of SRS indicate that the daughter plasma waves have finite longitudinal and transverse extent and that they reach large amplitudes. The nonlinear behavior of such waves determines the growth, saturation, and recurrence of SRS. However, little attention has been paid to the behavior of plasma waves having these properties, and their study in SRS simulations is complicated by the large-amplitude light waves associated with the instability. Most theory and simulation work on SRS and its daughter plasma waves has been limited to infinite plane waves, often in the one-dimension limit. This thesis therefore studies isolated electron plasma waves over a wide range of parameters in one and multiple dimensions using PIC simulations. The simulations are performed with the goal of understanding the wave's behavior for parameters relevant to SRS, but the normalized parameters have general applicability to a range of densities and temperatures. Accordingly, an external ponderomotive driver generates traveling waves, driving them either continuously to study their peak amplitude and saturation mechanisms, or impulsively to study their propagation. Several novel effects are identified and characterized, including nonlinear resonance for driven waves, wave packet etching for finite-length waves, and localization and local damping for finite-width waves. Finite-length wave packets are found to erode away at a constant rate due to particle trapping
Beam quality from self and ionization induced trapping in the nonlinear LWFA regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidson, Asher; Lu, Wei; Joshi, Chan; Silva, Luis; Martins, Joana; Fonseca, Ricardo; Mori, Warren
2011-10-01
In plasma based accelerators (LWFA and PWFA), the methods of injecting high quality electron bunches into the accelerating wakefield is of utmost importance for various applications. Understanding how injection occurs in both self and controlled scenarios is therefore important. We present results from high fidelity OSIRIS simulations on the beam quality that can be obtained from self and ionized induced trapping in the nonlinear LWFA regime. We compare trapping thresholds from the simulations to analytical expressions. We also quantify how the beam quality of 1.5-5 GeV beams can be improved through angle and energy selection as well as quantify the slice energy spread and emittance. We also study the effect of ion motion and the axial density profile. Preliminary results on inputting beams from OSIRS into the FEL code GENESIS will be presented. This work was supported by UC Lab Fees Research Award No. 09-LR-05-118764-DOUW, DOE grants DOE DE-FC02-07ER41500 and DE-FG02-92ER40727 and by NSF grants NSF PHY-0904039 and NSF PHY-0936266. The simulations were performed on Jaguar under an INCITE award.
Spin-electron acoustic waves: Linear and nonlinear regimes, and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel
2015-11-01
Considering the spin-up and spin-down electrons as two different fluids we find corresponding hydrodynamic and kinetic equations from the Pauli equation. We find different pressure the spin-up and spin-down electrons due to different concentrations of electrons in the magnetized electron gas. This difference leads to existence of new branches of linear longitudinal waves propagating with small damping. These waves are called the spin-electron acoustic waves (SEAWs) due to linear dispersion dependence at small wave vectors. We obtain two waves at oblique propagation and one wave at propagation parallel or perpendicular to the external magnetic field. Dispersion dependences of these waves are calculated. Contribution of the Coulomb exchange interaction is included in the model and spectrums. Area of existence of nonlinear SEAWs appearing as a spin-electron acoustic soliton is found for the regime of wave propagation parallel to the external magnetic field. It is obtained that the SEAWs lead to formation of the Cooper pairs. This application of our results to the superconductivity phenomenon reveals in a model of the high-temperature superconductivity with the transition temperatures up to 300 K.
Spin pumping in the nonlinear dynamic regime of a Pt/Y3Fe5O12 heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Ma, Li; Cui, Lei; Jia, Chenlong; Zhou, Shiming; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M.; Xue, Desheng
2016-05-01
Spin pumping occurred under nonlinear spin dynamic has been studied in Pt(17 nm)/Y3Fe5O12(YIG 66 nm) heterostructure. By using high power excitation, the precession angle (θc) of YIG can reach a value as high as 22°, and distinct nonlinear dynamic effects such as foldover ferromagnetic resonance spectra and nonlinear damping have been witnessed. The linear relation between the dc component of spin current and sin 2 θ c has been tested from linear to nonlinear spin dynamics regimes. Our main finding is that spin mixing conductance is a robust parameter that is independent on the amplitude and damping of the dynamic system, at least in our experiment conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prost, Amaury; Poisson, Florian; Bossy, Emmanuel
2015-09-01
We investigate theoretically the photoacoustic generation by a gold nanosphere in water in the thermoelastic regime. Specifically, we consider the long-pulse illumination regime, in which the time for electron-phonon thermalization can be neglected and photoacoustic wave generation arises solely from the thermoelastic stress caused by the temperature increase of the nanosphere or its liquid environment. Photoacoustic signals are predicted based on the successive resolution of a thermal diffusion problem and a thermoelastic problem, taking into account the finite size of the gold nanosphere, thermoelastic and elastic properties of both water and gold, and the temperature dependence of the thermal expansion coefficient of water. For sufficiently high illumination fluences, this temperature dependence yields a nonlinear relationship between the photoacoustic amplitude and the fluence. For nanosecond pulses in the linear regime, we show that more than 90 % of the emitted photoacoustic energy is generated in water, and the thickness of the generating layer around the particle scales close to the square root of the pulse duration. The amplitude of the photoacoustic wave in the linear regime is accurately predicted by the point-absorber model introduced by Calasso et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3550 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.3550], but our results demonstrate that this model significantly overestimates the amplitude of photoacoustic waves in the nonlinear regime. We therefore provide quantitative estimates of a critical energy, defined as the absorbed energy required such that the nonlinear contribution is equal to that of the linear contribution. Our results suggest that the critical energy scales as the volume of water over which heat diffuses during the illumination pulse. Moreover, thermal nonlinearity is shown to be expected only for sufficiently high ultrasound frequency. Finally, we show that the relationship between the photoacoustic amplitude and the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donges, J. F.; Donner, R. V.; Marwan, N.; Breitenbach, S. F. M.; Rehfeld, K.; Kurths, J.
2015-05-01
The Asian monsoon system is an important tipping element in Earth's climate with a large impact on human societies in the past and present. In light of the potentially severe impacts of present and future anthropogenic climate change on Asian hydrology, it is vital to understand the forcing mechanisms of past climatic regime shifts in the Asian monsoon domain. Here we use novel recurrence network analysis techniques for detecting episodes with pronounced non-linear changes in Holocene Asian monsoon dynamics recorded in speleothems from caves distributed throughout the major branches of the Asian monsoon system. A newly developed multi-proxy methodology explicitly considers dating uncertainties with the COPRA (COnstructing Proxy Records from Age models) approach and allows for detection of continental-scale regime shifts in the complexity of monsoon dynamics. Several epochs are characterised by non-linear regime shifts in Asian monsoon variability, including the periods around 8.5-7.9, 5.7-5.0, 4.1-3.7, and 3.0-2.4 ka BP. The timing of these regime shifts is consistent with known episodes of Holocene rapid climate change (RCC) and high-latitude Bond events. Additionally, we observe a previously rarely reported non-linear regime shift around 7.3 ka BP, a timing that matches the typical 1.0-1.5 ky return intervals of Bond events. A detailed review of previously suggested links between Holocene climatic changes in the Asian monsoon domain and the archaeological record indicates that, in addition to previously considered longer-term changes in mean monsoon intensity and other climatic parameters, regime shifts in monsoon complexity might have played an important role as drivers of migration, pronounced cultural changes, and the collapse of ancient human societies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boudebs, Georges; Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Leblond, Hervé; de Araújo, Cid B.
2016-05-01
The nonlinear (NL) response of toluene was investigated at 1064 and 532 nm using a Nd:YAG laser delivering pulses in the picosecond regime and its second harmonic. The experiments were performed using the Z-scan D4σ technique. Two different regimes were identified for both wavelengths used: at moderate intensities, NL refractive indices of third- and fifth-order were measured, while above certain intensity, NL losses were phenomenologically estimated according to a cubic intensity dependency. This absorption is mainly attributed to multiphoton ionization. The observed saturation behavior for large intensities indicates the important contribution of free-carriers generation.
Sokhoyan, R.; Azizbekyan, H.; Leroy, C.; Ishkhanyan, A.
2011-04-15
We discuss the strong-coupling regime of the nonlinear Landau-Zener problem occurring at coherent photo- and magneto-association of ultracold atoms. We apply a variational approach to an exact third-order nonlinear differential equation for the molecular state probability and construct an accurate approximation describing the time dynamics of the coupled atom-molecule system. The resultant solution improves the accuracy of the previous approximation [22]. The obtained results reveal a remarkable observation that in the strong-coupling limit, the resonance crossing is mostly governed by the nonlinearity, while the coherent atom-molecule oscillations occurring soon after crossing the resonance are principally of a linear nature. This observation is supposedly general for all nonlinear quantum systems having the same generic quadratic nonlinearity, due to the basic attributes of the resonance crossing processes in such systems. The constructed approximation turns out to have a larger applicability range than it was initially expected, covering the whole moderate-coupling regime for which the proposed solution accurately describes ail the main characteristics of the system evolution except the amplitude of the coherent atom-molecule oscillation, which is rather overestimated.
Numerical simulation of unidirectional irregular nonlinear waves in the basin of intermediate depth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slunyaev, Alexey; Sergeeva, Anna; Didenkulova, Ira
2016-04-01
In this paper we extend our study of intense irregular waves over infinitively deep water [1] to the situation of intermediate depth (in particular, conditions kph ≈ 2 and kph ≈ 1 are discussed, where kp is the peak wavenumber, and h is the water depth). We use a transition stage, when the nonlinearity is slowly enforcing during a few tens of wave periods, with the purpose to prepare 'natural' realizations of nonlinear waves in a quasi-stationary state. Then, the unidirectional waves are simulated by means of the High Order Spectral Method, what gives the complete data of wave evolution, and also the statistical data. Up to 100 realizations of wave trains were simulated for 20 minutes of physical time; each of the realization was about 10 km long and was characterized by the given JONSWAP spectrum. Small-scale artificial damping was introduced to eliminate the wave breaking effect. The simulation output data was collected providing sufficient resolution of the surface wave fields in time and space. The rogue wave events were identified on the basis of the wave data, and analyzed. One of the observations made in the case of infinitively deep water [1] was remarkably long lifetimes of the rogue events. This outcome was related to the formation of long-living wave groups due to two effects: absence of the transverse dimension (purely collinear waves), and nonlinear wave self-modulation. In the present study in one of the cases (i.e., kph ≈ 1 < 1.36) waves do not suffer from the Benjamin - Feir instability. Rather surprisingly, the lifetimes of the rogue waves do not show a clear dependence on the water depth. They seem to be somewhat shorter for the shallower water, but the difference is not definite. In general, the lifetime of rogue events may be up to 30-60 wave periods. The typical shape of the rogue waves was considered. Besides the crest-trough vertical asymmetry, which is natural for deep-water Stokes waves and becomes even more pronounced for intense
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime
Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Dinh, P. M.; Suraud, E.; Romaniello, P.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2015-02-28
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na{sub 2}. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.
Simulation of the oscillation regimes of bowed bars: a non-linear modal approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inácio, Octávio; Henrique, Luís.; Antunes, José
2003-06-01
It is still a challenge to properly simulate the complex stick-slip behavior of multi-degree-of-freedom systems. In the present paper we investigate the self-excited non-linear responses of bowed bars, using a time-domain modal approach, coupled with an explicit model for the frictional forces, which is able to emulate stick-slip behavior. This computational approach can provide very detailed simulations and is well suited to deal with systems presenting a dispersive behavior. The effects of the bar supporting fixture are included in the model, as well as a velocity-dependent friction coefficient. We present the results of numerical simulations, for representative ranges of the bowing velocity and normal force. Computations have been performed for constant-section aluminum bars, as well as for real vibraphone bars, which display a central undercutting, intended to help tuning the first modes. Our results show limiting values for the normal force FN and bowing velocity ẏbow for which the "musical" self-sustained solutions exist. Beyond this "playability space", double period and even chaotic regimes were found for specific ranges of the input parameters FN and ẏbow. As also displayed by bowed strings, the vibration amplitudes of bowed bars also increase with the bow velocity. However, in contrast to string instruments, bowed bars "slip" during most of the motion cycle. Another important difference is that, in bowed bars, the self-excited motions are dominated by the system's first mode. Our numerical results are qualitatively supported by preliminary experimental results.
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Escartín, J. M.; Vincendon, M.; Romaniello, P.; Dinh, P. M.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Suraud, E.
2015-02-01
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations.
Towards time-dependent current-density-functional theory in the non-linear regime.
Escartín, J M; Vincendon, M; Romaniello, P; Dinh, P M; Reinhard, P-G; Suraud, E
2015-02-28
Time-Dependent Density-Functional Theory (TDDFT) is a well-established theoretical approach to describe and understand irradiation processes in clusters and molecules. However, within the so-called adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA) to the exchange-correlation (xc) potential, TDDFT can show insufficiencies, particularly in violently dynamical processes. This is because within ALDA the xc potential is instantaneous and is a local functional of the density, which means that this approximation neglects memory effects and long-range effects. A way to go beyond ALDA is to use Time-Dependent Current-Density-Functional Theory (TDCDFT), in which the basic quantity is the current density rather than the density as in TDDFT. This has been shown to offer an adequate account of dissipation in the linear domain when the Vignale-Kohn (VK) functional is used. Here, we go beyond the linear regime and we explore this formulation in the time domain. In this case, the equations become very involved making the computation out of reach; we hence propose an approximation to the VK functional which allows us to calculate the dynamics in real time and at the same time to keep most of the physics described by the VK functional. We apply this formulation to the calculation of the time-dependent dipole moment of Ca, Mg and Na2. Our results show trends similar to what was previously observed in model systems or within linear response. In the non-linear domain, our results show that relaxation times do not decrease with increasing deposited excitation energy, which sets some limitations to the practical use of TDCDFT in such a domain of excitations. PMID:25725723
Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Kukarin, Sergey; Ivanenko, Aleksey
2012-11-19
We show experimentally and numerically new transient lasing regime between stable single-pulse generation and noise-like generation. We characterize qualitatively all three regimes of single pulse generation per round-trip of all-normal-dispersion fiber lasers mode-locked due to effect of nonlinear polarization evolution. We study spectral and temporal features of pulses produced in all three regimes as well as compressibility of such pulses. Simple criteria are proposed to identify lasing regime in experiment. PMID:23187603
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foley, J. A.
2011-12-01
Although they have been building for decades, changes in the environment are not always smooth and gradual. In fact, the most important changes - such as those to our ecosystems and natural resources - are often sudden and large. Recent research suggests that instead of following a predictable linear path along existing trends, environmental systems often exhibit highly non-linear behavior, including very abrupt shifts in condition. In fact, the complex, non-linear workings of the planet's biological, physical and human systems can give rise to sudden, often catastrophic, environmental disasters. Recent scientific advances have shown can exhibit "tipping points" or "regime shifts". Examples of regime shifts range from lake eutrophication, desertification, and forest die-back, across many regions of the world. But do such regime shifts exist at the global scale? A recent synthesis of global environmental research (published by Rockstrom et al., in Nature, 2010) suggested that there may be "Planetary Boundaries", beyond which the global environment would enter conditions not seen in the Holocene era. In this presentation, I will review case studies of environmental regime shifts at regional scales, and show how they may or may not operate at global scales. Managing such complex systems, across regional and global scales, will be a fundamental challenge as humanity charts attempts to chart a more sustainability path.
Prevosto, L. Mancinelli, B.; Chamorro, J. C.; Cejas, E.; Kelly, H.
2015-02-15
Low-frequency (100 Hz), intermediate-current (50 to 200 mA) glow discharges were experimentally investigated in atmospheric pressure air between blunt copper electrodes. Voltage–current characteristics and images of the discharge for different inter-electrode distances are reported. A cathode-fall voltage close to 360 V and a current density at the cathode surface of about 11 A/cm{sup 2}, both independent of the discharge current, were found. The visible emissive structure of the discharge resembles to that of a typical low-pressure glow, thus suggesting a glow-like electric field distribution in the discharge. A kinetic model for the discharge ionization processes is also presented with the aim of identifying the main physical processes ruling the discharge behavior. The numerical results indicate the presence of a non-equilibrium plasma with rather high gas temperature (above 4000 K) leading to the production of components such as NO, O, and N which are usually absent in low-current glows. Hence, the ionization by electron-impact is replaced by associative ionization, which is independent of the reduced electric field. This leads to a negative current-voltage characteristic curve, in spite of the glow-like features of the discharge. On the other hand, several estimations show that the discharge seems to be stabilized by heat conduction; being thermally stable due to its reduced size. All the quoted results indicate that although this discharge regime might be considered to be close to an arc, it is still a glow discharge as demonstrated by its overall properties, supported also by the presence of thermal non-equilibrium.
Direct X-B mode conversion for high-β national spherical torus experiment in nonlinear regime
Ali Asgarian, M. E-mail: maa@msu.edu; Parvazian, A.; Abbasi, M.; Verboncoeur, J. P.
2014-09-15
Electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can be effective for heating and driving currents in spherical tokamak plasmas. Power can be coupled to EBW via mode conversion of the extraordinary (X) mode wave. The most common and successful approach to study the conditions for optimized mode conversion to EBW was evaluated analytically and numerically using a cold plasma model and an approximate kinetic model. The major drawback in using radio frequency waves was the lack of continuous wave sources at very high frequencies (above the electron plasma frequency), which has been addressed. A future milestone is to approach high power regime, where the nonlinear effects become significant, exceeding the limits of validity for present linear theory. Therefore, one appropriate tool would be particle in cell (PIC) simulation. The PIC method retains most of the nonlinear physics without approximations. In this work, we study the direct X-B mode conversion process stages using PIC method for incident wave frequency f{sub 0} = 15 GHz, and maximum amplitude E{sub 0} = 10{sup 5 }V/m in the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX). The modelling shows a considerable reduction in X-B mode conversion efficiency, C{sub modelling} = 0.43, due to the presence of nonlinearities. Comparison of system properties to the linear state reveals predominant nonlinear effects; EBW wavelength and group velocity in comparison with linear regime exhibit an increment around ∼36% and 17%, respectively.
Jeong, Hyunjo; Zhang, Shuzeng; Cho, Sungjong; Li, Xiongbing
2016-08-01
In absolute measurements of acoustic nonlinearity parameters, amplitudes of harmonics must be corrected for diffraction effects. In this study, we develop explicit multi-Gaussian beam (MGB) model-based diffraction corrections for the first three harmonics in weakly nonlinear, axisymmetric sound beams. The effects of making diffraction corrections on nonlinearity parameter estimation are investigated by defining "total diffraction correction (TDC)". The results demonstrate that TDC cannot be neglected even for harmonic generation experiments in the nearfield region. PMID:27186964
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molli, Muralikrishna; Pradhan, Prabin; Dutta, Devarun; Jayaraman, Aditya; Bhat Kademane, Abhijit; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Kamisetti, Venkataramaniah; Philip, Reji
2016-05-01
In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10-40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. The nanosecond optical limiting effect was characterized by using fluence-dependent transmittance measurements with 15-ns laser pulses at 532 and 1064 nm excitation wavelengths. Mechanistically, effective two-photon (2PA) absorption and nonlinear scattering processes were the dominant nonlinear processes at both the wavelengths. At 800 nm excitation in the femtosecond regime (100 fs), the nonlinear optical absorption was found to be a three-photon (3PA) process. Both 2PA and 3PA processes were explained using the band structure and density of states of Sb2Se3 obtained using density functional theory. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity-dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power-limiting applications in the visible range.
Liu, Zheng; Cao, J. C.; Sanderson, Matthew; Zhang, Chao
2015-07-28
The effect of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the nonlinear optical conductivity in a bilayer graphene is investigated. We demonstrate the very different role played by the Rashba term and interlayer hopping; in some cases, the two roles can be quite opposite. It is found that the Rashba term can either enhance or suppress the nonlinear effect in a bilayer graphene, depending on the strength of the interlayer hopping. For a weak interlayer hopping, the Rashba term can significantly enhance the nonlinear effect. An analytical result was derived, showing the interplay of the Rashba effect and the interlayer hopping effect.
Zhang, Jianfeng; Xuan, Fu-Zhen
2014-05-28
The interrupted low cycle fatigue test of austenitic stainless steel was conducted and the dislocation structure and fatigue damage was evaluated subsequently by using both transmission electron microscope and nonlinear ultrasonic wave techniques. A “mountain shape” correlation between the nonlinear acoustic parameter and the fatigue life fraction was achieved. This was ascribed to the generation and evolution of planar dislocation structure and nonplanar dislocation structure such as veins, walls, and cells. The “mountain shape” correlation was interpreted successfully by the combined contribution of dislocation monopole and dipole with an internal-stress dependent term of acoustic nonlinearity.
Bifurcations of self-excitation regimes in a Van der Pol oscillator with a nonlinear energy sink
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gendelman, O. V.; Bar, T.
2010-02-01
The paper investigates regimes of self-excitation in a Van der Pol oscillator with an attached nonlinear energy sink (NES). Initial equations are reduced by averaging to a 3D system. The small relative mass of the NES justifies analysis of this averaged system as singularly perturbed with two “slow” and one “super-slow” variable. Such an approach, in turn, provides a complete analytic description of possible response regimes. In addition to almost unperturbed limit cycle oscillations (LCOs), the system can exhibit complete elimination of self-excitation, small-amplitude LCOs as well as excitation of a quasiperiodic strongly modulated response (SMR). In the space of parameters, the latter can be approached by three distinct bifurcation mechanisms: canard explosion, Shil’nikov bifurcation and heteroclinic bifurcation. Some of the above oscillatory regimes can co-exist for the same values of the system parameters. In this case, it is possible to establish the basins of attraction for the co-existing regimes. Direct numeric simulations demonstrate good coincidence with the analytic predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, E. A.
1983-04-01
A method is proposed for the analysis of the stationary regime of an electric circuit with nonlinearities described by arbitrary analytic functions under the effect of a finite number of harmonic electromotive forces. The method makes it possible to determine the complex amplitudes of harmonics on circuit elements as a power series of the emf amplitudes with coefficients that are functions of circuit-element parameters. The method can easily be programmed, and, on a digital computer, can be used to analyze relatively complex circuits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albright, B. J.; Yin, L.; Afeyan, B.
2014-07-01
Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in its strongly nonlinear, kinetic regime is controlled by a technique of deterministic, strong temporal modulation and spatial scrambling of laser speckle patterns, called spike trains of uneven duration and delay (STUD) pulses [B. Afeyan and S. Hüller (unpublished)]. Kinetic simulations show that the proper use of STUD pulses decreases SRS reflectivity by more than an order of magnitude over random-phase-plate or induced-spatial-incoherence beams of the same average intensity and comparable bandwidth.
Optical properties of phenanthrene: A DFT study for comparison between linear and nonlinear regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Omidi, A. R.; Dadsetani, M.
2016-05-01
The present study tries to determine the optical characteristics as well as the electronic structure of phenanthrene as an important nonlinear organic crystal. We have performed our calculations within the frame work of DFT. Also, we have used bootstrap exchange-correlation kernel (within the framework of TDDFT) to estimate the excitonic effects. According to the results of our study, the investigated crystal has a band structure with low dispersions which is a sign of low intermolecular interactions. In addition to the high values of linear and nonlinear susceptibilities, the crystal in question has a wide range of transparency as well as sufficient anisotropy which make it promising crystal for nonlinear optical applications. Our TDDFT calculations show that the influence of excitonic effects on optical properties can be very dramatic, particularly near the band edge. In addition, the crystal in question shows extremely small wavelengths of plasmon peaks. Furthermore, this study also covers the 2ω/ω intra- and inter-band contributions to the dominant nonlinear susceptibilities. Findings indicate that these contributions have opposite signs at higher energies and nullify each other. Our calculations show that χxxz, χxzx and χzxx have largest values of nonlinear response but χxxz is the dominant component at IR-VIS region. Moreover, the current study shows significant similarities between linear and nonlinear spectra, when we draw linear one as a function of both ω and 2ω. Finally, our simulation reproduces the experimental results very well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molli, Muralikrishna; Bhat Kademane, Abhijit; Pradhan, Prabin; Sai Muthukumar, V.
2016-08-01
In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) nanoparticles in the femtosecond excitation regime. V2O5 nanoparticles were synthesized through solution combustion technique. The as-synthesized samples were further characterized using XRD, FESEM, EDAX, TEM and UV-visible spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies showed the size of the nanoparticles to be ~200 nm. Open-aperture z-scan technique was employed to study the nonlinear optical absorption behavior of the synthesized samples using a 100-fs laser pulses at 800 nm from a regeneratively amplified Ti: sapphire laser. The mechanism of nonlinear absorption was found to be a three-photon absorption process which was explained using the density of states of V2O5 obtained using density functional theory. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity-dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered for optical-power-limiting applications.
Rayleigh-Taylor growth measurements of three-dimensional modulations in a nonlinear regime
Smalyuk, V.A.; Sadot, O.; Betti, R.; Goncharov, V.N.; Delettrez, J.A.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Regan, S.P.; Sangster, T.C.; Shvarts, D.
2006-05-15
An understanding of the nonlinear evolution of Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is essential in inertial confinement fusion and astrophysics. The nonlinear RT growth of three-dimensional (3-D) broadband nonuniformities was measured near saturation levels using x-ray radiography in planar foils accelerated by laser light. The initial 3-D target modulations were seeded by laser nonuniformities and subsequently amplified by the RT instability. The measured modulation Fourier spectra and nonlinear growth velocities are in excellent agreement with those predicted by Haan's model [S. Haan, Phys. Rev. A 39, 5812 (1989)]. These spectra and growth velocities are insensitive to initial conditions. In a real-space analysis, the bubble merger was quantified by a self-similar evolution of bubble size distributions, in agreement with the Alon-Oron-Shvarts theoretical predictions [D. Oron et al. Phys. Plasmas 8, 2883 (2001)].
NONLINEAR OPTICAL PHENOMENA: Self-reflection effect in semiconductors in a two-pulse regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khadzhi, P. I.; Nad'kin, L. Yu
2004-12-01
Peculiarities of reflection at the end face of a semi-infinite semiconductor in a two-pulse regime are studied. The reflection functions behave in a complex and ambiguous manner governed by the amplitudes of the fields of incident pulses. The possibility of a complete bleaching of the medium for the field in the M-band is predicted.
Nonlinear optics with phase-controlled pulses in the sub-two-cycle regime.
Morgner, U; Ell, R; Metzler, G; Schibli, T R; Kärtner, F X; Fujimoto, J G; Haus, H A; Ippen, E P
2001-06-11
Nonlinear optical effects due to the phase between carrier and envelope are observed with 5 fs pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. These sub-two-cycle pulses with octave spanning spectra are the shortest pulses ever generated directly from a laser oscillator. Detection of the carrier-envelope phase slip is made possible by simply focusing the short pulses directly from the oscillator into a BBO crystal. As a further example of nonlinear optics with such short pulses, the interference between second- and third-harmonic components is also demonstrated. PMID:11415276
Nonlinear Optics with Phase-Controlled Pulses in the Sub-Two-Cycle Regime
Morgner, U.; Ell, R.; Metzler, G.; Schibli, T. R.; Kartner, F. X.; Fujimoto, J. G.; Haus, H. A.; Ippen, E. P.
2001-06-11
Nonlinear optical effects due to the phase between carrier and envelope are observed with 5fs pulses from a Kerr-lens mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. These sub-two-cycle pulses with octave spanning spectra are the shortest pulses ever generated directly from a laser oscillator. Detection of the carrier-envelope phase slip is made possible by simply focusing the short pulses directly from the oscillator into a BBO crystal. As a further example of nonlinear optics with such short pulses, the interference between second- and third-harmonic components is also demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun-Dong; Zhao, Zhen-Yu; Yao, Cheng-Bao; Yang, Lan; Li, Jin; Yuan, Ping
2014-06-01
The nonlinear optical properties of 2, 9, 16, 23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine (Pc1) and 2, 9, 16, 23-phenoxy-phthalocyanine-zinc (Pc2) in solution, have been investigated using the Z-scan technique at 800 nm with 100 fs pulse width and at 532 nm with 10 ns pulse width, respectively. It is found that the reverse saturable absorption (RSA) with femtosecond pulse excitation is much larger than that of nanosecond pulse excitation. The nonlinear absorption properties in nanosecond regime and femtosecond regime were analyzed by using five-level model and singlet four-level model, respectively. The results show that the critical intensity value of Pc2 is higher than Pc1 when the contribution of the high excited-state absorption is introduced in the sample. Moreover, optical limiting based on RSA was performed and limiting thresholds were evaluated for both samples. The results show that the Pc1 and Pc2 exhibit better limiting characteristics because of its stronger RSA response.
Stochastic regimes in the driven oscillator with a step-like nonlinearity
Bulanov, S. V.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Koga, J. K.; Kondo, K.; Kando, M.; Yogo, A.; Bulanov, S. S.
2015-06-15
A nonlinear oscillator with an abruptly inhomogeneous restoring force driven by an uniform oscillating force exhibits stochastic properties under specific resonance conditions. This behaviour elucidates the elementary mechanism of the electron energization in the strong electromagnetic wave interaction with thin targets.
Interaction between turbulence and a nonlinear tearing mode in the low {beta} regime
Militello, F.; Waelbroeck, F. L.; Fitzpatrick, R.; Horton, W.
2008-05-15
The interaction between turbulence and a nonlinear tearing mode is investigated numerically using a 2D electrostatic model. Turbulence is found to cause transitions between the different roots for the propagation velocity of the mode. The transitions take the mode towards roots with slower propagation that are characterized by a locally flattened density profile. For sufficiently large islands the transition reduces the drive for the tearing mode.
Dynamic gain aperture modelocking in picosecond regime based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity.
Mondal, Shyamal; Mukherjee, Shouvik; Singh, Satya Pratap; Rand, Stephen C; Bhattacharya, Sayantan; Das, Amit C; Datta, Prasanta Kumar
2016-07-11
The operation of a cascaded second-order mode-locked Nd:YVO_{4} laser has been investigated considering it as a soft-aperture Kerr lens type and using complex beam parameters. A self consistent complex beam propagation method is used to incorporate the effect of cascaded Kerr nonlinearity on radially varying gain aperturing. The analysis deduces a stable pulsewidth of ~9.5 ps which agrees well with the experimental value of 10.3 ps. PMID:27410804
El Niño Regimes, Nonlinear Convective Feedbacks and the Predictability of Extreme Events
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, K.; Dewitte, B.; Reupo, J.; Wittenberg, A. T.; Karamperidou, C.; L'heureux, M. L.; Orihuela Pinto, L. B.
2015-12-01
We propose that extreme El Niño (EN) events, such as the ones in 1982-1983 and 1997-1998, are qualitatively different from the other EN due to nonlinear feedbacks in the eastern Pacific, specifically the triggering of deep convection and the associated amplification of Bjerknes feedback. Evidence for this is provided by observations contrasted with the longer series from the GFDL CM2.1 global climate model (GCM), which shows a bimodal distribution of EN peaks, with one of the modes corresponding to extreme EN. We also show results from a low-order stable model that is able to reproduce this bimodality solely with the indicated threshold nonlinearity and that shows substantial sensitivity of the statistics of the extreme EN to the threshold value and the stochastic forcing characteristics. The observational and GCM analysis indicates that positive equatorial heat content anomalies are a necessary but not sufficient condition for such events. On the other hand, the presence of strong westerly wind stress anomalies in the central equatorial Pacific in boreal summer, as seen in 1982 and 1997, appears to be both necessary and sufficient condition for triggering extreme El Niño. In 1982, external forcing of such westerly stress at that time was apparently key for kickstarting this extreme EN. Preliminary analysis of retrospective forecasts for the 1982- 2010 period from by the GCMs participating in the US National Multimodel Ensemble (NMME) project, which includes GFDL CM2.1, specifically looking at the onset of the observed extreme El Niño, indicates that the convective nonlinear feedbacks are strongly affected by the mean surface temperature drift in the GCMs and that nonlinear bias correction might be necessary for the operational prediction of extreme EN.
Nonlinear dynamics of double-pass cross-polarized wave generation in the saturation regime.
Iliev, Marin; Meier, Amanda K; Greco, Michael; Durfee, Charles G
2015-01-10
The conversion efficiency of cross-polarized wave (XPW) generation can be improved using two separate thinner nonlinear crystals versus a single thick one, due to the evolution of the beam sizes and individual phases after the first crystal. In this paper, we present an alternative scheme in which a curved mirror is used to reimage a plane just after the BaF2 crystal for a second pass. We also develop a simple analytic model for XPW conversion that describes the origin of a nonlinear phase mismatch and nonlinear lensing for both the fundamental wave and XPW. Coupled with the numerical solution for the process and the Fresnel propagation after the first pass, we also explore the factors that affect the efficiency of saturated, seeded XPW conversion. These include the development of the on-axis relative phase difference in the first crystal and after it (during free-space propagation), mode matching, wavefront curvature difference, and crystal tuning angle. We also experimentally demonstrate that the beam quality of the XPW signal after the second pass can be improved by the reimaging. PMID:25967620
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Debasish; Saintillan, David
2015-11-01
The deformation of leaky dielectric drops in a dielectric fluid medium when subject to a uniform electric field is a classic electrohydrodynamic phenomenon best described by the well-known Melcher-Taylor leaky dielectric model. In this work, we develop a three-dimensional boundary element method for the full leaky dielectric model to systematically study the deformation and dynamics of liquid drops in strong electric fields. We compare our results with existing numerical studies, most of which have been constrained to axisymmetric drops or have neglected interfacial charge convection by the flow. The leading effect of convection is to enhance deformation of prolate drops and suppress deformation of oblate drops, as previously observed in the axisymmetric case. The inclusion of charge convection also enables us to investigate the dynamics in the Quincke regime, in which experiments exhibit a symmetry-breaking bifurcation leading to a tank-treading regime. Our simulations confirm the existence of this bifurcation for highly viscous drops, and also reveal the development of sharp interfacial charge gradients driven by convection near the drop's equator. American Chemical Society, Petroleum Research Fund.
Linear and nonlinear electrodynamic responses of bulk CaC6 in the microwave regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreone, A.; Cifariello, G.; Di Gennaro, E.; Lamura, G.; Emery, N.; Hérold, C.; Marêché, J. F.; Lagrange, P.
2007-08-01
The linear and nonlinear responses to a microwave electromagnetic field of two c-axis oriented polycrystalline samples of the recently discovered superconductor CaC6 (TC≈11.5K ) is studied in the superconducting state down to 2K. The surface resistance RS and the third order intermodulation distortion, arising from a two-tone excitation, have been measured as a function of temperature and microwave circulating power. Experiments are carried out using a dielectrically loaded copper cavity operating at 7GHz in a "hot finger" configuration. The results confirm recent experimental findings that CaC6 behaves as a weakly coupled, fully gapped, superconductor.
Tunable all-optical quasimonochromatic thomson x-ray source in the nonlinear regime.
Khrennikov, K; Wenz, J; Buck, A; Xu, J; Heigoldt, M; Veisz, L; Karsch, S
2015-05-15
We present an all-laser-driven, energy-tunable, and quasimonochromatic x-ray source based on Thomson scattering from laser-wakefield-accelerated electrons. One part of the laser beam was used to drive a few-fs bunch of quasimonoenergetic electrons, while the remainder was backscattered off the bunch at weakly relativistic intensity. When the electron energy was tuned from 17-50 MeV, narrow x-ray spectra peaking at 5-42 keV were recorded with high resolution, revealing nonlinear features. We present a large set of measurements showing the stability and practicality of our source. PMID:26024176
Rizzi, Massimo; Weissberg, Itai; Milikovsky, Dan Z; Friedman, Alon
2016-01-01
The lack of a marker of epileptogenesis is an unmet medical need, not only from the clinical perspective but also from the point of view of the pre-clinical research. Indeed, the lack of this kind of marker affects the investigations on the mechanisms of epileptogenesis as well as the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed to prevent or to mitigate the severity of the incoming epilepsy in humans. In this work, we provide evidence that in an experimental model of epileptogenesis that mimics the alteration of the blood-brain barrier permeability, a key-mechanism that contributes to the development of epilepsy in humans and in animals, the prolonged occurrence in the electrocorticograms (ECoG) of high rates of a nonlinear dynamical regimes known as intermittency univocally characterizes the population of experimental animals which develop epilepsy, hence it can be considered as the first biophysical marker of epileptogenesis. PMID:27488140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lilley, M. K.; Breizman, B. N.; Sharapov, S. E.
2009-05-01
The nonlinear evolution of waves excited by the resonant interaction with energetic particles, just above the instability threshold, is shown to depend on the type of relaxation process that restores the unstable distribution function. When dynamical friction dominates over diffusion in the phase space region surrounding the wave-particle resonance, an explosive evolution of the wave is found to be the only solution. This is in contrast with the case of dominant diffusion when the wave may exhibit steady-state, amplitude modulation, chaotic and explosive regimes near marginal stability. The experimentally observed differences between Alfvénic instabilities driven by neutral beam injection and those driven by ion-cyclotron resonance heating are interpreted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamanaka, Yasushi; Ogawa, Tetsuya; Tsuzuki, Masakazu; Kuzuya, Toshihiro; Sumiyama, Kenji
2013-07-01
Third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities (χ(3)) have been investigated for chalcopyrite CuInS2 and AgInS2 nanocrystals within a strong confinement regime. The imaginary part of χ(3) (Imχ(3)) of 2.0- and 4.9-nm-sized CuInS2 nanocrystals and 2.6- and 4.3-nm-sized AgInS2 nanocrystals are negative and exhibit resonant enhancement around the absorption between the highest quantized levels of valence band and the lowest conduction band due to the state-filling effect. Figure of merit of |Imχ(3)| ranges 10-20-10-19 m3/V2, which is comparable to those of CdSSe nanocrystals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bultink, Cornelis Christiaan; Rol, M. A.; Fu, X.; Dikken, B. C. S.; de Sterke, J. C.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Bruno, A.; Bertels, K. L. M.; Dicarlo, L.
Reliable quantum parity measurements are essential for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In quantum processors based on circuit QED, the fidelity and speed of multi-round quantum parity checks using an ancillary qubit can be compromised by photons remaining in the readout resonator post measurement, leading to ancilla dephasing and gate errors. The challenge of quickly depleting photons is biggest when maximizing the single-shot readout fidelity involves strong pulses turning the resonators non-linear. We experimentally demonstrate the numerical optimization of counter pulses for fast photon depletion in this non-analytic regime. We compare two methods, one using digital feedback and another running open loop. We assess both methods by minimizing the average number of rounds to ancilla measurement error. We acknowledge funding from the EU FP7 project SCALEQIT, FOM, and an ERC Synergy Grant.
Rizzi, Massimo; Weissberg, Itai; Milikovsky, Dan Z.; Friedman, Alon
2016-01-01
The lack of a marker of epileptogenesis is an unmet medical need, not only from the clinical perspective but also from the point of view of the pre-clinical research. Indeed, the lack of this kind of marker affects the investigations on the mechanisms of epileptogenesis as well as the development of novel therapeutic approaches aimed to prevent or to mitigate the severity of the incoming epilepsy in humans. In this work, we provide evidence that in an experimental model of epileptogenesis that mimics the alteration of the blood-brain barrier permeability, a key-mechanism that contributes to the development of epilepsy in humans and in animals, the prolonged occurrence in the electrocorticograms (ECoG) of high rates of a nonlinear dynamical regimes known as intermittency univocally characterizes the population of experimental animals which develop epilepsy, hence it can be considered as the first biophysical marker of epileptogenesis. PMID:27488140
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, Shaun; Varotsos, Costas
2016-02-01
At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergoes a drastic transition, the high-frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower-frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its scale range, we use last millennium simulations, with both the simplified Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar-only, volcanic-only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of timescales from 1 to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are (a) that the variability in the ZC and GCM models is too weak at centennial and longer scales; (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response; and (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter timescales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Matteo; Scarpa, Fabrizio
2013-08-01
This work describes the vibration transmissibility behaviour in conventional and auxetic (negative Poisson’s ratio) foams under low and high amplitude vibrations. Auxetic foam pads were manufactured from conventional open cell PU-PE based blocks using an alternative manufacturing process to the one currently used in the mainstream literature. The dynamic behaviour of both conventional and auxetic porous materials was assessed within the frequency bandwidth 5-500 Hz using a base excitation technique with a calibrated seismic mass. The foam pads were subjected to white noise broadband excitation at low dynamic strain, followed by a sine sweep around the resonance of the foam-mass system. The experimental data have been used to perform an inverse identification of the nonlinear dependence of the foam permeability versus the amplitude and frequency of excitation using a single-degree-of-freedom poroelastic vibration model. The auxetic foam shows higher dynamic stiffness and enhanced viscous dissipation characteristics, in particular when subjected to nonlinear vibration loading.
Optimisation of micro-perforated cylindrical silencers in linear and nonlinear regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo, Teresa; Maury, Cédric; Pinhède, Cédric
2016-02-01
This paper describes analytical and experimental studies conducted to understand the potential of lightweight non-fibrous alternatives to dissipative mufflers for in-duct noise control problems, especially under high sound pressure levels (SPLs) and in the low frequency domain. The cost-efficient multi-modal propagation method has been extended to predict nonlinear effects in the dissipation and the transmission loss (TL) of micro-perforated cylindrical liners with sub-millimetric holes diameter. A validation experiment was performed in a standing wave tube to measure the power dissipated and transmitted by a nonlocally reacting liner under moderate and high SPLs. Although nonlinear effects significantly reduce the dissipation and TL around the liner maximum damping frequency, these power quantities may be enhanced below the half-bandwidth resonance. An optimal value of the in-hole peak particle velocity has been found that maximizes the TL of locally reacting liners at low frequencies. Optimisation studies based on dissipation or TL maximization showed the sensitivity of the liner constituting parameters to variations in the design target range such as the center frequency, the levels of acoustic excitation and the nature of the surface impedance (locally or nonlocally reacting). An analysis is proposed of the deviation observed at low frequencies between the optimum impedance of the locally reacting liner under moderate SPLs and Cremer's optimum impedances.
Attosecond Gamma-Ray Pulses via Nonlinear Compton Scattering in the Radiation-Dominated Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jian-Xing; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Galow, Benjamin J.; Keitel, Christoph H.
2015-11-01
The feasibility of the generation of bright ultrashort gamma-ray pulses is demonstrated in the interaction of a relativistic electron bunch with a counterpropagating tightly focused superstrong laser beam in the radiation-dominated regime. The Compton scattering spectra of gamma radiation are investigated using a semiclassical description for the electron dynamics in the laser field and a quantum electrodynamical description for the photon emission. We demonstrate the feasibility of ultrashort gamma-ray bursts of hundreds of attoseconds and of dozens of megaelectronvolt photon energies in the near-backwards direction of the initial electron motion. The tightly focused laser field structure and the radiation reaction are shown to be responsible for such short gamma-ray bursts, which are independent of the durations of the electron bunch and of the laser pulse. The results are measurable with the laser technology available in the near future.
Bubble shape and electromagnetic field in the nonlinear regime for laser wakefield acceleration
Li, X. F.; Yu, Q.; Huang, S.; Kong, Q.; Gu, Y. J.; Kawata, S.
2015-08-15
The electromagnetic field in the electron “bubble” regime for ultra-intense laser wakefield acceleration was solved using the d'Alembert equations. Ignoring the residual electrons, we assume an ellipsoidal bubble forms under ideal conditions, with bubble velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum. The general solution for bubble shape and electromagnetic field were obtained. The results were confirmed in 2.5D PIC (particle-in-cell) simulations. Moreover, slopes for the longitudinal electric field of larger than 0.5 were found in these simulations. With spherical bubbles, this slope is always smaller than or equal to 0.5. This behavior validates the ellipsoid assumption.
Study regarding the non-sinusoidal regime imposed by nonlinear loads
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rob, R.; Panoiu, C.; Panoiu, M.
2016-02-01
Present paper represents a study concerning the variation of the phase voltages and phase currents acquired from the point of common coupling (PCC) during the functioning of an electro thermal installation with electromagnetic induction. The variation of the electrical parameters is followed on 0.02 seconds and also on 10 seconds using three methods. First method consists in modeling and simulation the electric scheme of the electro thermal installation. The second method uses a power quality analyzer and the third method is using a data acquisition system that contains an adapting interface and a data acquisition board connected to a computer. The variation of the phase voltages and phase currents and also their total harmonic distortions are presented. The electro thermal installation that is studied in this paper is a laboratory device. The technique implies reduce costs and the presented results are very useful in studying the distorting regime generated into the power network by the current harmonic sources.
Tsysar, S. A. Nikolaeva, A. V.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V.; Svet, V. D.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.
2015-10-28
In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsysar, S. A.; Nikolaeva, A. V.; Svet, V. D.; Khokhlova, V. A.; Yuldashev, P. V.; Sapozhnikov, O. A.
2015-10-01
In the paper the use of receiving and radiating system, which allows to determine the parameters of bone by nonlinear pulse-echo technique and to image of brain structures through the skull bones, was proposed. Accuracy of the skull bone characterization is due to higher measured harmonic and is significantly better than in linear case. In the experimental part focused piezoelectric transducer with diameter 100 mm, focal distance 100 mm, the frequency of 1.092 MHz was used. It was shown that skull bone profiling can be performed with the use of 3rd harmonic since 1st harmonic can be used for visualization of the underlying objects. The use of wideband systems for both skull profiling and brain visualization is restricted by skull attenuation and resulting low effective sensitivity.
On a PLIF quantification methodology in a nonlinear dye response regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baj, P.; Bruce, P. J. K.; Buxton, O. R. H.
2016-06-01
A new technique of planar laser-induced fluorescence calibration is presented in this work. It accounts for a nonlinear dye response at high concentrations, an illumination light attenuation and a secondary fluorescence's influence in particular. An analytical approximation of a generic solution of the Beer-Lambert law is provided and utilized for effective concentration evaluation. These features make the technique particularly well suited for high concentration measurements, or those with a large range of concentration values, c, present (i.e. a high dynamic range of c). The method is applied to data gathered in a water flume experiment where a stream of a fluorescent dye (rhodamine 6G) was released into a grid-generated turbulent flow. Based on these results, it is shown that the illumination attenuation and the secondary fluorescence introduce a significant error into the data quantification (up to 15 and 80 %, respectively, for the case considered in this work) unless properly accounted for.
Numerical investigation of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble regime
Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W. P.; Rossi, F.
2013-10-15
The process of electron self-injection in the nonlinear bubble wake generated by a short and intense laser pulse propagating in a uniform underdense plasma is studied by means of fully self-consistent particle-in-cell simulations and test-particle simulations. We consider a wake generated by a non-evolving laser driver traveling with a prescribed velocity, which then sets the structure and the velocity of the wake, so the injection dynamics is decoupled from driver evolution, but a realistic structure for the wakefield is retained. We show that a threshold for self-injection into a non-evolving bubble wake exists, and we characterize the dependence of the self-injection threshold on laser intensity, wake velocity, and plasma temperature for a range of parameters of interest for current and future laser-plasma accelerators.
HIGH-PRECISION PREDICTIONS FOR THE ACOUSTIC SCALE IN THE NONLINEAR REGIME
Seo, Hee-Jong; Eckel, Jonathan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Mehta, Kushal; Metchnik, Marc; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Pinto, Phillip; Takahashi, Ryuichi; White, Martin; Xu, Xiaoying
2010-09-10
We measure shifts of the acoustic scale due to nonlinear growth and redshift distortions to a high precision using a very large volume of high-force-resolution simulations. We compare results from various sets of simulations that differ in their force, volume, and mass resolution. We find a consistency within 1.5-sigma for shift values from different simulations and derive shift alpha(z) -1 = (0.300\\pm 0.015)% [D(z)/D(0)]^{2} using our fiducial set. We find a strong correlation with a non-unity slope between shifts in real space and in redshift space and a weak correlation between the initial redshift and low redshift. Density-field reconstruction not only removes the mean shifts and reduces errors on the mean, but also tightens the correlations: after reconstruction, we recover a slope of near unity for the correlation between the real and redshift space and restore a strong correlation between the low and the initial redshifts. We derive propagators and mode-coupling terms from our N-body simulations and compared with Zeldovich approximation and the shifts measured from the chi^2 fitting, respectively. We interpret the propagator and the mode-coupling term of a nonlinear density field in the context of an average and a dispersion of its complex Fourier coefficients relative to those of the linear density field; from these two terms, we derive a signal-to-noise ratio of the acoustic peak measurement. We attempt to improve our reconstruction method by implementing 2LPT and iterative operations: we obtain little improvement. The Fisher matrix estimates of uncertainty in the acoustic scale is tested using 5000 (Gpc/h)^3 of cosmological PM simulations from Takahashi et al. (2009). (abridged)
Liu, W. H.; He, X. T.; Yu, C. P.
2012-07-15
When an incident shock collides with a corrugated interface separating two fluids of different densities, the interface is prone to Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI). Based on the formal perturbation expansion method as well as the potential flow theory, we present a simple method to investigate the cylindrical effects in weakly nonlinear RMI with the transmitted and reflected cylindrical shocks by considering the nonlinear corrections up to fourth order. The cylindrical results associated with the material interface show that the interface expression consists of two parts: the result in the planar system and that from the cylindrical effects. In the limit of the cylindrical radius tending to infinity, the cylindrical results can be reduced to those in the planar system. Our explicit results show that the cylindrical effects exert an inward velocity on the whole perturbed interface, regardless of bubbles or spikes of the interface. On the one hand, outgoing bubbles are constrained and ingoing spikes are accelerated for different Atwood numbers (A) and mode numbers k'. On the other hand, for ingoing bubbles, when |A|k'{sup 3/2} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, bubbles are considerably accelerated especially at the small |A| and k'; otherwise, bubbles are decelerated. For outgoing spikes, when |A|k' Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1, spikes are dramatically accelerated especially at large |A| and k'; otherwise, spikes are decelerated. Furthermore, the cylindrical effects have a significant influence on the amplitudes of the ingoing spike and bubble for large k'. Thus, it should be included in applications where the cylindrical effects play a role, such as inertial confinement fusion ignition target design.
Leclercq, Florent; Jasche, Jens; Wandelt, Benjamin; Gil-Marín, Héctor E-mail: jasche@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr
2013-11-01
On the smallest scales, three-dimensional large-scale structure surveys contain a wealth of cosmological information which cannot be trivially extracted due to the non-linear dynamical evolution of the density field. Lagrangian perturbation theory (LPT) is widely applied to the generation of mock halo catalogs and data analysis. In this work, we compare topological features of the cosmic web such as voids, sheets, filaments and clusters, in the density fields predicted by LPT and full numerical simulation of gravitational large-scale structure formation. We propose a method designed to improve the correspondence between these density fields, in the mildly non-linear regime. We develop a computationally fast and flexible tool for a variety of cosmological applications. Our method is based on a remapping of the approximately-evolved density field, using information extracted from N-body simulations. The remapping procedure consists of replacing the one-point distribution of the density contrast by one which better accounts for the full gravitational dynamics. As a result, we obtain a physically more pertinent density field on a point-by-point basis, while also improving higher-order statistics predicted by LPT. We quantify the approximation error in the power spectrum and in the bispectrum as a function of scale and redshift. Our remapping procedure improves one-, two- and three-point statistics at scales down to 8 Mpc/h.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, S.; Maiti, R.; Saha, S.; Das, A. C.; Mondal, S.; Ray, S. K.; Bhaktha, S. B. N.; Datta, P. K.
2016-04-01
Graphene Oxide (GO) has been prepared by modified Hummers method and it has been reduced using an IR bulb (800-2000 nm). Both as grown GO and reduced graphene oxide (RGO) have been characterized using Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Raman spectra shows well documented Dband and G-band for both the samples while blue shift of G-band confirms chemical functionalization of graphene with different oxygen functional group. The XPS result shows that the as-prepared GO contains 52% of sp2 hybridized carbon due to the C=C bonds and 33% of carbon atoms due to the C-O bonds. As for RGO, increment of the atomic % of the sp2 hybridized carbon atom to 83% and rapid decrease in atomic % of C=O bonds confirm an efficient reduction with infrared radiation. UV-Visible absorption spectrum also confirms increment of conjugation with increased reduction. Non-linear optical properties of both GO and RGO are measured using single beam open aperture Z-Scan technique in femtosecond regime. Intensity dependent nonlinear phenomena are observed. Depending upon the intensity, both saturable absorption and two photon absorption contribute to the non-linearity of both the samples. Saturation dominates at low intensity (~ 127 GW/cm2) while two photon absorption become prominent at higher intensities (from 217 GW/cm2 to 302 GW/cm2). We have calculated the two-photon absorption co-efficient and saturation intensity for both the samples. The value of two photon absorption co-efficient (for GO~ 0.0022-0.0037 cm/GW and for RGO~ 0.0128-0.0143 cm/GW) and the saturation intensity (for GO~57 GW/cm2 and for RGO~ 194GW/cm2) is increased with reduction. Increase in two photon absorption coefficient with increasing intensity can also suggest that there may be multi-photon absorption is taking place.
System and Method for Determining Gas Optical Density Changes in a Non-Linear Measurement Regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)
2007-01-01
Each of two sensors, positioned to simultaneously detect electromagnetic radiation absorption along a path, is calibrated to define a unique response curve associated therewith that relates a change in voltage output for each sensor to a change in optical density. A ratio-of-responses curve is defined by a ratio of the response curve associated with the first sensor to the response curve associated with the second sensor. A ratio of sensor output changes is generated using outputs from the sensors. An operating point on the ratio-of-responses curve is established using the ratio of sensor output changes. The established operating point is indicative of an optical density. When the operating point is in the non-linear response region of at least one of the sensors, the operating point and optical density corresponding thereto can be used to establish an actual response of at least one of the sensors whereby the actual sensor output can be used in determining changes in the optical density.
Collective resonances of atomic xenon from the linear to the nonlinear regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Jen; Pabst, Stefan; Santra, Robin
2016-05-01
We explain the origin of the two collective sub-resonances of the 4 d giant dipole resonance of atomic Xe recently discovered by nonlinear spectroscopy. In the case of one-photon absorption, while a change in the resonant-like feature in the cross section upon the inclusion of electronic correlations has been commonly attributed to a change of the resonance parameters of a single resonance state, we show that this modification is a result of switching between the relative visibilities of the underlying resonance states. In addition, we predict hitherto undiscovered collective 4 d resonance states in Xe that can only be accessed through multiphoton absorption. Unlike any known collective feature in atoms, these resonances are exceptionally long-lived (more than 100 attoseconds), thus opening up possibilities to probe new collective effects in atoms with modern XUV light sources. S.P. is funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Foun- dation and by the NSF through a Grant to ITAMP.
Atomic Sensors using Nonlinear Magneto-Optical Rotation in the Strongly Saturated Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia; Fatemi, Fredrik
2016-05-01
We report on two separate atomic sensor experiments that rely on narrow spectral features associated with nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR). The first experiment uses a cold cloud of rubidium to investigate a ``twist'' feature nested within the standard dispersive-shaped NMOR curve. Though similar features have been observed previously in warm vapor, in this case the mechanism responsible is different. Here it is due to the combination of Zeeman and AC Stark shifts leading to complex evolutions of the atomic angular momentum, namely alignment-to-orientation conversion (AOC). This twist can be used as a rapid measure of transverse magnetic fields since its width scales linearly with the magnitude of the magnetic field directed along the optical polarization. We demonstrate applications of this feature both as a measure of background DC magnetic fields and also magnetic field gradients imaged with a CCD camera. Separately, in the second experiment we have begun investigations of NMOR in Rydberg levels for the purpose of measuring microwave electric field amplitudes. This has the potential to significantly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio over previous absorption-based techniques.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.
2012-12-01
Gabbro- and peridotite-hosted blueschist facies pseudotachylytes (PST) from Cima di Gratera, Corsica previously determined to have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions (1.8 - 2.6 GPa, 1400 C), have been causally linked to the generation of intermediate-depth earthquakes. Detailed petrographic and microtextural analyses of these PST indicate that their initiation is controlled by a thermally activated shear runaway process that is controlled by rheology rather than mineralogy (as with dehydration embrittlement or transformational faulting), such that the rock behaves as a viscoelastic material. This is evidenced by sheared out, prolate, kinked and twinned wallrock clasts that have been peeled off and entrained into the PST vein as sigmoid clasts. The presence of micro-ultramylonites at the boundary between the wallrock and vein proper are also indicative of a dominant ductile control. The presence of metastable high temperature crystallisation products from the PST such as hoppers and dendrites of olivine (Mg# 84), enstatite and diopside (peridotite); and Al-rich omphacite and Fe-rich anorthite (gabbro) support the hypothesis of a short-lived high temperature event resulting from thermal runaway. Overprinting of these high temperature mineral assemblages by ones indicating lower temperatures, but still high pressures, such as glaucophane, albite and epidote (gabbro) and clinochore, fine-grained granoblastic olivine, enstatite and diopside (peridotite) are further support of this. The detailed study of two different lithologies that were exposed to similarly high P-T conditions that produced PST are used to corroborate the runaway process proposed in this article. This work provides the first detailed observations from natural samples that intermediate-depth seismicity may be generated by a thermal runaway process. Detailed EPMA analyses and BSE imaging of the PST vein matrix ( comprising glass, the crystallisation products and entrained wallrock
Higher Harmonics In Vacuum From Nonlinear QED Effects without Low-Mass Intermediate Particles
Tito Mendonca, J.; Dias de Deus, J.; Castelo Ferreira, P.
2006-09-08
We show that in the presence of a slowly rotating strong transverse magnetic field there is an infinite spectrum of harmonic wave functions A{sub n} due to the first order QED correction (in {alpha}{sup 2}) given by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian. The frequency shifts are integer multiples {+-}{omega}{sub 0}n of the magnetic field angular frequency rotation {omega}{sub 0}=2{pi}{nu}{sub m}, and the several modes n are coupled to the nearest harmonics n{+-}1. This is a new effect due to QED vacuum fluctuations, not exploited before, that can explain, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the recent experimental results of the PVLAS collaboration without the need of a low-mass intermediate particle, hence may dismiss the recent claim of the discovery of the axion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, W.; Tzoufras, M.; Joshi, C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.; Vieira, J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2007-06-01
The extraordinary ability of space-charge waves in plasmas to accelerate charged particles at gradients that are orders of magnitude greater than in current accelerators has been well documented. We develop a phenomenological framework for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) in the 3D nonlinear regime, in which the plasma electrons are expelled by the radiation pressure of a short pulse laser, leading to nearly complete blowout. Our theory provides a recipe for designing a LWFA for given laser and plasma parameters and estimates the number and the energy of the accelerated electrons whether self-injected or externally injected. These formulas apply for self-guided as well as externally guided pulses (e.g. by plasma channels). We demonstrate our results by presenting a sample particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation of a 30fs, 200 TW laser interacting with a 0.75 cm long plasma with density 1.5×1018cm-3 to produce an ultrashort (10 fs) monoenergetic bunch of self-injected electrons at 1.5 GeV with 0.3 nC of charge. For future higher-energy accelerator applications, we propose a parameter space, which is distinct from that described by Gordienko and Pukhov [Phys. Plasmas 12, 043109 (2005)PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.1884126] in that it involves lower plasma densities and wider spot sizes while keeping the intensity relatively constant. We find that this helps increase the output electron beam energy while keeping the efficiency high.
Outeda, R.; D'Onofrio, A.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.
2014-03-15
Density driven instabilities produced by CO{sub 2} (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO{sub 2} pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm{sup −1}) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator.
Volkova, E. A.; Popov, A. M. Tikhonova, O. V.
2013-03-15
The nonlinear polarization response of a quantum system modeling a silver atom in the field of high-intensity radiation in the IR and UV spectral ranges has been studied by direct numerical integration of a nonstationary Schroedinger equation. The domains of applicability of perturbation theory and polarization expansion in powers of the field intensity are determined. The contribution of excited atoms and electrons in a continuum to the atomic polarization response at the field frequency, which arises due to the radiation-induced excitation and photoionization processes, is analyzed. Features of the nonlinear response to an external field under conditions of atom stabilization are considered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Varotsos, C. A.
2015-09-01
At scales much longer than the deterministic predictability limits (about 10 days), the statistics of the atmosphere undergo a drastic transition, the high frequency weather acts as a random forcing on the lower frequency macroweather. In addition, up to decadal and centennial scales the equivalent radiative forcings of solar, volcanic and anthropogenic perturbations are small compared to the mean incoming solar flux. This justifies the common practice of reducing forcings to radiative equivalents (which are assumed to combine linearly), as well as the development of linear stochastic models, including for forecasting at monthly to decadal scales. In order to clarify the validity of the linearity assumption and determine its range of validity, we use last Millennium simulations, both with the simplified Zebiac-Cane (ZC) model and the NASA GISS E2-R fully coupled GCM. We systematically compare the statistical properties of solar only, volcanic only and combined solar and volcanic forcings over the range of time scales from one to 1000 years. We also compare the statistics to multiproxy temperature reconstructions. The main findings are: (a) that the variability of the ZC and GCM models are too weak at centennial and longer scales, (b) for longer than ≈ 50 years, the solar and volcanic forcings combine subadditively (nonlinearly) compounding the weakness of the response, (c) the models display another nonlinear effect at shorter scales: their sensitivities are much higher for weak forcing than for strong forcing (their intermittencies are different) and we quantify this with statistical scaling exponents.
Rozmus, W.; Casanova, M.; Pesme, D.; Heron, A.; Adam, J. )
1992-03-01
The effect of ion sound wave (ISW) nonlinearities on the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in long plasmas is investigated within the framework of the Korteweg--de Vries--Maxwell equations. The nonlinear evolution of the driven ISW results in the localization of the ion density on a scale shorter than the wavelength ({lambda}{sub {ital s}}) of the resonant ISW satisfying SBS three-wave matching conditions. Since the transverse wave amplitudes vary on a much longer scale, a local--global modeling of SBS is proposed in which this scale separation is exploited. The local part of the procedure includes a solution to the damped KdV equation with periodic boundary conditions and driven by a constant amplitude ponderomotive force. In the global part of the analysis approximate solutions for the transverse waves in long plasmas are constructed using the results from the local part. Particle-in-cell simulations have been performed in order to investigate the importance of kinetic effects for the local model. Numerical results obtained from the solutions to the KdV--Maxwell equations are well approximated by the local--global modeling. They are also compared with the results of a harmonic decomposition approximation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verde, E. L.; Landi, G. T.; Carrião, M. S.; Drummond, A. L.; Gomes, J. A.; Vieira, E. D.; Sousa, M. H.; Bakuzis, A. F.
2012-09-01
Further advances in magnetic hyperthermia might be limited by biological constraints, such as using sufficiently low frequencies and low field amplitudes to inhibit harmful eddy currents inside the patient's body. These incite the need to optimize the heating efficiency of the nanoparticles, referred to as the specific absorption rate (SAR). Among the several properties currently under research, one of particular importance is the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime that takes place as the field amplitude is increased, an aspect where the magnetic anisotropy is expected to play a fundamental role. In this paper we investigate the heating properties of cobalt ferrite and maghemite nanoparticles under the influence of a 500 kHz sinusoidal magnetic field with varying amplitude, up to 134 Oe. The particles were characterized by TEM, XRD, FMR and VSM, from which most relevant morphological, structural and magnetic properties were inferred. Both materials have similar size distributions and saturation magnetization, but strikingly different magnetic anisotropies. From magnetic hyperthermia experiments we found that, while at low fields maghemite is the best nanomaterial for hyperthermia applications, above a critical field, close to the transition from the linear to the non-linear regime, cobalt ferrite becomes more efficient. The results were also analyzed with respect to the energy conversion efficiency and compared with dynamic hysteresis simulations. Additional analysis with nickel, zinc and copper-ferrite nanoparticles of similar sizes confirmed the importance of the magnetic anisotropy and the damping factor. Further, the analysis of the characterization parameters suggested core-shell nanostructures, probably due to a surface passivation process during the nanoparticle synthesis. Finally, we discussed the effect of particle-particle interactions and its consequences, in particular regarding discrepancies between estimated parameters and expected
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varenyk, O. V.; Silibin, M. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V.; Morozovska, A. N.
2015-08-01
The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.
Varenyk, O. V.; Morozovska, A. N. E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com; Silibin, M. V.; Kiselev, D. A.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kalinin, S. V. E-mail: anna.n.morozovska@gmail.com
2015-08-21
The frequency dependent Electrochemical Strain Microscopy (ESM) response of mixed ionic-electronic conductors is analyzed within the framework of Fermi-Dirac statistics and the Vegard law, accounting for steric effects from mobile donors. The emergence of dynamic charge waves and nonlinear deformation of the surface in response to bias applied to the tip-surface junction is numerically explored. The 2D maps of the strain and concentration distributions across the mixed ionic-electronic conductor and bias-induced surface displacements are calculated. The obtained numerical results can be applied to quantify the ESM response of Li-based solid electrolytes, materials with resistive switching, and electroactive ferroelectric polymers, which are of potential interest for flexible and high-density non-volatile memory devices.
Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko
2015-09-14
For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility. PMID:26374047
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tavassoly, M. K.; Yadollahi, F.
The present study investigates the interaction of an equidistant three-level atom and a single-mode cavity field that has been initially prepared in a generalized coherent state. The atom-field interaction is considered to be, in general, intensity-dependent. We suppose that the nonlinearity of the initial generalized coherent state of the field and the intensity-dependent coupling between atom and field are distinctly chosen. Interestingly, an exact analytical solution for the time evolution of the state of atom-field system can be found in this general regime in terms of the nonlinearity functions. Finally, the presented formalism has been applied to a few known physical systems such as Gilmore-Perelomov and Barut-Girardello coherent states of SU(1,1) group, as well as a few special cases of interest. Mean photon number and atomic population inversion will be calculated, in addition to investigating particular non-classicality features such as revivals, sub-Poissonian statistics and quadratures squeezing of the obtained states of the entire system. Also, our results will be compared with some of the earlier works in this particular subject.
Nonlinear inflaton fragmentation after preheating
Felder, Gary N.; Kofman, Lev
2007-02-15
We consider the nonlinear dynamics of inflaton fragmentation during and after preheating in the simplest model of chaotic inflation. While the earlier regime of parametric resonant particle production and the later turbulent regime of interacting fields evolving towards equilibrium are well identified and understood, the short intermediate stage of violent nonlinear dynamics remains less explored. Lattice simulations of fully nonlinear preheating dynamics show specific features of this intermediate stage: occupation numbers of the scalar particles are peaked, scalar fields become significantly nongaussian and the field dynamics become chaotic and irreversible. Visualization of the field dynamics in position space reveals that nonlinear interactions generate nongaussian inflaton inhomogeneities with very fast growing amplitudes. The peaks of the inflaton inhomogeneities coincide with the peaks of the scalar field(s) produced by parametric resonance. When the inflaton peaks reach their maxima, they stop growing and begin to expand. The subsequent dynamics is determined by expansion and superposition of the scalar waves originating from the peaks. Multiple wave superposition results in phase mixing and turbulent wave dynamics. Thus, the short intermediate stage is defined by the formation, expansion and collision of bubblelike field inhomogeneities associated with the peaks of the original gaussian field. This process is qualitatively similar to the bubblelike inflaton fragmentation that occurs during tachyonic preheating after hybrid or new inflation.
On the importance of physical optics effects for lower hybrid waves in linear and non-linear regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wright, John; Bonoli, Paul; Schmidt, Andrea; RF-SciDAC Team
2011-10-01
Lower hybrid waves in fusion plasmas have perpendicular wavelengths of ~ 1mm. Historically, the propogation and power deposition of these waves has been modeled by coupled geometric optics (ray tracing) and Fokker-Planck codes. Recently [Wright, J. et al. Phys. Plasmas 16 072502 (2009)] the ability to use physical optics (full wave) in this regime became available. A comparison of the two methods at low and high power demonstrates when reflections, diffraction and interference affect the rf depostion profile in the plasma. At lower input power for which quasilinear effects are not important, ray tracing and full wave results are in close agreement for both low and high phase velocity waves. At higher power when the distribution function is evolved by quasilinear diffusion, significant differences in the power deposition profiles appear when the launched wave phase velocity is high (low n∥.) These differences can be explained by intereference effects in the quasilinear diffusion operator which is a quadratic function of the wave electric field. Work supported by DoE Contract Nos. DE-FC02-01ER54648.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boers, Niklas; Marwan, Norbert; Barbosa, Henrique; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-04-01
A key driver of South American climate are the low-level trade winds from the tropical Atlantic Ocean towards the continent. After crossing the Amazon Basin, they are blocked by the Andes mountain range, and forced southward to the subtropics. These winds are crucial for the atmospheric moisture supply in most parts of South America. In particular, the hydrology of the two largest river basins of the Continent, namely the Amazon and the La Plata Basins, strongly depend on the moisture inflow provided by the trade winds. In turn, the Amazon rainforest can be assumed to have a strong influence on this low-level moisture circulation over South America by exchanging moisture with the atmosphere through precipitation and evapotranspiration. A pronounced positive feedback in this context is established through precipitation-induced release of latent heat over the Amazon Basin, which significantly enhances the moisture inflow from the tropical Atlantic Ocean toward the continent and can thus be considered to be crucial for the existence of today's South American climate. Ongoing deforestation and resulting reduction in evapotranspiration rates in particular in the eastern Amazon carry the risk of a strongly nonlinear response in these interactions with the low-level atmosphere. We propose a simple differential transport model describing the cascading moisture transport from the eastern coast of South America across the Amazon Basin to the Andes, taking into account the nonlinearity associated with the release of latent heat. The results of the model suggest that the system is indeed very sensitive to relatively small reductions of the evapotranspiration rates in the eastern Amazon Basin. These reductions increase river runoff, but limit the moisture availability farther west. This leads to a reduction in precipitation rates and thereby diminishes the release of latent heat which, in turn, reduces the overall moisture inflow. We show that, according to our model, there
Regional boreal biodiversity peaks at intermediate human disturbance.
Mayor, S J; Cahill, J F; He, F; Sólymos, P; Boutin, S
2012-01-01
The worldwide biodiversity crisis has intensified the need to better understand how biodiversity and human disturbance are related. The 'intermediate disturbance hypothesis' suggests that disturbance regimes generate predictable non-linear patterns in species richness. Evidence often contradicts intermediate disturbance hypothesis at small scales, and is generally lacking at large regional scales. Here, we present the largest extent study of human impacts on boreal plant biodiversity to date. Disturbance extent ranged from 0 to 100% disturbed in vascular plant communities, varying from intact forest to agricultural fields, forestry cut blocks and oil sands. We show for the first time that across a broad region species richness peaked in communities with intermediate anthropogenic disturbance, as predicted by intermediate disturbance hypothesis, even when accounting for many environmental covariates. Intermediate disturbance hypothesis was consistently supported across trees, shrubs, forbs and grasses, with temporary and perpetual disturbances. However, only native species fit this pattern; exotic species richness increased linearly with disturbance. PMID:23072810
Xu, Suyun; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Wong, Jonathan W C
2014-09-01
This study investigated the effects of different water regimes in an acidogenic leach bed reactor (LBR) during 16-day batch mode food waste digestion. LBRs were operated under five water replacement ratios (WRRs) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 5% in LBRs R1, R2, R3, R4 and R5, respectively) and methanogenic effluent (ME) addition with two leachate recirculation frequencies (once in 24 h and 12 h in LBRs R6 and R7, respectively). Results showed that 50-100% WRRs accelerated the hydrolysis and acidogenesis with butyrate as the dominant product (∼35% of COD); whereas 5-25% WRRs promoted propionate production. The ME recirculation enhanced protein decomposition and reduced ethanol production. Lactobacillus dominated in LBRs with water addition (R1-R5), while Clostridium and hetero-fermenting lactic acid bacteria dominated in LBR with ME addition (R7). The highest volatile solid degradation (82.9%) and methane yield (0.29 L-CH4/g VS) were obtained with ME addition at 0.7 d hydraulic retention time. PMID:24923660
Study of optical nonlinearity of CdSe and CdSe@ZnO core-shell quantum dots in nanosecond regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deepika; Dhar, Rakesh; Mohan, Devendra
2015-12-01
Thioglycolic acid capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) and CdSe@ZnO core-shell quantum dots have been synthesized in aqueous phase. The sample was characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer, TEM and Z-scan technique. The nonlinear optical parameters viz. nonlinear absorption coefficient (β), nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities (χ3) of quantum dots have been estimated using second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. The study predicts that CdSe@ZnO quantum dots exhibits strong nonlinearity as compared to core CdSe quantum dots. The nonlinearity in quantum dots is attributed to the presence of resonant excitation and free optical processes. The presence of RSA in these nanoparticles makes them a potential material for the development of optical limiter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagaraja, K. K.; Pramodini, S.; Poornesh, P.; Rao, Ashok; Nagaraja, H. S.
2016-08-01
We present the studies on the influence of annealing on the third-order nonlinear optical properties of RF magnetron sputtered manganese doped zinc oxide (MZO) thin films with different doping concentration. It is revealed that the incorporation of Mn into ZnO and annealing lead to prominent changes in the third order nonlinearity. Nonlinear optical measurements were carried out by employing the z-scan technique using a continuous wave (CW) Hesbnd Ne laser of 633 nm. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit self-defocusing thermal nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3) was found to be of the order of 10-3 esu and 10-2 esu for annealed MZO thin films at 200 °C and 400 °C respectively. The dependence of grain size on the observed nonlinearity was revealed by atomic force microscopy analysis. Optical limiting studies were carried out for a range of input power levels and an optical limiting of about ∼8 mW was observed indicating the possible application for photonic devices.
Hammer, Nathan I; Roscioli, Joseph R; Bopp, Joseph C; Headrick, Jeffrey M; Johnson, Mark A
2005-12-22
We report vibrational predissociation spectra of the (H2O)n- cluster ions in the OH stretching region to determine whether the spectral signature of the electron-binding motif identified in the smaller clusters [Hammer et al. Science 306, 675 (2004)] continues to be important in the intermediate size regime (n = 7-21). This signature consists of a redshifted doublet that dominates the OH stretching region, and has been traced primarily to the excitation of a single water molecule residing in a double H-bond acceptor (AA) binding site, oriented with both of its H atoms pointing toward the excess electron cloud. Strong absorption near the characteristic AA doublet is found to persist in the spectra of the larger clusters, but the pattern evolves into a broadened triplet around n = 11. A single free OH feature associated with dangling hydrogen atoms on the cluster surface is observed to emerge for n > or = 15, in sharp contrast to the multiplet pattern of unbonded OH stretches displayed by the H+(H2O)n clusters throughout the n = 2-29 range. We also explore the vibration-electronic coupling associated with normal-mode displacements of the AA molecule that most strongly interact with the excess electron. Specifically, electronic structure calculations on the hexamer anion indicate that displacement along the -OH2 symmetric stretching mode dramatically distorts the excess electron cloud, thus accounting for the anomalously large oscillator strength of the AA water stretching vibrations. We also discuss these vibronic interactions in the context of a possible relaxation mechanism for the excited electronic states involving the excess electron. PMID:16396541
Intermediate-mass-ratio black-hole binaries: numerical relativity meets perturbation theory.
Lousto, Carlos O; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-05-28
We study black-hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime 0.01≲q≲0.1 with a new technique that makes use of nonlinear numerical trajectories and efficient perturbative evolutions to compute waveforms at large radii for the leading and nonleading (ℓ, m) modes. As a proof-of-concept, we compute waveforms for q=1/10. We discuss applications of these techniques for LIGO and VIRGO data analysis and the possibility that our technique can be extended to produce accurate waveform templates from a modest number of fully nonlinear numerical simulations. PMID:20867082
Kitsak, A I; Kitsak, M A
2006-01-31
A method is proposed for transformation of the spatial coherence of pulsed laser radiation upon nonlinear interaction in a multimode fibre. The specific features of the transmission of correlation properties of radiation in a graded-index fibre with regular and irregular profiles of the refractive index of the fibre core are analysed. A comparative analysis of the parameter of global degree of radiation coherence at the output of inhomogeneous waveguide and non-waveguide media is performed. It is shown that the most efficient mechanism of decorrelation of pulsed radiation in an optical fibre is fluctuations of the phase of radiation scattered by inhomogeneities of the refractive index of the fibre core induced due to nonlinear interaction with radiation with the spatially inhomogeneous intensity distribution. (control of laser radiation parameters)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rypdal, Kristoffer; Rypdal, Martin
2016-07-01
Lovejoy and Varotsos (2016) (L&V) analyse the temperature response to solar, volcanic, and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Zebiak-Cane (ZC) model, and to solar and solar plus volcanic forcing in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) E2-R model. By using a simple wavelet filtering technique they conclude that the responses in the ZC model combine subadditively on timescales from 50 to 1000 years. Nonlinear response on shorter timescales is claimed by analysis of intermittencies in the forcing and the temperature signal for both models. The analysis of additivity in the ZC model suffers from a confusing presentation of results based on an invalid approximation, and from ignoring the effect of internal variability. We present tests without this approximation which are not able to detect nonlinearity in the response, even without accounting for internal variability. We also demonstrate that internal variability will appear as subadditivity if it is not accounted for. L&V's analysis of intermittencies is based on a mathematical result stating that the intermittencies of forcing and response are the same if the response is linear. We argue that there are at least three different factors that may invalidate the application of this result for these data. It is valid only for a power-law response function; it assumes power-law scaling of structure functions of forcing as well as temperature signal; and the internal variability, which is strong at least on the short timescales, will exert an influence on temperature intermittence which is independent of the forcing. We demonstrate by a synthetic example that the differences in intermittencies observed by L&V easily can be accounted for by these effects under the assumption of a linear response. Our conclusion is that the analysis performed by L&V does not present valid evidence for a detectable nonlinear response in the global temperature in these climate models.
Intermediate Strength Gravitational Lensing
Irwin, John
2005-03-17
Weak lensing is found in the correlations of shear in {approx}10{sup 4} galaxy images, strong lensing is detected by the obvious distortion of a single galaxy image, whereas intermediate lensing requires detection of less obvious curvature in several neighboring galaxies. Small impact-parameter lensing causes a sextupole distortion whose orientation is correlated with the quadrupole distortion (shear). By looking within a field for the spatial correlation of this sextupole-quadrupole correlation, an intermediate lensing regime is observed. This technique requires correction for the sextupole as well as the quadrupole content of the PSF. We remove the HST PSF and uncover intermediate lensing in the Hubble deep fields. Correlations of the type expected are found.
Chaves Filho, V L; Lima, R P A; Lyra, M L
2015-06-01
We investigate the modulational instability of uniform wavepackets governed by the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation in finite linear chains and square lattices. We show that, while the critical nonlinear coupling χMI above which modulational instability occurs remains finite in square lattices, it decays as 1/L in linear chains. In square lattices, there is a direct transition between the regime of stable uniform wavefunctions and the regime of asymptotically localized solutions with stationary probability distributions. On the other hand, there is an intermediate regime in linear chains for which the wavefunction dynamics develops complex breathing patterns. We analytically compute the critical nonlinear strengths for modulational instability in both lattices, as well as the characteristic time τ governing the exponential increase of perturbations in the vicinity of the transition. We unveil that the interplay between modulational instability and self-trapping phenomena is responsible for the distinct wavefunction dynamics in linear and square lattices. PMID:26117095
Evolution of nonlinear optical properties: from gold atomic clusters to plasmonic nanocrystals.
Philip, Reji; Chantharasupawong, Panit; Qian, Huifeng; Jin, Rongchao; Thomas, Jayan
2012-09-12
Atomic clusters of metals are an emerging class of extremely interesting materials occupying the intermediate size regime between atoms and nanoparticles. Here we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) characteristics of ultrasmall, atomically precise clusters of gold, which are smaller than the critical size for electronic energy quantization (∼2 nm). Our studies reveal remarkable features of the distinct evolution of the optical nonlinearity as the clusters progress in size from the nonplasmonic regime to the plasmonic regime. We ascertain that the smallest atomic clusters do not show saturable absorption at the surface plasmon wavelength of larger gold nanocrystals (>2 nm). Consequently, the third-order optical nonlinearity in these ultrasmall gold clusters exhibits a significantly lower threshold for optical power limiting. This limiting efficiency, which is superior to that of plasmonic nanocrystals, is highly beneficial for optical limiting applications. PMID:22845756
Pilat, Joseph F.; Budlong-Sylvester, K. W.
2004-01-01
Following the 1998 nuclear tests in South Asia and later reinforced by revelations about North Korean and Iraqi nuclear activities, there has been growing concern about increasing proliferation dangers. At the same time, the prospects of radiological/nuclear terrorism are seen to be rising - since 9/11, concern over a proliferation/terrorism nexus has never been higher. In the face of this growing danger, there are urgent calls for stronger measures to strengthen the current international nuclear nonproliferation regime, including recommendations to place civilian processing of weapon-useable material under multinational control. As well, there are calls for entirely new tools, including military options. As proliferation and terrorism concerns grow, the regime is under pressure and there is a temptation to consider fundamental changes to the regime. In this context, this paper will address the following: Do we need to change the regime centered on the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)? What improvements could ensure it will be the foundation for the proliferation resistance and physical protection needed if nuclear power grows? What will make it a viable centerpiece of future nonproliferation and counterterrorism approaches?
Semi-analytical fluid study of the laser wake field excitation in the strong intensity regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jovanović, D.; Fedele, R.; Belić, M.; De Nicola, S.
2016-09-01
We present an analytical and numerical study of the interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma. The study has been performed in the ultrarelativistic regime of electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The calculations are applied to a laser wake field acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse.
Colas, L.; Jacquot, J.; Hillairet, J.; Goniche, M.; Heuraux, S.; Faudot, E.; Crombe, K.; Kyrytsya, V.
2012-09-15
A minimal two-field fluid approach is followed to describe the radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation in the bounded scrape-off layer plasma of magnetic fusion devices self-consistently with direct current (DC) biasing of this plasma. The RF and DC parts are coupled by non-linear RF and DC sheath boundary conditions at both ends of open magnetic field lines. The physical model is studied within a simplified framework featuring slow wave (SW) only and lateral walls normal to the straight confinement magnetic field. The possibility is however kept to excite the system by any realistic 2D RF field map imposed at the outer boundary of the simulation domain. The self-consistent RF + DC system is solved explicitly in the asymptotic limit when the width of the sheaths gets very large, for several configurations of the RF excitation and of the target plasma. In the case of 3D parallelepipedic geometry, semi-analytical results are proposed in terms of asymptotic waveguide eigenmodes that can easily be implemented numerically. The validity of the asymptotic treatment is discussed and is illustrated by numerical tests against a quantitative criterion expressed from the simulation parameters. Iterative improvement of the solution from the asymptotic result is also outlined. Throughout the resolution, key physical properties of the solution are presented. The radial penetration of the RF sheath voltages along lateral walls at both ends of the open magnetic field lines can be far deeper than the skin depth characteristic of the SW evanescence. This is interpreted in terms of sheath-plasma wave excitation. Therefore, the proper choice of the inner boundary location is discussed as well as the appropriate boundary conditions to apply there. The asymptotic scaling of various quantities with the amplitude of the input RF excitation is established.
THE DYNAMIC REGIME CONCEPT FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT AND RESTORATION
Dynamic regimes of ecosystems are multidimensional basis of attraction, characterized by particular species communities and ecosystems processes. Ecosystem patterns and processes rarely respond linerarly to disturbances, and the nonlinear cynamic regime concept offers a more real...
Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.
2000-07-10
The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.
AN INDEX TO DETECT EXTERNALLY-FORCED DYNAMIC REGIME SHIFTS IN ECOSYSTEMS
The concept of dynamic regimes, and nonlinear shifts between regimes, has gained acceptance and importance in ecosystem research. Regimes in ecosystems are identified as states with characteristic species abundances and abiotic conditions. Ecosystems are maintained in particular ...
Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shyam, Radhey
2016-05-01
In the domain of Nuclear reactions at intermediate energies, the QCD coupling constant αs is large enough (~ 0.3 - 0.5) to render the perturbative calculational techniques inapplicable. In this regime the quarks are confined into colorless hadrons and it is expected that effective field theories of hadron interactions via exchange of hadrons, provide useful tools to describe such reactions. In this contribution we discuss the application of one such theory, the effective Lagrangian model, in describing the hadronic reactions at intermediate energies whose measurements are the focus of a vast international experimental program.
Flood Regime Dynamics with Slow-Fast Landscape-Climate Feedbacks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perdigão, Rui A. P.; Blöschl, Günter
2015-04-01
The dynamical evolution of flood regimes is evaluated in the general case whereby floods interact nonlinearly with coevolving climate and landscape factors at different scales. For that purpose, a spatiotemporal analysis of the dynamic flood response to precipitation changes is conducted and a slow-fast nonlinear dynamical model is built linking flood regime dynamics with climate, landscape and their feedbacks. These involve nonlinear scale interactions, with landform evolution processes taking place at the millennial scale (slow dynamics), and climate adjusting in years to decades (fast dynamics). A dynamic coevolution index is introduced relating spatiotemporal symmetry with relative characteristic celerities, which need to be taken into account in hydrological space-time trading. Coevolution is expressed here by the scale interaction between slow and fast dynamics, represented respectively by spatial and temporal characteristics of the hydroclimate dynamics. The spatiotemporal analysis shows that in general floods are more responsive to spatial (regional) than to temporal (decadal) variability in its dominant controls, except in stable hydroclimatic regions. In fact, on one hand catchments from stable dry lowlands and high wetlands exhibit similarity between spatial and temporal relative rates of change (spatiotemporal symmetry) and low landscape-climate codependence, suggesting they are not coevolving significantly. On the other hand, intermediate, dynamically evolving regions show differences between those sensitivities (symmetry breaks) and higher landscape-climate codependence, in line with undergoing coevolution. The break of symmetry is an emerging behaviour from nonlinear dynamic feedbacks within the hydroclimate system. The dynamical model captures emerging features of the flood regime dynamics and nonlinear landscape-climate feedbacks, supporting the assessment of spatiotemporally asymmetric flood change. Moreover, it informs on the precipitation and
Filamentation with nonlinear Bessel vortices.
Jukna, V; Milián, C; Xie, C; Itina, T; Dudley, J; Courvoisier, F; Couairon, A
2014-10-20
We present a new type of ring-shaped filaments featured by stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions to the laser beam propagation equation. Two different regimes are identified by direct numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of axicon focused Gaussian beams carrying helicity in a Kerr medium with multiphoton absorption: the stable nonlinear propagation regime corresponds to a slow beam reshaping into one of the stationary nonlinear high-order Bessel solutions, called nonlinear Bessel vortices. The region of existence of nonlinear Bessel vortices is found semi-analytically. The influence of the Kerr nonlinearity and nonlinear losses on the beam shape is presented. Direct numerical simulations highlight the role of attractors played by nonlinear Bessel vortices in the stable propagation regime. Large input powers or small cone angles lead to the unstable propagation regime where nonlinear Bessel vortices break up into an helical multiple filament pattern or a more irregular structure. Nonlinear Bessel vortices are shown to be sufficiently intense to generate a ring-shaped filamentary ionized channel in the medium which is foreseen as opening the way to novel applications in laser material processing of transparent dielectrics. PMID:25401574
Nonlinear and heterogeneous elasticity of multiply-crosslinked biopolymer networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amuasi, H. E.; Heussinger, C.; Vink, R. L. C.; Zippelius, A.
2015-08-01
We simulate randomly crosslinked networks of biopolymers, characterizing linear and nonlinear elasticity under different loading conditions (uniaxial extension, simple shear, and pure shear). Under uniaxial extension, and upon entering the nonlinear regime, the network switches from a dilatant to contractile response. Analogously, under isochoric conditions (pure shear), the normal stresses change their sign. Both effects are readily explained with a generic weakly nonlinear elasticity theory. The elastic moduli display an intermediate super-stiffening regime, where moduli increase much stronger with applied stress σ than predicted by the force-extension relation of a single wormlike-chain ({G}{wlc}∼ {σ }3/2). We interpret this super-stiffening regime in terms of the reorientation of filaments with the maximum tensile direction of the deformation field. A simple model for the reorientation response gives an exponential stiffening, G∼ {{{e}}}σ , in qualitative agreement with our data. The heterogeneous, anisotropic structure of the network is reflected in correspondingly heterogeneous and anisotropic elastic properties. We provide a coarse-graining scheme to quantify the local anisotropy, the fluctuations of the elastic moduli, and the local stresses as a function of coarse-graining length. Heterogeneities of the elastic moduli are strongly correlated with the local density and increase with applied strain.
Nonlinear instability of accelerating shock waves with application to supernovae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luo, Ding; Chevalier, Roger A.
1994-01-01
We consider the stability of a planar accelerating shock front in an exponential atmosphere, a situation that can be described by a self-similar solution. A previous linear instability analysis showed that there are three regimes, depending on the wavelength of the perturbation along the direction of the shock front: at long wavelengths the shock is unstable, at intermediate wavelengths it is overstable, and at short wavelenghts it is stable, where the characteristic length is set by the initial density scale height. We have carried out numerical simulations of such an accelerating shock front and have confirmed the results of the semianalytic linear analysis in the linear regime. In the nonlinear regime, the evolution again depends on the three wavelength domains. At long wavelengths, the instability continuously grows but the flow remains smooth, and at short wavelengths, the flow is stable. The intermediate wavelength, overstable regime shows more complex evolution. The growing linear oscillations saturate soon after entering the nonlinear regime and the oscillations continue with the same approximate period. The shock front develops moving points of intersection, which generate weak shock fronts and density and pressure structure in the immediate postshock flow. The density fluctuations, with a contrast of a factor of 2-3, become frozen into the downstream flow. The growth of the instability is slow, so substantial initial perturbations are needed; thesemay be present in Type II supernovae with red supergiant progenitor stars which have outer convective regions. The clumping in the outer supernova atmosphere may affect spectral line formation and may play a role in the formation of fast knots.
Regimes of DNA confined in a nanochannel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Liang; Doyle, Patrick
2014-03-01
Scaling regimes for polymers confined to tubular channels are well established when the channel cross-sectional dimension is either very small (Odjik regime) or large (classic de Gennes regime) relative to the polymer Kuhn length. In the literature, there is no clear consensus regarding the intermediate region and if subregimes even exist to connect these two classic bounding regimes. The confluence of emerging single DNA mapping technologies and a resurged interest in the fundamental properties of confined polymers has led to extensive research in this area using DNA as a model system. Due to the DNA molecule's properties and limitations of nanofabrication, most experiments are performed in this intermediate regime with channel dimensions of a few Kuhn lengths. Here we use simulations and theory to reconcile conflicting theories and show that there are indeed extended de Gennes, partial alignment and hairpin regimes located between the two classic regimes. Simulations results for both chain extension and free energy support the existence of these regimes. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation Singapore through the Singapore MIT Alliance for Research and Technology's research program in BioSystems and Micromechanics, the National Science Foundation (CBET-1335938).
Perturbation of the yield-stress rheology of polymer thin films by nonlinear shear ultrasound.
Léopoldès, J; Conrad, G; Jia, X
2015-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear response of macromolecular thin films subjected to high-amplitude ultrasonic shear oscillation using a sphere-plane contact geometry. At a film thickness comparable to the radius of gyration, we observe the rheological properties intermediate between bulk and boundary nonlinear regimes. As the driving amplitude is increased, these films progressively exhibit oscillatory linear, microslip, and full slip regimes, which can be explained by the modified Coulomb friction law. At highest oscillation amplitudes, the interfacial adhesive failure takes place, being accompanied by a dewettinglike pattern. Moreover, the steady state sliding is investigated in thicker films with imposed shear stresses beyond the yield point. We find that applying high-amplitude shear ultrasound affects not only the yielding threshold but also the sliding velocity at a given shear load. A possible mechanism for the latter effect is discussed. PMID:25679626
Perturbation of the yield-stress rheology of polymer thin films by nonlinear shear ultrasound
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Léopoldès, J.; Conrad, G.; Jia, X.
2015-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear response of macromolecular thin films subjected to high-amplitude ultrasonic shear oscillation using a sphere-plane contact geometry. At a film thickness comparable to the radius of gyration, we observe the rheological properties intermediate between bulk and boundary nonlinear regimes. As the driving amplitude is increased, these films progressively exhibit oscillatory linear, microslip, and full slip regimes, which can be explained by the modified Coulomb friction law. At highest oscillation amplitudes, the interfacial adhesive failure takes place, being accompanied by a dewettinglike pattern. Moreover, the steady state sliding is investigated in thicker films with imposed shear stresses beyond the yield point. We find that applying high-amplitude shear ultrasound affects not only the yielding threshold but also the sliding velocity at a given shear load. A possible mechanism for the latter effect is discussed.
Flow regime analysis for fluid injection into a confined aquifer: implications for CO2 sequestration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, B.; Zheng, Z.; Celia, M. A.; Stone, H.
2015-12-01
Carbon dioxide injection into a confined saline aquifer may be modeled as an axisymmetric two-phase flow problem. Assuming the two fluids segregate in the vertical direction due to strong buoyancy, and neglecting capillary pressure and miscibility, the lubrication approximation leads to a nonlinear advection-diffusion equation that describes the evolution of the sharp fluid-fluid interface. The flow behaviors in the system are controlled by two dimensionless groups: M, the viscosity ratio of the displaced fluid relative to injected fluid, and Γ , the gravity number, which represents the relative importance of buoyancy and fluid injection. Four different analytical solutions can be derived as the asymptotic approximations, representing specific values of the parameter pairs. The four solutions correspond to: (1) Γ << 1, M <1; (2) Γ << 1, M =1; (3) Γ << 1, M >1; and (4) Γ >> 1, any M values. The first two of these solutions are new, while the third corresponds to the solution of Nordbotten and Celia (2006) for confined injections and the fourth corresponds to the solution of (Lyle et al., 2005) for gravity currents in an unconfined aquifer. Overall, the various axisymmetric flows can be summarized in a Γ-M regime diagram with five distinct dynamic behaviors including the four asymptotic regimes and an intermediate regime (Fig. 1). Data from a number of CO2 injection sites around the world can be used to compute the two dimensionless groups Γ and M associated with each injection. When plotted on the regime diagram, these values show the flow behavior for each injection and how the values vary from site to site. For all the CO2 injections, M is always larger than 1, while Γ can range from 0.01 up to 100. The pairs of (Γ, M) with lower Γ values correspond to solution (3), while the ones with higher Γ values can move up to the intermediate regime and the flow regime for solution (4). The higher values of Γ correspond to pilot-scale injections with low
Human influence on California fire regimes
Syphard, A.D.; Radeloff, V.C.; Keeley, J.E.; Hawbaker, T.J.; Clayton, M.K.; Stewart, S.I.; Hammer, R.B.
2007-01-01
Periodic wildfire maintains the integrity and species composition of many ecosystems, including the mediterranean-climate shrublands of California. However, human activities alter natural fire regimes, which can lead to cascading ecological effects. Increased human ignitions at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) have recently gained attention, but fire activity and risk are typically estimated using only biophysical variables. Our goal was to determine how humans influence fire in California and to examine whether this influence was linear, by relating contemporary (2000) and historic (1960-2000) fire data to both human and biophysical variables. Data for the human variables included fine-resolution maps of the WUI produced using housing density and land cover data. Interface WUI, where development abuts wildland vegetation, was differentiated from intermix WUI, where development intermingles with wildland vegetation. Additional explanatory variables included distance to WUI, population density, road density, vegetation type, and ecoregion. All data were summarized at the county level and analyzed using bivariate and multiple regression methods. We found highly significant relationships between humans and fire on the contemporary landscape, and our models explained fire frequency (R2 = 0.72) better than area burned (R2 = 0.50). Population density, intermix WUI, and distance to WUI explained the most variability in fire frequency, suggesting that the spatial pattern of development may be an important variable to consider when estimating fire risk. We found nonlinear effects such that fire frequency and area burned were highest at intermediate levels of human activity, but declined beyond certain thresholds. Human activities also explained change in fire frequency and area burned (1960-2000), but our models had greater explanatory power during the years 1960-1980, when there was more dramatic change in fire frequency. Understanding wildfire as a function of the
Stability analysis of synchronization regimes of spinning rockets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dron, N. M.
1993-10-01
A method is studied for estimating the formation of synchronization regimes in rocket ballistic flight in which the roll rate approaches the pitch rate. Supporting resonance angular motion regimes due to induced moments are analyzed, and the nonlinear second-order differential equation of the rolling motion is addressed. The results permit synchronization regimes to be prevented, which is important for motion stability and trajectory parameter dispersion in sounding rockets.
Hysteresis and two-dimensional nonlinear wave propagation in Berea Sandstone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Heming; Day, Steven M.; Minster, Jean-Bernard H.
2000-03-01
We have further developed a two-dimensional endochronic constitutive model applicable to rock in the intermediate strain regime, i.e., approximately 10-6 to 10-3, where nonlinear losses, pulse distortion, and harmonic distortions have been documented in the laboratory. An accurate and efficient computation algorithm has been established and used to fit a set of triaxial laboratory data on Berea Sandstone, obtained by G. N. Boitnott of New England Research, Inc., including nonlinear hysteresis for both hydrostatic compression and shear deformation. The constitutive model has been incorporated into a two-dimensional pseudospectral scheme for simulating nonlinear wave propagation. We compare our numerical pseudospectral scheme with the perturbation solutions to nonlinearly elastic plane wave propagation and find that the two solutions are in close agreement. Applying the numerical scheme to the endochronic constitutive model for Berea Sandstone, we find the following results, which confirm and extend previous results obtained with a one-dimensional model: (1) nonlinear propagation from a monochromatic source excites odd harmonics of the source frequency, (2) the interaction of two monochromatic wave fields leads to energy transfer to other bands corresponding to various combinations of the two source frequencies, (3) amplitudes of the harmonics change with distance and show a trade-off between nonlinearity, intrinsic attenuation (hysteresis), and geometrical spreading, (4) for a broadband pressure source, energy is transferred from the principal band to a higher band at the expense of the components at intermediate frequencies; this is diagnostic of nonlinear interactions, and (5) the harmonic amplitude and energy transfer increase nonlinearly with strain amplitude; i.e., higher strain levels lead to higher energy exchange. These simulations of harmonic generation, interaction, and band expansion, based on a model developed from quasistatic experimental observations
Abrupt climate-independent fire regime changes
Pausas, Juli G.; Keeley, Jon E.
2014-01-01
Wildfires have played a determining role in distribution, composition and structure of many ecosystems worldwide and climatic changes are widely considered to be a major driver of future fire regime changes. However, forecasting future climatic change induced impacts on fire regimes will require a clearer understanding of other drivers of abrupt fire regime changes. Here, we focus on evidence from different environmental and temporal settings of fire regimes changes that are not directly attributed to climatic changes. We review key cases of these abrupt fire regime changes at different spatial and temporal scales, including those directly driven (i) by fauna, (ii) by invasive plant species, and (iii) by socio-economic and policy changes. All these drivers might generate non-linear effects of landscape changes in fuel structure; that is, they generate fuel changes that can cross thresholds of landscape continuity, and thus drastically change fire activity. Although climatic changes might contribute to some of these changes, there are also many instances that are not primarily linked to climatic shifts. Understanding the mechanism driving fire regime changes should contribute to our ability to better assess future fire regimes.
Establishing nonlinearity thresholds with ultraintense X-ray pulses.
Szlachetko, Jakub; Hoszowska, Joanna; Dousse, Jean-Claude; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Błachucki, Wojciech; Kayser, Yves; Sà, Jacinto; Messerschmidt, Marc; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J; David, Christian; Smolentsev, Grigory; van Bokhoven, Jeroen A; Patterson, Bruce D; Penfold, Thomas J; Knopp, Gregor; Pajek, Marek; Abela, Rafael; Milne, Christopher J
2016-01-01
X-ray techniques have evolved over decades to become highly refined tools for a broad range of investigations. Importantly, these approaches rely on X-ray measurements that depend linearly on the number of incident X-ray photons. The advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) is opening the ability to reach extremely high photon numbers within ultrashort X-ray pulse durations and is leading to a paradigm shift in our ability to explore nonlinear X-ray signals. However, the enormous increase in X-ray peak power is a double-edged sword with new and exciting methods being developed but at the same time well-established techniques proving unreliable. Consequently, accurate knowledge about the threshold for nonlinear X-ray signals is essential. Herein we report an X-ray spectroscopic study that reveals important details on the thresholds for nonlinear X-ray interactions. By varying both the incident X-ray intensity and photon energy, we establish the regimes at which the simplest nonlinear process, two-photon X-ray absorption (TPA), can be observed. From these measurements we can extract the probability of this process as a function of photon energy and confirm both the nature and sub-femtosecond lifetime of the virtual intermediate electronic state. PMID:27620067
Indications for a North Atlantic ocean circulation regime shift at the onset of the Little Ice Age
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schleussner, C.-F.; Divine, D. V.; Donges, J. F.; Miettinen, A.; Donner, R. V.
2015-12-01
A prominent characteristic of the reconstructed Northern Hemisphere temperature signal over the last millennium is the transition from the Medieval Climate Anomaly to the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here we report indications for a non-linear regime shift in the North Atlantic ocean circulation at the onset of the LIA. Specifically, we apply a novel statistical test based on horizontal visibility graphs to two ocean sediment August sea-surface temperature records from the Norwegian Sea and the central subpolar basin and find robust indications of time-irreversibility in both records during the LIA onset. Despite a basin-wide cooling trend, we report an anomalous warming in the central subpolar basin during the LIA that is reproduced in ensemble simulations with the climate model of intermediate complexity CLIMBER-3α as a result of a non-linear regime shift in the subpolar North Atlantic ocean circulation. The identified volcanically triggered non-linear transition in the model simulations provides a plausible explanation for the signatures of time-irreversibility found in the ocean sediment records. Our findings indicate a potential multi-stability of the North Atlantic ocean circulation and its importance for regional climate change on centennial time scales.
Elastic regimes of subisostatic athermal fiber networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Licup, A. J.; Sharma, A.; MacKintosh, F. C.
2016-01-01
Athermal models of disordered fibrous networks are highly useful for studying the mechanics of elastic networks composed of stiff biopolymers. The underlying network architecture is a key aspect that can affect the elastic properties of these systems, which include rich linear and nonlinear elasticity. Existing computational approaches have focused on both lattice-based and off-lattice networks obtained from the random placement of rods. It is not obvious, a priori, whether the two architectures have fundamentally similar or different mechanics. If they are different, it is not clear which of these represents a better model for biological networks. Here, we show that both approaches are essentially equivalent for the same network connectivity, provided the networks are subisostatic with respect to central force interactions. Moreover, for a given subisostatic connectivity, we even find that lattice-based networks in both two and three dimensions exhibit nearly identical nonlinear elastic response. We provide a description of the linear mechanics for both architectures in terms of a scaling function. We also show that the nonlinear regime is dominated by fiber bending and that stiffening originates from the stabilization of subisostatic networks by stress. We propose a generalized relation for this regime in terms of the self-generated normal stresses that develop under deformation. Different network architectures have different susceptibilities to the normal stress but essentially exhibit the same nonlinear mechanics. Such a stiffening mechanism has been shown to successfully capture the nonlinear mechanics of collagen networks.
Elastic regimes of subisostatic athermal fiber networks.
Licup, A J; Sharma, A; MacKintosh, F C
2016-01-01
Athermal models of disordered fibrous networks are highly useful for studying the mechanics of elastic networks composed of stiff biopolymers. The underlying network architecture is a key aspect that can affect the elastic properties of these systems, which include rich linear and nonlinear elasticity. Existing computational approaches have focused on both lattice-based and off-lattice networks obtained from the random placement of rods. It is not obvious, a priori, whether the two architectures have fundamentally similar or different mechanics. If they are different, it is not clear which of these represents a better model for biological networks. Here, we show that both approaches are essentially equivalent for the same network connectivity, provided the networks are subisostatic with respect to central force interactions. Moreover, for a given subisostatic connectivity, we even find that lattice-based networks in both two and three dimensions exhibit nearly identical nonlinear elastic response. We provide a description of the linear mechanics for both architectures in terms of a scaling function. We also show that the nonlinear regime is dominated by fiber bending and that stiffening originates from the stabilization of subisostatic networks by stress. We propose a generalized relation for this regime in terms of the self-generated normal stresses that develop under deformation. Different network architectures have different susceptibilities to the normal stress but essentially exhibit the same nonlinear mechanics. Such a stiffening mechanism has been shown to successfully capture the nonlinear mechanics of collagen networks. PMID:26871101
Active black holes: Relevant plasma structures, regimes and processes involving all phase space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, Bruno
2011-03-01
The presented theory is motivated by the growing body of experimental information on the characteristics, connected with relevant spectral, time, and space resolutions, of the radiation emission from objects considered as rotating black holes. In the immediate surroundings of these objects, three plasma regions are identified: an innermost Buffer Region, an intermediate Three-regime Region, and a Structured Peripheral Region. In the last region, a Composite Disk Structure made of a sequence of plasma rings corresponding to the formation of closed magnetic surfaces is considered to be present and to allow intermittent accretion flows along the relevant separatrices. The nonlinear ``Master Equation'' describing composite disk structures is derived and solved in appropriate asymptotic limits. A ring configuration, depending on the state of the plasma at the microscopic level: (i) can be excluded from forming given the strongly nonthermal nature of the electron distribution (in momentum space) within the Three-regime Region allowing the onset of a spiral structure; the observed High Frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations are associated with these tridimensional structures; (ii) may be allowed to propagate to the outer edge of the Buffer Region where successive rings carrying currents in opposite directions are ejected vertically (in opposite directions) and originate the observed jets; or (iii) penetrates in the Three-regime Region and is dissipated before reaching the outer edge of the Buffer Region. The absence of a coherent composite disk structure guiding accretion in the presence of a significant magnetic field background is suggested to characterize quiescent black holes.
Active black holes: Relevant plasma structures, regimes and processes involving all phase space
Coppi, Bruno
2011-03-15
The presented theory is motivated by the growing body of experimental information on the characteristics, connected with relevant spectral, time, and space resolutions, of the radiation emission from objects considered as rotating black holes. In the immediate surroundings of these objects, three plasma regions are identified: an innermost Buffer Region, an intermediate Three-regime Region, and a Structured Peripheral Region. In the last region, a Composite Disk Structure made of a sequence of plasma rings corresponding to the formation of closed magnetic surfaces is considered to be present and to allow intermittent accretion flows along the relevant separatrices. The nonlinear 'Master Equation' describing composite disk structures is derived and solved in appropriate asymptotic limits. A configuration, depending on the state of the plasma at the microscopic level: (i) can be excluded from forming given the strongly nonthermal nature of the electron distribution (in momentum space) within the Three-regime Region allowing the onset of a spiral structure; the observed High Frequency Quasi Periodic Oscillations are associated with these tridimensional structures; (ii) may be allowed to propagate to the outer edge of the Buffer Region where successive rings carrying currents in opposite directions are ejected vertically (in opposite directions) and originate the observed jets; or (iii) penetrates in the Three-regime Region and is dissipated before reaching the outer edge of the Buffer Region. The absence of a coherent composite disk structure guiding accretion in the presence of a significant magnetic field background is suggested to characterize quiescent black holes.
``Once Nonlinear, Always Nonlinear''
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blackstock, David T.
2006-05-01
The phrase "Once nonlinear, always nonlinear" is attributed to David F. Pernet. In the 1970s he noticed that nonlinearly generated higher harmonic components (both tones and noise) don't decay as small signals, no matter how far the wave propagates. Despite being out of step with the then widespread notion that small-signal behavior is restored in "old age," Pernet's view is supported by the Burgers-equation solutions of the early 1960s. For a plane wave from a sinusoidally vibrating source in a thermoviscous fluid, the old-age decay of the nth harmonic is e-nαx, not e-n2αx (small-signal expectation), where α is the absorption coefficient at the fundamental frequency f and x is propagation distance. Moreover, for spherical waves (r the distance) the harmonic diminishes as e-nαx/rn, not e-n2αx/r. While not new, these results have special application to aircraft noise propagation, since the large propagation distances of interest imply old age. The virtual source model may be used to explain the "anomalous" decay rates. In old age most of the nth harmonic sound comes from virtual sources close to the receiver. Their strength is proportional to the nth power of the local fundamental amplitude, and that sets the decay law for the nth harmonic.
Nonlinear plasmonic nanorulers.
Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F
2014-05-27
The evaluation of distances as small as few nanometers using optical waves is a very challenging task that can pave the way for the development of new applications in biotechnology and nanotechnology. In this article, we propose a new measurement method based on the control of the nonlinear optical response of plasmonic nanostructures by means of Fano resonances. It is shown that Fano resonances resulting from the coupling between a bright mode and a dark mode at the fundamental wavelength enable unprecedented and direct manipulation of the nonlinear electromagnetic sources at the nanoscale. In the case of second harmonic generation from gold nanodolmens, the different nonlinear sources distributions induced by the different coupling regimes are clearly revealed in the far-field distribution. Hence, the configuration of the nanostructure can be accurately determined in 3-dimensions by recording the wave scattered at the second harmonic wavelength. Indeed, the conformation of the different elements building the system is encoded in the nonlinear far-field distribution, making second harmonic generation a promising tool for reading 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers. Furthemore, it is shown that 3-dimension plasmonic nanorulers can be implemented with simpler geometries than in the linear regime while providing complete information on the structure conformation, including the top nanobar position and orientation. PMID:24697565
The hydrodynamics of swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers in the water boatman (Corixidae).
Ngo, Victoria; McHenry, Matthew James
2014-08-01
The fluid forces that govern propulsion determine the speed and energetic cost of swimming. These hydrodynamics are scale dependent and it is unclear what forces matter to the tremendous diversity of aquatic animals that are between a millimeter and a centimeter in length. Animals at this scale generally operate within the regime of intermediate Reynolds numbers, where both viscous and inertial fluid forces have the potential to play a role in propulsion. The present study aimed to resolve which forces create thrust and drag in the paddling of the water boatman (Corixidae), an animal that spans much of the intermediate regime (10
Wang, Yudong; Abb, Martina; Boden, Stuart A; Aizpurua, Javier; de Groot, C H; Muskens, Otto L
2013-01-01
We demonstrate milling of partial antenna gaps and narrow conducting bridges with nanometer precision using a helium ion beam microscope. Single particle spectroscopy shows large shifts in the plasmonic mode spectrum of the milled antennas, associated with the transition from capacitive to conductive gap loading. A conducting bridge of nanometer height is found sufficient to shift the antenna from the capacitive to the conductive coupling regime, in agreement with circuit theory. Picosecond pump-probe spectroscopy reveals an enhanced nonlinear response for partially milled antennas, reaching an optimum value for an intermediate bridge height. Our results show that manipulation of the antenna load can be used to increase the nonlinear response of plasmonic antennas. PMID:24127754
Nonlinear evolution of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: Low beta
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghosh, S.; Goldstein, M. L.
1994-01-01
The nature of turbulent cascades arising from the parametric instabilities of a monochromatic field-aligned large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave is investigated via direct numerical simulation for the case of low plasma Beta and no wave dispersion. The magnetohydrodynamic code permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Anisotropic turbulent cascades, similar to those found in early incompressible two-dimensional simulations, occur after nonlinear saturation of the parallel propagating decay instability. The turbulent spectrum can be divided into three regimes: the lowest wave numbers are dominated by lower sideband remnants of the parametric process, intermediate wave numbers display nearly incompressible dynamics, and the highest wave numbers are dominated by acoustic turbulence.
Modulation instability of optical nonlinear media: a route to chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, Morteza A.
2011-12-01
Modulation Instability is known as intrinsic property of a nonlinear medium like Kerr medium or photorefractive medium; through the such media, the system behavior is possible to transit form stationary regime to chaotic regime; this paper deals with Modulation Instability (MI) in a nonlinear medium and investigates the analogy of MI of optical nonlinear medium and the consequent chaotic regime based on extracting Lyapunov exponent through the power spectrum and equivalently intensity-time diagram of MI; the experimental observation truly confirms the results of MI as the route to the chaotic regime.
Exploring Granular Flows at Intermediate Velocities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brodsky, E. E.; van der Elst, N.
2012-12-01
Geophysical and geomorphological flows often encompass a wide range of strain rates. Landslides accelerate from nearly static conditions to velocities in the range of meters/seconds. The rheology of granular flows for the end-members is moderately well-understood, but the constitutive low at intermediate velocities is largely unexplored. Here we present evidence that granular flows transition through a regime in which internally generated acoustic waves play a critical role in controlling rheology. In laboratory experiments on natural sand under shear in a commercial rheometer, we observe that the steady-state flows at intermediate velocities are compacted relative to the end members. In a confined volume, this compaction results in a decrease in stress on the boundaries. We establish the key role of the acoustic waves by measuring the noise generated by the shear flows with an accelerometer and then exciting the flow with similar amplitude noise under lower shear rate conditions. The observed compaction for a given amplitude noise is the same in both cases, regardless of whether the noise is generated internally by the grains colliding or artificially applied externally. The boundaries of this acoustically controlled regime can be successfully predicted through non-dimensional analysis balancing the overburden, acoustic pressure and granular inertial terms. In our laboratory experiments, this regime corresponds to 0.1 to 10 cm/s. The controlling role of acoustic waves in intermediate velocities is significant because: (1) Geological systems must pass through this regime on their route to instability. (2) Acoustic waves are much more efficiently generated by angular particles, likely to be found in natural samples, than by perfectly spherical particles, which are more tractable for laboratory and theoretical studies. Therefore, this regime is likely to be missed in many analog and computational approaches. (3) Different mineralogies and shapes result in different
Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tobias, S. M.
1997-01-01
Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.
Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L
2015-10-13
Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536
Proshutinsky, Andrey; Dukhovskoy, Dmitry; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Krishfield, Richard; Bamber, Jonathan L.
2015-01-01
Between 1948 and 1996, mean annual environmental parameters in the Arctic experienced a well-pronounced decadal variability with two basic circulation patterns: cyclonic and anticyclonic alternating at 5 to 7 year intervals. During cyclonic regimes, low sea-level atmospheric pressure (SLP) dominated over the Arctic Ocean driving sea ice and the upper ocean counterclockwise; the Arctic atmosphere was relatively warm and humid, and freshwater flux from the Arctic Ocean towards the subarctic seas was intensified. By contrast, during anticylonic circulation regimes, high SLP dominated driving sea ice and the upper ocean clockwise. Meanwhile, the atmosphere was cold and dry and the freshwater flux from the Arctic to the subarctic seas was reduced. Since 1997, however, the Arctic system has been under the influence of an anticyclonic circulation regime (17 years) with a set of environmental parameters that are atypical for this regime. We discuss a hypothesis explaining the causes and mechanisms regulating the intensity and duration of Arctic circulation regimes, and speculate how changes in freshwater fluxes from the Arctic Ocean and Greenland impact environmental conditions and interrupt their decadal variability. PMID:26347536
Castellano, Claudio; Muñoz, Miguel A; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
2009-10-01
We introduce a nonlinear variant of the voter model, the q-voter model, in which q neighbors (with possible repetition) are consulted for a voter to change opinion. If the q neighbors agree, the voter takes their opinion; if they do not have a unanimous opinion, still a voter can flip its state with probability epsilon . We solve the model on a fully connected network (i.e., in mean field) and compute the exit probability as well as the average time to reach consensus by employing the backward Fokker-Planck formalism and scaling arguments. We analyze the results in the perspective of a recently proposed Langevin equation aimed at describing generic phase transitions in systems with two ( Z2-symmetric) absorbing states. In particular, by deriving explicitly the coefficients of such a Langevin equation as a function of the microscopic flipping probabilities, we find that in mean field the q-voter model exhibits a disordered phase for high epsilon and an ordered one for low epsilon with three possible ways to go from one to the other: (i) a unique (generalized-voter-like) transition, (ii) a series of two consecutive transitions, one (Ising-like) in which the Z2 symmetry is broken and a separate one (in the directed-percolation class) in which the system falls into an absorbing state, and (iii) a series of two transitions, including an intermediate regime in which the final state depends on initial conditions. This third (so far unexplored) scenario, in which a type of ordering dynamics emerges, is rationalized and found to be specific of mean field, i.e., fluctuations are explicitly shown to wash it out in spatially extended systems. PMID:19905295
Nonlinear response and crowding effects in microrheology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ladadwa, I.; Heuer, A.
2013-01-01
The mobility of tagged particles in a microrheological setup has been investigated via molecular dynamics simulations of a three-dimensional Lennard-Jones binary mixture. After coupling a small number of particles to a constant external driving force, the drift velocity and other observables of the dragged probe particles are reported in the linear and nonlinear response regime. In the nonlinear regime significant crowding effects are observed, thereby creating stringlike structures. Formation of the strings further enhances the nonlinear effects. A systematic study of these effects' dependence on temperature and total number of driven probe atoms is presented.
Regimes of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability
Winske, D.
1996-11-01
Hybrid simulations with kinetic ions and massless fluid electrons are used to investigate the linear and nonlinear behavior of the magnetized Rayleigh{endash}Taylor instability in slab geometry with the plasma subject to a constant gravity. Three regimes are found, which are determined by the magnitude of the complex frequency {omega}={omega}{sub {ital r}}+{ital i}{gamma}. For {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{lt}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}({Omega}{sub {ital i}}= ion gyrofrequency), one finds the typical behavior of the usual fluid regime, namely the development of {open_quote}{open_quote}mushroom-head{close_quote}{close_quote} spikes and bubbles in the density and a strongly convoluted boundary between the plasma and magnetic field, where the initial gradient is not relaxed much. A second regime, where {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}0.1{Omega}{sub {ital i}}, is characterized by the importance of the Hall term. Linearly, the developing flute modes are more finger-like and tilted along the interface; nonlinearly, clump-like structures form, leading to a significant broadening of the interface. The third regime is characterized by unmagnetized ion behavior, with {vert_bar}{omega}{vert_bar}{approximately}{Omega}{sub {ital i}}. Density clumps, rather than flutes, form in the linear stage, while nonlinearly, longer-wavelength modes that resemble those in fluid regime dominate. Finite Larmor radius stabilization of short-wavelength modes is observed in each regime. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Exponential Growth of Nonlinear Ballooning Instability
Zhu, P.; Hegna, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.
2009-06-12
Recent ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory predicts that a perturbation evolving from a linear ballooning instability will continue to grow exponentially in the intermediate nonlinear phase at the same linear growth rate. This prediction is confirmed in ideal MHD simulations. When the Lagrangian compression, a measure of the ballooning nonlinearity, becomes of the order of unity, the intermediate nonlinear phase is entered, during which the maximum plasma displacement amplitude as well as the total kinetic energy continues to grow exponentially at the rate of the corresponding linear phase.
Large nonlocal nonlinear optical response of castor oil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, Rogério F.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Hickmann, Jandir M.
2009-09-01
The nonlocal nonlinearity of castor oil was investigated using the Z-scan technique in the CW regime at 514 nm and in femtosecond regime at 810 nm. Large negative nonlinear refractive indexes of thermal origin, thermo-optical coefficients and degree of nonlocality were obtained for both laser excitation wavelengths. The results indicate that the electronic part of the nonlinear refractive index and nonlinear absorption were negligible. Our results suggest that castor oil is promising candidate as a nonlinear medium for several nonlocal optical applications, such as in spatial soliton propagation, as well as a dispersant agent in the measurement of absorptive properties of nanoparticles.
Vibratory Regime Classification of Infant Phonation
Buder, Eugene H.; Chorna, Lesya B.; Oller, D. Kimbrough; Robinson, Rebecca B.
2008-01-01
Infant phonation is highly variable in many respects, including the basic vibratory patterns by which the vocal tissues create acoustic signals. Previous studies have identified the regular occurrence of non-modal phonation types in normal infant phonation. The glottis is like many oscillating systems that, because of non-linear relationships among the elements, may vibrate in ways representing the deterministic patterns classified theoretically within the mathematical framework of non-linear dynamics. The infant’s pre-verbal vocal explorations present such a variety of phonations that it may be possible to find effectively all the classes of vibration predicted by non-linear dynamic theory. The current report defines acoustic criteria for an important subset of such vibratory regimes, and demonstrates that analysts can be trained to reliably use these criteria for a classification that includes all instances of infant phonation in the recorded corpora. The method is thus internally comprehensive in the sense that all phonations are classified, but it is not exhaustive in the sense that all vocal qualities are thereby represented. Using the methods thus developed, this study also demonstrates that the distributions of these phonation types vary significantly across sessions of recording in the first year of life, suggesting developmental changes. The method of regime classification is thus capable of tracking changes that may be indicative of maturation of the mechanism, the learning of categories of phonatory control, and the possibly varying use of vocalizations across social contexts. PMID:17509829
Nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold
Berk, H.L.; Pekker, M.S.; Breizman, B.N. |
1997-05-01
A new nonlinear equation has been derived and solved for the evolution of an unstable collective mode in a kinetic system close to the threshold of linear instability. The resonant particle response produces the dominant nonlinearity, which can be calculated iteratively in the near-threshold regime as long as the mode doe snot trap resonant particles. With sources and classical relaxation processes included, the theory describes both soft nonlinear regimes, where the mode saturation level is proportional to an increment above threshold, and explosive nonlinear regimes, where the mode grows to a level that is independent of the closeness to threshold. The explosive solutions exhibit mode frequency shifting. For modes that exist in the absence of energetic particles, the frequency shift is both upward and downward. For modes that require energetic particles for their existence, there is a preferred direction of the frequency shift. The frequency shift continues even after the mode traps resonant particles.
Imperfect relativistic mirrors in the quantum regime
Mendonça, J. T.; Serbeto, A.; Galvão, R. M. O.
2014-05-15
The collective backscattering of intense laser radiation by energetic electron beams is considered in the relativistic quantum regime. Exact solutions for the radiation field are obtained, for arbitrary electron pulse shapes and laser intensities. The electron beams act as imperfect nonlinear mirrors on the incident laser radiation. This collective backscattering process can lead to the development of new sources of ultra-short pulse radiation in the gamma-ray domain. Numerical examples show that, for plausible experimental conditions, intense pulses of gamma-rays, due to the double Doppler shift of the harmonics of the incident laser radiation, can be produced using the available technology, with durations less than 1 as.
Chakraborty, Bibhas; Murphy, Susan A.
2014-01-01
A dynamic treatment regime consists of a sequence of decision rules, one per stage of intervention, that dictate how to individualize treatments to patients based on evolving treatment and covariate history. These regimes are particularly useful for managing chronic disorders, and fit well into the larger paradigm of personalized medicine. They provide one way to operationalize a clinical decision support system. Statistics plays a key role in the construction of evidence-based dynamic treatment regimes – informing best study design as well as efficient estimation and valid inference. Due to the many novel methodological challenges it offers, this area has been growing in popularity among statisticians in recent years. In this article, we review the key developments in this exciting field of research. In particular, we discuss the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs, estimation techniques like Q-learning and marginal structural models, and several inference techniques designed to address the associated non-standard asymptotics. We reference software, whenever available. We also outline some important future directions. PMID:25401119
Positron acceleration in doughnut wakefields in the blowout regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vieira, Jorge; Mendonca, Jose; Fonseca, Ricardo; Silva, Luis
2014-10-01
Most important plasma acceleration results were reached in the so called bubble or blowout regime. Although ideally suited for electron acceleration, it has been recognized that non-linear regimes are not adequate to accelerate positrons. New configurations enabling positron acceleration in non-linear regimes would therefore open new research paths for future plasma based collider configurations. In this work, we explore, analytically and through 3D OSIRIS simulations, a novel configuration for positron acceleration in strongly non-linear laser wakefield excitation regimes using Laguerre-Gaussian laser drivers to drive doughnut shaped wakefields with positron focusing and accelerating fields. We demonstrate that positron focusing-fields can be up to an order of magnitude larger than electron focusing in the spherical blowout regime. The amplitude of the accelerating fields is similar to the spherical blowout. Simulations demonstrate laser self-guiding and stable positron acceleration until the laser energy has been exhausted to the plasma. Other realisations of the scheme, using two Gaussian laser pulses, will also be explored. FCT Grant No EXPL/FIS-PLA/0834/2012 and European Research Council ERC-2010-AdG Grant No. 267841.
Intermediate filaments in small configuration spaces.
Nöding, Bernd; Köster, Sarah
2012-02-24
Intermediate filaments play a key role in cell mechanics. Apart from their great importance from a biomedical point of view, they also act as a very suitable micrometer-sized model system for semiflexible polymers. We perform a statistical analysis of the thermal fluctuations of individual filaments confined in microchannels. The small channel width and the resulting deflections at the walls give rise to a reduction of the configuration space by about 2 orders of magnitude. This circumstance enables us to precisely measure the intrinsic persistence length of vimentin intermediate filaments and to show that they behave as ideal wormlike chains; we observe that small fluctuations in perpendicular planes decouple. Furthermore, the inclusion of results for confined actin filaments demonstrates that the Odijk confinement regime is valid over at least 1 order of magnitude in persistence length. PMID:22463576
Single-ion nonlinear mechanical oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akerman, N.; Kotler, S.; Glickman, Y.; Dallal, Y.; Keselman, A.; Ozeri, R.
2010-12-01
We study the steady-state motion of a single trapped ion oscillator driven to the nonlinear regime. Damping is achieved via Doppler laser cooling. The ion motion is found to be well described by the Duffing oscillator model with an additional nonlinear damping term. We demonstrate here the unique ability of tuning both the linear as well as the nonlinear damping coefficients by controlling the laser-cooling parameters. Our observations pave the way for the investigation of nonlinear dynamics on the quantum-to-classical interface as well as mechanical noise squeezing in laser-cooling dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganapathy, R.; Kuriakose, V. C.
2002-04-01
We obtain conditions for the occurrence of cross-phase modulational instability in the normal dispersion regime for the coupled higher order nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher order dispersion and nonlinear terms.
Modeling of intermediate phase growth
Umantsev, A.
2007-01-15
We introduced a continuum method for modeling of intermediate phase growth and numerically simulated three common experimental situations relevant to the physical metallurgy of soldering: growth of intermetallic compound layer from an unlimited amount of liquid and solid solders and growth of the compound from limited amounts of liquid solder. We found qualitative agreements with the experimental regimes of growth in all cases. For instance, the layer expands in both directions with respect to the base line when it grows from solid solder, and grows into the copper phase when the solder is molten. The quantitative agreement with the sharp-interface approximation was also achieved in these cases. In the cases of limited amounts of liquid solder we found the point of turnaround when the compound/solder boundary changed the direction of its motion. Although such behavior had been previously observed experimentally, the simulations revealed important information: the turnaround occurs approximately at the time of complete saturation of solder with copper. This result allows us to conclude that coarsening of the intermetallic compound structure starts only after the solder is practically saturated with copper.
Robust energy transfer mechanism via precession resonance in nonlinear turbulent wave systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Dan; Bustamante, Miguel; Quinn, Brenda
2014-11-01
The precise mechanisms by which energy is most efficiently transferred in a turbulent system remain an important open question for the fluid mechanics community. In this talk we present a newly discovered resonance which is found to drive transfers across the spectrum of Fourier modes in a nonlinear wave system. Quadratic nonlinearity results in modes interacting in triads and, by considering the ``truly dynamical degrees of freedom'' (amplitudes and triad phases) and the precessional frequencies of the triads, we show transfers are maximal when the precession resonates with the nonlinear temporal frequencies. This can lead to a collective state of synchronised triads with intense cascades at intermediate nonlinearity; we find greatest transfer between the traditional weak and strong turbulence regimes and discover that this new mechanism is dominant here. We present the effect in a hierarchy of models including a full DNS of the Charney-Hasegawa-Mima equation and confirm analytical predictions. Supported by Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) under Grant Number 12/IP/1491.
Intermediate Cambodian Reader.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huffman, Franklin E., Ed.; Proum, Im, Ed.
This book is a sequel to the "Cambodian System of Writing and Beginning Reader." It is intended to serve as an intermediate reader to develop the student's ability to the point of reading Cambodian texts with the aid of a dictionary. Part One of the book consists of 37 readings, graded in length and difficulty, and selected to provide a wide range…
GLOSSARY TO INTERMEDIATE HINDI.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Indian Language and Area Center.
INCLUDED IN THIS GLOSSARY ARE THE VOCABULARY ITEMS FOR THE READINGS IN "INTERMEDIATE HINDI." THE ITEMS ARE ARRANGED BY SELECTION IN SERIAL ORDER. EACH ENTRY INCLUDES NAGARI (DEVANAGARI) SCRIPT SPELLING, A NOTATION OF THE FORM CLASS, AND A SHORT ENGLISH GLOSS. THESE TWO VOLUMES ARE ALSO AVAILABLE AS A SET FOR $7.00 FROM THE COLLEGE PRINTING…
SPACE: Intermediate Level Modules.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Center for School Improvement and Performance.
These modules were developed to assist teachers at the intermediate level to move away from extensive skill practice and toward more meaningful interdisciplinary learning. This packet, to be used by teachers in the summer Extended Learning Program, provides detailed thematic lesson plans matched to the Indiana Curriculum Proficiency Guide. The…
Hispanic American Heritage, Intermediate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shepherd, Mike
This resource book features the cultural heritage of Hispanics living within the United States and includes ideas, materials, and activities to be used with students in the intermediate grades and middle school. This book explores the definition of the term "Hispanic Americans" and suggests a multilayered population with a variety of cultural…
English 200: Intermediate Composition
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ritter, Kelly
2005-01-01
"English 200: Intermediate Composition" is a program elective for English majors and a writing-intensive elective for nonmajors at Southern Connecticut State University (SCSU), a comprehensive institution of 11,000 undergraduate and graduate (master's level) students. English 200 is described in the departmental course catalog as a course "in…
Water oxidation: Intermediate identification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cowan, Alexander J.
2016-08-01
The slow kinetics of light-driven water oxidation on haematite is an important factor limiting the material's efficiency. Now, an intermediate of the water-splitting reaction has been identified offering hope that the full mechanism will soon be resolved.
INTERMEDIATE READINGS IN TAGALOG.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
BOWEN, J. DONALD, ED.
THE SECOND IN A SERIES OF TEXTS DESIGNED TO HELP THE STUDENT ACHIEVE AN UNDERSTANDING OF FILIPINO CULTURE AND ACQUIRE ENOUGH PROFICIENCY IN TAGALOG TO COMMUNICATE EASILY AND MEANINGFULLY, THESE INTERMEDIATE READINGS ARE COORDINATED WITH THE EDITOR'S "BEGINNING TAGALOG" (ED 014 696). INCLUDED IN PART I ARE READINGS WRITTEN ESPECIALLY FOR THIS TEXT…
Route to Attosecond Nonlinear Spectroscopy
Reiter, F.; Kienberger, R.; Graf, U.; Schweinberger, W.; Fiess, M.; Goulielmakis, E.; Serebryannikov, E. E.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Schultze, M.; Krausz, F.; Azzeer, A. M.
2010-12-10
We demonstrate generation of coherent microjoule-scale, low-order harmonic supercontinua in the deep and vacuum ultraviolet (4-9 eV), resulting from the nonlinear transformations of near-single-cycle laser pulses in a gas cell. We show theoretically that their formation is connected to a novel nonlinear regime, holding promise for the generation of powerful deep-UV and vacuum ultraviolet subfemtosecond pulses. Our work opens the route to pump-probe spectroscopy of subfemtosecond-scale valence-shell phenomena in atoms, molecules, and condensed matter.
Sensitivity of LFC techniques in the non-linear regime
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bushnell, Dennis M.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Zang, Tom A.
1987-01-01
For all the Laminar Flow Control (LFC) techniques examined, finite-amplitude effects are destabilizing, i.e., finite-amplitude 2-D Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves grow faster than predicted by linear theory. It was also found, in direct contrast to the results from linear theory for low-amplitude waves, that temperature fluctuations exert a further destabilizing influence on finite amplitude 2-D TS waves. The controlled boundary layers are, of course, subject to intense 3-D secondary instabilities. The instantaneous growth rates of both the fundamental and subharmonic instabilities are strongly tied to the amplitude of the primary 2-D wave. The principal finite-amplitude effects upon the 3-D secondary instabilities occur through the faster growth of the 2-D waves.
Wavy regime of a viscoplastic film flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, Symphony; Ruyer-Quil, Christian; Dandapat, Bhabani S.
2010-11-01
We consider a power-law fluid flowing down an inclined plane under the action of gravity. The divergence of the viscosity of a shear-thinning fluid at zero strain rate is taken care of by introducing a Newtonian plateau at small strain rate. Applying a weighted residual approach, a two-equations model is formulated in terms of two coupled evolution equations for the film thickness h and the local flow rate q within the framework of lubrication theory. The model accounts for the streamwise diffusion of momentum. Consistency of the model is achieved up to first order in the film parameter for inertia terms and up to second order for viscous terms. Comparison to Orr-Sommerfeld stability analysis and to DNS show convincing agreement in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In the case of shear-thinning fluids, lowering the power index has a non-trivial effect on the primary instability of the film: the threshold of the instability occurs at a smaller Reynolds number but the range of instable wavenumber is also reduced. In the nonlinear regime, we have evidenced a subcritical bifurcation of the traveling-wave solutions from marginal stability conditions.
The Hadley and Rossby regimes in a spherical atmosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feldstein, S. B.; Clark, J. H. E.
1985-01-01
The properties of the steady Hadley and Rossby regimes for a thermally forced rotating fluid on a sphere are studied. The two layer modified geostrophic model is employed which allows for thermal advection by the divergent wind and time dependent static stability. Heating processes are parameterized using the Newtonian approximation and Rayleigh friction is accounted for. The equations are transformed to spectral form using spherical harmonics and then truncated retaining a simple axisymmetric state and initial, one wave. A time independent Hadley circulation is obtained which is neutral to axisymmetric disturbances but unstable to wave like perturbations for intermediate values of the meridional temperature gradient, indicating the existence of both an upper and lower symmetric Hadley regime. An analytical solution for the steady Rossby circulation is determined for values of the meridional temperature gradient where the Hadley regime is unstable. Linear perturbation theory is used to show that within the steady Rossby regime two or more waves cannot exist simultaneously.
Understanding the Early Regime of Drop Spreading.
Mitra, Surjyasish; Mitra, Sushanta K
2016-09-01
We present experimental data to characterize the spreading of a liquid drop on a substrate kept submerged in another liquid medium. They reveal that drop spreading always begins in a regime dominated by drop viscosity where the spreading radius scales as r ∼ t with a nonuniversal prefactor. This initial viscous regime either lasts in its entirety or switches to an intermediate inertial regime where the spreading radius grows with time following the well-established inertial scaling of r ∼ t(1/2). This latter case depends on the characteristic viscous length scale of the problem. In either case, the final stage of spreading, close to equilibrium, follows Tanner's law. Further experiments performed on the same substrate kept in ambient air reveal a similar trend, albeit with limited spatiotemporal resolution, showing the universal nature of the spreading behavior. It is also found that, for early times of spreading, the process is similar to coalescence of two freely suspended liquid drops, making the presence of the substrate and consequently the three-phase contact line insignificant. PMID:27513708
Intermediate water recovery system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deckman, G.; Anderson, A. R. (Editor)
1973-01-01
A water recovery system for collecting, storing, and processing urine, wash water, and humidity condensates from a crew of three aboard a spacecraft is described. The results of a 30-day test performed on a breadboard system are presented. The intermediate water recovery system produced clear, sterile, water with a 96.4 percent recovery rate from the processed urine. Recommendations for improving the system are included.
Nonlinear Ballistic Transport in Graphene Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farrokhi, M. Javad; Boland, Mathias; Nasseri, Mohsen; Strachan, Douglas
Through the extreme size scaling of electronic devices, there is great potential to achieve highly efficient and ultrafast electronics. By scaling down the channel length in graphene transistors to the point where the mean free path exceeds the relevant channel length, the electron transport can transition from a diffusive regime to an intrinsic ballistic regime. In such a regime, both quantum tunneling at the electrode-channel interface and the screening length, as determined by electrode-channel barrier width, can have a strong effect on current nonlinearity and asymmetric gate response. Here we discuss our experimental results on nangap electrodes to graphene channels that show quantitative agreement with an intrinsic ballistic model. Moreover, this behavior persists to room temperature and on standard oxide substrates, providing strong evidence for a new regime of nonlinearity in graphene devices that could be of potential use for electronic applications.
Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability
Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael
2009-10-27
In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemblemore » forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.« less
Fixed points, stable manifolds, weather regimes, and their predictability
Deremble, Bruno; D'Andrea, Fabio; Ghil, Michael
2009-10-27
In a simple, one-layer atmospheric model, we study the links between low-frequency variability and the model’s fixed points in phase space. The model dynamics is characterized by the coexistence of multiple ''weather regimes.'' To investigate the transitions from one regime to another, we focus on the identification of stable manifolds associated with fixed points. We show that these manifolds act as separatrices between regimes. We track each manifold by making use of two local predictability measures arising from the meteorological applications of nonlinear dynamics, namely, ''bred vectors'' and singular vectors. These results are then verified in the framework of ensemble forecasts issued from clouds (ensembles) of initial states. The divergence of the trajectories allows us to establish the connections between zones of low predictability, the geometry of the stable manifolds, and transitions between regimes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vrecica, Teodor; Toledo, Yaron
2015-04-01
oscillating terms, but as the water depth becomes shallow they change to an exponential growth (or decay) behavior. Hence, the formerly used localization technique cannot be justified for the shallow water region. A new formulation is devised for the localization in shallow water, it approximates the nonlinear non-local shoaling coefficient in shallow water and matches it to the one fitting to the intermediate water region. This allows the model behavior to be consistent from deep water to intermediate depths and up to the shallow water regime. Various simulations of the model were performed for the cases of intermediate, and shallow water, overall the model was found to give good results in both shallow and intermediate water depths. The essential difference between the shallow and intermediate nonlinear shoaling physics is explained via the dominating class III Bragg resonances phenomenon. By inspecting the resonance conditions and the nature of the dispersion relation, it is shown that unlike in the intermediate water regime, in shallow water depths the formation of resonant interactions is possible without taking into account bottom components. References Agnon, Y. & Sheremet, A. 1997 Stochastic nonlinear shoaling of directional spectra. J. Fluid Mech. 345, 79-99. Benney, D. J. & Saffman, P. G. 1966 Nonlinear interactions of random waves. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 289, 301-321. Bredmose, H., Agnon, Y., Madsen, P.A. & Schaffer, H.A. 2005 Wave transformation models with exact second-order transfer. European J. of Mech. - B/Fluids 24 (6), 659-682. Eldeberky, Y. & Madsen, P. A. 1999 Deterministic and stochastic evolution equations for fully dispersive and weakly nonlinear waves. Coastal Engineering 38, 1-24. Kaihatu, J. M. & Kirby, J. T. 1995 Nonlinear transformation of waves in infinite water depth. Phys. Fluids 8, 175-188. Holloway, G. 1980 Oceanic internal waves are not weak waves. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 10, 906-914. Stiassnie, M. & Drimer, N. 2006 Prediction of long forcing waves
Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity
Mehl, S.
2007-01-01
The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
SjöBerg, Daniel
2003-04-01
We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical waveguide with an arbitrary cross section filled with a nonlinear material. The electromagnetic field is expanded in the usual eigenmodes of the waveguide, and the coupling between the modes is quantified. We derive the wave equations governing each mode with special emphasis on the situation with a dominant TE mode. The result is a strictly hyperbolic system of nonlinear partial differential equations for the dominating mode, whereas the minor modes satisfy hyperbolic systems of linear, nonstationary, and partial differential equations. A growth estimate is given for the minor modes.
A nonlinear model for rotationally constrained convection with Ekman pumping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Julien, Keith; Aurnou, Jonathan M.; Calkins, Michael A.; Knobloch, Edgar; Marti, Philippe; Stellmach, Stephan; Vasil, Geoffrey M.
2016-07-01
It is a well established result of linear theory that the influence of differing mechanical boundary conditions, i.e., stress-free or no-slip, on the primary instability in rotating convection becomes asymptotically small in the limit of rapid rotation. This is accounted for by the diminishing impact of the viscous stresses exerted within Ekman boundary layers and the associated vertical momentum transport by Ekman pumping. By contrast, in the nonlinear regime recent experiments and supporting simulations are now providing evidence that the efficiency of heat transport remains strongly influenced by Ekman pumping in the rapidly rotating limit. In this paper, a reduced model is developed for the case of low Rossby number convection in a plane layer geometry with no-slip upper and lower boundaries held at fixed temperatures. A complete description of the dynamics requires the existence of three distinct regions within the fluid layer: a geostrophically balanced interior where fluid motions are predominately aligned with the axis of rotation, Ekman boundary layers immediately adjacent to the bounding plates, and thermal wind layers driven by Ekman pumping in between. The reduced model uses a classical Ekman pumping parameterization to alleviate the need for spatially resolving the Ekman boundary layers. Results are presented for both linear stability theory and a special class of nonlinear solutions described by a single horizontal spatial wavenumber. It is shown that Ekman pumping allows for significant enhancement in the heat transport relative to that observed in simulations with stress-free boundaries. Without the intermediate thermal wind layer the nonlinear feedback from Ekman pumping would be able to generate a heat transport that diverges to infinity. This layer arrests this blowup resulting in finite heat transport at a significantly enhanced value.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi; Takbiri, Zeinab; Czuba, Jonathan A.; Schwenk, Jon
2015-08-01
Hydrology in many agricultural landscapes around the world is changing in unprecedented ways due to the development of extensive surface and subsurface drainage systems that optimize productivity. This plumbing of the landscape alters water pathways, timings, and storage, creating new regimes of hydrologic response and driving a chain of environmental changes in sediment dynamics, nutrient cycling, and river ecology. In this work, we nonparametrically quantify the nature of hydrologic change in the Minnesota River Basin, an intensively managed agricultural landscape, and study how this change might modulate ecological transitions. During the growing season when climate effects are shown to be minimal, daily streamflow hydrographs exhibit sharper rising limbs and stronger dependence on the previous-day precipitation. We also find a changed storage-discharge relationship and show that the artificial landscape connectivity has most drastically affected the rainfall-runoff relationship at intermediate quantiles. Considering the whole year, we show that the combined climate and land use change effects reduce the inherent nonlinearity in the dynamics of daily streamflow, perhaps reflecting a more linearized engineered hydrologic system. Using a simplified dynamic interaction model that couples hydrology to river ecology, we demonstrate how the observed hydrologic change and/or the discharge-driven sediment generation dynamics may have modulated a regime shift in river ecology, namely extirpation of native mussel populations. We posit that such nonparametric analyses and reduced complexity modeling can provide more insight than highly parameterized models and can guide development of vulnerability assessments and integrated watershed management frameworks.
Generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas inspired intermediate standard scalar field inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Mohsaneen, Sidra
2016-08-01
We study the warm intermediate inflationary regime in the presence of generalized cosmic Chaplygin gas and an inflaton decay rate proportional to the temperature. For this purpose, we consider standard scalar field model during weak and strong dissipative regimes. We explore inflationary parameters like spectral index, scalar and tensor power spectra, tensor to scalar ratio and decay rate in order to compare the present model with recent observational data. The physical behavior of inflationary parameters is presented and found that all the results are agreed with recent observational data such as WMAP7, WMAP9 and Planck 2015.
Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials
Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal
2010-12-07
Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.
Rheology of simple shear flows of dense granular assemblies in different regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chialvo, Sebastian; Sun, Jin; Sundaresan, Sankaran
2010-11-01
Using the discrete element method, simulations of simple shear flow of dense assemblies of frictional particles have been carried out over a range of shear rates and volume fractions in order to characterize the transition from quasistatic or inertial flow to intermediate flow. In agreement with previous results for frictionless spheres [1], the pressure and shear stress in the intermediate regime are found to approach asymptotic power law relations with shear rate; curiously, these asymptotes appear to be common to all intermediate flows regardless of the value of the particle friction coefficient. The scaling relations for stress for the inertial and quasistatic regimes are consistent with a recent extension of kinetic theory to dense inertial flows [2] and a simple model for quasistatic flows [3], respectively. For the case of steady, simple shear flow, the different regimes can be bridged readily: a harmonic weighting function blends the inertial regime to the intermediate asymptote, while a simple additive rule combines the quasistatic and intermediate regimes. [4pt] [1] T. Hatano, et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 76, 023001 (2007). [0pt] [2] J. Jenkins, and D. Berzi, Granular Matter 12, 151 (2010). [0pt] [3] J. Sun, and S. Sundaresan, J. Fluid Mech. (under review).
Measurement of electronic splitting in PbS quantum dots by two-dimensional nonlinear spectroscopy
Harel, E.; Rupich, S. M.; Schaller, R. D.; Talapin, D. V.; Engel, G. S.
2012-01-01
Quantum dots exhibit rich and complex electronic structure that makes them ideal for studying the basic physics of semiconductors in the intermediate regime between bulk materials and single atoms. The remarkable nonlinear optical properties of these nanostructures make them strong candidates for photonics applications. Here, we experimentally probe changes in the fine structure on ultrafast timescales of a colloidal solution of PbS quantum dots through their nonlinear optical response despite extensive inhomogeneous spectral broadening. Using continuum excitation and detection, we observe electronic coupling between nearly degenerate exciton states split by intervalley scattering at low exciton occupancy and a sub-100 fs frequency shift presumably due to phonon-assisted transitions. At high excitation intensities, we observe multi-exciton effects and sharp absorbance bands indicative of exciton-exciton coupling. Our experiments directly probe the nonlinear optical response of nearly degenerate quantum confined nanostructures with femtosecond temporal resolution despite extensive line broadening caused by the finite size distribution found in colloidal solutions.
Examination Regimes and Student Achievement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cosentino de Cohen, Clemencia
2010-01-01
Examination regimes at the end of secondary school vary greatly intra- and cross-nationally, and in recent years have undergone important reforms often geared towards increasing student achievement. This research presents a comparative analysis of the relationship between examination regimes and student achievement in the OECD. Using a micro…
Networks of nonlinear superconducting transmission line resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leib, M.; Deppe, F.; Marx, A.; Gross, R.; Hartmann, M. J.
2012-07-01
We investigate a network of coupled superconducting transmission line resonators, each of them made nonlinear with a capacitively shunted Josephson junction coupling to the odd flux modes of the resonator. The resulting eigenmode spectrum shows anticrossings between the plasma mode of the shunted junction and the odd resonator modes. Notably, we find that the combined device can inherit the complete nonlinearity of the junction, allowing for a description as a harmonic oscillator with a Kerr nonlinearity. Using a dc SQUID instead of a single junction, the nonlinearity can be tuned between 10 kHz and 4 MHz while maintaining resonance frequencies of a few gigahertz for realistic device parameters. An array of such nonlinear resonators can be considered a scalable superconducting quantum simulator for a Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian. The device would be capable of accessing the strongly correlated regime and be particularly well suited for investigating quantum many-body dynamics of interacting particles under the influence of drive and dissipation.
Cascade frequency generation regime in an optical parametric oscillator
Kolker, D B; Dmitriev, Aleksandr K; Gorelik, P; Vong, Franko; Zondy, J J
2009-05-31
In a parametric oscillator of a special two-sectional design based on a lithium niobate periodic structure, a cascade frequency generation regime was observed in which a signal wave pumped a secondary parametric oscillator, producing secondary signal and idler waves. The secondary parametric oscillator can be tuned in a broad range of {approx}200 nm with respect to a fixed wavelength of the primary idler wave. (nonlinear optical phenomena)
Non-gaussianity in the strong regime of warm inflation
Moss, Ian G.; Yeomans, Timothy E-mail: timothy.yeomans@ncl.ac.uk
2011-08-01
The bispectrum of scalar mode density perturbations is analysed for the strong regime of warm inflationary models. This analysis generalises previous results by allowing damping terms in the inflaton equation of motion that are dependent on temperature. A significant amount of non-gaussianity emerges with constant (or local) non-linearity parameter f{sub NL} ∼ 20, in addition to the terms with non-constant f{sub NL} which are characteristic of warm inflation.
Surface-induced nonlinearity enhancement in subwavelength rod waveguides
Marini, A.; Hartley, R.; Gorbach, A. V.; Skryabin, D. V.
2011-12-15
We develop a perturbative theory to describe optical propagation in subwavelength rod waveguides. In this approach, we account for loss and nonlinearity in the boundary conditions. A comparison to the traditional perturbative approach used in optical fibers reveals that the surface contribution provides a significant nonlinearity enhancement in the subwavelength regime. We further compare the nonlinearity enhancement of metallic, dielectric, and semiconductor waveguides, in addition to determining the attenuation coefficient of metallic nanowires.
Dispersion of nonlinearity and modulation instability in subwavelength semiconductor waveguides.
Gorbach, A V; Zhao, X; Skryabin, D V
2011-05-01
Tight confinement of light in subwavelength waveguides induces substantial dispersion of their nonlinear response. We demonstrate that this dispersion of nonlinearity can lead to the modulational instability in the regime of normal group velocity dispersion through the mechanism independent from higher order dispersions of linear waves. A simple phenomenological model describing this effect is the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the intensity dependent group velocity dispersion. PMID:21643190
Turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer
Mosetto, Annamaria; Halpern, Federico D.; Jolliet, Sébastien; Loizu, Joaquim; Ricci, Paolo
2013-09-15
The non-linear turbulent regimes in the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL) are identified according to the linear instability responsible for the perpendicular transport. Four regions of the SOL operational parameters are determined where turbulence is driven by the inertial or resistive branches of the ballooning mode or of drift waves. The analysis, based on the linear electrostatic drift-reduced Braginskii equations, evaluates the pressure scale length self-consistently from the balance between plasma losses at the vessel and perpendicular turbulent transport. The latter is estimated by assuming that turbulence saturation occurs due to a local flattening of the plasma gradients and associated removal of the linear instability drive; it is also shown that transport is led by the mode that maximizes the ratio of the linear growth to the poloidal wavenumber. The methodology used to identify the turbulent regimes is confirmed by the results of non-linear simulations of SOL turbulence. The identification of the turbulent regimes, the predicted pressure scale length, and the poloidal wavenumber of the leading mode are in reasonable agreement with non-linear simulation results.
Intermediate inflation driven by DBI scalar field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazavari, N.; Mohammadi, A.; Ossoulian, Z.; Saaidi, Kh.
2016-06-01
Picking out a DBI scalar field as inflation, the slow-rolling inflationary scenario is studied by attributing an exponential time function to scale factor, known as intermediate inflation. The perturbation parameters of the model are estimated numerically for two different cases, and the final result is compared with Planck data. The diagram of tensor-to-scalar ratio r versus scalar spectra index ns is illustrated, and it is found that they are within an acceptable range as suggested by Planck. In addition, the acquired values for amplitude of scalar perturbation reveal the ability of the model to depict a good picture of the Universe in one of its earliest stages. As a further argument, the non-Gaussianity is investigated, displaying that the model prediction stands in a 68% C.L. regime according to the latest Planck data.
Quantum-criticality-induced strong Kerr nonlinearities in optomechanical systems
Lü, Xin-You; Zhang, Wei-Min; Ashhab, Sahel; Wu, Ying; Nori, Franco
2013-01-01
We investigate a hybrid electro-optomechanical system that allows us to realize controllable strong Kerr nonlinearities even in the weak-coupling regime. We show that when the controllable electromechanical subsystem is close to its quantum critical point, strong photon-photon interactions can be generated by adjusting the intensity (or frequency) of the microwave driving field. Nonlinear optical phenomena, such as the appearance of the photon blockade and the generation of nonclassical states (e.g., Schrödinger cat states), are demonstrated in the weak-coupling regime, making the observation of strong Kerr nonlinearities feasible with currently available optomechanical technology. PMID:24126279
Conformational dynamics through an intermediate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garai, Ashok; Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K.
2014-04-01
The self-assembly of biological and synthetic nanostructures commonly proceeds via intermediate states. In living systems in particular, the intermediates have the capacity to tilt the balance between functional and potentially fatal behavior. This work develops a statistical mechanical treatment of conformational dynamics through an intermediate under a variable force. An analytical solution is derived for the key experimentally measurable quantity—the distribution of forces at which a conformational transition occurs. The solution reveals rich kinetics over a broad range of parameters and enables one to locate the intermediate and extract the activation barriers and rate constants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sennhauser, C.; Berdyugina, S. V.; Fluri, D. M.
2009-02-01
Stellar spectra usually are very limited in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) that can be obtained. In order to increase their informative value, different techniques have been developed in the past ten years which combine multiple spectral lines by cutting out individual line profiles and analysing them by means of least-squares errors or PCA. They usually neglect that the bulk of lines are blended, resulting in artificial broadening of the retrieved common line pattern, while those that care to disentangle blended profiles assume linear line adding. Based on the well-known least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method, we developed a new technique, which truly accounts for blended profiles and deconvolves them in a physically meaningful way by taking into account the nonlinearity when abandoning the regime of optically thin lines. The so-called interpolation formula by M. Minnaert is a unique tool to describe a line profile both in the optically thin and the optically thick regime. It enables us to write a total line depth in terms of a (nonlinear) combination of contributing individual components. Applying different versions of LSD, among them our nonlinear (NL-) LSD, to simulated atomic and molecular intensity spectra shows the unrivaled functionality of our new method in terms of interpretability of the retrieved common line pattern. For the first time it is possible to recover an intrinsic line pattern from a molecular band.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baghshahi, H. R.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Behjat, A.
2016-04-01
In this paper, we investigate the entanglement of a non-degenerate Diamond-type four-level atom interacting with a single-mode cavity field with multi-photon transitions in the intensity-dependent (atom-field) coupling regime. We consider the non-degenerate atom in the intermediate levels and with different detunings between the frequencies of the atom and quantized light field. The decay of the atom from the topmost state to the two intermediate states and also that from the two intermediate states to the bottom state are taken into account. In spite of the fact that the system seems to be complicated, the explicit form of the state vector of the entire system is analytically obtained by using the Laplace transform technique. Then, the entanglement between the atom and field is evaluated with the help of I concurrence measure. The effects of intensity-dependent coupling, decay rates, multi-photon processes and detuning parameters on the concurrence are numerically analyzed, in detail. The results indicate that, the larger the decay coefficients, the more rapid the entanglement decrement between the atom and the field. The intensity-dependent coupling enhances the entanglement between atom and field in most of the interaction times. Furthermore, the degeneracy of the intermediate atomic levels in the presence of decay parameters increases the asymptotic value of the concurrence in the linear and nonlinear regimes. Finally, the amount of entanglement between atom and field in the presence of decay parameters for two-photon transition is greater than that for the one-photon transition.
X-rays from intermediate mass stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robrade, Jan
I will review the X-ray properties of intermediate mass stars and discuss possible X-ray generating mechanisms. Main-sequence stars of spectral type mid B to mid A neither drive sufficiently strong winds to produce shock generated X-rays, nor possess an outer convection zone to generate dynamo driven magnetic activity and coronae. Consequently they should be virtually X-ray dark and occasionally detected X-ray emission was usually attributed to undetected low-mass companions. However, in magnetic intermediate mass stars, the Ap/Bp stars, a different X-ray production mechanism may operate. It is termed the magnetically channeled wind-shock model, where the stellar wind from both hemispheres is channelled towards the equatorial plane, collides and forms a rigidly rotating disk around the star. The strong shocks of the nearly head-on wind collision as well as the existence of magnetically confined plasma in a dynamic circumstellar disk can lead to diverse X-ray phenomena. In this sense Ap/Bp stars bridge the 'classical' X-ray regimes of cool and hot stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.
2001-08-01
The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.
Overview of nonlinear kinetic instabilities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berk, H. L.
2012-09-01
The saturation of shear Alfvén-like waves by alpha particles is presented from the general viewpoint of determining the saturation mechanisms of basic waves in a plasma destabilized by a perturbing source of free energy. The formalism is reviewed and then followed by analyses of isolated mode saturation far from and close to marginal stability. The effect of multiple waves that are isolated or are overlapping is then discussed. The presentation is concluded with a discussion of a non-conventional quasilinear theory that covers both extreme cases as well as the intermediate regime between the extremes.
Welding. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vincent, Kenneth
Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of nine terminal objectives for an intermediate welding course. The materials were developed for a 36-week (3 hours daily) course designed to prepare the student for employment in the field of welding. Electric welding and specialized (TIG & MIG)…