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Sample records for intermetallic compound formation

  1. Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Matsuura, Y.; Kimura, K.

    2014-06-01

    We have focused on the binary narrow-bandgap intermetallic compounds FeGa3 and RuGa3 as thermoelectric materials. Their crystal structure is FeGa3-type (tetragonal, P42/ mnm) with 16 atoms per unit cell. Despite their simple crystal structure, their room temperature thermal conductivity is in the range 4-5-W-m-1-K-1. Both compounds have narrow-bandgaps of approximately 0.3-eV near the Fermi level. Because their Seebeck coefficients are quite large negative values in the range 350-<-| S 373K|-<-550- μV-K-1 for undoped samples, it should be possible to obtain highly efficient thermoelectric materials both by adjusting the carrier concentration and by reducing the thermal conductivity. Here, we report the effects of doping on the thermoelectric properties of FeGa3 and RuGa3 as n and p-type materials. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, was significantly improved by substitution of Sn for Ga in FeGa3 (electron-doping) and by substitution of Zn for Ga in RuGa3 (hole-doping), mainly as a result of optimization of the electronic part, S 2 σ.

  2. Intermetallic compound formation at Cu-Al wire bond interface

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, In-Tae; Young Jung, Dae; Chen, William T.; Du Yong

    2012-12-15

    Intermetallic compound (IMC) formation and evolution at Cu-Al wire bond interface were studied using focused ion beam /scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), nano beam electron diffraction (NBED) and structure factor (SF) calculation. It was found that discrete IMC patches were formed at the Cu/Al interface in as-packaged state and they grew toward Al pad after high temperature storage (HTS) environment at 150 Degree-Sign C. TEM/EDS and NBED results combined with SF calculation revealed the evidence of metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} IMC phase (tetragonal, space group: I4m2, a = 0.404 nm, c= 0.580 nm) formed at Cu/Al interfaces in both of the as-packaged and the post-HTS samples. Two feasible mechanisms for the formation of the metastable {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} phase are discussed based on (1) non-equilibrium cooling of wire bond that is attributed to highly short bonding process time and (2) the epitaxial relationships between Cu and {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2}, which can minimize lattice mismatch for {theta} Prime -CuAl{sub 2} to grow on Cu.

  3. Formation and nitridation of vanadium-aluminum intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Lewalter, H; Bock, W; Kolbesen, B O

    2002-10-01

    V(5)Al(8) and V(3)Al intermetallics have been formed by interdiffusion, by annealing of sputtered V/Al-multilayers at 700 degrees C in vacuo; sapphire (102) was used as substrate. The V/Al intermetallics were nitridated in NH(3) at 900 degrees C for 1 min by RTP (rapid thermal processing). The samples were investigated with XRD (X-ray diffraction), SNMS (secondary neutral mass spectrometry), and AFM (atomic force microscopy). A 5-10 nm thick AlN film (001 textured) was formed by nitridation of V(5)Al(8) (110 textured) and 2-3% nitrogen was incorporated in the V(5)Al(8) bulk. Nitridation of V(3)Al resulted in the formation of VN and AlN. Direct nitridation of V/Al-multilayers showed that near the surface nitridation is faster than intermixing of the V and Al layers. The capability of VN as diffusion barrier for Al could also be shown. PMID:12397502

  4. Formation of GaPd2 and GaPd intermetallic compounds on GaN(0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzicki, M.; Mazur, P.; Pers, J.; Brona, J.; Zuber, S.; Ciszewski, A.

    2015-09-01

    Palladium was deposited gradually under ultrahigh vacuum onto a well-defined surface of (0001)-oriented n-type GaN, at room temperature. Each deposition step was followed by annealing. Physicochemical properties of the Pd adlayers were in situ investigated prior to and after annealing by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, low-energy electron diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy techniques. Annealing resulted in the formation of GaPd2 and GaPd intermetallic compounds at 550 °C and at 800 °C. Even for thicker layers, the compounds were strongly dispersed, forming 3D nanostructures. The substrate uncovered by the compounds revealed Ga-rich GaN(0001)-(1 × 1) surface. Formation of Ga-Pd-N bonds or Pd nitrides was not detected at the surface. The Ga-Pd intermetallic compound surface engineered on the GaN(0001) substrate can be used as the strongly dispersed catalyst or a model catalyst.

  5. Intermetallic Compound Formation Mechanisms for Cu-Sn Solid-Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Wang, K.; Aasmundtveit, K. E.; Hoivik, N.

    2012-09-01

    Cu-Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion (SLID) bonding is an evolving technique for wafer-level packaging which features robust, fine pitch and high temperature tolerance. The mechanisms of Cu-Sn SLID bonding for wafer-level bonding and three-dimensional (3-D) packaging applications have been studied by analyzing the microstructure evolution of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at elevated temperature up to 400°C. The bonding time required to achieve a single IMC phase (Cu3Sn) in the final interconnects was estimated according to the parabolic growth law with consideration of defect-induced deviation. The effect of predominantly Cu metal grain size on the Cu-Sn interdiffusion rate is discussed. The temperature versus time profile (ramp rate) is critical to control the morphology of scallops in the IMC. A low temperature ramp rate before reaching the bonding temperature is believed to be favorable in a SLID wafer-level bonding process.

  6. Enthalpies of formation of Cd–Pr intermetallic compounds and thermodynamic assessment of the Cd–Pr system

    PubMed Central

    Reichmann, Thomas L.; Richter, Klaus W.; Delsante, Simona; Borzone, Gabriella; Ipser, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    In the present study standard enthalpies of formation were measured by reaction and solution calorimetry at stoichiometric compositions of Cd2Pr, Cd3Pr, Cd58Pr13 and Cd6Pr. The corresponding values were determined to be −46.0, −38.8, −35.2 and −24.7 kJ/mol(at), respectively. These data together with thermodynamic data and phase diagram information from literature served as input data for a CALPHAD-type optimization of the Cd–Pr phase diagram. The complete composition range could be described precisely with the present models, both with respect to phase equilibria as well as to thermodynamic input data. The thermodynamic parameters of all intermetallic compounds were modelled following Neumann–Kopp rule. Temperature dependent contributions to the individual Gibbs energies were used for all compounds. Extended solid solubilities are well described for the low- and high-temperature modifications of Pr and also for the intermetallic compound CdPr. A quite good agreement with all viable data available from literature was found and is presented. PMID:25540475

  7. On the formation of Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} intermetallic compound by aluminothermic reduction of nickel oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Parsa, M.R.; Soltanieh, M.

    2011-07-15

    Simultaneous reduction of NiO and formation of Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} intermetallic compound at 880, 940 and 1000 deg. C were investigated by means of the thermal reduction method. The optimal Ni contents for the starting samples were determined at different times and temperatures through the compositional analysis. The microstructure of the metallic quenched samples was observed by scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction analysis and energy disperse spectrometry were applied to characterize the formation of the phases. The results showed that the metallic samples consisted of Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}, Al{sub 3}Ni and Al phases and that there was no trace of Ni, NiO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It was found that after 10 min at the applied temperatures, the reaction completed. For the longer time, the dispersed Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} nuclei were grown and its continuous network formed. By increasing the temperature, the thickness of the Al{sub 3}Ni precipitation around Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} phase is enhanced in the samples with the same Ni content. A model was proposed for these reactions. - Research Highlights: {yields} Simultaneous reduction of NiO, and Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} intermetallics formation at temperatures lower than Ni melting point. {yields} Presently a mechanism for such a process. {yields} Parametric study of microstructure and formed phases.

  8. First-principles studies of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Dongmin; Wen Bin; Melnik, Roderick; Yao Shan; Li Tingju

    2009-10-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds are analyzed here in detail by using density functional theory. Higher calculated absolute values of heats of formation indicate a very strong chemical interaction between Al and Ni for all Al-Ni intermetallic compounds. According to the computational single crystal elastic constants, all the Al-Ni intermetallic compounds considered here are mechanically stable. The polycrystalline elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio have been deduced by using Voigt, Reuss, and Hill (VRH) approximations, and the calculated ratio of shear modulus to bulk modulus indicated that AlNi, Al{sub 3}Ni, AlNi{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 5} compounds are ductile materials, but Al{sub 4}Ni{sub 3} and Al{sub 3}Ni{sub 2} are brittle materials. With increasing Ni concentration, the bulk modulus of Al-Ni intermetallic compounds increases in a linear manner. The electronic energy band structures confirm that all Al-Ni intermetallic compounds are conductors. - Graphical abstract: Calculated bulk modulus compared to experimental and other theoretical values for the Al-Ni intermetallic compounds.

  9. New twisted intermetallic compound superconductor: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, W. D.; Brown, G. V.; Laurence, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Method for processing Nb3Sn and other intermetallic compound superconductors produces a twisted, stabilized wire or tube which can be used to wind electromagnetics, armatures, rotors, and field windings for motors and generators as well as other magnetic devices.

  10. First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun

    2012-03-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.

  11. Ultrarapid formation of homogeneous Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn intermetallic compound joints at room temperature using ultrasonic waves.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuolin; Li, Mingyu; Xiao, Yong; Wang, Chunqing

    2014-05-01

    Homogeneous intermetallic compound joints are demanded by the semiconductor industry because of their high melting point. In the present work, ultrasonic vibration was applied to Cu/Sn foil/Cu interconnection system at room temperature to form homogeneous Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn joints. Compared with other studies based on transient-liquid-phase soldering, the processing time of our method was dramatically reduced from several hours to several seconds. This ultrarapid intermetallic phase formation process resulted from accelerated interdiffusion kinetics, which can be attributed to the sonochemical effects of acoustic cavitation at the interface between the liquid Sn and the solid Cu during the ultrasonic bonding process. PMID:24279981

  12. First Principles Study of Al-Li Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hai-li; Duan, Xiao-hui; Ma, Yong-jun; Zeng, Min

    2012-12-01

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics, Al3Li, AlLi, Al2Li3, and Al4Li9, are analyzed in detail by using density functional theory. The calculated formation heats indicate a strong chemical interaction between Al and Li for all the Al-Li intermetallics. In particular, in the Li-rich Al-Li compounds, the thermodynamic stability of intermetallics linearly decreases with increasing concentration of Li. According to the computational single crystal elastic constants, all the four Al-Li intermetallic compounds considered here are mechanically stable. The polycrystalline elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio have been deduced by using Voigt, Reuss, and Hill approximations, and the calculated ratios of bulk modulus to shear modulus indicate that the four compositions of binary Al-Li intermetallics are brittle materials. With the increase of Li concentration, the bulk modulus of Al-Li intermetallics decreases in a linear manner.

  13. Chemical effect on diffusion in intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Ting

    With the trend of big data and the Internet of things, we live in a world full of personal electronic devices and small electronic devices. In order to make the devices more powerful, advanced electronic packaging such as wafer level packaging or 3D IC packaging play an important role. Furthermore, ?-bumps, which connect silicon dies together with dimension less than 10 ?m, are crucial parts in advanced packaging. Owing to the dimension of ?-bumps, they transform into intermetallic compound from tin based solder after the liquid state bonding process. Moreover, many new reliability issues will occur in electronic packaging when the bonding materials change; in this case, we no longer have tin based solder joint, instead, we have intermetallic compound ?-bumps. Most of the potential reliability issues in intermetallic compounds are caused by the chemical reactions driven by atomic diffusion in the material; thus, to know the diffusivities of atoms inside a material is significant and can help us to further analyze the reliability issues. However, we are lacking these kinds of data in intermetallic compound because there are some problems if used traditional Darken's analysis. Therefore, we considered Wagner diffusivity in our system to solve the problems and applied the concept of chemical effect on diffusion by taking the advantage that large amount of energy will release when compounds formed. Moreover, by inventing the holes markers made by Focus ion beam (FIB), we can conduct the diffusion experiment and obtain the tracer diffusivities of atoms inside the intermetallic compound. We applied the technique on Ni3Sn4 and Cu3Sn, which are two of the most common materials in electronic packaging, and the tracer diffusivities are measured under several different temperatures; moreover, microstructure of the intermetallic compounds are investigated to ensure the diffusion environment. Additionally, the detail diffusion mechanism was also discussed in aspect of diffusion

  14. Oxygen stabilized zirconium vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, Marshall H.; Gruen, Dieter M.

    1982-01-01

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr.sub.x OV.sub.y where x=0.7 to 2.0 and y=0.18 to 0.33. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from -196.degree. C. to 450.degree. C. at pressures down to 10.sup.-6 Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO.sub.2.

  15. Effect of Laser Processing Parameters on the Formation of Intermetallic Compounds in Fe-Al Dissimilar Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meco, Sonia; Ganguly, Supriyo; Williams, Stewart; McPherson, Norman

    2014-09-01

    Fusion welding of steel to aluminum is difficult due to formation of different types of Fe-Al intermetallics (IMs). In this work, 2 mm-thick steel was joined to 6 mm aluminum in overlap configuration using a 8 kW CW fiber laser. A defocused laser beam was used to control the energy input and allow melting of the aluminum alone and form the bond by wetting of the steel substrate. Experimentally, the process energy was varied by changing the power density (PD) and interaction time separately to understand the influence of each of these parameters on the IM formation. It was observed that the IM formation is a complex function of PD and interaction time. It was also found that the mechanical strength of such joint could not be simply correlated to the IM layer thickness but also depends on the area of wetting of the steel substrate by molten aluminum. In order to form a viable joint, PD needs to be over a threshold value where although IM growth will increase, the strength will be better due to increased wetting. Any increase in interaction time, with PD over the threshold, will have negative effect on the bond strength.

  16. Surface structures of In-Pd intermetallic compounds. I. Experimental study of In thin films on Pd(111) and alloy formation

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C. de; Fournée, V.

    2014-08-28

    A combination of experimental methods was used to study the structure of In thin films deposited on the Pd(111) surface and the alloying behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), and scanning tunneling microscopy results indicate that surface alloying takes place at room temperature. Below 2 monolayer equivalents (MLEs), the LEED patterns show the formation of three rotational domains of InPd(110) of poor structural quality on top of the Pd(111) substrate. Both core-levels and valence band XPS spectra show that the surface alloy does not yet exhibit the electronic structure characteristic of the 1:1 intermetallic compound under these conditions. Annealing the 1 MLE thin film up to 690 K yields to a transition from a multilayer InPd near-surface intermetallic phase to a monolayer-like surface alloy exhibiting a well ordered (√(3)×√(3)) R30{sup ∘} superstructure and an estimated composition close to In{sub 2}Pd{sub 3}. Annealing above 690 K leads to further In depletion and a (1 × 1) pattern is recovered. The (√(3)×√(3)) R30{sup ∘} superstructure is not observed for thicker films. Successive annealing of the 2 MLE thin film leads the progressive disappearance of the InPd diffraction spots till a sharp (1 × 1) pattern is recovered above 690 K. In the high coverage regime (from 4 to 35 MLE), the formation of three rotational domains of a bcc-In{sub 7}Pd{sub 3} compound with (110) orientation is observed. This In-rich phase probably grows on top of interfacial InPd(110) domains and is metastable. It transforms into a pure InPd(110) near-surface intermetallic phase in a temperature range between 500 and 600 K depending on the initial coverage. At this stage, the surface alloy exhibits core-level chemical shifts and valence band (VB) spectra identical to those of the 1:1 InPd intermetallic compound and resembling Cu-like density of states. Annealing at higher temperatures yields to a decrease of the In

  17. Blocking hillock and whisker growth by intermetallic compound formation in Sn-0.7Cu flip chip solder joints under electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, S. W.; Chen, Chih; Han, J. K.; Xu, Luhua; Tu, K. N.; Lai, Yi-Shao

    2010-05-01

    Mass extrusion occurs in electromigration at the anode in cross-sectioned Sn-0.7Cu flip-chip solder joints. In a pair of joints, the hillock squeezed out at the anode on the board side is more serious than the whisker grown at the anode on the chip side. The difference of mass extrusion has been found to be affected by the amount of intermetallic compound (IMC) formation in the solder bump. It is found that when a large amount of Cu-Sn IMCs form in the grain boundaries of Sn grains, small hillocks are extruded on the anode end. It is proposed that the excessive IMC formation may be able to block the diffusion path of Sn atoms, so the growth of both the Sn whiskers and hillocks are retarded.

  18. Influence of nanoparticle addition on the formation and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn-Ag-Cu/Cu solder joint during different thermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ai Ting; Tan, Ai Wen; Yusof, Farazila

    2015-06-01

    Nanocomposite lead-free solders are gaining prominence as replacements for conventional lead-free solders such as Sn-Ag-Cu solder in the electronic packaging industry. They are fabricated by adding nanoparticles such as metallic and ceramic particles into conventional lead-free solder. It is reported that the addition of such nanoparticles could strengthen the solder matrix, refine the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed and suppress the growth of IMCs when the joint is subjected to different thermal conditions such as thermal aging and thermal cycling. In this paper, we first review the fundamental studies on the formation and growth of IMCs in lead-free solder joints. Subsequently, we discuss the effect of the addition of nanoparticles on IMC formation and their growth under several thermal conditions. Finally, an outlook on the future growth of research in the fabrication of nanocomposite solder is provided.

  19. Forging of FeAl intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Flores, O.; Juarez, J.; Campillo, B.; Martinez, L.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    Much activity has been concentrated on the development of intermetallic compounds with the aim of improving tensile ductility, fracture toughness and high notch sensitivity in order to develop an attractive combination of properties for high and low temperature applications. This paper reports experience in processing and forging of FeAl intermetallic of B2 type. During the experiments two different temperatures were employed, and the specimens were forged after annealing in air, 10{sup {minus}2} torr vacuum and argon. From the results it was learned that annealing FeAl in argon atmosphere prior to forging resulted in better deformation behavior than for the other two environments. For the higher forging temperature used in the experiments (700C), the as-cast microstructure becomes partially recrystallized.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEW INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Monica Sorescu

    2003-05-07

    This six-month work is focused mainly on the properties of novel magnetic intermetallics. In the first project, we synthesized several 2:17 intermetallic compounds, namely Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Si{sub 2}, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}Al{sub 2}2, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiAl and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 15}SiMn, as well as several 1:12 intermetallic compounds, such as NdFe{sub 10}Si{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}Al{sub 2}, NdFe{sub 10}SiAl and NdFe{sub 10}MnAl. In the second project, seven compositions of Nd{sub x}Fe{sub 100-x-y}B{sub y} ribbons were prepared by a melt spinning method with Nd and B content increasing from 7.3 and 3.6 to 11 and 6, respectively. The alloys were annealed under optimized conditions to obtain a composite material consisting of the hard magnetic Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B and soft magnetic {alpha}-Fe phases, typical of a spring magnet structure. In the third project, intermetallic compounds of the type Zr{sub 1}Cr{sub 1}Fe{sub 1}T{sub 0.8} with T=Al, Co and Fe were subjected to hydrogenation. In the fourth project, we performed three crucial experiments. In the first experiment, we subjected a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe(80-20 wt%) to mechanochemical activation by high-energy ball milling, for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 14 hours. In the second experiment, we ball-milled Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}:Co{sup 2+} (x=0.1) for time intervals between 2.5 and 17.5 hours. Finally, we exposed a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Co(80-20 wt%) to mechanochemical activation for time periods ranging from 0.5 to 10 hours. In all cases, the structural and magnetic properties of the systems involved were elucidated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Moessbauer spectroscopy and hysteresis loop measurements. The four projects resulted in four papers, which are currently being considered for publication in Intermetallics, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Journal of Materials Science Letters and Journal of Materials Science. The contributions reveal for the first time in literature the effect of

  1. Roles of Titanium-Intermetallic Compound Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chii-Chang

    Four different configurations have been tested: Al-Cu, Ti/Al-Cu, Al-Cu/Ti, and Ti/Al-Cu/Ti to evaluate the possible contributions of Ti-intermetallic compound layer(s) to enhancement of the lifetime to failure. Basically, the proposed mechanisms can be classified into two groups: shunting effect and effects limited to changes in Al-Cu conducting layer(s). A resistance monitoring technique was adopted to supplement lifetime measurement to separate these two effects. By correlating the first resistance jump (spike) to the happening of a complete open across Al-Cu layer, it was found that the shunting effect contributes to enhancement of the lifetime by 4 times in Ti/Al-Cu, 2 times in Al-Cu/Ti, and 2 times in Ti/Al-Cu/Ti. A Ti underlayer was found to contribute mainly the shunting effect. However, from drift velocity measurements and failure mode analysis, it is possible to deduce that a Ti overlayer contributes not only the shunting effect but also another effect that acts to diminish the grain boundary mass transport rate by a factor of about 76. It is believed that the latter effect is a consequence of the high compressive yield stength conferred by the Ti-intermetallic compound overlayer to the Al-Cu layer. Finally, an important non-destructive technique, based on the characteristic x-rays generated by energetic electrons, to characterize the mass divergences in multilayer interconnects, was developed in this research, called SMEISIS, representing Simultaneous Multiple Elements Intensity Scanning of Interconnecting Stripes. This technique was proved to be capable of revealing detail about the shapes, nature, and location of mass divergence that cannot be revealed by thermal wave image technique and that requires time consuming multiple sectioning in TEM and SEM methods.

  2. Driving magnetostructural transitions in layered intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, J L; Caron, L; Campbell, S J; Kennedy, S J; Hofmann, M; Cheng, Z X; Din, M F Md; Studer, A J; Brück, E; Dou, S X

    2013-05-24

    We report the dramatic effect of applied pressure and magnetic field on the layered intermetallic compound Pr(0.5)Y(0.5)Mn(2)Ge(2). In the absence of pressure or magnetic field this compound displays interplanar ferromagnetism at room temperature and undergoes an isostructural first order magnetic transition (FOMT) to an antiferromagnetic state below 158 K, followed by another FOMT at 50 K due to the reemergence of ferromagnetism as praseodymium orders (T(C)(Pr)). The application of a magnetic field drives these two transitions towards each other, whereas the application of pressure drives them apart. Pressure also produces a giant magnetocaloric effect such that a threefold increase of the entropy change associated with the lower FOMT (at T(C)(Pr)) is seen under a pressure of 7.5 kbar. First principles calculations, using density functional theory, show that this remarkable magnetic behavior derives from the strong magnetoelastic coupling of the manganese layers in this compound. PMID:23745927

  3. FORMATION OF INTERMETALLIC COMPOUND DISPERSIONS

    DOEpatents

    Bryner, J.S.

    1959-12-01

    BS>A method is presented for preparing dispersions containing thorium bismuthide in equiaxed form and having an average particle size of about 30 microns. Thorium particles having one dimension not greater than 0.015 in. are immersed in liquid bismuth at a temperature between 500 and 600 deg C, the quantity of thorium being in excess of its solubility in the bismuth.

  4. Surfaces of complex intermetallic compounds: insights from density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Jürgen; Krajčí, Marian

    2014-11-18

    CONSPECTUS: Complex intermetallic compounds are a class of ordered alloys consisting of quasicrystals and other ordered compounds with large unit cells; many of them are approximant phases to quasicrystals. Quasicrystals are the limiting case where the unit cell becomes infinitely large; approximants are series of periodic structures converging to the quasicrystal. While the unique properties of quasicrystals have inspired many investigations of their surfaces, relatively little attention has been devoted to the surface properties of the approximants. In general, complex intermetallic compounds display rather irregular, often strongly corrugated surfaces, making the determination of their atomic structure a very complex and challenging task. During recent years, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has been used to study the surfaces of several complex intermetallic compounds. If atomic resolution can be achieved, STM permits visualization of the local atomistic surface structure. However, the interpretation of the STM images is often ambiguous and sometimes even impossible without a realistic model of the structure of the surface and the distribution of the electronic density above the surface. Here we demonstrate that ab initio density functional theory (DFT) can be used to determine the energetics and the geometric and electronic structures of the stable surfaces of complex intermetallic compounds. Calculations for surfaces with different chemical compositions can be performed in the grand canonical ensemble. Simulated cleavage experiments permit us to determine the formation of the cleavage planes requiring the lowest energy. The investigation of the adsorption of molecular species permits a comparison with temperature-programmed thermal desorption experiments. Calculated surface electronic densities of state can be compared with the results of photoelectron spectroscopy. Simulations of detailed STM images can be directly confronted with the experimental results

  5. Containerless automated processing of intermetallic compounds and composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Joslin, S. M.; Reviere, R. D.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    An automated containerless processing system has been developed to directionally solidify high temperature materials, intermetallic compounds, and intermetallic/metallic composites. The system incorporates a wide range of ultra-high purity chemical processing conditions. The utilization of image processing for automated control negates the need for temperature measurements for process control. The list of recent systems that have been processed includes Cr, Mo, Mn, Nb, Ni, Ti, V, and Zr containing aluminides. Possible uses of the system, process control approaches, and properties and structures of recently processed intermetallics are reviewed.

  6. Enhancement on wettability and intermetallic compound formation with an addition of Al on Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder fabricated via powder metallurgy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adli, Nisrin; Razak, Nurul Razliana Abdul; Saud, Norainiza

    2016-07-01

    Due to the toxicity of lead (Pb), the exploration of another possibility for lead-free solder is necessary. Nowadays, SnCu alloys are being established as one of the lead-free solder alternatives. In this study, Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder with an addition of 1wt% and 5wt% Al were investigated by using powder metallurgy method. The effect of Al addition on the wettability and intermetallic compound thickness (IMC) of Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were appraised. Results showed that Al having a high potential to enhance Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder due to its good wetting and reduction of IMC thickness. The contact angle and IMC of the Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were decreased by 14.32% and 40% as the Al content increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt%.

  7. PAC Studies on Zr-Based Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damonte, L. C.; Mendoza-Zélis, L. A.

    2004-11-01

    The Zr2Al, Zr3Al2 and Zr6NiAl2 intermetallic compounds were characterized by means of time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) and X-ray diffraction. Our interest in these Zr(Hf) aluminides comes from crystallization studies of Zr(Hf)-based bulk metallic glasses which have a wide supercooled liquid region.

  8. Unique intermetallic compounds prepared by shock wave synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otto, G.; Reece, O. Y.; Roy, U.

    1971-01-01

    Technique compresses fine ground metallic powder mixture beyond crystal fusion point. Absence of vapor pressure voids and elimination of incongruous effects permit application of technique to large scale fabrication of intermetallic compounds with specific characteristics, e.g., semiconduction, superconduction, or magnetic properties.

  9. Explosive reaction pressing of intermetallic compounds from stoichiometric powder mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Kochsiek, D.; Pruemmer, R.; Brunold, A.

    1995-09-01

    Intermetallic NiAl, TiAl, and TiAl{sub 3} were synthesized by shock compression experiments from stoichiometric powder mixtures of nickel and aluminium as well as of titanium and aluminium. Good consolidation and complete intermetallic reaction were achieved by the direct method of explosive compaction. For each powder mixture, a certain individual threshold pressure has to be exceeded in order to initiate intermetallic reaction. The reacting compounds melted completely with subsequent rapid solidification during the passage of the shock wave. The new material shows high hardness. Pores are formed by gaseous reaction products in the NiAl and TiAl{sub 3} compacts. The TiAl structure is fully-dense and dendritic.

  10. Effect of Ni layer thickness and soldering time on intermetallic compound formation at the interface between molten Sn-3.5Ag and Ni/Cu substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, W.K.; Lee, H.M.

    1999-11-01

    The binary eutectic Sn-3.5wt.%Ag alloy was soldered on the Ni/Cu plate at 250 C, the thickness of the Ni layer changing from 0 through 2 and 4 {micro}m to infinity, and soldering time changing from 30 to 120 s at intervals of 30 s. The infinite thickness was equivalent to the bare Ni plate. The morphology, composition and phase identification of the intermetallic compound (IMC, hereafter) formed at the interface were examined. Depending on the initial Ni thickness, different IMC phases were observed at 30 s: Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} on bare Cu, detestable NiSn{sub 3} + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu, Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu, and Ni{sub 3}Sn + Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} on bare Ni. With increased soldering time, a Cu-Sn-based {eta}-(Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}){sub 1{minus}x}Ni{sub x} phase formed under the pre-formed Ni-Sn IMC layer both at 60s in the Ni(2 {micro}m)/Cu plate and at 90s in the Ni(4 {micro}m)/Cu plate. The two-layer IMC pattern remained thereafter. The wetting behavior of each joint was different and it may have resulted from the type of IMC formed on each plate. The thickness of the protective Ni layer over the Cu plate was found to be an important factor in determining the interfacial reaction and the wetting behavior.

  11. First-principle studies of Ca-X (X=Si,Ge,Sn,Pb) intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Zhiwen; Shi Dongmin; Wen Bin; Melnik, Roderick; Yao Shan; Li Tingju

    2010-01-15

    The structural properties, elastic properties, heats of formation, electronic structures, and densities of states of 20 intermetallic compounds in the Ca-X (X=Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) systems have been systematically investigated by using first-principle calculations. Our computational results indicated that with increasing atomic weight of X, the bulk modulus of Ca-X intermetallic compounds decreases gradually. It was also found that Ca{sub 36}Sn{sub 23} and CaPb are mechanically unstable phases. Results on the electronic energy band and densities of states also indicated that Ca{sub 3}Si{sub 4} is an indirect band gap semiconductor with a band gap of 0.598 eV, and Ca{sub 2}Si, Ca{sub 2}Ge, Ca{sub 2}Sn, and Ca{sub 2}Pb are direct band gap semiconductors with band gaps of 0.324, 0.265, 0.06, and 0.07 eV, respectively. In addition, it is found that the absolute values of heats of formation for all Ca-X intermetallics are larger than 30 kJ/mol atom. - Graphical abstract: Calculated (a) bulk moduli and (b) shear moduli of Ca-X system intermetallic compounds.

  12. Oxygen-stabilized zirconium-vanadium intermetallic compound

    DOEpatents

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.

    1981-10-06

    An oxygen stabilized intermetallic compound having the formula Zr/sub x/OV/sub y/ where x = 0.7 to 2.0 and y = 0.18 to 0.33 is described. The compound is capable of reversibly sorbing hydrogen at temperatures from - 196/sup 0/C to 450/sup 0/C at pressures down to 10/sup -6/ Torr. The compound is also capable of selectively sorbing hydrogen from gaseous mixtures in the presence of CO and CO/sub 2/.

  13. Magnetism and superconductivity of uranium and intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, J. C.; Gay, E. C.; Hanrahan, R. J.; Hults, W. L.; Lashley, J. C.; Manley, M. E.; McPheeters, C. C.; Schmiedeshoff, G. M.; Thoma, D. J.; Touton, S.; Smith, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    Heat capacity, resistivity, and phonon density of states have been measured on uranium and reported already. Many of the results are on single crystals of purity that has been unavailable before. Some intermetallic compounds have been measured that are in the class of so-called heavy-fermion materials. We present here the latest results along with a discussion of the occurrence of superconductivity or magnetism in these materials.

  14. Magnetic field controlled FZ single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, R.; Behr, G.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.; Uhlemann, H.-J.; Fischer, F.; Schultz, L.

    2005-02-01

    Intermetallic rare-earth-transition-metal compounds with their coexistence of magnetic ordering and superconductivity are still of great scientific interest. The crystal growth of bulk single crystals is very often unsuccessful due to an unfavorable solid-liquid interface geometry enclosing concave fringes. The aim of the work is the contactless control of heat and material transport during floating-zone single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds. This control is provided by a tailored design of the electromagnetic field and the resulting electromagnetically driven convection. Numerical simulations for the determination of the electromagnetic field configuration induced by the RF heater coil and the solution of the coupled heat and hydrodynamic equations were done for the model substance Ni with and without additional magnetic field. As a result, an innovative magnetic two-phase stirrer system has been developed which enables the controlled influence on the melt ranging from intensive inwards/outwards flows to flows almost at rest. The selection of parameters necessary for the desired fluid flow is determined from numerical simulation. The basis for the calculations are the process-related fluid flow conditions which are determined by the mode of heating, heat radiation at the free surface and material parameters. This treatment of the problem leads to the customised magnetic field for the special intermetallic compound. The application of the new magnetic system leads to a distinct improvement of the solid-liquid interface validated on experiments with the model substance Nickel.

  15. Structural and Electronic Investigations of Complex Intermetallic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Hyunjin

    2008-01-01

    In solid state chemistry, numerous investigations have been attempted to address the relationships between chemical structure and physical properties. Such questions include: (1) How can we understand the driving forces of the atomic arrangements in complex solids that exhibit interesting chemical and physical properties? (2) How do different elements distribute themselves in a solid-state structure? (3) Can we develop a chemical understanding to predict the effects of valence electron concentration on the structures and magnetic ordering of systems by both experimental and theoretical means? Although these issues are relevant to various compound classes, intermetallic compounds are especially interesting and well suited for a joint experimental and theoretical effort. For intermetallic compounds, the questions listed above are difficult to answer since many of the constituent atoms simply do not crystallize in the same manner as in their separate, elemental structures. Also, theoretical studies suggest that the energy differences between various structural alternatives are small. For example, Al and Ga both belong in the same group on the Periodic Table of Elements and share many similar chemical properties. Al crystallizes in the fcc lattice with 4 atoms per unit cell and Ga crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell lattice with 8 atoms per unit cell, which are both fairly simple structures (Figure 1). However, when combined with Mn, which itself has a very complex cubic crystal structure with 58 atoms per unit cell, the resulting intermetallic compounds crystallize in a completely different fashion. At the 1:1 stoichiometry, MnAl forms a very simple tetragonal lattice with two atoms per primitive unit cell, while MnGa crystallizes in a complicated rhombohedral unit cell with 26 atoms within the primitive unit cell. The mechanisms influencing the arrangements of atoms in numerous crystal structures have been studied theoretically by calculating electronic

  16. Development of New Cryocooler Regenerator Materials-Ductile Intermetallic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gschneidner; A.O. Pecharsky; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The volumetric heat capacities of a number of binary and ternary Er- and Tm-based intermetallic compounds, which exhibited substantial ductilities, were measured from {approx}3 to {approx}350 K. They have the RM stoichiometry (where R = Er or Tm, and M is a main group or transition metal) and crystallize in the CsCl-type structure. The heat capacities of the Tm-based compounds are in general larger than the corresponding Er-based materials. Many of them have heat capacities which are significantly larger than those of the low temperature (<15 K) prototype cryocooler regenerator materials HoCu{sub 2}, Er{sub 3}Ni and ErNi. Utilization of the new materials as regenerators in the various cryocoolers should improve the performance of these refrigeration units for cooling below 15 K.

  17. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-05-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods (i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  18. Intermetallic Phase Formation in Explosively Welded Al/Cu Bimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amani, H.; Soltanieh, M.

    2016-08-01

    Diffusion couples of aluminum and copper were fabricated by explosive welding process. The interface evolution caused by annealing at different temperatures and time durations was investigated by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction. Annealing in the temperature range of 573 K to 773 K (300 °C to 500 °C) up to 408 hours showed that four types of intermetallic layers have been formed at the interface, namely Al2Cu, AlCu, Al3Cu4, and Al4Cu9. Moreover, it was observed that iron trace in aluminum caused the formation of Fe-bearing intermetallics in Al, which is near the interface of the Al-Cu intermetallic layers. Finally, the activation energies for the growth of Al2Cu, AlCu + Al3Cu4, Al4Cu9, and the total intermetallic layer were calculated to be about 83.3, 112.8, 121.6, and 109.4 kJ/mol, respectively. Considering common welding methods ( i.e., explosive welding, cold rolling, and friction welding), although there is a great difference in welding mechanism, it is found that the total activation energy is approximately the same.

  19. Effects of elastic anisotropy on mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental aspects of the deformation and fracture behavior of ordered intermetallic compounds are examined within the framework of linear anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and cracks. The orientation dependence and the tension/compression asymmetry of yield stress are explained in terms of the anisotropic coupling effect of non-glide stresses to the glide strain. The anomalous yield behavior is related to the disparity (edge/screw) of dislocation mobility and the critical stress required for the dislocation multiplication mechanism of Frank-Read type. The slip-twin conjugate relationship, extensive faulting, and pseudo-twinning (martensitic transformation) at a crack tip can be enhanced also by the anisotropic coupling effect, which may lead to transformation toughening of shear type.

  20. Griffiths phase behaviour in a frustrated antiferromagnetic intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Krishanu; Mazumdar, Chandan; Ranganathan, R.; Mukherjee, S.

    2015-01-01

    The rare coexistence of a Griffiths phase (GP) and a geometrically frustrated antiferromagnetism in the non-stoichiometric intermetallic compound GdFe0.17Sn2 (the paramagnetic Weiss temperature θp ~ −59 K) is reported in this work. The compound forms in the Cmcm space group with large structural anisotropy (b/c ~ 4). Interestingly, all the atoms in the unit cell possess the same point group symmetry (Wycoff position 4c), which is rather rare. The frustration parameter, f = |θp|/TN has been established as 3.6, with the Néel temperature TN and Griffiths temperature TG being 16.5 and 32 K, respectively. The TG has been determined from the heat capacity measurement and also from the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It is also shown that substantial difference in GP region may exist between zero field and field cooled measurements - a fact hitherto not emphasized so far. PMID:26515256

  1. Magnetic Anisotropy and Crystalline Electric Field in Quaternary Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W. C.

    All isostructural compounds RNi2B2C (R =Er, Ho, Dy) show some magnetic transitions in magnetization isotherms at certain applied magnetic fields and temperatures above and below Neel and superconducting temperatures (TN, TC) where TN/TC varies from 0.57 to 1.66 for ErNi2B2C and DyNi2B2C. By using theoretical group analysis of D4h (I4/mmm) to the energy level scheme of crystalline electric field of magnetization isotherms anisotropy at various temperatures, we have obtained some possible ground state energy levels such as singlet Γ4 and first excited doublet state Γ5 in addition to another excited singlet Γ1 . Our crystalline electric field energy scheme analysis shows some qualitative agreement between theoretical calculation and experiments at high magnetic fields regime only, which means the interplay between antiferromagnetsm and superconductivity should be included. Magnetic Anisotropy and Crystalline Electric Field in Quaternary Intermetallic Compounds.

  2. Magnetic and crystallographic structures in UTX intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.A.; Lawson, A.C.; Sechovsky, V.; Havela, L.; Kergadallan, Y.; Nakotte, H.; de Boer, F.R.

    1993-08-01

    Uranium, along with other actinides and lanthanides, forms a large group of ternary intermetallic compounds of stoichiometry UTX (T = transition metal, X = p-electron metal). These compounds are formed in several structure types and the occurrence and stability of particular structures with respect to the transition metal content suggests reasonable systematics. The authors have also investigated the magnetic structures of selected UTX compounds and it is revealing to relate the crystallographic and magnetic structures, because of the relationship between the magnetic symmetry and that of the U-atom environment produced by the 5f-ligand hybridization, and the consequent anisotropic exchange. Those of ZrNiAl structure type are collinear, with moments along the hexagonal c-axis. In the orthorhombic NiSiTi structure type, the moments are confined to the b- c plane (perpendicular to the uranium chains) and the structures are often incommensurate. In the hexagonal CaIn{sub 2} (or GaGeLi) structure type, the magnetic structures form in an orthorhombic cell, and at least in the disordered centric group, again the moments lie perpendicular to the nearest-neighbor uranium spacing. This work presents a phenomenology of trends in UTX ternary compounds. It is shown that there is an apparent strong hybridization parallel to nearest neighbor U-U directions, with ferromagnetic coupling in the same directions. There may be a systematic relationship between the hybridization anisotropy and the magnetic anisotropy, in which the quantization axes are the same and the moments point along directions of relatively weak hybridization.

  3. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au.

    PubMed

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M; Morosan, E

    2016-07-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti-Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials. PMID:27453942

  4. High hardness in the biocompatible intermetallic compound β-Ti3Au

    PubMed Central

    Svanidze, Eteri; Besara, Tiglet; Ozaydin, M. Fevsi; Tiwary, Chandra Sekhar; Wang, Jiakui K.; Radhakrishnan, Sruthi; Mani, Sendurai; Xin, Yan; Han, Ke; Liang, Hong; Siegrist, Theo; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Morosan, E.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new hard materials is often challenging, but strongly motivated by the vast application potential such materials hold. Ti3Au exhibits high hardness values (about four times those of pure Ti and most steel alloys), reduced coefficient of friction and wear rates, and biocompatibility, all of which are optimal traits for orthopedic, dental, and prosthetic applications. In addition, the ability of this compound to adhere to ceramic parts can reduce both the weight and the cost of medical components. The fourfold increase in the hardness of Ti3Au compared to other Ti–Au alloys and compounds can be attributed to the elevated valence electron density, the reduced bond length, and the pseudogap formation. Understanding the origin of hardness in this intermetallic compound provides an avenue toward designing superior biocompatible, hard materials. PMID:27453942

  5. Hydrogen occupancy in the RNi{sub 4}Mg (R=Y, La, Ce, and Nd) intermetallic compounds and hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Herrera, Otto; Orgaz, Emilio; Aburto, Andrea

    2009-10-15

    We have investigated the effect of hydrogen on the electronic strtucture of the RNi{sub 4}Mg (R=Y, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd) intermetallics. By means of a two-step approach, the projected plane-wave and linearized plane-waves methods, we studied the hydrogen-insertion energetics on the intermetallic matrix and the H-vacancy formation in the hydride compound. We found that particular interstitial sites in the intermetallics are suitable to allocate hydrogen and form a solid solution. The effect of these interstitials on the electronic structure is discussed. In the other hand, the hydrogen-occupied sites in the hydride are found to be energetically equivalent.

  6. New Interest in Intermetallic Compound ZnSb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, M. I.; Prokof'eva, L. V.; Pshenay-Severin, D. A.; Shabaldin, A. A.; Konstantinov, P. P.

    2014-06-01

    The intermetallic compound ZnSb has been known since the 1830s. It has semiconductor properties, but its mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties are very close to those of a metallic alloy. When thermoelectrics based on (BiSb)2(TeSe)3 solid solutions were created, interest in ZnSb subsided. However, the current situation is different, as tellurium has become expensive and rare. Moreover, its compounds are too toxic, and it is too difficult to produce such materials and devices from these solid solutions. Recently, n-type material based on Mg2(SnSi) solid solution was proposed in the Laboratory of Physics for Thermoelements of the Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute. This material together with ZnSb may form a promising couple for creating various thermoelectric modules. In this paper, various properties (Hall and Seebeck coefficients, electrical and thermal conductivities) are reported in the temperature range from 80 K to 797 K. Different acceptor impurities have been tested. The Hall concentration at room temperature varied from 1.5 × 1018 cm-3 to 2.7 × 1019 cm-3. Some features have been discovered in the behavior of the thermoelectric parameters of double-doped ZnSb samples at temperatures above 500 K. Their nature points to a temperature-dependent increase of the Hall concentration. The existence of two temperature ranges with additional doping is revealed by Hall coefficient and electrical conductivity measurements in the range from 80 K to 797 K. The experimental data are discussed based on a model of the energy spectrum with impurity and native defect states localized in the energy gap. It is shown that the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit of ZnSb: Cd, Ag, Sn is not less than 1.0 at 600 K.

  7. Identification and control of grinding processes for intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Hosein Ali

    2000-10-01

    An intermetallic compound (IMC) is a combination of two or more metals with a particular atomic formula by having either ionic and covalent bonds, or metallic bonds with specific crystal structures. They may be thought of as the intermediate between metals and ceramics. These new materials may combine the best of each class: the ductility, heat and electric conductivity of metals with the strength and oxidation resistance of ceramics. Previous study has proposed that the depth of plastic deformation can be used as a parameter to describe the influence of grinding conditions on other physical properties of subsurface layers. Accordingly, the indentation model has been developed to correlate the depth of plastic deformation with the normal component of grinding force. It has been reported that the under certain grinding conditions the depth of plastic deformation does not follow the indentation model. The primary objective of this research is to explain such deviations and to demonstrate that this model can be used to control and predict the depth of plastic deformation. Elements of this research include the development of an open architecture platform to study grinding process, a signal processing algorithm for gap elimination, introducing and implementation of model reference unfalsification and learning concept, development of a mathematical model for grinding gamma-TiAl, a comparison between conventional and superabrasive grinding, control and prediction of the depth of plastic deformation, and initiation of one of the first databases for grinding gamma-TiAl. This work not only serves as a step toward the use of IMCs in future technology but also serves as a step toward autonomous machining systems using intelligent control and advanced monitoring which is a feature of the future abrasive technology.

  8. Microwave assisted combustion synthesis of non-equilibrium intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Paolo; Rosa, Roberto; Colombini, Elena; Leonelli, Cristina; Poli, Giorgio; Casagrande, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    A simplified model of the microwave-assisted combustion synthesis of Ni and Al metal powders to form the NiAl intermetallic on titanium and steel substrates is presented. The simulation couples an electro-thermal model with a chemical model, accounting for local heat generation due to the highly exothermic nature of the reactions between the powders. Numerical results, validated by experimental values, show that the capability of microwaves to convey energy, and not heat, can be used to alter the temperature profiles during and after the combustion synthesis, leading to unique intermetallic microstructures. This phenomenon is ascribed to the extended existence of high temperature liquid intermetallic phases, which react with the metallic substrates at the interface. Moreover, microwave heating selectivity allows to maintain the bulk of the substrate metallic materials to a much lower temperature, compared to combustion synthesis in conventionally heated furnaces, thus reducing possible unwanted transformations like phase change or oxidation. PMID:21721328

  9. A Study on the Formation of Intermetallics During the Heat Treatment of Explosively Welded Al-Ti Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foadian, Farzad; Soltanieh, Mansour; Adeli, Mandana; Etminanbakhsh, Majid

    2014-04-01

    Metallic-intermetallic laminate composites are promising materials for many applications, namely, in the aerospace industry. Ti/TiAl3 laminates are one of the interesting laminate composites, which are mostly used in aerospace applications. In this work, commercially pure aluminum and titanium sheets were explosively joined. The multilayer samples were annealed between 1 and 260 hours at 903 K (630 °C) in ambient atmosphere, and the formation and growth of the intermetallic compound at the Ti/Al interface were monitored. Microstructural investigations were carried out using optical and scanning electron microscopes equipped with energy-dispersive spectroscopy and the X-ray diffraction technique. The microhardness profile of the layers was also determined. The thickness and type of Al-Ti intermetallics were determined. It was found that the only intermetallic phase observed in the interfaces was TiAl3. It was also shown that two mechanisms for TiAl3 growth exist: reaction and diffusion controlled. The growth exponent was equal to 0.94 for the reaction-controlled mechanism (first step) and 0.31 for the diffusion-controlled mechanism (second step). These values were in good agreement with theoretical values (1 and 0.5 for the first and second steps, respectively). Based on the results of this research, a kinetic model for the formation and growth of TiAl3 intermetallic phase was proposed.

  10. Surface integrity on grinding of gamma titanium aluminide intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagian, Gregorio Roberto

    Gamma-TiAl is an ordered intermetallic compound characterized by high strength to density ratio, good oxidation resistance, and good creep properties at elevated temperatures. However, it is intrinsically brittle at room temperature. This thesis investigates the potential for the use of grinding to process TiAl into useful shapes. Grinding is far from completely understood, and many aspects of the individual mechanical interactions of the abrasive grit with the material and their effect on surface integrity are unknown. The development of new synthetic diamond superabrasives in which shape and size can be controlled raises the question of the influence of those variables on the surface integrity. The goal of this work is to better understand the fundamentals of the abrasive grit/material interaction in grinding operations. Experimental, analytical, and numerical work was done to characterize and predict the resultant deformation and surface integrity on ground lamellar gamma-TiAl. Grinding tests were carried out, by analyzing the effects of grit size and shape, workpiece speed, wheel depth of cut, and wear on the subsurface plastic deformation depth (PDD). A practical method to assess the PDD is introduced based on the measurement of the lateral material flow by 3D non-contact surface profilometry. This method combines the quantitative capabilities of the microhardness measurement with the sensitivity of Nomarski microscopy. The scope and limitations of this technique are analyzed. Mechanical properties were obtained by quasi-static and split Hopkinson bar compression tests. Residual stress plots were obtained by x-ray, and surface roughness and cracking were evaluated. The abrasive grit/material interaction was accounted by modeling the force per abrasive grit for different grinding conditions, and studying its correlation to the PDD. Numerical models of this interaction were used to analyze boundary conditions, and abrasive size effects on the PDD. An explicit 2D

  11. Kinetics of accumulation of the intermetallic compound of nickel and cadmium during storage of charged cadmium electrodes in alkali

    SciTech Connect

    Reshetov, V.A.; Grachev, D.K.; Pen'kova, L.I.; L'vova, L.A.; Ryabskaya, I.A.; Logvinets, N.P.

    1983-05-20

    When charged cadmium electrodes containing nickelous hydroxide (NHO) are stored in alkali an intermetallic compound (IMC) of the composition Ni/sub 5/Cd/sub 21/ is formed. The appearance of a step corresponding to oxidation of the IMC at a potential more positive by 0.12-0.18 V than the potential of the principal discharge process leads to appreciable lowering of the electrode capacity after storage. A systematic study was carried out of the kinetics of accumulation of the IMC at various temperatures and with additions of various amounts of NHO in order to elucidate the mechanism of formation of the intermetallic compound and to examine the possibility of predicting the loss of capacity of cadmium electrodes during storage. A kinetic equation, which can be used for predicting capacity losses of charged cadmium electrodes because of formation of the intermetallic compound Ni/sub 5/Cd/sub 21/ in them during storage, is proposed. The two-step form of the kinetic curves indicates that the IMC can be formed in cadmium electrodes during storage by two parallel mechanisms, involving both Ni/sup 0/ and Ni/sup 2 +/.

  12. X-Ray Diffraction of Intermetallic Compounds: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Skakuj, Kacper

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an experiment for the undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory in which students synthesize the intermetallic compounds AlNi and AlNi3 and study them by X-ray diffractometry. The compounds are synthesized in a simple one-step reaction occurring in the solid state. Powder X-ray diffractograms are recorded for the two compounds…

  13. Microstructural evolution and intermetallic formation in Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe alloy due to grain refiner and modifier additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassani, Amir; Ranjbar, Khalil; Sami, Sattar

    2012-08-01

    An alloy of Al-8wt% Si-0.8wt% Fe was cast in a metallic die, and its microstructural changes due to Ti-B refiner and Sr modifier additions were studied. Apart from usual refinement and modification of the microstructure, some mutual influences of the additives took place, and no mutual poisoning effects by these additives, in combined form, were observed. It was noticed that the dimensions of the iron-rich intermetallics were influenced by the additives causing them to become larger. The needle-shaped intermetallics that were obtained from refiner addition became thicker and longer when adding the modifier. It was also found that α-Al and eutectic silicon phases preferentially nucleate on different types of intermetallic compounds. The more iron content of the intermetallic compounds and the more changes in their dimensions occurred. Formation of the shrinkage porosities was also observed.

  14. Role of Ag in the formation of interfacial intermetallic phases in Sn-Zn soldering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jenn-Ming; Liu, Pei-Chi; Shih, Chia-Ling; Lin, Kwang-Lung

    2005-09-01

    This study explored the effect of Ag as the substrate or alloying element of solders on the interfacial reaction in Sn-Zn soldering. Results show that instead of Ag-Sn compounds, ζ-AgZn and γ-Ag5Zn8 form at the Sn-Zn/Ag interface. The addition of Ag in Sn-Zn solders leads to the precipitation of ɛ-AgZn3 from the liquid solder on preformed interfacial intermetallics. The morphology of this additional AgZn3 is closely related to the solidification process of Ag-Zn intermetallics and the under intermetallic layer.

  15. Modeling of Intermetallic Compounds Growth Between Dissimilar Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Yin; Prangnell, Philip; Robson, Joseph

    2015-09-01

    A model has been developed to predict growth kinetics of the intermetallic phases (IMCs) formed in a reactive diffusion couple between two metals for the case where multiple IMC phases are observed. The model explicitly accounts for the effect of grain boundary diffusion through the IMC layer, and can thus be used to explore the effect of IMC grain size on the thickening of the reaction layer. The model has been applied to the industrially important case of aluminum to magnesium alloy diffusion couples in which several different IMC phases are possible. It is demonstrated that there is a transition from grain boundary-dominated diffusion to lattice-dominated diffusion at a critical grain size, which is different for each IMC phase. The varying contribution of grain boundary diffusion to the overall thickening kinetics with changing grain size helps explain the large scatter in thickening kinetics reported for diffusion couples produced under different conditions.

  16. On the site preferences of ternary additions to triple defect B2 intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, L.M.; Chen, S.L.; Chang, Y.A.

    1995-12-31

    Knowledge of the site preference of ternary solute additions is essential to developing an understanding of how these solutes affect the properties of B2 intermetallic compounds. A quasichemical model will be presented which is able to predict the site preferences of dilute solute additions to triple defect B2 compounds. The only parameters required are enthalpies of formation at the stoichiometric composition. General equations are developed which can be used to determine site occupations and defect concentrations for dilute as well as non-dilute solute additions. These equations use atom pair bond enthalpies as the parameters. It is found that the site preferences of dilute additions are not always in agreement with predictions based on the solubility lobes in ternary Gibbs isotherms, Predictions for dilute additions to NiAl and FeAl are compared to experimental results found in the literature. Satisfactory correlation is found between the model and the experimental results. In addition, the predictions from the model on vacancy concentrations in Fe doped NiAl are compared to recent experimental results by the authors.

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Properties of Nanoparticles of Intermetallic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2015-03-12

    The research program from 2010 to the end of the grant focused on understanding the factors important to the synthesis of single phase intermetallic nano-particles (NPs), their size, crystalline order, surface properties and electrochemical activity. The synthetic method developed is a co-reduction of mixtures of single metal precursors by strong, soluble reducing agents in a non-protic solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). With some exceptions, the particles obtained by room temperature reduction are random alloys that need to be annealed at modest temperatures (200 to 600 °C) in order to develop an ordered structure. To avoid significant particle size growth and agglomeration, the particles must be protected by surface coatings. We developed a novel method of coating the metal nanoparticles with KCl, a by-product of the reduction reaction if the proper reducing agents are employed. In that case, a composite product containing individual metal nanoparticles in a KCl matrix is obtained. The composite can be heated to at least 600 °C without significant agglomeration or growth in particle size. Washing the annealed product in the presence of catalyst supports in ethylene glycol removes the KCl and deposits the particles on the support. Six publications present the method and its application to producing and studying new catalyst/support combinations for fuel cell applications. Three publications concern the use of related methods to explore new lithium-sulfur battery concepts.

  18. Optical properties of Group X-XII intermetallic compounds studied by HR-EELS.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yohei; Terauchi, Masami; Kameoka, Satoshi; Tsai, An-Pang

    2014-11-01

    Electronic structure of d orbital states in transition metals is a key factor for their physical properties and chemical functions. Copper and intermetallic compound PdZn have good catalysis function for the methanol steam reforming reaction. Tsai et al. showed that from results of XPS measurements the d electronic structure of PdZn was similar with that of copper, and the catalysis function should be related to the d electron states [1]. This similarity of d electronic states leads to another view point of the mechanism for coloring the intermetallic compounds. It is well-known that the characteristic red color of copper is caused by interband transition from the d electrons. Therefore, PdZn and Group X-XII intermetallic compounds are expected to be colored and the optical properties should depend on the d electronic states. In this study, the relations between optical properties and d electron states of Group X-XII intermetallic compounds were investigated by using high energy-resolution electron energy-loss spectroscopy (HR-EELS) based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the relation between optical properties and d electronic states, the mechanism of colored intermetallic compounds will be discussed.Figure shows the optical reflectivity of NiZn, PdZn and PtZn, which were derived from EELS spectra by Kramers-Kronig analysis. Intensity drops (arrows) of the reflectivity were observed in visible energy region. These are caused by the interband transitions from d electronic states. The energy positions of the reflectivity drops have tendency of shifting to higher energy side with increasing atomic number of Group X elements (Ni → Pd → Pt). This indicates that the transition energies of d electrons become larger with the atomic number of the elements. First principle calculations (WIEN2k) confirmed that the interband transitions of d electronic states were excitations from bonding d states to hybrid states of anti-bonding s, p, and d states of Group

  19. Oxidation behavior of plasma sintered beryllium-titanium intermetallic compounds as an advanced neutron multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae-Hwan; Nakamichi, Masaru

    2013-07-01

    Beryllium intermetallic compounds (beryllides) such as Be12Ti are very promising candidates for advanced neutron multiplier materials in a demonstration fusion power reactor (DEMO). However, beryllides are too brittle to be fabricated either into pebble-type or rod-type shapes via conventional methods (i.e. arc melting and hot isostatic pressing). We have proposed a plasma sintering technique as a new method for beryllide fabrication, and our studies on the properties of plasma sintered beryllides are ongoing. In the present work, the oxidation properties of plasma sintered beryllides were investigated at 1273 K for 24 h in a dry air atmosphere to evaluate the high temperature properties of this material. Thermal gravimetry measurements indicate that specimens with larger fractions of Be12Ti phase corresponding to samples that have been sintered for longer time periods, exhibit superior oxidation properties. Our evaluation of the oxidation behavior of each phase in our beryllide samples is as follows: Be12Ti and Be17Ti2 both have good oxidation resistance, owing to the formation of dense and protective scales, while the Be and Be2Ti phases are mainly responsible for thermal-gravimetry (TG) weight gains, which is indicative of severe oxidation. We attribute the degradation in oxidation resistance specifically to Be2Ti that transforms into TiO2, and also find this phase to be the cause of deterioration in the mechanical properties of samples, owing to cracks near Be2Ti phase conglomerates.

  20. Theoretical and positron annihilation study of point defects in intermetallic compound Ni{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Sun; Dongliang Lin

    1994-01-01

    The equilibrium equation of point defects in Ll{sub 2} types of intermetallic compounds was established in a new simple method, which is independent of the chemical potentials. The formation energies of the relevant point defects in Ni{sub 3}Al were calculated by EAM potentials and statical relaxations. The concentration of point defects at 1,000 K as a function of bulk composition and the effect of temperature on them were studied for Ni{sub 3}Al alloy. The results show that the Al-antisites are the constitutional defects in hypostoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al, and the Ni-antisite defects in hyperstoichiometric Ni{sub 3}Al. The two types of vacancies belong to thermal defects. The positron annihilation technique was also conducted to measure the concentration of vacancies in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys with and without boron. Although vacancies interact with the boron dopant, the changes of vacancy concentration Ni{sub 3}Al alloys can not be considered as the main reason in explaining the effect of stoichiometry on the segregation of boron. The effect of stoichiometry on diffusion in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys was discussed additionally.

  1. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-08-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys.

  2. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys. PMID:27488621

  3. Increasing strength and conductivity of Cu alloy through abnormal plastic deformation of an intermetallic compound.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Zeon; Lim, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sangshik; Lee, Jehyun; Goto, Masahiro; Kim, Hyung Giun; Han, Byungchan; Kim, Kwang Ho

    2016-01-01

    The precipitation strengthening of Cu alloys inevitably accompanies lowering of their electric conductivity and ductility. We produced bulk Cu alloys arrayed with nanofibers of stiff intermetallic compound through a precipitation mechanism using conventional casting and heat treatment processes. We then successfully elongated these arrays of nanofibers in the bulk Cu alloys to 400% of original length without breakage at room temperature using conventional rolling process. By inducing such an one-directional array of nanofibers of intermetallic compound from the uniform distribution of fine precipitates in the bulk Cu alloys, the trade-off between strength and conductivity and between strength and ductility could be significantly reduced. We observed a simultaneous increase in electrical conductivity by 1.3 times and also tensile strength by 1.3 times in this Cu alloy bulk compared to the conventional Cu alloys. PMID:27488621

  4. Correlation between valence electronic structure and magnetic properties in RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Qin, Xue; Yong-Quan, Guo

    2016-06-01

    The magnetisms of RCo5 (R = rare earth) intermetallics are systematically studied with the empirical electron theory of solids and molecules (EET). The theoretical moments and Curie temperatures agree well with experimental ones. The calculated results show strong correlations between the valence electronic structure and the magnetic properties in RCo5 intermetallic compounds. The moments of RCo5 intermetallics originate mainly from the 3d electrons of Co atoms and 4f electrons of rare earth, and the s electrons also affect the magnetic moments by the hybridization of d and s electrons. It is found that moment of Co atom at 2c site is higher than that at 3g site due to the fact that the bonding effect between R and Co is associated with an electron transformation from 3d electrons into covalence electrons. In the heavy rare-earth-based RCo5 intermetallics, the contribution to magnetic moment originates from the 3d and 4f electrons. The covalence electrons and lattice electrons also affect the Curie temperature, which is proportional to the average moment along the various bonds. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274110).

  5. Electronic and high pressure elastic properties of RECd and REHg (RE=Sc, La and Yb) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Hansa; Pagare, Gitanjali; Chouhan, Sunil S.; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2015-01-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic and mechanical properties of Cd and Hg based rare earth intermetallics (RECd and REHg; RE=Sc, La and Yb) have been investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FP-LAPW) method within the density-functional theory (DFT). The ground state properties such as lattice constant (a0), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B‧) have been obtained using optimization method and are found in good agreement with the available experimental results. The calculated enthalpy of formation shows that LaHg has the strongest alloying ability and structural stability. The electronic band structures and density of states reveal the metallic character of these compounds. The structural stability mechanism is also explained through the electronic structures of these compounds. The chemical bonding between rare earth atoms and Cd, Hg is interpreted by the charge density plots along (1 1 0) direction. The elastic constants are predicted from which all the related mechanical properties like Poisson's ratio (σ), Young's modulus (E), shear modulus (GH) and anisotropy factor (A) are calculated. The ductility/brittleness of these intermetallics is predicted. Chen's method has been used to predict the Vicker's hardness of RECd and REHg compounds. The pressure variation of the elastic constants is also reported in their B2 phase.

  6. Radiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in intermetallic compounds of the Cu-Ti alloy system

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Devanathan, R. ); Sabochick, M.J. . Computer Applications Div.)

    1992-02-01

    Recent progress in molecular-dynamics studies of radiation-induced crystalline-to-amorphous transition in the ordered intermetallic compounds of the Cu-Ti system is discussed. The effect of irradiation was simulated by the generation of Frenkel pairs,which resulted in both the formation of stable point defects and chemical disorder upon defect recombination. The thermodynamic, structural and mechanical responses of the compounds during irradiation were determined by monitoring changes in the system potential energy, volume expansion, pair correlation function, diffraction patterns, and elastic constants. It was found that the intermetallics Cu{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}, CuTi, and CuTi{sub 2} could be rendered amorphous by the creation of Frenkel pairs, but Cu{sub 4}Ti could not, consistent with experimental observations during electron irradiation. However, the simulations showed that Cu{sub 4}Ti did become amorphous when clusters of Frenkel pairs were introduced, indicating that this compound may be susceptible to amorphization by heavy-ion bombardment. A generalization of the Lindemann criterion was used to develop a thermodynamic description of solid-state amorphization as a disorder- induced melting process.

  7. Hydride Properties and IRON-57 Mossbauer Effect Studies in TITANIUM(COPPER(1-Y)IRON(Y)) Intermetallic Compounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Ahmad

    1987-12-01

    The hydrogen absorption properties of the Ti(Cu _{rm 1-y}Fe _{rm y}) (0 <=q y <=q 1) intermetallic compound were systematically investigated. X-ray diffraction data indicated that the intermetallic compound adopted the gammaTiCu structure for 0 <=q y <=q.1 and crystallized in the TiFe structure for.5 <=q y <=q 1. A mixture of these two phases was observed for 0.1 < y <.5. The lattice parameters for the pure intermetallic compounds and hydrided samples were measured. The heat of hydride formation, DeltaH, as a function of Fe content was determined from pressure-composition isotherms and the Van't Hoff relation. In the composition range 0 <=q y <=q.1 the value of DeltaH varied from -74.3 kJ (mole H_{2 })^{-1} to -59.1 kJ (mole H_{2})^{ -1}. For.5 <=q y <=q 1 it went from -49.5 kJ (mole H_{2})^{-1} to -27.3 kJ (mole H_ {2})^{-1}. We have found that DeltaH values derived from a model proposed by Shilov et al. for calculating DeltaH of the multicomponent hydrides were in good agreement with the experimental data by about 3%. Other properties of the hydride such as hydrogen storage capacity and hysteresis effect were also found to be y dependent. Systematic ^{57}Fe Mossbauer effect studies were also carried out in the intermetallic compound and hydride systems with the emphasis on the isomer shift measurements. The total s-electron densities at the Fe nucleus (|psi_{ rm s}({rm o})|^ {2}) increases when the Fe content y decreases in the pure intermetallic compounds. | psi_{rm s}({rm o })|^{2} decreases with the introduction of the hydrogen. In the hydride system |psi_{rm s}({rm o})|^{2 } was found to be y independent. Interpretation of the data was based on the changes in | psi_{rm s}({rm o })|^{2} due to expansion and contraction of the host lattice and the electronic structure differences. The decrease in | psi_{rm s}({rm o })|^{2} due to the hydrogenation in the TiCu-like hydride (0 <=q y <=q.1) could be accounted for by the volume effect only. For TiFe-like hydride

  8. Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds in solder-substrate reactions due to limited supply of the active element

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S. C.; Ho, C. E.; Chang, C. W.; Kao, C. R.

    2007-04-15

    Massive spalling of intermetallic compounds has been reported in the literature for several solder/substrate systems, including SnAgCu soldered on Ni substrate, SnZn on Cu, high-Pb PbSn on Cu, and high-Pb PbSn on Ni. In this work, a unified thermodynamic argument is proposed to explain this rather unusual phenomenon. According to this argument, two necessary conditions must be met. The number one condition is that at least one of the reactive constituents of the solder must be present in a limited amount, and the second condition is that the soldering reaction has to be very sensitive to its concentration. With the growth of intermetallic, more and more atoms of this constituent are extracted out of the solder and incorporated into the intermetallic. As the concentration of this constituent decreases, the original intermetallic at the interface becomes a nonequilibrium phase, and the spalling of the original intermetallic occurs.

  9. Low temperature properties of some Er-rich intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    K.A. Gshneidner,jr; A.O. Pecharsky; L.Hale; V.K. Pecharsky

    2004-09-30

    The low temperature volumetric heat capacity ({approx}3.5 to 350 K) and magnetic susceptibility ({approx}4 to 320 K) of Er{sub 3}Rh, Er{sub 3}Ir, Er{sub 3}Pt, Er{sub 2}Al, and Er{sub 2}Sn have been measured. All of the compounds order antiferromagnetically (or ferrimagnetically), and most exhibit more than one magnetic ordering transition. The volumetric heat capacities in general are smaller than those of the prototype magnetic regenerator materials, except for Er{sub 3}Ir in the 12 to 14 K temperature range.

  10. Growth behavior of intermetallic compounds during reactive diffusion between aluminum alloy 1060 and magnesium at 573-673 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Lin; Wang, Ning

    2015-01-01

    A potential new research reactor fuel design proposes to use U-Mo fuel in a Mg matrix clad with Al. Interdiffusion between the Mg containing fuel core and Al cladding can result in the formation of intermetallic compounds that can be detrimental to fuel element performance. The kinetics of the reactive diffusion in the binary Al-Mg system was experimentally studied. Layers of the intermetallic compounds, β (Al3Mg2) and γ (Al12Mg17) phases, were formed between the Al alloy 1060 and Mg during annealing. The β layer was observed to grow faster than the γ phase. The thickness of each layer can be expressed by a power function of the annealing time with the exponent n close to 0.5 for the β phase and less than 0.5 for the γ phase. The results suggest that the growth of β phase is controlled by lattice diffusion and that of the γ phase by grain boundary and lattice diffusion. Metallographic examination showed the grain boundary diffusion in the form of columnar growth of γ phase during annealing. Based on the reactive diffusion equation developed in this work, in the absence of irradiation effects, it will take more than 110 h to consume a half thickness of 400 μm of the cladding.

  11. Na-Au intermetallic compounds formed under high pressure at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takemura, K.; Fujihisa, H.

    2011-07-01

    High-pressure powder x-ray diffraction experiments have revealed that sodium and gold react at room temperature and form Na-Au intermetallic compounds under high pressure. We have identified four intermetallic phases up to 60 GPa. The first phase (phase I) is the known Na2Au with the tetragonal CuAl2-type structure. It changed to the second phase (phase II) at ˜0.8 GPa, which has the composition Na3Au with the trigonal Cu3As-type or hexagonal Cu3P-type structure. Phase II further transformed to phase III at 3.6 GPa. Phase III has the same composition, Na3Au, with the cubic BiF3-type structure. Finally, phase III changed to phase IV at ˜54 GPa. Phase IV gives broad diffraction peaks, indicating large structural disorder.

  12. Interaction of Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide with Cerium and Lanthanum Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming

    In intermetallic compounds of Ce, the hybridization of the Ce 4f states and the conduction electron states generally results in an increase of the density of states at the Fermi level and has a profound effect on the transport, thermal, magnetic, and other physical properties of these compounds. In an attempt to determine whether these modifications are reflected in the catalytic properties, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) have been employed for an investigation of the interaction of O_2 and CO with CeIr _2 and its isostructural counterpart LaIr _2. Results from CeIr_2 and LaIr_2 show the following differences: (1) oxygen and carbon penetrate into CeIr _2<=ss deeply than LaIr _2; (2) O_2 and CO exhibit high temperature peaks (at 610 K for O _2 and at 740 and 900 K for CO) in the TPD spectra from the CeIr_2 sample not present in those from the LaIr_2 sample; (3) when the compounds are predosed with CO, substantial thermal desorption of CO_2 occurs from LaIr_2, but none from CeIr _2. Considering that La and Ce are chemically almost identical and the CeIr_2 and LaIr_2 bulk compounds are isostructural, the above differences suggest that the intermediate valence of CeIr_2 affects the interaction with gases. However, no direct relation has been established between the large density of states at the Fermi level and the differences in the interactions, due to the complications related to the presence of CeO _2. Unusual properties discussed are the formation of surface and near-surface oxide species upon exposure to O_2 or CO, the dissociative adsorption of CO and recombination of CO, the production of CO _2, thermal segregation, and subsurface "reservoir" of C and O. Surface and subsurface processes, such as adsorption and penetration, or thermal segregation, recombination, and desorption, are strongly coupled together. A consistent interpretation of the AES data requires consideration of the C and O concentrations occurring in

  13. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    SciTech Connect

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; Weerd, M.-C.; Fournée, V. de; Hahne, M.; Gille, P.; Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M.; Ardini, J.; Held, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Bayer, A.; Lowe, M.; Pussi, K.; Diehl, R. D.

    2015-08-21

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and “global” measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  14. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Gaudry, É.; de Weerd, M.-C.; Hahne, M.; Gille, P.; Ivarsson, D. C. A.; Armbrüster, M.; Ardini, J.; Held, G.; Maccherozzi, F.; Bayer, A.; Lowe, M.; Pussi, K.; Diehl, R. D.; Fournée, V.

    2015-08-01

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ˜580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ˜660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and "global" measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature.

  15. The atomic structure of low-index surfaces of the intermetallic compound InPd.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, G M; Ledieu, J; Gaudry, É; de Weerd, M-C; Hahne, M; Gille, P; Ivarsson, D C A; Armbrüster, M; Ardini, J; Held, G; Maccherozzi, F; Bayer, A; Lowe, M; Pussi, K; Diehl, R D; Fournée, V

    2015-08-21

    The intermetallic compound InPd (CsCl type of crystal structure with a broad compositional range) is considered as a candidate catalyst for the steam reforming of methanol. Single crystals of this phase have been grown to study the structure of its three low-index surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions, using low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). During surface preparation, preferential sputtering leads to a depletion of In within the top few layers for all three surfaces. The near-surface regions remain slightly Pd-rich until annealing to ∼580 K. A transition occurs between 580 and 660 K where In segregates towards the surface and the near-surface regions become slightly In-rich above ∼660 K. This transition is accompanied by a sharpening of LEED patterns and formation of flat step-terrace morphology, as observed by STM. Several superstructures have been identified for the different surfaces associated with this process. Annealing to higher temperatures (≥750 K) leads to faceting via thermal etching as shown for the (110) surface, with a bulk In composition close to the In-rich limit of the existence domain of the cubic phase. The Pd-rich InPd(111) is found to be consistent with a Pd-terminated bulk truncation model as shown by dynamical LEED analysis while, after annealing at higher temperature, the In-rich InPd(111) is consistent with an In-terminated bulk truncation, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the relative surface energies. More complex surface structures are observed for the (100) surface. Additionally, individual grains of a polycrystalline sample are characterized by micro-spot XPS and LEED as well as low-energy electron microscopy. Results from both individual grains and "global" measurements are interpreted based on comparison to our single crystals findings, DFT calculations and previous literature. PMID:26298146

  16. Electric field gradients at Ta in Zr and Hf inter-metallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrazos, L. A.; Petrilli, H. M.; Marszalek, M.; Saitovitch, H.; Silva, P. R. J.; Blaha, P.; Schwarz, K.

    2002-03-01

    Here we calculate the electric field gradient (EFG) at the nucleus of the substitutional Ta impurity site in Zr 2T and Hf 2T (T=Cu, Ag, Au, and Pd) C11 b inter-metallic compounds. We use the ab initio FP-LAPW method as embodied in the Wien97 code in a super-cell approach and include lattice relaxations around the impurity. Our results are compared with EFG values inferred from measurements of the quadrupole coupling constants at the 111Ta probe in these compounds performed with the time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique. We also performed EFG calculations for the pure inter-metallic compounds. Through the comparison of theoretical and experimental EFGs in these cases, we elucidate the role played by the Ta probe in the TDPAC measurements of Hf and Zr compounds. Our results show that, although the EFGs at the Hf site are very similar to the EFGs at the Ta impurity, there is no direct correlation between the Zr and Ta EFGs.

  17. Development of Cu alloy anode and separator coated with Al-Ni intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Toyokura, K.; Hoshino, K.; Yamamoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Anode made of Cu alloy and separator coated with Al-Ni intermetallic compound have been developed for VCFC. Anode of Ni alloy is usually used. However, the alternative of cost lower than Ni alloy anode should be needed, because Ni is expensive. Cu is attractive as an anode material for VCFC because it is inexpensive and electrochemically noble. However, the creep resistance of Cu is not sufficient, compared with Ni alloy. In this study, strengthening due to oxide-dispersed microstructure has been developed in Cu-Ni-Al alloy with the two-step sintering process. A wet-seal technique has been widely applied for gas-sealing and supporting of electrolyte in MCFC. Since the wet-seal area is exposed to a severe corrosive environment, corrosion resistance of material for wet sealing is related with the cell performance. Al-Ni plating with post-heat treating for stainless steel has been investigated. Stainless steel substrate was plated with Al after being coated with Ni, then heat-treated at 750 {degrees}C for 1 hour in Ar gas atmosphere. Due to the treatment, Al-Ni intermetallic compound ( mainly Al3Ni2 ) layer is formed on stainless steel surface. The long-term immersion test was carried out till 14,500 hours in 62 mol% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38 mol% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} at 650 {degrees}C under air-30%CO{sub 2} atmosphere, for the purpose of evaluating the corrosion resistance and thermal stability of Al-Ni intermetallic compound layer in actual generating with VCFC.

  18. Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Nack J

    2015-02-01

    Although steel has been the workhorse of the automotive industry since the 1920s, the share by weight of steel and iron in an average light vehicle is now gradually decreasing, from 68.1 per cent in 1995 to 60.1 per cent in 2011 (refs 1, 2). This has been driven by the low strength-to-weight ratio (specific strength) of iron and steel, and the desire to improve such mechanical properties with other materials. Recently, high-aluminium low-density steels have been actively studied as a means of increasing the specific strength of an alloy by reducing its density. But with increasing aluminium content a problem is encountered: brittle intermetallic compounds can form in the resulting alloys, leading to poor ductility. Here we show that an FeAl-type brittle but hard intermetallic compound (B2) can be effectively used as a strengthening second phase in high-aluminium low-density steel, while alleviating its harmful effect on ductility by controlling its morphology and dispersion. The specific tensile strength and ductility of the developed steel improve on those of the lightest and strongest metallic materials known, titanium alloys. We found that alloying of nickel catalyses the precipitation of nanometre-sized B2 particles in the face-centred cubic matrix of high-aluminium low-density steel during heat treatment of cold-rolled sheet steel. Our results demonstrate how intermetallic compounds can be harnessed in the alloy design of lightweight steels for structural applications and others. PMID:25652998

  19. Determining factor of median diameter in intermetallic compound nanoparticles prepared by pulsed wire discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Shinobu; Koishi, Tetsuya; Tokoi, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    The preparation of NiAl intermetallic compound nanoparticles was carried out by pulsed wire discharge (PWD) using twisted pure Ni and Al wires in N2 ambient gas with varying number of turns of the wire (Nt), energy ratio (K), and ambient gas pressure (P). From the voltage and current waveforms during the wire heating, the energy deposition ratio up to the voltage peak (Kp) was calculated. It increased with an increase in Nt to 0.4 turns/mm and with increases in K and P. Under all the conditions, with an increase in Kp, the Ni composition ratio of the prepared particles (CNi) became closer to that of the wire (= 51.2 mol %). Furthermore, the collection rate (Rc) increased and the median particle diameter (d50) decreased. In particular, the change in d50 due to the change in Nt was not predicted by the relationship of d50 and Dth in our previous report. Single-phase NiAl intermetallic compound nanoparticles were successfully prepared under the condition in which Nt is 0.4 turns/mm, K is 3.4, and P is 100 kPa, where relatively high value of Kp was obtained. From these results, Kp was determined to be an important factor that determines the composition, collection rate, and median diameter of intermetallic compound nanoparticles synthesized by PWD using different kinds of twisted wires under various experimental conditions. This may be because of the selective wire heating in high-resistance parts that are associated with the introduction of lattice defects and/or necks by overwinding.

  20. Brittle intermetallic compound makes ultrastrong low-density steel with large ductility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Heon; Kim, Hansoo; Kim, Nack J.

    2015-02-01

    Although steel has been the workhorse of the automotive industry since the 1920s, the share by weight of steel and iron in an average light vehicle is now gradually decreasing, from 68.1 per cent in 1995 to 60.1 per cent in 2011 (refs 1, 2). This has been driven by the low strength-to-weight ratio (specific strength) of iron and steel, and the desire to improve such mechanical properties with other materials. Recently, high-aluminium low-density steels have been actively studied as a means of increasing the specific strength of an alloy by reducing its density. But with increasing aluminium content a problem is encountered: brittle intermetallic compounds can form in the resulting alloys, leading to poor ductility. Here we show that an FeAl-type brittle but hard intermetallic compound (B2) can be effectively used as a strengthening second phase in high-aluminium low-density steel, while alleviating its harmful effect on ductility by controlling its morphology and dispersion. The specific tensile strength and ductility of the developed steel improve on those of the lightest and strongest metallic materials known, titanium alloys. We found that alloying of nickel catalyses the precipitation of nanometre-sized B2 particles in the face-centred cubic matrix of high-aluminium low-density steel during heat treatment of cold-rolled sheet steel. Our results demonstrate how intermetallic compounds can be harnessed in the alloy design of lightweight steels for structural applications and others.

  1. Properties Evaluation and Studying Production Mechanism of Nanocrystalline NiAl Intermetallic Compound by Mechanical Alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajesarvi, Ali; Akbari, Golamhossein

    2016-04-01

    Ni50Al50 intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of elemental mixtures of Ni and Al powders in a planetary ball mill. After 16 hours of milling and obtaining crystallites with a critical size, the initial NiAl compound was formed along with the combustive reaction after opening the vial lid. In the time interval of 16 to 128 hours, the reaction from combustive state reached the explosive state. Finally, after 128 hours of milling, the initial powders were wholly transformed into NiAl before completion of the milling time. Structural changes of powder particles during MA were studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallite size measurements revealed that the grain size of the NiAl phase decreased from 155 to 26 nm with increasing MA time from 8 to 128 hours. Microhardness for nanocrystalline Ni50Al50 intermetallic compound produced after 128 hours of milling was measured as about 350 Hv.

  2. Wear Properties of Intermetallic Compound Reinforced Functionally Graded Materials Fabricated by Centrifugal Solid-particle and In-Situ Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Sato, Hisashi; Fukui, Yasuyoshi

    One of the functionally graded material (FGM) fabrication methods is a centrifugal method, which is an application of the centrifugal casting technique. The centrifugal force applied to a homogeneous molten composite assists the formation of the desired gradation. In this paper, the wear properties of two kinds of Al base FGMs, namely Al-Al3Ti FGM and Al-Al3Ni FGM, are reported. The former and the latter hold the oriented intermetallic compound platelets and the particle size gradient, respectively. Here, volume fraction, size, shape and orientation of the reinforcements in the composite play an important role in improving the mechanical properties of the materials, whereby FGMs with oriented platelets or particle size gradient may have special mechanical properties such as increased wear resistance. Based on the experimental results, the origin of anisotropic wear resistance and the effect of particle size on the wear properties are discussed.

  3. Extreme Poisson's ratios and their electronic origin in B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. F.; Jones, Travis E.; Li, W.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2012-04-01

    Negative Poisson's ratios have been observed in a variety of metals and alloys. However, the electronic origin of this effect remains unclear, as is evident by our limited knowledge about intermetallics showing this behavior. In an effort to clarify the electronic origin of a negative Poisson's ratio, we have performed a systematic and comprehensive study of extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios behavior in the B2 CsCl-type AB intermetallic family (including 14 common intermetallics and 128 rare-earth-metal transition or main-group-metal intermetallics) by way of density functional theory calculations. We found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratios and the elastic anisotropy, with approximately 70% of the B2 intermetallics showing intrinsic auxetic behavior. We went on to examine the topology and geometry of the electron charge density and found that the extreme Poisson's ratios are attributable to the directionality of the bonds of the material. Auxetic materials were found to have nondirectional bonds, and nonauxetic compounds had directional bonds. Our findings provide an essential electronic perspective to forecast the auxetic behavior, and suggest a new application for intermetallic compounds.

  4. Intermetallic Formation at Interface of Al/Cu Clad Fabricated by Hydrostatic Extrusion and Its Properties.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongbeom; Jeong, Haguk

    2015-11-01

    Al/Cu clad composed of Al core and Cu sheath has been produced by hydrostatic extrusion at 523 K, at an extrusion rate of 27. The prepared specimen was post-annealed at temperatures of 673 K and 773 K for various time durations, and the effect of annealing conditions have been analyzed. The hardness at the interface between Al and Cu matrix of the Al/Cu bimetal clad increases because of annealing. Results indicate that the hardness is more sensitive to annealing temperature than the annealing time. Three kinds of intermetallic compounds (IMC), namely, CuAl, Cu3Al2, and CuAl2, are formed at the Al-Cu interface, upon annealing at 673 K. On the other hand, four kinds of IMCs, namely, Cu4Al3, CuAl, Cu3Al2, CuAl2, are formed at the annealing temperature of 773 K. The growth of each IMC follows the parabolic law as a function of annealing times at certain annealing temperature. The growth rate of each IMC is limited to its interdiffusion rate constant. The IMC Cu4Al3 appears upon annealing at 773 K, and not during annealing at 673 K, because of the higher value of activation energy associated with its formation, when compared to other IMCs. PMID:26726557

  5. Surface structures of In-Pd intermetallic compounds. II. A theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gaudry, É.; McGuirk, G. M.; Ledieu, J.; Fournée, V.

    2014-08-28

    The (110) surface of the InPd intermetallic compound and the In–Pd surface alloy properties are investigated in the framework of the density functional theory, within the projector augmented plane-wave method. Surface segregation is calculated to be energetically unfavorable at stoichiometric InPd(110) surfaces, while indium antisites are shown to segregate to the surface in off-stoichiometric InPd(110) systems. Concerning surface alloys obtained by burying In-doped Pd layers in Pd(111), we demonstrated that the most stable ones are those presenting atomic indium concentrations below 50 at. % (11 at. %, 25 at. %, 33 at. %). According to our calculations, the In-doped Pd layers with concentration above or equal to 50% lead to In-doped Pd multilayers, each presenting an atomic indium concentration below 50 at. %. Alloying and segregation effects in InPd intermetallic compound and In–Pd surface alloys clearly agree with the larger bonding strength of In–Pd (−0.44 eV) compared to In–In (−0.29 eV) and Pd–Pd (−0.31 eV)

  6. TDPAC Study of the Intermetallic Compound HfCo3B2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaar, I.; Halevy, I.; Salhov, S.; Caspi, E. N.; Dubman, M.; Kahane, S.; Berant, Z.

    2004-11-01

    The electronic properties of the intermetallic compound HfCo3B2 were investigated using combined TDPAC measurements and first principles LAPW calculations. The V zz value at the hafnium site is determined from dominant positive p p contribution, with less than 20%, negative s d and d d contributions. Based on the calculated density of state (DOS) at 0 K, a band contribution ( γ band) of 7.26 (mJ/mol/K2) to the value of the electronic specific heat coefficient ( γ) was obtained. This relatively low γ band value is attributed to the hybridization between hafnium d-states, boron 2 p-states and cobalt 3 d-states, formed at the energy interval below E Fermi. This hybridization, together with the dip in the DOS around E Fermi, implies a possible reduction of the low temperature magnetic moment in this compound.

  7. Influence of magnetic fluctuations in the magnetocaloric effect on rare-earth intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, P.; Gorria, P.; Blanco, J. A.

    2011-07-01

    A theoretical model including both crystal-field and exchange interactions that considers the effect of magnetic fluctuations is developed to evaluate the temperature dependence of the isothermal magnetic entropy changes in ferromagnetic rare-earth-based intermetallic compounds. The Green’s functions are derived from their equation of motion. The magnetic moment correlation functions are determined beyond the random phase approximation by incorporating a measure of magnetic spontaneous fluctuations in a way that ensures self-consistency with regard to the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In particular, the exact magnitude of the entropy change without magnetic moment fluctuations depends on the ratio of both the crystal-field first- and the crystal-field third-order magnetic susceptibilities at the Curie temperature, TC. These theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data on cubic RM2 (R=rareearth and M=Al and Ni) compounds, where the principal crystal-field and exchange parameters are well known.

  8. First principles calculations of the optical and plasmonic response of Au alloys and intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Keast, V J; Barnett, R L; Cortie, M B

    2014-07-30

    Pure Au is widely used in plasmonic applications even though its use is compromised by significant losses due to damping. There are some elements that are less lossy than Au (e.g. Ag or Al) but they will normally oxidize or corrode under ambient conditions. Here we examine whether alloying Au with a second element would be beneficial for plasmonic applications. In order to evaluate potential alternatives to pure Au, the density of states (DOS), dielectric function and plasmon quality factor have been calculated for alloys and compounds of Au with Al, Cd, Mg, Pd, Pt, Sn, Ti, Zn and Zr. Substitutional alloying of Au with Al, Cd, Mg and Zn was found to slightly improve the plasmonic response. Of the large number of intermetallic compounds studied, only AuAl2, Au3Cd, AuMg, AuCd and AuZn were found to be suitable for plasmonic applications. PMID:25001413

  9. First principles calculations of the optical and plasmonic response of Au alloys and intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keast, V. J.; Barnett, R. L.; Cortie, M. B.

    2014-07-01

    Pure Au is widely used in plasmonic applications even though its use is compromised by significant losses due to damping. There are some elements that are less lossy than Au (e.g. Ag or Al) but they will normally oxidize or corrode under ambient conditions. Here we examine whether alloying Au with a second element would be beneficial for plasmonic applications. In order to evaluate potential alternatives to pure Au, the density of states (DOS), dielectric function and plasmon quality factor have been calculated for alloys and compounds of Au with Al, Cd, Mg, Pd, Pt, Sn, Ti, Zn and Zr. Substitutional alloying of Au with Al, Cd, Mg and Zn was found to slightly improve the plasmonic response. Of the large number of intermetallic compounds studied, only AuAl2, Au3Cd, AuMg, AuCd and AuZn were found to be suitable for plasmonic applications.

  10. Lattice dynamics of the mixed-conducting intermetallic compound,. beta. -LiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, T.O.; Robinson, J.E.; Susman, S.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Dejus, R.; Skoeld K.

    1983-04-01

    The intermetallic compound, ..beta..-LiAl, that crystallizes in the uncommon Zintl structure is a mixed-conducting electrode and has many unusual properties pointing to the existence of unusual bonding in the semi-metallic compound. In order to elucidate the nature of the bonding in LiAl, we have studied the lattice dynamics of ..beta..-LiAl by inelastic neutron scattering. Results for the phonon dispersion curves have been obtained for the principal symmetry directions. A force constant fit to the results indicates that the Al-Al force constants are unusually large. Pair potentials were constructed by conventional pseudopotential calculations. The pair interactions favoring the Zintl structure were used to compute phonon dispersion curves. Good agreement between theory and experiment can be obtained for the acoustic branches.

  11. A review on the synthesis, crystal growth, structure and physical properties of rare earth based quaternary intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumbaraddi, Dundappa; Sarkar, Sumanta; Peter, Sebastian C.

    2016-04-01

    This review highlights the synthesis and crystal growth of quaternary intermetallic compounds based on rare earth metals. In the first part of this review, we highlight briefly about intermetallics and their versatile properties in comparison to the constituent elements. In the next part, we have discussed about various synthesis techniques with more focus on the metal flux technique towards the well shaped crystal growth of novel compounds. In the subsequent parts, several disordered quaternary compounds have been reviewed and then outlined most known ordered quaternary compounds with their complex structure. A special attention has been given to the ordered compounds with structural description and relation to the parent binary and ternary compounds. The importance of electronic and structural feature is highlighted as the key roles in designing these materials for emerging applications.

  12. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules L.

    2015-11-20

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  13. Intermetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Dileep; Yusufoglu, Yusuf; Timofeeva, Elena; Routbort, Jules

    2015-07-14

    A process for preparing intermetallic nanoparticles of two or more metals is provided. In particular, the process includes the steps: a) dispersing nanoparticles of a first metal in a solvent to prepare a first metal solution, b) forming a reaction mixture with the first metal solution and a reducing agent, c) heating the reaction mixture to a reaction temperature; and d) adding a second metal solution containing a salt of a second metal to the reaction mixture. During this process, intermetallic nanoparticles, which contain a compound with the first and second metals are formed. The intermetallic nanoparticles with uniform size and a narrow size distribution is also provided. An electrochemical device such as a battery with the intermetallic nanoparticles is also provided.

  14. Photoemission Study of the Rare Earth Intermetallic Compounds: RNi2Ge2 (R=Eu, Gd)

    SciTech Connect

    Jongik Park

    2004-12-19

    EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} are two members of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} (R = rare earth, T = transition metal and X = Si, Ge) family of intermetallic compounds, which has been studied since the early 1980s. These ternary rare-earth intermetallic compounds with the tetragonal ThCr{sub 2}Si{sub 2} structure are known for their wide variety of magnetic properties, Extensive studies of the RT{sub 2}X{sub 2} series can be found in Refs [ 1,2,3]. The magnetic properties of the rare-earth nickel germanides RNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} were recently studied in more detail [4]. The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the electronic structure (both valence band and shallow core levels) of single crystals of EuNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and GdNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} and to check the assumptions that the f electrons are non-interacting and, consequently, the rigid-band model for these crystals would work [11], using synchrotron radiation because, to the best of our knowledge, no photoemission measurements on those have been reported. Photoemission spectroscopy has been widely used to study the detailed electronic structure of metals and alloys, and especially angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has proven to be a powerful technique for investigating Fermi surfaces (FSs) of single-crystal compounds.

  15. Crystallization behavior of iron-containing intermetallic compounds in 319 aluminum alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, L.A.; Samuel, F.H. ); Gruzleski, J.E. . Dept. of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering)

    1994-08-01

    The crystallization behavior of iron-containing intermetallic compounds in industrial grade 319 aluminum alloy has been investigated by means of thermal analysis and metallography. In the absence of manganese, the iron compound crystallizes in the [beta] phase, at all cooling rates ranging from 0.1 C/s to 20 C/s under normal casting temperatures (750 C). However, when the melt is superheated to a high temperature (about 200 to 300 degrees above the liquidus temperature), the iron compound crystallizes in the [alpha] phase at high cooling rates. This is due to the fact that [gamma] alumina, which forms at low melt temperatures ([<=]750 C), acts as a nucleus for crystallization of [beta] phase. When the melt is superheated to high temperatures ([>=] 850 C), the [gamma] alumina transforms to [alpha] alumina. This is a poor nucleus for the [beta]-phase crystallization, and as a result, [alpha] phase forms. The importance of nucleation and growth undercooling for the crystallization of iron compounds is highlighted. In the presence of manganese, the iron compound crystallizes in [alpha] phase at low cooling rates and in both the [alpha] and [beta] phases at high cooling rates. This reverse crystallization behavior is explained in terms of phase diagram relationships.

  16. Multiscale Study of Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in a Dissimilar Al 6082-T6/Cu Friction-Stir Weld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avettand-Fenoël, M. N.; Taillard, R.; Ji, G.; Goran, D.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the Al x Cu y intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the abutting interface during solid-state friction-stir welding (FSW) of 6082 aluminum alloy and pure copper. As IMCs are potential sources of flaws in case of mechanical loading of welds, their study is essential at various scale lengths. In the present case, they have been identified by neutron diffraction, electron backscattered diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Neutron diffraction analyses have shown that a shift of the tool from the interface, in particular towards the Cu part, generates an increase of the IMCs' volume fraction. In accordance with an exacerbation of its kinetics of formation by FSW, a 4- μm-thick layer has precipitated at the interface despite the shortness of the thermal cycle. This layer is composed of two sublayers with the Al4Cu9 and Al2Cu stoichiometry, respectively. Convergent beam electron diffraction analyses have, however, disclosed that the crystallography of the current Al2Cu compound does not comply with the usual tetragonal symmetry of this phase. The Al2Cu phase formation results from both the local chemical composition and thermodynamics, whereas the development of Al4Cu9 is rather due to both the local chemical composition and the shortness of the local FSW thermal cycle.

  17. Layered antiferromagnetism with high Neel temperature in the intermetallic compound Mn2Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Mohn, Peter

    2008-10-01

    On the basis of earlier experimental studies the intermetallic compound Mn2Au has been characterized as a nonmagnetically ordered material. Here we report the results of first-principles calculations based on local spin-density approximation that describes Mn2Au to have a narrow band ground state with rigid local moments on the Mn sites. Calculations of the interatomic exchange constants based on the magnetic force theorem and a Monte Carlo modeling of the resulting Heisenberg-like Hamiltonian predict a high Neel temperature of ˜1600 K. This temperature is considerably higher than for the other known high-temperature antiferromagnetic L10-type Mn based binary alloys used in magnetic storage applications.

  18. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Ellis, T.W.

    1994-11-29

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material. 9 figures.

  19. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Iver E.; Lograsso, Barbara K.; Ellis, Timothy W.

    1994-01-01

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material.

  20. Cutting tool performance characteristics in the machining of a nickel aluminide intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, S.; Srivatsan, T.S.; Giusti, P.

    1994-05-01

    Ductile nickel aluminide, Ni{sub 3}Al, containing traces of boron, is an intermetallic compound with high strength, making it a promising structural material for elevated, ambient and cryogenic temperature applications. In order to be able to use alloys, they must be capable of being fabricated by machining. The machinability of a cast nickel aluminide, Ni{sub 3}Al, alloy containing boron was studied by conventional machining using the lathe. Three different cutting tool inserts and two types of coolants, namely kerosene oil mist and soluble oil, were chosen. The machining performance of the cutting tool insert and the influence of coolant type were established through measurements of volume of material removed and tool wear. The tool wear analysis was made using microscopic examination of the cutting tool insert in order to elucidate information of the influence of machining parameters and choice of coolant on performance capability of the insert. The overall machinability performance of these materials is rationalized.

  1. Intermetallic compounds, copper and palladium alloys in Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard pluton, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudashevsky, N. S.; Rudashevsky, V. N.; Nielsen, T. F. D.

    2015-12-01

    Copper-palladium intermetallic compounds and alloys (2314 grains) from the Au-Pd ore of the Skaergaard layered gabbroic pluton have been studied. Skaergaardite PdCu, nielsenite PdCu3, (Cu,Pd)β, (Cu,Pd)α, (Pd,Cu,Au,Pt) alloys, and native palladium have been identified as a result of 1680 microprobe analyses. The average compositions and various chemical varieties of these minerals are characterized, as well as vertical and lateral zoning in distribution of noble metals. The primary Pd-Cu alloys were formed within a wide temperature interval broadly synchronously with cooling and crystallization of host gabbro and in close association with separation of Fe-Cu sulfide liquid. In the course of crystallization of residual gabbroic melt enriched in iron, noble and heavy metals and saturated with the supercritical aqueous fluid, PGE and Au are selectively concentrated in the Fe-Cu sulfide phase as Pd-Cu and Cu-Au alloys.

  2. Multiconfigurational nature of 5f orbitals in uranium and plutonium and their intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Corwin

    2013-03-01

    The structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of U and Pu elements and intermetallics remain poorly understood despite decades of effort, and currently represent an important scientific frontier toward understanding matter. The last decade has seen great progress both due to the discovery of superconductivity in PuCoGa5 and advances in theory that finally can explain fundamental ground state properties in elemental plutonium, such as the phonon dispersion curve, the non-magnetic ground state, and the volume difference between the α and δ phases. A new feature of the recent calculations is the presence not only of intermediate valence of the Pu 5f electrons, but of multiconfigurational ground states, where the different properties of the α and δ phases are primarily governed by the different relative weights of the 5f4, 5f5, and 5f6 electronic configurations. The usual method for measuring multiconfigurational states in the lanthanides is to measure the lanthanide LIII-edge x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), a method that is severely limited for the actinides because the spectroscopic features are not well enough separated. Advances in resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) have now allowed for spectra with sufficient resolution to resolve individual resonances associated with the various actinide valence states. Utilizing a new spectrometer at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL), RXES data have been collected that show, for the first time, spectroscopic signatures of each of these configurations and their relative changes in various uranium and plutonium intermetallic compounds. In combination with conventional XANES spectra on related compounds, these data indicate such states may be ubiquitous in uranium and plutonium intermetallics, providing a new framework toward understanding properties ranging from heavy fermion behavior, superconductivity, and intermediate valence to mechanical and fundamental bonding behavior in

  3. Fundamental study about CO2 laser welding of titanium aluminide intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Gaku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Nanri, Kenzo; Ootani, Masanori; Tetsuka, Masato; Seto, Sachio; Arai, Mikiya; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-11-01

    Titanium aluminide intermetallic compound is attracting attentions as heat-resistant and high-specific strength material in the next generation, especially, it is promising material in the field of aerospace components. Conventional machining process including welding, however, can be hardly applied due to its very low ductility. The objective of this study, as a first stage, is to find out paying attention to crack and hardness the fundamental good conditions of the bead-on-plate welding of TiAl intermetallic compound using CO2 laser irradiation. In the experiment, we used the casting gamma titanium aluminide contained iron, vanadium and boron with a thickness of 2mm. We carried out bead-on-plate laser welding in the titanium aluminide material in inert gas environment filled with argon. We measured fused depth, Vickers hardness, transverse crack numbers and so on as major parameters of welding speed from 1000 to 4600 mm/min and initial temperature of specimen from R.T. to 873 K with a beam spot size of 0.5 mm and an output power of 1.5 kW. In addition, the specimens were analyzed by Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analyzer, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffractometry. As a result of experiments, transverse crack-free welding was achieved, when initial temperature was at 873 K. In every condition, the value of Vickers hardness of fused zone increased compared with base. We think the reason of it is an increase of (alpha) 2(Ti3Al) phase, which is caused by rapid cooling, taking in Oxygen, fine structure and so on.

  4. Whisker formation in Sn and Pb-Sn coatings: Role of intermetallic growth, stress evolution, and plastic deformation processes

    SciTech Connect

    Chason, E.; Jadhav, N.; Kumar, K. S.; Chan, W. L.; Reinbold, L.

    2008-04-28

    We have simultaneously measured the evolution of intermetallic volume, stress, and whisker density in Sn and Pb-Sn alloy layers on Cu to study the fundamental mechanisms controlling whisker formation. For pure Sn, the stress becomes increasingly compressive and then saturates, corresponding to a plastically deformed region spreading away from the growing intermetallic particles. Whisker nucleation begins after the stress saturates. Pb-Sn layers have similar intermetallic growth kinetics but the resulting stress and whisker density are much less. Measurements after sputtering demonstrate the important role of the surface oxide in inhibiting stress relaxation.

  5. Effects of Bonding Wires and Epoxy Molding Compound on Gold and Copper Ball Bonds Intermetallic Growth Kinetics in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, C. L.; Classe, F. C.; Chan, B. L.; Hashim, U.

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the influence of bonding wires and epoxy mold compounds (EMC) on intermetallic compound (IMC) diffusion kinetics and apparent activation energies ( E aa) of CuAl and AuAl IMCs in a fineline ball grid array package. The objective of this study is to study the CuAl and AuAl IMC growth rates with different epoxy mold compounds and to determine the apparent activation energies of different combination of package bills of materials. IMC thickness measurement has been carried out to estimate the coefficient of diffusion ( D o) and E aa various aging conditions of different EMCs and bonding wires. Apparent activation energies ( E aa) of both wire types were investigated after high temperature storage life tests (HTSL) for both molding compounds. Au bonds were identified to have faster IMC formation, compared to slower IMC growth of Cu. The E aa obtained for CuAl IMC diffusion kinetics are 1.08 and 1.04 eV with EMC A and EMC B, respectively. For AuAl IMC diffusion kinetics, the E aa obtained are 1.04 and 0.98 eV, respectively, on EMC A and EMC B. These values are close to previous HTSL studies conducted on Au and Cu ball bonds and are in agreement to the theory of HTSL performance of Au and Cu bonding wires.Overall, EMC B shows slightly lower apparent activation energy ( E aa) valueas in CuAl and AuAl IMCs. This proves that the different types of epoxy mold compounds have some influence on IMC growth rates.

  6. Atomic disorder induced by mechanical milling in the intermetallic compound CoAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, L. M.; Bakker, H.; de Boer, F. R.

    1992-10-01

    The stoichiometric intermetallic compound CoAl with the CsCl-structure was subjected to ball milling. Structural changes during ball milling were studied by measurements of the magnetization and the lattice parameter. The behaviour of Coal upon milling turns out to be quite similar to that of CoGa. The increase of the magnetization and the decrease of the lattice parameter with the milling time show that, similar to CoGa, triple-defect disorder is generated by ball milling. By comparing the measured magnetization to the magnetization of Co xAl 100- x compounds with excess Co, the concentration of defects is derived for milled samples. In order to interpret our results, the existing experimental data of lattice parameters, X-ray densities calculated from the lattice parameters and macroscopic densities for Co xAl 100- x compounds were analyzed according to Edelin's equations. The defect volumes for vacancies and anti-site atoms obtained by fitting these experimental data have reasonable values. By means of the defect concentrations obtained from our magnetization measurements and the defect volumes by fitting the experimental data, the change of the lattice parameter was calculated by means of Edelin's equation. The agreement between the calculated lattice parameter and the measured lattice parameter is quite satisfactory.

  7. Observation of superconductivity in the intermetallic compound β-IrSn4.

    PubMed

    Tran, Vinh Hung; Bukowski, Zbigniew; Wiśniewski, Piotr; Tran, Lan Maria; Zaleski, Andrzej J

    2013-04-17

    Low-temperature dc-magnetization, ac electrical resistivity and specific heat measurements were performed on single crystals of the intermetallic compound β-IrSn4. The compound crystallizes in the tetragonal MoSn4-type structure (space group I41/acd) and exhibits superconductivity below Tc = 0.9 ± 0.05 K. Further, the magnitude of the ratios ΔCp/(γnkBTc) = 1.29, 2Δ/(kBTc) = 3.55 and of the electron-phonon coupling λ[overline](e-ph) = 0.5 imply that superconductivity in β-IrSn4 can be ascribed to a s-wave weak coupling regime. We determined crucial thermodynamic characteristics of the superconducting state. It turned out that depending on the assumption of either a spherical or non-spherical Fermi surface, the superconductivity can be ascribed to either a type-I and type-II/1 or type-II in clean limit, respectively. However, the behavior of the upper critical field and the anisotropic crystalline structure of the studied compound provide strong support to the type-II superconductivity. In the normal state the resistivity exhibits a prominent quadratic temperature dependence, which together with a large Kadowaki-Woods ratio and with the enhanced effective mass indicate that the electrons in β-IrSn4 are strongly correlated. PMID:23529025

  8. Elastic and Thermodynamic Properties of Complex Mg-Al Intermetallic Compounds via Orbital-Free Density Functional Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Houlong; Chen, Mohan; Carter, Emily A.

    2016-06-01

    Magnesium-aluminum (Mg-Al) alloys are important metal alloys with a wide range of engineering applications. We investigate the elastic and thermodynamic properties of Mg, Al, and four stoichiometric Mg-Al compounds including Mg17Al12 , Mg13Al14 , and Mg23Al30 , and MgAl2 with orbital-free density-functional theory (OFDFT). We first calculate the lattice constants, zero-temperature formation energy, and independent elastic constants of these six materials and compare the results to those computed via Kohn-Sham DFT (KSDFT) benchmarks. We obtain excellent agreement between these two methods. Our calculated elastic constants of hexagonal close-packed Mg and face-centered-cubic Al are also consistent with available experimental data. We next compute their phonon spectra using the force constants extracted from the very fast OFDFT calculations, because such calculations are computationally challenging using KSDFT. This is especially the case for the Mg23Al30 compound, whose 3 ×3 ×3 supercell consists of 1431 atoms. We finally employ the quasiharmonic approximation to investigate temperature-dependent thermodynamic properties, including formation energies, heat capacities, and thermal expansion of the four Mg-Al intermetallic compounds. The calculated heat capacity and thermal expansion of both Mg and Al agree well with experimental data. We additionally find that Mg13Al14 and MgAl2 are both unstable, consistent with their absence from the equilibrium Mg-Al phase diagram. Our work demonstrates that OFDFT is an efficient and accurate quantum-mechanical computational tool for predicting elastic and thermodynamic properties of complicated Mg-Al alloys and also should be applicable to many other engineering alloys.

  9. Growth of a Au-Ni-Sn intermetallic compound on the solder-substrate interface after aging

    SciTech Connect

    Minor, Andrew M.; Morris, J.W., Jr.

    1999-12-16

    Au/Ni metallization has become increasingly common in microelectronic packaging when Cu pads are joined with Pb-Sn solder. The outermost Au layer serves to protect the pad from corrosion and oxidation and the Ni layer provides a diffusion barrier to inhibit detrimental growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics. As a result of reflowing eutectic Pb-Sn on top of Au/Ni metallization, the as-solidified joints have AuSn{sub 4} precipitates distributed throughout the bulk of the solder joint, and Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 4} intermetallics at the interface. Recent work has shown that the Au-Sn redeposits onto the interface during aging, compromising the strength of the joint. The present work shows that the redeposited intermetallic layer is a ternary compound with stoichiometry Au{sub 0.5}Ni{sub 0.5}Sn{sub 4}. The growth of this intermetallic layer was investigated, and results show that the ternary compound is observed to grow after as little as 3 hours at 150 C and after 3 weeks at 150 C has grown to a thickness of 10 {micro}m. Additionally, methods for inhibiting the growth of the ternary layer were investigated and it was determined that multiple reflows, both with and without additional aging can substantially limit the thickness of the ternary layer.

  10. Magnetic susceptibility and parameters of electronic structure of Al2REM (Gd, Dy, and Ho) intermetallic compounds at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uporova, N. S.; Uporov, S. A.; Sidorov, V. E.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetic susceptibility of Al2REM (REM = Gd, Dy, and Ho) intermetallic compounds is experimentally investigated by the Faraday method in a wide temperature interval (290-2000 K) in different magnetic fields (0.3-1.3 T). In the crystalline state, the temperature dependences of the susceptibility follow the generalized Curie-Weiss law. In the liquid phase, the magnetic susceptibility of these intermetallic compounds above the melting point increases for all examined samples. The parameters of the electronic structure of the compounds are calculated based on the experimental data. It is established that the effective magnetic moment per rareearth metal atom is smaller than that characteristic of the free REM+ ion.

  11. Positron annihilation study of the influence of doping on the 3 d electron states in the Ni3Al intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhkov, A. P.; Perminov, D. A.; Stepanova, N. N.

    2010-10-01

    The 3 d electron states in Ni3Al single crystals doped with Fe, Co, and Nb have been investigated using angular correlation of annihilation radiation (ACAR). The ACAR spectra contain information on the momentum distribution of valence electrons and strongly bound 3 d electrons of the intermetallic compound. It has been established that the positrons in the Ni3Al crystals predominantly annihilate in the nickel sublattice from delocalized states. The doping of the compound by the third element leads to a variation in the momentum distribution of Ni 3 d electrons due to the change in the character of interatomic bonds. An analysis of the momentum distribution has demonstrated that the niobium atoms increase the covalent component of the chemical bond as compared to the binary compound due to the d Nb- d Ni hybridization. The doping with cobalt atoms also enhances the tendency toward the formation of the covalent bond. At the same time, iron atoms have a weak effect on the electronic structure of the intermetallic compound.

  12. Atomistic simulation of radiation-induced amorphization of the B2 ordered intermetallic compound NiTi

    SciTech Connect

    Sabochick, M.J. . Dept. of Engineering Physics); Lam, N.Q. )

    1990-12-01

    Amorphization of the B2 intermetallic compound NiTi under electron irradiation has been investigated using molecular dynamics. The effect of irradiation was simulated using two processes: (1) Ni and Ti atoms were exchanged, resulting in chemical disorder, and (2) Frenkel pairs were introduced, leading to the formation of stable point defects and also chemical disorder upon mutual recombination of interstitials and vacancies. After {approximately}0.4 exchanges per atom, the first process resulted in an energy increase of approximately 0.11 eV/atom and a volume increase of 1.91%. On the other hand, after introducing {approximately}0.5 Frenkel pairs per atom, the second process led to smaller increases of 0.092 eV/atom in energy and 1.43% in volume. The calculated radial distribution functions (RDFs) were essentially identical to each other and to the calculated RDF of a quenched liquid. The structure factor, however, showed that long-range order was still present after atom exchanges, while the introduction of Frenkel pairs resulted in the loss of long-range order. It was concluded that point defects are necessary for amorphization to occur in NiTi, although chemical disorder alone is capable of storing enough energy to make the transition possible. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  13. In situ study on the effect of thermomigration on intermetallic compounds growth in liquid-solid interfacial reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Lin; Zhao, Ning; Ma, Haitao Zhao, Huijing; Huang, Mingliang

    2014-05-28

    Synchrotron radiation real-time imaging technology was carried out in situ to observe and characterize the effect of thermomigration on the growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Cu/Sn/Cu solder joint during soldering. The thermomigration resulted in asymmetrical formation and growth of the interfacial IMCs. Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 3}Sn IMCs formed at the cold end and grew rapidly during the whole soldering process. However, only Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC formed at the hot end and remained relatively thin until solidification. The IMCs at the cold end were nearly seven times thicker than that at the hot end after solidification. The Cu dissolution at the cold end was significantly restrained, while that at the hot end was promoted, which supplied Cu atoms to diffuse toward the cold end under thermomigration to feed the rapid IMC growth. Moreover, the thermomigration also caused asymmetrical morphology of the interfacial IMCs at the cooling stage, i.e., the Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} IMC at the cold end transformed into facet structure, while that at the hot end remained scallop-type. The asymmetrical growth behavior of the interfacial IMCs was analyzed from the view point of kinetics.

  14. Investigation of Dissolution Behavior of Metallic Substrates and Intermetallic Compound in Molten Lead-free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Yee-Wen; Chou, Weng-Ting; Tseng, Yu; Lee, Chiapyng; Hsu, Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the dissolution behavior of the metallic substrates Cu and Ag and the intermetallic compound (IMC)-Ag3Sn in molten Sn, Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, Sn-58Bi and Sn-9Zn (in wt.%) at 300, 270 and 240°C. The dissolution rates of both Cu and Ag in molten solder follow the order Sn > Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu >Sn-58Bi > Sn-9Zn. Planar Cu3Sn and scalloped Cu6Sn5 phases in Cu/solders and the scalloped Ag3Sn phase in Ag/solders are observed at the metallic substrate/solder interface. The dissolution mechanism is controlled by grain boundary diffusion. The planar Cu5Zn8 layer formed in the Sn-9Zn/Cu systems. AgZn3, Ag5Zn8 and AgZn phases are found in the Sn-9Zn/Ag system and the dissolution mechanism is controlled by lattice diffusion. Massive Ag3Sn phases dissolved into the solders and formed during solidification processes in the Ag3Sn/Sn or Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu systems. AgZn3 and Ag5Zn8 phases are formed at the Sn-9Zn/Ag3Sn interface. Zn atoms diffuse through Ag-Zn IMCs to form (Ag, Zn)Sn4 and Sn-rich regions between Ag5Zn8 and Ag3Sn.

  15. Discovery and characterization of magnetism in sigma-phase intermetallic Fe-Re compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Cieślak, J. Dubiel, S. M.; Tobola, J.; Reissner, M.

    2014-11-14

    Systematic experimental studies (vibrating sample magnetometry) supported by theoretical calculations (electronic structure by spin self-consistent Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker Green's function method) were performed on a series of intermetallic sigma-phase Fe{sub 100−x}Re{sub x} (x = 43–53) compounds. All investigated samples exhibit magnetism with an ordering temperature ranging between ∼65 K for x = 43 and ∼23 K for x = 53. The magnetism was revealed to be itinerant and identified as a spin-glass (SG) possibly having a re-entrant character. The SG was found to be heterogeneous, viz., two regimes could be distinguished as far as irreversibility in temperature dependence of magnetization is concerned: (1) of a weak irreversibility and (2) of a strong one. According to the theoretical calculations, the main contribution to the magnetism comes from Fe atoms occupying all five sub lattices, while Re atoms have rather small magnetic moments. However, the calculated average magnetic moments highly (ferromagnetic ordering model) or moderately (antiparallel ordering model) overestimate the experimental data.

  16. Layered antiferromagnetism with high Neel temperature in the intermetallic compound Mn2Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelevskyi, Sergii; Mohn, Peter

    2009-03-01

    On the basis of earlier experimental studies the intermetallic compound Mn2Au has been characterized as a non-magnetically ordered material. Here we report the results of first-principles calculations based on Local Spin-Density Approximation which describe Mn2Au to have a narrow band antiferromagnetic ground state with rigid local moments on the Mn sites. Calculations of the inter-atomic exchange constants based on the magnetic force theorem and a Monte-Carlo modeling of the resulting Heisenberg-like Hamiltonian predict a very high Neel-temperature of ˜1580K. This temperature is considerably higher than for the other known high-temperature antiferromagnetic L10-type Mn based binary alloys, which are widely used in magnetic storage applications. The source of the difficulties in determining magnetic order from the earlier experiments is discussed. The observed meta-magnetic like behavior and a susceptibility anomaly at low temperatures are linked to the frustrated magnetism on Mn anti-site impurities. We believe that the high temperature antiferromagnetism of Mn2Au may have quite an impact in technology. In particular, it can be considered as a candidate for the application as a ``pinning'' layer in GMR devices.

  17. Investigation of the Growth of Intermetallic Compounds Between Cu Pillars and Solder Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui-Ching; Qin, Yi; Woertink, Julia

    2014-11-01

    In flip chip applications, Cu pillars with solder caps are regarded as next-generation electronic interconnection technology, because of high input/output density. However, because of diffusion and reaction of Sn and Cu during the high-temperature reflow process, intermetallic compounds (IMC) are formed, and grow, at the interface between the cap and the pillar. Understanding the growth behavior of interfacial IMC is critical in the design of solder interconnections, because excessive growth of IMC can reduce the reliability of connections. In this study, the growth of IMC during thermal cycling, an accelerated method of testing the service environment of electronic devices, was studied by use of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy. Under alternating high and low-temperature extremes, growth of Cu6Sn5 ( η-phase) and Cu3Sn ( ɛ-phase) IMC was imaged and measured as a function of the number of cycles. The total IMC layer grew significantly thicker but became more uniform during thermal cycling. The Cu3Sn layer was initially thinner than the Cu6Sn5 layer but outgrew the Cu6Sn5 layer after 1000 cycles. It was found that, with limited Cu and Sn diffusion, consumption of Cu6Sn5 for growth of the Cu3Sn layer can result in a thinner Cu6Sn5 layer after thermal cycling.

  18. Intermetallic compound layer growth kinetics in non-lead bearing solders

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Kilgo, A.C.; Grant, R.

    1995-04-01

    The introduction of alternative, non-lead bearing solders into electronic assemblies requires a thorough investigation of product manufacturability and reliability. Both of these attributes can be impacted by the excessive growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) layers at the solder/substrate interface. An extensive study has documented the stoichiometry and solid state growth kinetics of IMC layers formed between copper and the lead-free solders: 96.5Sn-3.5Ag (wt.%), 95Sn-5Sb, 100Sn, and 58Bi-42Sn. Aging temperatures were 70--205 C for the Sn-based solders and 55--120 C for the Bi-rich solder. Time periods were 1--400 days for all of the alloys. The Sn/Cu, Sn-Ag/Cu, and Sn-Sb/Cu IMC layers exhibited sub-layers of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and Cu{sub 3}Sn; the latter composition was present only following prolonged aging times or higher temperatures. The total layer growth exhibited a time exponent of n = 0.5 at low temperatures and a value of n = 0.42 at higher temperatures in each of the solder/Cu systems. Similar growth kinetics were observed with the low temperature 58Bi-42Sn solder; however, a considerably more complex sub-layer structure was observed. The kinetic data will be discussed with respect to predicting IMC layer growth based upon solder composition.

  19. Heat and mass transfer in the sorption of hydrogen by intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Svinarev, S.V.; Trushevskii, S.N.

    1984-06-01

    Intermetallic compounds (IMC), which reversibly absorb hydrogen, are currently the subject of many investigations re their possible use in hydrogen accumulators, thermal machines, thermal pumps and accumulators, sorptional compressors, etc. The dynamics of hydrogen sorption in IMC must be investigated for the analysis and design of such devices. Trends in such studies can be distinguished: the study of the true chemical kinetics of sorption; the investigation of the sorption dynamics in extended IMC layers of dimensions characteristic for practical applications. However, these do not give criteria by which the experimental conditions may be chosen, and often the conditions themselves are not completely described. In connection with this, calculations of the sorption process in which the heat liberation and filtration of hydrogen through the IMC layer are taken into account are of interest both for practical applications and for the elucidation of the conditions in which the process may be regarded as purely kinetic or controlled by the heat and mass transfer in the layer. The authors devote themselves to this aspect in this presentation.

  20. Model-based predictions of solid state intermetallic compound layer growth in hybrid microelectronic circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Vianco, P.T.; Erickson, K.L.; Hopkins, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    A mathematical model was developed to quantitatively describe the intermetallic compound (IMC) layer growth that takes place between a Sn-based solder and a noble metal thick film conductor material used in hybrid microcircuit (HMC) assemblies. The model combined the reaction kinetics of the solder/substrate interaction, as determined from ancillary isothermal aging experiments, with a 2-D finite element mesh that took account of the porous morphology of the thick film coating. The effect of the porous morphology on the IMC layer growth when compared to the traditional 1-D computations was significant. The previous 1-D calculations under-predicted the nominal IMC layer thickness relative to the 2-D case. The 2-D model showed greater substrate consumption by IMC growth and lesser solder consumption that was determined with the 1-D computation. The new 2-D model allows the design engineer to better predict circuit aging and hence, the reliability of HMC hardware that is placed in the field.

  1. Growth kinetics of Al–Fe intermetallic compounds during annealing treatment of friction stir lap welds

    SciTech Connect

    Movahedi, M.; Kokabi, A.H.; Seyed Reihani, S.M.; Najafi, H.; Farzadfar, S.A.; Cheng, W.J.; Wang, C.J.

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we explored the growth kinetics of the Al–Fe intermetallic (IM) layer at the joint interface of the St-12/Al-5083 friction stir lap welds during post-weld annealing treatment at 350, 400 and 450 °C for 30 to 180 min. Optical microscope (OM), field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEG-SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were employed to investigate the structure of the weld zone. The thickness and composition of the IM layers were evaluated using image analysis system and electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD), respectively. Moreover, kernel average misorientation (KAM) analysis was performed to evaluate the level of stored energy in the as-welded state. The results showed that the growth kinetics of the IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. Presence of the IM compounds as well as high stored energy near the joint interface of the as-welded sample was recognized to be the origin of the observed deviation from the parabolic diffusion law. - Highlights: • This work provided a new insight into growth kinetics of Al–Fe IM thickness. • The growth kinetics of IM layer was not governed by a parabolic diffusion law. • IM near the joint interface was the origin of deviation from the parabolic law. • High stored energy at joint interface was origin of deviation from parabolic law.

  2. Structural, stability and electronic properties of C15-AB2 (A = Ti, Zr; B = Cr) intermetallic compounds and their hydrides: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhaddi, Reza; Arabi, Hadi; Pourarian, Faiz

    2014-05-01

    The structural, stability and electronic properties of C15-AB2 (A = Ti, Zr; B = Cr) isomeric intermetallic compounds were systematically investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) and plane-wave pseudo-potential (PW-PP) method. The macroscopic properties including the lattice constant, bulk modulus and stability for these compounds were studied before and after hydrogenation. For parent compounds, the enthalpy of formation was evaluated with regard to their bulk modules and electronic structures. After hydrogenation of compounds at different interstitial tetrahedral sites (A2B2, A1B3, B4), a volume expansion was found for hydrides. The stability properties of hydrides characterized the A2B2 sites as the site preference of hydrogen atoms for both compounds. The Miedema's "reverse stability" rule is also satisfied in these compounds as lower the enthalpy of formation for the host compound, the more stable the hydride. Analysis of microscopic properties (electronic structures) after hydrogenation at more stable interstitial site (A2B2) shows that the H atoms interact stronger with the weaker (or non) hydride forming element B (Cr) than the hydride forming element A (Ti/Zr). A correlation was also found between the stability of the hydrides and their electronic structure: the deeper the hydrogen band, the less stable the hydride.

  3. Femtosecond laser ablation and nanoparticle formation in intermetallic NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgensen, David J.; Titus, Michael S.; Pollock, Tresa M.

    2015-10-01

    The ablation behavior of a stoichiometric intermetallic compound β-NiAl subjected to femtosecond laser pulsing in air has been investigated. The single-pulse ablation threshold for NiAl was determined to be 83 ± 4 mJ/cm2 and the transition to the high-fluence ablation regime occurred at 2.8 ± 0.3 J/cm2. Two sizes of nanoparticles consisting of Al, NiAl, Ni3Al and NiO were formed and ejected from the target during high-fluence ablation. Chemical analysis revealed that smaller nanoparticles (1-30 nm) tended to be rich in Al while larger nanoparticles (>100 nm) were lean in Al. Ablation in the low-fluence regime maintained this trend. Redeposited material and nanoparticles remaining on the surface after a single 3.7 J/cm2 pulse, one hundred 1.7 J/cm2 pulses, or one thousand 250 mJ/cm2 pulses were enriched in Al relative to the bulk target composition. Further, the surface of the irradiated high-fluence region was depleted in Al indicating that the fs laser ablation removal rate of the intermetallic constituents in this regime does not scale with the individual pure element ablation thresholds.

  4. A new approach to study vacancy defects in high-temperature intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.S.; Sinha, P.

    1995-08-01

    Perturbed angular correlations of gamma rays (PAC) is being applied to study defects in ordered intermetallic alloys. Vacancies on both Pd and In sublattices in the B2 system PdIn were detected after quenching through quadrupole interactions induced at nearby {sup 111}In probe atoms. Fractions of probe atoms having each type of neighboring defect were observed to increase monotonically with quenching temperature over the range 825--1,500 K. For compositions close to 50.15 at.% Pd, nearly equal site fractions were observed for Pd and In vacancies, indicating that the Schottky vacancy-pair defect is the thermal defect at high temperature. The formation enthalpy of the Schottky defect was determined to be 1.3(2) eV through analysis of quenching data from in the range 825--1,200 K. Above 1200 K, however, the vacancy concentration was observed to saturate at a value of 1.4(2) atomic percent, perhaps due to breakdown of the law of mass action for high defect concentrations.

  5. Electrocatalytic mechanism and kinetics of SOMs oxidation on ordered PtPb and PtBi intermetallic compounds: DEMS and FTIRS study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongsen; Alden, Laif; Disalvo, F J; Abruña, Héctor D

    2008-07-01

    The electrocatalytic activities and mechanisms of PtPb and PtBi ordered intermetallic phases towards formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol oxidation have been studied by DEMS and FTIRS, and the results compared to those for a pure polycrystalline platinum electrode. While PtPb exhibits an enhanced electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of all three organic molecules when compared to a Pt electrode, PtBi exhibits an enhanced catalytic activity towards formic acid and formaldehyde oxidation, but not methanol. FTIRS data indicate that adsorbed CO does not form on PtPb or PtBi intermetallic compounds during the oxidation of formic acid, formaldehyde and methanol, and therefore their oxidation on both PtPb and PtBi intermetallic compounds proceeds via a non-CO(ads) pathway. Quantitative DEMS measurements indicate that only CO(2) was detected as a final product during formic acid oxidation on Pt, PtPb and PtBi electrodes. At a smooth polycrystalline platinum electrode, the oxidation of formaldehyde and methanol produces mainly intermediates (formaldehyde and formic acid), while CO(2) is a minor product. In contrast, CO(2) is the major product for formaldehyde and methanol oxidation at a PtPb electrode. The high current efficiency of CO(2) formation for methanol and formaldehyde oxidation at a PtPb electrode can be ascribed to the complete dehydrogenation of formaldehyde and formic acid due to electronic effects. The low onset potential, high current density and high CO(2) yield make PtPb one of the most promising electrocatalysts for fuel cell applications using small organic molecules as fuels. PMID:18563235

  6. Interfacial reaction of intermetallic compounds of ultrasonic-assisted brazed joints between dissimilar alloys of Ti6Al4V and Al4Cu1Mg.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhipeng; Zhao, Weiwei; Yan, Jiuchun; Li, Dacheng

    2011-09-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted brazing of Al4Cu1Mg and Ti6Al4V using Zn-based filler metal (without and with Si) has been investigated. Before brazing, the Ti6Al4V samples were pre-treated by hot-dip aluminizing and ultrasonic dipping in a molten filler metal bath in order to control the formation of intermetallic compounds between the Ti6Al4V samples and the filler metal. The results show that the TiAl(3) phase was formed in the interface between the Ti6Al4V substrate and the aluminized coating. For the Zn-based filler metal without Si, the Ti6Al4V interfacial area of the brazed joint did not change under the effect of the ultrasonic wave, and only consisted of the TiAl(3) phase. For the Zn-based filler metal with Si, the TiAl(3) phase disappeared and a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase was formed at the interfacial area of the brazed joints under the effect of the ultrasonic wave. Due to the TiAl(3) phase completely changing to a Ti(7)Al(5)Si(12) phase, the morphology of the intermetallic compounds changed from a block-like shape into a lamellar-like structure. The highest shear strength of 138MPa was obtained from the brazed joint free of the block-like TiAl(3) phase. PMID:21489846

  7. Electric field gradients in nanoparticles of HfAl2 and HfAl3 intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulińska, Agnieszka; Wodniecki, Paweł

    2010-06-01

    Perturbed angular correlation (PAC) method was applied to study the electric field gradients in nanopowders of the HfAl2 and HfAl3 intermetallic compounds, obtained via mechanical alloying or after ball milling of the thermally alloyed compound. The influence of the ball milling procedure on the experimentally obtained hyperfine interaction parameters was determined. A strong dependence of the PAC pattern on the milling time was evidenced and attributed to the structural disorder. The thickness of the outer damaged part of the grains depends on the crystallographic structure of the milled material. In HfAl3 sample the influence of the milling procedure on the phase transformation was observed.

  8. Atomic jump frequencies in intermetallic compounds studied using perturbed angular correlation of gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newhouse, Randal Leslie

    Atomic jump frequencies were determined in a variety of intermetallic compounds through analysis of nuclear relaxation of spectra measured using the nuclear hyperfine technique, perturbed angular correlation (PAC) of gamma rays. Observed at higher temperatures, this relaxation is attributed to fluctuations in the orientation or magnitude of electric field gradients (EFG) at nuclei of 111In/Cd probe atoms as the atoms make diffusive jumps. Jump frequencies were obtained by fitting dynamically relaxed PAC spectra using either an empirical relaxation function or using ab initio relaxation models created using the program PolyPacFit. Jump frequency activation enthalpies were determined from measurements over a range of temperatures. Diffusion was studied in the following systems: 1) Pseudo-binary alloys having the L12 crystal structure such as In3(La1-xPrx). The goal was to see how jump frequencies were affected by random disorder. 2) The family of layered phases, LanCoIn3n+2 ( n=0,1,2,3…∞). The goal was to see how jump frequencies varied with the spacing of Co layers, which were found to block diffusion. 3) Phases having the FeGa3 structure. The goal was to analyze dynamical relaxation for probe atoms having multiple inequivalent jump vectors. 4) Phases having the tetragonal Al4Ba structure. The goal was to search for effects in the PAC spectra caused by fluctuations in magnitudes of EFGs without fluctuations in orientations. Ab initio relaxation models were developed to simulate and fit dynamical relaxation for PAC spectra of FeGa3, and several phases with the Al4Ba structure in order to determine underlying microscopic jump frequencies. In the course of this work, site preferences also were observed for 111In/Cd probe atoms in several FeGa 3 and Al4Ba phases.

  9. Effect of Y2O3 and TiC Reinforcement Particles on Intermetallic Formation and Hardness of Al6061 Composites via Mechanical Alloying and Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Lin, Chen-Han

    2015-08-01

    Al6061-based composites reinforced with 2 wt pctY2O3 and 2 wt pctTiC particles produced by mechanical alloying were investigated. The reinforced particles play important roles in the microstructural development and in determining the properties of the alloys. High-energy ball milling can facilitate a solid-state reaction between reinforced particles and the Al matrix, and the reaction kinetics of atomic diffusion can be accelerated enormously by subsequent sintering processing. As a result, complex intermetallic compounds and oxide particles can be formed in the alloy. In this study, the effect of reinforcement on phase formation and mechanical properties of Al6061-based composites has been examined. The results suggest that nano-Y2O3 particles can act as nucleation sites to facilitate formation of Al-Si-Y-O-based oxide particles. The addition of TiC particles can effectively refine the grain structure and encourage formation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds. Nanoindentation was used to understand the local variations in mechanical properties of the Al6061-based composites.

  10. Intermetallic formation and interdiffusion in diffusion couples made of uranium and single crystal iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tianyi; Smith, Travis A.; Gigax, Jonathan G.; Chen, Di; Balerio, Robert; Shao, Lin; Sencer, Bulent H.; Kennedy, J. Rory

    2015-12-01

    We studied the interfacial phase formation and diffusion kinetics in uranium-iron diffusion couples. A comparison was made between polycrystalline uranium (U) bonded with polycrystalline iron (FeP) and polycrystalline uranium bonded with single crystalline Fe (FeSC). After thermal annealing at 575 °C, 600 °C, 625 °C and 650 °C, respectively, diffusion and microstructures at the interface were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron miscopy. The presence of grain boundaries in iron has a significant influence on interface reactions. In comparison with U-FeP system, interdiffusion coefficients of the U-FeSC system are significantly lower and were governed by much higher activation energies. Integrated interdiffusion coefficients and intrinsic diffusion coefficients were obtained. The intrinsic diffusion coefficients show faster diffusion of iron atoms in both U6Fe and UFe2 intermetallic phases than uranium.

  11. Role of defect coordination environment on point defects formation energies in Ni-Al intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennessen, Emrys; Rondinelli, James

    We present a relationship among the point defect formation energies and the bond strengths, lengths, and local coordination environment for Ni-Al intermetallic alloys based on density functional calculations, including Ni3Al, Ni5Al3, NiAl,Ni3Al4, Ni2Al3 and NiAl3. We find the energetic stability of vacancy and anti-site defects for the entire family can be attributed primarily to changes in interactions among first nearest neighbors, owing to spatially localized charge density reconstructions in the vicinity of the defect site. We also compare our interpretation of the local coordination environment with a DFT-based cluster expansion and discuss the performance of each approach in predicting defect stability in the Ni-Al system.

  12. Characterization of radiation-induced lattice vacancies in intermetallic compounds by means of positron-lifetime studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Würschum, R.; Badura-Gergen, K.; Kümmerle, E. A.; Grupp, C.; Schaefer, H.-E.

    1996-07-01

    In the present paper a characterization of atomic vacancies in intermetallic compounds is given by means of positron-lifetime measurements after electron irradiation and comparison with the states after preparation, after long-time annealing, or in high-temperature equilibrium. In TiAl, Ti3Al, and Ni3Al no structural vacancies (detection limit CV=10-6) are observed at ambient temperature. This confirms that in these compounds slight deviations from stoichiometry are compensated by antisite atoms. In the Al-poor B2 alloys FeAl and NiAl, on the other hand, remnant vacancies exist due to the high thermal equilibrium vacancy concentrations and their slow diffusivities. The kinetics of vacancy elimination in FeAl and NiAl is discussed. A substantial temperature dependence of the positron lifetime in vacancies is detected in close-packed intermetallics which is attributed to an increased atomic relaxation or partial positron detrapping at high temperatures. In contrast to that, the temperature dependence of the positron lifetime in vacancies is small in the open-structured B2 aluminides. The lifetimes τf of free delocalized positrons in transition-metal aluminides and in NiZr and NiTi can be correlated to those of the pure components, taking into account the densities of valence electrons. For the positron lifetimes τ1 of vacancies in intermetallic compounds, values of τ1/τf=1.5-1.7 are observed similar as in the pure metals. Annealing studies of B2-FeAl after electron irradiation yield time constants for the disappearance of vacancies identical to those deduced recently for the equilibration of thermal vacancies. In electron-irradiated Ti aluminides annealing processes at 250 K and 450 K are observed where the latter process is tentatively attributed to long-range migration of vacancies.

  13. Effects of metallic nanoparticle doped flux on the interfacial intermetallic compounds between lead-free solder ball and copper substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Sujan, G.K. Haseeb, A.S.M.A. Afifi, A.B.M.

    2014-11-15

    Lead free solders currently in use are prone to develop thick interfacial intermetallic compound layers with rough morphology which are detrimental to the long term solder joint reliability. A novel method has been developed to control the morphology and growth of intermetallic compound layers between lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder ball and copper substrate by doping a water soluble flux with metallic nanoparticles. Four types of metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium) were used to investigate their effects on the wetting behavior and interfacial microstructural evaluations after reflow. Nanoparticles were dispersed manually with a water soluble flux and the resulting nanoparticle doped flux was placed on copper substrate. Lead-free Sn–3.0Ag–0.5Cu solder balls of diameter 0.45 mm were placed on top of the flux and were reflowed at a peak temperature of 240 °C for 45 s. Angle of contact, wetting area and interfacial microstructure were studied by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the angle of contact increased and wetting area decreased with the addition of cobalt, molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles to flux. On the other hand, wettability improved with the addition of nickel nanoparticles. Cross-sectional micrographs revealed that both nickel and cobalt nanoparticle doping transformed the morphology of Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} from a typical scallop type to a planer one and reduced the intermetallic compound thickness under optimum condition. These effects were suggested to be related to in-situ interfacial alloying at the interface during reflow. The minimum amount of nanoparticles required to produce the planer morphology was found to be 0.1 wt.% for both nickel and cobalt. Molybdenum and titanium nanoparticles neither appear to undergo alloying during reflow nor have any influence at the solder/substrate interfacial reaction. Thus, doping

  14. Structure and mechanical properties of cement and intermetallic compounds via ab-initio simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmawardhana, Chamila Chathuranga

    structural material such as cement. However, it is far too early to be applicable for cement. Thus, this study used intermetallic compounds as a test case to develop new AIMD methods. In light of this objective, a direct method to calculate high temperature mechanical properties was devised for Mo5Si3 (T1 phase) and Mo5B2Si 3 (T2 phase). It was found that thermal expansion anisotropy (TEA) of T1 phase is captured by this simulation. It was also found an AIMD method to reduce TEA of Mo5Si3 (T1 phase) by strategic alloying. With further research these methods may be transferrable to cement and may allow optimizing the performance of hydraulic cements.

  15. NMR spectroscopy of intermetallic compounds: an experimental and theoretical approach to local atomic arrangements in binary gallides.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Frank; Koch, Katrin; Jeglič, Peter; Pecher, Oliver; Rosner, Helge; Grin, Yuri

    2011-06-27

    The results of the investigation of MGa(2) with M = Ca, Sr, Ba and of MGa(4) with M = Na, Ca, Sr, Ba by a combined application of NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations are comprehensively evaluated. The electric-field gradient (EFG) was identified as the most reliable measure to study intermetallic compounds, since it is accessible with high precision by quantum mechanical calculations and, for nuclear spin I>1/2, by NMR spectroscopy. The EFG values obtained by NMR spectroscopy and quantum mechanical calculations agree very well for both series of investigated compounds. A deconvolution of the calculated EFGs into their contributions reveals its sensitivity to the local environment of the atoms. The EFGs of the investigated di- and tetragallides are dominated by the population of the p(x)-, p(y)-, and p(z)-like states of the Ga atoms. A general combined approach for the investigation of disordered intermetallic compounds by application of diffraction methods, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations is suggested. This scheme can also be applied to other classes of crystalline disordered inorganic materials. PMID:21590820

  16. Review of magnetic properties and magnetocaloric effect in the intermetallic compounds of rare earth with low boiling point metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling-Wei, Li

    2016-03-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in many rare earth (RE) based intermetallic compounds has been extensively investigated during the last two decades, not only due to their potential applications for magnetic refrigeration but also for better understanding of the fundamental problems of the materials. This paper reviews our recent progress on studying the magnetic properties and MCE in some binary or ternary intermetallic compounds of RE with low boiling point metal(s) (Zn, Mg, and Cd). Some of them exhibit promising MCE properties, which make them attractive for low temperature magnetic refrigeration. Characteristics of the magnetic transition, origin of large MCE, as well as the potential application of these compounds are thoroughly discussed. Additionally, a brief review of the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in the quaternary rare earth nickel boroncarbides RENi2B2C superconductors is also presented. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374081 and 11004044), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant Nos. N150905001, L1509006, and N140901001), the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Postdoctoral Fellowships for Foreign Researchers (Grant No. P10060), and the Alexander von Humboldt (AvH) Foundation (Research stipend to L. Li).

  17. Stability of molybdenum nanoparticles in Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder during multiple reflow and their influence on interfacial intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A. Arafat, M.M. Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2012-02-15

    This work investigates the effects of molybdenum nanoparticles on the growth of interfacial intermetallic compound between Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder and copper substrate during multiple reflow. Molybdenum nanoparticles were mixed with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder paste by manual mixing. Solder samples were reflowed on a copper substrate in a 250 Degree-Sign C reflow oven up to six times. The molybdenum content of the bulk solder was determined by inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. It is found that upon the addition of molybdenum nanoparticles to Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu solder, the interfacial intermetallic compound thickness and scallop diameter decreases under all reflow conditions. Molybdenum nanoparticles do not appear to dissolve or react with the solder. They tend to adsorb preferentially at the interface between solder and the intermetallic compound scallops. It is suggested that molybdenum nanoparticles impart their influence on the interfacial intermetallic compound as discrete particles. The intact, discrete nanoparticles, by absorbing preferentially at the interface, hinder the diffusion flux of the substrate and thereby suppress the intermetallic compound growth. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles do not dissolve or react with the SAC solder during reflow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Mo nanoparticles results smaller IMC thickness and scallop diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mo nanoparticles influence the interfacial IMC through discrete particle effect.

  18. Magnetic properties and structure of nonstoichiometric rare-earth transition-metal intermetallic compounds TbNi2Mn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Gaviko, V. S.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Terent'ev, P. B.; Tkach, I. A.

    2010-09-01

    Crystal structure, magnetization, coercive force, magnetic susceptibility, and anisotropic magnetostriction of nonstoichiometric rare-earth transition-metal intermetallic compounds TbNi2Mn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 1.5) have been studied. The samples with x ≤ 1 have an fcc structure, whereas TbNi2Mn1.25 has a rhombohedral structure of the PuNi3 type. It has been found that the magnetic ordering temperature increases sharply when manganese is added. As the Mn concentration grows, the magnetization and the magnetostriction decrease monotonically, while the coercive force increases. The experimental data obtained have been interpreted on the assumption that a partial substitution of manganese for terbium in TbNi2Mn x leads to local distortions of the crystal field acting on Tb ions, to the appearance of a local uniaxial random anisotropy, and to the formation of a noncollinear magnetic structure in the terbium sublattice.

  19. Intermetallic compounds formed at the interface between Cu substrate and an Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, T.-C.; Hon, M.-H.; Wang, M.-C

    2003-04-30

    The intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface between Cu substrate and an Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder alloy have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron diffraction (ED). The XRD patterns show that the main IMCs formed at the interface of Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag/Cu are {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} and {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5}. The Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC with orthorhombic structure was also observed at the Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag/Cu interface by TEM and ED analyses. The interfacial adhesion strength between the Cu substrate and Sn-9Zn-0.5Ag lead-free solder alloy is higher than that of the Sn-9Zn alloy due to the formation of Ag{sub 3}Sn IMC at the interface.

  20. Exploring phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce-Pb intermetallic compounds using first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Xiaoma; Wang, Ziru; Lan, Chunxiang; Xu, Guanglong; Ouyang, Yifang; Du, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The phase stability, electronic and mechanical properties of Ce-Pb intermetallics have been investigated by using first-principles calculations. Five stable and four metastable phases of Ce-Pb intermetallics were verified. Among them, CePb2 has been confirmed as HfGa2-type structure. For Ce5Pb3, the high pressure phase transformation from D8m to D88 with trivalent Ce has been predicted to occur at P=1.2 GPa and a high temperature phase transformation has been predicted from D8m to D88 with tetravalent Ce at 531.5 K. The calculated lattice constants of the five stable phases are in good agreement with experimental values. The electronic density of states, charge density and electron localization function of Ce3Pb have been calculated, which indicated that the Ce and Pb show ionic behavior. The polycrystalline bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio are also estimated from the calculated single crystalline elastic constants. All of the calculated elastic constants satisfy mechanical stability criteria. The microhardness and mechanical anisotropy are predicted. The anisotropic nature of the Ce-Pb intermetallic compounds are demonstrated by the three-dimensional orientation dependent surfaces of Young's moduli and linear compressibility are also demonstrated. The longitudinal, transverse and average sound velocities and the Debye temperatures are also obtained in this work. The Ce3Pb has the largest Debye temperature of 192.6 K, which means the Ce3Pb has a highest melting point and high thermal conductivity than other compounds.

  1. The role of zinc on the chemistry of complex intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Weiwei

    2014-01-01

    Combining experiments and electronic structure theory provides the framework to design and discover new families of complex intermetallic phases and to understand factors that stabilize both new and known phases. Using solid state synthesis and multiple structural determinations, ferromagnetic β-Mn type Co8+xZn12–x was analyzed for their crystal and electronic structures.

  2. Estimation of the composition of intermetallic compounds in LiCl-KCl molten salt by cyclic voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya L; Liu, Kui; Yuan, Li Y; Chai, Zhi F; Shi, Wei Q

    2016-08-15

    In this work, the compositions of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds were estimated by the cyclic voltammetry (CV) technique. At first, CV measurements were carried out at different reverse potentials to study the co-reduction processes of Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi systems. The CV curves obtained were then re-plotted with the current as a function of time, and the coulomb number of each peak was calculated. By comparing the coulomb number of the related peaks, the compositions of the Ce-Al, Er-Al and La-Bi intermetallic compounds formed in the co-reduction process could be estimated. The results showed that Al11Ce3, Al3Ce, Al2Ce and AlCe could be formed by the co-reduction of Ce(iii) and Al(iii). For the co-reduction of Er(iii) and Al(iii), Al3Er2, Al2Er and AlEr were formed. In a La(iii) and Bi(iii) co-existing system in LiCl-KCl melts, LaBi2, LaBi and Li3Bi were the major products as a result of co-reduction. PMID:27203295

  3. Formation of intermetallics at the interface of explosively welded Ni-Al multilayered composites during annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogneva, T. S.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Bataev, I. A.; Mali, V. I.; Esikov, M. A.; Bataev, A. A.

    2016-04-01

    The Ni-Al multilayer composite was fabricated using explosive welding. The zones of mixing of Ni and Al are observed at the composite interfaces after the welding. The composition of these zones is inhomogeneous. Continuous homogeneous intermetallic layers are formed at the interface after heat treatment at 620 °C during 5 h These intermetallic layers consist of NiAl3 and Ni2Al3 phases. The presence of mixed zones significantly accelerates the growth rate of intermetallic phases at the initial stages of heating.

  4. Lattice structure transformation and change in surface hardness of Ni3Nb and Ni3Ta intermetallic compounds induced by energetic ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, H.; Yoshizaki, H.; Kaneno, Y.; Semboshi, S.; Hori, F.; Saitoh, Y.; Okamoto, Y.; Iwase, A.

    2016-04-01

    Ni3Nb and Ni3Ta intermetallic compounds, which show the complicated lattice structures were irradiated with 16 MeV Au5+ ions at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurement revealed that the lattice structure of these intermetallic compounds changed from the ordered structures to the amorphous state by the ion irradiation. The irradiation-induced amorphization caused the increase in Vickers hardness. The result was compared with our previous results for Ni3Al and Ni3V, and was discussed in terms of the intrinsic lattice structures of the samples.

  5. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu2 (RE=Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrivastava, Deepika; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2016-05-01

    We have performed the first-principles calculations to study the structural, electronic and elastic properties of RERu2 (RE = Pr and Nd) Laves phase intermetallic compounds using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT) within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange and correlation potential. The optimized lattices constant are in reasonable agreement with available experimental data. The electronic properties are analyzed in terms of band structures, total and partial density of states, which confirm their metallic character. The calculated elastic constants infer that these compounds are mechanically stable in C15 (MgCu2 type) structure and found to be ductile in nature.

  6. Catalytic properties of intermetallic compounds Ln(NiM)/sub 5/ and their hydrides in hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Konenko, I.R.; Starodubtseva, E.V.; Urazbaeva, K.A.; Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Klabunovskii, E.I.; Slinkin, A.A.; Mordovin, V.P.

    1989-02-01

    The catalytic (hydrogenation of propylene), asymmetric (enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl acetoacetate), and magnetic properties of intermetallic compounds with the composition Ln(NiM)/sub 5/(IMC), where Ln = La, Sm, Gd; M = Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, and of their hydrides have been studied. The data obtained indicate that the catalytic activity of the above compounds in both reactions is due to structural peculiarities of IMC and to the affinity of IMC to H/sub 2/. The observed changes in the total and the optical yield of the product of hydrogenation in the presence of IMC hydrides, modified with R,R-(+) tartaric acid, as functions of the nature of d-metals and their combinations, in the initial complex catalyst lead to the assumption that different metal tartrate complexes are formed on the hydride surface which act as centers of enantioselective hydrogenation.

  7. Magnetotransport and magnetothermal properties of the ternary intermetallic compound TbFe2Al10.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Chattopadhyay, M K; Roy, S B

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the temperature and field dependences of electrical resistivity and heat capacity of TbFe2Al10, and have also complimented the above studies with low field magnetization measurements. In zero magnetic field, TbFe2Al10 exhibits paramagnetic (PM) to ferrimagnetic (Ferri-I) and Ferri-I to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transitions below 17.6 and 10 K respectively. We have found that the electrical resistivity of TbFe2Al10 exhibits a sharp rise across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition in this compound. Our analysis indicates that this sharp rise of electrical resistivity is related to the formation of new zone boundaries (across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition) that reduce the area of the Fermi surface. We have found that TbFe2Al10 exhibits large magnetoresistance (MR) below 100 K. Overall, the MR behaviour of TbFe2Al10 below 17.6 K in different magnetic fields reveals strong competition between AFM and ferromagnetic (FM) correlations, which seems to be quite intrinsic to the magnetic structure of the compound. Our analysis indicates that the large MR and magnetocaloric effect persisting deep inside the PM regime of TbFe2Al10 is mainly related to the presence of FM spin fluctuations and the formation of a Griffiths like (GL) phase consisting of FM clusters within the PM regime. The formation of the GL phase may be mediated by the static crystal defects in the midst of the competing inter and intra layer magnetic interactions. PMID:27385638

  8. Magnetotransport and magnetothermal properties of the ternary intermetallic compound TbFe2Al10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Ashish; Chattopadhyay, M. K.; Roy, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    We have studied the temperature and field dependences of electrical resistivity and heat capacity of TbFe2Al10, and have also complimented the above studies with low field magnetization measurements. In zero magnetic field, TbFe2Al10 exhibits paramagnetic (PM) to ferrimagnetic (Ferri-I) and Ferri-I to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transitions below 17.6 and 10 K respectively. We have found that the electrical resistivity of TbFe2Al10 exhibits a sharp rise across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition in this compound. Our analysis indicates that this sharp rise of electrical resistivity is related to the formation of new zone boundaries (across the PM to Ferri-I phase transition) that reduce the area of the Fermi surface. We have found that TbFe2Al10 exhibits large magnetoresistance (MR) below 100 K. Overall, the MR behaviour of TbFe2Al10 below 17.6 K in different magnetic fields reveals strong competition between AFM and ferromagnetic (FM) correlations, which seems to be quite intrinsic to the magnetic structure of the compound. Our analysis indicates that the large MR and magnetocaloric effect persisting deep inside the PM regime of TbFe2Al10 is mainly related to the presence of FM spin fluctuations and the formation of a Griffiths like (GL) phase consisting of FM clusters within the PM regime. The formation of the GL phase may be mediated by the static crystal defects in the midst of the competing inter and intra layer magnetic interactions.

  9. Characterization of High-Temperature Abrasive Wear of Cold-Sprayed FeAl Intermetallic Compound Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Jiu; Wang, Hong-Tao; Yang, Guan-Jun; Bao, Chong-Gao

    2011-01-01

    FeAl intermetallic compound coating was prepared by cold spraying using a mechanically alloyed Fe(Al) alloy powder followed by post-spray annealing at 950 °C. The high-temperature abrasive wear test was carried out for the FeAl coating at a temperature range from room temperature to 800 °C. The high-temperature abrasive wear of a heat-resistant stainless steel 2520 was performed for comparison. It was observed that the abrasive wear weight loss of FeAl coating was proportional to wear cycles in terms of sample revolutions at the tested temperatures. It was found that with the increase of the test temperature higher than 400 °C, the wear rate of cold-sprayed FeAl coating decreased with the increase of test temperature, while the wear rate of the heat-resistant steel increased significantly. The results indicate that the high-temperature abrasive wear resistance of the cold-sprayed FeAl intermetallic coating increased with the increase of the wear temperature in a temperature range from 400 to 800 °C. The wear resistance of cold-sprayed FeAl coating was higher than that of heat-resistant 2520 stainless steel under 800 °C by a factor of 3.

  10. FP-LAPW based investigation of structural, electronic and mechanical properties of CePb{sub 3} intermetallic compound

    SciTech Connect

    Pagare, Gitanjali Jain, Ekta; Abraham, Jisha Annie; Sanyal, Sankar P.

    2015-08-28

    A theoretical study of structural, electronic, elastic and mechanical properties of CePb{sub 3} intermetallic compound has been investigated systematically using first principles density functional theory. The calculations are carried out within the three different forms of generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and LSDA for the exchange correlation potential. The ground state properties such as lattice parameter (a{sub 0}), bulk modulus (B) and its pressure derivative (B′) are calculated and obtained lattice parameter of this compound shows well agreement with the experimental results. We have calculated three independent second order elastic constants (C{sub 11}, C{sub 12} and C{sub 44}), which has not been calculated and measured yet. From energy dispersion curves, it is found that the studied compound is metallic in nature. Ductility of this compound is analyzed using Pugh’s criteria and Cauchy's pressure (C{sub 11}-C{sub 12}). The mechanical properties such as Young's modulus, shear modulus, anisotropic ratio, Poison's ratio have been calculated for the first time using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill (VRH) averaging scheme. The average sound velocities (v{sub m}), density (ρ) and Debye temperature (θ{sub D}) of this compound are also estimated from the elastic constants.

  11. The sequence of intermetallic formation and solidification pathway of an Al–13Mg–7Si–2Cu in-situ composite

    SciTech Connect

    Farahany, Saeed; Nordin, Nur Azmah; Ourdjini, Ali; Abu Bakar, TutyAsma; Hamzah, Esah; Idris, Mohd Hasbullah; Hekmat-Ardakan, Alireza

    2014-12-15

    The phase transformation sequence and solidification behaviour of an Al–13Mg–7Si–2Cu in-situ composite was examined using a combination of computer-aided cooling curve thermal analysis and interrupted quenching techniques. Five different phases were identified by analysing the derivative cooling curves, the X-ray diffraction profile, optical and scanning electron microscopy images and the corresponding energy dispersive spectroscopy. It has been found that the solidification of this alloy begins with primary Mg{sub 2}Si precipitation and continues with the formation of eutectic Al–Mg{sub 2}Si, followed by Al{sub 5}FeSi and simultaneous precipitation of Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} and Al{sub 2}Cu complex intermetallic phases. The formation of the last three intermetallic compounds changes the solidification behaviour of these composites remarkably due to their complex eutectic formation reactions. The solidification of the alloy, calculated using the Factsage thermochemical analysis software, has demonstrated a good agreement with the experiments in terms of compound prediction, their weight fractions and reaction temperatures. - Highlights: • Solidification path of a commercial Al-13Mg-7Si-2Cu composite was characterized. • Five different phases were identified and then confirmed with EDS and XRD results. • Mg{sub 2}Si, Al-Mg{sub 2}Si,Al{sub 5}FeSi (β),Al{sub 5}Cu{sub 2}Mg{sub 8}Si{sub 6} (Q) and Al{sub 2}Cu(θ) precipitated respectively. • Solidification was predicted using the Factsage thermochemical analysis software.

  12. The structure and composition of chromate conversion coatings formed on aluminum-copper alloy AA2024-T3 and thin film analogs of constituent intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasquez, Marvin Jaime

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of spectroscopy have been used to study the composition and structure of Chromate Conversion Coatings (CCC) formed on Aluminum Copper (Al-Cu) alloy AA2024-T3 and constituent Intermetallic Compounds (IMCs). Based on previous work the CCC formed over the IMCs is expected to be thinner and therefore different in structure and composition than the CCC formed on the matrix. The formation of the CCC over the different IMCs is expected to be dependent on the chemistry and the interaction of the IMCs with accelerators such as ferricyanide. Surface chemical and structural data determined by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Synchrotron Infrared Microspectroscopy, X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Secondary Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays (SEM/EDAX) have been developed to refine an existing model for the CCC formed on the AA2024-T3 surface, an Al-Cu aircraft alloy, by considering the composition and structure of the CCC formed on constituent intermetallic compounds (IMCs). The limited corrosion behavior of AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy is generally attributed to the presence of a variety of constituent IMC. These IMC particles are of the order of 1--20 mum which makes their direct analysis exceedingly difficult and has lead to a limited understanding of their surface chemical properties relative to CCC formation. To overcome this limitation, it was necessary to develop for the first time large area samples composed of compositionally homogenous thin films of the various IMCs found on the AA2024-T3 surface, which were galvanically attached to thin films of Al-4.2wt%Cu (representative of the AA2024-T3 matrix). This was performed in a two-step process: Disks of IMC compositions were formed by Reactive Arc Melting (RAM), followed by ultra-fast laser ablation of the RAM IMCs resulting in the formation of homogenous thin films

  13. Elastic, Electronic and Thermodynamic Properties of Rh3X(X = Zr, Nb and Ta) Intermetallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ould Kada, M.; Seddik, T.; Sayede, A.; Khenata, R.; Bouhemadou, A.; Deligoz, E.; Alahmed, Z. A.; Bin Omran, S.; Rached, D.

    2014-11-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh3X(X = Zr, Nb, Ta) intermetallic compounds are investigated in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation (XC) potential is treated with the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local density approximation (LDA). The computed ground state properties agree well with the available theoretical and experimental values. The elastic constants are obtained by calculating the total energy versus volume conserving strains using Mehl model. The electronic and bonding properties are discussed from the calculations of band structures (BSs), densities of states and electron charge densities. The volume and bulk modulus at high pressure and temperature are investigated. Additionally, thermodynamic properties such as the heat capacity, thermal expansion and Debye temperature at high pressures and temperatures are also analyzed.

  14. Experimental investigation on the corrosion behavior of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds in nuclear reactor normal operation conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Kim, Il-Hyun; Kim, Hyun-Gil; Jung, Yang-Il; Park, Dong-Jun; Park, Jung-Hwan; Koo, Yang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    The corrosion behavior of Al3Ti-based intermetallic compounds was investigated under nuclear reactor normal operation conditions. The corrosion test was performed for Al-25Ti-10Cr and Al-21Ti-23Cr (at.%) in 633 K water and 673 K steam. The corroded surface was analyzed to identify the corrosion products. Both alloys showed a weight loss in 633 K water with no appreciable difference between the alloys. The corroded layer formed in water was shown to be the mixture of AlO(OH), TiO2, and Cr2O3. In 673 K steam, the corrosion behaviors of both alloys were similar with a small amount of weight gain. A thin, stable Al2O3 layer was formed on the surface as result of oxidation in 673 K steam.

  15. Boron-modified Ni3Al intermetallic compound formed by spark plasma sintering of mechanically activated Ni and Al powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, L. I.; Ogneva, T. S.; Mul, D. O.; Esikov, M. A.; Larichkin, A. Yu; Malikov, V. N.

    2016-04-01

    A Ni3Al intermetallic compound was obtained by spark plasma sintering of mechanically activated Ni and Al powders in atomic ratio 3:1 respectively. Samples with boron addition of 0.1 and 0.2% (wt.) and samples without boron were obtained. The maximum value of the relative density (~99 %) has been obtained for the material by sintering of mechanically activated mixture powders modified with 0.1% of boron. No differences have been found between the structure of boron-modified Ni3Al and Ni3Al without boron addition. The maximum level of bending strength (2200 MPa) has been achieved for Ni3Al with 0.1% (wt.) of boron. This value is almost 3 times the bending strength of the sample of Ni3Al sintered without boron addition.

  16. Effect of electron doping on thermoelectric properties for narrow-bandgap intermetallic compound RuGa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagiwa, Y.; Kitahara, K.; Kimura, K.

    2013-01-01

    The maximum dimensionless figure of merit, ZTmax, as a function of the chemical potential of the narrow-bandgap intermetallic compound RuGa2 was calculated by using the Boltzmann transport equation with a simple rigid band approach under the constant relaxation time assumption. The calculation, including the effect of the group velocity, indicates that ZTmax over unity would be achieved by electron doping rather than hole doping. Based on this calculation, the effects of Ir substitution for Ru on the thermoelectric properties for RuGa2 have been investigated in the temperature range from 373 K to 973 K. Indeed, a relatively large ZT value of 0.31 for n-type material was obtained in the nominal composition of Ir3.0Ru30.4Ga66.6. The discussion includes the validity of the rigid band approximation and further enhancement of ZT from theoretical and experimental aspects.

  17. Fracture Behaviors of Sn-Cu Intermetallic Compound Layer in Ball Grid Array Induced by Thermal Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jun; Zhai, Dajun; Cao, Zhongming; Zhao, Mali; Pu, Yayun

    2014-02-01

    In this work, thermal shock reliability testing and finite-element analysis (FEA) of solder joints between ball grid array components and printed circuit boards with Cu pads were used to investigate the failure mechanism of solder interconnections. The morphologies, composition, and thickness of Sn-Cu intermetallic compounds (IMC) at the interface of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu lead-free solder alloy and Cu substrates were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Based on the experimental observations and FEA results, it can be recognized that the origin and propagation of cracks are caused primarily by the difference between the coefficient of thermal expansion of different parts of the packaged products, the growth behaviors and roughness of the IMC layer, and the grain size of the solder balls.

  18. Ab initio calculations on elastic properties in L12 structure Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, T.; Wang, X. F.; Li, W.

    2013-03-01

    As high-temperature structural materials, L12 intermetallic compounds have attracted the strong interest from both fundamental and industrial aspects. Understanding of elastic property is a basis for the complete investigations of mechanical behavior of L12 alloys. In an effort to explore the electronic origin of elastic properties of L12 intermetallics, we have performed a systematic study on elastic constants for single crystals, and Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus and Poisson's ratio for poly-crystals of 22 known Al3X and X3Al-type (X=transition or main group metal) intermetallics using the ab initio calculations. Based on the calculations of elastic constants and extreme (both positive and negative) Poisson's ratios, we found a pronounced correlation between the extreme Poisson's ratio and the elastic anisotropy, i.e., approximate 40% of the investigated L12 intermetallics exhibit intrinsic auxetic behavior. Furthermore, based on the distribution of bonding charge densities, we revealed that the ductility and extreme Poisson's ratios were attributable to the directionality of bonds of these alloys. Our findings provide a new method to predict mechanical behavior of intermetallics.

  19. Rattling-enhanced superconductivity in M V2A l20(M =Sc ,Lu ,Y ) intermetallic cage compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, M. J.; Wiendlocha, B.; Sternik, M.; Wiśniewski, P.; O'Brien, J. R.; Kaczorowski, D.; Klimczuk, T.

    2016-04-01

    Polycrystalline samples of four intermetallic compounds: M V2A l20 (M =Sc , Y, La, and Lu) were synthesized using an arc-melting technique. The crystal structures were analyzed by means of powder x-ray diffraction and Rietveld analysis, and the physical properties were studied by means of heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility measurements down to 0.4 K. For Sc V2A l20 , Lu V2A l20 , and Y V2A l20 , superconductivity was observed with critical temperatures Tc=1.00 , 0.57, and 0.60 K, respectively. Superconductivity for the Lu compound is reported. Theoretical calculations of the electronic and phonon structures were conducted in order to analyze the superconductivity and dynamics in Sc V2A l20 , Y V2A l20 , and Lu V2A l20 and to explain the lack of a superconducting transition in La V2A l20 down to 0.4 K. The results of the experimental and theoretical studies show that all the compounds are weakly coupled type-II BCS superconductors, and reveal the importance of the M -atom anharmonic "rattling" modes for the superconductivity in these materials, which seem to enhance Tc, especially for Sc V2A l20 .

  20. The evolution of γ-Mg17Al12 intermetallic compound during accumulative back extrusion and subsequent ageing treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, M. H.; Zarei-Hanzaki, A.; Abedi, H. R.; Shamsolhodaei, A.

    2015-11-01

    Accumulative back extrusion (ABE) processing, as a novel severe plastic deformation (SPD) method, has been recently justified to be capable of modifying the microstructural characteristics of alloys. In line to its ongoing researches, the present work has been planned to study the evolution of γ-Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase during ABE and subsequent ageing treatment in a high Al-bearing Mg-Al-Zn alloy. The behaviour of γ intermetallic has been systematically examined as following points of view: (i) strain-temperature-dependent morphology changes, (ii) strain-induced dissolution, and (iii) re-ageing behaviour as a function of time and temperature. Aiming to analyse the morphology of eutectic γ compound with respect to the strain and temperature, 2D projections of effective diameter, shape factor and globularity have been made in strain/temperature graphs. The processing conditions (strain and temperature) corresponding to the desired and undesired morphologies are introduced and microstructurally explained through underlying plasticity mechanisms, i.e., 'necking-thinning-particle separation' and 'brittle fragmentation.' The former mechanism is suggested to be in relation with partial strain-induced dissolution of eutectic γ phase, leading to generation of a supersaturated solid solution. This has resulted to the observation of 'off-stoichiometry' phenomena in Mg17Al12 phase and has been justified through dislocation-assisted deformation mechanism at elevated temperature. Surprisingly, a unique re-ageing behaviour has been found for the obtained solid solutions, where a modified kinetics and morphology of γ phase precipitation were characterized. The altered precipitation behaviour is attributed to the specific defect structure achieved by SPD acting as fast diffusion channel for Al solutes.

  1. Perpendicular Growth Characteristics of Cu-Sn Intermetallic Compounds at the Surface of 99Sn-1Cu/Cu Solder Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Liu, Changqing; Wu, Yiping; An, Bing

    2015-12-01

    The growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) on the free surface of 99Sn-1Cu solder joints perpendicular to the interdiffusion direction has been investigated in this work. The specimens were specifically designed and polished to reveal a flat free surface at the solder/Cu interface for investigation. After aging at 175°C for progressively increased durations, the height of the perpendicular IMCs was examined and found to follow a parabolic law with aging duration that could be expressed as y = 0.11√ t, where t is the aging duration in hours and y is the height of the perpendicular IMCs in μm. For comparison, the planar growth of IMCs along the interdiffusion direction was also investigated in 99Sn-1Cu/Cu solder joints. After prolonged aging at 175°C, the thickness of the planar interfacial IMC layers also increased parabolically with aging duration and could be expressed as h_{{IMC}} = 0.27√ t + 4.6, where h is the thickness in μm and t is the time in hours. It was found that both the planar and perpendicular growth of the IMCs were diffusion-controlled processes, but the perpendicular growth of the IMCs was much slower than their planar growth due to the longer diffusion distance. It is proposed that Cu3Sn forms prior to the formation of Cu6Sn5 in the perpendicular IMCs, being the reverse order compared with the planar IMC growth.

  2. Intermetallic compounds LaNi/sub 5/- /SUB x/ Cu /SUB x/ and their hydrides in the sorption of hydrogen and the hydrogenation of olefins

    SciTech Connect

    Konenko, I.R.; Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Slinkin, A.A.; Starodubtseva, E.V.; Stepanov, Y.P.

    1985-09-01

    This paper studies the sorptive and catalytic properties of the intermetallic compounds (IMC) LaNi /SUB 5-x/ Cu /SUB x/ and also of their hydrides in the hydrogenation of propylene. The existence of an inverse dependence between the bond strength in the IMC-H system and the rate of formation of the alpha-phase of the hydrides was established. It was shown that the observed extremal dependence of the specific catalytic activity of the hydrides on composition is determined by the optimum value of the bond energy of the hydrogen in the IMC matrix. It was found that the rate of hydrogenation of an olefin on IMC hydrides follows a rate equation zero-order in hydrogen and first-order in olefin. In the case of the same IMC, on the contrary, the rate is first-order in H/sub 2/ and zero-order in C/sub 3/H/sub 6/. It is proposed that the sorptive and catalytic properties of the catalysts show the effect of the structure on the surface active center - a cluster.

  3. New method for computer analysis of complex intermetallic compounds and nanocluster model of the samson phase Cd{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Blatov, V. A.; Ilyushin, G. D.

    2010-12-15

    A new method is proposed for the computer analysis of crystal structures of complex intermetallic compounds (with more than 1000 atoms per unit cell) using a developed algorithm of the complete decomposition of the 3D graph of the structure into nanocluster substructures. This method has been implemented in the TOPOS software package and approved successfully in an analysis of the complex Cu{sub 3}Cd{sub 4} structure (Samson phase). Cu{sub 3}Cd{sub 4} structure models were used to establish a structural relationship between nanoclusters in this intermetallic compound and nanoclusters in other complex crystal structures: ZrZn{sub 22}, Ru{sub 7}Mg{sub 44}, NaCd{sub 2}, and Mg{sub 2}Al{sub 3}.

  4. Estimation of the effective parameter of spinorbital interaction of electrons in intermetallic Er-In system compounds from the kinetic and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvandikov, O. K.; Hamraev, N. S.; Razhabov, R. M.; Éshkulov, A. A.

    2012-05-01

    Normal, R 0 and anomalous, R S components of the Hall coefficient are determined from the results of experimental investigations of temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient, magnetic susceptibility, and specific electrical resistance for intermetallic Er2In, ErIn, and Er3In5 compounds. Effective parameters of spinorbital interaction λSO of intermetallic compounds are calculated from anomalous components RS of the Hall coefficient and specific electrical resistance. The results calculated for the band parameters and effective parameters of spin-orbital interaction λSO for Er-In system intermetallides coincide by orders of magnitude with the results obtained in [4,7,8] from the optical spectra of pure rare-earth metals.

  5. Nanoclusters based on pentagondodecahedra with shells in the form of D32, D42, and D50 deltahedra in crystal structures of intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pankova, A. A.; Ilyushin, G. D.; Blatov, V. A.

    2012-01-15

    The TOPOS software package has been used to form a database of intermetallic compounds containing pentagondodecahedral d clusters (528 crystal structures of intermetallic compounds, 111 topological types, and 47 space symmetry groups). On the whole, 606 atomic d configurations have been selected which are described by 14 point symmetry groups. Examples of nanoclusters are presented which are precursors of the crystal structures of intermetallic compounds with the outer shell in the form of deltahedra D, which are formed above dodecahedra. These nanoclusters are identified in the automatic mode of structural data processing: D32 (K{sub 8}In{sub 6}Ge{sub 40}, Cs{sub 30}Na{sub 3}Sn{sub 162}), D{sub 42} (Ru{sub 3}Be{sub 17}, Y{sub 3}Cd{sub 18}, Ca{sub 3}(Cd{sub 17}Al)), and D{sub 50} (Yb{sub 3}Zn{sub 18}, Ce{sub 3}(Au{sub 14}Sn{sub 3}), Pr{sub 3}Cd{sub 18}, Eu{sub 4}Cd{sub 25}), where 32, 42, and 50 are the numbers of atoms in the shell. Similar deltahedra were found previously in icosahedral nanoclusters (precursors of intermetallic compounds). Structures with the dodecahedral nanocluster precursors containing D42 and D50 deltahedra are approximants of MCd{sub 5.7} (M = Yb or Ca) quasicrystals and belong to the family of MCd{sub 6} (M = Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Yb, Y, or Ca).

  6. Theoretical Calculations for Magnetic Property of FeRh Inter-Metallic Compound with Site-Exchange Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneta, Yasunori; Ishino, Shiori; Chen, Ying; Iwata, Shuichi; Iwase, Akihiro

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between a magnetic property and a defect structure in FeRh inter-metallic compound theoretically, energy band calculations are performed based on the density functional theory. Under the assumption that the majority of defect structure is a type of site-exchanged one between Fe and Rh atoms, total energy for various magnetic structures is evaluated within a super-cell of 2×2×2 cubic cells. Due to the site-exchange defect pair of nearest neighbor Fe and Rh atoms in 12.5%/f.u. (f.u.: formula unit) density, the total energy increases by 1.91 eV/pair in the anti-ferromagnetic structure and 0.88 eV/pair in the ferromagnetic structure. Although the anti-ferromagnetic structure is the stable state at low temperatures in defect-free FeRh, it becomes unstable with an amount of the site-exchange defect density. Threshold defect density to stabilize ferromagnetic state is estimated to be 0.8%/f.u. This phenomenon is expected in ion irradiated FeRh.

  7. Micromagnetic analysis of the hardening mechanisms of nanocrystalline MnBi and nanopatterned FePt intermetallic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kronmüller, H; Yang, J B; Goll, D

    2014-02-12

    The uniaxial intermetallic compounds of L10-FePt and the low temperature NiAs structure of MnBi are suitable alloys for application as high-density recording materials or as high-coercivity permanent magnets. Single domain particles of these materials are characterized by coercive fields above 1 T over a large temperature range. In particular MnBi shows a coercive field of 2 T at 450 K. Its extraordinary magnetic properties in the temperature range up to 600 K are due to an increase of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant from 1.2 MJ m(-3) at 300 K to 2.4 MJ m(-3) at 450 K. In spite of the large coercivities obtained for both type of materials their experimental values deviate considerably from the theoretical values Hc = 2K1/Js valid for a homogeneous rotation process in spherical particles. As is well known these discrepancies are due to the deteriorating effects of the microstructure. For an analysis of the coercive fields the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory has to be expanded with respect to higher anisotropy constants and to microstructural effects such as misaligned grains and grain surfaces with reduced anisotropy constants. It is shown that the temperature dependence and the angular dependence of Hc for FePt as well as MnBi can be quantitatively interpreted by taking into account the above mentioned intrinsic and microstructural effects. PMID:24469256

  8. Synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of novel intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sixuan; Mishra, Trinath; Wang, Man; Shatruk, Michael; Cao, Huibo; Latturner, Susan E

    2014-06-16

    The intermetallic compounds R2Co2SiC (R = Pr, Nd) were prepared from the reaction of silicon and carbon in either Pr/Co or Nd/Co eutectic flux. These phases crystallize with a new stuffed variant of the W2CoB2 structure type in orthorhombic space group Immm with unit cell parameters a = 3.978(4) Å, b = 6.094(5) Å, c = 8.903(8) Å (Z = 2; R1 = 0.0302) for Nd2Co2SiC. Silicon, cobalt, and carbon atoms form two-dimensional flat sheets, which are separated by puckered layers of rare-earth cations. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate that the rare earth cations in both analogues order ferromagnetically at low temperature (TC ≈ 12 K for Nd2Co2SiC and TC ≈ 20 K for Pr2Co2SiC). Single-crystal neutron diffraction data for Nd2Co2SiC indicate that Nd moments initially align ferromagnetically along the c axis around ∼12 K, but below 11 K, they tilt slightly away from the c axis, in the ac plane. Electronic structure calculations confirm the lack of spin polarization for Co 3d moments. PMID:24898034

  9. The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn2Ge2 studied by magnetization and hyperfine interactions measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Santos, B.; Carbonari, A. W.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Freitas, R. S.

    2015-05-01

    The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn2Ge2 was investigated by bulk magnetization measurements and measurements of hyperfine interactions using perturbed γ-γ angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements indicate the presence of four magnetic transitions associated with the Mn and Nd magnetic sublattices. At high temperatures, magnetic measurements show a change in the slope of the magnetization due to an antiferromagnetic transition around TN ˜ 425 K and a well defined ferromagnetic transition at TC ˜ 320 K. Moreover, at ˜210 K a peak is observed in the magnetization curve, which is assigned to the reorientation of the Mn spin, and at ˜25 K an increase in the magnetic moment is also observed, which is ascribed to the ordering of Nd ions. PAC measurements using 140La(140Ce) and 111In(111Cd) probe nuclei allowed the determination of the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) at Nd and Mn sites, respectively. PAC results with 111Cd probe nuclei at Mn sites show that the dependence of Bhf with temperature follows the expected behavior for the host magnetization associated with the magnetic ordering of Mn ions. From these results, the antiferromagnetic transition followed by a ferromagnetic ordering is clearly observed. PAC results with 140Ce probe nuclei at Nd sites, however, showed a strong deviation from the Brillouin function, which is attributed to the Ce 4f-electron contribution to Bhf.

  10. Electromigration enhanced kinetics of copper-tin intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder joints and copper low-k dual damascene processing using step and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Huang-Lin

    This dissertation constitutes two major sections. In the first major section, a kinetic analysis was established to investigate the electromigration (EM), enhanced intermetallic compound (IMC) growth and void formation for Sn-based Pb-free solder joints to Cu under bump metallization (UBM). The model takes into account the interfacial intermetallic reaction, Cu-Sn interdiffusion, and current stressing. A new approach was developed to derive atomic diffusivities and effective charge numbers based on Simulated Annealing (SA) in conjunction with the kinetic model. The finite difference (FD) kinetic model based on this approach accurately predicted the intermetallic compound growth when compared to empirical observation. The ultimate electromigration failure of the solder joints was caused by extensive void formation at the intermetallic interface. The void formation mechanism was analyzed by modeling the vacancy transport under electromigration. The effects of current density and Cu diffusivity in Sn solder were also investigated with the kinetic model. The second major section describes the integration of Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FILRTM) into an industry standard Cu/low-k dual damascene process. The yield on a Back End Of the Line (BEOL) test vehicle that contains standard test structures such as via chains with 120 nm vias was established by electrical tests. S-FIL shows promise as a cost effective solution to patterning sub 45 nm features and is capable of simultaneously patterning two levels of interconnect structures, which provides a low cost BEOL process. The critical processing step in the integration is the reactive ion etching (RIE) process that transfers the multilevel patterns to the inter-level dielectrics (ILD). An in-situ, multistep etch process was developed that gives excellent pattern structures in two industry standard Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) low-k dielectrics. The etch process showed excellent pattern fidelity and a wide process

  11. Polar intermetallic compounds of the silicon and arsenic family elements and their ternary hydrides and fluorides

    SciTech Connect

    Leon-Escamilla, E.A.

    1996-10-17

    An investigation has been made on the effects of hydrogen and fluoride in the solid state chemistry of alkaline-earth and divalent rare-earth metal pnictide (Pn) and tetrelide (Tt) phases A{sub 5}(Pn,Tt,){sub 3}Z{sub x}, where A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb; Pn = As, Sb, Bi; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb and Z = H, F. Several trivalent rare-earth-metal pnictides, RE{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} (RE = Y, La, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm) and alkaline-earth-metal trielides, A{sub 5}Tr{sub 3}Z{sub x} (Tr = Ga, In, Tl) have been included in an effort to complete observed structural trends. Two main experimental techniques were followed throughout this work, (a) reactions in absence of hydrogen or under continuous high vacuum, and (b) reactions with binary metal hydrides, AH{sub x}, in closed containers. The results demonstrate that all the phases reported with the {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3}-type structure in the A{sub 5}Pn{sub 3} systems are hydrogen-stabilized compounds. Reactions in absence of hydrogen lead to compounds with the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type structure. The structure type {beta}-Yb{sub 5}Sb{sub 3} (= Ca{sub 5}SB{sub 3}F) was found to be characteristic of ternary systems and inaccurately associated with phases that form in the Y{sub 5}Bi{sub 3}-type. A new series of isomorphous Zintl compounds with the Ca{sub 16}Sb{sub 11}-type structure were prepared and studied as well. All the alkaline-earth-metal tetrelides, A{sub 5}Tt{sub 3}, that crystallize in the Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type structure can be interstitially derivatized by hydrogen or fluoride. Binary and ternary compounds were characterized by Guinier powder patterns, single crystal X-ray and powder neutron diffraction techniques. In an effort to establish property-structure relationships, electrical resistivity and magnetic measurements were performed on selected systems, and the results were explained in terms of the Zintl concepts, aided by extended Hueckel band calculations.

  12. Structural transformations in the deuterium-containing intermetallic compound (Ti3Al)D1.2 induced by high-pressure torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eshchenko, R. N.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Pilyugin, V. P.

    2009-06-01

    The intermetallic compound Ti3Al (which is a very brittle material) with a high deuterium concentration ( x = 1.2) is fabricated in a monolithic state by high-pressure torsion at room temperature. The structure of the intermetallic samples is studied by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy after deformation at various degrees. Under certain conditions, the main volume of the material is found to transform into an amorphous state, and areas 1-2 nm in size with an atomic arrangement close to the initial arrangement are also present in the material. The possible causes of the deformation-induced amorphization of the material alloyed with interstitial atoms are discussed.

  13. Formation of intermetallic phases in AlSi7Fe1 alloy processed under microgravity and forced fluid flow conditions and their influence on the permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, S.; Ratke, L.; Zimmermann, G.; Budenkova, O.

    2016-03-01

    Ternary Al-6.5wt.%Si-0.93wt.%Fe alloy samples were directionally solidified on-board of the International Space Station ISS in the ESA payload Materials Science Laboratory (MSL) equipped with Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) under both purely diffusive and stimulated convective conditions induced by a rotating magnetic field. Using different analysis techniques the shape and distribution of the intermetallic phase β-Al5SiFe in the dendritic microstructure was investigated, to study the influence of solidification velocity and fluid flow on the size and spatial arrangement of intermetallics. Deep etching as well as 3-dimensional computer tomography measurements characterized the size and the shape of β-Al5SiFe platelets: Diffusive growth results in a rather homogeneous distribution of intermetallic phases, whereas forced flow promotes an increase in the amount and the size of β-Al5SiFe platelets in the centre region of the samples. The β-Al5SiFe intermetallics can form not only simple platelets, but also be curved, branched, crossed, interacting with dendrites and porosity located. This leads to formation of large and complex groups of Fe-rich intermetallics, which reduce the melt flow between dendrites leading to lower permeability of the mushy zone and might significantly decrease feeding ability in castings.

  14. Crystallographic features of the structure of a martensite packet of the NiMn intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlebnikova, Yu. V.; Egorova, L. Yu.; Rodionov, D. P.; Belosludtseva, E. S.; Kazantsev, V. A.

    2016-06-01

    Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction are used to show that a pseudosingle crystal forms upon cooling of an alloy Ni49Mn51 single crystal below the temperature of the β→θ (bcc → fct) transformation. At room temperature, this pseudosingle crystal has the structure of tetragonal L10 martensite with parameters a = 0.3732 nm and c = 0.3537 nm and a tetragonality c/ a = 0.94775. The temperatures of the forward and reverse B2 → L10 transformations are determined. The crystallographic features of martensite packet formation are analyzed. As shown by EBSD, neighboring martensite packets always have three kinds of tetragonal martensite plates, which are in a twin position and have different tetragonality axis directions. Repeated heating and quenching of the pseudosingle crystal result in recrystallization with the formation of coarse grains. The packet structure of the tetragonal martensite is retained in this case, and the sizes of the packets formed within a grain decrease by a factor of 2-3 as compared to the initial pseudosingle crystal.

  15. Focused ion beam induced microstructural alterations: texture development, grain growth, and intermetallic formation.

    PubMed

    Michael, Joseph R

    2011-06-01

    Copper, gold, and tungsten thin films have been exposed to 30 kV Ga+ ion irradiation, and the resulting microstructural modifications are studied as a function of ion dose. The observed microstructural changes include texture development with respect to the easy channeling direction in the target, and in the case of Cu, an additional intermetallic phase is produced. Texture development in these target materials is a function of the starting materials grain size, and these changes are not observed in large grained materials. The accepted models of differential damage driven grain growth are not supported by the results of this study. The implications of this study to the use of focused ion beam tools for sample preparation are discussed. PMID:21466753

  16. Chemical route for formation of intermetallic Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} phase

    SciTech Connect

    Denoix, A.; Solaiappan, A.; Ayral, R.M.; Rouessac, F.; Tedenac, J.C.

    2010-05-15

    Synthesis of intermetallic zinc antimonide phases via low temperature solution route was investigated. Trial experiments were carried out under inert atmosphere at 70 deg. C using metallic Zn, SbCl{sub 3} and NaBH{sub 4} as reactants and tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as organic media. Powder X-ray analysis confirmed the nucleation and growth of ZnSb phases in presence of excess Zn. SEM analysis revealed the existence of core-shell structure comprising of Zn core and Sb shell. Such particles get transformed into Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} crystalline phases upon thermal treatment at 300 deg. C/6 h in a silica tube closed under high secondary vacuum. - Graphical abstract: TEM observation of the Zn{sub 4}Sb{sub 3} powder synthesized by soft chemistry.

  17. Solid state phase equilibria and intermetallic compounds of the Al-Cr-Ho system

    SciTech Connect

    Pang, Mingjun; Zhan, Yongzhong; Du, Yong

    2013-02-15

    The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C were experimentally investigated. The phase relations at 500 Degree-Sign C are governed by 14 three-phase regions, 29 two-phase regions and 15 single-phase regions. The existences of 10 binary compounds and 2 ternary phases have been confirmed. Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 2}, Al{sub 11}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 17}Ho{sub 2} were not found at 500 Degree-Sign C. Crystal structures of Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} and Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho were determined by the Rietveld X-ray powder data refinement. Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} was found to exhibit cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m (no. 217) and lattice parameters a=0.9107(5) nm. Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} structure type with space group I4/mmm (no. 139) and lattice parameters a=0.8909(4) nm, c=0.5120(5) nm. It is concluded that the obtained Al{sub 4}Cr phase in this work should be {mu}-Al{sub 4}Cr by comparing with XRD pattern of the hexagonal {mu}-Al{sub 4}Mn compound. - Graphical abstract: The solid state phase equilibria of the Al-Cr-Ho ternary system at 500 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al-Cr-Ho system has been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 9}Cr{sub 4} has cubic structure with space group I4-bar 3m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 4}Ho crystallizes in ThMn{sub 12} type with space group I4/mmm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 4}Cr phase is {mu}-type at 500 Degree-Sign C.

  18. Investigations of the (R)nickel germanide intermetallic compounds by X-ray resonant magnetic scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong-Woo

    2005-11-01

    The x-ray magnetic scattering (XRMS) intensities of the Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, and Tm L2,3 edges were investigated using two isostructural samples [Gd1/4Tb1/4Dy1/4Ho 1/4]Ni2Ge2 and [Gd1/3Er1/3Tm 1/3]Ni2Ge2 in order to elucidate systematics in the underlying resonance process. Taken together with theoretical linearized augmented planewave (LAPW) calculations employing LDA + U, we found that the XRMS intensity at the heavy rare-earth L edges is strongly related to the 4f-5d exchange interaction and that the branching ratio arises from the effects of spin orbit coupling in the 5d band. For Gd, the 4f-5 d exchange interaction is large and dominant over not only the spin orbit coupling but also other interactions. Therefore, the XRMS intensity of Gd L3 and L2 edges most closely reflects the state of 4f moments. In the pure GdNi2Ge2 compound, large antiferromagnetic (AFM) domains were found, comparable to the x-ray beam size. Single domain scattering was measured carefully with a very small beam size for various azimuth angles and temperatures. From this measurement, a second transition at 16 K in bulk measurements was identified as a transformation from a collinear squared-up structure at high temperature, to a tilted helical structure below 16 K. Since the XRMS scattering cross-section is strongly dependent on the magnetic moment direction, the AFM domain structure was imaged by the XRMS intensity. From single domain scattering data, the ratio of the spin moments in the collinear and the spiral structure of GdNi2Ge2 at the second magnetic transition temperature were derived and used to estimate the magnetic anisotropy energy of Gd. Surprisingly, the estimated magnetic anisotropy energy of Gd in this compound is much higher than that of pure Gd metal (about a order of magnitude). This is expected to be the effect of the anisotropy in 5d conduction band. More theoretical study is necessary to understand this observation.

  19. The structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compound CeGa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftci, Yasemin; Çolakoǧlu, Kemal; Çoban, Cansu; Deligöz, Engin

    2012-02-01

    The structural, elastic and thermodynamic characteristics of CeGa2 compound in the AlB2 (space group: P6/mmm) and the omega trigonal (space group: P-3m1) type structures are investigated using the methods of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The thermodynamic properties of the considered structures are obtained through the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The results on the basic physical parameters, such as the lattice constant, the bulk modulus, the pressure derivative of bulk modulus, the phase-transition pressure (P t) from P6/mmm to P-3m1 structure, the second-order elastic constants, Zener anisotropy factor, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and the isotropic shear modulus are presented. In order to gain further information, the pressure and temperature-dependent behavior of the volume, the bulk modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, the heat capacity, the entropy, Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter are also evaluated over a pressure range of 0-6 GPa and a wide temperature range of 0-1800 K. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental and the other theoretical values.

  20. The structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic compound CeGa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiftci, Yasemin Ö.; Çolakoǧlu, Kemal; Çoban, Cansu; Deligöz, Engin

    2012-02-01

    The structural, elastic and thermodynamic characteristics of CeGa2 compound in the AlB2 (space group: P6/mmm) and the omega trigonal (space group: P-3m1) type structures are investigated using the methods of density functional theory within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The thermodynamic properties of the considered structures are obtained through the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The results on the basic physical parameters, such as the lattice constant, the bulk modulus, the pressure derivative of bulk modulus, the phase-transition pressure ( P t ) from P6/mmm to P-3m1 structure, the second-order elastic constants, Zener anisotropy factor, Poisson's ratio, Young's modulus, and the isotropic shear modulus are presented. In order to gain further information, the pressure and temperature-dependent behavior of the volume, the bulk modulus, the thermal expansion coefficient, the heat capacity, the entropy, Debye temperature and Grüneisen parameter are also evaluated over a pressure range of 0-6 GPa and a wide temperature range of 0-1800 K. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental and the other theoretical values.

  1. Point defect behavior in B2-type intermetallic compound FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Haraguchi, T.; Kogachi, M.

    1999-07-01

    Point defect behavior in B2-type FeAl alloys is investigated from a thermodynamic point of view, based on the Bragg-Williams method. The model is developed by taking new defect formation mechanisms, random vacancy distribution (RVD), and antisite atom recovering (ASAR), into consideration, which were proposed based on the current findings in in situ neutron and X-ray diffraction studies for the B2 FeAl. The condition for appearance of the RVD and ASAR states is given. Application of this model to B2 FeAl alloys shows that the RVD-like behavior is reproduced in the Fe-rich composition region and also a rapid increase in vacancy concentration observed in the Al-rich region can be interpreted by the ASAR process by antisite Al atoms.

  2. Hydrogenation of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x Intermetallic Compounds: Free Electron Model for Magnetic Susceptibility and Thermoelectric Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyomsoan, S.; Termsuksawad, P.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Olson, D. L.; Mishra, B.; Kaydanov, V.; Gavra, Z.

    2008-02-01

    The magnetic susceptibility and thermoelectric power of Zr0.9Ti0.1CrxFe2-x intermetallic compounds were investigated as functions of hydrogen content. The alloys are paramagnetic, with magnetic susceptibility and Seebeck coefficient increasing with the amount of stored hydrogen. The susceptibility is proportional to the Seebeck coefficient and to the d-electron concentration, consistent with a free-electron model. The susceptibility of alloys with lower iron concentration suggests exchange-enhanced Pauli paramagnetism. However, Curie-Weiss paramagnetism likely coexists in alloys with higher iron content. Magnetic and electronic measurements may be used to assess the ability of an alloy to store hydrogen.

  3. Radiation-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds: A molecular-dynamics study of CuTi and Cu sub 4 Ti sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. ); Sabochick, M.J. . Dept. of Engineering Physics)

    1991-06-01

    In the present paper, important results of our recent computer simulation of radiation-induced amorphization in the ordered compounds CuTi and Cu{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} are summarized. The energetic, structural, thermodynamic and mechanical responses of these intermetallics during chemical disordering, point-defect production and heating were simulated, using molecular dynamics and embedded-atom potentials. From the atomistic details obtained, the critical role of radiation-induced structural disorder in driving the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transformation is discussed. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Crystal structure and chemical bonding of novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16}

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Yaho; Nam, Gnu; Jeon, Jieun; Kim, Youngjo; You, Tae-Soo

    2012-12-15

    A novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16} has been synthesized using the high-temperature reaction method and characterized by both powder and single-crystal X-ray diffractions. The title compound crystallized in the orthorhombic crystal system (space group Immm, Z=2, Pearson symbol oI78) with fifteen crystallographically unique atomic positions in the asymmetric unit, and the lattice parameters are refined as a=4.5244(4) A, b=6.9932(6) A, and c=53.043(5) A. The complex crystal structure of the title compound can be described as a 2:1 intergrowth of two closely related compounds: La{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Ce{sub 2}Li{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}-type) and La{sub 3}Li{sub 4}Ge{sub 4} (Zr{sub 3}Cu{sub 4}Si{sub 4}-type) acting like 'building-blocks' along the c-axis. Six La sites are categorized into three distinct types based on the local coordination environment showing the coordination numbers of 12-14. Three unique Li sites are placed in the centers of local tetrahedra formed by four Ge atoms which eventually construct Ge{sub 2} dimers or 1-dimensional cis-/trans-Ge chains. Theoretical investigations using the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbital (LMTO) method provide rationales for an improved structural stability and for unique local coordination geometries established by anionic elements including [LiGe{sub 4}] tetrahedra, cis-/trans-Ge chain and Ge{sub 2} dimers. - Graphical abstract: Reported is a novel ternary Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16}. The complex crystal structure can be viewed as a simple combination of two closely related known compounds acting as 'building-blocks', La{sub 2}Li{sub 2}G{sub 3} and La{sub 3}Li{sub 4}Ge{sub 4}, in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel Li-containing polar intermetallic compound La{sub 11}Li{sub 12}Ge{sub 16} was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The complex crystal structure was easily explained as

  5. Reactive spreading: Adsorption, ridging and compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, E.; Cannon, R.M.; Tomsia, A.P.

    2000-09-11

    Reactive spreading, in which a chemically active element is added to promote wetting of noble metals on nonmetallic materials, is evaluated. Theories for the energetics and kinetics of the necessary steps involved in spreading are outlined and compared to the steps in compound formation that typically accompany reactive wetting. These include: fluid flow, active metal adsorption, including nonequilibrium effects, and triple line ridging. All of these can be faster than compound nucleation under certain conditions. Analysis and assessment of recently reported experiments on metal/ceramic systems lead to a focus on those conditions under which spreading proceeds ahead of the actual formation of a new phase at the interface. This scenario may be more typical than believed, and perhaps the most effective situation leading to enhanced spreading. A rationale for the pervasive variability and hysteresis observed during high temperature wetting also emerges.

  6. Synthesis of Xenon and Iron/Nickel Intermetallic Compounds Under the Thermodynamic Conditions of the Earth's Core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrou, E.; Zaug, J. M.; Crowhurst, J.; Lobanov, S.; Goncharov, A. F.; Prakapenka, V.; Prescher, C.; Yao, Y.; Liu, H.; Dai, Z.; Oleynik, I.; Steele, B.; Cong, K. N.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Xe abundance in Earth's atmosphere, in comparison to other noble gases like Ar and Kr, is one of the most challenging open questions in geosciences [1]. The origin of the so-called "missing Xe paradox" is usually attributed to the inclusion of Xe in the interior of Earth[2]. Although Xe is known to form compounds (e.g. with hydrogen, oxygen), none of them can be related with Earth's interior. Indeed, only a very low amount of Xe can be incorporated in silica at <1 GPa and 500K [3]. On the other hand, experimental attempts have failed to trace possible formation of Fe-Xe compounds up to 155 GPa and bellow 2500K [4]. A very recent theoretical study, suggests that Xe-Ni and Xe-Fe compounds can form at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's outer core [5]. Here we explored the possible formation of stable compounds in the Xe-Fe/Ni system at thermodynamic conditions representative of Earth's outer core starting from the following mixtures: a) Xe-Fe, b) Xe-Ni and c) Xe and an Fe/Ni alloy representative of Earth's core (ca 6% Ni). Using in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy we report the formation of: a) a XeNi3 compound, in the form of a CrNi3-type FCC solid solution, above 150 GPa and 1500K, b) a Xe(Fe/Ni)3 compound, tentatively characterized as an orthorhombic NbPd3-type solid solution, above 190 GPa and 2000K and c) a still not completely characterized XeFexcompound above 180 GPa and 2000K. This work provides a plausible explanation of the "missing Xe paradox", and underscores the importance of understanding the novel rules of high-pressure chemistry for an improved understanding of the structure and chemistry of the Earth's core. [1] E. Anders, E. and T. Owen, Science 198, 453 (1977). [2] Caldwell, W. A. et al.,Science 277, 930 (1997). [3] C. Sanloup et al.,Science 310, 1174(2005). [4] D. Nishio-Hamane et al.,Geophys. Res. Lett. 37, L04302 (2010). [5] L. Zhu et al., Nature chemistry 6, 664 (2014).

  7. PyDII: A python framework for computing equilibrium intrinsic point defect concentrations and extrinsic solute site preferences in intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hong; Medasani, Bharat; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin A.; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark

    2015-08-01

    Point defects play an important role in determining the structural stability and mechanical behavior of intermetallic compounds. To help quantitatively understand the point defect properties in these compounds, we developed PyDII, a Python program that performs thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium intrinsic point defect concentrations and extrinsic solute site preferences in intermetallics. The algorithm implemented in PyDII is built upon a dilute-solution thermodynamic formalism with a set of defect excitation energies calculated from first-principles density-functional theory methods. The analysis module in PyDII enables automated calculations of equilibrium intrinsic antisite and vacancy concentrations as a function of composition and temperature (over ranges where the dilute solution formalism is accurate) and the point defect concentration changes arising from addition of an extrinsic substitutional solute species. To demonstrate the applications of PyDII, we provide examples for intrinsic point defect concentrations in NiAl and Al3 V and site preferences for Ti, Mo and Fe solutes in NiAl.

  8. Effect of trace elements vanadium and nickel on iron intermetallic phases formation and distribution in DC cast 5xxx series aluminum ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gaofeng

    AA5657 alloy is one of the important members of 5xxx-series alloys. It has application in many fields as packing, electricity, architectural, and printing. These applications require high quality surface finishing, and the alloy ingots require homogeneous microstructure. In the industry of DC (direct-chill) casting of 1xxx and 5xxx-series aluminium ingots, there exist different cooling rates from the casting surface to the ingot center. Thus, different Fe intermetallic phases such as AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and Al3Fe can form preferentially in different positions of the ingot. The Fe intermetallic phase transition in DC casting ingot may cause microstructure inhomogeneities, which in turn cause the so called fir-tree zones (FTZs) in the ingots as well as streaks and bands on the Al sheets. Nowadays, with the increase of impurity in aluminium smelting raw materials (coke, alumina, etc.), the levels of trace elements present in the primary metal is gradually increasing. The impact of this increase on the aluminium transformation process and the final products is uncertain. Thus, there is a clear need to better understand these impacts, which will allow identifying ways to mitigate the negative impacts. The study presented in this thesis was performed on AA5657 alloys to study the effect of trace elements V and Ni on Fe intermetallic phases formation and distribution. A slice of AA1050 alloy ingot with visible FTZs was also studied to characterize the Fe intermetallic phases transition across the FTZs. A DC simulator was built in the lab, which can reproduce the solidification conditions in the sub-surface regions of industry ingots. The methods for the characterization of Fe intermetallic particles were developed in this research. AlmFe, Al6Fe, alpha-AlFeSi and alpha-Al3Fe intermetallic phases were successfully identified by using Deep-etching method, EDS and EBSD technique in combination. Quantitative analysis of the Fe intermetallic particles was carried out by

  9. The adsorption, catalytic and structural characteristics of LaNi /SUB 5-x/ Co /SUB x/ intermetallic compounds and their hydrides -

    SciTech Connect

    Konenko, I.R.; Fedorovskaya, E.A.; Klabunovskii, E.I.; Slinkin, A.A.; Starodubtseva, E.V.; Stepanov, Y.P.

    1986-10-01

    The hydrogen adsorption, propylene hydrogenation catalysis, and magnetic properties of LaNi /SUB 5-x/ Co /SUB x/ (0 intermetallic compounds (IMC) and their hydrides were studied. An extremal dependence of the specific catalytic activity on the catalyst composition was found. The rate of propylene hydrogenation obeys a kinetic equation which is zero-order in hydrogen and first-order relative to the olefin. Comparison of the data for the catalytic, magnetic, and physicochemical properties of the IMC and their hydrides showed that the catalytic activity of these compounds is related to the hydrogen affinity of the IMC and their structural features related to the ratio of the nickel and cobalt atoms.

  10. Random-anisotropy ferromagnetic state in the C u5G d0.54C a0.42 intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krnel, M.; Vrtnik, S.; Koželj, P.; Kocjan, A.; Jagličić, Z.; Boulet, P.; de Weerd, M. C.; Dubois, J. M.; Dolinšek, J.

    2016-03-01

    By applying the alloy design concept that stable intermetallic phases between two immiscible elements can be formed by adding a third element that forms stable compounds with both elements, we have synthesized the first known stable intermetallic compound of Cu, Gd, and Ca, where copper acts as the mediating element between the immiscible Gd and Ca. A compound with the composition C u84G d9C a7 (equivalent to C u5G d0.54C a0.42 ) was synthesized by the Czochralski technique in the form of a large single crystal of high structural perfection, and the structural model was determined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The compound crystallizes in the hexagonal system, space group P 6 /mmm, and the crystal structure is isotypic to the C u5.44T b0.78 . The unit cell contains inherent disorder due to partial occupation of the Cu3 site and the substitutional disorder at the Gd/Ca mixed site located at the vertices of the hexagonal unit cell, where Gd and Ca randomly substitute each other. The random substitution of magnetic Gd by nonmagnetic Ca atoms makes the magnetic Gd lattice disordered, which leads to interesting magnetic ordering at low temperatures that occurs below TC=24 K in zero and low external magnetic fields. By performing a large set of complementary experiments along two perpendicular crystallographic directions (the [001] hexagonal-axis direction and the [100] hexagonal-plane direction), we show that the zero-field collective magnetic state can be described as a random-anisotropy ferromagnetic state, where random magnetic anisotropies originate from the magnetic dipole interactions between the Gd moments in the magnetically disordered lattice. The random-anisotropy ferromagnetic state in the C u84G d9C a7 is characterized by randomness and frustration of magnetic interactions, which are the two ingredients that allow classifying this state into the generic class of spin glasses. Our paper opens the possibility to search for new ternary intermetallic phases in the

  11. Finite Element Modeling of Stress Evolution in Sn Films due to Growth of the Cu6Sn5 Intermetallic Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchovecky, Eric; Jadhav, Nitin; Bower, Allan F.; Chason, Eric

    2009-12-01

    We use finite element simulations to quantitatively evaluate different mechanisms for the generation of stress in Sn films due to growth of the Cu6Sn5 intermetallic phase at the Cu-Sn interface. We find that elastic and plastic behavior alone are not sufficient to reproduce the experimentally measured stress evolution. However, when grain boundary diffusion is included, the model results agree well with experimental observations. Examination of conditions necessary to produce the observed stresses provides insight into potential strategies for minimizing stress generation and thus mitigating Sn whisker growth.

  12. Comparison of Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Alloy Intermetallic Compound Growth Under Different Thermal Excursions for Fine-Pitch Flip-Chip Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Liu, Xi; Chow, Justin; Wu, Yi Ping; Sitaraman, Suresh K.

    2013-08-01

    The intermetallic compound (IMC) evolution in Cu pad/Sn-Ag-Cu solder interface and Sn-Ag-Cu solder/Ni pad interface was investigated using thermal shock experiments with 100- μm-pitch flip-chip assemblies. The experiments show that low standoff height of solder joints and high thermomechanical stress play a great role in the interfacial IMC microstructure evolution under thermal shock, and strong cross-reaction of pad metallurgies is evident in the intermetallic growth. Furthermore, by comparing the IMC growth during thermal aging and thermal shock, it was found that thermal shock accelerates IMC growth and that kinetic models based on thermal aging experiments underpredict IMC growth in thermal shock experiments. Therefore, new diffusion kinetic parameters were determined for the growth of (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 using thermal shock experiments, and the Cu diffusion coefficient through the IMC layer was calculated to be 0.2028 μm2/h under thermal shock. Finite-element models also show that the solder stresses are higher under thermal shock, which could explain why the IMC growth is faster and greater under thermal shock cycling as opposed to thermal aging.

  13. Structural and physical properties of the new intermetallic compound Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Solokha, P.; Curlik, I.; Giovannini, M.; Lee-Hone, N.R.; Reiffers, M.; Ryan, D.H.; Saccone, A.

    2011-09-15

    The crystal structure of the ternary intermetallic compound Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} has been determined ab initio from powder X-ray diffraction data. The compound crystallizes as a new structure type in the orthorhombic space group Pbcm and lattice constants a=0.58262(3), b=1.68393(8), c=1.38735(7) nm. Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} is composed of a complex {sub {infinity}}[Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}]{sup {delta}-} polyanionic network in which the Yb ions are embedded. A comparison between this structure and those of Eu{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}, other novel polar intermetallic compounds, was made. DC susceptibility and {sup 170}Yb Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements indicate a close-to divalent Yb behavior. Moreover, a hybridization between 4f and conduction electrons is suggested by electronic structure calculations and heat capacity measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Polyanionic networks for Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Eu{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2}. Highlights: > We determined ab initio the crystal structure of the novel ternary Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} stannide. > This structure has been compared with those of other polar 3:2:2 stannides discovered in this work. > Measurements of physical properties on Yb{sub 3}Pd{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} point to a close-to-divalent Yb ion. > Electron structure calculation and heat capacity indicate some hybridization between 4f and conduction electrons.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Fe-Ti-Sb intermetallic compounds: Discovery of a new Slater-Pauling phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghibolashrafi, N.; Keshavarz, S.; Hegde, Vinay I.; Gupta, A.; Butler, W. H.; Romero, J.; Munira, K.; LeClair, P.; Mazumdar, D.; Ma, J.; Ghosh, A. W.; Wolverton, C.

    2016-03-01

    Compounds of Fe, Ti, and Sb were prepared using arc melting and vacuum annealing. Fe2TiSb , expected to be a full Heusler compound crystallizing in the L 21 structure, was shown by XRD and SEM analyses to be composed of weakly magnetic grains of nominal composition Fe1.5TiSb with iron-rich precipitates in the grain boundaries. FeTiSb, a composition consistent with the formation of a half-Heusler compound, also decomposed into Fe1.5TiSb grains with Ti-Sb rich precipitates and was weakly magnetic. The dominant Fe1.5TiSb phase appears to crystallize in a defective L 21 -like structure with iron vacancies. Based on this finding, a first-principles DFT-based binary cluster expansion of Fe and vacancies on the Fe sublattice of the L 21 structure was performed. Using the cluster expansion, we computationally scanned >103 configurations and predict a novel, stable, nonmagnetic semiconductor phase to be the zero-temperature ground state. This new structure is an ordered arrangement of Fe and vacancies, belonging to the space group R 3 m , with composition Fe1.5TiSb , i.e., between the full- and half-Heusler compositions. This phase can be visualized as alternate layers of L 21 phase Fe2TiSb and C 1b phase FeTiSb, with layering along the [111] direction of the original cubic phases. Our experimental results on annealed samples support this predicted ground-state composition, but further work is required to confirm that the R 3 m structure is the ground state.

  15. Structural, electronic and elastic properties of the B2-ScM (M =Au, Hg and Tl) intermetallic compounds: Ab initio calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, Ahmad A.; Khalifeh, Jamil M.

    2015-10-01

    Structural, electronic, elastic and mechanical properties of ScM (M =Au, Hg and Tl) intermetallic compounds are studied using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on the density functional theory (DFT), within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and the local density approximation (LDA) to the exchange-correlation approximation energy as implemented in the Wien2k code. The ground state properties including lattice parameters, bulk modulus and elastic constants were all computed and compared with the available previous theoretical and experimental results. The lattice constant was found to increase in contrast to the bulk modulus which was found to decrease with every substitution of the cation (M) starting from Au till Tl in ScM. Both the electronic band structure and density-of-states (DOS) calculations show that these compounds possess metallic properties. The calculated elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44) confirmed the elastic stability of the ScM compounds in the B2-phase. The mechanical properties and ductile behaviors of these compounds are also predicted based on the calculated elastic constants.

  16. High-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys II; Proceedings of the Second Symposium, Boston, MA, Dec. 2-4, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoloff, N. S. (Editor); Koch, C. C. (Editor); Liu, C. T. (Editor); Izumi, O. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The papers presented in this volume provide on overview of recent theoretical and experimental research in the field of high-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys. The papers are gouped under the following headings: ordering behavior and theory, microstructures, mechanical behavior, alloy design and microstructural control, and metallurgical properties. Specific topics discussed include antiphase domains, disordered films and the ductility of ordered alloys based on Ni3Al; kinetics and mechanics of formation of Al-Ni intermetallics; deformability improvements of L1(2)-type intermetallic compounds; B2 aluminides for high-temperature applications; and rapidly solidified binary TiAl alloys.

  17. Electric Field Gradient at Nb Site in the Intermetallic Compounds Nb3X (X = AI, In, Si, Ge, Sn) Measured by PAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junqueira, A. C.; Carbonari, A. W.; Filho, J. Mestnik; Saxena, R. N.

    2000-02-01

    The electric field gradient (efg) at the Nb site in the intermetallic compounds Nb3X (X = Al, In, Si, Ge, Sn) was measured by the Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) method using the well-known gamma-gamma cascade of 133 -482 keV in 181Ta from the β- decay of 181Hf, substituting approximately 0.1 atom percent of Nb. The PAC results show that Vzz drops by nearly 40% when X changes from Al to In, and by about 25% when X changes from Si to Ge and Sn. This behavior is most probably related to the change in the degree of sp hybridization in these compounds. The Vzz values of the studied compounds do not follow the well known universal correlation for the efg's in non-cubic metals but the observed trend is well reproduced by results of ab-initio electronic structure calculations. In the case of Nb3 Al a linear temperature dependence of the quadrupole frequencies was observed in the temperature range of 6.5 to 1210 K.

  18. Evolution of the magnetic properties along the RCuBi2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Sm) series of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, C. B. R.; Piva, M. M.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Adriano, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the evolution of the magnetic properties along the series of intermetallic compounds RCuBi2 (R = Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Sm) is discussed. These compounds crystallize in a tetragonal ZrCuSi2 (P4/nmm) structure, and our single crystals of RCuBi2 grown from Bi-flux show no evidence for Cu-deficiency [Ye et al., Acta Crystallogr. C 52, 1325 (1996)] as previously reported for R = Ce. For R = Ce, Pr, Gd, and Sm, we found an antiferromagnetic ordering at TN ˜ 16 K, 4.2 K, 13.6 K, and 4.9 K, respectively. For R = Nd, we saw no evidence for a magnetic phase transition down to T = 2 K. These values of TN clearly show a dramatic breakdown of the De Gennes factor in this series. We discuss our data taken into account the tetragonal crystalline electrical field and the anisotropic Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida magnetic interaction between the R-ions in this family of compounds.

  19. Investigations of intermetallic alloy hydriding mechanisms. Annual progress report, May 1 1979-April 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Livesay, B.R.; Larsen, J.W.

    1980-05-01

    Investigations are being conducted on mechanisms involved with the hydrogen-metal interactions which control the absorption and desorption processes in intermetallic compounds. The status of the following investigations is reported: modeling of hydride formation; microbalance investigations; microstructure investigations; flexure experiments; resistivity experiments; and nuclear backscattering measurements. These investigations concern fundamental hydrogen interaction mechanisms involved in storage alloys.

  20. SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 — two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Fässler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-01

    SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn2Sn2 comprises (anti-)PbO-like {ZnSn4/4} and {SnZn4/4} layers. Ca2Zn3Sn6 shows similar {ZnSn4/4} layers and {Sn4Zn} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn2Sn2 adopts the SrPd2Bi2 structure type, and Ca2Zn3Sn6 is isotypic to the R2Zn3Ge6 compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn2Sn2 and Ca2Zn3Sn6 are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {Sn4Zn} layers of Ca2Zn3Sn6.

  1. Growth Behavior of Intermetallic Compounds in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu Solder Joints with Different Rates of Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Linmei; Zhang, Z. F.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMC) in Cu/Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder joints, including the interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer and Ag3Sn, and Cu6Sn5 in the solder, were investigated when different cooling methods—quenched water, cooling in air, and cooling in a furnace after reflow—were used. For the solder joint quenched in water, no obvious Cu6Sn5 or Ag3Sn was detected in the solder, and the thickness of interfacial Cu6Sn5 layer was slightly thinner than that of the joint cooled in air. On the basis of results from scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectrometry, a mechanism is proposed for growth of IMC in Sn3.0Ag0.5Cu solder during solidification. The rate of cooling has a substantial effect on the morphology and size of Ag3Sn, which evolved into large plate-like shapes when the joint was cooled slowly in a furnace. However, the morphology of Ag3Sn was branch-like or particle-like when the joint was cooled in air. This is attributed to re-growth of Ag3Sn grains via substantial atomic diffusion during the high-temperature stage of furnace cooling.

  2. Asymmetrical Precipitation of Ag3Sn Intermetallic Compounds Induced by Thermomigration of Ag in Pb-Free Microbumps During Solid-State Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Ping; Wu, Chun-Sen; Ouyang, Fan-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional integrated circuit technology has become a major trend in electronics packaging in the microelectronics industry. To effectively remove heat from stacked integrated circuitry, a temperature gradient must be established across the chips. Furthermore, because of the trend toward higher device current density, Joule heating is more serious and temperature gradients across soldered joints are expected to increase. In this study we used heat-sink and heat-source devices to establish a temperature gradient across SnAg microbumps to investigate the thermomigration behavior of Ag in SnAg solder. Compared with isothermal conditions, small Ag3Sn particles near the hot end were dissolved and redistributed toward the cold end under a temperature gradient. The results indicated that temperature gradient-induced movement of Ag atoms occurred from the hot side toward the cold side, and asymmetrical precipitation of Ag3Sn resulted. The mechanism of growth of the intermetallic compound (IMC) Ag3Sn, caused by thermomigration of Ag, is discussed. The rate of growth Ag3Sn IMC at the cold side was found to increase linearly with solid-aging time under a temperature gradient. To understand the force driving Ag diffusion under the temperature gradient, the molar heat of transport ( Q*) of Ag in Sn was calculated as +13.34 kJ/mole.

  3. Hyperfine field at Mn in the intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 measured by PAC using 111Cd nuclear probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domienikan, C.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Cabrera Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Carbonari, A. W.

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic hyperfine field at Mn site has been measured in the orthorhombic intermetallic compound LaMnSi2 with PAC spectroscopy using radioactive 111In- 111Cd nuclear probe. Samples of LaMnSi2 were prepared by melting pure metallic components in stoichiometric proportion in an arc furnace under argon atmosphere. The samples were sealed in a quartz tube under helium atmosphere, annealed at 1000 °C for 60 h and quenched in water. Samples were analyzed with X-ray diffraction method. 111In was introduced in the samples by thermal diffusion at 1000 °C for 60 h. PAC measurements were carried out with a six BaF2 detector spectrometer at several temperatures between 50 K and 410 K. Results show well defined quadrupole and magnetic interactions at all temperatures. The magnetic hyperfine field (Bhf) measured at 50 K is 7.1(1) T. The temperature dependence of Bhf follows the normal Brillouin-like behavior expected for a simple ferromagnetic ordering. The ferromagnetic transition temperature (Tc) was determined to be 401(1) K.

  4. Different Cation Arrangements in Au-In Networks. Syntheses and Structures of Six Intermetallic Compounds in Alkali-Metal-Au-In Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bin Li; John D. Corbett

    2007-06-20

    Six robust intermetallic compounds with cations in three different tunnel-like structures have been synthesized in alkali-metal-Au-In systems via high-temperature solid-state methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction: AAu{sub 4}-In{sub 6} [A = K (I), Rb (II), F6m2, Z = 1], K{sub 1.76(6)}Au{sub 6}Ln{sub 4} (III,; 4/mcm, Z = 4), and A{sub x}Au{sub 2}In{sub 2} [x{approx} 0.7, A = K (IV), Rb (V), Cs (VI), P4{sub 2}/nmc, Z = 8]. The first type is constructed from a single cage unit: an alkali-metal-centered 21-vertex polyhedron A@AugIn12 with 6-9-6 arrangement of planar rings. The others contain uniaxial arrays of tunnels built of differently puckered eight- and four-member Au/In rings. The largely different cation distributions depend on the tunnel constitutions and cation sizes. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations by linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods were performed for I and idealized III in order to help understand their chemical bonding. These also reveal large differences in relativistic effects for Au d orbitals, as well as for different Au sites in each structure.

  5. Different Cation Arrangements in Au-In Networks. Syntheses and Structures of Six Intermetallic compounds in Alkali-Metal-Au-In Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Corbett, John D.

    2007-06-20

    Six robust intermetallic compounds with cations in three different tunnel-like structures have been synthesized in alkali-metal-Au-In systems via high-temperature solid-state methods and characterized by X-ray diffraction: AAu{sub 4}-In{sub 6} [A = K (I), Rb (II), F6m2, Z = 1], K{sub 1.76(6)}Au{sub 6}Ln{sub 4} (III, /4/mcm, Z = 4), and A{sub x}Au{sub 2}In{sub 2} [x {approx} 0.7, A = K (IV), Rb (V), Cs (VI), P4{sub 2}/nmc, Z = 8]. The first type is constructed from a single cage unit: an alkali-metal-centered 21-vertex polyhedron A{at}AugIn{sub 12} with 6-9-6 arrangement of planar rings. The others contain uniaxial arrays of tunnels built of differently puckered eight- and four-member Au/In rings. The largely different cation distributions depend on the tunnel constitutions and cation sizes. Tight-binding electronic structure calculations by linear muffin-tin-orbital (LMTO) methods were performed for I and idealized III in order to help understand their chemical bonding. These also reveal large differences in relativistic effects for Au d orbitals, as well as for different Au sites in each structure.

  6. Huge positive hyperfine fields for Sn impurity atoms on R sites of R T intermetallic compounds (R=rare-earth, T=Fe, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. I.; Delyagin, N. N.

    2006-10-01

    The magnetic hyperfine field Bhf of the 119Sn impurity atom on the R site of the RFe 2 (R=Sm, Tb, Tm), TbCo 2, RCo 5 (R=Dy, Ho, Er), GdCo 3 and Gd 2Co 7 intermetallic compounds has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy technique. At 5 K, very large hyperfine fields equal to 46-56 T were observed. The B values are several times larger than commonly observed for Sn in 3d-based magnetic hosts. The hyperfine fields are positive (that is parallel to the 3d magnetic moments direction). The results can be interpreted qualitatively in terms of the theory proposed for the impurity atoms in homogeneous ferromagnetic hosts [J. Kanamori, H. Katayama-Yoshida, K. Terakura, Hyperfine Interact. 8 (1981) 573; J. Kanamori, H. Katayama-Yoshida, K. Terakura, Hyperfine Interact. 9 (1981) 363; M. Akai, H. Akai, J. Kanamori, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 54 (1985) 4246; S. Blügel, H. Akai, R. Zeller, P.H. Dederichs, Phys. Rev. B 35 (1987) 3271], when it is considered that the splitting between bonding and antibonding hybrid states is strongly dependent on the interatomic distance. As the distance between the probe atom and neighboring magnetic atoms increases, the population of the antibonding states grows and, as a consequence, the corresponding positive contribution to the B increases sharply. For Sn atom the positive contribution to the B dominates when the interatomic distance exceeds 0.28-0.29 nm.

  7. Volatile compound formation during argan kernel roasting.

    PubMed

    El Monfalouti, Hanae; Charrouf, Zoubida; Giordano, Manuela; Guillaume, Dominique; Kartah, Badreddine; Harhar, Hicham; Gharby, Saïd; Denhez, Clément; Zeppa, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Virgin edible argan oil is prepared by cold-pressing argan kernels previously roasted at 110 degrees C for up to 25 minutes. The concentration of 40 volatile compounds in virgin edible argan oil was determined as a function of argan kernel roasting time. Most of the volatile compounds begin to be formed after 15 to 25 minutes of roasting. This suggests that a strictly controlled roasting time should allow the modulation of argan oil taste and thus satisfy different types of consumers. This could be of major importance considering the present booming use of edible argan oil. PMID:23472454

  8. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X-. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100 GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n >= 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications.

  9. Formation of Stoichiometric CsFn Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qiang; Oganov, Artem R.; Zeng, Qingfeng

    2015-01-01

    Alkali halides MX, have been viewed as typical ionic compounds, characterized by 1:1 ratio necessary for charge balance between M+ and X−. It was proposed that group I elements like Cs can be oxidized further under high pressure. Here we perform a comprehensive study for the CsF-F system at pressures up to 100 GPa, and find extremely versatile chemistry. A series of CsFn (n ≥ 1) compounds are predicted to be stable already at ambient pressure. Under pressure, 5p electrons of Cs atoms become active, with growing tendency to form Cs (III) and (V) valence states at fluorine-rich conditions. Although Cs (II) and (IV) are not energetically favoured, the interplay between two mechanisms (polyfluoride anions and polyvalent Cs cations) allows CsF2 and CsF4 compounds to be stable under pressure. The estimated defluorination temperatures of CsFn (n = 2,3,5) compounds at atmospheric pressure (218°C, 150°C, -15°C, respectively), are attractive for fluorine storage applications. PMID:25608669

  10. Electronic Properties of MoSi2-Type Hf2X Intermetallic Compounds (X=Pd, Ag, Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaar, I.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Berant, Z.

    2001-11-01

    The Hf z coordinate and the value of the electric field gradient (efg) main component (V zz ), were calculated for three Hf2X compounds (X = Pd, Ag, Cd) on a first-principle basis, using the full potential linear augmented plane wave (LAPW) method. Exchange and correlation effects were treated either by the local spine density approximation (LSDA) or by the more advanced generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The calculated V zz values, in the Hf site, were in very good agreement with available 181Hf TDPAC experimental results.

  11. The easy magnetization directions in R{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} intermetallic compounds: A crystal field analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bowden, G.J.; Cadogan, J.M.; de Leon, H.; Ryan, D.H.

    1997-04-01

    X-ray diffraction patterns on magnetically aligned powder samples of R{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} (R=Dy, Er, Ho, and Tm) show that these compounds all magnetize along a [111] easy direction. At first sight it is difficult to reconcile the common easy magnetization direction of Er{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} and Tm{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} on one hand, with Dy{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} and Ho{sub 6}Fe{sub 23} on the other, since the respective B{sub 20} rare earth crystal field parameters of these pairs of compounds are opposite in sign. In this article we show that the crystal field stabilization energy of the [111] direction, relative to either [100] or [110], varies as the square of the crystal field term B{sub 20}, thereby providing an explanation for the common [111] direction of easy magnetization. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. The analysis of the magnetic properties in the intermetallic YxGd1-xNi3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajorek, Anna; Chrobak, Artur; Chełkowska, Grażyna; Kwiecień-Grudziecka, Marzena

    2012-12-01

    In the paper an influence of Gd/Y substitution on the magnetic properties and exchange interactions of the YxGd1-xNi3 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) polycrystalline compounds have been studied. The partial replacement of Gd by Y atoms is reflected in decreasing of the Curie temperature (TC) as well as decreasing of effective the magnetic moment (μeff). It has been shown that such a behaviour strongly depends on the magnetic interactions. Exchange coupling parameters of R-R (ARR), T-T (ATT) and R-T (ART) have been evaluated from M(T) magnetization curves (2-300 K, 2 T) based on the mean field theory (MFT) calculation. The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) has been estimated from the family of magnetic isotherms. The magnetic entropy indicates relatively small change with the Gd/Y substitution. The value of ΔSm(T,H) is higher for Gd-rich compounds and, respectively, decreases with Gd/Y substitution.

  13. Structure Defect Property Relationships in Binary Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ding, Hong; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin; Canning, Andrew; Haranczyk, Maciej; Asta, Mark

    2015-03-01

    Ordered intermetallics are light weight materials with technologically useful high temperature properties such as creep resistance. Knowledge of constitutional and thermal defects is required to understand these properties. Vacancies and antisites are the dominant defects in the intermetallics and their concentrations and formation enthalpies could be computed by using first principles density functional theory and thermodynamic formalisms such as dilute solution method. Previously many properties of the intermetallics such as melting temperatures and formation enthalpies were statistically analyzed for large number of intermetallics using structure maps and data mining approaches. We undertook a similar exercise to establish the dependence of the defect properties in binary intermetallics on the underlying structural and chemical composition. For more than 200 binary intermetallics comprising of AB, AB2 and AB3 structures, we computed the concentrations and formation enthalpies of vacancies and antisites in a small range of stoichiometries deviating from ideal stoichiometry. The calculated defect properties were datamined to gain predictive capabilities of defect properties as well as to classify the intermetallics for their suitability in high-T applications. Supported by the US DOE under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231 under the Materials Project Center grant (Award No. EDCBEE).

  14. Comments on the thermoelectric power of intermetallic rare-earth compounds with well localized 4f shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szukiel, A. E.

    2016-05-01

    The anomalous temperature variation of the thermoelectric power in the metallic rare-earth compounds with well-localized 4f shells is sometimes interpreted as resulting from the conduction electrons scattering in the Born approximation on the acoustic phonons and on the localized spins in the s-f exchange interaction. Such an interpretation relies on the results of some theoretical works where the sign reversal and the maxima of the thermoelectric power were obtained within these simple models. In the present paper we prove that neither the electron-phonon scattering nor the magnetic s-f scattering in the Born approximation (nor both of them) do lead to the effects mentioned above.

  15. Low-Temperature Synthesis Routes to Intermetallic Superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Schaak, Raymond E

    2008-01-08

    Over the past few years, our group has gained expertise at developing low-temperature solution-based synthetic pathways to complex nanoscale solids, with particular emphasis on nanocrystalline intermetallic compounds. Our synthetic capabilities are providing tools to reproducibly generate intermetallic nanostructures with simultaneous control over crystal structure, composition, and morphology. This DOE-funded project aims to expand these capabilities to intermetallic superconductors. This could represent an important addition to the tools that are available for the synthesis and processing of intermetallic superconductors, which traditionally utilize high-temperature, high-pressure, thin film, or gas-phase vacuum deposition methods. Our current knowledge of intermetallic superconductors suggests that significant enhancements could result from the inherent benefits of low-temperature solution synthesis, e.g. metastable phase formation, control over nanoscale morphology to facilitate size-dependent property studies, robust and inexpensive processability, low-temperature annealing and consolidation, and impurity incorporation (for doping, stoichiometry control, flux pinning, and improving the critical fields). Our focus is on understanding the superconducting properties as a function of synthetic route, crystal structure, crystallite size, and morphology, and developing the synthetic tools necessary to accomplish this. This research program can currently be divided into two classes of superconducting materials: intermetallics (transition metal/post transition metal) and metal carbides/borides. Both involve the development and exploitation of low-temperature synthesis routes followed by detailed characterization of structures and properties, with the goal of understanding how the synthetic pathways influence key superconducting properties of selected target materials. Because of the low-temperature methods used to synthesize them and the nanocrystalline morphologies

  16. The effect of intermetallic compound evolution on the fracture behavior of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young-Kyu; Ko, Yong-Ho; Kim, Jun-Ki; Lee, Chang-Woo; Yoo, Sehoon

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure and joint properties of Au stud bumps joined with Sn-3.5Ag solder were investigated as functions of flip chip bonding temperature and aging time. Au stud bumps were bonded on solder-onpad (SOP) at bonding temperature of 260°C and 300°C for 10 s, respectively. Aging treatment was carried out at 150°C for 100 h, 300 h, and 500 h, respectively. After flip chip bonding, intermetallic compounds (IMCs) of AuSn, AuSn2, and AuSn4 were formed at the interface between the Au stud bump and Sn-3.5Ag solder. At a bonding temperature of 300°C, AuSn2 IMC clusters, which were surrounded by AuSn4 IMCs, were observed in the Sn-3.5Ag solder bump. After flip chip bonding, bonding strength was approximately 220.5mN/bump. As aging time increased, the bonding strength decreased. After 100 h of aging treatment, the bonding strength of the joint bonded at 300°C was lower than that bonded at 260°C due to the fast growth rate of the AuSn2 IMCs. The main failure modes were interface fractures between the AuSn2 IMCs and AuSn4 IMCs, fractures through the AuSn2 IMCs and pad lift. Initial joint microstructures after flip chip bonding strongly affected the bonding strengths of aged samples.

  17. e/a determination for 4d- and 5d-transition metal elements and their intermetallic compounds with Mg, Al, Zn, Cd and In

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, U.; Sato, H.; Inukai, M.; Zijlstra, E. S.

    2013-08-01

    The present work is devoted to the determination of the effective electrons per atom ratio e/a by means of first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave-Fourier method for elements from Rb to Ag in Period 5 and from Cs to Au in Period 6 of the periodic table and is regarded as a continuation of the preceding work done for elements from K to Cu in Period 4. The value of e/a was determined by reading off the square of the Fermi diameter, ? from the dispersion relation for electrons outside the Muffin-Tin spheres. A straightforward reading of the ordinate at the Fermi level, i.e. local reading method was validated for Rb and Cs in Group 1, Sr in Group 2, Y in Group 3, Pd and Pt in Group 10 and Ag and Au in Group 11. Instead, the nearly free electron (NFE) method was found to be indispensable for TM elements from Zr to Rh in Period 5 and those from Ba to Ir in Period 6. The composition dependence of e/a values for intermetallic compounds in X-TM (X = Mg, Al, Zn, Cd and In) alloy systems was also studied. The new Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule was established by constructing e/uc, the number of electrons per unit cell, vs. square of critical reciprocal lattice vector, ? , diagram for structurally complex metallic alloys having a pseudogap at the Fermi level. A proper use of either the local reading- or the NFE-e/a for the elements as indicated above is found to be essential.

  18. NFE approximation for the e/a determination for 3d-transition metal elements and their intermetallic compounds with Al and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, H.; Inukai, M.; Zijlstra, E. S.; Mizutani, U.

    2013-08-01

    First-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) band calculations with subsequent FLAPW-Fourier analyses have been performed for elements from K to Cu in period 4 of the periodic table to determine the effective electrons per atom ratio (e/a). For the series of 3d-transition metals (TM), the determination of the square of the Fermi diameter ? , from which e/a is derived, has been recognized not to be straightforward because of the presence of a huge anomaly associated with the TM-d states across the Fermi level in the energy dispersion relation for electrons outside the muffin-tin sphere. The nearly free electron (NFE) approximation is newly devised to circumvent this difficulty. The centre of gravity energy ? is calculated from the energy distribution of the square of the Fourier coefficients for the FLAPW state ? . The NFE dispersion relation is constructed for the set of ? and ? in combination with the tetrahedron method. The resulting e/a values are distributed over positive numbers in the vicinity of unity for elements from Ti to Co. Instead, the e/a values for the early elements K, Ca and Sc and the late TM elements Ni and Cu were determined to be close to one, two, three, 0.50 and unity, respectively, using our previously designed local reading method. In addition, the composition dependence of e/a values for intermetallic compounds in X-TM (X = Al and Zn) alloy systems was studied to justify an appropriate choice between the local reading and NFE methods for respective elements.

  19. The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} studied by magnetization and hyperfine interactions measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch-Santos, B. Carbonari, A. W.; Cabrera-Pasca, G. A.; Saxena, R. N.; Freitas, R. S.

    2015-05-07

    The magnetic behavior of the intermetallic compound NdMn{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} was investigated by bulk magnetization measurements and measurements of hyperfine interactions using perturbed γ–γ angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy. Magnetization measurements indicate the presence of four magnetic transitions associated with the Mn and Nd magnetic sublattices. At high temperatures, magnetic measurements show a change in the slope of the magnetization due to an antiferromagnetic transition around T{sub N} ∼ 425 K and a well defined ferromagnetic transition at T{sub C} ∼ 320 K. Moreover, at ∼210 K a peak is observed in the magnetization curve, which is assigned to the reorientation of the Mn spin, and at ∼25 K an increase in the magnetic moment is also observed, which is ascribed to the ordering of Nd ions. PAC measurements using {sup 140}La({sup 140}Ce) and {sup 111}In({sup 111}Cd) probe nuclei allowed the determination of the temperature dependence of the magnetic hyperfine field (B{sub hf}) at Nd and Mn sites, respectively. PAC results with {sup 111}Cd probe nuclei at Mn sites show that the dependence of B{sub hf} with temperature follows the expected behavior for the host magnetization associated with the magnetic ordering of Mn ions. From these results, the antiferromagnetic transition followed by a ferromagnetic ordering is clearly observed. PAC results with {sup 140}Ce probe nuclei at Nd sites, however, showed a strong deviation from the Brillouin function, which is attributed to the Ce 4f-electron contribution to B{sub hf}.

  20. Growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects under temperature gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, N.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M. L.; Ma, H. T.; Dong, W.

    2015-08-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects during reflow at 250 °C and 280 °C on a hot plate was investigated. Being different from the symmetrical growth during isothermal aging, the interfacial IMCs showed clearly asymmetrical growth during reflow, i.e., the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC at the cold end was significantly enhanced while that of Cu3Sn IMC was hindered especially at the hot end. It was found that the temperature gradient had caused the mass migration of Cu atoms from the hot end toward the cold end, resulting in sufficient Cu atomic flux for interfacial reaction at the cold end while inadequate Cu atomic flux at the hot end. The growth mechanism was considered as reaction/thermomigration-controlled at the cold end and grain boundary diffusion/thermomigration-controlled at the hot end. A growth model was established to explain the growth kinetics of the Cu6Sn5 IMC at both cold and hot ends. The molar heat of transport of Cu atoms in molten Sn was calculated as + 11.12 kJ/mol at 250 °C and + 14.65 kJ/mol at 280 °C. The corresponding driving force of thermomigration in molten Sn was estimated as 4.82 × 10-19 N and 6.80 × 10-19 N.

  1. Effects of post-reflow cooling rate and thermal aging on growth behavior of interfacial intermetallic compound between SAC305 solder and Cu substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaowu; Xu, Tao; Jiang, Xiongxin; Li, Yulong; Liu, Yi; Min, Zhixian

    2016-04-01

    The interfacial reactions between Cu and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder reflowed under various cooling rates were investigated. It is found that the cooling rate is an important parameter in solder reflow process because it influences not only microstructure of solder alloy but also the morphology and growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed between solder and Cu substrate. The experimental results indicate that only scallop-like Cu6Sn5 IMC layer is observed between solder and Cu substrate in case of water cooling and air cooling, while bilayer composed of scallop-like Cu6Sn5 and thin layer-like Cu3Sn is detected under furnace cooling due to sufficient reaction time to form Cu3Sn between Cu6Sn5 IMC and Cu substrate which resulted from slow cooling rate. Samples with different reflow cooling rates were further thermal-aged at 423 K. And it is found that the thickness of IMC increases linearly with square root of aging time. The growth constants of interfacial IMC layer during aging were obtained and compared for different cooling rates, indicating that the IMC layer thickness increased faster in samples under low cooling rate than in the high cooling rate under the same aging condition. The long prismatic grains were formed on the existing interfacial Cu6Sn5 grains to extrude deeply into solder matrix with lower cooling rate and long-term aging, and the Cu6Sn5 grains coarsened linearly with cubic root of aging time.

  2. Controlling Interfacial Reactions and Intermetallic Compound Growth at the Interface of a Lead-free Solder Joint with Layer-by-Layer Transferred Graphene.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yong-Ho; Lee, Jong-Dae; Yoon, Taeshik; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Taek-Soo

    2016-03-01

    The immoderate growth of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the interface of a solder metal and the substrate during soldering can degrade the mechanical properties and reliability of a solder joint in electronic packaging. Therefore, it is critical to control IMC growth at the solder joints between the solder and the substrate. In this study, we investigated the control of interfacial reactions and IMC growth by the layer-by-layer transfer of graphene during the reflow process at the interface between Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu (in wt %) lead-free solder and Cu. As the number of graphene layers transferred onto the surface of the Cu substrate increased, the thickness of the total IMC (Cu6Sn5 and Cu3Sn) layer decreased. After 10 repetitions of the reflow process for 50 s above 217 °C, the melting temperature of Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, with a peak temperature of 250 °C, the increase in thickness of the total IMC layer at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was decreased by more than 20% compared to that at the interface of bare Cu without graphene. Furthermore, the average diameter of the Cu6Sn5 scallops at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was smaller than that at the interface without graphene. Despite 10 repetitions of the reflow process, the growth of Cu3Sn at the interface with multiple layers of graphene was suppressed by more than 20% compared with that at the interface without graphene. The multiple layers of graphene at the interface between the solder metal and the Cu substrate hindered the diffusion of Cu atoms from the Cu substrate and suppressed the reactions between Cu and Sn in the solder. Thus, the multiple layers of graphene transferred at the interface between dissimilar metals can control the interfacial reaction and IMC growth occurring at the joining interface. PMID:26856638

  3. Growth kinetics of Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compound at liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects under temperature gradient

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, N.; Zhong, Y.; Huang, M.L.; Ma, H.T.; Dong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The growth behavior of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) at the liquid-solid interfaces in Cu/Sn/Cu interconnects during reflow at 250 °C and 280 °C on a hot plate was investigated. Being different from the symmetrical growth during isothermal aging, the interfacial IMCs showed clearly asymmetrical growth during reflow, i.e., the growth of Cu6Sn5 IMC at the cold end was significantly enhanced while that of Cu3Sn IMC was hindered especially at the hot end. It was found that the temperature gradient had caused the mass migration of Cu atoms from the hot end toward the cold end, resulting in sufficient Cu atomic flux for interfacial reaction at the cold end while inadequate Cu atomic flux at the hot end. The growth mechanism was considered as reaction/thermomigration-controlled at the cold end and grain boundary diffusion/thermomigration-controlled at the hot end. A growth model was established to explain the growth kinetics of the Cu6Sn5 IMC at both cold and hot ends. The molar heat of transport of Cu atoms in molten Sn was calculated as + 11.12 kJ/mol at 250 °C and + 14.65 kJ/mol at 280 °C. The corresponding driving force of thermomigration in molten Sn was estimated as 4.82 × 10−19 N and 6.80 × 10−19 N. PMID:26311323

  4. Structural, mechanical, thermo-physical and electronic properties of η‧-(CuNi)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds: First-principle calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Huang, Jihua; Fan, Dongyu; Chen, Shuhai; Zhao, Xingke

    2016-05-01

    First-principle calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, mechanical, thermo-physical and electronic properties of η‧-(CuNi)6Sn5 intermetallic compounds. The results indicated that, the doped Ni atom can not only enhance the stability of the η‧-Cu6Sn5, but also improve the mechanical and thermo-physical properties, which are more dependent on the Ni atom doping number than the doping position. In all the η‧-(CuNi)6Sn5, Cu3Ni3Sn5 (Cu1+Cu3 site) shows the best stability, the most excellent deformation resistance and the highest hardness. The Cu6Sn5, Cu3Ni3Sn5, Cu4Ni2Sn5, Cu1Ni5Sn5 and Ni6Sn5 are ductile while the Cu5Ni1Sn5 and Cu4Ni2Sn5 are brittle. The anisotropies of η‧-(CuNi)6Sn5 are all mainly due to the uneven distribution of Young's modulus at (001) planes, moreover, the anisotropy of Cu1Ni5Sn5 (Cu1+Cu2+Cu4 site) is the strongest while that of Ni6Sn5 is the weakest. The calculated Debye temperature and heat capacity showed that Cu4Ni2Sn5 (Cu2 site) possesses the best thermal conductivity (ΘD = 356.9 K) and Cu2Ni4Sn5 (Cu1+Cu2 site) possesses the largest heat capacity. From the electronic property analysis results, the Ni s and Ni p states can replace the Cu s and Cu p states to hybridize with Sn s states at -7.98 eV. Moreover, with the increasing number of the doped Ni atom, the hybridization between Cu d states at different positions is receded, while that between Ni d states is enhanced gradually.

  5. Ab initio study of the structural, elastic, thermodynamic, electronic and vibration properties of TbMg intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogulkoc, Y.; Ciftci, Y. O.; Kabak, M.; Colakoglu, K.

    2014-07-01

    The structural, elastic, thermodynamic, electronic and vibrational properties of CsCl-type TbMg have been studied by performing ab initio calculations based on density functional theory using the Vienna Ab initio Simulation Package (VASP). The exchange correlation potential within the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) of projector augmented wave (PAW) method is used. The calculated structural parameters, such as the lattice constant, bulk modulus, its pressure derivative, formation energy and second-order elastic constants are presented in this paper. The obtained results are compared with related experimental and theoretical studies. The electronic band calculations, total density of states (DOS), partial DOS and charge density are also presented. Formation enthalpy and Cauchy pressure are determined. In order to obtain more information the elastic properties such as Zener anisotropy factor, Poisson’s ratio, Young modulus, isotropic shear modulus, Debye temperature and melting point have been carried out. The elastic constants are calculated in zero and different pressure ranges (0-50 GPa) with bulk modulus. We have performed the thermodynamic properties of TbMg by using quasi-harmonic Debye model. The temperature and pressure variation of the volume, bulk modulus, and thermal expansion coefficient have been predicted over a pressure range of 0-25 GPa for of TbMg. Pressure dependence of the anisotropy factors, Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratios, bulk modulus and axis compressibility of TbMg are presented along different directions and planes. Finally, the phonon dispersion curves are presented for TbMg.

  6. [Formations and reactions of aromatic furazan compounds].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Takabatake, T; Miyazawa, T

    2001-06-01

    A reaction from various kinds of nitroquinoline with hydroxylamine in potassium hydroxide alkalinity produced a novel product, furazanoquinoline, besides the known amino derivatives. The products obtained were furazano [3,4-f] quinoline (5) from 5-nitroquinoline (1) and 6-nitroquinoline (6), and furazano [3,4-h] quinoline (10) from 7-nitroquinoline (8) and 8-nitroquinoline (11). The reaction mechanism was believed to be as shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The photoreaction of benzofuroxan (19) in acetonitrile containing a little water, under a high pressure mercury lamp, produced 1H-azepine-2,7-dione (20), while under irradiation using a low pressure lamp, 6H-furazano [4,5-c] carbazole-3-oxide (21) and compound 20 were obtained. Then the photoproduct 20 produced photodimer 22 by irradiation in acetonitrile: water (9:1, v/v) using a high or low pressure mercury lamp, while photolysis with alkali proceeded as in the photoreaction of N-alkylimide to give 7-hydroxy-1H-azepine-2-one (23). When pyrido [2,3-c] furoxan (24) was irradiated in acetonitrile containing a little water with a low pressure mercury lamp, 3-nitro-2-pyridone (25) was obtained. When compound 24 was irradiated in the presence of morpholine with a low pressure mercury lamp in an argon atmosphere, 6-morpholinopyridine 2,3-dioxime (26) was produced. Quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivatives (31, 33), phenazine 5,10-dioxide derivatives (36, 37) and pyrido [2,3-b] pyrazine derivatives (38, 39) were synthesized from the corresponding furoxan catalyzed by silica gel or molecular sieves, and their antibacterial properties were evaluated. The results of antibacterial screening tests in vitro, revealed strong activity against Bacteroides fragilis. PMID:11433773

  7. Al-21Ti-23Cr high-temperature protective coating on TiAl intermetallic compounds by RF magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J.Y.; Lee, H.N.; Wee, D.M.; Park, S.W.; Oh, M.H.

    1997-12-31

    Ti-48Al specimens were coated with Al-21Ti-23Cr film at 200 W, 0.8 Pa and 573 K by RF magnetron sputtering. The oxidation behavior of the coated specimens was investigated through isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests, and the tensile deformation properties of the coated specimens were also investigated before and after oxidation. The isothermal and cyclic oxidation curves showed that the Al-21Ti-23Cr film was very effective in decreasing the oxidation rate of Ti-48Al. This excellent oxidation resistance is attributable to the formation of a protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on the surface of the Al-21Ti-23Cr film. It was found from the results of the tensile test that the protective Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer on the surface of the Al-21Ti-23Cr film enabled the Ti-48Al to maintain its tensile properties in an oxidizing environment.

  8. High-current vacuum-arc ion and plasma source ``Raduga-5'' application to intermetallic phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Igor B.; Ryabchikov, Alexander I.; Kozlov, Eduard V.; Sharkeev, Yurii P.; Shulepov, Ivan A.; Kurzina, Irina A.; Sivin, Denis O.

    2006-03-01

    Phase composition, structural state, and mechanical properties of the ion-doped surface layers of Ni, Ti, and Fe targets with Al and Ti ions implanted into using the metal ion beam and plasma source Raduga 5 have been investigated. The high-intensity mode of implantation allowed us to obtain the ion-doped layers with the thickness exceeding the ion projected range by several orders of magnitude. By the transmission electron microscopy, it has been found that the fine-dispersed equilibrium intermetallic phases (Me3Al, MeAl) and the solid solution of aluminum were formed in the doped Ni, Ti, and Fe surface layers at the depth of up to 2600nm. The maximum dopant concentration reached 75%. It has been shown that the average size of the formed phases was of 70nm. The microhardness of the different target surface layers increased by 1.5-3 times. The wear resistance of the samples did not change within the temperature range of 300-700K.

  9. Effects of selected organo-sulfur compounds on melanin formation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Heuy-Ling; Wang, Bor-Sen; Duh, Pin-Der

    2009-08-12

    The effect of organo-sulfur compounds, including 1-propylmercaptan (PM), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), diallyl disulfide (DADS), propyl disulfide (PDS), and 2,5-dimethylthiophene (DMT), on melanin formation was investigated. Among the selected five organo-sulfur compounds, PM displayed a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity (IC(50) = 0.5 mM) and the highest inhibitory action on o-quinone formation. In the B16 intracellular model system, the inhibitory action of selected five organo-sulfur compounds on tyrosinase activity and melanin formation may be, in part, attributed to the reduction of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and positive modulation of the GSH/GSSG ratio in B16 cells. Among the five organo-sulfur compounds, PM appeared to be the most potent inhibitor of melanin formation. The analysis of inhibitory kinetics revealed that PM is a mixed-type inhibitor. This is the first study indicating that organo-sulfur compounds tested may play an important role in the regulation of melanin formation, making them the potent candidates for skin-whitening agents. PMID:19610593

  10. Effect of Mn, Si, and Cooling Rate on the Formation of Iron-Rich Intermetallics in 206 Al-Cu Cast Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Cao, X.; Chen, X.-G.

    2012-10-01

    The solidification structures of commercial 206 Al-Cu cast alloys with 0.15 pct Fe have been studied using thermal analysis (TA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). The EBSD results have shown that there are two iron-rich intermetallics: Chinese script α-Fe and platelet-like β-Fe. The addition of either Mn or Si has helped to promote the formation of α-Fe and hinder the precipitate of β-Fe. The combined addition of both Mn and Si is even more effective than the individual addition of either Mn or Si. The full solidification sequence of the 206 cast alloy has been established. The volume percent and formation temperature increase for α-Fe but decrease for β-Fe with increasing cooling rate. The platelet β-Fe can be effectively suppressed in 206 cast alloys by controlling the alloy chemistry and cooling rate. A casting process map is proposed to correlate the Mn and Si contents with cooling rates for the 206 cast alloys.

  11. Preparation and properties of the Ni-Al/Fe-Al intermetallics composite coating produced by plasma cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Min; Liu, Bang-Wu; Sun, Dong-Bai

    2011-12-01

    A novel approach to produce an intermetallic composite coating was put forward. The microstructure, microhardness, and dry-sliding wear behavior of the composite coating were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) analysis, microhardness test, and ball-on-disc wear experiment. XRD results indicate that some new phases FeAl, Fe0.23Ni0.77Al, and Ni3Al exit in the composite coating with the Al2O3 addition. SEM results show that the coating is bonded with carbon steel metallurgically and exhibits typical rapid directional solidification structures. The Cr7C3 carbide and intermetallic compounds co-reinforced composite coating has a high average hardness and exhibits an excellent wear resistance under dry-sliding wear test compared with the Cr7C3 carbide-reinforced composite coating. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was also investigated.

  12. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds from anthropogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molteni, Ugo; Baltensperger, Urs; Bianchi, Federico; Dommen, Josef; El Haddad, Imad; Frege, Carla; Klein, Felix; Rossi, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that highly oxidized multifunctional organic compounds (HOMs) from biogenic volatile organic compounds are important for new particle formation and early particle growth (e.g., Ehn et al., 2014). The formation mechanism has extensively been studied for biogenic precursors like alpha-pinene and was shown to proceed through an initial reaction with either OH radicals or ozone followed by radical propagation in a mechanism that involves O2 attack and hydrogen abstraction (Crounse et al., 2013). While the same processes can be expected for anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC), few studies have investigated these so far. Here we present the formation of HOMs from a variety of aromatic compounds after reaction with OH. All the compounds analyzed show HOM formation. AVOC could therefore play an important role in new particle formation events that have been detected in urban areas. References Crounse, J.D. et al., Autoxidation of organic compounds in the atmosphere. J. Phys.Chem. Lett. 4, 3513-3520 (2013). Ehn, M., et al. A large source of low-volatility secondary organic aerosol, Nature 506, 476-479 (2014).

  13. Process and apparatus for formation of photovoltaic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Robert B.; Rocheleau, Richard E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a process and apparatus for formation and deposition of thin films on a substrate, in a vacuum, by evaporation of the elements to form a Zn.sub.x Cd.sub.1-x S compound having a preselected fixed ratio of cadmium to zinc, characterized by the evaporation of cadmium and zinc at a rate the ratio of which is proportional to the stoichiometric ratio of those elements in the intended compound and evaporation of sulfur at a rate at least twice the combined rates of cadmium and zinc, and at least twice that required by the stoichiometry of the intended compound.

  14. Reduced workfunction intermetallic seed layers allow growth of porous n-GaN and low resistivity, ohmic electron transport.

    PubMed

    Bilousov, Oleksandr V; Carvajal, Joan J; Drouin, Dominique; Mateos, Xavier; Díaz, Francesc; Aguiló, Magdalena; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2012-12-01

    Porous GaN crystals have been successfully grown and electrically contacted simultaneously on Pt- and Au-coated silicon substrates as porous crystals and as porous layers. By the direct reaction of metallic Ga and NH(3) gas through chemical vapor deposition, intermetallic metal-Ga alloys form at the GaN-metal interface, allowing vapor-solid-solid seeding and subsequent growth of porous GaN. Current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements confirm that the intermetallic seed layers prevent interface oxidation and give a high-quality reduced workfunction contact that allows exceptionally low contact resistivities. Additionally, the simultaneous formation of a lower workfunction intermetallic permits ohmic electron transport to n-type GaN grown using high workfunction metals that best catalyze the formation of porous GaN layers and may be employed to seed and ohmically contact a range of III-N compounds and alloys for broadband absorption and emission. PMID:23167596

  15. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-04-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium.

  16. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content

    PubMed Central

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium. PMID:27098547

  17. Theoretical screening of intermetallic ThMn12-type phases for new hard-magnetic compounds with low rare earth content.

    PubMed

    Körner, Wolfgang; Krugel, Georg; Elsässer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We report on theoretical investigations of intermetallic phases derived from the ThMn12-type crystal structure. Our computational high-throughput screening (HTS) approach is extended to an estimation of the anisotropy constant K1, the anisotropy field Ha and the energy product (BH)max. The calculation of K1 is fast since it is based on the crystal field parameters and avoids expensive total-energy calculations with many k-points. Thus the HTS approach allows a very efficient search for hard-magnetic materials for which the magnetization M and the coercive field Hc connected to Ha represent the key quantities. Besides for NdFe12N which has the highest magnetization we report HTS results for several intermetallic phases based on Cerium which are interesting as alternative hard-magnetic phases because Cerium is a less ressource-critical element than Neodymium. PMID:27098547

  18. Heats of Formation and Bond Energies in Group III Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Allendorf, Mark D.; Melius, Carl F.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We present heats of formation and bond energies for Group-III compounds obtained from calculations of molecular ground-state I electronic energies. Data for compounds of the form MXn are presented, where M = B, Al, Ga, and In, X = He H, Cl, and CH3, and n = 1-3. Energies for the B, Al, and Ga compounds are obtained from G2 predictions, while those for the In compounds are obtained from CCSD(T)/CBS calculations; these are the most accurate calculations for indium-containing compounds published to date. In most cases, the calculated thermochemistry is in good agreement with published values derived from experiments for those species that have well-established heats of formation. Bond energies obtained from the heats of formation follow the expected trend (Cl much greater than CH3 approx. H). However, the CH3M-(CH3)2 bond energies obtained for trimethylgallium and trimethylindium are considerably stronger (greater than 15 kcal/mol) than currently accepted values.

  19. Reaction synthesis of intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

  20. Kinetics of the Formation of Intercalation Compounds in Crystalline Graphite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Hickey, G. S.

    1995-01-01

    Crystalline graphite has a structure that can be best described as an ordered stack of flat aromatic layers. It is known to form intercalation compounds with bromine and nitric acid. Their formation was studied using thermal measurements and analytical techniques. Samples of graphite treated with either bromine or nitric acid were prepared by contacting these reagents with powdered graphite.

  1. Evidence of ferromagnetism in vanadium substituted layered intermetallic compounds RE (Co1-xVx) 2 Si2 (RE=Pr and Nd; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, R. Roy; Dhara, S.; Bandyopadhyay, B.

    2016-03-01

    In intermetallic compounds RECo2Si2 (RE=Pr and Nd), cobalt has been partially substituted by vanadium to obtain RE(Co1-xVx)2Si2 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.35). The parent compounds are antiferromagnetic below about 30 K due to the ordering of localized magnetic moments that are present only on rare-earth ions, cobalt being non-magnetic in the parent compounds. The present study demonstrates that in these compounds where 3 d and 4 f ions occupy different layers in the crystal structure, V substitution and subsequent lattice expansion results in the occurrence of inequivalent magnetic ions and complex interactions that lead to multiple magnetic transitions. At temperatures around 40-50 K, the temperature dependence of magnetization indicates a ferrimagnetic transition which is accompanied by a rapid decrease in the temperature dependence of resistivity. Below temperatures ∼30 K, the samples begin to show ferromagnetic-like behavior with the appearance of a coercive field and saturation in the magnetization at magnetic fields above ∼2 T. These two magnetic transitions are indicated also by prominent λ-like peaks in specific heat measurements. At around 10 K, a sharp drop in the resistivity indicates another magnetic transition which is followed by a rapid increase in coercive field with decrease in temperature. In a magnetic field of 9 T, the latter transition shifts to a lower temperature and that leads to a positive magnetoresistance. The onset of ferromagnetism at ∼30 K is accompanied with an exchange bias field which is observed for the first time in layered intermetallic compounds. The exchange bias field increases rapidly below the transition at ∼10 K and reaches ∼16% of coercive field at 2 K.

  2. Vacancy formation and extraction energies in semiconductor compounds and alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berding, M. A.; Sher, A.; Chen, A.-B.

    1990-01-01

    A model for calculating the extraction energies and vacancy-formation energies in diamond-cubic and zinc-blende semiconductors is developed on the basis of Harrison's (1980, 1983) tight-binding theory. The extraction energies provide a reference from which other final states of the removed atoms can be calculated. The results of calculations show that, in a given compound, the calculated extraction energies are larger for the anion than for the cation, with the difference between the cation and the anion being larger in the II-VI than in the III-V compounds. This is in agreement with experimental results.

  3. Model for compound formation during ion-beam mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Desimoni, J.; Traverse, A. )

    1993-11-01

    We propose an ion-beam-mixing model that accounts for compound formation at a boundary between two materials during ion irradiation. It is based on Fick's law together with a chemical driving force in order to simulate the chemical reaction at the boundary. The behavior of the squared thickness of the mixed layer, [ital X][sup 2], with the irradiation fluence, [Phi], has been found in several mixing experiments to be either quadratic ([ital X][sup 2][alpha][Phi][sup 2]) or linear ([ital X][sup 2][alpha][Phi]), a result which is qualitatively reproduced. Depending on the fluence range, compound formation or diffusion is the limiting process of mixing kinetics. A criterion is established in terms of the ratio of the diffusion coefficient [ital D] due to irradiation to the chemical reaction rate squared which allows us to predict quadratic or linear behavior. When diffusion is the limiting process, [ital D] is enhanced by a factor which accounts for the formation of a compound in the mixed layer. Good agreement is found between the calculated mixing rates and the data taken from mixing experiments in metal/Si bilayers.

  4. The effect of pH on the corrosion behavior of intermetallic compounds Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo in sodium chloride solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Priyotomo, Gadang Nuraini, Lutviasari; Kaneno, Yasuyuki

    2015-12-29

    The corrosion behavior of the intermetallic compounds, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) (L1{sub 2}: single phase) and Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) + 2Mo (L1{sub 2} and (L12 + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region), has been investigated using an immersion test, electrochemical method and surface analytical method (SEM; scanning electron microscope and EDAX: Energy Dispersive X-ray) in 0.5 kmol/m{sup 3} NaCl solutions at various pH. The corrosion behavior of nickel alloy C-276 was studied under the same experimental conditions as a reference. It was found that the uniform attack was observed on Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti) for the immersion test at lower pH, while the pitting attack was observed on this compound for this test at neutral solution. Furthermore, Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo had the preferential dissolution of L1{sub 2} compared to (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at lower pH, while pitting attack occurred in (L1{sub 2} + Ni{sub ss}) mixture region at neutral solution. For both intermetallic compounds, the magnitude of pitting and uniform attack decrease with increasing pH of solutions. From the immersion test and polarization curves, the corrosion resistance of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti)+2Mo is lower than that of Ni{sub 3}(Si,Ti), while the nickel alloy C-276 is the highest one at various pH of solutions. On the other hand, in the lower pH of solutions, the corrosion resistance of tested materials decreased significantly compared to those in neutral and higher pH of solutions.

  5. Chemistry and Properties of Complex Intermetallics from Metallic Fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2015-03-28

    This project investigated the reaction chemistry and synthesis of new intermetallic materials with complex compositions and structures using metallic fluxes as solvents. It was found that the metallic fluxes offer several key advantages in facilitating the formation and crystal growth of new materials. The fluxes mostly explored were liquid aluminum, gallium and indium. The main purpose of this project was to exploit the potential of metallic fluxes as high temperature solvent for materials discovery in the broad class of intermetallics. This work opened new paths to compound formation. We discovered many new Si (or Ge)-based compounds with novel structures, bonding and physicochemical properties. We created new insights about the reaction chemistry that is responsible for stabilizing the new materials. We also studied the structural and compositional relationships to understand their properties. We investigated the use of Group-13 metals Al, Ga and In as solvents and have generated a wide variety of new results including several new ternary and quaternary materials with fascinating structures and properties as well as new insights as to how these systems are stabilized in the fluxes. The project focused on reactions of metals from the rare earth element family in combination with transition metals with Si and Ge. For example molten gallium has serves both as a reactive and non-reactive solvent in the preparation and crystallization of intermetallics in the system RE/M/Ga/Ge(Si). Molten indium behaves similarly in that it too is an excellent reaction medium, but it gives compounds that are different from those obtained from gallium. Some of the new phase identified in the aluminide class are complex phases and may be present in many advanced Al-matrix alloys. Such phases play a key role in determining (either beneficially or detrimentally) the mechanical properties of advanced Al-matrix alloys. This project enhanced our basic knowledge of the solid state chemistry

  6. The μ3 model of acids and bases: extending the Lewis theory to intermetallics.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Timothy E; Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2012-04-01

    A central challenge in the design of new metallic materials is the elucidation of the chemical factors underlying the structures of intermetallic compounds. Analogies to molecular bonding phenomena, such as the Zintl concept, have proven very productive in approaching this goal. In this Article, we extend a foundational concept of molecular chemistry to intermetallics: the Lewis theory of acids and bases. The connection is developed through the method of moments, as applied to DFT-calibrated Hückel calculations. We begin by illustrating that the third and fourth moments (μ(3) and μ(4)) of the electronic density of states (DOS) distribution tune the properties of a pseudogap. μ(3) controls the balance of states above and below the DOS minimum, with μ(4) then determining the minimum's depth. In this way, μ(3) predicts an ideal occupancy for the DOS distribution. The μ(3)-ideal electron count is used to forge a link between the reactivity of transition metals toward intermetallic phase formation, and that of Lewis acids and bases toward adduct formation. This is accomplished through a moments-based definition of acidity which classifies systems that are electron-poor relative to the μ(3)-ideal as μ(3)-acidic, and those that are electron-rich as μ(3)-basic. The reaction of μ(3) acids and bases, whether in the formation of a Lewis acid/base adduct or an intermetallic phase, tends to neutralize the μ(3) acidity or basicity of the reactants. This μ(3)-neutralization is traced to the influence of electronegativity differences at heteroatomic contacts on the projected DOS curves of the atoms involved. The role of μ(3)-acid/base interactions in intermetallic phases is demonstrated through the examination of 23 binary phases forming between 3d metals, the stability range of the CsCl type, and structural trends within the Ti-Ni system. PMID:22420716

  7. A reliability study on tin based lead free micro joint including intermetallic and void evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyissa, Frezer Assefa

    In microelectronics soldering to Cu pad lead to formation of two intermetallic structures in the solder -pad interface. The growth of these layers is accompanied by microscopic voids that usually cause reliability concern in the industry. Therefore it is important to understand factors that contribute for the growth of IMC using various combination of reflow time, Sn thickness and aging temperature. Systematic study was conducted on Cu-Sn system to investigate the formation and growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) as well as voiding evolution for different solder thicknesses. The growth of the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer was found to be increasing as the Sn thicknesses increase after reflow while the Cu3Sn layer were decreasing under same conditions. Also after reflow and aging more voiding were shown to occur in the thin solder than thicker one.

  8. Comment on: Ab initio calculations of B2 type RHg (R = Ce,Pr,Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds. Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014), DOI: 10.1140/epjb/e2014-50521-6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Salah

    2016-02-01

    In a recent article by Devi et al. [Eur. Phys. J. B 87, 268 (2014)], the structural, electronic, elastic and some thermal properties of B2 type RHg (R = Ce, Pr, Eu and Gd) intermetallic compounds have been studied by ab initio calculations. After the study of their article I found that there are some mistakes in predicted crystal density, longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities, and Debye temperature data. The crystal density has been found multiplied per 4. Also the longitudinal, transverse and average elastic wave velocities and Debye temperature are different from my reexamined values (all results represented by Devi et al. have been found divided per 2). Although these small mistakes do not influence their conclusion, it is better to correct them. In the present work, I reexamined all data again by using the right formulas, based on the lattice parameters and the elastic constants obtained in the work of Devi et al.

  9. Formation and evolution of intermetallic nanoparticles and vacancy defects under irradiation in Fesbnd Nisbnd Al ageing alloy characterized by resistivity measurements and positron annihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzhkov, A. P.; Danilov, S. E.; Perminov, D. A.; Arbuzov, V. L.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of intermetallic nanoparticles like Ni3Al on the evolution of vacancy defects in the fcc Fesbnd Nisbnd Al alloy under electron irradiation using positron annihilation spectroscopy. Electrical resistivity measurements have been used as a testing method for characterizing the evolution in the underlying precipitate microstructure due to heat treatment and irradiation. It was shown that the nanosized (∼4.5 nm) intermetallic precipitates homogeneously distributed in the alloy matrix caused a several-fold decrease in the accumulation of vacancies as compared to their accumulation in the pre-quenched alloy. This effect was enhanced with the irradiation temperature. The irradiation-induced growth of intermetallic nanoparticles was also observed in the pre-quenched Fesbnd Nisbnd Al alloy under irradiation at 573 K. Thus, resistivity measurement and positron confinement in ultrafine intermetallic particles, which we revealed earlier, provided the control over the evolution of coherent precipitates, along with vacancy defects, during irradiation and annealing.

  10. Compound nucleus formation in reactions between massive nuclei: Fusion barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, N.V.; Cherepanov, E.A.; Nasirov, A.K.; Permjakov, V.P.; Volkov, V.V.

    1995-05-01

    The evaporation residue cross sections {sigma}{sub ER} in reactions between massive nuclei have been analyzed within different models of complete fusion. The calculations in the framework of the optical model, the surface friction model, and the macroscopic dynamic model can give the results which are by few orders of magnitude different from experimental data. This takes place due to neglect of the competition between complete fusion and quasifission. A possible mechanism of compound nucleus formation in heavy-ion-induced reactions has been suggested. The analysis of the complete fusion of nuclei on the basis of dinuclear system approach has allowed one to reveal an important feature of the fusion process of massive nuclei, that is, the appearance of the fusion barrier during dinuclear system evolution to a compound nucleus. As a result, the competition between complete fusion and quasifission arises and strongly reduces the cross section of the compound nucleus formation. A model is proposed for calculation of this competition in a massive symmetric dinuclear system. This model is applied for collision energies above the Coulomb barrier. The {sigma}{sub ER} values calculated in the framework of dinuclear system approach seem to be close to the experimental data. For illustration the reactions {sup 100}Mo+{sup 100}Mo, {sup 110}Pd+{sup 110}Pd, and {sup 124}Sn+{sup 96}Zr have been considered.

  11. Formation and elution of toxic compounds from sterilized medical products: methylenedianiline formation in polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Shintani, H

    1995-07-01

    The formation of a toxic and carcinogenic compound, methylenedianiline (MDA), in sterilized medical use polyurethane (PU) is discussed. Due to good biocompatibility and biostability, PU is widely used for blood-containing devices. There are two types of PU currently available for medical use. One is chain-extended thermoplastic PU, the other is thermosetting PU used for potting material connecting fibers and modules in artificial dialyzers and plasma separators. Both gamma-ray irradiation and autoclave sterilization are predominantly used for the sterilization of these devices. MDA formation in sterilized PUs by gamma-ray irradiation and by autoclave treatment is compared. The Delany clause in the USA prohibits the manufacture of medical devices producing any toxic compound during fabrication and sterilization, therefore, the formation and elution of MDA and other toxic compounds should be seriously considered. Although MDA formation at a concentration of a few to a few hundred ppb in autoclaved chain-extended thermoplastic PU has been reported, there have been no papers describing MDA formation in autoclaved thermosetting PU potting material, or describing MDA formation in gamma-ray irradiated chain-extended thermoplastic PU and thermosetting PU. We elected to determine whether MDA was in fact produced in Pus sterilized by gamma-ray irradiation or by autoclave sterilization. Our objective was to estimate the risk factor to the human patients or recipient. Our conclusion is to confirm which sterilization of gamma-ray or autoclave is more appropriate. No formation of MDA was observed in autoclaved thermosetting PU potting material at 121 degrees C for 60 min. A few ppm of MDA was formed in irradiated potting material. MDA formation increased with increasing irradiation doses. MDA formed in irradiated potting material at 2.5 Mrad (less than one ppm) is not a significant risk to the recipient. The estimated cancer causing risk factor when absorbing one mg MDA/kg body

  12. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} - two new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic compounds (Ae: alkaline earth metal)

    SciTech Connect

    Stegmaier, Saskia; Faessler, Thomas F.

    2012-08-15

    SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}, two closely related new polar intermetallic compounds, were obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Their crystal structures were determined with single crystal XRD methods, and their electronic structures were analyzed by means of DFT calculations. The Zn-Sn structure part of SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} comprises (anti-)PbO-like {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} and {l_brace}SnZn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers. Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} shows similar {l_brace}ZnSn{sub 4/4}{r_brace} layers and {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} slabs constructed of a covalently bonded Sn scaffold capped by Zn atoms. For both phases, the two types of layers are alternatingly stacked and interconnected via Zn-Sn bonds. SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} adopts the SrPd{sub 2}Bi{sub 2} structure type, and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} is isotypic to the R{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Ge{sub 6} compounds (R=La, Ce, Pr, Nd). Band structure calculations indicate that both SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6} are metallic. Analyses of the chemical bonding with the electron localization function (ELF) show lone pair like basins at Sn atoms and Zn-Sn bonding interactions between the layers for both title phases, and covalent Sn-Sn bonding within the {l_brace}Sn{sub 4}Zn{r_brace} layers of Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structures of the new Ae-Zn-Sn polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New polar intermetallic phases SrZn{sub 2}Sn{sub 2} and Ca{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}Sn{sub 6}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Obtained by high temperature reactions of the elements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single crystal XRD structure determination and DFT electronic structure calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Closely related crystal and electronic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metallic conductivity coexisting with lone pairs and covalent bonding

  13. Discontinuous coarsening behavior of Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic compound during isothermal aging treatment of Fe-Mn-Ni-Al alloys.

    PubMed

    Heo, Yoon-Uk; Takeguchi, Masaki; Furuya, Kazuo; Lee, Hu-Chul

    2010-08-01

    The discontinuous reaction of the Ni(2)MnAl intermetallic phase was investigated during the aging of a solution-treated Fe-8.3Mn-8.2Ni-4.2Al alloy. During aging, Ni(2)MnAl lamellae formed at the prior austenite grain boundaries and twin boundaries and grew into the neighboring grains. The presence of continuously precipitated fine Ni(2)MnAl particles before the growth of the discontinuously precipitated lamellae was confirmed by dark-field transmission electron microscopy, and it was concluded that the present reaction is a type of discontinuous coarsening process, alpha' + Ni(2)MnAl (continuous precipitation) --> alpha + Ni(2)MnAl (discontinuous coarsening). The chemical driving force and the reduction of the total coherent strain energy were suggested to be the driving force for the discontinuous coarsening reaction. PMID:20551447

  14. Development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion-resistant weld hardfacing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    School, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    Chromium and cobalt are strategic materials in the US and both are major constituents in many weld hardfacing alloys. Substitution for these materials or alternatives to their use was a primary direction of this investigation which was conducted in conjunction with the US Bureau of Mines. Minimization of the use of strategic materials was the criteria guiding the development of intermetallic-hardened abrasion resistant weld hardfacing materials. Other criteria were that the new alloy contain a hard intermetallic compound in an FCC matrix, and that these intermetallic compounds be stable at room temperature. A survey of ternary systems was made and the Fe-Mo-Ni system was selected to provide a basis for alloy development. Fe-Mo-Ni alloys synthesized by arc-melting and similar alloys made by welding possessed similar microstructures, a (Fe, Ni){sub 7}Mo{sub 6} intermetallic plus austenite eutectic in an austenitic matrix. These materials exhibited poor abrasive resistance. Silicon additions to the alloy promoted formation of a Laves phase FeMoSi intermetallic which helped increase the abrasive wear resistance. Through a series of alloy chemistry iterations a final composition of Fe-20Mo-15Ni-5Si was selected. Heat treatment of this alloy at 550 to 650 C caused second phase precipitation in the matrix and raised the hardness about 14 points HRC to 50 HRC. The alloy's wear rate, measured with the pin-on-drum abrasive wear test, was 6.3 to 6.5 mg/m. However this was twice the wear rate observed in commercial high-carbon high-chromium alloys. Based on examination of the alloy microstructures, their chemistry, and an analysis of the Fe-Mo-Si phase system; directions for further research are to increase the molybdenum and silicon content to produce a Fe-20Mo-10Ni-15Si composition.

  15. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  16. First-principles point defect models in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 binary intermetallic compounds and their implications in nickel-metal hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Diana F.

    Zr-Ni-based alloys as nickel-metal hydride battery anode materials offer low-cost, flexible and tunable battery performance. Zr7Ni 10 is an important secondary phase found in multi-phased AB2 Laves-phase-based metal hydride alloys, and the synergetic effect between the Zr-Ni and the Laves phases allows access to the high hydrogen storage of the Zr-Ni phases despite the lower absorption/desorption kinetics. Zr7Ni10 displays a small solubility window for Zr-rich compositions, while Zr2Ni7, with no solubility window, shows poor capacity with good kinetics. Stability of point defects within the crystal structure allows Zr7Ni10 to maintain the same structure at off-stoichiometric compositions, thus it is theorized that defects may play a role in the difference between the electrochemical behaviors in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7. Defect models in Zr7Ni10 and Zr2Ni7 compounds computed using a combination of density functional theory and statistical mechanics offer a starting point for understanding the possible roles that point defects have on the performance of Zr-Ni based active negative electrode materials in Ni/MH batteries. Theoretical vacancy and anti-site defect formation energies are calculated and reported for Zr-rich, Ni-rich, and stoichiometric compounds of Zr7Ni 10 and Zr2Ni7, and the implications of the defect models on nickel-metal hydride negative electrode active material design and performance are discussed.

  17. Progress in donor assisted coal liquefaction: Hydroaromatic compound formation

    SciTech Connect

    Kottenstette, R.J.; Stephens, H.P.

    1993-12-31

    The role of hydrogen donor compounds in coal liquefaction has been extensively investigated since the mid 1960`s using model compounds and process derived hydrogen donor solvents. Our recent research and that of other investigators have shown that two model compounds in particular have great efficacy in solvating low rank coals. 1,2,3,10b tetrahydrofluoranthene (H{sub 4}Fl) and 1,2,3,6,7,8 hexahydropyrene (H{sub 6}Py) have been used to dissolve Wyodak coal to > 95% soluble material as measured by tetrahydrofuran (THF). Although these hydrogen donors are very effective, they may not be found in any significant concentrations in actual liquefaction process recycle solvents. Therefore, studies with process derived recycle materials are necessary to understand donor solvent chemistry. The objective of this paper is to present results of solvent hydrogenation experiments using heavy distillate solvents produced during testing at the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Test Facility. We evaluated the impact of hydrogenation conditions upon hydrogen donor formation in process derived distillates and compared these process derived solvents with the highly effective H{sub 4}Fl and H{sub 6}Py donors in coal liquefaction tests. This paper presents data on reaction conditions used for distillate hydrotreating and subsequent coal liquefaction, with an aim toward understanding the relationship between reaction conditions and donor solvent quality in recycle distillates.

  18. Ordering of atoms in 3d sublattice of the intermetallic quasibinary system Dy(Fe/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/)/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyushin, A.S.; Kastro, D.A.; Makhmud, I.A.

    1986-12-01

    Methods of x-ray analysis and nuclear ..gamma..-resonance (Moessbauer effect) have been used to study the distribution of iron and manganese atoms in the intermetallic quaisbinary system Dy(Fe/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/)/sub 2/, which is isostructural to the Laves phase C15. Ordering of atoms of transition metals has been found in 3d sublattice of intermetallic compounds Dy(Fe/sub 1-x/Mn/sub x/)/sub 2/ with the formation of triple superstructure having the stoichiometric composition Dy(Fe/sub 0 x 25/Mn/sub 0 x 75/)/sub 2/

  19. Effects of Annealing, Thermomigration, and Electromigration on the Intermetallic Compounds Growth Kinetics of Cu/Sn-2.5Ag Microbump.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Park, Gyu-Tae; Park, Jong-Jin; Park, Young-Bae

    2015-11-01

    The effects of annealing, thermomigration (TM), and electromigration (EM) on the intermetallic com- pound (IMC) growth kinetics of Cu/Sn-2.5Ag microbumps were investigated using in-situ scanning electron microscopy at 120-165 degrees C with a current density of 1.5 x 10(5) A/cm2. The IMC growth kinetics was controlled by a diffusion-dominant mechanism and a chemical-reaction-dominant mechanism with annealing and current-stressing conditions, respectively. Before all of the Sn was fully transformed into IMCs, the activation energies of the Cu3Sn IMCs were 0.54 eV, 0.50 eV, and 0.40 eV for annealing, TM, and EM, respectively, which is closely related to the acceleration effect of the interfacial reaction by electron wind force under current stressing. After all of the Sn was fully transformed into IMCs by reacting with Cu, the Cu3Sn IMC growth rates of the three structures became similar due to the reduced and similar diffusion rates inside the IMCs with and without current stressing. PMID:26726558

  20. Spontaneous Formation of Compound X Chromosomes in Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, R. J.; Raymond, J. D.; Zunt, J. R.; Lim, J. K.; Simmons, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    Males carrying different X chromosomes were tested for the ability to produce daughters with attached-X chromosomes. This ability is characteristic of males carrying an X chromosome derived from 59b-z, a multiply marked X chromosome, and is especially pronounced in males carrying the unstable 59b-z chromosomes Uc and Uc-l(r). Recombination experiments with one of the Uc-l(r) chromosomes showed that the formation of compound chromosomes depends on two widely separated segments. One of these is proximal to the forked locus and is probably proximal to the carnation locus. This segment may contain the actual site of chromosome attachment. The other essential segment lies between the crossveinless and vermilion loci and may contain multiple factors that influence the attachment process. PMID:3135238

  1. Formation and properties of metallic nanoparticles on compound semiconductor surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Myungkoo

    When electromagnetic radiation is incident upon metallic nanoparticles (NPs), a collective oscillation, termed a surface plasmon resonance (SPR), is generated. Recently, metallic NPs on semiconductor surfaces have enabled the generation of SPR, promising for enhanced light emission, efficient solar energy harvesting, biosensing, and metamaterials. Metallic NPs have been fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) which has an advantage of cost-effectiveness over conventional lithography process requiring multi-step processes. Here, we report formation and properties of FIB-induced metallic NPs on compound semiconductor surfaces. Results presented in this thesis study suggest that FIB-induced Ga NPs can be a promising alternative plasmonic material. In particular, using a combined experimental-computational approach, we discovered a universal mechanism for ion-induced NP formation, which is governed by the sputtering yield of semiconductor surfaces. We also discovered a governing mechanism for ion-induced NP motion, which is driven by thermal fluctuation and anisotropic mass transport. Furthermore, we demonstrated Ga NP arrays with plasmon resonances with performance comparable to those of traditionally-used silver and gold NPs. We then finally demonstrated the Ga NP plasmoninduced enhancement of light emission from GaAs, which is the first ever combination of a new plasmonic material (Ga) and a new fabrication method (FIB) for the plasmon-enhanced light emission.

  2. Electronic structure, phase stability, and vibrational properties of Ir-based intermetallic compound IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arıkan, N.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Ünver, H.; Uğur, G.

    2015-02-01

    The phase stability and mechanical properties of B2 type IrX (X=Al, Sc and Ga) compounds are investigated. Self-consistenttotal-energy calculations in the framework of density functional theory using the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA) to determine the equations of state and the elastic constants of IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga) in the B2 phase have been performed. The calculations predicted the equilibrium lattice constants, which are about 1% greater than experiments for IrAl, 1.81% for IrGa, and 0.71% for IrSc compound. IrAl is shown to be the least compressible, and it is followed by IrGa and the IrSc compound. The phase stability of the studied compounds is checked. The brittleness and ductility properties of IrX (X=Al, Sc, and Ga) are determined by Poisson's ratio σ criterion and Pugh's criterion. IrGa compound is a ductile material; however, IrAl and IrSc show brittleness. The band structure and density of states (DOS), and phonon dispersion curves have been obtained and analyzed. The position of the Fermi level and the contribution of d electrons to the density of states near EF is studied and discussed in detail. We also used the phonon density of states and quasiharmonic approximation to calculate and predict some thermodynamic properties such as constant-volume specific heat capacity of the B2 phase of IrX (X=Al, Sc and Ga) compounds.

  3. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional intermetallic compound of LaFe11.6Si1.4C0.2H1.7

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ning-Ning; Ke, Ya-Jiao; Yang, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Hu; Zhang, Xiang-Qun; Shen, Bao-Gen; Cheng, Zhao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Both microwave absorption and magnetocaloric effect (MCE) are two essential performances of magnetic materials. We observe that LaFe11.6Si1.4C0.2H1.7 intermetallic compound exhibits the advantages of both giant microwave absorption exceeding −42 dB and magnetic entropy change of −20 Jkg−1K−1. The excellent electromagnetic wave absorption results from the large magnetic loss and dielectric loss as well as the efficient complementarity between relative permittivity and permeability. The giant MCE effect in this material provides an ideal technique for cooling the MAMs to avoid temperature increase and infrared radiation during microwave absorption. Our finding suggests that we can integrate the giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our understanding of the correlation between microwave absorption and MCE, but also can open a new avenue to exploit microwave devices and electromagnetic stealth. PMID:23887357

  4. Ozone Promotes Chloropicrin Formation by Oxidizing Amines to Nitro Compounds.

    PubMed

    McCurry, Daniel L; Quay, Amanda N; Mitch, William A

    2016-02-01

    Chloropicrin formation has been associated with ozonation followed by chlorination, but the reaction pathway and precursors have been poorly characterized. Experiments with methylamine demonstrated that ozonation converts methylamine to nitromethane at ∼100% yield. Subsequent chlorination converts nitromethane to chloropicrin at ∼50% yield under the conditions evaluated. Similarly high yields from other primary amines were limited to those with functional groups on the β-carbon (e.g., the carboxylic acid in glycine) that facilitate carbon-carbon bond cleavage to release nitromethyl anion. Secondary amines featuring these reactive primary amines as functional groups (e.g., secondary N-methylamines) formed chloropicrin at high yields, likely by facile dealkylation to release the primary nitro compound. Chloropicrin yields from tertiary amines were low. Natural water experiments, including derivatization to transform primary and secondary amines to less reactive carbamate functional groups, indicated that primary and secondary amines were the dominant chloropicrin precursors during ozonation/chlorination. Ozonation followed by chlorination of the primary amine side chain of lysine demonstrated low yields (∼0.2%) of chloropicrin, but high yields (∼17%) of dichloronitrolysine, a halonitroalkane structural analogue to chloropicrin. However, chloropicrin yields increased and dichloronitrolysine yields decreased in the absence of hydroxyl radical scavengers, suggesting that future research should characterize the potential occurrence of such halonitroalkane analogues relative to natural radical scavenger (e.g., carbonate) concentrations. PMID:26752338

  5. Compound chondrule formation via collision of supercooled droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Sota; Nakamoto, Taishi

    2016-09-01

    We present a novel model showing that compound chondrules are formed by collisions of supercooled droplets. This model reproduces two prominent observed features of compound chondrules: the nonporphyritic texture and the size ratio between two components.

  6. High-resolution mass spectrometry of nitrogenous compounds of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Schnoes, H. K.; Haug, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Basic nitrogenous compounds isolated from extracts of Green River Formation oil shale were analyzed. The major homologous constituents found were the compositional types - namely, quinolines, tetrahydrequinolines with minor amounts of pyridines and indoles series and traces of more aromatized nitrogen compounds. These results are correlated with nitrogen compounds isolated from Green River Formation retort oil and are a survey of the unaltered nitrogen compounds indigeneous to the shale.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect of RM2 (R = rare earth, M = Ni, Al) intermetallic compounds made by centrifugal atomization process for magnetic refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Asamato, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Abe, S.; Numazawa, T.

    2012-12-01

    RM2 (R = rare earth, M = Al, Ni and Co) compounds have large entropy change and magnetic transition temperatures can be controlled by change of R and/or M so that are suitable to a magnetic refrigerator for hydrogen liquefaction under development. In order to improve refrigerator performance, spherical powdered HoAl2, DyAl2, and GdNi2 compounds with submillimeter diameter were synthesized by centrifugal atomization process. By measuring the magnetization and heat capacity, we obtained entropy change by magnetic fields and entropy as functions of temperature and magnetic field, which are essential for analysing the magnetic refrigeration cycle. All samples showed sharp magnetic transitions and had good potentials for use in magnetic refrigeration.

  8. A {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopic and magnetic susceptibility investigation of the intermetallic compounds EuTIn (T = Zn, Pd, Pt, Au)

    SciTech Connect

    Muellmann, R.; Mosel, B.D.; Eckert, H.; Kotzyba, G.; Poettgen, R.

    1998-04-01

    The title compounds were investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements and {sup 151}Eu Moessbauer spectroscopy. EuZnIn and EuPtIn show Curie-Weiss behavior above 60 K with experimental magnetic moments of 7.80(5) and 8.0(1) {mu}{sub B}/Eu, respectively, indicating divalent europium. The zinc compound orders antiferromagnetically at T{sub N} = 8.0(5) k and two metamagnetic transitions are detected at the critical field strengths B{sub C1} = 1.1(1) T and B{sub C2} = 2.6(2) T. At 5 K the saturation magnetic moment amounts to 7.0(1) {mu}{sub B}/Eu, suggesting a full parallel spin alignment. EuPdIn and EuAuIn order antiferromagnetically at 13.0(5) and 21.0(5) K in low external magnetic fields, respectively. The four compounds are metallic conductors. The Moessbauer measurements of the EuTIn compounds show {sup 151}Eu isomer shifts typical of divalent europium. The isomer shifts are found to linearly correlated with the closest Eu-Eu distance in the structure. Based on the Moessbauer data the onset of magnetic order is observed at T{sub N}(EuZnIn) = 9.5(5) K, T{sub N}(EuPdIn) = 15.5(5) K, T{sub N}(EuAuIn) = 20.0(5) K, and T{sub N}(EuPtIn) = 20.0(5) K, respectively. The magnetically split spectrum of EuZnIn reveals evidence of Eu site inequivalence.

  9. The impact of quadrupole moment of 4f shell on the hyperfine interactions anisotropy in RAl2 (R=Sm, Tb) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delyagin, N. N.; Erzinkyan, A. L.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic hyperfine interactions for 119Sn impurity atoms in SmAl2 and TbAl2 ferromagnetic compounds have been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy technique. These compounds have the same structure but differ in the sign of the quadrupole moment of the R3+ ion. In both cases, the spectrum contains two magnetic subspectra with the ratio of the intensities 1:3, which correspond to a and b Al sites with significantly different hyperfine parameters. The phenomenon change the order the component of inversion component of the Mössbauer spectra was found. This phenomenon is explained by the influence of the quadrupole moment 4f-shell of R3+ ions on the electron density distribution in the valence band. The degree of overlap of electron wave functions being on hybrid orbitals greatly depends on the sign of the 4f-shell quadrupole moment, which gives rise to huge anisotropy in the hyperfine magnetic field and the electric field gradient. Quadrupole deformation induced by the 4f quadrupole moment and the electric field gradient, greatly affects the d-like and p-like components of the electron wave functions, but little effect on the its s-components.

  10. Structures of stable and metastable Ge2Sb2Te5, an intermetallic compound in GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary systems.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Noboru; Kubota, Yoshiki

    2004-12-01

    The most widely used memory materials for rewritable phase-change optical disks are the GeTe-Sb2Te3 pseudobinary compounds. Among these compounds, Ge2Sb2Te5 crystallizes into a cubic close-packed structure with a six-layer period (metastable phase) in the non-thermal equilibrium state, and a trigonal structure with a nine-layer period (stable phase) in the thermal equilibrium state. The structure of the stable phase has Ge/Sb layers in which Ge and Sb are randomly occupied, as does the structure of the metastable phase, while the conventionally estimated structure had separate layers of Ge and Te. The metastable and stable phases are very similar in that Te and Ge/Sb layers stack alternately to form the crystal. The major differences between these phases are: (i) the stable phase has pairs of adjacent Te layers that are not seen in the metastable phase and (ii) only the metastable phase contains vacancies of ca 20 at. % in the Ge/Sb layers. PMID:15534378

  11. What Plurals and Compounds Reveal about Constraints in Word Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaensch, Carol; Heyer, Vera; Gordon, Peter; Clahsen, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Morphological systems are constrained in how they interact with each other. One case that has been widely studied in the psycholinguistic literature is the avoidance of plurals inside compounds (e.g. *"rats eater" vs. "rat eater") in English and other languages, the so-called "plurals-in-compounds effect." Several…

  12. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1992-12-31

    This paper briefly summarizes recent advances in intermetallic research and development. Ordered intermetallics based on aluminides and silicides possess attractive properties for structural applications at elevated temperatures in hostile environments; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance limit their use as engineering materials in many cases. In recent years, considerable efforts have been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of intermetallic alloys; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Recent advances in first-principles calculations and atomistic simulations further help us in understanding atomic bonding, dislocation configuration, and alloying effects in intermetallics. The basic understanding has led to the development of nickel, iron, and titanium aluminide alloys with improved mechanical and metallurgical properties for structural use. Industrial interest in ductile intermetallic alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  13. Recent advances in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1994-12-31

    Ordered intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides offer many advantages for structural use at high temperatures in hostile environments. Attractive properties include excellent oxidation and corrosion resistance, light weight, and superior strength at high temperatures. The major concern for structural use of intermetallics was their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. For the past 10 years, considerable effort was devoted to R&D of ordered intermetallic alloys, and progress has been made on understanding intrinsic and extrinsic factors controlling brittle fracture in intermetallic alloys based on aluminides and silicides. Parallel effort on alloy design has led to the development of a number of ductile and strong intermetallic alloys based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, FeAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, and TiAl systems for structural applications.

  14. Efficiency of heating methods for polymer fibers with formation of adhesion compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Markova, L.V.; Markov, E.M.; Pinchuk, I.S.

    1995-12-01

    Efficiency of contact and contactless methods of heating of a fiber polymer material upon formation of adhesion compounds between its layers is analyzed. The advisability of contact heating in the preliminary stage and contactless heating in the final stage of formation of compounds is shown.

  15. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of new Fe3Co3 X 2 (X  =  Ti, Nb) intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Das, Bhaskar; Sellmyer, David J.; Zeng, Zhi; Ho, Kai-Ming; Wang, Cai-Zhuang

    2016-05-01

    The structure and magnetic properties of new magnetic Fe3Co3 X 2 (X  =  Ti, Nb) compounds are studied by genetic algorithm, first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations, and experiments. The atomic structure of a hexagonal structure with P-6m2 symmetry is determined. The simulated x-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra of the P-6m2 structures agree well with experimental XRD data for both Fe3Co3Ti2 and Fe3Co3Nb2. The magnetic properties of these structures as well as the effect of the disorder of Fe and Co on their magnetic properties are also investigated. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is found to be very sensitive to the occupancy disorder between Fe and Co.

  16. A sessile drop setup for the time-resolved synchrotron study of solid-liquid interactions: Application to intermetallic formation in 55%Al-Zn alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Bernier, N. De Bruyn, D.; De Craene, M.; Scheers, J.; Claessens, S.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Vitoux, H.; Gleyzolle, H.; Gorges, B.

    2014-04-28

    We introduce a dedicated setup for measuring by synchrotron diffraction in-situ crystallographic and chemical information at the solid–liquid interface. This setup mostly consists of a double-heating furnace composed of a resistive heating for the solid surface and an inductive heating to produce a liquid droplet. The available high energy and high flux beams allow the rapid reaction kinetics to be investigated with very good time resolution down to 1 ms. An application of this setup is illustrated for the growth mechanisms of intermetallic phases during the hot-dipping of steel in a 55%Al-Zn bath. Results show that the three η-Al{sub 5}Fe{sub 2}, θ-Al{sub 13}Fe{sub 4}, and α-Al{sub 8}Fe{sub 2}Si phases grow at different times and rates during the dipping process, whereas the face-centered cubic AlFe{sub 3} phase is not formed.

  17. Codetermination of crystal structures at high pressure: Combined application of theory and experiment to the intermetallic compound AuGa2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godwal, B. K.; Stackhouse, S.; Yan, J.; Speziale, S.; Militzer, Burkhard; Jeanloz, R.

    2013-03-01

    A combination of x-ray diffraction at high pressures and first-principles calculations reveals the sequence of crystal-structural phase transitions in AuGa2 from cubic (Fm3¯m) to orthorhombic (Pnma) at 10 (±4) GPa and then to monoclinic (P21/n) at 33 (±6) GPa. Neither theory nor experiment would have been adequate, on their own, in documenting this sequence of phases, but together they confirm a sequence differing from the Fm3¯m→Pnma→P63/mmc transitions predicted for CaF2 and Pnma → P1121/a transition reported for PbCl2 and SnCl2. The combined results from theory and experiment also allow us to constrain the equations of state of the three phases of AuGa2. Calculations on the analog PbCl2 predict a transition to the P21/n phase seen in AuGa2 that could, therefore, be a common high-pressure phase for PbCl2-structured compounds.

  18. Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of the new rare-earth-transition-metal intermetallic compound Gd3Co29Ge4B10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, P.; Dubenko, Igor; Samanta, Tapas; Quetz, Abdiel; Ali, Naushad

    2012-04-01

    The compounds Gd3-xYxCo29Ge4B10 (x = 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 3.0), Gd3Co29Al4B10, and Gd3Co29Al4B10 were synthesized by arc melting, and their magnetic properties investigated as a function of temperature and applied magnetic field. X-ray measurements showed primarily single-phase samples with the tetragonal crystal structure P4/nmm. It was found that Gd3Co29Ge4B10 orders ferromagnetically at TC = 212 K and shows a compensation point at 128 K, indicating a ferrimagnetic ordering of the Co and Gd moments. An entropy change of -ΔS = 0.5 J/kgK was observed in a 5-T field at TC for this sample, while a change in sign for this quantity was observed both at the maximum value of magnetization (around 200 K) and then again at the compensation point. Substitution of Y for Gd in Gd3Co29Ge4B10 does not affect the Curie temperature, but shifts the compensation point to lower temperatures. This indicates that a decrease in Gd concentration does not affect the d-d exchange interaction, but has a pronounced effect on the f-d exchange interaction.

  19. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romaka, V.V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type), Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (U{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Sn-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi{sub 2}Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.45}Sb{sub 2.55} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 1.1}Sb composition. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram and DOS distribution in hypothetical TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn solid solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram was constructed at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ternary compounds are formed: TiNiSn, TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn, Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds exist in Ti-Ni-Sb system at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiNi{sub 2}Sb compound is absent.

  20. Synthesis, structure, and bonding in K12Au21Sn4. A polar intermetallic compound with dense Au20 and open AuSn4 layers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bin; Kim, Sung-Jin; Miller, Gordon J.; and Corbett, John D.

    2009-10-29

    The new phase K{sub 12}Au{sub 21}Sn{sub 4} has been synthesized by direct reaction of the elements at elevated temperatures. Single crystal X-ray diffraction established its orthorhombic structure, space group Pmmn (No. 59), a = 12.162(2); b = 18.058(4); c = 8.657(2) {angstrom}, V = 1901.3(7) {angstrom}{sup 3}, and Z = 2. The structure consists of infinite puckered sheets of vertex-sharing gold tetrahedra (Au{sub 20}) that are tied together by thin layers of alternating four-bonded-Sn and -Au atoms (AuSn{sub 4}). Remarkably, the dense but electron-poorer blocks of Au tetrahedra coexist with more open and saturated Au-Sn layers, which are fragments of a zinc blende type structure that maximize tetrahedral heteroatomic bonding outside of the network of gold tetrahedra. LMTO band structure calculations reveal metallic properties and a pseudogap at 256 valence electrons per formula unit, only three electrons fewer than in the title compound and at a point at which strong Au-Sn bonding is optimized. Additionally, the tight coordination of the Au framework atoms by K plays an important bonding role: each Au tetrahedra has 10 K neighbors and each K atom has 8-12 Au contacts. The appreciably different role of the p element Sn in this structure from that in the triel members in K{sub 3}Au{sub 5}In and Rb{sub 2}Au{sub 3}Tl appears to arise from its higher electron count which leads to better p-bonding (valence electron concentrations = 1.32 versus 1.22).

  1. First-principles investigation of the structural stability and electronic properties of Pd doped monoclinic Cu6Sn5 intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wei-Quan; Lu, Wen-Cai; Chen, Sha-Ou

    2014-12-01

    Tri-layer Au/Pd/Ni(P) films have been widely used as surface finish over the Cu pads in high-end packaging applications. It was found that a thin (Cu,Pd)6Sn5 IMC layer was beneficial in effective reducing inter-diffusion between a Cu substrate and a solder, and therefore the growth of the IMC layer and the EM (electromigration) processes. In this study, the structural properties and phase stability of monoclinic Cu6Sn5-based structures with Pd substitutions were studied by using the first-principles method. The (Cu,Pd)6Sn5 structure with the 4e site substituted by Pd has the lowest heat of formation and is the most stable among (Cu,Pd)6Sn5 structures. Hybridization of Pd-d and Sn-p states is a dominant factor for stability improvement. Moreover, Pd atoms concentration corresponding to the most stable structure of (Cu,Pd)6Sn5 was found to be 1.69 %, which is consistent with the experimental results.

  2. Possibility of diacetyl and related compounds as the 4-carbon compound necessary for the formation of riboflavin in Ashbya gossypii.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, K; Mitsuda, H

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various compounds (0.5%) involved in the butanediol and the glycolytic pathways on riboflavin formation in whole cells of Ashbya gossypii at rest were examined. The addition of acetate, glycerol and diacetyl inhibited riboflavin formation, while the addition of acetoin had no effect on it, and the addition of ethanol, 2,3-butanediol, pyruvic acid and glucose accelerated it. The relation of diacetyl and acetoin to riboflavin formation during resting cell incubation in the presence of 0.5% ethanol and various concentrations of 2,3-butanediol was examined. The results quantitatively revealed a precursor-product relation between riboflavin formation and the formation of diacetyl and acetoin. The results obtained provide evidence that a high flavinogenic agent, ethanol, was converted to acetaldehyde, pyruvic acid, acetoin and diacetyl in this order, that a week flavinogenic agent, 2,3-butanediol, was transferred to diacetyl through acetoin, and that the diacetyl produced can be utilized as the 4-carbon compound for riboflavin formation in the flavinogenic mold, Ashbya gossypii. It remains obscure whether diacetyl is enzymatically involved in riboflavin formation. PMID:6534171

  3. Intermetallic Layers in Soldered Joints

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-12-10

    ILAG solves the one-dimensional partial differential equations describing the multiphase, multicomponent, solid-state diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic layers in soldered joints. This software provides an analysis capability for materials researchers to examine intermetallic growth mechanisms in a wide variety of defense and commercial applications involving both traditional and advanced materials. ILAG calculates the interface positions of the layers, as well as the spatial distribution of constituent mass fractions, and outputs the results at user-prescribed simulation times.

  4. Intermetallics as Novel Supports for Pt Monolayer O2 Reduction Electrocatalysts: Potential for Significantly Improving Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, T.; Vukmirovic, M.; DiSalvo, F.J.; Adzic, R.R.

    2010-01-27

    We report on a new class of core-shell electrocatalysts for the oxygen-reduction reaction. These electrocatalysts comprise a Pt monolayer shell and ordered intermetallic compounds cores and have enhanced activity and stability compared with conventional ones. These advantages are derived from combining the unique properties of Pt monolayer catalysts (high activity, low metal content) and of the intermetallic compounds (high stability and, possibly, low price). This method holds excellent potential for creating efficient fuel cell electrocatalysts.

  5. Investigating secondary aerosol formation from agricultural amines and reduced sulfur compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gas phase amines and reduced sulfur compounds are often co-emitted from agricultural processes. Amines have been recently recognized as potentially major sources of agricultural aerosol formation, while the reduced sulfur compounds are largely ignored. There is a severe lack of knowledge and under...

  6. Inactivation of the panE Gene in Lactococcus lactis Enhances Formation of Cheese Aroma Compounds

    PubMed Central

    de Cadiñanos, Luz P. Gómez; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Yvon, Mireille; Martinez-Cuesta, M. Carmen; Peláez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Hydroxyacid dehydrogenases limit the conversion of α-keto acids into aroma compounds. Here we report that inactivation of the panE gene, encoding the α-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase activity in Lactococcus lactis, enhanced the formation of 3-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanol. L. lactis IFPL953ΔpanE was an efficient strain producing volatile compounds related to cheese aroma. PMID:23524675

  7. Excitonic correlations in the intermetallic Fe2VAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weht, Ruben; Pickett, W. E.

    1998-09-01

    The intermetallic compound Fe2VAl looks nonmetallic in transport and strongly metallic in thermodynamic and photoemission data. It has in its band structure a highly differentiated set of valence and conduction bands leading to a semimetallic system with a very low density of carriers. The pseudogap itself is sensitive to the presence of Al states, but the resulting carriers have only minor Al character. The effects of generalized gradient corrections to the local density band structure are shown to be important, reducing the carrier density by a factor of 3. Spin-orbit coupling results in a redistribution of the holes among pockets at the Brillouin zone center. Doping of this nonmagnetic compound by 0.5 electrons per cell in a virtual crystal fashion results in a moment of 0.5μB and destroys the pseudogap. We assess the tendencies toward the formation of an excitonic condensate and toward an excitonic Wigner crystal and find both to be unlikely. We propose a model in which the observed properties result from excitonic correlations arising from two interpenetrating lattices of distinctive electrons (eg on V) and holes (t2g on Fe) of low density (one carrier of each sign per 350 formula units).

  8. The oil body formation and breakup in the compound vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplina, T. O.; Stepanova, E. V.

    2012-04-01

    The flows in the Ocean and Atmosphere combine different types of motion: streams, jets, wakes, vortices and waves. When flows transport solid bodies or immiscible admixtures picturesque flow patterns are revealed and indicated the type of flow. Different spiral patterns visualize vortex flow structure. In experiments is studied the transport of finite volumes of immiscible admixture introduced on the free surface of water drawn into the vortex motion in the vertical cylindrical container. The basic medium was tap water, preliminary degasified to make the visualization less difficult. The fixed volume of immiscible admixture (castor or sunflower oil) is introduced on the quiescent free surface of water inside the cylindrical container. The generation of compound vortex in the cylindrical container started after all the disturbances caused by deposition of the oil volume are damped. In compound vortex the flow oil patch with smooth boundary placed onto free surface is transformed into a set of spiral arms and separate drops contacting with the central oil volume. The droplets are separated from the central spot and slowly travel towards the container sidewall. With time, the spot is transformed into pronounced spiral arms. The most part of oil under the influence of vortex flow is gathered into the central volume contacting with the free surface. This volume is called "the oil body". On the lower frequencies of disk rotation and respectively slow flow gyration the oil body has smooth boundaries with water and air. The growth of disk rotation frequency leads to more pronounced deformation of the contact surface between liquid and air, the boundary of the oil body and water then is covered by small pimples. At the further increase of disk rotation frequency the oil body comes to the breakup, the water-oil boundary become irregular and on the lowest part of the oil body the analog of foam appears (the water-oil emulsion). The work is supported by Ministry of Education

  9. Intermetallics for structural applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    Intermetallics are introduced as possible structural materials. The attributes and useful temperature limits of eight of the most likely candidates have been described. In addition, detailed descriptions are given for chemical compositions, corrosion properties, mechanical properties, melting and processing, and applications of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys. Mechanical properties of Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys are compared with commercially used HU alloys in the cast condition and Haynes 214 in the wrought condition. The mechanical properties of Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys are compared with an oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Inco alloy MA-956. Comparisons have shown that Ni{sub 3}Al-based alloys offer the best combination of oxidation and carburization resistance and are significantly stronger than the commercially used HU alloy for many of the furnace-fixture applications. However, the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys, which offer the best sulfidation resistance of the commercially available alloys, are significantly weaker in creep than the ODS MA-956 alloy. Even with the current strength level, Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys are superior as porous, sintered metal filters for hot-gas cleanup in coal gasification systems. Oxide-dispersion strengthening of the Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys is currently under way to improve their creep strength.

  10. Nitrogen compounds' formation in aqueous solutions under high ionizing radiation: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, G. R.

    2011-03-01

    Generation of NO2- and NO3- in aqueous phase within high ionizing radiation zone is normal phenomena. Their formation mechanisms, and controls still remain a challenge with reference to creation of corrosive environment. Nitrogen in such system relates mainly to air ingress, and from added nitrogen compounds, which are used to control pH and dissolved oxygen. Under radiation environment these compounds receive low to high doses, which affect the compounds' subsequent aqueous chemistry, leading to NO2-/ NO3- formation. In γ-radiolysis of N 2-water, formation of NO3- takes place both in gas and liquid phases reactions wherein rad OH remains a significant contributor. On the other hand, in aerated aqueous ammonia/azide radiolysis, NO2- was generated following different mechanisms. With this diverse chemical changes, our objective was to analyze the data generated so far on nitrogen, and its specific compounds in aqueous media for systematic understanding and for further growth in the subject.

  11. Inhibitory effect of diet related sulphydryl compounds on the formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, N R; Choughuley, A S

    1992-08-31

    N-Nitroso compounds (NOCs) are known to be strong carcinogens in various animals including primates (Preussman and Stewart, (1984) N-Nitroso Compounds). Human exposure to these compounds can be by ingestion or inhalation of preformed NOCs or by endogenous nitrosation from naturally occurring precursors (Bartsch and Montesano, Carcinogenesis, 5 (1984) 1381-1393; Tannebaum (1979) Naturally Occuring Carcinogens, Mutagens and Modulators of Carcinogenesis; Shephard et al., Food Chem. Toxicol., 25 (1987) 91-108). Several factors present in the diet can modify levels of endogenously formed nitrosamines by acting as catalysts or inhibitors. Compounds in the human diet that alter nitrosamine formation would thus play an important role in carcinogenesis study. Earlier researchers have reported the nitrite scavenging nature of sulphydryl compounds (Williams, Chem. Soc. Rev., 15 (1983) 171-196). We therefore studied the modifying effect of sulphydryl compounds viz., cysteine (CE), cystine (CI), glutathione (GU), cysteamine (CEA), cystamine (CEI), cysteic acid (CIA) and thioglycolic acid (TGA) on the nitrosation of model amines viz., pyrrolidine (PYR), piperidine (NPIP) and morpholine (NMOR). Many of these compounds are present in the food we consume. The present work also describes the inhibitory effect of onion and garlic juices on the nitrosation reactions. Both onion and garlic are known to contain sulphur compounds (Block, Sci. Am., 252 (1985) 114-119). Most of these compounds behave as antinitrosating agents and their inhibitory activity towards formation of carcinogenic nitrosamines, under different conditions is described. PMID:1516037

  12. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation from the ozonation of model compounds.

    PubMed

    Marti, Erica J; Pisarenko, Aleksey N; Peller, Julie R; Dickenson, Eric R V

    2015-04-01

    Nitrosamines are a class of toxic disinfection byproducts commonly associated with chloramination, of which several were included on the most recent U.S. EPA Contaminant Candidate List. Nitrosamine formation may be a significant barrier to ozonation in water reuse applications, particularly for direct or indirect potable reuse, since recent studies show direct formation during ozonation of natural water and treated wastewaters. Only a few studies have identified precursors which react with ozone to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). In this study, several precursor compound solutions, prepared in ultrapure water and treated wastewater, were subjected to a 10 M excess of ozone. In parallel experiments, the precursor solutions in ultrapure water were exposed to gamma radiation to determine NDMA formation as a byproduct of reactions of precursor compounds with hydroxyl radicals. The results show six new NDMA precursor compounds that have not been previously reported in the literature, including compounds with hydrazone and carbamate moieties. Molar yields in deionized water were 61-78% for 3 precursors, 12-23% for 5 precursors and <4% for 2 precursors. Bromide concentration was important for three compounds (1,1-dimethylhydrazine, acetone dimethylhydrazone and dimethylsulfamide), but did not enhance NDMA formation for the other precursors. NDMA formation due to chloramination was minimal compared to formation due to ozonation, suggesting distinct groups of precursor compounds for these two oxidants. Hydroxyl radical reactions with the precursors will produce NDMA, but formation is much greater in the presence of molecular ozone. Also, hydroxyl radical scavenging during ozonation leads to increased NDMA formation. Molar conversion yields were higher for several precursors in wastewater as compared to deionized water, which could be due to catalyzed reactions with constituents found in wastewater or hydroxyl radical scavenging. PMID:25241951

  13. Multi-component intermetallic electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M; Trahey, Lynn; Vaughey, John T

    2015-03-10

    Multi-component intermetallic negative electrodes prepared by electrochemical deposition for non-aqueous lithium cells and batteries are disclosed. More specifically, the invention relates to composite intermetallic electrodes comprising two or more compounds containing metallic or metaloid elements, at least one element of which can react with lithium to form binary, ternary, quaternary or higher order compounds, these compounds being in combination with one or more other metals that are essentially inactive toward lithium and act predominantly, but not necessarily exclusively, to the electronic conductivity of, and as current collection agent for, the electrode. The invention relates more specifically to negative electrode materials that provide an operating potential between 0.05 and 2.0 V vs. metallic lithium.

  14. Prediction of the condensed phase heat of formation of energetic compounds.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-06-15

    A new reliable simple model is presented for estimating the condensed phase heat of formation of important classes of energetic compounds including polynitro arene, polynitro heteroarene, acyclic and cyclic nitramine, nitrate ester and nitroaliphatic compounds. For CHNO energetic compounds, elemental compositions as well as increasing and decreasing energy content parameters are used in the new method. The novel correlation is tested for 192 organic compounds containing complex molecular structures with at least one nitro, nitramine or nitrate energetic functional groups. This work improves the predictive ability of previous empirical correlations for a wide range of energetic compounds. For those energetic compounds where group additivity method can be applied and outputs of quantum mechanical computations were available, it is shown that the root mean square (rms) deviation of the new method is lower. PMID:21458917

  15. Volatile C8 compounds and pseudomonads influence primordium formation of Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ralph; Dobrovin-Pennington, Andreja; Hobbs, Philip J; Pederby, Jemma; Rodger, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Primordium formation of Agaricus bisporus depends on the presence of a casing layer containing stimulatory bacteria and on sufficient air exchange. The influence of specific pseudomonad populations and volatile organic compounds (VOC) on primordium formation of A. bisporus was studied in microcosm cultures. VOC produced by A. bisporus mycelium were predominantly C8 compounds, some of which could inhibit primordium formation, with 1-octen-3-ol being most inhibitory. A VOC produced by the rye grain substrate, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, on which A. bisporus was grown also inhibited primordium formation. 2-Ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were metabolized by pseudomonad populations and adsorbed by activated charcoal, with both modes of removal enabling primordium formation in the casing. Removal of VOC by ventilation also enabled primordium formation to occur under axenic conditions. The presence of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol in the microcosms resulted in higher total bacterial and pseudomonad populations in the casing. The stimulatory effects of the casing and its microbiota and air exchange on primordium formation of A. bisporus at least partly are due to the removal of inhibitory C8 compounds produced by the mycelium and its substrate. Monitoring and controlling the levels of these inhibitory VOC in mushroom culture should enable primordium formation of A. bisporus to be more efficiently and precisely controlled. PMID:19750937

  16. Fundamentals of mechanical behavior in structural intermetallics: A synthesis of atomistic and continuum modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Fu, C.L.

    1993-08-01

    After a brief account of the recent advances in computational research on mechanical behavior of structural intermetallics, currently unresolved problems and critical issues are addressed and the knowledge base for potential answers to these problems is discussed. As large-scale problems (e.g., dislocation core structures, grain boundaries, and crack tips) are treated by atomistic simulations, future development of relevant interatomic potentials should be made consistent with the results of first-principles calculations. The bulk and defect properties calculated for intermetallic compounds, both known and as yet untested, can furnish insights to alloy designers in search of new high-temperature structural intermetallics.

  17. Compound-Nucleus Formation Following Direct Interactions to Highly-Excited Final States

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, F S

    2008-02-05

    When direct reactions populate highly excited, unbound configurations in the residual nucleus, the nucleus may further evolve into a compound nucleus. Alternatively, the residual system may decay by emitting particles into the continuum. Understanding the relative weights of these two processes as a function of the angular momentum and parity deposited in the nucleus is important for the surrogate-reaction technique. A particularly interesting case is compound-nucleus formation via the (d, p) reaction, which may be a useful tool for forming compound nuclei off the valley of stability in inverse-kinematics experiments. We present here a study of the compound formation probability for a closely-related direct reaction, direct-semidirect radiative neutron capture.

  18. Formation of degradation compounds from lignocellulosic biomass in the biorefinery: sugar reaction mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Helena; Sørensen, Hanne R; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-02-19

    The degradation compounds formed during pretreatment when lignocellulosic biomass is processed to ethanol or other biorefinery products include furans, phenolics, organic acids, as well as mono- and oligomeric pentoses and hexoses. Depending on the reaction conditions glucose can be converted to 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) and/or levulinic acid, formic acid and different phenolics at elevated temperatures. Correspondingly, xylose can follow different reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of furan-2-carbaldehyde (furfural) and/or various C-1 and C-4 compounds. At least four routes for the formation of HMF from glucose and three routes for furfural formation from xylose are possible. In addition, new findings show that biomass monosaccharides themselves can react further to form pseudo-lignin and humins as well as a wide array of other compounds when exposed to high temperatures. Hence, several aldehydes and ketones and many different organic acids and aromatic compounds may be generated during hydrothermal treatment of lignocellulosic biomass. The reaction mechanisms are of interest because the very same compounds that are possible inhibitors for biomass processing enzymes and microorganisms may be valuable biobased chemicals. Hence a new potential for industrial scale synthesis of chemicals has emerged. A better understanding of the reaction mechanisms and the impact of the reaction conditions on the product formation is thus a prerequisite for designing better biomass processing strategies and forms an important basis for the development of new biorefinery products from lignocellulosic biomass as well. PMID:24412507

  19. Oxidation and Reduction of Sulfite by Chloroplasts and Formation of Sulfite Addition Compounds 1

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Andreas P. M.; Pfanz, Hardy; Heber, Ulrich

    1992-01-01

    After exposing intact chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea L. cv Yates) and capable of photoreducing CO2 at high rates to different concentrations of radioactive sulfite in the light or in the dark, 35SO2 and H235S were removed from the acidified suspensions in a stream of nitrogen. Remaining activity could be fractionated into sulfate, organic sulfides, and sulfite addition compounds. When chloroplast suspensions contained catalase, superoxide dismutase and O-acetylserine, the oxidation of sulfite to sulfate was slower in the light than the reductive formation of sulfides that exhibited a maximum rate of about 2 micromoles per milligram chlorophyll per hour, equivalent to about 1% of maximum carbon assimilation. Botht the oxidative and the reductive detoxification of sulfite were very slow in the dark. Oxidation was somewhat, but not much, accelerated in the light in the absence of O-acetylserine, which caused a dramatic decrease in the formation of organic sulfides and an equally dramatic increase in the concentration of sulfite addition compounds whose formation was light-dependent. The sulfite addition compounds were not identified. Addition compounds did not accumulate in the dark. In the light, the electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, diuron, decreased not only the reduction, but also the oxidation of sulfite and the formation of addition compounds. PMID:16668703

  20. Third Intermetallic Matrix Composites Symposium, volume 350

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, J.A.; Bowman, R.R.; Lewandowski, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    Partial contents include: issues in potential IMC application for aerospace structures; powder metallurgy processing of intermetallic matrix composites; microstructure and properties of intermetallic matrix composites produced by reaction synthesis; combustion synthesis of niobium aluminide matrix composites; ambient temperature synthesis of bulk intermetallics; wear behavior of SHS intermetallic matrix composites; fracture characteristics of metal-intermetallic laminates produced by SHS reactions; and vapor phase synthesis of Ti aluminides and the interfacial bonding effect on the mechanical property of micro-composites reinforced by pyrolized SiC fibers.

  1. Bacterial biofilm formation inhibitory activity revealed for plant derived natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Artini, M; Papa, R; Barbato, G; Scoarughi, G L; Cellini, A; Morazzoni, P; Bombardelli, E; Selan, L

    2012-01-15

    Use of herbal plant remedies to treat infectious diseases is a common practice in many countries in traditional and alternative medicine. However to date there are only few antimicrobial agents derived from botanics. Based on microbiological screening tests of crude plant extracts we identified four compounds derived from Krameria, Aesculus hippocastanum and Chelidonium majus that showed a potentially interesting antimicrobial activity. In this work we present an in depth characterization of the inhibition activity of these pure compounds on the formation of biofilm of Staphylococcus aureus as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. We show that two of these compounds possess interesting potential to become active principles of new drugs. PMID:22182580

  2. Cold Sprayed Intermetallic Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshchinsky, Evgeny

    Conventional thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems consist of a duplex structure with a metallic bond coat and a ceramic heat-isolative topcoat. Several recent research activities are concentrated on the development of improved multilayer bond coat and TBC materials. This study represents an investigation performed for the aluminum based bond coats, especially those with reduced thermal conductivities. Using alternative TBC materials, such as metal alloys and intermetallics, their processing methods can be further optimized to achieve the best thermal physical parameters. One example is the ten-layer system in which cold sprayed aluminum based intermetallics are synthesized. These systems demonstrated improved heat insulation and thermal fatigue capabilities compared to conventional TBC. The microstructures and properties of the laminar coatings were characterized by SEM, EDS, XRD; micromechanical and durability tests were performed to define the structure and coating formation mechanisms. Application prospects for HCCI engines are discussed. Fuel energy can be utilized more efficiently with the concept of low heat rejection engines with applied TBC.

  3. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-05-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  4. A Thermodynamic Approach to Predict Formation Enthalpies of Ternary Systems Based on Miedema's Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mahbubeh Sadat; Abbasi, Roozbeh; Kashani-Bozorg, Seyed Farshid

    2016-07-01

    A novel modification to the thermodynamic semi-empirical Miedema's model has been made in order to provide more precise estimations of formation enthalpy in ternary alloys. The original Miedema's model was modified for ternary systems based on surface concentration function revisions. The results predicted by the present model were found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental data of over 150 ternary intermetallic compounds. The novel proposed model is capable of predicting formation enthalpies of ternary intermetallics with small discrepancies of ≤20 kJ/mol as well as providing reliable enthalpy variations.

  5. Bacterial ethane formation from reduced, ethylated sulfur compounds in anoxic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Strohmaier, F.E.; Kiene, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    Trace levels of ethane were produced biologically in anoxic sediment slurries from five chemically different aquatic environments. Gases from these locations displayed biogenic characteristics, having 12C-enriched values of ??13CH4 (-62 to -86%.), ??13C2H6 (-35 to -55%.) and high ratios (720 to 140,000) of CH4 [C2H6 + C3H8]. Endogenous production of ethane by slurries was inhibited by autoclaving or by addition of the inhibitor of methanogenic bacteria, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES). Ethane formation was stimulated markedly by ethanethiol (ESH), and, to a lesser extent, by diethylsulfide (DES). Formation of methane and ethane in ESH- or DES-amended slurries was blocked by BES. Experiments showed that ethionine (or an analogous compound) could be a precursor of ESH. Ethylamine or ethanol additions to slurries caused only a minor stimulation of ethane formation. Similarly, propanethiol additions resulted in only a minor enhancement of propane formation. Cell suspensions of a methyltrophic methanogen produced traces of ethane when incubated in the presence of DES, although the organism did not grow on this compound. These results indicate that methanogenic bacteria produce ethane from the traces of ethylated sulfur compounds present in recent sediments. Preliminary estimates of stable carbon isotope fractionation associated with sediment methane formation from dimethylsulfide was about 40%., while ethane formation from DES and ESH was only 4. 6 and 6.5%., respectively. ?? 1988.

  6. A Connectionist Model of Stimulus Class Formation with a Yes/No Procedure and Compound Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tovar, Angel E.; Chavez, Alvaro Torres

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed stimulus class formation in a human study and in a connectionist model (CM) with a yes/no procedure, using compound stimuli. In the human study, the participants were six female undergraduate students; the CM was a feed-forward back-propagation network. Two 3-member stimulus classes were trained with a similar procedure in both the…

  7. Monitoring the apple polyphenol oxidase-modulated adduct formation of phenolic and amino compounds.

    PubMed

    Reinkensmeier, Annika; Steinbrenner, Katrin; Homann, Thomas; Bußler, Sara; Rohn, Sascha; Rawel, Hashadrai M

    2016-03-01

    Minimally processed fruit products such as smoothies are increasingly coming into demand. However, they are often combined with dairy ingredients. In this combination, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and amino compounds could interact. In this work, a model approach is presented where apple serves as a source for a high polyphenoloxidase activity for modulating the reactions. The polyphenoloxidase activity ranged from 128 to 333nakt/mL in different apple varieties. From these, 'Braeburn' was found to provide the highest enzymatic activity. The formation and stability of resulting chromogenic conjugates was investigated. The results show that such adducts are not stable and possible degradation mechanisms leading to follow-up products formed are proposed. Finally, apple extracts were used to modify proteins and their functional properties characterized. There were retaining antioxidant properties inherent to phenolic compounds after adduct formation. Consequently, such interactions may also be utilized to improve the textural quality of food products. PMID:26471529

  8. Deduction of compound nucleus formation probability from the fragment angular distributions in heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, C.; Thomas, R. G.; Mohanty, A. K.; Kapoor, S. S.

    2015-07-01

    The presence of various fissionlike reactions in heavy-ion induced reactions is a major hurdle in the path to laboratory synthesis of heavy and super-heavy nuclei. It is known that the cross section of forming a heavy evaporation residue in fusion reactions depends on the three factors—the capture cross section, probability of compound nucleus formation PCN, and the survival probability of the compound nucleus against fission. As the probability of compound nucleus formation, PCN is difficult to theoretically estimate because of its complex dependence on several parameters; attempts have been made in the past to deduce it from the fission fragment anisotropy data. In the present work, the fragment anisotropy data for a number of heavy-ion reactions are analyzed and it is found that deduction of PCN from the anisotropy data also requires the knowledge of the ratio of relaxation time of the K degree of freedom to pre-equilibrium fission time.

  9. Diet-induced endogenous formation of nitroso compounds in the GI tract.

    PubMed

    Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Story, Giles W; Reda, Torsten; Mani, Ali R; Moore, Kevin P; Lunn, Joanne C; Bingham, Sheila A

    2007-10-01

    Red or processed meat, but not white meat or fish, is associated with colorectal cancer. The endogenous formation of nitroso compounds is a possible explanation, as red or processed meat--but not white meat or fish--causes a dose-dependent increase in fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the formation of nitroso-compound-specific DNA adducts. Red meat is particularly rich in heme and heme has also been found to promote the formation of ATNC. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ATNC formation, fecal and ileal samples of volunteers fed a high red meat or a vegetarian diet were analyzed for nitrosyl iron, nitrosothiols, and heme. To simulate the processes in the stomach, food homogenates and hemoglobin were incubated under simulated gastric conditions. Nitrosyl iron and nitrosothiols were significantly (p < 0.0001) increased in ileal and fecal samples after a high red meat diet compared with a vegetarian diet; significantly more nitrosyl iron than nitrosothiols was detectable in ileal (p < 0.0001) and fecal (p < 0.001) samples. The strong correlation between fecal nitrosyl iron and heme (0.776; p < 0.0001) suggested that nitrosyl heme is the main source of nitrosyl iron, and ESR confirmed the presence of nitrosyl heme in fecal samples after a high red meat diet. Under simulated gastric conditions, mainly nitrosothiols were formed, suggesting that acid-catalyzed thionitrosation is the initial step in the endogenous formation of nitroso compounds. Nitrosyl heme and other nitroso compounds can then form under the alkaline and reductive conditions of the small and large bowel. PMID:17761300

  10. Oxidation of high-temperature intermetallics; Proceedings of the Workshop, Cleveland, OH, Sept. 22, 23, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobstein, Toni (Editor); Doychak, Joseph (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The present conference on the high-temperature oxidation behavior of aerospace structures-applicable intermetallic compounds discusses the influence of reactive-element additions on the oxidation of Ni3Al base alloys, the effect of Ni3Al oxidation below 850 C on fracture behavior, the oxidation of FeAl + Hf, Zr, and B, the synergistic effect of Al and Si on the oxidation resistance of Fe alloys, and pack cementation coatings of Cr-Al on Fe, Ni, and Co alloys. Also discussed are the formation of alumina on Nb- and Ti-base alloys, the oxidation behavior of titanium aluminide alloys, silicide coatings for refractory metals, the oxidation of chromium disilicide, and the oxidation behavior of nickel beryllides.

  11. Numerical simulations of interfacial debonding in ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Henshall, G.A.; Zywicz, E.; Strum, M.J.

    1993-08-10

    The fracture toughness of brittle intermetallic compounds can be improved by ductile-phase reinforcements. Effectiveness of the ductile phase in bridging cracks, and therefore increasing, the composite toughness, is known qualitatively to depend upon the extent of debonding, between the two phases. Numerical crack-growth simulations are used here to provide semi-quantitative predictions of the influence of interfacial debonding on the macroscopic stress-displacement behavior and, hence, the fracture toughness of an idealized Pb/glass composite. The interfacial toughness required to cause debonding, characterized by a constant critical energy release rate, is varied parametrically. As expected, higher interfacial toughness results in less interphase debonding, higher composite strength, and greater ductile-phase constraint. Consequently, the increase in ductile-phase triaxiality can potentially accelerate internal void formation and growth or facilitate cleavage fracture, either of which would likely decrease the toughness of the composite.

  12. Precipitation of organic arsenic compounds and their degradation products during struvite formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Biao; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Wei; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yu, Han-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Roxarsone (ROX) and arsanilic acid (ASA) have been extensively used as organoarsenic animal feed additives. Organic arsenic compounds and their degradation products, arsenate (As(V)) and arsenite (As(III)), exist in the effluent from anaerobic reactors treating animal manure contaminated by ROX or ASA with ammonium (NH4(+)-N) and phosphate (PO4(3-)-P) together. Therefore, arsenic species in the effluent might be involved in the struvite formation process. In this study, the involvement of organic arsenic compounds and their degradation products As(V) and As(III) in the struvite crystallization was investigated. The results demonstrated that arsenic compounds did not substantially affect the PO4(3-)-P recovery, but confirmed the precipitation of arsenic during struvite formation. The precipitation of arsenic compounds in struvite was considerably affected by a solution pH from 9.0 to 11.0. With an increase in pH, the content of ASA and ROX in the precipitation decreased, but the contents of As(III) and As(V) increased. In addition, the arsenic content of As(V) in the struvite was higher than that of As(III), ASA and ROX. The results indicated that the struvite could be contaminated when the solution contains arsenic species, but that could be minimized by controlling the solution pH and maintaining anaerobic conditions during struvite formation. PMID:27262276

  13. Formation of iodinated organic compounds by oxidation of iodide-containing waters with manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gallard, Hervé; Allard, Sébastien; Nicolau, Rudy; von Gunten, Urs; Croué, Jean Philippe

    2009-09-15

    This study shows that iodinated organic compounds can be produced when iodide-containing waters are in contact with manganese oxide birnessite (delta-MnO2) in the pH range of 5-7. In the absence of natural organic matter (NOM), iodide is oxidized to iodate that is also adsorbed onto delta-MnO2. In the presence of iodide and NOM, adsordable organic iodine compounds (AOI) are formed at pH < 7 because of the oxidation of iodide to iodine by delta-MnO2 and the reactions of iodine with NOM. In addition, iodoacetic acid and iodoform have been identified as specific iodinated byproducts. Formation of iodoform is not observed for high NOM/delta-MnO2 ratios due to inhibition of the catalytic effect of delta-MnO2 by NOM poisoning. Experiments with model compounds such as resorcinol and 3,5-heptanedione confirmed that the delta-MnO2/l(-) system is very effective for the formation of iodinated organic compounds. These results suggest that birnessite acts as a catalyst through the oxidation of iodide to iodine and the polarization of the iodine molecule, which then reacts with NOM moieties. Furthermore, our results indicate that during water treatment in the presence of manganese oxide, iodinated organic compounds may be formed, which may lead to taste and odor or toxicological problems. PMID:19806734

  14. Intermetallic-Based High-Temperature Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.

    1999-04-25

    The intermetallic-based alloys for high-temperature applications are introduced. General characteristics of intermetallics are followed by identification of nickel and iron aluminides as the most practical alloys for commercial applications. An overview of the alloy compositions, melting processes, and mechanical properties for nickel and iron aluminizes are presented. The current applications and commercial producers of nickel and iron aluminizes are given. A brief description of the future prospects of intermetallic-based alloys is also given.

  15. An intermetallic forming steel under radiation for nuclear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofer, C.; Stergar, E.; Maloy, S. A.; Wang, Y. Q.; Hosemann, P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we investigated the formation and stability of intermetallics formed in a maraging steel PH 13-8 Mo under proton radiation up to 2 dpa utilizing nanoindentation, microcompression testing and atom probe tomography. A comprehensive discussion analyzing the findings utilizing rate theory is introduced, comparing the aging process to radiation induced diffusion. New findings of radiation induced segregation of undersize solute atoms (Si) towards the precipitates are considered.

  16. Catalytic asymmetric carbon-carbon bond formation via allylic alkylations with organolithium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Manuel; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Bos, Pieter H.; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2011-05-01

    Carbon-carbon bond formation is the basis for the biogenesis of nature's essential molecules. Consequently, it lies at the heart of the chemical sciences. Chiral catalysts have been developed for asymmetric C-C bond formation to yield single enantiomers from several organometallic reagents. Remarkably, for extremely reactive organolithium compounds, which are among the most broadly used reagents in chemical synthesis, a general catalytic methodology for enantioselective C-C formation has proven elusive, until now. Here, we report a copper-based chiral catalytic system that allows carbon-carbon bond formation via allylic alkylation with alkyllithium reagents, with extremely high enantioselectivities and able to tolerate several functional groups. We have found that both the solvent used and the structure of the active chiral catalyst are the most critical factors in achieving successful asymmetric catalysis with alkyllithium reagents. The active form of the chiral catalyst has been identified through spectroscopic studies as a diphosphine copper monoalkyl species.

  17. Isomerism and adduct formation in the hector's base series: A MNDO study of model compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuthbertson, Alastair F.; Glidewell, Christopher

    MNDO calculations on a series of a model compounds show that the observed structures for Hector's base, Dost's base and Dost's keto compound are the thermodynamically most stable tautomers and that the bond-switched structure observed for the 1:1 adduct of Hector's base with carbon disulphide and the non-bond-switched structure observed for the corresponding adducts with isocyanates and isothiocyanates are both the thermodynamically most favoured isomers, so that the occurrence or otherwise of a bond switch in these compounds is determined by thermodynamic rather than by mechanistic factors. Proposed mechanisms for the formation of the carbon disulphide adduct of Hector's base, and for its desulphurisation are supported by MNDO calculations.

  18. Stereoselective Synthesis of Tetrahydroindolizines through the Catalytic Formation of Pyridinium Ylides from Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Day, Jonathan; McKeever-Abbas, Ben; Dowden, James

    2016-05-01

    Commercially available iron(III) and copper(I) complexes catalyzed multicomponent cycloaddition reactions between diazo compounds, pyridines, and electrophilic alkenes to give alkaloid-inspired tetrahydroindolizidines in high yield with high diastereoselectivity. Hitherto, the catalytic formation of versatile pyridinium ylides from metal carbenes has been poorly developed; the broad utility demonstrated herein sets the stage for the invention of further multicomponent reactions in future. PMID:27059910

  19. Formation of dioxin-like compounds from the pyrolysis of some halogenated flame retardants

    SciTech Connect

    Alsabbagh, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polybrominated dibenzofurans as well as polyhalogenated phenazines have been shown to form from the pyrolysis of some flame retardants. In addition, chlorine-bromine exchange was shown to occur in the formation of halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and halogenated phenazines when both chlorine and bromine sources are present in the pyrolysis mixture. There was no chlorine-hydrogen exchange observed in the formation of chloro-bromo-dibenzo-dioxins, chloro-bromo-dibenzofurans and chloro-bromophenazines. At high temperatures, the amino-group of the halogenated anilines may be replaced by oxygen and yield halogenated dibenzo-pdioxins and halogenated dibenzofurans, in addition to the halogenated phenazines. The complete substitution of bromine with chlorine was demonstrated to occur, which is probably why chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and chlorinated dibenzofurans are more widely spread than the brominated analogs, since chlorinated compounds are used in much larger quantities than the brominated compounds. The addition of antimony (III) oxide to the flame-retardant formulations showed initial increase in the formation of the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and the halogenated phenazines. The mass spectra of bromo-phenazines, chloro-phenazines and chloro-bromo-phenazines have been presented. The similarity in the structure of the halogenated phenazines and the halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins may be of interest to be used in the search of compounds with breast cancer therapeutic use, although the toxicity of the halogenated phenazines should be thoroughly investigated.

  20. Nitrogen dioxide formation in the gliding arc discharge-assisted decomposition of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Bo, Zheng; Yan, Jianhua; Li, Xiaodong; Chi, Yong; Cen, Kefa

    2009-07-30

    To apply gliding arc discharge (GAD) plasma processing to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission control, the formation of NO(2) as an undesired byproduct needs to be addressed. Comparative results of effluent temperature and product concentrations between experiment and thermodynamic equilibrium calculation show that the NO(2) formation in dry air GAD is totally out of thermodynamic equilibrium. Meanwhile, obvious NO (A(2)Sigma+)) and N(2)(+) (B(2)Sigma(u)(+)) are detected as the major reactive species in the dry air GAD plasma region. These results suggest that the thermal (or Zeldovich) NO(x) formation mechanism is not significant in GAD system, while the energy level and the density of electrons in the plasma region will severely influence the NO(2) formation. The presence of 500 ppm VOCs in the feed gases shows a limiting influence on the NO(2) formation, which is in the order of aromatic hydrocarbon (C(6)H(6) and C(7)H(8))>straight-chain hydrocarbon (C(4)H(10) and C(6)H(14))>halogenated hydrocarbon (CCl(4)). The influences of VOCs chemical structure, supply voltage, feed gas humidity, and reactor geometry on NO(2) formation are investigated, and the results correspond to above mechanism analysis. Based on the above, the possible pathways of the inhibition of NO(2) formation in GAD-assisted VOCs decomposition process are discussed. PMID:19153003

  1. Method for making devices having intermetallic structures and intermetallic devices made thereby

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Brian Kevin; Wilson, Richard Dean; Alman, David Eli

    2004-01-06

    A method and system for making a monolithic intermetallic structure are presented. The structure is made from lamina blanks which comprise multiple layers of metals which are patternable, or intermetallic lamina blanks that are patternable. Lamina blanks are patterned, stacked and registered, and processed to form a monolithic intermetallic structure. The advantages of a patterned monolithic intermetallic structure include physical characteristics such as melting temperature, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance. Applications are broad, and include among others, use as a microreactor, heat recycling device, and apparatus for producing superheated steam. Monolithic intermetallic structures may contain one or more catalysts within the internal features.

  2. Source Contribution of Volatile Organic Compounds to Ozone Formation in Southeast Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Q.

    2009-12-01

    The Houston-Galveston-Brazoria (HGB) and Beaumont-Port Arthur (BPA) areas in the southeast Texas are respectively in severe and moderate non-attainment status for the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone (O3). In order to design effective emission control strategies to improve ozone air quality, it is necessary to understand the contribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from different sources to O3 formation. In this study, a source-oriented SAPRC-99 gas phase photochemical mechanism was developed and incorporated into the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to determine the contribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from different sources to the predicted net ozone formation rate in southeast Texas during the Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS) from 16 August - 6 September 2000. Contribution from eight different sources: biogenic, diesel engines, highway gasoline vehicles, off-highway gasoline engines, solvent utilization, petroleum industry, other industries and wildfire were resolved. This is the first time that the regional source contribution of VOCs to O3 formation has been quantified using a three-dimensional source oriented modeling approach in southeast Texas. Regional source contribution analysis indicates that the VOCs emitted from petrochemical industries are responsible to a large amount of O3 formation in the HGB and BPA area. The peak O3 formation rate due to petroleum industry and other industries combined is ~8 ppb hr(-1) in early afternoon hours, which rivals the O3 formation rate due to biogenic sources (~ 9 ppb hr(-1)). Gasoline vehicles also contribute significantly to the ozone formation, with a maximum contribution of ~3.5 ppb hr(-1). The spatial coverage of vehicle sources is larger that of industrial sources. Solvent utilization contributes ~1.2 ppb hr(-1) and has similar spatial coverage as gasoline vehicle sources. VOC emissions from reciprocating engines powered by natural gas are the most significant

  3. Influence of Al grain boundaries segregations and La-doping on embrittlement of intermetallic NiAl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalev, Anatoly I.; Wainstein, Dmitry L.; Rashkovskiy, Alexander Yu.

    2015-11-01

    The microscopic nature of intergranular fracture of NiAl was experimentally investigated by the set of electron spectroscopy techniques. The paper demonstrates that embrittlement of NiAl intermetallic compound is caused by ordering of atomic structure that leads to formation of structural aluminum segregations at grain boundaries (GB). Such segregations contain high number of brittle covalent interatomic bonds. The alloying by La increases the ductility of material avoiding Al GB enrichment and disordering GB atomic structure. The influence of La alloying on NiAl mechanical properties was investigated. GB chemical composition, atomic and electronic structure transformations after La doping were investigated by AES, XPS and EELFS techniques. To qualify the interatomic bonds metallicity the Fermi level (EF) position and electrons density (neff) in conduction band were determined in both undoped and doped NiAl. Basing on experimental results the physical model of GB brittleness formation was proposed.

  4. Metabolic Impact of Redox Cofactor Perturbations on the Formation of Aroma Compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Isabelle; Dequin, Sylvie; Camarasa, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of metabolism, energy generation, and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The redox cofactors NADH and NADPH are among the most highly connected metabolites in metabolic networks. Changes in their concentrations may induce widespread changes in metabolism. Redox imbalances were achieved with a dedicated biological tool overexpressing native NADH-dependent or engineered NADPH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, in the presence of acetoin. We report that targeted perturbation of the balance of cofactors (NAD+/NADH or, to a lesser extent, NADP+/NADPH) significantly affected the production of volatile compounds. In most cases, variations in the redox state of yeasts modified the formation of all compounds from the same biochemical pathway (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, and their derivatives) or chemical class (ethyl esters), irrespective of the cofactors. These coordinated responses were found to be closely linked to the impact of redox status on the availability of intermediates of central carbon metabolism. This was the case for α-keto acids and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which are precursors for the synthesis of many volatile compounds. We also demonstrated that changes in the availability of NADH selectively affected the synthesis of some volatile molecules (e.g., methionol, phenylethanol, and propanoic acid), reflecting the specific cofactor requirements of the dehydrogenases involved in their formation. Our findings indicate that both the availability of precursors from central carbon metabolism and the accessibility of reduced cofactors contribute to cell redox status modulation of volatile compound formation. PMID:26475113

  5. Metabolic Impact of Redox Cofactor Perturbations on the Formation of Aroma Compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Audrey; Sanchez, Isabelle; Dequin, Sylvie; Camarasa, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Redox homeostasis is a fundamental requirement for the maintenance of metabolism, energy generation, and growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The redox cofactors NADH and NADPH are among the most highly connected metabolites in metabolic networks. Changes in their concentrations may induce widespread changes in metabolism. Redox imbalances were achieved with a dedicated biological tool overexpressing native NADH-dependent or engineered NADPH-dependent 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, in the presence of acetoin. We report that targeted perturbation of the balance of cofactors (NAD(+)/NADH or, to a lesser extent, NADP(+)/NADPH) significantly affected the production of volatile compounds. In most cases, variations in the redox state of yeasts modified the formation of all compounds from the same biochemical pathway (isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, and their derivatives) or chemical class (ethyl esters), irrespective of the cofactors. These coordinated responses were found to be closely linked to the impact of redox status on the availability of intermediates of central carbon metabolism. This was the case for α-keto acids and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), which are precursors for the synthesis of many volatile compounds. We also demonstrated that changes in the availability of NADH selectively affected the synthesis of some volatile molecules (e.g., methionol, phenylethanol, and propanoic acid), reflecting the specific cofactor requirements of the dehydrogenases involved in their formation. Our findings indicate that both the availability of precursors from central carbon metabolism and the accessibility of reduced cofactors contribute to cell redox status modulation of volatile compound formation. PMID:26475113

  6. Suppressors made from intermetallic materials

    DOEpatents

    Klett, James W; Muth, Thomas R; Cler, Dan L

    2014-11-04

    Disclosed are several examples of apparatuses for suppressing the blast and flash produced as a projectile is expelled by gases from a firearm. In some examples, gases are diverted away from the central chamber to an expansion chamber by baffles. The gases are absorbed by the expansion chamber and desorbed slowly, thus decreasing pressure and increasing residence time of the gases. In other examples, the gases impinge against a plurality of rods before expanding through passages between the rods to decrease the pressure and increase the residence time of the gases. These and other exemplary suppressors are made from an intermetallic material composition for enhanced strength and oxidation resistance at high operational temperatures.

  7. Abiotic formation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds during thermal decomposition of iron oxalate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of organic compounds during the decomposition of iron oxalate dihydrate (IOD) was investigated as a possible analog for abiotic organic synthesis in geological systems. After heating at 330 degrees C for 2-4 days, IOD decomposed to a mixture of the minerals siderite and magnetite plus gas and non-volatile organic compounds. The organic products included an extremely large variety of compounds, making identification of individual reaction products difficult. However, the non-volatile products were dominated by several homologous series of alkylated cyclic compounds mostly containing a single aromatic ring, including alkylphenols, alkylbenzenes, alkyltetrahydronaphthols, and alkyltetrahydronaphthalenes. Traces of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanones, and n-alkanes were also identified. Carbon in the gas phase was predominantly CO2 (+CO?), with lesser amounts of light hydrocarbons to > C6 including all possible branched and normal isomers of the alkanes and alkenes. The organic products were apparently the result of two concurrent reaction processes: (1) condensation of the two-carbon units present in the initial oxalate moiety, and (2) Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis from CO2 or CO generated during the experiment. Compounds produced by the former process may not be characteristic of synthesis from the single-carbon precursors which predominate in geologic systems, suggesting iron oxalate decomposition may not provide a particularly suitable analog for investigation of abiotic organic synthesis. When water was included in the reaction vessels, CO2 and traces of methane and light hydrocarbon gases were the only carbon products observed (other than siderite), suggesting that the presence of water allowed the system to proceed rapidly towards equilibrium and precluded the formation of metastable organic intermediates.

  8. Rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics: Structure-bonding-property relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Han, M.K.

    2006-05-06

    The explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding property relationships. The work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides Re{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  9. Rare-Earth Transition-Metal Intermetallics: Structure-bonding-Property Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Mi-Kyung Han

    2006-05-01

    Our explorations of rare-earth, transition metal intermetallics have resulted in the synthesis and characterization, and electronic structure investigation, as well as understanding the structure-bonding-property relationships. Our work has presented the following results: (1) Understanding the relationship between compositions and properties in LaFe{sub 13-x}Si{sub x} system: A detailed structural and theoretical investigation provided the understanding of the role of a third element on stabilizing the structure and controlling the transformation of cubic NaZn{sub 13}-type structures to the tetragonal derivative, as well as the relationship between the structures and properties. (2) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth iron silicides RE{sub 2-x}Fe{sub 4}Si{sub 14-y} and proposed superstructure: This compound offers complex structural challenges such as fractional occupancies and their ordering in superstructure. (3) Electronic structure calculation of FeSi{sub 2}: This shows that the metal-semiconductor phase transition depends on the structure. The mechanism of band gap opening is described in terms of bonding and structural distortion. This result shows that the electronic structure calculations are an essential tool for understanding the relationship between structure and chemical bonding in these compounds. (4) Synthesis of new ternary rare-earth Zinc aluminides Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4}: Partially ordered structure of Tb{sub 3}Zn{sub 3.6}Al{sub 7.4} compound provides new insights into the formation, composition and structure of rare-earth transition-metal intermetallics. Electronic structure calculations attribute the observed composition to optimizing metal-metal bonding in the electronegative (Zn, Al) framework, while the specific ordering is strongly influenced by specific orbital interactions. (5) Synthesis of new structure type of Zn{sub 39}(Cr{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}){sub 81}: These layered structures are similar to icosahedral Mn-Al quasicrystalline

  10. Forming metal-intermetallic or metal-ceramic composites by self-propagating high-temperature reactions

    DOEpatents

    Rawers, James C.; Alman, David E.; Petty, Jr., Arthur V.

    1996-01-01

    Industrial applications of composites often require that the final product have a complex shape. In this invention intermetallic or ceramic phases are formed from sheets of unreacted elemental metals. The process described in this invention allows the final product shape be formed prior to the formation of the composite. This saves energy and allows formation of shaped articles of metal-intermetallic composites composed of brittle materials that cannot be deformed without breaking.

  11. Formation of bioorganic compounds in simulated planetary atmospheres by high energy particles or photons.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Masuda, H; Ushio, K I; Ohashi, A; Yamanashi, H; Kaneko, T; Takahashi, J I; Hosokawa, T; Hashimoto, H; Saito, T

    2001-01-01

    Various types of organic compounds have been detected in Jupiter, Titan, and cometary coma. It is probable that organic compounds were formed in primitive Earth and Mars atmospheres. Cosmic rays and solar UV are believed to be two major energy sources for organic formation in space. We examined energetics of organic formation in simulated planetary atmospheres. Gas mixtures including a C-source (carbon monoxide or methane) and a N-source (nitrogen or ammonia) was irradiated with the followings: High energy protons or electrons from accelerators, gamma-rays from 60Co, UV light from a deuterium lamp, and soft X-rays or UV light from an electron synchrotron. Amino acids were detected in the products of particles, gamma-rays and soft X-rays irradiation from each gas mixture examined. UV light gave, however, no amino acid precursors in the gas mixture of carbon monoxide, nitrogen and nitrogen. It gave only a trace of them in the gas mixture of carbon monoxide, ammonia and water or that of methane, nitrogen and water. Yield of amino acid precursors by photons greatly depended on their wavelength. These results suggest that nitrogen-containing organic compounds like amino acid precursors were formed chiefly with high energy particles, not UV photons, in Titan or primitive Earth/Mars atmospheres where ammonia is not available as a predominant N-source. PMID:11605633

  12. Formation of bioorganic compounds in simulated planetary atmospheres by high energy particles or photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kensei; Masuda, Hitomi; Ushio, Ken-ichiro; Ohashi, Akihiro; Yamanashi, Hiroto; Kaneko, Takeo; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Hosokawa, Teruo; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Saito, Takeshi

    Various types of organic compounds have been detected in Jupiter, Titan, and cometary coma. It is probable that organic compounds were formed in primitive Earth and Mars atmospheres. Cosmic rays and solar UV are believed to be two major energy sources for organic formation in space. We examined energetics of organic formation in simulated planetary atmospheres. Gas mixtures including a C-source (carbon monoxide or methane) and a N-source (nitrogen or ammonia) was irradiated with the followings: High energy protons or electrons from accelerators, gamma-rays from 60Co, UV light from a deuterium lamp, and soft X-rays or UV light from an electron synchrotron. Amino acids were detected in the products of particles, gamma-rays and soft X-rays irradiation from each gas mixture examined. UV light gave, however, no amino acid precursors in the gas mixture of carbon monoxide, nitrogen and nitrogen. It gave only a trace of them in the gas mixture of carbon monoxide, ammonia and water or that of methane, nitrogen and water. Yield of amino acid precursors by photons greatly depended on their wavelength. These results suggest that nitrogen-containing organic compounds like amino acid precursors were formed chiefly with high energy particles, not UV photons, in Titan or primitive Earth/Mars atmospheres where ammonia is not available as a predominant N-source.

  13. Ammoxidation of Lignocellulosic Materials: Formation of Nonheterocyclic Nitrogenous Compounds from Monosaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidized technical lignins are valuable soil-improving materials that share many similarities with native terrestrial humic substances. In contrast to lignins, the chemical fate of carbohydrates as typical minor constituents of technical lignins during the ammoxidation processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, we reported the formation of N-heterocyclic, ecotoxic compounds (OECD test 201) from both monosaccharides (d-glucose, d-xylose) and polysaccharides (cellulose, xylan) under ammoxidation conditions and showed that monosaccharides are a source more critical than polysaccharides in this respect. GC/MS-derivatization analysis of the crude product mixtures revealed that ammoxidation of carbohydrates which resembles the conditions encountered in nonenzymatical browning of foodstuff affords also a multitude of nonheterocyclic nitrogenous compounds such as aminosugars, glycosylamines, ammonium salts of aldonic, deoxyaldonic, oxalic and carbaminic acids, urea, acetamide, α-hydroxyamides, and even minor amounts of α-amino acids. d-Glucose and d-xylose afforded largely similar product patterns which differed from each other only for those products that were formed under preservation of the chain integrity and stereoconfiguration of the respective monosaccharide. The kinetics and reaction pathways involved in the formation of the different classes of nitrogenous compounds under ammoxidation conditions are discussed. PMID:23967905

  14. Formation of highly oxidized multifunctional compounds: Autoxidation of peroxy radicals formed in the oxidation of alkenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Thomas; Ehn, Mikael; Thornton, Joel; Kleist, Einhard; Pullinen, Iida; Springer, Monika; Wahner, Andreas; Wildt, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies show that peroxy radicals are key intermediates in particle formation. Permutation reactions involving highly oxidized peroxy radicals form stable products with extremely low volatility (ELVOC). We suggest that ELVOC are the postulated organic compounds that explain growth of small particles (Ehn et al., Nature, 2014). To elucidate the pathways of ELVOC formation, experiments were performed in the Juelich Plant Atmosphere Chamber. We applied High Resolution Nitrate-Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for detection of ELVOC including highly oxidized peroxy radicals. ELVOC were produced by ozonolysis of a-pinene and other cyclic alkenes (Rissanen et al., JACS, 2014, Mentel et al., ACPD, 2015), as well as by reactions of the target compounds with OH. ELVOC with C10 skeletons carry a large number of oxygens, still containing 14 or 16 H-atoms. ELVOC-dimers with twice the number of C-atoms of the reactant were also observed. The formation of ELVOC can be explained by fast intramolecular H-shifts in combination with classical peroxy radical termination reactions, leading to ketones, alcohols, and hydroperoxides (including peroxy acids). The subsequent H-shifts enable the formation of an increasing number of hydroperoxide groups under reproduction of a peroxy radical (containing now two more oxygens). Addition of NOX to the system increases the concentrations of nitrates at the expense of the corresponding peroxy radicals, confirming their identification as peroxy radicals. Furthermore, the concentrations of ELVOC dimers decrease strongly with increasing NOX suggesting that they are indeed formed by peroxy-peroxy permutation reactions. ELVOC are involved in new particle formation, and can explain the major fraction of the early growth observed in field studies. ELVOC dimers are very likely key in new particle formation as their formation is strongly suppressed with increasing NOX in accordance with the observed NOX dependence of new particle formation (Ehn

  15. Diet composition is associated with endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in obese men.

    PubMed

    Holtrop, Grietje; Johnstone, Alexandra M; Fyfe, Claire; Gratz, Silvia W

    2012-09-01

    Endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) occurs in the human gut. Red meat is considered the most important dietary component linked to NOC formation, although nitrate and vitamin C (VitC) also contribute. We previously showed that high-protein weight-loss diets increased fecal NOC and this was enhanced by simultaneous carbohydrate restriction. Although previous studies have focused on the effect of either 1 or 2 dietary components on endogenous NOC formation, no study to date has investigated the combined contribution of various dietary components. The current study therefore assessed the joint impact of several known dietary contributors to the endogenous formation of NOC in obese men. It also aimed to identify further novel contributors and investigate their role in explaining shifts in endogenous formation of NOC. Three dietary trials were conducted in obese men consuming body weight maintenance or weight-loss diets, with NOC measured in fecal samples. Consumption of meat-based weight-loss diets increased (P < 0.001) fecal NOC. Red meat intake was positively correlated with the fecal log NOC concentration (r = 0.60; P < 0.001). Dietary carbohydrate and sugar were negatively correlated with the fecal log NOC concentration (r = -0.66 for both; P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis identified several dietary components that drive endogenous NOC formation, namely, red meat, nitrate, VitC, total energy, and nonstarch polysaccharides. We present a regression model that predicts endogenous NOC formation in obese men based on their dietary intakes. This model could improve the estimation of endogenous NOC formation, currently used in epidemiological studies into diet and cancer. PMID:22833653

  16. The preparation of the Ti-Al alloys based on intermetallic phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosova, N.; Sachkov, V.; Kurzina, I.; Pichugina, A.; Vladimirov, A.; Kazantseva, L.; Sachkova, A.

    2016-01-01

    This article deals with a method of obtaining materials in the Ti-Al system. Research was carried out in accordance with the phase diagram of the system state. It was established, that both single-phase and multiphase systems, containing finely dispersed intermetallic compositions of phases Ti3Al, TiAl and TiAl3, are formed. Additionally, it was found that the pure finely dispersed (coherent-scattering region (CSR) up to 100 nm) intermetallic compound TiAl3 is formed at molar ratio of Ti:Al = 1:3. Experimentally proved the possibility of produce the complex composition of alloys and intermetallic compounds and products based on them.

  17. Pressure-induced bonding and compound formation in xenon-hydrogen solids

    SciTech Connect

    Somayazulu, Maddury; Dera, Przemyslaw; Goncharov, Alexander F; Gramsch, Stephen A; Liermann, Peter; Yang, Wenge; Liu, Zhenxian; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J

    2010-11-03

    Closed electron shell systems, such as hydrogen, nitrogen or group 18 elements, can form weakly bound stoichiometric compounds at high pressures. An understanding of the stability of these van der Waals compounds is lacking, as is information on the nature of their interatomic interactions. We describe the formation of a stable compound in the Xe-H{sub 2} binary system, revealed by a suite of X-ray diffraction and optical spectroscopy measurements. At 4.8 GPa, a unique hydrogen-rich structure forms that can be viewed as a tripled solid hydrogen lattice modulated by layers of xenon, consisting of xenon dimers. Varying the applied pressure tunes the Xe-Xe distances in the solid over a broad range from that of an expanded xenon lattice to the distances observed in metallic xenon at megabar pressures. Infrared and Raman spectra indicate a weakening of the intramolecular covalent bond as well as persistence of semiconducting behaviour in the compound to at least 255 GPa.

  18. Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Gómez, María; Fonseca, Sonia; Lorenzo, José M

    2014-06-01

    The influence of four different cooking methods (roasting, grilling, microwaving and frying) on cooking loss, lipid oxidation and volatile profile of foal meat was studied. Cooking loss were significantly (P<0.001) affected by thermal treatment, being higher (32.5%) after microwaving and lower after grilling (22.5%) and frying (23.8%). As expected, all the cooking methods increased TBARs content, since high temperature during cooking causes increased oxidation in foal steaks, this increase was significantly (P<0.001) higher when foal steaks were microwaved or roasted. The four different cooking methods led to increased total volatile compounds (between 366.7 and 633.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter) compared to raw steaks (216.4AU×10(6)/g dry matter). The roasted steaks showed the highest volatile content, indicating that increased cooking temperature increases the formation of volatile compounds. Aldehydes were the most abundant compounds in cooked samples, with amounts of 217.2, 364.5, 283.5 and 409.1AU×10(6)/g dry matter in grilled, microwaved, fried and roasted samples, respectively, whereas esters were the most abundant compounds in raw samples, with mean amounts of 98.8AU×10(6)/g dry matter. PMID:24583332

  19. [Chlorination byproducts formation potentials of typical nitrogenous organic compounds in water].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Xu, Bin; Qin, Cao; Xia, Sheng-Ji; Gao, Nai-Yun; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Li, Da-Peng

    2011-07-01

    Twelve typical nitrogenous organic compounds including herbicides, pesticides, amino acids, industrial products etc in polluted raw water were selected to investigate formation of typical carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs during chlorination and chloramination. To indentify the formation mechanism of carbonaceous and nitrogenous disinfection byproducts from nitrogenous chemicals, chlorination and chloroamination of urea herbicides, triazine herbicides, amino acid, and other compounds were investigated. As a result, the potential precursors for different DBPs were defined as well. It has been identified that widely used urea herbicides could produce as many as 9 specific DBPs. The chlorotoluron shows highest reactivity and yields chloroform (CF), monochloroacetic acid (MCAA), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA), 1,1-dichloro-acetone (1,1-DCP), 1,1,1-trichloro-acetone (1,1,1-TCP), chloropicrin (NTCM), dichloro-acetonitrile (DCAN), dimethylnitrosamine (NDMA). The results indicated that aldicarb and dinoseb are important precursors of CF, DCAA, MCAA, NTCM as well. High concentrations of CF and DCAA were found during L-tryptophan chlorination. Furthermore, DBPs formation pathways and mechanisms were suggested during chlorination and chloramination of chlorotoluron, ametryn, dinoseb L-tryptophan. PMID:21922816

  20. Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis of thiadiamondoids of oils from the Smackover Formation, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zvi Gvirtzman; Ward Said-Ahmad; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ronald J. Hill; J. Michael Moldowan; Zhibin Wei; Alon Amrani

    2015-01-01

    Thiadiamondoids (TDs) are diamond-like compounds with a sulfide bond located within the cage structure. These compounds were suggested as a molecular proxy for the occurrence and extent of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Compound-specific sulfur-isotope analysis of TDs may create a multi-parameter system, based on molecular and δ34S values that may be sensitive over a wider range of TSR and thermal maturation stages. In this study, we analyzed a suite of 12 Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples generated from source rocks in the Smackover Formation to perform a systematic study of the sulfur isotope distribution in thiadiamondoids (one and two cages). For comparison we measured the δ34S composition of benzothiophenes (BTs) and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs). We also conducted pyrolysis experiments with petroleum and model compounds to have an insight into the formation mechanisms of TDs. The δ34S of the TDs varied significantly (ca 30‰) between the different oils depending on the degree of TSR alteration. The results showed that within the same oil, the one-cage TDs were relatively uniform, with 34S enriched values similar to those of the coexisting BTs. The two-cage TDs had more variable δ34S values that range from the δ34S values of BTs to those of the DBTs, but with general 34S depletion relative to one cage TDs. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments (360 °C, 40 h) with either CaSO4 or elemental S (equivalent S molar concentrations) and adamantane as a model compound demonstrate the formation of one cage TDs in relatively low yields (<0.2%). Higher concentrations of TDs were observed in the elemental sulfur experiments, most likely because of the higher rates of reaction with adamantane under these experimental conditions. These results show that the formation of TDs is not exclusive to TSR reactions, and that they can also form by reaction with reduced S species apart from sulfate reduction, though at low yields. Oxygenated compounds, most notably 2

  1. Compound-specific sulfur isotope analysis of thiadiamondoids of oils from the Smackover Formation, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Zvi; Said-Ahmad, Ward; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Hill, Ronald J.; Moldowan, J. Michael; Wei, Zhibin; Amrani, Alon

    2015-10-01

    Thiadiamondoids (TDs) are diamond-like compounds with a sulfide bond located within the cage structure. These compounds were suggested as a molecular proxy for the occurrence and extent of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). Compound-specific sulfur-isotope analysis of TDs may create a multi-parameter system, based on molecular and δ34S values that may be sensitive over a wider range of TSR and thermal maturation stages. In this study, we analyzed a suite of 12 Upper Jurassic oil and condensate samples generated from source rocks in the Smackover Formation to perform a systematic study of the sulfur isotope distribution in thiadiamondoids (one and two cages). For comparison we measured the δ34S composition of benzothiophenes (BTs) and dibenzothiophenes (DBTs). We also conducted pyrolysis experiments with petroleum and model compounds to have an insight into the formation mechanisms of TDs. The δ34S of the TDs varied significantly (ca 30‰) between the different oils depending on the degree of TSR alteration. The results showed that within the same oil, the one-cage TDs were relatively uniform, with 34S enriched values similar to those of the coexisting BTs. The two-cage TDs had more variable δ34S values that range from the δ34S values of BTs to those of the DBTs, but with general 34S depletion relative to one cage TDs. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments (360 °C, 40 h) with either CaSO4 or elemental S (equivalent S molar concentrations) and adamantane as a model compound demonstrate the formation of one cage TDs in relatively low yields (<0.2%). Higher concentrations of TDs were observed in the elemental sulfur experiments, most likely because of the higher rates of reaction with adamantane under these experimental conditions. These results show that the formation of TDs is not exclusive to TSR reactions, and that they can also form by reaction with reduced S species apart from sulfate reduction, though at low yields. Oxygenated compounds, most notably 2

  2. Experimental and theoretical studies on formation and degradation of chloro organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Cysewski, Piotr; Gackowska, Alicja; Gaca, Jerzy

    2006-03-01

    Studies on oxidation of tert-butyl ethers in the presence of chloride ions proved that acid medium favoured formation of chloro organic compounds. 1,2-Dichloro-2-methylpropane, 3-chloro-2-chloromethylpropene were identified among the reaction products. Presence of these compounds was identified both in the case when methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE) were subjected to reaction. Reaction products were analysed by gas chromatography method with application of -FID, -MS and -AED detectors. On the basis of experimental data, the path of tert-butyl ethers conversion to dichloro products was proposed. It was found that the identified chloro derivatives could be formed both by ionic and radical reactions. In order to confirm this thesis for the proposed scheme of reaction, the theoretical calculations of molecular simulation of the reaction paths were performed. PMID:16146644

  3. Salt lakes of Western Australia - Natural abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Mulder, I.; Tubbesing, C.; Kotte, K.; Ofner, J.; Junkermann, W.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many ephemeral saline and hypersaline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters that have gradually changed over the last fifty years. Historically, the region was covered by eucalyptus trees and shrubs, but was cleared mainly within 10 years after WWII to make room for wheat and live stock. After the clearance of the deep rooted native plants the groundwater started to rise, bringing increased amounts of dissolved salts and minerals to the surface and discharging them into streams and lakes. Thus most of Western Australia is influenced by secondary salinisation (soil salting) [1]. Another problem is that the discharged minerals affect the pH of ground and surface water, which ranges from acidic to slightly basic. During the 2011 campaign surface water was measured with a pH between 2.5 and 7.1. Another phenomenon in Western Australia is the decrease of rainfall over the last decades assumed to be linked to the secondary salinisation. The rising saline and mineral rich groundwater increases the biotical and abiotical activity of the salt lakes. Halogenated and non-halogenated volatile organic compounds emitted from those lakes undergo fast oxidation and chemical reactions to form small particles modifying cloud microphysics and thus suppressing rain events [2]. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of this extreme environment with its hypersaline acidic lakes with regard to the potential abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds and its impact on the local climate. In spring 2011 fifty-three sediment samples from ten salt lakes in the Lake King region where taken, freeze-dried and ground. In order to simulate the abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds the soil samples were resuspended with water in gas-tight headspace vials. The headspace was measured using a purge and trap GC

  4. Fracture toughness of Cu-Sn intermetallic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrisnan, B.; Chum, C. C.; Li, M.; Chen, Z.; Cahyadi, T.

    2003-03-01

    Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) are formed as a result of interaction between solder and metallization to form joints in electronic packaging. These joints provide mechanical and electrical contacts between components. The knowledge of fracture strength of the IMCs will facilitate predicting the overall joint property, as it is more disposed to failure at the joint compared to the solder because of its brittle characteristics. The salient feature of this paper is the measurement of the fracture toughness and the critical energy-release rate of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 intermetallic thin films, which is the result of the interaction between Sn from the solder and Cu from the metallization. To achieve the objective, a controlled buckling test was used. A buckling test in the current work refers to one that displays large transverse displacement caused by axial compressive loading on a slender beam. The stress and strain along the beam can be easily calculated by the applied displacement. Fracture-toughness values of Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 are 2.85 MPa √m ± 0.17 MPa √m and 2.36 MPa √m ± 0.15 MPa √m, respectively. Corresponding critical energy-release rate values are 65.5 J/m2 ± 8.0 J/m2 and 55.9 J/m2 ± 7.3 J/m2, respectively. The values obtained were much higher than the ones measured in bulk intermetallic samples but correlated well with those values obtained from conventional fracture-toughness specimens when fracture was confined within the intermetallic layers. Hence, the controlled buckling test is a promising fast and effective way to elucidate mechanical properties of thin films.

  5. Regioselective Synthesis of N-Heteroaromatic Trifluoromethoxy Compounds by Direct O-CF3 Bond Formation.

    PubMed

    Liang, Apeng; Han, Shuaijun; Liu, Zhenwei; Wang, Liang; Li, Jingya; Zou, Dapeng; Wu, Yangjie; Wu, Yusheng

    2016-04-01

    The first one-step method for the synthesis of ortho-N-heteroaromatic trifluoromethoxy derivatives by site-specific O-CF3 bond formation using hydroxylated N-heterocycles and Togni's reagent is described. The approach enables the unprecedented syntheses of a wide range of six or five-membered N-heteroaromatic trifluoromethoxy compounds containing one or two heteroatoms from most commonly used hydroxylated N-heterocycles. Notable advantages of this method include its simplicity and mild conditions, avoidance of the need for metals or toxic reagents, and compatibility with a variety of functional groups. Furthermore, this method is especially suitable for the larger scale application. PMID:26791812

  6. Formation Energy of Disordered Alloys form the Energetics of Ordered Compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amador, Carlos; Bozzolo, Guillermo

    1994-01-01

    The cluster expansion technique is used in combination with first-principles calculations of the total energy of ordered compounds to study the energetics of the disordered phase for a number of alloy systems. The effect of short-range order, as seen in the energy differences between an alloy with the configuration corresponding to finite temperature and the perfectly random one is studied. The role of relaxation due to large size mismatch is discussed in terms of an effective cluster volume approximation. Very good agreement with measured energies of formation is obtained when short-range order and relaxation effects are taken into account.

  7. Defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound

    SciTech Connect

    Feenstra, R.; Pennycook, S.J.; Chisholm, M.F.

    1996-02-01

    The correlation between defect formation and carrier doping in epitaxial films of the infinite layer compound SrCuO{sub 2} has been studied via molecular beam epitaxy controlled layer-by-layer growth experiments, chemically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy, x-ray diffraction, electrical transport measurements, and post-growth oxidation-reduction annealing. Based on the complementary information provided by these experiments, it is concluded that the carrier doping is dominated by the formation of an electron-doped, Sr and O deficient matrix under mildly oxidizing growth conditions. Hole-doping is induced by extended defects containing excess Sr atoms and may lead to superconductivity after high-temperature oxidation.

  8. Target-seeking antifibrotic compound enhances wound healing and suppresses scar formation in mice.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-12-14

    Permanent scars form upon healing of tissue injuries such as those caused by ischemia (myocardial infarction, stroke), trauma, surgery, and inflammation. Current options in reducing scar formation are limited to local intervention. We have designed a systemically administered, target-seeking biotherapeutic for scar prevention. It consists of a vascular targeting peptide that specifically recognizes angiogenic blood vessels and extravasates into sites of injury, fused with a therapeutic molecule, decorin. Decorin prevents tissue fibrosis and promotes tissue regeneration by inhibiting TGF-β activity and by other regulatory activities. The decorin-targeting peptide fusion protein had substantially increased neutralizing activity against TGF-β1 in vitro compared with untargeted decorin. In vivo, the fusion protein selectively accumulated in wounds, and promoted wound healing and suppressed scar formation at doses where nontargeted decorin was inactive. These results show that selective targeting yields a tissue-healing and scar-reducing compound with enhanced specificity and potency. This approach may help make reducing scar formation by systemic drug delivery a feasible option for surgery and for the treatment of pathological processes in which scar formation is a problem. PMID:21106754

  9. Environmental Effects in Advanced Intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.

    1998-11-24

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of environmental embrittlement in iron and nickel aluminizes. The embrittlement involves the interaction of these intermetallics with moisture in air and generation of atomic hydrogen, resulting in hydrogen-induced embrittlement at ambient temperatures. Environmental embrittlement promotes brittle grain-boundary fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys but brittle cleavage fracture in Fe{sub 3}Al-FeAl alloys. The embrittlement strongly depends on strain rate, with tensile-ductility increase with increasing strain rate. It has been demonstrated that environmental embrittlement can be alleviated by alloying additions, surface modifications, and control of grain size and shape. Boron tends to segregate strongly to grain boundaries and is most effective in suppressing environmental embrittlement in Ni{sub 3}Al alloys. The mechanistic understanding of alloy effects and environmental embrittlement has led to the development of nickel and iron aluminide alloys with improved properties for structural use at elevated temperatures in hostile environments.

  10. Theoretical investigation of N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from dimethylamine nitrosation catalyzed by carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chun-Lin; Liu, Yong Dong; Zhong, Ru-Gang

    2009-01-29

    The carbonyl-compound-catalyzed nitrosation of amines to form carcinogenic nitrosamines under nonacidic condition is different from the classic nitrosation via acidification of nitrite anion. The mechanistic pathways of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation by the reactions of dimethylamine (DMA) with the nitrite anion catalyzed by carbonyl compounds have been investigated using the DFT/B3LYP method at the 6-311+G(d,p) level. The computational results show that the energy barriers of the nucleophilic addition reaction, which were calculated as 27-40 kcal/mol, increase significantly with methylation but vary slightly with chloromethylation on the carbonyl group. Comparison of energy barriers of this nucleophilic addition reaction and the electrophilic substitution reaction indicates that the former is the rate-determining step, from which the order of the catalytic activity is obtained as formaldehyde > chloral > acetaldehyde > acetone. Furthermore, analysis of electronic and steric effects on catalytic activity reveals that electron-withdrawing substituents decrease the energy barrier but electron-donating substituents and steric hindrance will block this catalytic reaction. Based on this discovery, fluoral is proposed as a good catalyst for the nitrosation of DMA by nitrite anion, which has a calculated energy barrier of about 26 kcal/mol. The results obtained in this work will help elucidate the mechanisms of formation of nitrosamines. PMID:19119806

  11. Organic nitrate aerosol formation via NO3 + biogenic volatile organic compounds in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, B. R.; Allen, H. M.; Draper, D. C.; Brown, S. S.; Wild, R. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Day, D. A.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Hu, W.; de Gouw, J.; Koss, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Duffey, K. C.; Romer, P.; Baumann, K.; Edgerton, E.; Takahama, S.; Thornton, J. A.; Lee, B. H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F. D.; Mohr, C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Nguyen, T. B.; Teng, A.; Goldstein, A. H.; Olson, K.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Gas- and aerosol-phase measurements of oxidants, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and organic nitrates made during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS campaign, Summer 2013) in central Alabama show that a nitrate radical (NO3) reaction with monoterpenes leads to significant secondary aerosol formation. Cumulative losses of NO3 to terpenes are correlated with increase in gas- and aerosol-organic nitrate concentrations made during the campaign. Correlation of NO3 radical consumption to organic nitrate aerosol formation as measured by aerosol mass spectrometry and thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence suggests a molar yield of aerosol-phase monoterpene nitrates of 23-44 %. Compounds observed via chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) are correlated to predicted nitrate loss to BVOCs and show C10H17NO5, likely a hydroperoxy nitrate, is a major nitrate-oxidized terpene product being incorporated into aerosols. The comparable isoprene product C5H9NO5 was observed to contribute less than 1 % of the total organic nitrate in the aerosol phase and correlations show that it is principally a gas-phase product from nitrate oxidation of isoprene. Organic nitrates comprise between 30 and 45 % of the NOy budget during SOAS. Inorganic nitrates were also monitored and showed that during incidents of increased coarse-mode mineral dust, HNO3 uptake produced nitrate aerosol mass loading at a rate comparable to that of organic nitrate produced via NO3 + BVOCs.

  12. Effect of plant phenolic compounds on biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Plyuta, Vladimir; Zaitseva, Julia; Lobakova, Elena; Zagoskina, Natalia; Kuznetsov, Alexander; Khmel, Inessa

    2013-11-01

    In the natural environment, bacteria predominantly exist in matrix-enclosed multicellular communities associated with various surfaces, referred to as biofilms. Bacteria in biofilms are extremely resistant to antibacterial agents thus causing serious problems for antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we showed that different plant phenolic compounds, at concentrations that did not or weakly suppressed bacterial growth, increased the capacity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 to form biofilms. Biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa PAO1 was enhanced 3- to 7-fold under the action of vanillin and epicatechin, and 2- to 2.5-fold in the presence of 4-hydroxybenzoic, gallic, cinnamic, sinapic, ferulic, and chlorogenic acids. At higher concentrations, these compounds displayed an inhibiting effect. Similar experiments carried out for comparison with Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 showed the same pattern. Vanillin, 4-hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids at concentrations within the range of 40 to 400 μg/mL increased the production of N-3-oxo-dodecanoyl-homoserine lactone in P. aeruginosa PAO1 which suggests a possible relationship between stimulation of biofilm formation and Las Quorum Sensing system of this bacterium. Using biosensors to detect N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHL), we demonstrated that the plant phenolics studied did not mimic AHLs. PMID:23594262

  13. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, Kevin; Tiegs, Terry N.; Becher, Paul F.

    1999-01-01

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite.

  14. Method of making sintered ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composites

    DOEpatents

    Plucknett, K.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.

    1999-05-18

    A method of making an intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite involves combining a particulate brittle intermetallic precursor with a particulate reactant metal and a particulate ceramic to form a mixture and heating the mixture in a non-oxidizing atmosphere at a sufficient temperature and for a sufficient time to react the brittle intermetallic precursor and the reactant metal to form a ductile intermetallic and sinter the mixture to form a ductile intermetallic-bonded ceramic composite. 2 figs.

  15. Volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds in suburban Paris: variability, origin and importance for SOA formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Helal, W.; Borbon, A.; Sauvage, S.; de Gouw, J. A.; Colomb, A.; Gros, V.; Freutel, F.; Crippa, M.; Afif, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Beekmann, M.; Doussin, J.-F.; Durand-Jolibois, R.; Fronval, I.; Grand, N.; Leonardis, T.; Lopez, M.; Michoud, V.; Miet, K.; Perrier, S.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Schneider, J.; Siour, G.; Zapf, P.; Locoge, N.

    2014-10-01

    Measurements of gaseous and particulate organic carbon were performed during the MEGAPOLI experiments, in July 2009 and January-February 2010, at the SIRTA observatory in suburban Paris. Measurements comprise primary and secondary volatile organic compounds (VOCs), of both anthropogenic and biogenic origins, including C12-C16 n-alkanes of intermediate volatility (IVOCs), suspected to be efficient precursors of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). The time series of gaseous carbon are generally consistent with times series of particulate organic carbon at regional scale, and are clearly affected by meteorology and air mass origin. Concentration levels of anthropogenic VOCs in urban and suburban Paris were surprisingly low (2-963 ppt) compared to other megacities worldwide and to rural continental sites. Urban enhancement ratios of anthropogenic VOC pairs agree well between the urban and suburban Paris sites, showing the regional extent of anthropogenic sources of similar composition. Contrary to other primary anthropogenic VOCs (aromatics and alkanes), IVOCs showed lower concentrations in winter (< 5 ppt) compared to summer (13-27 ppt), which cannot be explained by the gas-particle partitioning theory. Higher concentrations of most oxygenated VOCs in winter (18-5984 ppt) suggest their dominant primary anthropogenic origin. The respective role of primary anthropogenic gaseous compounds in regional SOA formation was investigated by estimating the SOA mass concentration expected from the anthropogenic VOCs and IVOCs (I / VOCs) measured at SIRTA. From an integrated approach based on emission ratios and SOA yields, 38 % of the SOA measured at SIRTA is explained by the measured concentrations of I / VOCs, with a 2% contribution by C12-C16 n-alkane IVOCs. From the results of an alternative time-resolved approach, the average IVOC contribution to SOA formation is estimated to be 7%, which is half of the average contribution of the traditional aromatic compounds (15%). Both

  16. Compound paleovalley fills in the Lower Pennsylvanian New River Formation, West Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korus, Jesse T.; Kvale, Erik P.; Eriksson, Kenneth A.; Joeckel, R. M.

    2008-07-01

    Ancient paleovalley fills are typically interpreted in the rock record using over-generalized models without carefully considering modern analogs, especially in light of recent discoveries. It is now known that many Quaternary paleovalleys are compound in origin, exhibit considerable stratigraphic complexity, contain multiple incisions, and can be orders of magnitude larger than their putative ancient counterparts. Compound paleovalley fills in the Lower Pennsylvanian New River Formation (NRF) are directly comparable to these Quaternary analogs, stimulating a paradigm shift in the interpretation of ancient paleovalleys. In the NRF, multiple laterally- and vertically-juxtaposed fill successions, separated by incision surfaces, record high-frequency fluvial responses to external controls within lower-order sequences. Lowstand incision and sediment bypass, as predicted in sequence stratigraphy, is largely discounted by the available evidence and the definition of regional sequence boundaries is not straightforward. The identification of genetic sequences may be the most effective approach to understanding the NRF and, by inference, many other ancient paleovalleys. Results from this study of the NRF promote a revised model for ancient paleovalleys that incorporates: 1) the pre-eminence of compound architecture, 2) periodic episodes of incision and subaerial exposure occurring in response to high-frequency changes in climate or relative sea level, 3) fluvial downcutting as the primary cause of paleovalley incision, although some sediments are still preserved in a net-erosional regime, and 4) composite, time-transgressive sequence boundaries that may be difficult or impossible to correlate regionally.

  17. Systematic assessment of scaffold hopping versus activity cliff formation across bioactive compound classes following a molecular hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    Scaffold hopping and activity cliff formation define opposite ends of the activity landscape feature spectrum. To rationalize these events at the level of scaffolds, active compounds involved in scaffold hopping were required to contain topologically distinct scaffolds but have only limited differences in potency, whereas compounds involved in activity cliffs were required to share the same scaffold but have large differences in potency. A systematic search was carried out for compounds involved in scaffold hopping and/or activity cliff formation. Results obtained for compound data sets covering more than 300 human targets revealed clear trends. If scaffolds represented multiple but fewer than 10 active compounds, nearly 90% of all scaffolds were exclusively involved in hopping events. With increasing compound coverage, the fraction of scaffolds involved in both scaffold hopping and activity cliff formation significantly increased to more than 50%. However, ∼40% of the scaffolds representing large numbers of active compounds continued to be exclusively involved in scaffold hopping. More than 200 scaffolds with broad target coverage were identified that consistently represented potent compounds and yielded an abundance of scaffold hops in the low-nanomolar range. These and other subsets of scaffolds we characterized are of prime interest for structure-activity relationship (SAR) exploration and compound design. Therefore, the complete scaffold classification generated in the course of our analysis is made freely available. PMID:25982076

  18. Hybrid density functional calculations of redox potentials and formation energies of transition metal compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevrier, V. L.; Ong, S. P.; Armiento, R.; Chan, M. K. Y.; Ceder, G.

    2010-08-01

    We compare the accuracy of conventional semilocal density functional theory (DFT), the DFT+U method, and the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06) hybrid functional for structural parameters, redox reaction energies, and formation energies of transition metal compounds. Conventional DFT functionals significantly underestimate redox potentials for these compounds. Zhou [Phys. Rev. B 70, 235121 (2004)]10.1103/PhysRevB.70.235121 addressed this issue with DFT+U and a linear-response scheme for calculating U values. We show that the Li intercalation potentials of prominent Li-ion intercalation battery materials, such as the layered LixMO2 ( M=Co and Ni), LixTiS2 ; olivine LixMPO4 ( M=Mn , Fe, Co, and Ni); and spinel-like LixMn2O4 , LixTi2O4 , are also well reproduced by HSE06, due to the self-interaction error correction from the partial inclusion of Hartree-Fock exchange. For formation energies, HSE06 performs well for transition metal compounds, which typically are not well reproduced by conventional DFT functionals but does not significantly improve the results of nontransition metal oxides. Hence, we find that hybrid functionals provide a good alternative to DFT+U for transition metal applications when the large extra computational effort is compensated by the benefits of (i) avoiding species-specific adjustable parameters and (ii) a more universal treatment of the self-interaction error that is not exclusive to specific atomic orbital projections on selected ions.

  19. Optimization of an Escherichia coli formate dehydrogenase assay for selenium compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Tschursin, E; Wolf, W R; Lacroix, D; Veillon, C; Patterson, K Y

    1994-01-01

    A microbiological assay to detect different chemical compounds of selenium for potential future use in the study of the distribution of these chemical forms in foods is being developed. This assay is based on the detection, by infrared analysis, of CO2 in a culture of Escherichia coli when the bacteria are grown in the presence of various selenium compounds. The CO2 production is the result of selenium-dependent formate dehydrogenase activity, which catalyzes oxidation of formic acid produced during glucose metabolism. Smooth response curves were generated over several orders of magnitude for selenocystine, selenite, and selenomethionine. The assay detects selenium concentrations (above background) as low as 1.5 nM for selenocystine and selenite and 4 nM for selenomethionine in minimal medium. Detection of selenomethionine was enhanced (to a sensitivity of 1.5 nM) by the addition of methionine to minimal medium and was enhanced even further (to a sensitivity of 0.8 nM) by the addition of a defined mixture of amino acids. Selenomethionine could be assayed in the presence of an amino acid concentration which is proportional to the amino acid/elemental selenium ratio found in a wheat gluten reference material (NIST SRM 8418). This implies that the assay can detect selenium compounds in a variety of foods at low concentrations, avoiding the background CO2 production caused by high concentrations of non-selenium-containing amino acids. The observation that methionine enhanced selenomethionine availability for formate dehydrogenase synthesis supports studies in animals demonstrating that methionine controls selenomethionine incorporation into selenoenzymes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7811071

  20. Ab Initio Study of Binary and Ternary Nb3(X,Y) A15 Intermetallic Phases (X,Y = Al, Ge, Si, Sn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Utton, Claire; Scott, Andrew; Tsakiropoulos, Panos

    2015-02-01

    Elastic and thermodynamic properties of binary and ternary A15 phases containing Al, Ge, Si, and Sn were studied using the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave method based on density functional theory. The temperature dependence of the enthalpy of formation for the A15 intermetallics is reported using the quasiharmonic approximation. Elastic properties of the studied compounds were calculated at T = 0 K and were in agreement with the measured values reported in the literature. The elastic properties and thermodynamic data for the metastable A15-Nb3Si are reported for the first time. The Nb3Si has the highest bulk, shear, and Young's modulus values and is predicted to be less ductile than the other three binary A15 intermetallics. The calculations suggest (i) that Al and Sn have a positive effect on the ductility of the A15 compounds of this study, (ii) that Ge as a ternary addition has a ductilizing effect only in the A15-Nb3Si, and (iii) that Si as a ternary addition has a negative effect on the ductility of all the A15 compounds of the present study. The linear thermal expansion coefficients of the Nb, Al, the A15 Nb3Al, Nb3Ge, Nb3Sn, and Nb3Si (A15) phases are reported. The Sn and Al additions in the Nb3Si stabilize the A15 structure, while the Ge addition has the opposite effect, stabilizing the tP32 Nb3Si.

  1. Electronic packing frustration in complex intermetallic structures: the role of chemical pressure in Ca2Ag7.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Daniel C

    2011-07-01

    The assignment of distinct roles to electronics and sterics has a long history in our rationalization of chemical phenomena. Exploratory synthesis in the field of intermetallic compounds challenges this dichotomy with a growing list of phases whose structural chemistry points to an interplay between atomic size effects and orbital interactions. In this paper, we begin with a simple model for how this interdependence may arise in the dense atomic packing of intermetallics: correlations between interatomic distances lead to the inability of a phase to optimize bonds without simultaneously shortening electronically under-supported contacts, a conflict we term electronic packing frustration (EPF). An anticipated consequence of this frustration is the emergence of chemical pressures (CPs) acting on the affected atoms. We develop a theoretical method based on DFT-calibrated μ(2)-Hückel calculations for probing these CP effects. Applying this method to the Ca(2)Ag(7) structure, a variant of the CaCu(5) type with defect planes, reveals its formation is EPF-driven. The defect planes resolve severe CPs surrounding the Ca atoms in a hypothetical CaCu(5)-type CaAg(5) phase. CP analysis also points to a rationale for these results in terms of a CP analogue of the pressure-distance paradox and predicts that the impetus for defect plane insertion is tunable via variations in the electron count. PMID:21619054

  2. Incremental Reactivity Effects of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds on Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kacarab, M.; Li, L.; Carter, W. P. L.; Cocker, D. R., III

    2015-12-01

    Two surrogate reactive organic gas (ROG) mixtures were developed to create a controlled reactivity environment simulating different urban atmospheres with varying levels of anthropogenic (e.g. Los Angeles reactivity) and biogenic (e.g. Atlanta reactivity) influences. Traditional chamber experiments focus on the oxidation of one or two volatile organic compound (VOC) precursors, allowing the reactivity of the system to be dictated by those compounds. Surrogate ROG mixtures control the overall reactivity of the system, allowing for the incremental aerosol formation from an added VOC to be observed. The surrogate ROG mixtures were developed based on that used to determine maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scales for O3 formation from VOC precursors in a Los Angeles smog environment. Environmental chamber experiments were designed to highlight the incremental aerosol formation in the simulated environment due to the addition of an added anthropogenic (aromatic) or biogenic (terpene) VOC. All experiments were conducted in the UC Riverside/CE-CERT dual 90m3 environmental chambers. It was found that the aerosol precursors behaved differently under the two altered reactivity conditions, with more incremental aerosol being formed in the anthropogenic ROG system than in the biogenic ROG system. Further, the biogenic reactivity condition inhibited the oxidation of added anthropogenic aerosol precursors, such as m-xylene. Data will be presented on aerosol properties (density, volatility, hygroscopicity) and bulk chemical composition in the gas and particle phases (from a SYFT Technologies selected ion flow tube mass spectrometer, SIFT-MS, and Aerodyne high resolution time of flight aerosol mass spectrometer, HR-ToF-AMS, respectively) comparing the two controlled reactivity systems and single precursor VOC/NOx studies. Incremental aerosol yield data at different controlled reactivities provide a novel and valuable insight in the attempt to extrapolate environmental chamber

  3. Intermetallic NaAu2 as a heterogeneous catalyst for low-temperature CO oxidation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Chaoxian; Wang, Lin-Lin; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V; Smetana, Volodymyr; Walen, Holly; Thiel, Patricia A; Miller, Gordon J; Johnson, Duane D; Huang, Wenyu

    2013-07-01

    The enhanced stability and modified electronic structure of intermetallic compounds provide discovery of superior catalysts for chemical conversions with high activity, selectivity, and stability. We find that the intermetallic NaAu2 is an active catalyst for CO oxidation at low temperatures. From density functional theory calculations, a reaction mechanism is suggested to explain the observed low reaction barrier of CO oxidation by NaAu2, in which a CO molecule reacts directly with an adsorbed O2 to form an OOCO* intermediate. The presence of surface Na increases the binding energy of O2 and decreases the energy barrier of the transition states. PMID:23758405

  4. Cloud processing of organic compounds: Secondary organic aerosol and nitrosamine formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchings, James W., III

    Cloud processing of atmospheric organic compounds has been investigated through field studies, laboratory experiments, and numerical modeling. Observational cloud chemistry studies were performed in northern Arizona and fog studies in central Pennsylvania. At both locations, the cloud and fogs showed low acidity due to neutralization by soil dust components (Arizona) and ammonia (Pennsylvania). The field observations showed substantial concentrations (20-5500 ng•L -1) of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the cloud droplets. The potential generation of secondary organic aerosol mass through the processing of these anthropogenic VOCs was investigated through laboratory and modeling studies. Under simulated atmospheric conditions, in idealized solutions, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) degraded quickly in the aqueous phase with half lives of approximately three hours. The degradation process yielded less volatile products which would contribute to new aerosol mass upon cloud evaporation. However, when realistic cloud solutions containing natural organic matter were used in the experiments, the reaction kinetics decreased with increasing organic carbon content, resulting in half lives of approximately 7 hours. The secondary organic aerosol (SUA) mass formation potential of cloud processing of BTEX was evaluated. SOA mass formation by cloud processing of BTEX, while strongly dependent on the atmospheric conditions, could contribute up to 9% of the ambient atmospheric aerosol mass, although typically ˜1% appears realistic. Field observations also showed the occurrence of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, in fogs and clouds (100-340 ng•L -1). Laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the formation of NDMA from nitrous acid and dimethylamine in the homogeneous aqueous phase within cloud droplets. While NDMA was produced in the cloud droplets, the low yields (<1%) observed could not explain observational concentrations

  5. Wear Behavior and Mechanism of Fe-Al Intermetallic Coating Prepared by Hot-Dip Aluminizing and Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, J. Q.; Chen, K. M.; Mo, J. G.; Cui, X. H.; Wang, S. Q.

    2016-05-01

    A Fe-Al intermetallic compound coating was prepared on AISI H13 steel by hot-dip aluminizing and subsequent high-temperature diffusion. Dry sliding wear tests of the Fe-Al intermetallic coating were performed at 298 K to 873 K (25 °C to 600 °C). The wear behavior of the Fe-Al intermetallic coating was noticed to vary markedly with the temperature and load. At 298 K (25 °C), the wear rate rapidly increased with an increase of the load. As the temperature was elevated, the wear rate dramatically decreased except for the cases under 300 N at 473 K and 673 K (200 °C and 400 °C). The Fe-Al intermetallic coating possessed an excellent elevated-temperature wear performance, especially at 673 K to 873 K (400 °C to 600 °C), but worse room-temperature one, which were noticed to be attributed to the existence and inexistence of thin tribo-oxide layers, respectively. Such a thin tribo-oxide layer was considered to provide a protection for the intermetallic compound. When the tribo-oxide layer did not form at room temperature or the formed one was massively delaminated above the critical load at elevated temperatures, Fe-Al intermetallic coating possessed poor wear resistance.

  6. Sucuk and pastırma: microbiological changes and formation of volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Kaban, Güzin

    2013-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in traditional foods in Turkey like other countries. Sucuk, dry-fermented sausage, and pastırma, a type of dry-cured meat product, are traditional Turkish meat products that are widely consumed. Sucuk is air-dried and neither smoked nor ripened by mold. In spite of increasing use of starter culture in production of sucuk in the industry, traditionally produced sucuk is generally preferred by the consumers because of its sensory characteristics. Pastırma is traditionally processed under natural conditions where air temperature and relative humidity depend on climate and weather conditions. Pastırma differs from other raw cured meat products made from whole pieces of meat in terms of manufacturing process, ingredients, microbial properties and flavor. In this study, microbiological changes and formation of volatile compounds in sucuk and pastırma were reviewed. PMID:23608196

  7. Formation, characterization and computational studies of mono- and dinuclear rhenium(I) chromone compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebinumoliseh, Ifeoma; Booysen, Irvin Noel; Akerman, Matthew Piers; Xulu, Bheki

    2016-11-01

    Herein, we report the formation and characterization of a novel dinuclear rhenium(I) compound, fac-(Re(CO)3Br)2(μ-chret) (1) [chret = N, N'-bis(2-amino-3-imino)methylenechromone-1,2-ethane] and a mononuclear metal complex, fac-[Re(CO)3(bzch)Br] (2) [bzch = 2-benzimidazole-4H-chromen-4-one]. The metal complexes were characterized by 1H NMR-, IR-, UV-Vis, melting point and conductivity measurements. The solid-state structures for 1 and 2 were confirmed via single crystal X-ray analysis. X-ray studies of 2 revealed the transformation of the chb diimine into the bzch chelator (in 2). The simulated IR spectra for the respective metal complexes provided insight in the interpretation of their corresponding experimental spectra.

  8. Formation of Heavy Compound Nuclei, Their Survival and Correlation with Longtime-Scale Fission

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A.; Yakushev, A.-B.

    2007-05-22

    Fusion of two massive nuclei with formation of super-heavy compound nucleus (CN) is driven by the potential energy gradient, as follows from the analysis of nuclear reaction cross-sections. The conservative energy of the system is deduced in simple approximation using regularized nuclear mass and interaction barrier values. Different reaction for the synthesis of Zc (110-118) nuclei are compared and the favourable conditions are found for fusion of the stable (W-Pt) isotopes with radioactive fission fragment projectiles, like 94Kr or 100Sr. Thus, the cold fusion method can be extended for a synthesis of elements with Z > 113. Survival of the evaporation residue is defined by the neutron-to-fission probability ratio and by the successful emission of gammas at final step of the reaction. Numerical estimates are presented. Fixation of evaporation residue products must correlate with longtime-scale fission and available experimental results are discussed.

  9. Induction of contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanism of antigen formation.

    PubMed Central

    Schallreuter, K U; Schulz, K H; Wood, J M

    1986-01-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of the eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites at the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable "ion-pairs" are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface. PMID:3830108

  10. Induction of contact drematitis in guinea pigs by quaternary ammonium compounds: the mechanisms of antigen formation

    SciTech Connect

    Schallreuter, K.R.; Schulz, K.H.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Eight quaternary ammonium compounds were tested for their ability to induce contact dermatitis in guinea pigs by using a modified Freund's complete adjuvant test together with the guinea pig maximization test. Only two quaternary ammonium salts of eight tested could be designated as strong allergens. These two active substances were shown to be capable of stable association with membrane lipids in forming immunogenic complexes. This surface complexation phenomenon was confirmed by using a spin-labeled quaternary ammonium salt which competed for binding sites to the surface of epidermal cells in vivo. Electron spin resonance was used to demonstrate that stable ion-pairs are formed between binding sites and the two allergenic preservatives. Furthermore, information was obtained on the kinetics of immunogenic complex formation as well as on the position and orientation of the quaternary ammonium ion at the cell surface.

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P.; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Green, Peter G.

    2011-04-01

    Composting of green waste separated from the disposed solid waste stream reduces biodegradable inputs into landfills, and contributes valuable soil amendments to agriculture. Agencies in regions with severe air quality challenges, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), have raised concerns about gases emitted during the composting process, which are suspected to contribute to persistent high levels of ground-level ozone formation. The goal of the current study is to thoroughly characterize volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from green waste compost piles of different ages (fresh tipped piles, 3-6 day old windrows, and 2-3 week old windrows). Multiple sampling and analytical approaches were applied to ensure the detection of most gaseous organic components emitted. More than 100 VOCs were detected and quantified in this study, including aliphatic alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic organics, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans, acids, esters, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Alcohols were found to be the dominating VOC in the emissions from a compost pile regardless of age, with fluxes ranging from 2.6 to 13.0 mg m -2 min -1 with the highest emissions coming from the younger composting windrows (3-6 days). Average VOC emissions other than alcohols were determined to be 2.3 mg m -2 min -1 from younger windows, which was roughly two times higher than either the fresh tipping pile (1.2 mg m -2 min -1) or the older windrows (1.4 mg m -2 min -1). It was also observed that the older windrows emit a slightly larger proportion of more reactive compounds. Approximately 90% of the total VOCs were found to have maximum incremental reactivity of less than 2. Net ozone formation potential of the emissions was also assessed.

  12. Formation, occurrence and analysis of polychlorinated dibenzofurans, dioxins and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Buser, H.R.

    1985-05-01

    In several accidents (fires, explosions) involving electrical systems containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or benzenes (PCBZs), the formation of polychlorinated tricyclic aromatic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and biphenylenes (PCBPs) was observed. These findings were not surprising in light of our previous studies on the formation of PCDFs and PCDDs from the thermolysis (500-750C in presence of air) of PCBs or PCBZs. In these experiments we identified three main and a fourth minor reaction pathway leading to PCDFs from PCBs. The three main reactions involved the loss of ortho-Cl2, and the losses of ortho-HCl with and without a 2,3-chlorine shift. The fourth, minor reaction route found with some PCBs, involved the loss of ortho-H2. These reaction pathways were intramolecular cyclizations via oxidation to phenolic compounds. Thermolysis of commercial PCBs (Aroclor 1254 and 1260) yielded the same PCDF isomers as expected from the main PCB components via these four reaction pathways; the isomers formed included the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted tetra-, penta- and hexa-CDFs. Thermolysis of PCBZs involved complex condensation reactions with multiple rearrangements leading to PCDFs as well as PCDDs. Again oxidation to phenolic products was involved but the reaction routes are not yet fully elucidated. The results of samples from transformer and capacitor accident sites showed very complex PCDF mixtures with 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers as main components and originating from the PCBs in the transformer liquid. The unusual presence of PCDDs in samples from the Binghamton accident originates from PCBZs present in transformer fluid of that specific installation, thus confirming our previous thermolysis findings.

  13. Exo-Melt{trademark} process for intermetallic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Sikka, V.K.; Deevi, S.C.

    1996-06-01

    The methods of powder production for intermetallics are reviewed. An innovative method known as Exo-Melt{trademark} is described for producing molten aluminides for gas- and water-atomization processes that require a molten metal stream. The Exo-Melt{trademark} process is based on the effective utilization of the heats of formation of aluminides from their constituent elements. The Exo-Melt{trademark} process principles are discussed along with a description of a furnace-loading sequence that uses the principles for practical applications. The benefits of the Exo-Melt{trademark} process are compared with the problems associated with the conventional melting process.

  14. Apatite Formation: Why It May Not Work as Planned, and How to Conclusively Identify Apatite Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Calcium phosphate apatites are inorganic compounds encountered in many different mineralized tissues. Bone mineral, for example, is constituted of nanocrystalline nonstoichiometric apatite, and the production of “analogs” through a variety of methods is frequently reported. In another context, the ability of solid surfaces to favor the nucleation and growth of “bone-like” apatite upon immersion in supersaturated fluids such as SFB is commonly used as one evaluation index of the “bioactivity” of such surfaces. Yet, the compounds or deposits obtained are not always thoroughly characterized, and their apatitic nature is sometimes not firmly assessed by appropriate physicochemical analyses. Of particular importance are the “actual” conditions in which the precipitation takes place. The precipitation of a white solid does not automatically indicate the formation of a “bone-like carbonate apatite layer” as is sometimes too hastily concluded: “all that glitters is not gold.” The identification of an apatite phase should be carefully demonstrated by appropriate characterization, preferably using complementary techniques. This review considers the fundamentals of calcium phosphate apatite characterization discussing several techniques: electron microscopy/EDX, XRD, FTIR/Raman spectroscopies, chemical analyses, and solid state NMR. It also underlines frequent problems that should be kept in mind when making “bone-like apatites.” PMID:23984373

  15. Enhanced recovery of injured Escherichia coli by compounds that degrade hydrogen peroxide or block its formation.

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, L C; Hackney, C R; Ray, B

    1983-01-01

    Escherichia coli LSUFS was injured either by freezing at -10 degrees C or by heating at 57 degrees C for 12 min. Surviving cells were recovered on nonselective tryptone-glucose extract agar and selective violet red bile agar supplemented with compounds that degrade hydrogen peroxide or block its formation. Various concentrations of the following compounds were tested: sodium pyruvate, 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid, catalase, ascorbic acid, potassium permanganate, sodium thioglycolate, dimethylsulfoxide, ethoxyquin, n-propyl gallate, alpha-tocopherol sodium metabisulfite, and ferrous sulfate. Sodium pyruvate and 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid, when added to either medium, significantly (P greater than 0.01) increased recovery of injured cells. More than 90% of the heat-injured cells and 40 to 90% of the freeze-injured cells failed to grow on unsupplemented tryptone-glucose extract agar. Supplementation of violet red bile agar increased recovery, but the counts remained considerably lower than the tryptone-glucose extract agar counts. The repair detection procedure of Speck et al. (M. Speck, B. Ray, R. Read, Jr., Appl. Microbiol. 29:549-550, 1975) was greatly improved by the addition of pyruvate or 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid. However, when this improved repair detection procedure was applied to foods, pyruvate-supplemented media showed some false-positives. We therefore recommend that 3,3'-thiodipropionic acid be used to supplement media in the repair detection procedure. PMID:6338823

  16. The Formation of Organic Compounds of Astrobiological Interest by the Irradiation Processing of Astrophysical Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Many environments in space contain very low temperature mixed molecular ices that are exposed to ionizing radiation in the form of cosmic rays and high-energy photons. While traditional chemistry would not be expected to occur at the temperatures typical of these ices (T < 50 K), ionizing radiation can break bonds in the original molecules in the ices to form highly reactive ions and radicals. These ions and radicals are subsequently free to react despite the low temperatures of the original ices. Laboratory experiments, many of them carried out at the Astrochemistry Laboratory at NASA-Ames, show that the irradiation of ices made of even simple molecules like H2O, CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, etc. can result in the robust formation of large numbers of far more complex organic compounds. Many of these new products are of direct interest to astrobiology. For example, the irradiation of mixed molecular ices has been shown to produce amino acids, amphiphiles, quinones, sugars, heterocyclic compounds, and nucleobases, all molecular building blocks used by terrestrial life. Insofar as the presence of these materials plays a role in the origin of life on planets, this has profound implications for the potential abundance of life in the universe since these experiments simulate universal conditions that are expected to be found wherever new stars and planets form.

  17. Brown carbon formation by aqueous-phase carbonyl compound reactions with amines and ammonium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Powelson, Michelle H; Espelien, Brenna M; Hawkins, Lelia N; Galloway, Melissa M; De Haan, David O

    2014-01-21

    Reactions between small water-soluble carbonyl compounds, ammonium sulfate (AS), and/or amines were evaluated for their ability to form light-absorbing species in aqueous aerosol. Aerosol chemistry was simulated with bulk phase reactions at pH 4, 275 K, initial concentrations of 0.05 to 0.25 M, and UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy monitoring. Glycolaldehyde-glycine mixtures produced the most intense absorbance. In carbonyl compound reactions with AS, methylamine, or AS/glycine mixtures, product absorbance followed the order methylglyoxal > glyoxal > glycolaldehyde > hydroxyacetone. Absorbance extended into the visible, with a wavelength dependence fit by absorption Ångstrom coefficients (Å(abs)) of 2 to 11, overlapping the Å(abs) range of atmospheric, water-soluble brown carbon. Many reaction products absorbing between 300 and 400 nm were strongly fluorescent. On a per mole basis, amines are much more effective than AS at producing brown carbon. In addition, methylglyoxal and glyoxal produced more light-absorbing products in reactions with a 5:1 AS-glycine mixture than with AS or glycine alone, illustrating the importance of both organic and inorganic nitrogen in brown carbon formation. Through comparison to biomass burning aerosol, we place an upper limit on the contribution of these aqueous carbonyl-AS-amine reactions of ≤ 10% of global light absorption by brown carbon. PMID:24351110

  18. Improvement of Pharmaceutical Properties of Isoprenoid Compounds through the Formation of Cyclodextrin Pseudorotaxane-Like Supramolecules.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Taishi; Tanaka, Haruki; Yoshimatsu, Ayumi; Ikeda, Haruna; Arima, Kanako; Honjo, Masatoshi; Iwamoto, Chihiro; Motoyama, Keiichi; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design cyclodextrin (CyD)-based pseudorotaxane-like supramolecular complexes with various isoprenoid compounds, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (R-CoQ10), squalene, tocotrienol, and teprenone, and to evaluate their pharmaceutical properties. Squalene, tocotrienol, and teprenone formed precipitates with β-CyD and γ-CyD in aqueous solution, whereas R-CoQ10 formed precipitates with γ-CyD aqueous solution. The results of powder X-ray diffraction and (1)H-NMR analyses indicated that these precipitates are derived from pseudorotaxane-like supramolecular complexes. The photostability of teprenone was markedly improved by complexation with CyDs, especially in the γ-CyD system. In addition, the dispersion rates of teprenone in the γ-CyD system were higher than those in the β-CyD system, compared with the corresponding physical mixtures. In conclusion, pharmaceutical properties such as photostability and dispersion rates of isoprenoid compounds were improved by the formation of pseudorotaxane-like supramolecular complexes with β-CyD and/or γ-CyD. PMID:26852798

  19. Inhibition of catechol estrogen formation in rat liver microsomes by hormonal steroids and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Quail, J A; Newcombe, A M; Jellinck, P H

    1988-10-01

    The inhibitory action of a number of different hormonal steroids and related compounds on the 2-hydroxylation of estradiol by male rat liver microsomes was examined by a radiometric assay. Progesterone, Diethylstilbestrol, testosterone and 4-androstenedione were found to be the most potent of the compounds tested but inhibition was also observed with other steroids and a group of androgen analogs which are aromatization inhibitors. The kinetic constant Ki for those steroids which gave linear double reciprocal plots when added to [2-3H]estradiol was determined and the products from [14C]estradiol in the presence of the inhibitors were examined by TLC and autoradiography. The addition of steroids with a 17-hydroxyl group such as testosterone or dihydroequilin resulted in the formation of mainly 2-hydroxyestradiol with smaller amounts of other metabolites while those with a reducible ketonic group such as progesterone, 4-androstenedione, equilin or equilenin gave rise to considerable amounts of estrone in addition to the catechol estrogens. Further purification of the liver microsomes did not alter this effect. The possible role of progesterone and the catechol estrogens in the control of estrogen hydroxylation in liver as well as other aspects of steroid interaction are discussed. PMID:2845195

  20. Harnessing redox activity for the formation of uranium tris(imido) compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Nickolas H.; Odoh, Samuel O.; Yao, Yiyi; Williams, Ursula J.; Schaefer, Brian A.; Kiernicki, John J.; Lewis, Andrew J.; Goshert, Mitchell D.; Fanwick, Phillip E.; Schelter, Eric J.; Walensky, Justin R.; Gagliardi, Laura; Bart, Suzanne C.

    2014-10-01

    Classically, late transition-metal organometallic compounds promote multielectron processes solely through the change in oxidation state of the metal centre. In contrast, uranium typically undergoes single-electron chemistry. However, using redox-active ligands can engage multielectron reactivity at this metal in analogy to transition metals. Here we show that a redox-flexible pyridine(diimine) ligand can stabilize a series of highly reduced uranium coordination complexes by storing one, two or three electrons in the ligand. These species reduce organoazides easily to form uranium-nitrogen multiple bonds with the release of dinitrogen. The extent of ligand reduction dictates the formation of uranium mono-, bis- and tris(imido) products. Spectroscopic and structural characterization of these compounds supports the idea that electrons are stored in the ligand framework and used in subsequent reactivity. Computational analyses of the uranium imido products probed their molecular and electronic structures, which facilitated a comparison between the bonding in the tris(imido) structure and its tris(oxo) analogue.

  1. In situ examination of moving crack tips in ordered intermetallics.

    SciTech Connect

    Heuer, J.; Lam, N. Q.; Okamoto, P. R.; Stubbins, J. F.

    1999-01-25

    Recent studies have shown that high stress concentrations at moving crack tips in the intermetallic compound NiTi can induce a crystalline-to-amorphous (C-A) transformation of the crack tip region. This stress-induced C-A transformation has a temperature dependence and crystallization behavior similar to those of ion irradiation-induced C-A transformation of NiTi. The present study examines if these similarities between stress- and irradiation-induced amorphization hold true for two other intermetallic compounds, CuTi and Ni{sub 3}Ti. In situ straining was performed in an intermediate-voltage transmission electron microscope. The presence or absence of an amorphous phase was determined by dark field imaging and selected area diffraction of crack tip regions. Crack tips in both CuTi and Ni{sub 3}Ti were found to remain crystalline upon fracture. The observed absence of stress-induced amorphization in Ni{sub 3}Ti is consistent with its known absence during irradiation, but the absence in CuTi differs from its known irradiation-induced amorphization behavior. Reasons for the similarity and difference are discussed.

  2. Dislocation sources in ordered intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, M.H.; Appel, F.; Wagner, R.; Mecking, H.

    1996-09-01

    An overview on the current understanding of dislocation sources and multiplication mechanisms is made for ordered intermetallic alloys of the L1{sub 2}, B2, and D0{sub 19} structures. In L1{sub 2} alloys, a large disparity of edge/screw segments in their relative mobility reduces the efficiency of a Frank-Read Type multiplication mechanism. In Fe-40%Al of the B2 structure, a variety of dislocation sources are available for <111> slip, including ones resulting from condensation of thermal vacancies. In NiAl with the relatively high APB energy, <100> dislocations may result from the dislocation decomposition reactions, the prismatic punching out from inclusion particles, and/or steps and coated layers of the surface. Internal interfaces often provide sites for dislocation multiplication, e.g., grain boundaries, sub-boundaries in Ni{sub 3}Ga, NiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al, and antiphase domain boundaries in Ti{sub 3}Al. As for the crack tip as a dislocation source, extended SISFs trailed by super-Shockley partials emanating form the cracks in Ni{sub 3}Al and Co{sub 3}Ti are discussed in view of a possible toughening mechanism.

  3. Advanced ordered intermetallic alloy deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.T.; Maziasz, P.J.; Easton, D.S.

    1997-04-01

    The need for high-strength, high-temperature, and light-weight materials for structural applications has generated a great deal of interest in ordered intermetallic alloys, particularly in {gamma}-based titanium aluminides {gamma}-based TiAl alloys offer an attractive mix of low density ({approximately}4g/cm{sup 3}), good creep resistance, and high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance. For rotating or high-speed components. TiAl also has a high damping coefficient which minimizes vibrations and noise. These alloys generally contain two phases. {alpha}{sub 2} (DO{sub 19} structure) and {gamma} (L 1{sub 0}), at temperatures below 1120{degrees}C, the euticoid temperature. The mechanical properties of TiAl-based alloys are sensitive to both alloy compositions and microstructure. Depending on heat-treatment and thermomechanical processing, microstructures with near equiaxed {gamma}, a duplex structure (a mix of the {gamma} and {alpha}{sub 2} phases) can be developed in TiAl alloys containing 45 to 50 at. % Al. The major concern for structural use of TiAl alloys is their low ductility and poor fracture resistance at ambient temperatures. The purpose of this project is to improve the fracture toughness of TiAl-based alloys by controlling alloy composition, microstructure and thermomechanical treatment. This work is expected to lead to the development of TiAl alloys with significantly improved fracture toughness and tensile ductility for structural use.

  4. Analysis of diarylmethylamine compounds using electrospray mass spectrometry: formation mechanisms of radical ions and dehydro cations.

    PubMed

    Cai, Tian; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Wu, Zhi-Jun

    2015-12-01

    A series of diarylmethylamine compounds were analyzed using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-MS). [M](+)˙ and [M - H](+) were both observed, but showed different abundances. A possible mechanism for the formation of [M](+)˙ and [M - H](+) was proposed to explicate the rule for the ratio change of I([M](+)˙)/I([M-H](+)). The [M](+)˙ has two structures, which can interconvert into each other in the gas phase. The substituted groups on the benzene rings play a crucial role in the transfer between the two structures. Electron withdrawing groups can prevent the formation of carbocations, thus nitro-containing diarylmethylamines remained mainly as structure I and were detected as [M](+)˙. On the contrary, electron donating groups help to stabilize carbocations. This makes structure I transfer to structure II, and structure II prefers to further generate [M - H](+) by loss of an H radical. Nuclear magnetic resonance and D-labelled MS experiments indicate that the 1-C-H bond has strong activity. PMID:26465612

  5. [Chemical Loss of Volatile Organic Compounds and Its Impact on the Formation of Ozone in Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-li

    2015-09-01

    The spatial characterization of ozone (O3) and its precursors was studied based on the field measurements in urban and rural areas of Shanghai during the summer of 2014. The chemical loss of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was estimated by the parameterization method. The mixing ratio of VOCs was 20 x 10(-9) in urban area and 17 x 10(-9) in the west rural area during the measurements. The average values of the maximum incremental reactivity were comparable in urban and rural areas, namely 5. 0 mol.mol-1 (O3/VOCs). By contrast, the chemical loss of VOCs was 8. 3 x 10(-9) in west rural area, which was two times as that in urban area. The more chemical loss of VOCs was probably one of the important reasons leading to the higher O3 concentration in west rural area. The regional transport might be important reason of the variation of O3 in the eastern coastal rural area. The chemical loss of VOCs showed good agreement with the local formation of O3 in both urban and rural areas, suggesting a similar efficiency of O3 formation from the chemical loss of VOCs. Among the chemical loss, aromatics and alkenes are the dominant VOC species of the atmospheric chemistry which accounts for more than 90% . The diurnal profile of VOC chemical loss matched well with the production of O3 with one-hour postponement. PMID:26717674

  6. New intermetallic MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP compounds related with MoM'P (M'=Ni and Ru) superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kito, Hijiri; Iyo, Akira; Wada, Toshimi

    2011-01-01

    Using a cubic-anvil high-pressure apparatus, ternary iridium phosphides MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP have been prepared by reaction of stoichiometric amounts of each metal and phosphide powders at around 2 Gpa and above 1523 K for the first time. The structure of these compounds prepared at high-pressure has been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. Diffraction lines of these compounds are assigned by the index of the Co2Si-type structure. The electrical resistivity and the d.c magnetic susceptibility of MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) have measured at low temperatures. Unfortunately, no superconducting transition for MIrP (M=Ti, Zr, Nb, Mo) and MgRuP are observed down to 2 K.

  7. Modelling the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to new particle formation in the Jülich plant atmosphere chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Liao, L.; Mogensen, D.; Dal Maso, M.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2015-09-01

    We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Jülich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.

  8. A study on the formation of solid state nanoscale materials using polyhedral borane compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Jennifer V.

    The formation of boron containing materials using a variety of methods was explored. The pyrolysis of a metal boride precursor solution can be accomplished using a one-source method by combining TiCl4, B10H 14 and CH3CN in one reaction vessel and pyrolyzing it at temperatures above 900 °C. Amorphous dark blue colored films were obtained after the pyrolysis reactions. Well-defined spherical shaped grains or particles were observed by SEM. The amorphous films generated contained titanium, however, the determination of the boron content of the films was inconclusive. This one pot method making metal boride thin films has the advantage of being able to dictate the stoichiometry of the reactants. Another part of this work represents the first report of both the use of metal boride materials and the use of a titanium-based compound for the formation of nanotubes. This method provides a facile method for generating well-formed boron-containing carbon nanotubes in a "one-pot" process through an efficient aerosol process. The formation of metal boride corrosion resistant layers was also explored. It was shown that metallic substrates can be effectively boronized using paste mixtures containing boron carbide and borax. The formation of a Fe4B 2 iron boride phase was achieved, however, this iron boride phase does not give enough corrosion protection. The formation of a corrosion resistant metal boride coating with strong adhesion was accomplished by boronization of a thermal sprayed nickel layer on the surface of steel. Surfactants were explored as possible nanoreactors in which metal boride nanoparticles could be formed to use as nanotube growth catalyst via room temperature reaction. Different surfactants were used, but none of them successfully generated very well dispersed metal boride nanoparticles. Nanoparticles with varying shapes and sizes were generated which were highly amorphous. The carboxylic acid derivative of closo-C2B 10 cages was explored as a ligand in the

  9. Formation of nitrate and ammonium ions in titanium dioxide mediated photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds containing nitrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Low, G.K.-C.; McEvoy, S.R.; Matthews, R.W. )

    1991-03-01

    The photocatalytic oxidation of a related series of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines and other nitrogen- and sulfur-containing organic compounds over a UV-illuminated film of TiO{sub 2} has been studied. The compounds were as follows: n-pentylamine, piperidine, pyridine, phenylalanine, desipramine, thioridazine, penicillamine, isosorbide dinitrate, 4-nitrocatechol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, atrazine, ethylenediaminetetracetic acid, and tetrabutylammonium phosphate. Both ammonium and nitrate ions were formed. The relative concentration of the two ions depended on the nature of the nitrogen in a compound, but was also influenced by the illumination time and concentration of the solute. It was found that for n-pentylamine, piperidine and pyridine, the rate of formation of ammonium ions was n-pentylamine {much gt} pyridine > piperidine. The order of rates of nitrate formation was pyridine = piperidine {much gt} pentylamine. For n-pentylamine the rate of formation of ammonium ions was {approximately}100 times that of nitrate.

  10. A kinetic model for the formation of hierarchical nanostructures during the evaporation of phase-forming compound solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, I. V.; Alekseeva, O. V.; Rudin, V. N.; Kozlovskaya, E. D.; Noskov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    A kinetic model for the precipitation of a dispersed compound from solutions is formulated, based on a description of the evolution in the function of its particle distribution according to its states during precipitation. A boundary problem about the precipitation of a compound during the evaporation of a solvent from a solution under conditions in which the rate of aggregate formation is high is considered. The solution to this boundary problem can be used to describe the formation of a film of polystyrene during the evaporation of its solution in toluene and o-xylene deposited onto a substrate.

  11. Biotransformation of N-substituted aromatic compounds in mammalian spermatozoa. Nonoxidative formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from nitroso aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, T; Suzuki, T; Uematsu, T

    1989-07-25

    The metabolism of N-substituted aromatic compounds, i.e. aniline, acetanilide, N-hydroxyacetanilide, nitrosobenzene, and nitrobenzene in mammalian spermatozoa was investigated. In boar spermatozoa fortified with glucose, no acetylation, deacetylation, and monooxygenation of these compounds were found. Nitrobenzene was reduced slowly, but nitrosobenzene was a good substrate for this reductive activity. In the latter reaction, the products were N-hydroxyacetanilide, azoxybenzene, and an organic phase-nonextractable metabolite(s). Pyruvate was found to be involved in the formation of N-hydroxyacetanilide from nitrosobenzene, and the reaction occurred through a ping-pong mechanism. This enzymatic activity, located in the mid-piece fraction of spermatozoa, was enhanced by thiamine pyrophosphate and Mg2+ and inhibited by thiamine thiazolone pyrophosphate. N-Hydroxyacetanilide formed from [3(-13)C]pyruvate showed complete retention of the isotope at the methyl carbon of the molecule. 2-Nitrosofluorene and 4-nitrosobiphenyl were also transformed into the corresponding N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides. N-Hydroxyacetanilide was also formed in rat and human spermatozoa. These facts suggest that the formation of N-hydroxy-N-arylacetamides from the nitroso aromatic compounds and pyruvate is mediated by a pyruvate dehydrogenase complex located in the mitochondria of spermatozoa. The formation of both azoxybenzene and the organic phase-nonextractable metabolite(s) was found to be a pyruvate-independent nonenzymatic reaction. PMID:2745452

  12. New tracer compounds for secondary organic aerosol formation from β-caryophyllene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eijck, Anna; Opatz, Till; Taraborrelli, Domenico; Sander, Rolf; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2013-12-01

    Five products from β-caryophyllene oxidation (β-caryophyllonic acid (I), 3,3-dimethyl-2-(3-oxobutyl)cyclobutanecarboxylic acid (βCA198) (II), β-nocaryophyllonic acid (III), β-caryophyllinic acid (IV), and 2-(2-carboxyethyl)-3,3-dimethylcyclobutanecarboxylic acid (βCA200) (V)) were synthesized and their structures confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reaction chamber experiments with β-caryophyllene at two different ozone mixing ratios were performed and the carboxylic acid oxidation products in the particle phase were characterized by APCI-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS. All five synthesized acids were found as β-caryophyllene oxidation products in the reaction chamber aerosol. The main oxidation products of the reaction chamber experiments were β-14-hydroxynocaryophyllonic acid, β-nocaryophyllonic acid (III) and βCA198 (II). Product yields of the acids were estimated based on the chamber experiments and the application of the atmospheric chemistry box model CAABA/MECCA. Finally, ambient aerosol samples taken during the HUMPPA campaign in Hyytiälä, Finland in summer 2010 were analysed for the carboxylic acid β-caryophyllene oxidation products. All five synthesized compounds were detected and were quantified in the ambient aerosol samples. The major β-caryophyllene carboxylic acid oxidation products in the ambient air samples were β-nocaryophyllonic acid (III) and βCA198 (II) with concentrations in the range of about 0.2-14 ng m-3 and 0.8-6.8 ng m-3. The fact that the concentrations of these two acids in ambient aerosol are generally higher than the concentration of β-caryophyllinic acid (IV) (often used in previous studies as oxidation tracer) with a concentration of about 0.16 ng m-3 leads to the conclusion that these two acids are better suited as tracer compounds for β-caryophyllene secondary organic aerosol formation.

  13. Oral administration of the broad-spectrum antibiofilm compound toremifene inhibits Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Cremer, Kaat; Delattin, Nicolas; De Brucker, Katrijn; Peeters, Annelies; Kucharíková, Soña; Gerits, Evelien; Verstraeten, Natalie; Michiels, Jan; Van Dijck, Patrick; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-12-01

    We here report on the in vitro activity of toremifene to inhibit biofilm formation of different fungal and bacterial pathogens, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida dubliniensis, Candida krusei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. We validated the in vivo efficacy of orally administered toremifene against C. albicans and S. aureus biofilm formation in a rat subcutaneous catheter model. Combined, our results demonstrate the potential of toremifene as a broad-spectrum oral antibiofilm compound. PMID:25288093

  14. Formation of environmentally persistent free radicals from the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrowman, Cuyler K; Zhou, Shouming; Burrow, Timothy E; Abbatt, Jonathan P D

    2016-01-01

    In the 1980s long-lived radical species were identified in cigarette tar. Since then, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) have been observed in ambient particulate matter, and have been generated in particulate matter generated from internal combustion engines. For the first time, we measure in situ the formation and decay of EPFRs through the heterogeneous reaction of ozone and several polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC). Solid anthracene (ANT), pyrene (PY), benzo[a]pyrene (BAP), benzo[ghi]perylene (BGHIP), 1,4-naphthoquinone (1,4NQ), and 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) were reacted with gas-phase ozone in a flow system placed in the active cavity of an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer, and the formation of radicals was measured on the timescale of tens of minutes at ambient levels of ozone down to 30 ppb. For most substrates the net radical production is initially rapid, slows at intermediate times, and is followed by a slow decay. For oxidized solid BAP, radical signal persists for many days in the absence of ozone. To evaluate the effect of substrate phase, the solid PAHs were also dissolved in squalane, an organic oil inert to ozone, which yielded a much higher maximum radical concentration and faster radical decay when exposed to ozone. With higher mobility, reactants were apparently able to more easily diffuse and react with each other, yielding the higher radical concentrations. The EPR spectra exhibit three radicals types, two of which have been assigned to semiquinone species and one to a PAH-derived, carbon-centered radical. Although our system uses levels of PAC not typically found in the environment it is worth noting that the amounts of radical formed, on the order of 10(18) radicals per g, are comparable to those observed in ambient particulate matter. PMID:26603953

  15. Process for synthesizing compounds from elemental powders and product

    DOEpatents

    Rabin, Barry H.; Wright, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A process for synthesizing intermetallic compounds from elemental powders. The elemental powders are initially combined in a ratio which approximates the stoichiometric composition of the intermetallic compound. The mixed powders are then formed into a compact which is heat treated at a controlled rate of heating such that an exothermic reaction between the elements is initiated. The heat treatment may be performed under controlled conditions ranging from a vacuum (pressureless sintering) to compression (hot pressing) to produce a desired densification of the intermetallic compound. In a preferred form of the invention, elemental powders of Fe and Al are combined to form aluminide compounds of Fe.sub.3 Al and FeAl.

  16. Characterization of Atmospheric Volatile Organic Compounds in the North Dakota Bakken Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sive, B. C.; Zhou, Y.; Day, D.; Desyaterik, Y.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Gebhart, K.; Hecobian, A.; Li, Y.; Malm, W. C.; Prenni, A. J.; Schichtel, B. A.; Schurman, M. I.; Sullivan, A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    A field campaign was conducted from 23 November 2013 through 28 March 2014 in the Bakken formation of North Dakota to investigate the impacts of rapidly increasing oil and gas production operations on air quality throughout the region. Whole air samples were collected at three different sites during the study period for volatile organic compound (VOC) measurements. The main sampling location was the north unit of Theodore Roosevelt National Park (THRO), where one daytime and one nighttime sample were collected each day throughout the campaign period. Daytime samples were also collected every second day at the Fort Union Trading Post National Historic Site (FOUS) and once a week at the Medicine Lake National Wildlife Refuge, MT. A signature of elevated nonmethane hydrocarbon (NMHC) mixing ratios was observed throughout the campaign at all three sites; THRO and FOUS had the highest levels as they are located in high well density areas. Moreover, the C2-C5 alkane mixing ratios were approximately an order of magnitude greater than regional background levels. Light alkane mixing ratios at THRO, the most impacted site, were similar to those at urban sites influenced by petrochemical industry emissions, with ethane and propane reaching maximums of 95 ppbv and 164 ppbv, respectively. The i-pentane to n-pentane ratio for all sites was ~0.75, clearly demonstrating the widespread impact from oil and gas production emissions throughout the region. Alkanes dominated the hydroxyl radical reactivity, and their overall influence on regional air quality will be explored.

  17. Formation of mixed organic layers by stepwise electrochemical reduction of diazonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Santos, Luis; Ghilane, Jalal; Lacroix, Jean Christophe

    2012-03-28

    This work describes the formation of a mixed organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode. The strategy adopted is based on two successive electrochemical reductions of diazonium salts. First, bithiophene phenyl (BTB) diazonium salt is reduced using host/guest complexation in a water/cyclodextrin (β-CD) solution. The resulting layer consists of grafted BTB oligomers and cyclodextrin that can be removed from the surface. The electrochemical response of several outer-sphere redox probes on such BTB/CD electrodes is close to that of a diode, thanks to the easily p-dopable oligo(BTB) moieties. When CD is removed from the surface, pinholes are created and this diode like behavior is lost. Following this, nitrophenyl (NP) diazonium is reduced to graft a second component. Electrochemical study shows that upon grafting NP insulating moieties, the diode-like behavior of the layer is restored which demonstrates that NP is grafted predominately in the empty spaces generated by β-CD desorption. As a result, a mixed BTB/NP organic layer covalently attached to a carbon electrode is obtained using a stepwise electrochemical reduction of two diazonium compounds. PMID:22385504

  18. (-)-Linalool inhibits in vitro NO formation: Probable involvement in the antinociceptive activity of this monoterpene compound.

    PubMed

    Peana, Alessandra T; Marzocco, Stefania; Popolo, Ada; Pinto, Aldo

    2006-01-11

    Recent studies performed in our laboratory have shown that (-)-linalool, the natural occurring enantiomer in essential oils, possesses anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic and antinociceptive effects in different animal models. The antinociceptive and antihyperalgesic effect of (-)-linalool has been ascribed to the stimulation of the cholinergic, opioidergic and dopaminergic systems, to its local anaesthetic activity and to the blockade of N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA). Since nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) play an important role in oedema formation and hyperalgesia and nociception development, to investigate the mechanism of these actions of the (-)-linalool, we examined the effects of this compound on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced responses in macrophage cell line J774.A1. Exposure of LPS-stimulated cells to (-)-linalool significantly inhibited nitrite accumulation in the culture medium without inhibiting the LPS-stimulated increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of (-)-linalool is mainly due to the iNOS enzyme activity. In contrast, exposure of LPS-stimulated cells to (-)-linalool failed, if not at the highest concentration, both in inhibiting PGE(2) release and in inhibiting increase of inducible cyclooxygenase-2 (COX(2)) expression in the culture medium. Collectively, these results indicate that the reduction of NO production/release is responsible, at least partially, for the molecular mechanisms of (-)-linalool antinociceptive effect, probably through mechanisms where cholinergic and glutamatergic systems are involved. PMID:16137709

  19. Photochemical formation of hydroxyl radical in red-soil-polluted seawater - effects of dissolved organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, M.; Arakaki, T.

    2006-12-01

    Development of pineapple farmlands and construction of recreational facilities caused runoff of red soil into the coastal ocean (locally termed as red soil pollution) in the north of Okinawa Island, Japan. Red soil is acidic and contains a few percent of iron oxide. We were interested in the formation of hydroxyl radical (·OH), the most potent oxidant in the environment, from the photo-Fenton reaction (reaction between Fe(II) and HOOH) in red-soil-polluted seawater. Various artificial seawater solutions were prepared by adding red soil, HOOH, and/or humic acid to clean seawater, and were used for photochemical experiments. Commercially available humic acid was used to represent natural organic compounds. All the solutions were filtered through 0.45 micron filter before conducting photochemical experiments. Comparisons among the solutions indicated that dissolved chemicals from the red-soil only slightly increased the OH radical photoformation. Photoformation rates of OH radicals of the HOOH + red soil solutions were similar to the calculated rates from direct photolysis of HOOH. Furthermore, addition of humic acid to the HOOH + red soil solutions did not significantly enhance the photo-Fenton reaction, suggesting that Fe(II), even if it had been formed, did not react with HOOH to form OH radicals at detectable level in seawater.

  20. Reactivity of thiosemicarbazides with redox active metal ions: controlled formation of coordination complexes versus heterocyclic compounds.

    PubMed

    López-Torres, Elena; Dilworth, Jonathan R

    2009-01-01

    The reactions of 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylthiosemicarbazide (LH) with Cu(II) and Sn(IV) have been investigated. If THF or methanol is used as solvent with Cu(II), oxidative cyclisation and coupling are observed, yielding a 1,2,4-thiadiazole or a 1,3,4-thiadiazolium salt. SnI(4) is also able to induce oxidative coupling of two thiosemicarbazide ligands, yielding 1,2,4-thiadiazolium or 1,2,4-triazolium salts, with I(3)(-) as the counterion, depending on the reaction conditions. By contrast, reaction of LH with SnI(4) in acetone yields a 1,3-thiazolium salt, with I(-) as counterion. Reaction with Cu(II) salts or SnI(4) in basic media leads to the formation of metal complexes containing two deprotonated thiosemicarbazide ligands. In the reaction of CuCl(2) in water in the presence of acid a complex containing two neutral ligands is obtained. Reactions with SnCl(4) are not able to induce ligand cyclisation, although a coordination compound with two neutral ligands was isolated from methanol. PMID:19180593

  1. Spark plasma sintering of titanium aluminide intermetallics and its composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldoshan, Abdelhakim Ahmed

    Titanium aluminide intermetallics are a distinct class of engineering materials having unique properties over conventional titanium alloys. gamma-TiAl compound possesses competitive physical and mechanical properties at elevated temperature applications compared to Ni-based superalloys. gamma-TiAl composite materials exhibit high melting point, low density, high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) is one of the powder metallurgy techniques where powder mixture undergoes simultaneous application of uniaxial pressure and pulsed direct current. Unlike other sintering techniques such as hot iso-static pressing and hot pressing, SPS compacts the materials in shorter time (< 10 min) with a lower temperature and leads to highly dense products. Reactive synthesis of titanium aluminide intermetallics is carried out using SPS. Reactive sintering takes place between liquid aluminum and solid titanium. In this work, reactive sintering through SPS was used to fabricate fully densified gamma-TiAl and titanium aluminide composites starting from elemental powders at different sintering temperatures. It was observed that sintering temperature played significant role in the densification of titanium aluminide composites. gamma-TiAl was the predominate phase at different temperatures. The effect of increasing sintering temperature on microhardness, microstructure, yield strength and wear behavior of titanium aluminide was studied. Addition of graphene nanoplatelets to titanium aluminide matrix resulted in change in microhardness. In Ti-Al-graphene composites, a noticeable decrease in coefficient of friction was observed due to the influence of self-lubrication caused by graphene.

  2. Elastic anisotropy, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of U{sub 2}Ti intermetallic compound with AlB{sub 2}-type structure under high pressure up to 100 GPa

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jinwen; Gao, Tao; Liu, Benqiong; Sun, Guangai; Chen, Bo

    2015-03-28

    Structural, elastic anisotropy, dynamical, and thermodynamic properties of U{sub 2}Ti have been studied by employing density functional theory and density functional perturbative theory. The optimized lattice parameters a, c, unit volume V, bulk modulus B, and bond lengths d{sub U-U}, d{sub U-Ti} of U{sub 2}Ti are in favorable agreement with the available experimental data and other theoretical values. The elastic constants under pressure were obtained using “energy-strain” method. The polycrystalline modulus, Poisson's ratio, brittle/ductile characteristics, Debye temperature and the integration of elastic wave velocities over different directions, and hardness under pressure are also evaluated successfully. The anisotropy of the directional bulk modulus and the Young's modulus is systematically predicted for the first time. It turns out that U{sub 2}Ti should be stabilized mechanically up to 100 GPa, this compound just possesses slightly elastic anisotropy at zero pressure; however, the anisotropy becomes more and more significant with the increasing pressure. In particular, the phonon dispersion curves and phonon density of state under pressure are reported for the first time. The Raman and infrared-active phonon modes at Γ point are further assigned. Our results indicate that U{sub 2}Ti is also stable dynamically up to 100 GPa. Additionally, within the calculated phonon density of states, the thermodynamic properties are predicted.

  3. Study of the formation of carbonyl compounds in edible oils and fats by 1H-NMR and FTIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moya Moreno, M. C. M.; Mendoza Olivares, D.; Amézquita López, F. J.; Peris Martínez, V.; Bosch Reig, F.

    1999-05-01

    Oils and fats start decomposing from the moment they are isolated from their natural environment. Heating accelerates oxidative rancidity and frying at high temperatures produces thermal degradation with the formation of decomposition products, such as aldehydes, ketones, free acids and hydroxilic compounds that in high levels can be harmful to human health. The decomposition products formed up to 300°C were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and an FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for the quantification of carbonyl compounds generated during heating. The results show that there is a formation of carbonyl compounds starting at 150°C and when the sample was heated at 300°C for 40 min, the following contents (expressed as butyraldehyde mass fraction) were found: olive oil 10.5%, sunflower oil 11.3%, corn oil 3.0%, seeds oil (sunflower, safflower and canola seed) 6.6% and lard 3.5%.

  4. Quorum sensing signalling and biofilm formation of brewery-derived bacteria, and inhibition of signalling by natural compounds.

    PubMed

    Priha, O; Virkajärvi, V; Juvonen, R; Puupponen-Pimiä, R; Nohynek, L; Alakurtti, S; Pirttimaa, M; Storgårds, E

    2014-11-01

    Bacteria use quorum sensing signalling in various functions, e.g. while forming biofilms, and inhibition of this signalling could be one way to control biofilm formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production of signalling molecules and its correlation with the biofilm formation capability of bacteria isolated from brewery filling process. A further aim was to study berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes for their possible quorum sensing inhibitory effects. Out of the twenty bacteria studied, five produced short-chain and five long-chain AHL (acyl homoserine lactone) signalling molecules when tested with the Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 reporter bacterium. Production of AI-2 (autoinducer-2) signalling molecules was detected from nine strains with the Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioassay. Over half of the strains produced biofilm in the microtitre plate assay, but the production of AHL and AI-2 signalling molecules and biofilm formation capability did not directly correlate with each other. Out of the 13 berry extracts and wood-derived terpenes screened, four compounds decreased AHL signalling without effect on growth. These were betulin, raspberry extract and two cloudberry extracts. The effect of these compounds on biofilm formation of the selected six bacterial strains varied. The phenolic extract of freeze-dried cloudberry fruit caused a statistically significant reduction of biofilm formation of Obesumbacterium proteus strain. Further experiments should aim at identifying the active compounds and revealing whether quorum sensing inhibition causes structural changes in the biofilms formed. PMID:24944110

  5. Influence of resinous compounds in petroleum oils on formation of protective films by additives with labeled atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Faradzhev, K.F.

    1988-09-01

    The role of resinous compounds present in oil media in terms of their effects of protective film formation and corrosive wear of metal is investigated. Radioactive additives consisting of barium salts of an alkylphenol sulfide and an alkylphenol disulfide, containing a functional group of sulfur 35, were synthesized. These additives were added to the test oil in an amount of 3%. In most cases, the additives tend to form more stable films on the metal surface when they are used in oils containing resinous compounds than when they are used in individual groups of hydrocarbons. The quantity and efficiency of the protective film formed by the additive depends not only on the hydrocarbon structure of the oil hydrocarbons, but also on the quality of the additive, the nature of the metal, and the content of resinous compounds in the oil and the structure of these compounds.

  6. Energetic Properties of Rocket Propellants Evaluated through the Computational Determination of Heats of Formation of Nitrogen-Rich Compounds.

    PubMed

    Forquet, Valérian; Miró Sabaté, Carles; Chermette, Henry; Jacob, Guy; Labarthe, Émilie; Delalu, Henri; Darwich, Chaza

    2016-03-01

    The use of ab initio and DFT methods to calculate the enthalpies of formation of solid ionic compounds is described. The results obtained from the calculations are then compared with those from experimental measurements on nitrogen-rich salts of the 2,2-dimethyltriazanium cation (DMTZ) synthesized in our laboratory and on other nitrogen-rich ionic compounds. The importance of calculating accurate volumes and lattice enthalpies for the determination of heats of formation is also discussed. Furthermore, the crystal structure and hydrogen-bonding networks of the nitroformate salt of the DMTZ cation is described in detail. Lastly, the theoretical heats of formation were used to calculate the specific impulses (Isp ) of the salts of the DMTZ cation in view of a prospective application in propellant formulations. PMID:26762868

  7. High-pressure processing decelerates lipolysis and formation of volatile compounds in ovine milk blue-veined cheese.

    PubMed

    Calzada, J; Del Olmo, A; Picon, A; Gaya, P; Nuñez, M

    2013-01-01

    Enzyme-rich cheeses are prone to over-ripening during refrigerated storage. Blue-veined cheeses fall within this category because of the profuse growth of Penicillium roqueforti in their interior, which results in the production of highly active proteinases, lipases, and other enzymes responsible for the formation of a great number of flavor compounds. To control the excessive formation of free fatty acids (FFA) and volatile compounds, blue-veined cheeses were submitted to high-pressure processing (HPP) at 400 or 600 MPa on d 21, 42, or 63 after manufacture. Cheeses were ripened for 30d at 10°C and 93% relative humidity, followed by 60 d at 5°C, and then held at 3°C until d 360. High-pressure processing influenced the concentrations of acetic acid and short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain FFA. The effect was dependent on treatment conditions (pressure level and cheese age at the time of treatment). The lowest concentrations of acetic acid and FFA were recorded for cheeses treated at 600 MPa on d 21; these cheeses showed the lowest esterase activity values. Acetic acid and all FFA groups increased during ripening and refrigerated storage. The 102 volatile compounds detected in cheese belonged to 10 chemical groups (5 aldehydes, 12 ketones, 17 alcohols, 12 acids, 35 esters, 9 hydrocarbons, 5 aromatic compounds, 3 nitrogen compounds, 3 terpenes, and 1 sulfur compound). High-pressure processing influenced the levels of 97 individual compounds, whereas 68 individual compounds varied during refrigerated storage. Total concentrations of all groups of volatile compounds were influenced by HPP, but only ketones, acids, esters, and sulfur compounds varied during refrigerated storage. The lowest total concentrations for most groups of volatile compounds were recorded for the cheese pressurized at 600 MPa on d 21. A principal component analysis combining total concentrations of groups of FFA and volatile compounds discriminated cheeses by age and by the pressure level

  8. Surfaces of Intermetallics: Quasicrystals and Beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Yuen, Chad

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this work is to characterize surfaces of intermetallics, including quasicrystals. In this work, surface characterization is primarily focused on composition and structure using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) performed under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions.

  9. High-temperature ordered intermetallic alloys VII

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, C.C.; Liu, C.T.; Stoloff, N.S.; Wanner, A.

    1997-12-31

    This volume is divided into the following sections: (1) processing; (2) titanium aluminides; (3) creep and fatigue of titanium aluminides; (4) iron aluminides; (5) nickel aluminides; (6) refractory metal-based and other intermetallics; and (7) composites. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume.

  10. Dietary Components Related to N-Nitroso Compound Formation: A Prospective Study of Adult Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Dubrow, Robert; Darefsky, Amy S.; Park, Yikyung; Mayne, Susan T.; Moore, Steven C.; Kilfoy, Briseis; Cross, Amanda J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Ward, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    Background N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) are found in processed meat and are formed endogenously from intake of nitrite and nitrate. Endogenous NOC formation is antagonized by nitrosation inhibitors in fruit and vegetables (e.g., vitamin C) and promoted by heme in red meat. It has been hypothesized that a diet resulting in high exposure to NOCs increases adult glioma risk. Methods Using proportional hazards models, we tested this hypothesis among 545,770 participants in the prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which assessed dietary intake at baseline (1995–96) with a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and at ages 12–13 years with an abbreviated FFQ. Results During follow-up through 2003, 585 participants were diagnosed with glioma. We found no significant trends in glioma risk for consumption of processed or red meat, nitrate, or vitamin C or E. We found significant positive trends for nitrite intake from plant sources (hazard ratio [HR] for quintile 5 vs. 1, 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–2.10; p-trend = 0.028) and, unexpectedly, for fruit and vegetable intake (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.08–1.86; p-trend = .0081). Examination of interactions between dietary intakes (e.g., nitrite and vitamin C) and a limited analysis of diet at ages 12–13 provided no support for the NOC hypothesis. Conclusions Our results cast doubt on the NOC hypothesis in relation to dietary intake and adult glioma risk. Impact Further work is needed on early life diet, adult intake of nitrite from plant sources, and adult intake of fruit and vegetables in relation to adult glioma risk. PMID:20570910

  11. Optimized Cu-Sn Wafer-Level Bonding Using Intermetallic Phase Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luu, Thi-Thuy; Duan, Ani; Aasmundtveit, Knut E.; Hoivik, Nils

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study is to optimize the Cu/Sn solid-liquid interdiffusion process for wafer-level bonding applications. To optimize the temperature profile of the bonding process, the formation of intermetallic compounds (IMCs) which takes place during the bonding process needs to be well understood and characterized. In this study, a simulation model for the development of IMCs and the unreacted remaining Sn thickness as a function of the bonding temperature profile was developed. With this accurate simulation model, we are able to predict the parameters which are critical for bonding process optimization. The initial characterization focuses on a kinetics model of the Cu3Sn thickness growth and the amount of Sn thickness that reacts with Cu to form IMCs. As-plated Cu/Sn samples were annealed using different temperatures (150°C to 300°C) and durations (0 min to 320 min). The kinetics model is then extracted from the measured thickness of IMCs of the annealed samples.

  12. Disturbing the dimers: Electron and hole doping in the intermetallic insulator FeGa3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botana, Antia S.; Quan, Yundi; Pickett, Warren E.

    2015-10-01

    Insulating FeGa3 poses peculiar puzzles beyond the occurrence of an electronic gap in an intermetallic compound. This Fe-based material has a very distinctive structural characteristic with the Fe atoms occurring in dimers. The insulating gap can be described comparably well in either the weakly correlated limit or the strongly correlated limit within density functional theory viewpoints, where the latter corresponds to singlet formation on the Fe2 dimers. Though most of the calculated occupied Wannier functions are an admixture of Fe 3 d and Ga 4 s or 4 p states, there is a single bonding-type Wannier function per spin centered on each Fe2 dimer. Density functional theory methods have been applied to follow the evolution of the magnetic properties and electronic spectrum with doping, where unusual behavior is observed experimentally. Both electron and hole doping are considered, by Ge and Zn on the Ga site, and by Co and Mn on the Fe site, the latter introducing direct disturbance of the Fe2 dimer. Results from weakly and strongly correlated pictures are compared. Regardless of the method, magnetism including itinerant phases appears readily with doping. The correlated picture suggests that in the low doping limit Mn (for Fe) produces an in-gap hole state, while Co (for Fe) introduces a localized electronic gap state.

  13. Compound-Specific Isotopic Analysis of Meteoritic Amino Acids as a Tool for Evaluating Potential Formation Pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elsila, Jamie E.; Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael C.; Charnley, Steven B.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of stable hydrogen, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic ratios (delta D, delta C-13, delta N-15) of organic compounds can reveal information about their origin and formation pathways. Several formation mechanisms and environments have been postulated for the amino acids detected in carbonaceous chondrites. As each proposed mechanism utilizes different precursor molecules, the isotopic signatures of the resulting amino acids may point towards the most likely of these proposed pathways. The technique of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and isotope ratio mass spectrometry provides compound-specific structural and isotopic information from a single splitless injection, enhancing the amount of information gained from small amounts of precious samples such as carbonaceous chondrites. We have applied this technique to measure the compound-specific C, N, and H isotopic ratios of amino acids from seven CM and CR carbonaceous chondrites. We are using these measurements to evaluate predictions of expected isotopic enrichments from potential formation pathways and environments, leading to a better understanding of the origin of these compounds.

  14. Quaternary borocarbides: New class of intermetallic superconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L. C.; Dhar, S. K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Hossain, Zakir; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C.; Padalia, B. D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Our recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in the four-element multiphase Y-Ni-B-C system at an elevated temperature (TC approximately 12 K) has opened up great possibilities of identifying new superconducting materials and generating new physics. Superconductivity with Tc (greater than 20 K) higher than that known so far in bulk intermetallics has been observed in multiphase Y-Pd-B-C and Th-Pd-B-C systems and a family of single phase materials RENi2B2C (RE= Y, rare earth) have been found. Our investigations show YNi2B2C to be a strong coupling hard type-II SC. HC2(T) exhibits an unconventional temperature dependence. Specific heat and magnetization studies reveal coexistence of SC and magnetism in RNi2B2C (R = Ho, Er, Tm) with magnetic ordering temperatures (Tc approximately 8 K, 10.5 K, 11 K and Tm approximately 5 K, approximately 7K, approximately 4 K respectively) that are remarkably higher than those in known magnetic superconductors . Mu-SR studies suggest the possibility of Ni atoms carrying a moment in TmNi2B2C. Resistivity results suggests a double re-entrant transition (SC-normal-SC) in HoNi2B2C. RENi2B2C (RE = Ce, Nd, Gd) do not show SC down to 4.2 K. The Nd- and Gd-compounds order magnetically at approximately 4.5 K and approximately 19.5 K, respectively. Two SC transitions are observed in Y-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 22 K, approximately 10 K) and in Th-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 20 K, approximately 14 K) systems, which indicate that there are at least two structures which support SC in these borocarbides. In our multiphase ThNi2B2C we observe SC at approximately 6 K. No SC was seen in multiphase UNi2B2C, UPd2B2C, UOs2Ge2C and UPd5B3C(0.35) down to 4.2 K. Tc in YNi2B2C is depressed by substitutions (Gd, Th and U at Y-sites and Fe, Co at Ni-sites).

  15. Quaternary borocarbides: New class of intermetallic superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, R.; Gupta, L. C.; Dhar, S. K.; Mazumdar, Chandan; Hossain, Zakir; Godart, C.; Levy-Clement, C.; Padalia, B. D.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1995-04-01

    Our recent discovery of superconductivity (SC) in the four-element multiphase Y-Ni-B-C system at an elevated temperature (TC approximately 12 K) has opened up great possibilities of identifying new superconducting materials and generating new physics. Superconductivity with Tc (greater than 20 K) higher than that known so far in bulk intermetallics has been observed in multiphase Y-Pd-B-C and Th-Pd-B-C systems and a family of single phase materials RENi2B2C (RE= Y, rare earth) have been found. Our investigations show YNi2B2C to be a strong coupling hard type-II SC. HC2(T) exhibits an unconventional temperature dependence. Specific heat and magnetization studies reveal coexistence of SC and magnetism in RNi2B2C (R = Ho, Er, Tm) with magnetic ordering temperatures (Tc approximately 8 K, 10.5 K, 11 K and Tm approximately 5 K, approximately 7K, approximately 4 K respectively) that are remarkably higher than those in known magnetic superconductors . Mu-SR studies suggest the possibility of Ni atoms carrying a moment in TmNi2B2C. Resistivity results suggests a double re-entrant transition (SC-normal-SC) in HoNi2B2C. RENi2B2C (RE = Ce, Nd, Gd) do not show SC down to 4.2 K. The Nd- and Gd-compounds order magnetically at approximately 4.5 K and approximately 19.5 K, respectively. Two SC transitions are observed in Y-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 22 K, approximately 10 K) and in Th-Pd-B-C (Tc approximately 20 K, approximately 14 K) systems, which indicate that there are at least two structures which support SC in these borocarbides. In our multiphase ThNi2B2C we observe SC at approximately 6 K. No SC was seen in multiphase UNi2B2C, UPd2B2C, UOs2Ge2C and UPd5B3C(0.35) down to 4.2 K. Tc in YNi2B2C is depressed by substitutions (Gd, Th and U at Y-sites and Fe, Co at Ni-sites).

  16. Mechanistic studies on the role of PAHs and related compounds in PCDD/F formation on model fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, J; Stieglitz, L; Dinjus, E; Will, R

    2001-01-01

    Model fly ashes containing Florisil, CuCl2.2H2O and PAHs with structures similar to dibenzo-p-dioxin or dibenzofuran were heated at 250 degrees C in He/O2 with regard to a supposed intramolecular reaction mechanism for oxygen incorporation. Highest reactivities in PCDF formation could be found for model compounds containing a biphenyl structure, while condensed pi-systems lead to a decrease in reactivity for such compounds. Biphenyl is almost completely converted to dibenzofuran. PCDD formation from six-membered rings like xanthene/9,10-dihydroanthracene is of minor importance. 18O-labeling of gaseous oxygen reveals no common reaction step for oxygen incorporation using 9-fluorenone, xanthene, diphenyl ether and diphenyl-2-carboxylic acid as model compounds. Pre-existing oxygen in reactants is a major source for ether groups in PCDD and PCDF. Determination of labeled and unlabeled CO and CO2 besides He/O2 reflects higher reactivities towards oxidation for model compounds containing ether groups than for compounds with carbonyl groups. PMID:11219705

  17. Effects of intermetallic particles on the SCC initiation of zirconium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, T.; Wakashima, Y.; Imahashi, H.; Nagai, M.

    1985-06-01

    In order to investigate effects of intermetallic particles on SCC initiation of zirconium alloys, tensile tests were conducted in an iodine atmosphere using zirconium plates with different amounts of impurities, and Zircaloy-2 plates. SCC susceptibility of zirconium increased significantly with its iron content. Even small amounts of iron could form the intermetallic compound ZrFe 2 whose particle size and number increased with iron content. In the case of Zircaloy-2, two different types of ternary compounds were detected, namely Zr(CrFe) 2 and Zr 2(NiFe). Metallographic examinations showed that the particles located at grain boundaries were important sites of SCC initiation in zirconium alloys. The initiation probability increased significantly with the amount of the particles, which supported the strong correlation between SCC susceptibility of zirconium and its iron content.

  18. Dissolution of iron intermetallics in Al-Si alloys through nonequilibrium heat treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Anantha Narayanan, L. |; Samuel, F.H.; Gruzleski, J.E.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional heat treatment techniques in Al-Si alloys to achieve optimum mechanical properties are limited to precipitation strengthening processes due to the presence of second-phase particles and spheroidization of silicon particles. The iron intermetallic compounds present in the microstructure of these alloys are reported to be stable, and they do not dissolve during conventional (equilibrium) heat treatments. The dissolution behavior of iron intermetallics on nonequilibrium heat treatment has been investigated by means of microstructure and mechanical property studies. The dissolution of iron intermetallics improves with increasing solution temperature. The addition of manganese to the alloy hinders the dissolution of iron intermetallics. Nonequilibrium heat treatment increases the strength properties of high iron alloys until a critical solution temperature is exceeded. Above this temperature, a large amount of liquid phase is formed as a result of interdendritic and grain boundary melting. The optimum solution treatment temperature for Al-6Si-3.5Cu-0.3Mg-1Fe alloys is found to be between 515 C and 520 C.

  19. The vinyl-sulfonium bond in human myeloperoxidase: Impact on compound I formation and reduction by halides and thiocyanate

    SciTech Connect

    Zederbauer, Martina; Furtmueller, Paul Georg; Ganster, Bernadette; Moguilevsky, Nicole; Obinger, Christian . E-mail: christian.obinger@boku.ac.at

    2007-05-04

    In human myeloperoxidase (MPO) the heme is covalently attached to the protein via two ester linkages and a unique sulfonium ion linkage between the sulfur atom of Met243 and the {beta}-carbon of the vinyl ring on pyrrole ring A. Here, we have investigated the variant Met243Val produced in Chinese hamster ovary cells in order to elucidate the role of the electron withdrawing sulfonium bond in compound I formation and reduction. Disruption of this MPO-typical bond causes a blue-shifted UV-vis spectrum and an increase in the heme flexibility. This had no impact on compound I formation mediated by hydrogen peroxide (2.2 x 10{sup 7} M{sup -1} s{sup -1} at pH 7.0 and 25 {sup o}C). Compared with wild-type recombinant MPO the cyanide association rate with ferric Met243Val was significantly enhanced as were also the calculated apparent bimolecular compound I reduction rates by iodide (>10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) and thiocyanate (>10{sup 8} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). By contrast, the overall chlorination and bromination activities were decreased by 98.1% and 87.4%, respectively, compared with the wild-type protein. Compound I reduction by chloride was slower than compound I decay to a compound II-like species (0.4 s{sup -1}), whereas compound I reduction by bromide was about 10-times slower (1.3 x 10{sup 4} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}) than the wild-type rate. These findings are discussed with respect to the known crystal structure of MPO and its bromide complex as well as the known redox chemistry of its intermediates and substrates.

  20. Formation of a compound flux rope by the merging of two filament channels, the associated dynamics, and its stability

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Inoue, Satoshi; Magara, Tetsuya E-mail: njoshi98@gmail.com

    2014-11-01

    We present observations of compound flux rope formation, which occurred on 2014 January 1, via merging of two nearby filament channels, the associated dynamics, and its stability using multiwavelength data. We also discuss the dynamics of cool and hot plasma moving along the newly formed compound flux rope. The merging started after the interaction between the southern leg of the northward filament and the northern leg of the southward filament at ≈01:21 UT and continued until a compound flux rope formed at ≈01:33 UT. During the merging, the cool filament plasma heated up and started to move along both sides of the compound flux rope, i.e., toward the north (≈265 km s{sup –1}) and south (≈118 km s{sup –1}) from the point of merging. After traveling a distance of ≈150 Mm toward the north, the plasma cooled down and started to return back to the south (≈14 km s{sup –1}) after ≈02:00 UT. The observations provide a clear example of compound flux rope formation via merging of two different flux ropes and the occurrence of a flare through tether cutting reconnection. However, the compound flux rope remained stable in the corona and had a confined eruption. The coronal magnetic field decay index measurements revealed that both the filaments and the compound flux rope axis lie within the stability domain (decay index <1.5), which may be the possible cause for their stability. The present study also deals with the relationship between the filament's chirality (sinistral) and the helicity (positive) of the surrounding flux rope.

  1. The role of vanadium haloperoxidases in the formation of volatile brominated compounds and their impact on the environment.

    PubMed

    Wever, Ron; van der Horst, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases differ strongly from heme peroxidases in substrate specificity and stability and in contrast to a heme group they contain the bare metal oxide vanadate as a prosthetic group. These enzymes specifically oxidize halides in the presence of hydrogen peroxide into hypohalous acids. These reactive halogen intermediates will react rapidly and aspecifically with many organic molecules. Marine algae and diatoms containing these iodo- and bromoperoxidases produce short-lived brominated methanes (bromoform, CHBr3 and dibromomethane CH2Br2) or iodinated compounds. Some seas and oceans are supersaturated with these compounds and they form an important source of bromine to the troposphere and lower stratosphere and contribute significantly to the global budget of halogenated hydrocarbons. This perspective focuses, in particular, on the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds and the direct or indirect involvement of vanadium haloperoxidases in the production of huge amounts of bromoform and dibromomethane. Some of the global sources are discussed and from the literature a picture emerges in which oxidized brominated species generated by phytoplankton, seaweeds and cyanobacteria react with dissolved organic matter in seawater, resulting in the formation of intermediate brominated compounds. These compounds are unstable and decay via a haloform reaction to form an array of volatile brominated compounds of which bromoform is the major component followed by dibromomethane. PMID:23657250

  2. Insight into structural, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic phases in Zr-Sn system from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuai; Zhan, Yongzhong; Wu, Junyan; Wei, Xuanchen

    2015-11-01

    The structural, phase stabilities, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of intermetallic phases in Zr-Sn system are investigated by using first-principles method. The equilibrium lattice constants, enthalpy of formation (ΔHform) and elastic constants are obtained and compared with available experimental and theoretical data. The configuration of Zr4Sn is measured with reasonable precision. The ΔHform of five hypothetical structures are obtained in order to find possible metastable phase for Zr-Sn system. The mechanical properties, including bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, are calculated by Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation and the Zr5Sn4 and Zr5Sn3 show excellent mechanical properties. The electronic density of states for Zr5Sn4, Zr5Sn3 and cP8-Zr3Sn are calculated to further investigate the stability of intermetallic compounds. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the Debye temperature, heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient under temperature of 0-300 K and pressure of 0-50 GPa for Zr5Sn3 and Zr5Sn4 are deeply investigated.

  3. Image encryption schemes for joint photographic experts group and graphics interchange format formats based on three-dimensional baker with compound chaotic sequence generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shiyu; Tong, Xiaojun; Zhang, Miao

    2013-01-01

    We propose several methods to transplant the compound chaotic image encryption scheme with permutation based on three-dimensional (3-D) baker onto image formats such as the joint photographic experts group (JPEG) and graphics interchange format (GIF). The new methods avert the discrete cosine transform and quantization, which result in floating point precision loss, and succeed to encrypt and decrypt JPEG images lossless. The ciphered JPEG images generated by our solution own much better randomness than most other existing schemes. Our proposed method for GIF keeps the property of animation successfully. The security test results indicate the proposed methods have high security, and the speed of our algorithm is faster than classical solutions. Since JPEG and GIF image formats are popular contemporarily, we show that the prospect of chaotic image encryption is promising.

  4. Addressing Machining Issues for the Intermetallic Compound 60-NITINOL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Malcolm K.; Wozniak, Walter A.; McCue, Terry R.

    2012-01-01

    60-NITINOL (60 wt.% Ni - 40 wt.% Ti) is being studied as a material for advanced aerospace components. Frequent wire breakage during electrical-discharge machining of this material was investigated. The studied material was fabricated from hot isostatically pressed 60-NITINOL powder obtained through a commercial source. Bulk chemical analysis of the material showed that the composition was nominal but had relatively high levels of certain impurities, including Al and O. It was later determined that Al2O3 particles had contaminated the material during the hot isostatic pressing procedure and that these particles were the most likely cause of the wire breakage. The results of this investigation highlight the importance of material cleanliness to its further implementation.

  5. Hydrogen sorption rate by intermetallic compounds suitable for tritium storage

    SciTech Connect

    Penzhorn, R.D.; Sirch, M.; Perevezentsev, A.N.; Borisenko, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of molecular hydrogen by ZrCo and Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1.9} was investigated as function of temperature at several constant pressures of hydrogen. A comparison between the isothermal hydrogen sorption rates by ZrCo, Zr{sub 0.8}Ti{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1.9} and LaNi{sub 4.7}Al{sub 0.3} is given and reaction mechanisms are discussed. From fittings of the experimental results to well known gas/solid reaction rate laws it was concluded that the reaction mechanisms of the reaction with ZrCo is complex and dependent upon the prevailing reaction conditions. The hydrogen sorption rate by the powder of all three IMC`s was found to be second order in hydrogen pressure. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Formation of Gd-Al Alloy Films by a Molten Salt Electrochemical Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caravaca, Concha; De Córdoba, Guadalupe

    2008-02-01

    The electrochemistry of molten LiCl-KCl-GdCl3 at a reactive Al electrode has been studied at 723 to 823 K. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry have been used in order to identify the intermetallic compounds formed. Cyclic voltammetry showed that, while at an inert W electrode GdCl3 is reduced to Gd metal in a single step at a potential close to the reduction of the solvent, at an Al electrode a shift towards more positive values occurs. This shift of the cathodic potential indicated a reduction of the activity of Gd in Al with respect to that ofW, due to the formation of alloys. The surface characterization of samples formed by both galvanostatic and potentiostatic electrolysis has shown the presence of two intermetallic compounds: GdAl3 and GdAl2. Using open-circuit chronopotentiometry it has been possible to measure the potentials at which these compounds are transformed into each other. The values of these potential plateaus, once transformed into e. f. m. values, allowed to determine the thermodynamic properties of the GdAl3 intermetallic compound.

  7. Compton Profile Study of Intermetallic Ti{sub 3}Al

    SciTech Connect

    Vyas, V.; Sharma, G.; Mishra, M. C.; Sharma, B. K.; Joshi, K. B.

    2011-10-20

    The Compton scattering measurement on intermetallic alloy Ti{sub 3}Al is reported in this work. The measurement is made using 59.54 keV gamma-rays from Am{sup 241} source. Theoretical calculation of Compton profile is also performed employing CRYSTAL code within the framework of density functional theory to compare with the measurement. The theoretical profile of the alloy is also synthesized following the superposition model taking the published Compton profiles of elemental solids from the APW method. The experimental study of charge transfer in the alloys has also been done by performing the experimental Compton profile measurements on Ti and Al following the superposition model and charge transfer from Al to Ti is clearly seen on the alloy formation.

  8. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  9. Arc Casting Intermetallic Alloy (Materials Preparation Center)

    SciTech Connect

    2010-01-01

    Arc casting of intermetallic (La-Ni-Sn) AB5 alloy used for metal hydride hydrogen storage. Upon solidification the Sn is partially rejected and increases in concentration in the remaining liquid. Upon completing solidification there is a great deal of internal stress in the ingot. As the ingot cools further the stress is relieved. This material was cast at the Ames Laboratorys Materials Preparation Center http://www.mpc.ameslab.gov

  10. A magnetization study of RCo 12B 6 intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittag, M.; Rosenberg, M.; Buschow, K. H. J.

    1989-11-01

    The magnetic properties of polycrystalline intermetallics RCo 12B 6 with R = Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er and Tm have been studied in the temperature range 3-300 K and in fields up to 2 T. All compounds order magnetically between Tc=134.3 K for CeCo 12B 6 and Tc=162 K for GdCo 12B 6. YCo 12B 6 has an average Co moment of 0.42μ B. Since the Co moment is constant for all samples the R moments can be easily obtained and they are in good agreement with free R 3+ ion values. Ce is quadripositive in CeCo 12B 6 and therefore nonmagnetic. All light rare-earth compounds are ferromagnetic, while all heavy rare-earth compounds are ferrimagnetic with compensation points between Tcomp=11.6 K ( TmCo12B6) and Tcomp=82.8 K ( TbCo12B6). In the paramagnetic state an effective magnetic moment of 1.94μ B per Co atom has been found. The mean-field approximation yields a 3d-3d exchange integral of {J CoCo}/{k B}=110 K . The 3d-4f exchange integral is much smaller and equal to about {J RCo}/{k B}=6 K .

  11. Ozone formation potentials of organic compounds from different emission sources in the South Coast Air Basin of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianjun; Luo, Dongmin

    2012-08-01

    Different organic compounds exhibit different propensities for ozone formation. Two approaches were used to study the ozone formation potentials or source reactivities of different anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in California's South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). The first approach was based on the combination of total organic gases (TOG) emission speciation profiles and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) scale of organic species. The second approach quantified ozone impacts from different emission sources by performing 3-dimensional air quality model sensitivity analysis involving increased TOG emissions from particular sources. The source reactivities derived from these two approaches agree reasonably well for 58 anthropogenic organic compounds emission categories in the SoCAB. Both approaches identify TOG emissions from mobile sources as having the highest reactivity. Source reactivities from both approaches were also combined with TOG emissions from each source category to produce a 2005 reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission inventory for the SoCAB. The top five reactivity-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources in the SoCAB during 2005 were: light-duty passenger cars, off-road equipment, consumer products, light-duty trucks category 2 (i.e., 3751-5750 lb), and recreational boats. This is in contrast to the mass-based TOG emission inventory, which indicates that livestock waste and composting emission categories were two of the five largest mass-based anthropogenic TOG emission sources. The reactivity-based TOG emission inventory is an important addition to the mass-based TOG emission inventory because it represents the ozone formation potentials from emission sources and can be used to assist in determining targeted sources for developing organic compounds reduction policies.

  12. Dendritic azo compounds as a new type amorphous molecular material with quick photoinduced surface-relief-grating formation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yaning; Gu, Xinyu; Guo, Miaocai; Wang, Xiaogong

    2008-09-01

    A series of dendritic azobenzene-containing compounds have been synthesized as a new type amorphous molecular material, which can show quick surface-relief-grating (SRG) formation ability upon light irradiation. For the synthesis, the dendritic precursor tris(2-(ethyl(phenyl)amino)ethyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate and tris(3,5-bis(2-(ethyl(phenyl)amino)ethoxy)benzyl)benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate were prepared by esterification reactions between 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride and N-ethyl- N-hydroxyethyl-aniline and 3,5-bis[2-( N-ethylanilino)ethoxy] benzylalcohol. The precursors were, respectively reacted with the diazonium salts of 4-nitroaniline, 4-aminobenzoic acid, and 4-aminobenzonitrile to introduce different types of donor-acceptor azo chromophores at the peripheral positions. The structure and properties of the dendritic azo compounds were characterized by the spectroscopic methods and thermal analysis. The surface-relief-grating (SRG) formation behavior of the dendritic azo compounds was studied by exposing the spin-coated thin films to an interference pattern of laser beams (532 nm) at modest intensity (100 mW/cm 2). The results show that the azo compounds can form stable amorphous glasses in a broad temperature range. The glass transition temperatures ( Tgs) depend on the backbone structures and the type of the peripheral azo chromophors. The type of the electron withdrawing groups in the p-positions of the terminal azobenzene units shows a significant influence on the SRG inscription rate. For the compounds containing the same type azo chromophores, the SRG inscription rate is also affected by the backbone structure.

  13. Identification of Disubstituted Sulfonamide Compounds as Specific Inhibitors of Hepatitis B Virus Covalently Closed Circular DNA Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dawei; Mills, Courtney; Yu, Wenquan; Yan, Ran; Aldrich, Carol E.; Saputelli, Jeffry R.; Mason, William S.; Xu, Xiaodong; Guo, Ju-Tao; Block, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) plays a central role in viral infection and persistence and is the basis for viral rebound after the cessation of therapy, as well as the elusiveness of a cure even after extended treatment. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel therapeutic agents that directly target cccDNA formation and maintenance. By employing an innovative cell-based cccDNA assay in which secreted HBV e antigen is a cccDNA-dependent surrogate, we screened an in-house small-molecule library consisting of 85,000 drug-like compounds. Two structurally related disubstituted sulfonamides (DSS), termed CCC-0975 and CCC-0346, emerged and were confirmed as inhibitors of cccDNA production, with low micromolar 50% effective concentrations (EC50s) in cell culture. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that DSS compound treatment neither directly inhibited HBV DNA replication in cell culture nor reduced viral polymerase activity in the in vitro endogenous polymerase assay but synchronously reduced the levels of HBV cccDNA and its putative precursor, deproteinized relaxed circular DNA (DP-rcDNA). However, DSS compounds did not promote the intracellular decay of HBV DP-rcDNA and cccDNA, suggesting that the compounds interfere primarily with rcDNA conversion into cccDNA. In addition, we demonstrated that CCC-0975 was able to reduce cccDNA biosynthesis in duck HBV-infected primary duck hepatocytes. This is the first attempt, to our knowledge, to identify small molecules that target cccDNA formation, and DSS compounds thus potentially serve as proof-of-concept drug candidates for development into therapeutics to eliminate cccDNA from chronic HBV infection. PMID:22644022

  14. Brushing up on the history of intermetallics in dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waterstrat, Richard M.

    1990-03-01

    Employing a silver-tin-mercury intermetallic to repair cavities may seem a little unusual, but intermetallics are quite common in dentistry, ranging from gold crowns to braces. Although the human mouth can be unfriendly territory for a brittle intermetallic alloy, dental amalgam has been around since 659 A.D., and its technology has been developed to the point where a filling can be expected to last 30 years or more.

  15. Potential formation of PCDD/Fs and related bromine-substituted compounds from heating processes for ashes.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2009-09-15

    Thermal experiments were conducted using real boiler ash and fly ash samples from three types of municipal or industrial solid waste incineration plants to understand the formation reactions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furans (PCDD/Fs) and related bromine compounds that were chlorinated-brominated dibenzodioxins and furans (PXDD/Fs) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furans (PBDD/Fs). The results obtained were as follows: The formation of PCDD/Fs was clearly shown, and fly ash containing abundant carbon matter had a significant potential for de novo synthesis. The homologous distribution change apparently showed that the formation of PXDD/Fs occurred from the substitution of a bromine atom with a chlorine atom in the PCDD/F molecules. This suggests that PXDD/Fs are usually formed with PCDD/Fs on the ash. PBDD/Fs might be formed from any reaction mechanism different from that of PXDD/Fs. The existence of carbonaceous matters always does not mean the potential formation of PCDD/Fs. However, any addition of catalytic copper may influence the nature of ash to increase the formation potential. The findings suggest that there are many instances that result in the unintended production of trace hazardous pollutants in the incineration process and show that careful and sophisticated control is required to prevent the formation of pollutants. PMID:19297096

  16. Plasma sprayed ceramic thermal barrier coating for NiAl-based intermetallic alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A. (Inventor); Doychak, Joseph (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A thermal barrier coating system consists of two layers of a zirconia-yttria ceramic. The first layer is applied by low pressure plasma spraying. The second layer is applied by conventional atmospheric pressure plasma spraying. This facilitates the attachment of a durable thermally insulating ceramic coating directly to the surface of a highly oxidation resistant NiAl-based intermetallic alloy after the alloy has been preoxidized to promote the formation of a desirable Al2O3 scale.

  17. Regulation of formation of volatile compounds of tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves by single light wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xiumin; Chen, Yiyong; Mei, Xin; Katsuno, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Dong, Fang; Watanabe, Naoharu; Yang, Ziyin

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of plant growth and development by light wavelength has been extensively studied. Less attention has been paid to effect of light wavelength on formation of plant metabolites. The objective of this study was to investigate whether formation of volatiles in preharvest and postharvest tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves can be regulated by light wavelength. In the present study, in contrast to the natural light or dark treatment, blue light (470 nm) and red light (660 nm) significantly increased most endogenous volatiles including volatile fatty acid derivatives (VFADs), volatile phenylpropanoids/benzenoids (VPBs), and volatile terpenes (VTs) in the preharvest tea leaves. Furthermore, blue and red lights significantly up-regulated the expression levels of 9/13-lipoxygenases involved in VFADs formation, phenylalanine ammonialyase involved in VPBs formation, and terpene synthases involved in VTs formation. Single light wavelength had less remarkable influences on formation of volatiles in the postharvest leaves compared with the preharvest leaves. These results suggest that blue and red lights can be promising technology for remodeling the aroma of preharvest tea leaves. Furthermore, our study provided evidence that light wavelength can activate the expression of key genes involved in formation of plant volatiles for the first time. PMID:26567525

  18. The relationship between ordered intermetallic nanoparticle synthesis and the bulk phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSario, Douglas York

    In this thesis, a surfactant-free synthesis of binary and ternary metal nanoparticles via co-reduction of metal chloride precursors is used to investigate the relationship between the bulk phase diagram and the formation of ordered intermetallic structures. The majority of the synthesized phases are binary materials of the formula Pt-M (M = Sn, Sb, In, Bi), because of their propensity to form single-phase regions with very narrow phase widths, known as "line phases". These line phases are thermodynamically stable according to the bulk phase diagram; however, the relationship between bulk stability and stability in the nanoparticle regime - and the implications for nanoparticle growth and ordering behavior - have not been fully explored. The 1:1 Pt-Sn phase (PtSn) forms ordered intermetallic nanoparticles with small domain sizes (4.3 nm) at room temperature, without any thermal annealing required. Pt3Sn similarly orders at low temperature (200 oC), in contrast to the three Pt-rich line phases, all of which require higher annealing temperatures to form the intermetallic phase. Other Pt-M phases show varying degrees of ordering, but none are observed to have the same low-temperature ordering as the Pt-rich Pt-Sn phases. This behavior is extremely rare, with only one other phase to our knowledge (Pt-Bi) forming the intermetallic without annealing, and only under specific conditions. It is possible to make qualitative statements concerning which phases should easily order and form phase-pure products; however, in order to more quantitatively predict these patterns, a multivariate analysis utilizing many physical properties (e.g., melting point, whether a phase melts congruently or incongruently, crystal structure, etc) was conducted. Using principal components analysis, partial least squares regression, and logistic regression techniques, a model was constructed to determine which properties would be most predictive of phases that were able to be synthesized as pure

  19. First-principles study of the binary intermetallics in the Au-Rb system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benmechri, Achraf; Djaballah, Yassine; Amer, Ahmed Said; Belgacem-Bouzida, Aissa; Bouderba, Hichem

    2014-06-01

    First-principles calculations within density functional theory (DFT) with the projector augmented wave (PAW) technique were used to investigate the stabilities of intermetallics in the Au-Rb system at 0 K. Four intermetallics: Au7Rb3, Au3Rb2, Au5Rb and AuRb were investigated in their observed experimental structures. The Au2Rb compound, reported in the Au-Rb phase diagrams without specifying explicitly its structure, was also investigated by inspecting several hypothetical structures. A suspect compound (AuRb2) was also investigated. Results show that: (i) The Au3Rb2 and Au7Rb3 compounds, which were never reported in any Au-Rb phase diagram, are stable at 0 K. (ii) The Au2Rb compound is not a ground state for all the tested structures. (iii) Stability of the Au5Rb and AuRb compounds was confirmed. (iv) The new compound AuRb2, not yet reported experimentally, is found mechanically stable at 0 K.

  20. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  1. Formation and Ecotoxicity of N-Heterocyclic Compounds on Ammoxidation of Mono- and Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidation of technical lignins under mild conditions is a suitable approach to artificial humic substances. However, carbohydrates as common minor constituents of technical lignins have been demonstrated to be a potential source of N-heterocyclic ecotoxic compounds. Ethyl acetate extracts of ammoxidation mixtures of the monosaccharides glucose and xylose exhibited considerable growth inhibiting activity in the OECD 201 test, with 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-imidazole, and 3-hydroxypyridine being the most active compounds. The amount of N-heterocyclic compounds formed at moderate ammoxidation conditions (70 °C, 0.2 MPa O2, 3 h) was significantly lower for the polysaccharides cellulose and xylan (16–30 μg/g of educt) compared to glucose (15.4 mg). Ammoxidation at higher temperature is not recommendable for carbohydrate-rich materials as much higher amounts of N-heterocyclic compounds were formed from both monosaccharides (100 °C: 122.4–160.5 mg/g of educt) and polysaccharides (140 °C: 5.52–16.03 mg/g of educt). PMID:23967874

  2. Direct C-H alkylation and indole formation of anilines with diazo compounds under rhodium catalysis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Choi, Miji; Jo, Hyeim; Oh, Yongguk; Sharma, Satyasheel; Han, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Taejoo; Han, Sangil; Lee, Seok-Yong; Kim, In Su

    2015-12-18

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed direct functionalization of aniline C-H bonds with α-diazo compounds is described. These transformations provide a facile construction of ortho-alkylated anilines with diazo malonates or highly substituted indoles with diazo acetoacetates. PMID:26458276

  3. Ionic Strength-Induced Formation of Smectite Quasicrystals Enhances Nitroaromatic Compound Sorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of ionic strength on nitroaromatic compound sorption from water by K+- and Ca2+-saturated smectite (SWy-2) was examined. The results indicated that sorption of 1,3-dinitrobenzene by K-SWy-2 increased up to 2.2 times as KCl ionic strength increased from 0.01 to 0.30 M. In contrast, sorp...

  4. Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Oberg, Lars

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the relative degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in contaminated soil, and to assess whether persistent oxidation products are formed during their degradation. Samples were taken on five occasions during a pilot-scale bioslurry treatment of soil from a former gasworks site. More than 100 PACs were identified in the soil, including unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs), heterocyclic PACs, and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs), such as ketones, quinones, and coumarins. During the treatment, the low molecular weight PAHs and heterocyclics were degraded faster than the high molecular weight compounds. The unsubstituted PAHs also appear to have degraded more quickly than the corresponding alkyl-PAHs and nitrogen-containing heterocyclics. No new oxidation products that were not present in the untreated soil were identified after the soil treatment. However, oxy-PAHs that were present in the untreated soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Two oxidation products, 1-acenaphthenone and 4-oxapyrene-5-one, were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study. Because oxy-PAHs can be acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, we suggest that this group of compounds should also be monitored during the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil. PMID:12836964

  5. ISOTOPIC (14C) AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND FRACTIONS - PRECURSORS TO OZONE FORMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important factor in the production of ozone near ground level [3]. Many hydrocarbons originate from auto exhaust. However, a number of VOCs, e.g., isoprene, are known to be natural in origin. To develop reliable models for un...

  6. HIGHLY SENSITIVE ASSAY FOR ANTICHOLINESTERASE COMPOUNDS USING 96 WELL PLATE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the approaches for reducing uncertainties in the assessment of human exposure is to better characterize concentrations of hazardous compounds that may be present in our immediate environment. A significant limitation to this approach, however, is that sampling and labora...

  7. Geometrical Formation of Compound Starch Grains in Rice Implements Voronoi Diagram.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Ryo; Maekawa, Masahiko; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2015-11-01

    Starch forms transparent grains, called starch grains (SGs), in amyloplasts. One of the major morphological SG forms in Poaceae, called a compound SG, is formed by assemblies of small starch granules in an amyloplast. Starch granules assemble as a well-ordered structure; however, the mechanism that regulates this organization has not been identified. In this study, we examined how starch granules grow and converge into the final SG morphology. First, we found that the number of starch granules in an amyloplast is almost constant from the early developmental stage until endosperm maturity. Next, we quantitatively evaluated the geometrical similarities between starch granules and a Voronoi diagram, which is a mathematical tessellation of space based on the distance to a specific set of points in the space. The in silico growth simulation showed that the geometrical patterns of compound SGs resembling a Voronoi diagram is determined by physical interactions among the free-growing starch granules and the amyloplast envelope membrane. The geometrical similarity between compound SGs and a Voronoi diagram is likely a result of maximum loading and storage of starch in the amyloplast. The simulation described in this study provides a greater understanding of how compound SGs are formed and also has the potential to explain morphological variations of SGs. PMID:26320209

  8. Catalysis of the combined formation of urethanes, allophanates, and isocyanurates by sodium compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pisareva, I.V.; Bakalo, L.A.; Gritsenko, V.P.

    1988-11-01

    A mechanism was established for the polyaddition of phenyl isocyanate in the presence of methanol and sodium compounds, differing in anion nucleophilicity. Experimental evidence is given for two reaction pathways: continuous anionic cyclotrimerization of phenyl isocyanate and anionic polymerization of phenyl isocyanate with termination at the corresponding proton donors.

  9. Peculiarities in the formation of complex organic compounds in a nitrogen-methane atmosphere during hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsev, M. A.; Gerasimov, M. V.; Safonova, E. N.; Vasiljeva, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Results of the experiments on model impact vaporization of peridotite, a mineral analogue of stony asteroids, in a nitrogen-methane atmosphere are presented. Nd-glass laser (γ = 1.06 µm) was used for simulation. Pulse energy was ~600-700 J, pulse duration ~10-3 s, vaporization tempereature ~4000-5000 K. The gaseous medium (96% vol. of N2 and 4% vol. of CH4, P = 1 atm) was a possible analogue of early atmospheres of terrestrial planets and corresponded to the present-day atmosphere composition of Titan, a satellite of Saturn. By means of pyrolytic gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, it is shown that solid condensates obtained in laser experiments contain relatively complex lowand high-molecular weight (kerogen-like) organic compounds. The main products of condensate pyrolysis were benzene and alkyl benzenes (including long-chain ones), unbranched aliphatic hydrocarbons, and various nitrogen-containing compounds (aliphatic and aromatic nitriles and pyrrol). It is shown that the nitrogen-methane atmosphere favors the formation of complex organic compounds upon hypervelocity impacts with the participation of stony bodies even with a small methane content in it. In this process, falling bodies may not contain carbon, hydrogen, and other chemical elements necessary for the formation of the organic matter. In such conditions, a noticeable contribution to the impact-induced synthesis of complex organic substances is probably made by heterogeneous catalytic reactions, in particular, Fischer-Tropsch type reactions.

  10. High-Performance Pd3Pb Intermetallic Catalyst for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhiming; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Mengtian; DiSalvo, Francis J

    2016-04-13

    Extensive efforts to develop highly active and strongly durable electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction are motivated by a need for metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here, we report a very promising catalyst prototype of structurally ordered Pd-based alloys, Pd3Pb intermetallic compound. Such structurally ordered Pd3Pb/C exhibits a significant increase in mass activity. More importantly, compared to the conventional Pt/C catalysts, ordered Pd3Pb/C is highly durable and exhibits a much longer cycle life and higher cell efficiency in Zn-air batteries. Interestingly, ordered Pd3Pb/C possesses very high methanol tolerance during electrochemical oxygen reduction, which make it an excellent methanol-tolerant cathode catalyst for alkaline polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. This study provides a promising route to optimize the synthesis of ordered Pd-based intermetallic catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries. PMID:26848634

  11. High-temperature- and high-pressure-induced formation of the Laves-phase compound XeS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiaozhen; Chen, Yangmei; Xiang, Shikai; Kuang, Xiaoyu; Bi, Yan; Chen, Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    We explore the reactivity of xenon with sulfur under high pressure, using unbiased structure searching techniques combined with first-principles calculations, which identify a stable XeS2 compound crystallized in a Laves phase with hypercoordinated (16-fold) Xe at 191 GPa and 0 K. Taking the thermal effects into account, we find that increasing the temperature could further stabilize it. The formation of XeS2 is a consequence of pressure-induced charge transfer from Xe to S atoms and the delocalization of Xe 5 p and S 3 p electrons. Meanwhile, the stabilization into a Laves phase of XeS2 is the result of delocalized chemical bonding and the need for optimum structure packing. The present discussion of the formation mechanism in XeS2 is general, and conclusions can be used to understand the formation of other Laves-phase compounds and the Xe chemistry that allows closed-shell Xe to participate in chemical reactions.

  12. UV-based advanced oxidation processes for the treatment of odour compounds: efficiency and by-product formation.

    PubMed

    Zoschke, Kristin; Dietrich, Norman; Börnick, Hilmar; Worch, Eckhard

    2012-10-15

    The occurrence of the taste and odour compounds geosmin and 2-methyl isoborneol (2-MIB) affects the organoleptic quality of raw waters from drinking water reservoirs worldwide. UV-based oxidation processes for the removal of these substances are an alternative to adsorption and biological processes, since they additionally provide disinfection of the raw water. We could show that the concentration of geosmin and 2-MIB could be reduced by VUV irradiation and the combination of UV irradiation with ozone and hydrogen peroxide in pure water and water from a drinking water reservoir. The figure of merit EE/O is an appropriate tool to compare the AOPs and showed that VUV and UV/O(3) yielded the lowest treatment costs for the odour compounds in pure and raw water, respectively. Additionally, VUV irradiation with addition of ozone, generated by the VUV lamp, was evaluated. The generation of ozone and the irradiation were performed in a single reactor system using the same low-pressure mercury lamp, thereby reducing the energy consumption of the treatment process. The formation of the undesired by-products nitrite and bromate was investigated. The combination of VUV irradiation with ozone produced by a VUV lamp avoided the formation of relevant concentrations of the by-products. The internal generation of ozone is capable to produce ozone concentrations sufficient to reduce EE/O below 1 kWh m(-3) and without the risk of the formation of nitrite or bromate above the maximum contaminant level. PMID:22858230

  13. Characterization and hardness of TiCu–Ti2Cu3 intermetallic material fabricated by mechanical alloying and subsequent annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza; Alikhani Hesari, Feridoun

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the microstructural and phase evolutions during mechanical alloying (MA) and subsequent heat treatment of Cu–Ti powder mixture are investigated through x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and micro-hardness measurements. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that after an optimum MA time of 30 h, TiCu intermetallic compound was achieved with a mean grain size of ≈8 nm and a high micro-hardness value of ≈634 Hv. Annealing the milled powder at different temperatures resulted in formation of major TiCu and Ti2Cu3, and minor Ti2Cu and Cu4Ti nanocrystalline phases, release of internal strain, and coarsening of grains. The amount of TiCu phase and the grain size increased with increase of the annealing temperature. Micro-hardness value of ≈765 Hv was recorded when the milled TiCu powder was annealed at 850 °C. This superior high micro-hardness value can be attributed to formation of higher amount of TiCu phase.

  14. Effect of ultrasonic melt treatment on the refinement of primary Al3Ti intermetallic in an Al-0.4Ti alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Eskin, Dmitry; Connolley, Thomas; Mi, Jiawei

    2016-02-01

    High intensity ultrasonic melt treatment was applied to an Al-0.4 wt% Ti alloy over three selected temperature ranges: 810 to 770 °C (above liquidus), 770 to 730 °C (across liquidus), and 730 to 690 °C (below liquidus). The size and morphology of the primary Al3Ti intermetallic particles were studied by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the primary Al3Ti intermetallics were refined as a result of ultrasonication over all three temperature ranges and their morphology changed from typical large dendritic plates to small compact tablets. Quenching experiments before and after the ultrasonication were also carried out to capture the high-temperature stage of intermetallic formation. Based on the size and morphology observations, the mechanisms for the refinement of primary Al3Ti intermetallics at different solidification stages are discussed.

  15. On the formation of molecules and solid-state compounds from the AGB to the PN phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2016-07-01

    During the asymptoyic giant branch (AGB) phase, different elements are dredge- up to the stellar surface depending on progenitor mass and metallicity. When the mass loss increases at the end of the AGB, a circumstellar dust shell is formed, where different (C-rich or O-rich) molecules and solid-state compounds are formed. These are further processed in the transition phase between AGB stars and planetary nebulae (PNe) to create more complex organic molecules and inorganic solid-state compounds (e.g., polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and graphene precursors in C-rich environments and oxides and crystalline silicates in O-rich ones). We present an observational review of the different molecules and solid-state materials that are formed from the AGB to the PN phases. We focus on the formation routes of complex fullerene (and fullerene-based) molecules as well as on the level of dust processing depending on metallicity.

  16. Deformation-Induced Amorphization of Copper-Titanium Intermetallics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askenazy, Philip Douglas

    Two methods of inducing amorphization in Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds by mechanical means have been investigated. Ingots of compositions Cu_{35}Ti _{65} and Cu_ {33.3}Ti_{66.7} were rapidly quenched into ribbons. The microstructure consisted largely of microcrystals in an amorphous matrix, which were either quenched in or grown by annealing. The ribbons were cold-rolled, which reduced their effective thickness by a factor of about 8. The status of the intermetallic compound CuTi_2 was monitored by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystals were found to amorphize as rolling progressed. This behavior was not reproduced in polycrystalline samples that had no amorphous matrix present initially. The presence of the amorphous phase is thus necessary for amorphization of the crystal: it eliminates the need to nucleate the new glass, and it prevents the ribbon from disintegrating at high deformation stages. It may also change the deformation mechanism that occurs in the crystals, retarding the onset of amorphization. Diffuse scattering in close-packed directions is similar to that seen in electron irradiation experiments. It is postulated that the chemical disorder present in antiphase boundaries caused by deformation raises the free energy of the crystal higher than that of the amorphous phase. Ingots of the same compound were worn against each other in a custom-built wear apparatus. The design eliminates iron contamination of the wear sample and requires relatively small quantities of material. Alteration of the surface structure was monitored by plane-view and cross -sectional TEM. Larger subsurface crystals exhibit diffuse scattering, similar to that found in the rolled samples. A wide range of grain sizes was observed, due to the inhomogeneous nature of the wear process. An unusual phase was observed at the surface, consisting of a nanometer-scale mixture of aligned nanocrystalline regions and disordered areas. Some amorphous phase is

  17. Nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds in meteorites - Significance and mechanisms of formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoks, P. G.; Schwartz, A. W.

    1981-04-01

    Samples of the Murchison, Murray, and Orgueil carbonaceous meteorites were analyzed for nitrogen-heterocyclic compounds using gas chromatography, cation and anion exclusion liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The H2O and HCOOH extracts, as well as the 3M-HCl hydrolyzate of the Allende sample were taken through all stages of analysis. Concentrations ranging from 114-655 ppb of the purines adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine were found to be present in acid extracts. All four biologically significant purines, as well as the pyrimidine uracil have been identified in meteorites. It was concluded that the suite of N-heterocyclic compounds identified in meteorites do not permit a clear distinction between mechanisms of synthesis such as the Fischer-Tropsch type, and other candidates.

  18. Secondary brown carbon - Formation of light-absorbing compounds in atmospheric particulates from selected dicarbonyls and amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Christopher; Filippi, Alexander; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    One of the main open questions regarding organic compounds in atmospheric chemistry today is related to the formation of optically-active compounds and the occurrence of so called brown carbon (Andreae and Gelencsér, 2006). While organic compounds in ambient fine particles for decades have been assumed to not absorb solar radiation, thus resulting in a net cooling effect on climate (IPCC, 2007), it is now generally accepted that a continuum of light-absorbing carbonaceous species is present in fine aerosols (Pöschl, 2003). In this study, light-absorbing compounds from reactions between dicarbonyl compounds, i.e., glyoxal, methylglyoxal, acetylacetone, 2,3-butanedione, 2,5-hexanedione, and glutaraldehyde, and amine species, i.e., ammonia and glycine, were investigated at atmospherically relevant concentrations in bulk solution experiments mimicking atmospheric particulates. Product analyses were performed using UV/Vis spectrophotometry and (ultra) high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection and ion trap mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS), as well as ultra-high resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-HRMS/MS). We demonstrate that light-absorbing compounds are formed from a variety of atmospherically relevant dicarbonyls via particle phase reactions with amine nucleophiles. Single dicarbonyl and mixed dicarbonyl experiments were performed and products were analyzed. The reaction products are suggested to be cyclic nitrogen containing compounds such as imidazoles or dihydropyridines as well as open chain compounds resulting from aldol condensation reactions. Further, the reactive turnover was found to be higher at increasing pH values. The aforementioned processes may be of higher relevance in regions with high aerosol pH, e.g., resulting from high ammonia emissions as for example in northern India (Clarisse et al., 2009). References Andreae, M.O., and Gelencsér, A. (2006): Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light

  19. Lightweight Intermetallics with Laves Structures as Potential Hydrogen Storage Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billet, Beau Austin

    Hydrogen storage was identified by the US Department of Energy as a "grand challenge" for the implementation of hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles for reduced CO2 emissions from transportation vehicles. None of the hydrogen storage options currently developed can satisfy the high gravimetric, volumetric and system design requirements. Intermetallic compounds with Laves structures in the formula of AB2 have long been known to store hydrogen in their interstitial sites to serve as reversible hydrogen storage materials (A and B are metallic elements). They have the potential to be hydrided to a maximum of ~ AB2H6 due to the impeding H-H interactions at neighboring interstitial sites. To achieve the highest weight percent of hydrogen storage in AB2H6, the lowest combined atomic weight of AB2 is required. The CaLi2 compound is the lightest known Laves phase, but it could not maintain its Laves structure when it was hydrided. Existing work of Akiba's group showed that a ternary Laves phase CaLi1.8Mg0.2 could be hydrided to form a hydrogenated Laves phase, but the absorbed hydrogen could not be released for reversible storage. Substitutions (Ca,X)Li1.8Mg0.2 are explored in the present study to see whether heavier elements [X = Sr, Ba and Ce] in small quantities can make the lightweight Laves compounds reversibly store hydrogen. Induction melting was successful in obtaining the desired Laves phases. The base system, CaLi1.8Mg0.2, formed a single phase, consistent with the literature result. Both Ca0.9Ba0.1Li 1.8Mg0.2 and Ca0.9Ce0.1Li1.8Mg 0.2 also formed a single-phase C14 Laves, whereas both Ca0.9Sr 0.1Li1.8Mg0.2 and Ca0.8Sr0.2Li 1.8Mg0.2 formed two seperature Laves phases with the same crystal structure, indicating a phase separation. The Ca0.8Ba 0.2Li1.8Mg0.2 composition completely lost the Laves-phase structure, forming CaLi2, CaMg2, BaLi 4 and Ca. All compounds tested at temperatures from 25 °C to 150 °C show the characteristic "plateau" behavior in the pressure

  20. Use of HμREL Human Coculture System for Prediction of Intrinsic Clearance and Metabolite Formation for Slowly Metabolized Compounds.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Ia; Vedin, Charlotta; Abrahamsson, Anna; Winiwarter, Susanne; Darnell, Malin

    2016-08-01

    Design of slowly metabolized compounds is an important goal in many drug discovery projects. Standard hepatocyte suspension intrinsic clearance (CLint) methods can only provide reliable CLint values above 2.5 μL/min/million cells. A method that permits extended incubation time with maintained performance and metabolic activity of the in vitro system is warranted to allow in vivo clearance predictions and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static HμREL coculture of human hepatocytes with stromal cells to be set up in-house as a standard method for in vivo clearance prediction and metabolite identification of slowly metabolized drugs. Fourteen low CLint compounds were incubated for 3 days, and seven intermediate to high CLint compounds and a cocktail of cytochrome P450 (P450) marker substrates were incubated for 3 h. In vivo clearance was predicted for 20 compounds applying the regression line approach, and HμREL coculture predicted the human intrinsic clearance for 45% of the drugs within 2-fold and 70% of the drugs within 3-fold of the clinical values. CLint values as low as 0.3 μL/min/million hepatocytes were robustly produced, giving 8-fold improved sensitivity of robust low CLint determination, over the cutoff in hepatocyte suspension CLint methods. The CLint values of intermediate to high CLint compounds were at similar levels both in HμREL coculture and in freshly thawed hepatocytes. In the HμREL coculture formation rates for five P450-isoform marker reactions, paracetamol (CYP1A2), 1-OH-bupropion (CYP2B6), 4-OH-diclofenac (CYP2C9), and 1-OH-midazolam (3A4) were within the range of literature values for freshly thawed hepatocytes, whereas 1-OH-bufuralol (CYP2D6) formation rate was lower. Further, both phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and an increased number of metabolites were observed in the HμREL coculture compared to hepatocyte suspension. In conclusion, HμREL coculture can

  1. Oligonuclear molecular models of intermetallic phases: a case study on [Pd2Zn6Ga2(Cp*)5(CH3)3].

    PubMed

    Bollermann, Timo; Molon, Mariusz; Gemel, Christian; Freitag, Kerstin; Seidel, Rüdiger W; von Hopffgarten, Moritz; Jerabek, Paul; Frenking, Gernot; Fischer, Roland A

    2012-04-16

    The synthesis, characterization, and theoretical investigation by means of quantum-chemical calculations of an oligonuclear metal-rich compound are presented. The reaction of homoleptic dinuclear palladium compound [Pd(2)(μ-GaCp*)(3)(GaCp*)(2)] with ZnMe(2) resulted in the formation of unprecedented ternary Pd/Ga/Zn compound [Pd(2)Zn(6)Ga(2)(Cp*)(5)(CH(3))(3)] (1), which was analyzed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, MS, elemental analysis, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 consisted of two C(s)-symmetric molecular isomers, as revealed by NMR spectroscopy, at which distinct site-preferences related to the Ga and Zn positions were observed by quantum-chemical calculations. Structural characterization of compound 1 showed significantly different coordination environments for both palladium centers. Whilst one Pd atom sat in the central of a bi-capped trigonal prism, thereby resulting in a formal 18-valence electron fragment, {Pd(ZnMe)(2)(ZnCp*)(4)(GaMe)}, the other Pd atom occupied one capping unit, thereby resulting in a highly unsaturated 12-valence electron fragment, {Pd(GaCp*)}. The bonding situation, as determined by atoms-in-molecules analysis (AIM), NBO partial charges, and molecular orbital (MO) analysis, pointed out that significant Pd-Pd interactions had a large stake in the stabilization of this unusual molecule. The characterization and quantum-chemical calculations of compound 1 revealed distinct similarities to related M/Zn/Ga Hume-Rothery intermetallic solid-state compounds, such as Ga/Zn-exchange reactions, the site-preferences of the Zn/Ga positions, and direct M-M bonding, which contributes to the overall stability of the metal-rich compound. PMID:22416016

  2. Enzymatic formation of compound-K from ginsenoside Rb1 by enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of Armillaria mellea

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Jitendra; Kim, Min-Ji; Kim, Young-Hoi; Ko, Sung-Ryong; Park, Hee-Won; Kim, Myung-Kon

    2015-01-01

    Background Minor saponins or human intestinal bacterial metabolites, such as ginsenosides Rg3, F2, Rh2, and compound K, are more pharmacologically active than major saponins, such as ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc. In this work, enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1 was studied using enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of mushrooms. Methods Mycelia of Armillaria mellea, Ganoderma lucidum, Phellinus linteus, Elfvingia applanata, and Pleurotus ostreatus were cultivated in liquid media at 25°C for 2 wk. Enzyme preparations from cultured mycelia of five mushrooms were obtained by mycelia separation from cultured broth, enzyme extraction, ammonium sulfate (30–80%) precipitation, dialysis, and freeze drying, respectively. The enzyme preparations were used for enzymatic hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1. Results Among the mushrooms used in this study, the enzyme preparation from cultured mycelia of A. mellea (AMMEP) was found to convert ginsenoside Rb1 into compound K with a high yield, while those from G. lucidum, P. linteus, E. applanata, and P. ostreatus produced remarkable amounts of ginsenoside Rd from ginsenoside Rb1. The enzymatic hydrolysis pathway of ginsenoside Rb1 by AMMEP was Rb1 → Rd → F2 → compound K. The optimum reaction conditions for compound K formation from ginsenoside Rb1 were as follows: reaction time 72–96 h, pH 4.0–4.5, and temperature 45–55°C. Conclusion AMMEP can be used to produce the human intestinal bacterial metabolite, compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1 with a high yield and without food safety issues. PMID:27158230

  3. Formation of Toxic Iodinated Disinfection By-Products from Compounds Used in Medical Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) were investigated as a source of iodine in the formation of iodo-trihalomethane (iodo-THM) and iodo-acid disinfection byproducts (DBPs), both of which are highly genotoxic and/or cytotoxic in mammalian cells. ICM are widely used at medical cen...

  4. Some Contributions of Resistant Compounds to Soil Organic Matter Formation and Nutrient Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some biomolecules in soil organic matter (SOM) are intrinsically more resistant to microbial decomposition than are other SOM components. Their resistance can be altered by soil properties and by land management, which can affect the formation and stability of SOM and in turn soil processes. Selecte...

  5. HIGHLY SENSITIVE ASSAY FOR ANTICHOLINESTERASE COMPOUNDS USING 96 WELL PLATE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid and sensitive detection of organophosphate insecticides using a 96 well plate format is reported. Several features of this assay make it attractive for development as a laboratory-based or field screening assay. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was stabilized in a gelati...

  6. Redox effect on volatile compound formation in wine during fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Laura; Medina, Karina; Urruty, Maia; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-09-15

    Although redox state is a well-known key process parameter in microbial activity, its impact on wine volatile aroma compounds produced during fermentation has not been studied in detail. In this study we report the effect of reductive and microaerobic conditions on wine aroma compound production using different initial amounts of yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN: 180 and 400 mg N/l) in a simil grape must defined medium and two S. cerevisiae strains commonly used in wine-making. In batch fermentation culture conditions, reductive conditions were obtained using flasks plugged with Muller valves filled with sulphuric acid; while microaerobic conditions were attained with defined cotton plugs. It was found that significant differences in redox potential were obtained using the different plugs, and with variation of over 100 mV during the main fermentation period. Significant differences in the final concentration of higher alcohols, esters and fatty acids were attributed to differences in the redox state in the medium in both strains. A consistent increase in esters and medium chain fatty acids, as well as a decrease of higher alcohols and isoacids, was seen under reductive fermentation conditions. Interestingly, 1-propanol, δ-butyrolactone and ethyl lactate concentrations, showed no significant variation under the different redox conditions. A better understanding of the influence of redox state of the fermentation medium on the composition of volatile compounds in wine could enable improvement of vinification management. From a microbiological standpoint results presented here will contribute to the standardization of data models for the application of metabolic footprinting methods for wine yeast strain phenotyping and characterization. PMID:23107710

  7. Synthesis of superheavy elements and dinuclear-system concept of compound-nucleus formation

    SciTech Connect

    Antonenko, N.V.; Adamian, G.G.; Cherepanov, E.A.

    1996-12-31

    Dinuclear system concept is applied to the analysis of reactions used for the synthesis of elements with Z = 110, 112, 114, and 116. The inner fusion barriers obtained for these reactions are in good agreement with the experimental estimations resulted from the excitation energies of compound nuclei. A model is suggested for the calculation of the competition between complete fusion and quasifission in reactions with heavy nuclei. The fusion rate through the inner fusion barrier in mass asymmetry is found by using the multidimensional Kramers-type stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The influence of dissipative effects on the dynamics of nuclear fusion is considered.

  8. Photoassisted carbon dioxide reduction and formation of twoand three-carbon compounds. [prebiological photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halmann, M.; Aurian-Blajeni, B.; Bloch, S.

    1981-01-01

    The photoassisted reduction of aqueous carbon dioxide in the presence of naturally occurring minerals is investigated as a possible abiotic precursor of photosynthesis. Aqueous carbon dioxide saturated suspensions or surfaces of the minerals nontronite, bentonite, anatase, wolframite, molybdenite, minium, cinnabar and hematite were irradiated with high-pressure mercury lamps or sunlight. Chemical analyses reveal the production of formic acid, formaldehyde, methanol and methane, and the two and three-carbon compounds glyoxal (CHOCHO) and malonaldehyde (CH2(CHO)2). It is suggested that such photosynthetic reactions with visible light in the presence of semiconducting minerals may provide models for prebiological carbon and nitrogen fixation in both oxidized and reduced atmospheres.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of arsenic compounds and the heat of formation of the As atom from high level electronic structure calculations.

    PubMed

    Feller, David; Vasiliu, Monica; Grant, Daniel J; Dixon, David A

    2011-12-29

    Structures, vibrational frequencies, atomization energies at 0 K, and heats of formation at 0 and 298 K are predicted for the compounds As(2), AsH, AsH(2), AsH(3), AsF, AsF(2), and AsF(3) from frozen core coupled cluster theory calculations performed with large correlation consistent basis sets, up through augmented sextuple zeta quality. The coupled cluster calculations involved up through quadruple excitations. For As(2) and the hydrides, it was also possible to examine the impact of full configuration interaction on some of the properties. In addition, adjustments were incorporated to account for extrapolation to the frozen core complete basis set limit, core/valence correlation, scalar relativistic effects, the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction, and atomic spin orbit corrections. Based on our best theoretical D(0)(As(2)) and the experimental heat of formation of As(2), we propose a revised 0 K arsenic atomic heat of formation of 68.86 ± 0.8 kcal/mol. While generally good agreement was found between theory and experiment, the heat of formation of AsF(3) was an exception. Our best estimate is more than 7 kcal/mol more negative than the single available experimental value, which argues for a re-examination of that measurement. PMID:22091635

  10. Formation of biomineral iron oxides compounds in a Fe hyperaccumulator plant: Imperata cylindrica (L.) P. Beauv.

    PubMed

    Fuente, V; Rufo, L; Juárez, B H; Menéndez, N; García-Hernández, M; Salas-Colera, E; Espinosa, A

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed work of composition and location of naturally formed iron biominerals in plant cells tissues grown in iron rich environments as Imperata cylindrica. This perennial grass grows on the Tinto River banks (Iberian Pyritic Belt) in an extreme acidic ecosystem (pH∼2.3) with high concentration of dissolved iron, sulphate and heavy metals. Iron biominerals were found at the cellular level in tissues of root, stem and leaf both in collected and laboratory-cultivated plants. Iron accumulated in this plant as a mix of iron compounds (mainly as jarosite, ferrihydrite, hematite and spinel phases) was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), magnetometry (SQUID), electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX; TEM-EDX; HRSTEM). A low fraction of phosphorous was detected in this iron hyperaccumulator plant. Root and rhizomes tissues present a high proportion of ferromagnetic iron oxide compounds. Iron oxides-rich zones are localized in electron dense intra and inter-cellular aggregates that appear as dark deposits covering the inner membrane and organelles of the cell. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of accumulation, transport, distribution of iron in Imperata cylindrica. PMID:26592710

  11. Intermetallics Characterization of Lead-Free Solder Joints under Isothermal Aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubey, Anupam; Yu, Hao; Osterman, Michael; Pecht, Michael; Yun, Fu; Yonghong, Li; Ming, Xu

    2008-08-01

    Solder interconnect reliability is influenced by environmentally imposed loads, solder material properties, and the intermetallics formed within the solder and the metal surfaces to which the solder is bonded. Several lead-free metallurgies are being used for component terminal plating, board pad plating, and solder materials. These metallurgies react together and form intermetallic compounds (IMCs) that affect the metallurgical bond strength and the reliability of solder joint connections. This study evaluates the composition and extent of intermetallic growth in solder joints of ball grid array components for several printed circuit board pad finishes and solder materials. Intermetallic growth during solid state aging at 100°C and 125°C up to 1000 h for two solder alloys, Sn-3.5Ag and Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, was investigated. For Sn-3.5Ag solder, the electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG) pad finish was found to result in the lowest IMC thickness compared to immersion tin (ImSn), immersion silver (ImAg), and organic solderability preservative (OSP). Due to the brittle nature of the IMC, a lower IMC thickness is generally preferred for optimal solder joint reliability. A lower IMC thickness may make ENIG a desirable finish for long-life applications. Activation energies of IMC growth in solid-state aging were found to be 0.54 ± 0.1 eV for ENIG, 0.91 ± 0.12 eV for ImSn, and 1.03 ± 0.1 eV for ImAg. Cu3Sn and Cu6Sn5 IMCs were found between the solder and the copper pad on boards with the ImSn and ImAg pad finishes. Ternary (Cu,Ni)6Sn5 intermetallics were found for the ENIG pad finish on the board side. On the component side, a ternary IMC layer composed of Ni-Cu-Sn was found. Along with intermetallics, microvoids were observed at the interface between the copper pad and solder, which presents some concern if devices are subject to shock and vibration loading.

  12. Ozonolysis of a series of biogenic organic volatile compounds and secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, François; Quilgars, Alain; Cazaunau, Mathieu; Grosselin, Benoît.; Daele, Véronique; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Winterhalter, Richard; Moortgat, Geert K.

    2010-05-01

    Secondary organic aerosols are formed via nucleation of atmospheric organic vapours on pre-existing particles observed in various rural environments where the organic fraction represents the major part of the observed nano-particle (Kavouras and Stephanou, 2002; Kulmala et al., 2004a). However, nucleation of organic vapors appears to be unlikely thermodynamically in relevant atmospheric conditions (Kulmala et al., 2004b). In this work, a systematic study has been conducted to investigate the aerosol formation through the ozonolysis of a series of monotepenes using a newly developed aerosol flow reactor and the ICARE indoor simulation chamber. The nucleation thresholds have been determined for SOA formed through the reaction of ozone with a-Pinene, sabinene, myrcene and limonene in absence of any observable existing particles. The measurements were performed using the flow reactor combined to a particle counter (CPC 3022). Number concentrations of SOA have been measured for different concentration of consumed monoterpenes. The data obtained allow us to estimate the nucleation threshold for a range of 0.2 - 45 ppb of consumed monoterpenes. The nucleation threshold values obtained here (≤ 1 ppb of the consumed monoterpenes) have been found to be lower than the previously reported ones (Berndt et al., 2003; Bonn and Moortgat, 2003; Koch et al., 2000; Lee and Kamens, 2005). The ICARE simulation chamber has been used to study the mechanism of the reaction of ozone with various acyclic terpenes (myrcene, ocimene, linalool and a-farnesene) and to derive the SOA mass formation yield. The time-concentration profiles of reactants and products in gas-phase were obtained using in-situ Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. In addition, the number and mass concentrations of SOA have been monitored with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The chemical composition of the SOA formed has been tentatively characterised using Liquid Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry. The results

  13. Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1988 project results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic substances are reported. Specific weakness where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase and vapor pressure measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation are reported for 3-methylbuta 1,2-diene; 2,5-dimethylhexa 2,4-diene; acetaldoxime; N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine; 1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one; and phenanthrene. Solid and liquid phase enthalpies of formation at 298.15 K are determined for benzamide. Ring corrections, group terms, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction terms useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.

  14. Compositions, Formation Mechanism, and Neuroprotective Effect of Compound Precipitation from the Traditional Chinese Prescription Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenze; Zhao, Rui; Yan, Wenqiang; Wang, Hui; Jia, Menglu; Zhu, Nailiang; Zhu, Yindi; Zhang, Yuzhong; Wang, Penglong; Lei, Haimin

    2016-01-01

    Compounds in the form of precipitation (CFP) are universally formed during the decocting of Chinese prescriptions, such as Huang-Lian-Jie-Du-Tang (HLJDT). The formation rate of HLJDT CFP even reached 2.63% ± 0.20%. The identification by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)) proved that the main chemical substances of HLJDT CFP are baicalin and berberine, which is coincident with the theory that the CFP might derive from interaction between acidic and basic compounds. To investigate the formation mechanism of HLJDT CFP, baicalin and berberine were selected to synthesize a simulated precipitation and then the baicalin-berberine complex was obtained. Results indicated that the melting point of the complex interposed between baicalin and berberine, and the UV absorption, was different from the mother material. In addition, ¹H-NMR integral and high-resolution mass spectroscopy (HR-MS) can validate that the binding ratio was 1:1. Compared with baicalin, the chemical shifts of H and C on glucuronide had undergone significant changes by ¹H-, (13)C-NMR, which proved that electron transfer occurred between the carboxylic proton and the lone pair of electrons on the N atom. Both HLJDT CFP and the baicalin-berberine complex showed protective effects against cobalt chloride-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells. It is a novel idea, studying the material foundation of CFP in Chinese prescriptions. PMID:27548137

  15. Entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of compound nucleus formation time in light heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Szanto de Toledo, A.; Carlson, B.V.; Beck, C.

    1996-12-01

    The entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the compound nucleus formation time in light heavy-ion reactions has been investigated within the framework of semiclassical dissipative collision models. The model calculations have been applied successfully to the formation of the {sup 38}Ar compound nucleus as populated via the {sup 9}Be+{sup 29}Si, {sup 11}B+{sup 27}Al, {sup 12}C+{sup 26}Mg, and {sup 19}F+{sup 19}F entrance channels. The shape evolution of several other light composite systems appears to be consistent with the so-called {open_quote}{open_quote}Fusion Inhibition Factor{close_quote}{close_quote} which has been observed experimentally. As found previously in more massive systems for the fusion-evaporation process, the entrance-channel mass-asymmetry degree of freedom appears to determine the competition between the different mechanisms as well as the time scales involved. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Organic aerosol formation from biogenic compounds over the Ponderosa pine forest in Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Alma Hodzic; Lee-Taylor, Julia; Cui, Yuyan; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-05-01

    The secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and regional growth from biogenic precursors is of particular interest given their abundance in the atmosphere, and has been investigated during the Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol field Study in 2011 in the pine forest canopy (dominated by terpene emissions) using both WRF/Chem 4km simulations and the GECKO-A explicit chemistry box-model runs. We have quantified the relative contribution of different biogenic precursors to SOA levels that were measured by the aerosol mass spectrometer at the site, and investigated the relative contribution of OH, O3 and NO3 chemistry to the formed SOA mass during day-and nighttime. Although, the local production and mass concentrations of submicron organic aerosols at the site seem relatively modest ˜1-2 ug/m3, we show that the optically active regional mass is increased as the SOA formation continues for several days in the background forest air. We investigate whether the simplified SOA parameterizations used in 3D models can capture this growth. In addition, preliminary comparisons of the number concentrations and the composition of ultrafine particles (8 - 30nm) from WRF/Chem simulations and TD-CIMS measurements are also discussed, and the contribution of organic aerosols to CCN formation is quantified.

  17. Antioxidant Compounds in Traditional Indian Pickles May Prevent the Process-Induced Formation of Benzene.

    PubMed

    Kharat, Mahesh M; Adiani, Vanshika; Variyar, Prasad; Sharma, Arun; Singhal, Rekha S

    2016-01-01

    Pickles in the Indian market contain ascorbic acid from the raw material used and benzoate as an added preservative that are involved in the formation of benzene in soft drinks. In this work, 24 market pickle samples were surveyed for benzene content, as well as its precursors and other constituents that influence its formation. The analysis showed that pickle samples were high in acid content (low pH) and showed significant amount of ascorbic acid, minerals (Cu and Fe), and benzoic acid present in them. Also, most samples exhibited high antioxidant activity that might be attributed to the ingredients used, such as fruits and spices. The solid-phase microextraction headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed in-house for benzene analysis. Eleven of 24 samples had benzene, with the highest concentration of 4.36 ± 0.82 μg of benzene per kg of pickle for a lime pickle that was also reported to have highest benzoic acid and considerably less hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) scavenging activity. However, benzene levels for all 11 samples were considerably below the World Health Organization regulatory limit of 10 μg/kg for benzene in mineral water. Studies on model systems revealed that the high antioxidant activity of Indian pickles may have had a strong inhibitory effect on benzene formation. PMID:26735038

  18. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur. PMID:19849830

  19. Reduction of nitrogen compounds in oceanic basement and its implications for HCN formation and abiotic organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Holm, Nils G; Neubeck, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide is an excellent organic reagent and is central to most of the reaction pathways leading to abiotic formation of simple organic compounds containing nitrogen, such as amino acids, purines and pyrimidines. Reduced carbon and nitrogen precursor compounds for the synthesis of HCN may be formed under off-axis hydrothermal conditions in oceanic lithosphere in the presence of native Fe and Ni and are adsorbed on authigenic layer silicates and zeolites. The native metals as well as the molecular hydrogen reducing CO2 to CO/CH4 and NO3-/NO2- to NH3/NH4+ are a result of serpentinization of mafic rocks. Oceanic plates are conveyor belts of reduced carbon and nitrogen compounds from the off-axis hydrothermal environments to the subduction zones, where compaction, dehydration, desiccation and diagenetic reactions affect the organic precursors. CO/CH4 and NH3/NH4+ in fluids distilled out of layer silicates and zeolites in the subducting plate at an early stage of subduction will react upon heating and form HCN, which is then available for further organic reactions to, for instance, carbohydrates, nucleosides or even nucleotides, under alkaline conditions in hydrated mantle rocks of the overriding plate. Convergent margins in the initial phase of subduction must, therefore, be considered the most potent sites for prebiotic reactions on Earth. This means that origin of life processes are, perhaps, only possible on planets where some kind of plate tectonics occur. PMID:19849830

  20. First-principles study of Al-Cu energetics and consequences on athermal formation of Cu-rich compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besson, R.; Kwon, J.; Thuinet, L.; Avettand-Fènoël, M.-N.; Legris, A.

    2014-12-01

    In spite of its practical interest, the Al-Cu system remains largely unexplored, especially on its Cu-rich side. In order to improve the knowledge of this system, we perform a thorough ab initio study of fcc-based Al-Cu energetics, using the recently proposed M2BCE reciprocal-space cluster expansion approach. We demonstrate the existence of two clearly distinct composition domains, revealing complex ground-state properties. Below 50% Cu, the GP 2 -A l3Cu compound appears as highly favored, in agreement with the well-documented transformation sequence in Al-based alloys. Conversely, the domain between 50% and 80% Cu displays a much shallower landscape, characterized by the existence of a wealth of compounds undergoing fcc →bcc structural instabilities. While such "Bain paths" have been identified for a long time in iron-based alloys, our work gives evidence for their existence in the Al-Cu system. As a striking application, these instabilities provide plausible athermal mechanisms for the formation of Cu-rich phases, in particular for the unexpected emergence of γ1-A l4C u9 , a Hume-Rothery compound observed in various nonequilibrium conditions.

  1. SOA Formation form the NO3 radicals Chemistry of Isoprene, Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, Biogenic Oxygenated Compounds, and Aromatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleindienst, T. E.; Jaoui, M.; Docherty, K.; Corse, E.; Offenberg, J. H.; Lewandowski, M.

    2011-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere primarily by hydroxyl radicals (OH) during daylight hours but also by nitrate radicals (NO3) during overnight, photochemically inactive periods. While reactions with OH have received considerable attention with regard to gas-phase reaction products and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, less is known about the mechanisms and products resulting from nighttime NO3 reactions despite their potential for SOA formation. To date, there have been limited studies on the chemical characteristics of aerosol reaction products formed from VOCs oxidation with NO3, and few SOA reaction products have been identified. Nighttime reactions have nevertheless been incorporated into some air quality models despite the limited information available and substantial uncertainties which still exist. The National Exposure Research Laboratory of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently undertook an integrated laboratory research effort to better understand the contribution of NO3 reactions to nighttime SOA formation. Isoprene, methacrolein, a-pinene, b-pinene, d-limonene, b-caryophyllene, farnesene, a-humulene, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol, toluene, m-xylene, and naphthalene were reacted with NO3 under a wide range of conditions in a series of separate photochemical reaction chamber experiments. These hydrocarbons are thought to contribute to ambient SOA formation. NO3 was formed through thermal decomposition of N2O5. The yield, physical characteristics, and composition of SOA formed in each experiment was analyzed by a suite of instruments including a scanning mobility particle sizer, a Sunset Labs semi continuous EC-OC monitor, a volatility differential mobility analyzer, a direct insertion probe-mass spectrometer, a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer, and a gas-chromatography-mass spectrometer. To understand the relative contributions of nighttime versus daytime VOCs reactions, a similar

  2. Comets and the formation of biochemical compounds on the primitive earth - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Mills, T.; Lazcano, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty years ago it was suggested that comets impacting on the primitive earth may have represented a significant source of terrestrial volatiles, including some important precursors for prebiotic synthesis (Oro, 1961). This possibility is strongly supported not only by models of the collisional history of the early earth, but also by astronomical evidence that suggests that frequent collisions of cometlike bodies from the circumstellar disk around the star Beta Pictoris are taking place. Although a significant fraction of the complex organic compounds that appear to be present in cometary nuclei were probably destroyed during impact, it is argued that cometary collisions with the primitive earth represented an important source of both free-energy and volatiles, and may have created transient, gaseous environments in which prebiotic synthesis may have taken place.

  3. Formation by yeast of 2-furanmethanethiol and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate aroma compounds in Japanese soy sauce.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qi; Hatakeyama, Makoto; Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Two aroma compounds of volatile thiols, 2-furanmethanethiol (2FM) and ethyl 2-mercaptopropionate (ET2MP), were formed in five types of Japanese soy sauce during fermentation by yeast. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP in the soy sauce samples increased during alcoholic fermentation. The concentrations of 2FM and ET2MP were higher in the soy sauce fermented by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii than in that fermented by Candida versatilis. The enantiomers of ET2MP were separated by gas chromatography in a capillary column. The average enantiomeric ratio of ET2MP in the soy sauce was approximately 1:1. 2FM was formed by yeast in a medium prepared from cysteine and furfural, and cysteine is considered the key precursor of 2FM by yeast in soy sauce. PMID:25036492

  4. [Formation of volatile carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds from drugs under simulated human gastric conditions].

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, D

    1985-01-01

    41 commercial drugs approved for peroral application in the GDR, whose active agents contain N,N-dialkylamino groups in their chemical structures, have been investigated under simulated conditions of the human stomach. With the drugs containing aminophenazone, amitriptyline, doxycycline and oxytetracycline as active agents N-nitrosodimethylamine is formed as a result of nitrosation reactions. With the drugs containing clomiphene++, disulfiram, probenecid and a diethylamine-containing liquid hypnoticum, there occurred N-nitrosodiethylamine. In no case N-nitrosodi-n-propylamine or N-nitrosopiperidine were detectable. The isolated active agents amitriptyline, clomiphene++ and probenecid themselves proved not to be nitrosatable. The positive findings with these drugs were caused by not yet identified nitrosatable contaminants of these drugs. The quantitative determination of volatile N-nitroso compounds was done upon steam distillation by means of gas chromatograph and chemiluminescence detector. PMID:4062492

  5. Reactions of SIV species with organic compounds: formation mechanisms of organo-sulfur derivatives in atmospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passananti, Monica; Shang, Jing; Dupart, Yoan; Perrier, Sébastien; George, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) have an important impact on climate, air quality and human health. However the chemical reactions involved in their formation and growth are not fully understood or well-constrained in climate models. It is well known that inorganic sulfur (mainly in oxidation states (+IV) and (+VI)) plays a key role in aerosol formation, for instance sulfuric acid is known to be a good nucleating gas. In addition, acid-catalyzed heterogeneous reactions of organic compounds has shown to produce new particles, with a clear enhancement in the presence of ozone (Iinuma 2013). Organosulfates have been detected in tropospheric particles and aqueous phases, which suggests they are products of secondary organic aerosol formation process (Tolocka 2012). Originally, the production of organosulfates was explained by the esterification reaction of alcohols, but this reaction in atmosphere is kinetically negligible. Other formation pathways have been suggested such as hydrolysis of peroxides and reaction of organic matter with sulfite and sulfate radical anions (SO3-, SO4-) (Nozière 2010), but it remains unclear if these can completely explain atmospheric organo-sulfur aerosol loading. To better understand the formation of organo-sulfur compounds, we started to investigate the reactivity of SIV species (SO2 and SO32-) with respect to specific functional groups (organic acids and double bonds) on atmospherically relevant carboxylic acids and alkenes. The experiments were carried out in the homogeneous aqueous phase and at the solid-gas interface. A custom built coated-wall flow tube reactor was developed to control relativity humidity, SO2 concentration, temperature and gas flow rate. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction kinetics were measured and resulting products were identified using liquid chromatography coupled with an orbitrap mass spectrometer (LC-HR-MS). The experiments were performed with and without the presence of ozone in order to evaluate any

  6. Nonstoichiometry of Al-Zr intermetallic phases

    SciTech Connect

    Radmilovic, V.; Thomas, G.

    1994-06-01

    Nonstoichiometry of metastable cubic {beta}{prime} and equilibrium tetragonal {beta} Al-Zr intermetallic phases of the nominal composition Al{sub 3}Zr in Al-rich alloys has been extensively studied. It is proposed that the ``dark contrast`` of {beta}{prime} core in {beta}{prime}/{sigma}{prime} complex precipitates, in Al-Li-Zr based alloys, is caused by incorporation of Al and Li atoms into the {beta}{prime} phase on Zr sublattice sites, forming nonstoichiometric Al-Zr intermetallic phases, rather than by Li partitioning only. {beta}{prime} particles contain very small amounts of Zr, approximately 5 at.%, much less than the stoichiometric 25 at.% in the Al{sub 3}Zr metastable phase. These particles are, according to simulation of high resolution images, of the Al{sub 3}(Al{sub 0.4}Li{sub 0.4}Zr{sub 0.2}) type. Nonstoichiometric particles of average composition Al{sub 4}Zr and Al{sub 6}Zr are observed also in the binary Al-Zr alloy, even after annealing for several hours at 600{degree}C.

  7. Stereoselective formation of the varietal aroma compound rose oxide during alcoholic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Koslitz, Stephan; Renaud, Lauren; Kohler, Marcel; Wüst, Matthias

    2008-02-27

    The potent aroma compound rose oxide was quantified in several white wines by a headspace solid-phase microextration stable isotope dilution assay (HS-SPME-SIDA) and the enantiomeric ratios of the cis diastereomers were determined by enantioselective capillary GC. The most odor-active stereoisomer (23)-cis-rose oxide was detectable in all investigated white wines ranging from 0.2 to 12 microg/L. However, its contribution to the overall aroma in some white wine varieties can be neglected as indicated by a low odor activity value (OAV). The highest concentrations were found in Gewürztraminer wines, confirming the importance of rose oxide as a varietal aroma compound in this variety. Surprisingly, the enantiomeric ratio of cis-rose oxide in all investigated wines was substantially lower than in nonfermented musts and in some wines almost racemic cis-rose oxide was detected. Fermentation studies with a model must that contained deuterated water revealed that yeast is capable of reducing the precursor 3,7-dimethyl octa-2,5-dien-1,7-diol (geranyl diol I) yielding 3,7-dimethyl-5-octen-1,7-diol (citronellyl diol I) that gives rise to cis- and trans-rose oxide after acid catalyzed cylization. The deuterium labeling pattern of the resulting rose oxide stereoisomers and a clearly detectable kinetic isotope effect indicate that at least two different reductive pathways in yeast exist that yield cis-rose oxide with different enantiomeric ratios altering the genuine enantiomeric ratio in grape musts. The presence of (+)-cis-rose oxides in wines can therefore be attributed to the reductive yeast metabolism during fermentation. This observation corroborates recent findings that the modification of terpene derived varietal aroma is an integral part of yeast metabolism and not only a simple hydrolytical process. PMID:18247534

  8. Synthesis and densification of Ni{sub 3}(Si, Ti) intermetallics by hot isostatic pressing

    SciTech Connect

    Van Dyck, S.; Delaey, L.; Froyen, L.; Buekenhout, L.

    1996-12-31

    The production of complex parts from Ni{sub 3}(Si, Ti) intermetallic materials by reactive powder metallurgy offers significant advantages over more conventional processing techniques. The main problem associated with reactive powder metallurgy is controlling the exothermic reaction accompanying the synthesis of the intermetallic compound. The uncontrolled release of heat during the conversion of the reactants into nickel silicide leads to unacceptable deformation and melting of the part. The thermal evolution of a part during reactive synthesis of the intermetallic phase is described based on kinetic and heat transfer equations, giving the temperature and phase change as a function of the applied temperature cycle and the mass and size of the part under consideration. From this model, methods for controlling the exothermic reaction during synthesis are derived. When preparing nickel silicides by reactive powder metallurgy, the application of external pressure is required to eliminate porosity and to obtain good mechanical properties. The properties of materials produced by hot isostatic pressing, with different methods of reaction control, are compared to materials prepared from prealloyed powders. It is shown that by reactive HIP, materials can be obtained with a fracture strength exceeding 2,000 MPa.

  9. Numerical study of the effect of oxygenated blending compounds on soot formation in shock tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Boehm, H.; Braun-Unkhoff, M.

    2008-04-15

    This numerical study deals with the influence of blends on the amount of soot formed in shock tubes, which were simulated by assuming a homogeneous plug flow reactor model. For this purpose, first, the reaction model used here was validated against experimental results previously obtained in the literature. Then, the soot volume fractions of various mixtures of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)-benzene, isobutene-benzene, methanol-benzene, and ethanol-benzene diluted in argon were simulated and compared to the results of benzene-argon pyrolysis at 1721 K and 5.4 MPa. For MTBE, isobutene, methanol, and ethanol, small amounts of additives to benzene-argon mixtures promoted soot formation, for the shock tube model assumed, while higher concentrations of these additives led to smaller soot volume fractions in comparison to pure benzene-argon pyrolysis. The most significant soot promotion effect was found for the additives MTBE and isobutene. The channel for MTBE decomposition producing isobutene and methanol is very effective at temperatures beyond 1200 K. Thus, both MTBE-benzene and isobutene-benzene mixtures diluted in argon showed rather similar behavior in regard to soot formation. Special emphasis was directed toward the causes for the concentration-dependent influence of the blends on the amount of soot formed. Aromatic hydrocarbons and acetylene were identified as key gas-phase species that determine the trends in the formation of soot of various mixtures. From reaction flux analysis for phenanthrene, it was deduced that the combinative routes including phenyl species play a major role in forming PAHs, especially at early reaction times. It is found that the additives play an important role in providing material to grow side chains, such as by reaction channels including phenylacetylene or benzyl, which are confirmed to form aromatic hydrocarbons and thus to influence the amount of soot formed, particularly when the concentrations of the blends are increased

  10. Establishment of an in silico phospholipidosis prediction method using descriptors related to molecular interactions causing phospholipid-compound complex formation.

    PubMed

    Haranosono, Yu; Nemoto, Shingo; Kurata, Masaaki; Sakaki, Hideyuki

    2016-01-01

    Although phospholipidosis (PLD) often affects drug development, there is no convenient in vitro or in vivo test system for PLD detection. In this study, we developed an in silico PLD prediction method based on the PLD-inducing mechanism. We focused on phospholipid (PL)-compound complex formation, which inhibits PL degradation by phospholipase. Thus, we used some molecular interactions, such as electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, and intermolecular forces, between PL and compounds as descriptors. First, we performed descriptor screening for intermolecular force and then developed a new in silico PLD prediction using descriptors related to molecular interactions. Based on the screening, we identified molecular refraction (MR) as a descriptor of intermolecular force. It is known that ClogP and most-basic pKa can be used for PLD prediction. Thereby, we developed an in silico prediction method using ClogP, most-basic pKa, and MR, which were related to hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions, and intermolecular forces. In addition, a resampling method was used to determine the cut-off values for each descriptor. We obtained good results for 77 compounds as follows: sensitivity = 95.8%, specificity = 75.9%, and concordance = 88.3%. Although there is a concern regarding false-negative compounds for pKa calculations, this predictive ability will be adequate for PLD screening. In conclusion, the mechanism-based in silico PLD prediction method provided good prediction ability, and this method will be useful for evaluating the potential of drugs to cause PLD, particularly in the early stage of drug development, because this method only requires knowledge of the chemical structure. PMID:26961617

  11. Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1983-10-01

    This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

  12. The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Forczek, Sándor T; Pavlík, Milan; Holík, Josef; Rederer, Luděk; Ferenčík, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine cycle in natural ecosystems involves formation of low and high molecular weight organic compounds of living organisms, soil organic matter and atmospherically deposited chloride. Chloroform (CHCl3) and adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) are part of the chlorine cycle. We attempted to characterize the dynamical changes in the levels of total organic carbon (TOC), AOX, chlorine and CHCl3 in a drinking water reservoir and in its tributaries, mainly at its spring, and attempt to relate the presence of AOX and CHCl3 with meteorological, chemical or biological factors. Water temperature and pH influence the formation and accumulation of CHCl3 and affect the conditions for biological processes, which are demonstrated by the correlation between CHCl3 and ΣAOX/Cl(-) ratio, and also by CHCl3/ΣAOX, CHCl3/AOXLMW, CHCl3/ΣTOC, CHCl3/TOCLMW and CHCl3/Cl(-) ratios in different microecosystems (e.g. old spruce forest, stagnant acidic water, humid and warm conditions with high biological activity). These processes start with the biotransformation of AOX from TOC, continue via degradation of AOX to smaller molecules and further chlorination, and finish with the formation of small chlorinated molecules, and their subsequent volatilization and mineralization. The determined concentrations of chloroform result from a dynamic equilibrium between its formation and degradation in the water; in the Hamry water reservoir, this results in a total amount of 0.1-0.7 kg chloroform and 5.2-15.4 t chloride. The formation of chloroform is affected by Cl(-) concentration, by concentrations and ratios of biogenic substrates (TOC and AOX), and by the ratios of the substrates and the product (feedback control by chloroform itself). PMID:27231877

  13. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  14. New insights into the formation of volatile compounds in mainstream cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Feng, S.; van Heemst, J.; McAdam, K. G.

    2010-01-01

    A sampling system has been set up to monitor a group of volatile smoke analytes (nitric oxide, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, 1,3 butadiene, isoprene and carbon dioxide) from mainstream cigarette smoke on a puff-resolved basis. The system was able to record gas evolution profiles during puffing and interpuff periods without interruption (e.g. taking clearing puffs). Gas phase smoke analytes were sampled as close to the mouth end of the cigarette filter as possible in order to minimise any dead volume effect. The results revealed that, for some volatile species, a significant fraction (e.g. up to 30% for benzene) in the cigarette mainstream smoke had been generated during the preceding smoulder period. These species were trapped or absorbed within the cigarette rod and then subsequently eluted during the puff. The identification of the two sources of the mainstream smoke, a smouldering source and a puffing source, has not been reported before. The observation contributes to the fundamental knowledge of the cigarette smoke formation and may have implications on wider smoke chemistry and associated effects. Figure A cross-sectional schematic of a burning cigarette, illustrating the main chemical and physical processes involved in the smoke formation PMID:20101495

  15. Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds:

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, W.V.; Chirico, R.D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I.A.; Smith, N.K.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor-pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (d.s.c.) heat-capacity measurements. Ideal-gas enthalpies of formation of ({plus minus})-butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group-additivity parameters useful in the application of group- contribution correlations are derived. 112 refs., 13 figs., 19 tabs.

  16. Determination of ideal-gas enthalpies of formation for key compounds: The 1989 project results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, W. V.; Chirico, R. D.; Nguyen, A.; Hossenlopp, I. A.; Smith, N. K.

    1991-10-01

    The results of a study aimed at improvement of group-contribution methodology for estimation of thermodynamic properties of organic and organosilicon substances are reported. Specific weaknesses where particular group-contribution terms were unknown, or estimated because of lack of experimental data, are addressed by experimental studies of enthalpies of combustion in the condensed phase, vapor pressure measurements, and differential scanning calorimetric (dsc) heat capacity measurements. Ideal gas enthalpies of formation of (+ or -) butan-2-ol, tetradecan-1-ol, hexan-1,6-diol, methacrylamide, benzoyl formic acid, naphthalene 2,6-dicarboxylic acid dimethyl ester, and tetraethylsilane are reported. A crystalline-phase enthalpy of formation at 298.15 K was determined for naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid, which decomposed at 695 K before melting. The combustion calorimetry of tetraethylsilane used the proven fluorine-additivity methodology. Critical temperature and critical density were determined for tetraethylsilane with differential scanning calorimeter and the critical pressure was derived. Group additivity parameters useful in the application of group contribution correlations are derived.

  17. Zintl and intermetallic phases grown from calcium/lithium flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenship, Trevor

    Metal flux synthes is a useful alternative method to high temperature solid state synthesis; it allows easy diffusion of reactants at lower temperatures, and presents favorable conditions for crystal growth. A mixed flux of calcium and lithium in a 1:1 ratio was explored in this work; this mixture melts at 300°C and is an excellent solvent for main group elements and CaH 2. Reactions of p-block elements in a 1:1 Ca/Li flux have produced several new intermetallic and Zintl phases. Electronegative elements from groups 14 and 15 are reduced to anions in this flux, yielding charge-balanced products. More electropositive metals from group 13 are not fully reduced; the resulting products are complex intermetallics. The reactions of tin or lead and carbon in Ca/Li flux produced the analogous phases Ca11Tt3C8 (Tt = Sn, Pb) in the monoclinic C21/c space group (a = 13.2117(8) A, b =10.7029(7) A, c = 14.2493(9) A, beta = 105.650(1)° for the Sn analog). These compounds are carbide Zintl phases that includes the rare combination of C3 4- and C22- units as well as Sn4- or Pb4- anions. Ca/Li flux reactions of CaH2 and arsenic have produced the Zintl phases LiCa3As 2H in orthorhombic Pnma (a = 11.4064(7), b = 4.2702(3), c = 11.8762(8) A), and Ca 13As6C0.46N1.155H6.045in tetragonal P4/mbm (a = 15.7493(15), c = 9.1062(9) A). The complex stoichiometry of the latter phase was caused by incorporation of light element contaminants and was studied by neutron diffraction, showing mixing of anionic sites to achieve charge balance. Ca/Li flux reactions with group 13 metals have resulted in several new intermetallic phases. Reactions of indium and CaH2 in the Ca/Li flux (with or without boron) formed Ca53In13B4-x H23+x(2.4 < x < 4.0) in cubic space group Im-3 (a = 16.3608(6) A) which features metallic indium atoms and ionic hydride sites. The electronic properties of this "subhydride" were confirmed by 1H and 115In NMR spectroscopy. Attempts to replace boron with carbon yielded Ca12InC13-x

  18. Magnetic phase transitions in Y1-xTbxMn6Sn6, La1-xSmxMn2Si2, Lu2(Fe1-xMnx)17, and La(Fe0.88SixAl0.12-x)13 intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushnikov, N. V.; Kuchin, A. G.; Gerasimov, E. G.; Terentev, P. B.; Gaviko, V. S.; Serikov, V. V.; Kleinerman, N. M.; Vershinin, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Magnetic properties have been measured for the Y1-xTbxMn6Sn6, La1-xSmxMn2Si2, Lu2(Fe1-xMnx)17, and La(Fe0.88SixAl0.12-x)13 systems which show up transitions from antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic state upon changing concentration of the constituents or application of magnetic field. We determined the concentrations and temperatures of the magnetic phase transitions and plotted magnetic phase diagrams. Near a critical concentration, the AF-F transition can be realized in low magnetic fields, which makes these compounds attractive for magnetothermal applications. Using the data of the magnetization measurement, we determined the isothermal magnetic entropy change in a wide temperature range. All the studied systems have a layered magnetic structure with the positive intralayer exchange interaction and the interlayer exchange integrals of different signs depending on the composition and temperature. For the compounds La(Fe0.88SixAl0.12-x)13 with the cubic crystal structure, the origin of formation of a layered magnetic structure is discussed based on the data of Mössbauer studies which revealed a difference in the local surrounding of resonant atoms in the compounds with different magnetic orders.

  19. Modulation of volatile organic compound formation in the Mycodiesel-producing endophyte Hypoxylon sp. CI-4.

    PubMed

    Ul-Hassan, Syed Riyaz; Strobel, Gary A; Booth, Eric; Knighton, Berk; Floerchinger, Cody; Sears, Joe

    2012-02-01

    An endophytic Hypoxylon sp. (strain CI-4) producing a wide spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,8-cineole, 1-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene and cyclohexane, 1,2,4-tris(methylene), was selected as a candidate for the modulation of VOC production. This was done in order to learn if the production of these and other VOCs can be affected by using agents that may modulate the epigenetics of the fungus. Many of the VOCs made by this organism are of interest because of their high energy densities and thus the potential they might have as Mycodiesel fuels. Strain CI-4 was exposed to the epigenetic modulators suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, a histone deacetylase) and 5-azacytidine (AZA, a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor). After these treatments the organism displayed striking cultural changes, including variations in pigmentation, growth rates and odour, in addition to significant differences in the bioactivities of the VOCs. The resulting variants were designated CI4-B, CI4-AZA and CI4-SAHA. GC/MS analyses of the VOCs produced by the variants showed considerable variation, with the emergence of several compounds not previously observed in the wild-type, particularly an array of tentatively identified terpenes such as α-thujene, sabinene, γ-terpinene, α-terpinolene and β-selinene, in addition to several primary and secondary alkanes, alkenes, organic acids and derivatives of benzene. Proton transfer reaction mass spectroscopic analyses showed a marked increase in the ratio of ethanol (mass 47) to the total mass of all other ionizable VOCs, from ~0.6 in the untreated strain CI-4 to ~0.8 in CI-4 grown in the presence of AZA. Strain CI4-B was created by exposure of the fungus to 100 µM SAHA; upon removal of the epigenetic modulator from the culture medium, it did not revert to the wild-type phenotype. Results of this study have implications for understanding why there may be a wide range of VOCs found in various isolates of this fungus in nature

  20. Insights into secondary organic aerosol formation mechanisms from measured gas/particle partitioning of specific organic tracer compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yunliang; Kreisberg, Nathan M; Worton, David R; Isaacman, Gabriel; Weber, Robin J; Liu, Shang; Day, Douglas A; Russell, Lynn M; Markovic, Milos Z; VandenBoer, Trevor C; Murphy, Jennifer G; Hering, Susanne V; Goldstein, Allen H

    2013-04-16

    In situ measurements of organic compounds in both gas and particle phases were made with a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography (TAG) instrument. The gas/particle partitioning of phthalic acid, pinonaldehyde, and 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone is discussed in detail to explore secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation mechanisms. Measured fractions in the particle phase (f(part)) of 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone were similar to those expected from the absorptive gas/particle partitioning theory, suggesting that its partitioning is dominated by absorption processes. However, f(part) of phthalic acid and pinonaldehyde were substantially higher than predicted. The formation of low-volatility products from reactions of phthalic acid with ammonia is proposed as one possible mechanism to explain the high f(part) of phthalic acid. The observations of particle-phase pinonaldehyde when inorganic acids were fully neutralized indicate that inorganic acids are not required for the occurrence of reactive uptake of pinonaldehyde on particles. The observed relationship between f(part) of pinonaldehyde and relative humidity suggests that the aerosol water plays a significant role in the formation of particle-phase pinonaldehyde. Our results clearly show it is necessary to include multiple gas/particle partitioning pathways in models to predict SOA and multiple SOA tracers in source apportionment models to reconstruct SOA. PMID:23448102