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Sample records for intermolecular heck coupling

  1. Intermolecular Photocatalyzed Heck-like Coupling of Unactivated Alkyl Bromides by a Dinuclear Gold Complex.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jin; Li, Jian; Weingand, Vanessa; Rudolph, Matthias; Hashmi, A Stephen K

    2016-08-26

    A practical protocol for a photocatalyzed alkyl-Heck-like reaction of unactivated alkyl bromides and different alkenes promoted by dinuclear gold photoredox catalysis in the presence of an inorganic base is reported. Primary, secondary, and tertiary unactivated alkyl bromides with β-hydrogen can be applied. Esters, aldehydes, ketones, nitriles, alcohols, heterocycles, alkynes, alkenes, ethers, and halogen moieties are all well tolerated. In addition to 1,1-diarylalkenes, silylenolethers and enamides can also be applied, which further increases the synthetic potential of the reaction. The mild reaction conditions, broad substrate scope, and an excellent functional-group tolerance deliver an ideal tool for synthetic chemists that can even be used for challenging late-stage modifications of complex natural products. PMID:27348503

  2. Enantioselective oxidative boron Heck reactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, A-L

    2016-06-28

    This review highlights the use of the oxidative boron Heck reaction in enantioselective Heck-type couplings. The enantioselective oxidative boron Heck reaction overcomes several limitations of the traditional Pd(0)-catalysed Heck coupling and has subsequently allowed for intermolecular couplings of challenging systems such as cyclic enones, acyclic alkenes, and even site selectively on remote alkenes. PMID:26529247

  3. Synthesis of substituted quinolines via allylic amination and intramolecular Heck-coupling.

    PubMed

    Murru, Siva; McGough, Brandon; Srivastava, Radhey S

    2014-12-01

    A new catalytic approach for the synthesis of substituted quinolines via C-N and C-C bond formation using 2-haloaryl hydroxylamines and allylic C-H substrates is described. Fe-catalyzed allylic C-H amination followed by Pd-catalyzed intramolecular Heck-coupling and aerobic dehydrogenation deliver the valuable quinoline and naphthyridine heterocycles in good to excellent overall yields. In this process, Pd(OAc)2 plays a dual role in catalyzing Heck coupling as well as aerobic dehydrogenation of dihydroquinolines. PMID:25247637

  4. Olefins from biomass feedstocks: catalytic ester decarbonylation and tandem Heck-type coupling.

    PubMed

    John, Alex; Hogan, Levi T; Hillmyer, Marc A; Tolman, William B

    2015-02-14

    With the goal of avoiding the need for anhydride additives, the catalytic decarbonylation of p-nitrophenylesters of aliphatic carboxylic acids to their corresponding olefins, including commodity monomers like styrene and acrylates, has been developed. The reaction is catalyzed by palladium complexes in the absence of added ligands and is promoted by alkali/alkaline-earth metal halides. Combination of catalytic decarbonylation and Heck-type coupling with aryl esters in a single pot process demonstrates the viability of employing a carboxylic acid as a "masked olefin" in synthetic processes. PMID:25579879

  5. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction

    PubMed Central

    Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Summary Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30–100% yield using a Mizoroki–Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  6. Reactions of nitroxides 15. Cinnamates bearing a nitroxyl moiety synthesized using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Zakrzewski, Jerzy; Huras, Bogumiła

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamic acid derivatives bearing a nitroxyl moiety (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-4-piperidyl 3-E-aryl acrylates) were synthesized in 30-100% yield using a Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reaction between 4-acryloyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl and iodobenzene derivatives in the presence of palladium(II) acetate coordinated with a tri(o-tolyl)phosphine ligand immobilized in a polyurea matrix. PMID:26199672

  7. Pd loaded amphiphilic COF as catalyst for multi-fold Heck reactions, C-C couplings and CO oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Mullangi, Dinesh; Nandi, Shyamapada; Shalini, Sorout; Sreedhala, Sheshadri; Vinod, Chathakudath P.; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan

    2015-01-01

    COFs represent a class of polymers with designable crystalline structures capable of interacting with active metal nanoparticles to form excellent heterogeneous catalysts. Many valuable ligands/monomers employed in making coordination/organic polymers are prepared via Heck and C-C couplings. Here, we report an amphiphilic triazine COF and the facile single-step loading of Pd0 nanoparticles into it. An 18–20% nano-Pd loading gives highly active composite working in open air at low concentrations (Conc. Pd(0) <0.05 mol%, average TON 1500) catalyzing simultaneous multiple site Heck couplings and C-C couplings using ‘non-boronic acid’ substrates, and exhibits good recyclability with no sign of catalyst leaching. As an oxidation catalyst, it shows 100% conversion of CO to CO2 at 150 °C with no loss of activity with time and between cycles. Both vapor sorptions and contact angle measurements confirm the amphiphilic character of the COF. DFT-TB studies showed the presence of Pd-triazine and Pd-Schiff bond interactions as being favorable. PMID:26057044

  8. Synthesis of tricyclic heterocycles via a tandem aryl alkylation/heck coupling sequence.

    PubMed

    Alberico, Dino; Rudolph, Alena; Lautens, Mark

    2007-02-01

    A norbornene-mediated palladium-catalyzed sequence is described in which two alkyl-aryl bonds and one alkenyl-aryl bond are formed in one pot with use of microwave irradiation. A variety of symmetrical and unsymmetrical oxygen-, nitrogen-, silicon-, and sulfur-containing tricyclic heterocycles were synthesized from a Heck acceptor and an aryl iodide containing two tethered alkyl halides. This approach was further applied to the synthesis of a tricyclic mescaline analogue. PMID:17253794

  9. A versatile approach to flavones via a one-pot Pd(II)-catalyzed dehydrogenation/oxidative boron-Heck coupling sequence of chromanones.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun; Yu, Jihyun; Son, Seung Hwan; Heo, Jinyuk; Kim, Taelim; An, Ji-Young; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Nam-Jung

    2016-01-14

    A variety of flavones were expediently synthesized from readily accessible chromanones via a one-pot sequence involving Pd(II)-catalyzed dehydrogenation and oxidative boron-Heck coupling with arylboronic acid pinacol esters. In particular, the use of arylboronic acid pinacol esters was found to significantly improve the yield of the reaction. PMID:26592753

  10. Visualizing coherent intermolecular dipole-dipole coupling in real space.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Yun-Jie; Kuang, Yan-Min; Zhang, Li; Meng, Qiu-Shi; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jin-Long; Dong, Zhen-Chao; Hou, J G

    2016-03-31

    Many important energy-transfer and optical processes, in both biological and artificial systems, depend crucially on excitonic coupling that spans several chromophores. Such coupling can in principle be described in a straightforward manner by considering the coherent intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions involved. However, in practice, it is challenging to directly observe in real space the coherent dipole coupling and the related exciton delocalizations, owing to the diffraction limit in conventional optics. Here we demonstrate that the highly localized excitations that are produced by electrons tunnelling from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, in conjunction with imaging of the resultant luminescence, can be used to map the spatial distribution of the excitonic coupling in well-defined arrangements of a few zinc-phthalocyanine molecules. The luminescence patterns obtained for excitons in a dimer, which are recorded for different energy states and found to resemble σ and π molecular orbitals, reveal the local optical response of the system and the dependence of the local optical response on the relative orientation and phase of the transition dipoles of the individual molecules in the dimer. We generate an in-line arrangement up to four zinc-phthalocyanine molecules, with a larger total transition dipole, and show that this results in enhanced 'single-molecule' superradiance from the oligomer upon site-selective excitation. These findings demonstrate that our experimental approach provides detailed spatial information about coherent dipole-dipole coupling in molecular systems, which should enable a greater understanding and rational engineering of light-harvesting structures and quantum light sources. PMID:27029277

  11. Visualizing coherent intermolecular dipole–dipole coupling in real space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Luo, Yang; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Yun-Jie; Kuang, Yan-Min; Zhang, Li; Meng, Qiu-Shi; Luo, Yi; Yang, Jin-Long; Dong, Zhen-Chao; Hou, J. G.

    2016-03-01

    Many important energy-transfer and optical processes, in both biological and artificial systems, depend crucially on excitonic coupling that spans several chromophores. Such coupling can in principle be described in a straightforward manner by considering the coherent intermolecular dipole–dipole interactions involved. However, in practice, it is challenging to directly observe in real space the coherent dipole coupling and the related exciton delocalizations, owing to the diffraction limit in conventional optics. Here we demonstrate that the highly localized excitations that are produced by electrons tunnelling from the tip of a scanning tunnelling microscope, in conjunction with imaging of the resultant luminescence, can be used to map the spatial distribution of the excitonic coupling in well-defined arrangements of a few zinc-phthalocyanine molecules. The luminescence patterns obtained for excitons in a dimer, which are recorded for different energy states and found to resemble σ and π molecular orbitals, reveal the local optical response of the system and the dependence of the local optical response on the relative orientation and phase of the transition dipoles of the individual molecules in the dimer. We generate an in-line arrangement up to four zinc-phthalocyanine molecules, with a larger total transition dipole, and show that this results in enhanced ‘single-molecule’ superradiance from the oligomer upon site-selective excitation. These findings demonstrate that our experimental approach provides detailed spatial information about coherent dipole–dipole coupling in molecular systems, which should enable a greater understanding and rational engineering of light-harvesting structures and quantum light sources.

  12. Scalable synthesis of oxazolones from propargylic alcohols through multistep palladium(II) catalysis: β-selective oxidative Heck coupling of cyclic sulfonyl enamides and aryl boroxines.

    PubMed

    Alamsetti, Santosh Kumar; Persson, Andreas K Å; Jiang, Tuo; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2013-12-16

    A whale of a scale: The title oxidative Heck coupling proceeded with unusual β selectivity to generate a variety of branched substituted oxazolones (see scheme; Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl). The three-step synthesis from readily available starting materials with a simple palladium catalyst and inexpensive reagents could be carried out in a single reaction vessel or scaled up for the preparation of large amounts of these amino acid precursors. PMID:24174347

  13. NIR bacteriochlorin chromophores accessed by Heck and Sonogashira cross-coupling reactions on a tetrabromobacteriochlorin derivative.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Francisco F; Ferreira, Marco A B; Brocksom, Timothy J; de Oliveira, Kleber T

    2016-01-28

    The synthesis of a new tetrabromobacteriochlorin BCBr4 is reported having the 3,4-dibromo-1H-pyrrole-2-carbaldehyde (10) as the major precursor. The BCBr4 was successfully employed in Pd cross-coupling reactions with methyl acrylate, phenyl acetylene and 4-ethynylanisole. In all three cases, the desired tetra-coupled products were obtained in good to excellent yields, and present a significant red shift in the UV-Vis bands above 800 nm. DFT and TD-DFT theoretical analyses of the NIR bacteriochlorin chromophores were performed in order to evaluate the effect of β substitution on their electronic structures. PMID:26676846

  14. Probing intermolecular couplings in liquid water with two-dimensional infrared photon echo spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paarmann, A.; Hayashi, T.; Mukamel, S.; Miller, R. J. D.

    2008-05-01

    Two-dimensional infrared photon echo and pump probe studies of the OH stretch vibration provide a sensitive probe of the correlations and couplings in the hydrogen bond network of liquid water. The nonlinear response is simulated using numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation with a Hamiltonian constructed to explicitly treat intermolecular coupling and nonadiabatic effects in the highly disordered singly and doubly excited vibrational exciton manifolds. The simulated two-dimensional spectra are in close agreement with our recent experimental results. The high sensitivity of the OH stretch vibration to the bath dynamics is found to arise from intramolecular mixing between states in the two-dimensional anharmonic OH stretch potential. Surprisingly small intermolecular couplings reproduce the experimentally observed intermolecular energy transfer times.

  15. Selenium-ligated palladium(II) complexes as highly active catalysts for carbon-carbon coupling reactions: the Heck reaction.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Zheng, Chong

    2004-08-19

    Three selenium-ligated Pd(II) complexes were readily synthesized and shown to be extremely active catalysts for the Heck reaction of various aryl bromides, including deactivated and heterocyclic ones. The catalytic activity of the selenide-based Pd(II) complexes not only rivals but vastly outperforms that of the corresponding phosphorus and sulfur analogues. Practical advantages of the selenium-based catalysts include their straightforward synthesis and high activity in the absence of any additives as well as the enhanced stability of the selenide ligands toward air oxidation. PMID:15330667

  16. Optical Activity Enhanced by Strong Inter-molecular Coupling in Planar Chiral Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Park, Hyun-Sung; Zhao, Rongkuo; Kim, Seong-Han; Choi, Wonjune; Min, Bumki; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of light can be rotated in materials with an absence of molecular or structural mirror symmetry. While this rotating ability is normally rather weak in naturally occurring chiral materials, artificial chiral metamaterials have demonstrated extraordinary rotational ability by engineering intra-molecular couplings. However, while in general, chiral metamaterials can exhibit strong rotatory power at or around resonances, they convert linearly polarized waves into elliptically polarized ones. Here, we demonstrate that strong inter-molecular coupling through a small gap between adjacent chiral metamolecules can lead to a broadband enhanced rotating ability with pure rotation of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves. Strong inter-molecular coupling leads to nearly identical behaviour in magnitude, but engenders substantial difference in phase between transmitted left and right-handed waves. PMID:25209452

  17. Design and Synthesis of Antitumor Heck-Coupled Sclareol Analogues: Modulation of BH3 Family Members by SS-12 in Autophagy and Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-u-Rehman; Rah, Bilal; Lone, Shabir H; Rasool, Reyaz Ur; Farooq, Saleem; Nayak, Debasis; Chikan, Naveed Anjum; Chakraborty, Souneek; Behl, Akanksha; Mondhe, Dilip Manikaro; Goswami, Anindya; Bhat, Khursheed Ahmad

    2015-04-23

    Sclareol, a promising anticancer labdane diterpene, was isolated from Salvia sclarea. Keeping the basic stereochemistry-rich framework of the molecule intact, a method for the synthesis of novel sclareol analogues was designed using palladium(II)-catalyzed oxidative Heck coupling reaction in order to study their structure-activity relationship. Both sclareol and its derivatives showed an interesting cytotoxicity profile, with 15-(4-fluorophenyl)sclareol (SS-12) as the most potent analogue, having IC50 = 0.082 μM against PC-3 cells. It was found that SS-12 commonly interacts with Bcl-2 and Beclin 1 BH3 domain proteins and enhances autophagic flux by modulating autophagy-related proteins. Moreover, inhibition of autophagy by autophagy inhibitors protected against SS-12-induced apoptosis. Finally, SS-12 effectively suppressed tumor growth in vivo in Ehrlich's ascitic and solid Sarcoma-180 mouse models. PMID:25825934

  18. Intermolecular electronic coupling in organic molecular thin films measured by temperature modulation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Abhishek; Jin, Y; Chan, P. K. L.; Shtein, Max; Pipe, Kevin P.

    2010-01-01

    Temperature modulation spectroscopy is used to obtain the temperature dependences of oscillator strength, exciton transition energy, and line width for a copper phthalocyanine thin film. With increasing temperature, the oscillator strength exhibits a pronounced decrease for charge transfer (CT) excitons, making this technique suitable for differentiating exciton types. From the measured magnitude and temperature dependence of the CT oscillator strength, we obtain estimates for the intermolecular electronic coupling and its exponential decay coefficient.

  19. Density Analysis of Intra- and Intermolecular Vibronic Couplings toward Bath Engineering for Singlet Fission.

    PubMed

    Ito, Soichi; Nagami, Takanori; Nakano, Masayoshi

    2015-12-17

    Vibronic coupling plays a crucial role in singlet fission whereby a singlet exciton splits into two triplet excitons. In order to reveal the physicochemical origin of the vibronic coupling associated with singlet fission as well as to clarify its relationship with chemical structure, we evaluate relevant vibronic couplings from the viewpoint of their spatial contributions described by vibronic coupling density. From the analysis using a model tetracene dimer, a typical singlet fission system, the frequency dependence of vibronic couplings in each electronic state is found to be significantly different from that of another depending on the nature of the electronic structure (intra/intermolecular excitation) and the related vibrational motion. These findings contribute not only to the fundamental understanding of the singlet fission mechanism from the viewpoint of vibronic couplings but also to opening a new path to designing highly efficient singlet fission materials through phonon-bath engineering. PMID:26673196

  20. Property (RD) for Hecke Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirbisheh, Vahid

    2012-06-01

    As the first step towards developing noncommutative geometry over Hecke C ∗-algebras, we study property (RD) (Rapid Decay) for Hecke pairs. When the subgroup H in a Hecke pair ( G, H) is finite, we show that the Hecke pair ( G, H) has (RD) if and only if G has (RD). This provides us with a family of examples of Hecke pairs with property (RD). We also adapt Paul Jolissant's works in Jolissaint (J K-Theory 2:723-735, 1989; Trans Amer Math Soc 317(1):167-196, 1990) to the setting of Hecke C ∗-algebras and show that when a Hecke pair ( G, H) has property (RD), the algebra of rapidly decreasing functions on the set of double cosets is closed under holomorphic functional calculus of the associated (reduced) Hecke C ∗-algebra. Hence they have the same K 0-groups.

  1. Green synthesis of Pd/CuO nanoparticles by Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic performance for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and phosphine-free Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Rostami-Vartooni, Akbar; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba

    2015-06-15

    We report the green synthesis of palladium/CuO nanoparticles (Pd/CuO NPs) using Theobroma cacao L. seeds extract and their catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Heck coupling reaction under aerobic conditions. The catalyst was characterized using the powder XRD, TEM, EDS, UV-vis and FT-IR. This method has the advantages of high yields, elimination of surfactant, ligand and homogeneous catalysts, simple methodology and easy work up. The catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without any significant loss of catalytic activity. PMID:25721860

  2. Functionalized β-cyclodextrin as supramolecular ligand and their Pd(OAc)2 complex: highly efficient and reusable catalyst for Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Dindulkar, Someshwar D; Jeong, Daham; Kim, Hwanhee; Jung, Seunho

    2016-07-22

    A novel class of water soluble palladium complexes with recognition abilities based on functionalized β-cyclodextrin has been synthesized. The complex demonstrated high catalytic activity and a supramolecular platform for phosphine-free Mizoroki-Heck cross-coupling reactions in water. The efficient arylation of alkenes was carried out using different iodo- and bromo-arenes with good to excellent yields (up to 96%). The advantages, like recyclability of catalysts, operational simplicity and accessibility in aqueous medium, make this protocol eco-friendly. PMID:27208891

  3. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling for the intermolecular C-O bond formation.

    PubMed

    Krylov, Igor B; Vil', Vera A; Terent'ev, Alexander O

    2015-01-01

    The present review summarizes primary publications on the cross-dehydrogenative C-O coupling, with special emphasis on the studies published after 2000. The starting compound, which donates a carbon atom for the formation of a new C-O bond, is called the CH-reagent or the C-reagent, and the compound, an oxygen atom of which is involved in the new bond, is called the OH-reagent or the O-reagent. Alcohols and carboxylic acids are most commonly used as O-reagents; hydroxylamine derivatives, hydroperoxides, and sulfonic acids are employed less often. The cross-dehydrogenative C-O coupling reactions are carried out using different C-reagents, such as compounds containing directing functional groups (amide, heteroaromatic, oxime, and so on) and compounds with activated C-H bonds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, compounds containing the benzyl, allyl, or propargyl moiety). An analysis of the published data showed that the principles at the basis of a particular cross-dehydrogenative C-O coupling reaction are dictated mainly by the nature of the C-reagent. Hence, in the present review the data are classified according to the structures of C-reagents, and, in the second place, according to the type of oxidative systems. Besides the typical cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions of CH- and OH-reagents, closely related C-H activation processes involving intermolecular C-O bond formation are discussed: acyloxylation reactions with ArI(O2CR)2 reagents and generation of O-reagents in situ from C-reagents (methylarenes, aldehydes, etc.). PMID:25670997

  4. Cross-dehydrogenative coupling for the intermolecular C–O bond formation

    PubMed Central

    Krylov, Igor B; Vil’, Vera A

    2015-01-01

    Summary The present review summarizes primary publications on the cross-dehydrogenative C–O coupling, with special emphasis on the studies published after 2000. The starting compound, which donates a carbon atom for the formation of a new C–O bond, is called the CH-reagent or the C-reagent, and the compound, an oxygen atom of which is involved in the new bond, is called the OH-reagent or the O-reagent. Alcohols and carboxylic acids are most commonly used as O-reagents; hydroxylamine derivatives, hydroperoxides, and sulfonic acids are employed less often. The cross-dehydrogenative C–O coupling reactions are carried out using different C-reagents, such as compounds containing directing functional groups (amide, heteroaromatic, oxime, and so on) and compounds with activated C–H bonds (aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, compounds containing the benzyl, allyl, or propargyl moiety). An analysis of the published data showed that the principles at the basis of a particular cross-dehydrogenative C–O coupling reaction are dictated mainly by the nature of the C-reagent. Hence, in the present review the data are classified according to the structures of C-reagents, and, in the second place, according to the type of oxidative systems. Besides the typical cross-dehydrogenative coupling reactions of CH- and OH-reagents, closely related C–H activation processes involving intermolecular C–O bond formation are discussed: acyloxylation reactions with ArI(O2CR)2 reagents and generation of O-reagents in situ from C-reagents (methylarenes, aldehydes, etc.). PMID:25670997

  5. Similarity-transformed perturbation theory on top of truncated local coupled cluster solutions: Theory and applications to intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Azar, Richard Julian Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-05-28

    Your correspondents develop and apply fully nonorthogonal, local-reference perturbation theories describing non-covalent interactions. Our formulations are based on a Löwdin partitioning of the similarity-transformed Hamiltonian into a zeroth-order intramonomer piece (taking local CCSD solutions as its zeroth-order eigenfunction) plus a first-order piece coupling the fragments. If considerations are limited to a single molecule, the proposed intermolecular similarity-transformed perturbation theory represents a frozen-orbital variant of the “(2)”-type theories shown to be competitive with CCSD(T) and of similar cost if all terms are retained. Different restrictions on the zeroth- and first-order amplitudes are explored in the context of large-computation tractability and elucidation of non-local effects in the space of singles and doubles. To accurately approximate CCSD intermolecular interaction energies, a quadratically growing number of variables must be included at zeroth-order.

  6. Magnetically Separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd: A Heterogeneous Catalyst for Aqueous Heck Reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    Magnetically separable Fe3O4@DOPA-Pd catalyst has been synthesized via anchoring of palladium over dopamine-coated magnetite via non-covalent interaction and the catalyst is utilized for expeditious Heck coupling in aqueous media.

  7. Effect of a weak magnetic field on the Mizoroki-Heck coupling reaction in the presence of wicker-like palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiee, Ezzat; Joshaghani, Mohammad; Abadi, Parvaneh Ghaderi-Shekhi

    2016-06-01

    The wicker-like Pd-PVP-Fe (palladium-poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)-iron) was synthesized by the external magnetic field (EMF). The Pd-based catalyst with nano and the face-centered cubic (fcc) structure was obtained at room temperature without using any additive. The resulting composite was characterized. The results show that EMF has a great influence on morphology, particle size, and crystalline structure of the Pd-PVP-Fe composite. The resulting composite (Pd-PVP-Fe), was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction while is exposed to EMF with the intensity at 486 μT. The reused catalyst for at least five repeating cycles, shows excellent activity.

  8. Vibrational nano-spectroscopic imaging correlating structure with intermolecular coupling and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Benjamin; Muller, Eric A.; Hinrichs, Karsten; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, the function of biomembranes and the performance of organic solar cells rely on nanoscale molecular interactions. Understanding and control of such materials have been impeded by difficulties in imaging their properties with the desired nanometre spatial resolution, attomolar sensitivity and intermolecular spectroscopic specificity. Here we implement vibrational scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy with high spectral precision to investigate the structure–function relationship in nano-phase separated block copolymers. A vibrational resonance is used as a sensitive reporter of the local chemical environment and we image, with few nanometre spatial resolution and 0.2 cm−1 spectral precision, solvatochromic Stark shifts and line broadening correlated with molecular-scale morphologies. We discriminate local variations in electric fields between nano-domains with quantitative agreement with dielectric continuum models. This ability to directly resolve nanoscale morphology and associated intermolecular interactions can form a basis for the systematic control of functionality in multicomponent soft matter systems. PMID:24721995

  9. Glycosaminoglycan and DNA Binding Induced Intra- and Intermolecular Exciton Coupling of the bis-4-Aminoquinoline Surfen.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc

    2015-09-01

    Despite the diverse biological activities of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) antagonist surfen, the molecular details of its interaction with biomacromolecules remain poorly understood. Therefore, heparin and DNA binding properties of surfen were studied by circular dichroism (CD) and UV absorption spectroscopy methods. High-affinity (Ka  ~ 10(7)  M(-1)) association of surfen to the chiral heparin chain gives rise to a characteristic biphasic CD pattern due to the conformational twist of the aminoquinoline moieties around the central urea bridge. At higher drug loading, intermolecular stacking of surfen molecules alters the induced CD profile and also provokes strong UV hypochromism. In contrast to the right-handed heparin template, binding of surfen to the left-helicity chondroitin sulfate chains produces inverted CD pattern. Large UV hypochromism as well as polyphasic induced ellipticity bands indicate that surfen intercalates between the base pairs of calf-thymus DNA. Extensive CD spectroscopic changes observed at higher drug binding ratios refer to cooperative binding interactions between the intercalated drug molecules. The inherent conformational flexibility of surfen demonstrated here for the first time is important in its binding to distinct macromolecular targets and should be considered for rational drug design of novel GAG antagonists. PMID:26096963

  10. Cobalt-catalyzed intermolecular C(sp(2))-O cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Debasish; Tripathy, Manisha; Maity, Pintu; Ranu, Brindaban C

    2015-06-01

    Cobalt(II)-catalyzed C(sp(2) )O cross-coupling between aryl/heteroaryl alcohols and vinyl/aryl halides in the presence of Cu(I) has been achieved under ligand-free conditions. In this reaction, copper plays a significant role in transmetalation rather than being directly involved in the CO coupling. This unique Co/Cu-dual catalyst system provides an easy access to a library of aryl-vinyl, heteroaryl-styryl, aryl-aryl, and heteroaryl-heteroaryl ethers in the absence of any ligand or additive. PMID:25926040

  11. Computational IR spectroscopy of water: OH stretch frequencies, transition dipoles, and intermolecular vibrational coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2013-05-01

    The Hessian matrix reconstruction method initially developed to extract the basis mode frequencies, vibrational coupling constants, and transition dipoles of the delocalized amide I, II, and III vibrations of polypeptides and proteins from quantum chemistry calculation results is used to obtain those properties of delocalized O-H stretch modes in liquid water. Considering the water symmetric and asymmetric O-H stretch modes as basis modes, we here develop theoretical models relating vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and coupling constants of basis modes to local water configuration and solvent electric potential. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to generate an ensemble of water configurations that was in turn used to construct vibrational Hamiltonian matrices. Obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices and using the time-averaging approximation method, which was developed by the Skinner group, to calculating the vibrational spectra of coupled oscillator systems, we could numerically simulate the O-H stretch IR spectrum of liquid water. The asymmetric line shape and weak shoulder bands were quantitatively reproduced by the present computational procedure based on vibrational exciton model, where the polarization effects on basis mode transition dipoles and inter-mode coupling constants were found to be crucial in quantitatively simulating the vibrational spectra of hydrogen-bond networking liquid water.

  12. Intermolecular (119)Sn,(31)P Through-Space Spin-Spin Coupling in a Solid Bivalent Tin Phosphido Complex.

    PubMed

    Arras, Janet; Eichele, Klaus; Maryasin, Boris; Schubert, Hartmut; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Wesemann, Lars

    2016-05-01

    A bivalent tin complex [Sn(NP)2] (NP = [(2-Me2NC6H4)P(C6H5)](-)) was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction and solution and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In agreement with the X-ray structures of two polymorphs of the molecule, (31)P and (119)Sn CP/MAS NMR spectra revealed one crystallographic phosphorus and tin site with through-bond (1)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) and through-space (TS)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) spin-spin couplings. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the NMR parameters confirm the experimental data. The observation of through-space (TS)J((117/119)Sn,(31)P) couplings was unexpected, as the distances of the phosphorus atoms of one molecule and the tin atom of the neighboring molecule (>4.6 Å) are outside the sum of the van der Waals radii of the atoms P and Sn (4.32 Å). The intermolecular Sn···P separations are clearly too large for bonding interactions, as supported by a natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. PMID:27071033

  13. Catalysis in the Service of Green Chemistry: Nobel Prize-Winning Palladium-Catalysed Cross-Couplings, Run in Water at Room Temperature: Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions carried out in the absence of organic solvents, enabled by micellar catalysis.

    PubMed

    Lipshutz, Bruce H; Taft, Benjamin R; Abela, Alexander R; Ghorai, Subir; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Duplais, Christophe

    2012-04-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-couplings, in particular Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions developed over three decades ago, are routinely carried out in organic solvents. However, alternative media are currently of considerable interest given an increasing emphasis on making organic processes 'greener'; for example, by minimising organic waste in the form of organic solvents. Water is the obvious leading candidate in this regard. Hence, this review focuses on the application of micellar catalysis, in which a 'designer' surfactant enables these award-winning coupling reactions to be run in water at room temperature. PMID:23555153

  14. The origins of intra- and inter-molecular vibrational couplings: A case study of H2O-Ar on full and reduced-dimensional potential energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Dan; Ma, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The origin and strength of intra- and inter-molecular vibrational coupling is difficult to probe by direct experimental observations. However, explicitly including or not including some specific intramolecular vibrational modes to study intermolecular interaction provides a precise theoretical way to examine the effects of anharmonic coupling between modes. In this work, a full-dimension intra- and inter-molecular ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for H2O-Ar, which explicitly incorporates interdependence on the intramolecular (Q1, Q2, Q3) normal-mode coordinates of the H2O monomer, has been calculated. In addition, four analytic vibrational-quantum-state-specific PESs are obtained by least-squares fitting vibrationally averaged interaction energies for the (v1, v2, v3) = (0, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1), (1, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0) states of H2O to the three-dimensional Morse/long-range potential function. Each vibrationally averaged PES fitted to 442 points has root-mean-square (rms) deviation smaller than 0.15 cm-1, and required only 58 parameters. With the 3D PESs of H2O-Ar dimer system, we employed the combined radial discrete variable representation/angular finite basis representation method and Lanczos algorithm to calculate rovibrational energy levels. This showed that the resulting vibrationally averaged PESs provide good representations of the experimental infrared data, with rms discrepancies smaller than 0.02 cm-1 for all three rotational branches of the asymmetric stretch fundamental transitions. The infrared band origin shifts associated with three fundamental bands of H2O in H2O-Ar complex are predicted for the first time and are found to be in good agreement with the (extrapolated) experimental values. Upon introduction of additional intramolecular degrees of freedom into the intermolecular potential energy surface, there is clear spectroscopic evidence of intra- and intermolecular vibrational couplings.

  15. Intermolecular Transposition of Is10 Causes Coupled Homologous Recombination at the Transposition Site

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, Z.; Livneh, Z.

    1995-01-01

    Interplasmid and chromosome to plasmid transposition of IS10 were studied by assaying inactivation of the phage 434 cI gene, carried on a low copy number plasmid. This was detected by the activity of the tet gene expressed from the phage 434 P(R) promoter. Each interplasmid transposition resulted in the fusion of the donor and acceptor plasmids into cointegrate structure, with a 9-bp duplication of the target DNA at the insertion site. Cointegrate formation was abolished in δrecA strains, although simple insertions of IS10 were observed. This suggests a two-stage mechanism involving IS10 conservative transposition, followed by homologous recombination between the donor and the acceptor. Two plasmids carrying inactive IS10 sequences were fused to cointegrates at a 100-fold lower frequency, suggesting that homologous recombination is coupled to and stimulated by the transposition event. Each IS10 transposition from the chromosome to the acceptor plasmid involved replicon fusion, providing a mechanism for IS10-mediated integration of extrachromosomal elements into the chromosome. This was accompanied by the formation of an additional copy of IS10 in the chromosome. Thus, like replicative transposition, conservative transposition of IS10 is accompanied by cointegrate formation and results in duplication of the IS10. PMID:7672587

  16. Branched Arylalkenes from Cinnamates: Selectivity Inversion in Heck Reactions by Carboxylates as Deciduous Directing Groups.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Hackenberger, Dagmar; Goossen, Lukas J

    2016-09-01

    A decarboxylative Mizoroki-Heck coupling of aryl halides with cinnamic acids has been developed in which the carboxylate group directs the arylation into its β-position before being tracelessly removed through protodecarboxylation. In the presence of a copper/palladium catalyst, both electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl bromides and chlorides bearing numerous functionalities were successfully coupled with broadly available cinnamates, with selective formation of 1,1-disubstituted alkenes. This reaction concept, in which the carboxylate acts as a deciduous directing group, ideally complements traditional 1,2-selective Heck reactions of styrenes. PMID:27485163

  17. The origins of intra- and inter-molecular vibrational couplings: A case study of H2O-Ar on full and reduced-dimensional potential energy surface.

    PubMed

    Hou, Dan; Ma, Yong-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Li, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The origin and strength of intra- and inter-molecular vibrational coupling is difficult to probe by direct experimental observations. However, explicitly including or not including some specific intramolecular vibrational modes to study intermolecular interaction provides a precise theoretical way to examine the effects of anharmonic coupling between modes. In this work, a full-dimension intra- and inter-molecular ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for H2O-Ar, which explicitly incorporates interdependence on the intramolecular (Q1,  Q2,  Q3) normal-mode coordinates of the H2O monomer, has been calculated. In addition, four analytic vibrational-quantum-state-specific PESs are obtained by least-squares fitting vibrationally averaged interaction energies for the (v1,  v2,  v3) =  (0,  0,  0), (0,  0,  1), (1,  0,  0), (0,  1,  0) states of H2O to the three-dimensional Morse/long-range potential function. Each vibrationally averaged PES fitted to 442 points has root-mean-square (rms) deviation smaller than 0.15 cm(-1), and required only 58 parameters. With the 3D PESs of H2O-Ar dimer system, we employed the combined radial discrete variable representation/angular finite basis representation method and Lanczos algorithm to calculate rovibrational energy levels. This showed that the resulting vibrationally averaged PESs provide good representations of the experimental infrared data, with rms discrepancies smaller than 0.02 cm(-1) for all three rotational branches of the asymmetric stretch fundamental transitions. The infrared band origin shifts associated with three fundamental bands of H2O in H2O-Ar complex are predicted for the first time and are found to be in good agreement with the (extrapolated) experimental values. Upon introduction of additional intramolecular degrees of freedom into the intermolecular potential energy surface, there is clear spectroscopic evidence of intra- and intermolecular vibrational couplings. PMID:26747800

  18. An energy decomposition analysis for intermolecular interactions from an absolutely localized molecular orbital reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level

    SciTech Connect

    Azar, R. Julian; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-01-14

    We propose a wave function-based method for the decomposition of intermolecular interaction energies into chemically-intuitive components, isolating both mean-field- and explicit correlation-level contributions. We begin by solving the locally-projected self-consistent field for molecular interactions equations for a molecular complex, obtaining an intramolecularly polarized reference of self-consistently optimized, absolutely-localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), determined with the constraint that each fragment MO be composed only of atomic basis functions belonging to its own fragment. As explicit inter-electronic correlation is integral to an accurate description of weak forces underlying intermolecular interaction potentials, namely, coordinated fluctuations in weakly interacting electronic densities, we add dynamical correlation to the ALMO polarized reference at the coupled-cluster singles and doubles level, accounting for explicit dispersion and charge-transfer effects, which map naturally onto the cluster operator. We demonstrate the stability of energy components with basis set extension, follow the hydrogen bond-breaking coordinate in the C{sub s}-symmetry water dimer, decompose the interaction energies of dispersion-bound rare gas dimers and other van der Waals complexes, and examine charge transfer-dominated donor-acceptor interactions in borane adducts. We compare our results with high-level calculations and experiment when possible.

  19. H2 and (H2)2 molecules with an ab initio optimization of wave functions in correlated state: electron-proton couplings and intermolecular microscopic parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kądzielawa, Andrzej P.; Bielas, Agata; Acquarone, Marcello; Biborski, Andrzej; Maśka, Maciej M.; Spałek, Józef

    2014-12-01

    The hydrogen molecules H2 and {{≤ft( {{H}2} \\right)}2} are analyzed with electronic correlations taken into account between the 1s electrons in an exact manner. The optimal single-particle Slater orbitals are evaluated in the correlated state of H2 by combining their variational determination with the diagonalization of the full Hamiltonian in the second-quantization language. All electron-ion coupling constants are determined explicitly and their relative importance is discussed. Sizable zero-point motion amplitude and the corresponding energy are then evaluated by taking into account the anharmonic contributions up to the ninth order in the relative displacement of the ions from their static equilibrium value. The applicability of the model to solid molecular hydrogen is briefly analyzed by calculating intermolecular microscopic parameters for the 2× {{H}2} rectangular configuration, as well its ground state energy.

  20. Intra- and Intermolecular Nickel-Catalyzed Reductive Cross-Electrophile Coupling Reactions of Benzylic Esters with Aryl Halides.

    PubMed

    Konev, Mikhail O; Hanna, Luke E; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2016-06-01

    Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling reactions of benzylic esters and aryl halides have been developed. Both inter- and intramolecular variants proceed under mild reaction conditions. A range of heterocycles and functional groups are tolerated under the reaction conditions. Additionally, the first example of a stereospecific cross-electrophile coupling of a secondary benzylic ester is described. PMID:27099968

  1. Driving Forces for Covalent Assembly of Porphyrins by Selective C-H Bond Activation and Intermolecular Coupling on a Copper Surface.

    PubMed

    Floris, Andrea; Haq, Sam; In't Veld, Mendel; Amabilino, David B; Raval, Rasmita; Kantorovich, Lev

    2016-05-11

    Recent synthesis of covalent organic assemblies at surfaces has opened the promise of producing robust nanostructures for functional interfaces. To uncover how this new chemistry works at surfaces and understand the underlying mechanisms that control bond-breaking and bond-making processes at specific positions of the participating molecules, we study here the coupling reaction of tetra(mesityl)porphyrin molecules, which creates covalently connected networks on the Cu(110) surface by utilizing the 4-methyl groups as unique connection points. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT), and Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) calculations, we show that the unique directionality of the covalent bonding is found to stem from a chain of highly selective C-H activation and dehydrogenation processes, followed by specific intermolecular C-C coupling reactions that are facilitated by the surface, by steric constraints, and by anisotropic molecular diffusion. These insights provide the first steps toward developing synthetic rules for complex two-dimensional covalent organic chemistry that can be enacted directly at a surface to deliver specific macromolecular structures designed for specific functions. PMID:27097295

  2. Intermolecular reductive coupling of esters with benzophenones by low-valent titanium: synthesis of diarylmethyl ketones revisited.

    PubMed

    Kise, Naoki; Sakurai, Toshihiko

    2015-04-01

    The reductive coupling of aliphatic esters with benzophenones by Zn-TiCl4 in THF gave two- and four-electron reduced products, diaryl(hydroxy)methyl ketones, and diarylmethyl ketones selectively by controlling the reaction conditions. In the reaction of aromatic esters with benzophenones, diarylmethyl ketones were obtained as the sole products. N-(Alkoxycarbonyl)-(S)-α-amino acid methyl esters gave optically active diphenylmethyl ketones by reduction with benzophenone. The obtained diphenylmethyl ketones were transformed to 4,5-cis-disubstituted oxazolidin-2-ones stereoselectively. PMID:25748528

  3. Control of the intermolecular coupling of dibromotetracene on Cu(110) by the sequential activation of C-Br and C-H bonds.

    PubMed

    Ferrighi, Lara; Píš, Igor; Nguyen, Thanh Hai; Cattelan, Mattia; Nappini, Silvia; Basagni, Andrea; Parravicini, Matteo; Papagni, Antonio; Sedona, Francesco; Magnano, Elena; Bondino, Federica; Di Valentin, Cristiana; Agnoli, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Dibromotetracene molecules are deposited on the Cu(110) surface at room temperature. The complex evolution of this system has been monitored at different temperatures (i.e., 298, 523, 673, and 723 K) by means of a variety of complementary techniques that range from STM and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) to high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy (XPS) and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS). State-of-the-art density-functional calculations were used to determine the chemical processes that take place on the surface. After deposition at room temperature, the organic molecules are transformed into organometallic monomers through debromination and carbon-radical binding to copper adatoms. Organometallic dimers, trimers, or small oligomers, which present copper-bridged molecules, are formed by increasing the temperature. Surprisingly, further heating to 673 K causes the formation of elongated chains along the Cu(110) close-packed rows as a consequence of radical-site migration to the thermodynamically more stable molecule heads. Finally, massive dehydrogenation occurs at the highest temperature followed by ring condensation to nanographenic patches. This study is a paradigmatic example of how intermolecular coupling can be modulated by the stepwise control of a simple parameter, such as temperature, through a sequence of domino reactions. PMID:25711882

  4. Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative Heck Reactions between Alkyltrifluoroborates and Vinylarenes

    PubMed Central

    Liwosz, Timothy W.; Chemler, Sherry R.

    2013-01-01

    We report herein that potassium alkyltrifluoroborates can be utilized in oxidative Heck-type reactions with vinyl arenes. The reaction is catalyzed by a Cu(OTf)2/1,10-phenanthroline with MnO2 as the stoichiometric oxidant. In addition to the alkyl Heck, amination, esterification and dimerization reactions of alkyltrifluoroborates are demonstrated under analogous reaction conditions. Evidence for an alkyl radical intermediate is presented. PMID:23734764

  5. Hecke-Clifford Algebras and Spin Hecke Algebras IV: Odd Double Affine Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khongsap, Ta; Wang, Weiqiang

    2009-01-01

    We introduce an odd double affine Hecke algebra (DaHa) generated by a classical Weyl group W and two skew-polynomial subalgebras of anticommuting generators. This algebra is shown to be Morita equivalent to another new DaHa which are generated by W and two polynomial-Clifford subalgebras. There is yet a third algebra containing a spin Weyl group algebra which is Morita (super)equivalent to the above two algebras. We establish the PBW properties and construct Verma-type representations via Dunkl operators for these algebras.

  6. Synthesis of Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene Pd-catalyst and its application in MW-assisted Heck and Suzuki reaction

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex in the form of organic silica is prepared using sol-gel method and its application in Heck and Suzuki reactions are demonstrated. These C-C coupling reactions proceeded efficiently under the influence of microwave irradiation, wit...

  7. Kinetic Study of the Heck Reaction: An Interdisciplinary Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gozzi, Christel; Bouzidi, Naoual

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to study and calculate the kinetic constant of a Heck reaction: the arylation of but-3-en-2-ol by iodobenzene catalyzed by palladium acetate in presence of triethylamine in DMF. The reaction leads to a mixture of two ketones. Students use GC analysis to quantify reagents and products of reaction. They control the…

  8. Matsuda-Heck reaction with arenediazonium tosylates in water.

    PubMed

    Kutonova, Ksenia V; Trusova, Marina E; Stankevich, Andrey V; Postnikov, Pavel S; Filimonov, Victor D

    2015-01-01

    An environmentally friendly Matsuda-Heck reaction with arenediazonium tosylates has been developed for the first time. A range of alkenes was arylated in good to quantitative yields in water. The reaction is significantly accelerated when carried out under microwave heating. The arylation of haloalkylacrylates with diazonium salts has been implemented for the first time. PMID:25977709

  9. The Differential Graded Odd NilHecke Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Alexander P.; Qi, You

    2016-05-01

    We equip the odd nilHecke algebra and its associated thick calculus category with diagrammatically local differentials. The resulting differential graded Grothendieck groups are isomorphic to two different forms of the positive part of quantum {{{sl}_2}} at a fourth root of unity.

  10. Hecke Groups, Dessins d'Enfants and the Archimedean Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yang-Hui; Read, James

    2015-12-01

    Grothendieck's dessins d'enfants arise with ever-increasing frequency in many areas of 21st century mathematical physics. In this paper, we review the connections between dessins and the theory of Hecke groups. Focussing on the restricted class of highly symmetric dessins corresponding to the so-called Archimedean solids, we apply this theory in order to provide a means of computing representatives of the associated conjugacy classes of Hecke subgroups in each case. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that dessins arising in mathematical physics can point to new and hitherto unexpected directions for further research. In addition, given the particular ubiquity of many of the dessins corresponding to the Archimedean solids, the hope is that the computational results of this paper will prove useful in the further study of these objects in mathematical physics contexts.

  11. Diverse N-Heterocyclic Ring Systems via Aza-Heck Cyclizations of N-(Pentafluorobenzoyloxy)sulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Hazelden, Ian R; Ma, Xiaofeng; Langer, Thomas; Bower, John F

    2016-09-01

    Aza-Heck cyclizations initiated by oxidative addition of Pd(0) -catalysts into the N-O bond of N-(pentafluoro-benzoyloxy)sulfonamides are described. These studies, which encompass only the second class of aza-Heck reaction developed to date, provide direct access to diverse N-heterocyclic ring systems. PMID:27460965

  12. Intermolecular perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, I. C.; Hurst, G. J. B.; Stone, A. J.

    The new intermolecular perturbation theory described in the preceding papers is applied to some van der Waals molecules. HeBe is used as a test case, and the perturbation method converges well at interatomic distances down to about 4 a0, giving results in excellent agreement with supermolecule calculations. ArHF and ArHCl have been studied using large basis sets, and the results agree well with experimental data. The ArHX configuration is favoured over the ArXH configuration mainly because of larger polarization and charge-transfer contributions. In NeH2 the equilibrium geometry is determined by a delicate balance between opposing effects; with a double-zeta-polarization basis the correct configuration is predicted.

  13. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    DOEpatents

    Busse, James R.; Dye, Robert C.; Foley, Timothy J.; Higa, Kelvin T.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Sanders, Victor E.; Son, Steven F.

    2011-04-26

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  14. Aqueous Oxidative Heck Reaction as a Protein-Labeling Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidou, Maria Eleni; van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Baas, Bert-Jan; Jeronimus-Stratingh, Margot; Gottumukkala, Aditya L; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Minnaard, Adriaan J; Dekker, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical reactions are being employed for bio-orthogonal ligation of detection labels to protein-bound functional groups. Several of these strategies, however, are limited in their application to pure proteins and are ineffective in complex biological samples such as cell lysates. Here we present the palladium-catalyzed oxidative Heck reaction as a new and robust bio-orthogonal strategy for linking functionalized arylboronic acids to protein-bound alkenes in high yields and with excellent chemoselectivity even in the presence of complex protein mixtures from living cells. Advantageously, this reaction proceeds under aerobic conditions, whereas most other metal-catalyzed reactions require inert atmosphere. PMID:24376051

  15. Bounds for Hecke eigenforms and their allied L-functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing

    We consider Hecke eigenforms and their allied L-functions from three aspects in this thesis. First we generalize the Iwaniec's spectral large sieve estimates of Maass cusp form to the local version for all congruence groups of level q. Our approach is based on an inequality for a general bilinear form involving Kloosterman sums and Bessel functions. The exceptional eigenvalues emerge in the course of the proof. In the second part, we extend Luo's result to prove a general optimal bound for L4-norms of the dihedral Maass forms associated to Hecke's grossencharacters of a fixed real quadratic field. Given a fixed quadratic field with discriminant D, we remove the condition that the narrow class number of K is 1. The key ingredients are Watson and Ichino's formula and the local spectral large sieve inequality established in the first part. Finally we obtain a long equation intended to establish an upper bound for the second moment of symmetric square L-functions. Petersson trace formula plays an important role and we study thoroughly an analogue of Estermann series using Hurwitz zeta function and establish its meromorphic extension and functional equation. This work provides a useful approach to the further study for the central value of the symmetric square L-functions.

  16. Stereospecific Synthesis of Tri- and Tetrasubstituted α-Fluoroacrylates by Mizoroki-Heck Reaction.

    PubMed

    Rousée, Kevin; Bouillon, Jean-Philippe; Couve-Bonnaire, Samuel; Pannecoucke, Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Ligand-free, efficient, palladium-catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction between methyl α-fluoroacrylate and arene or hetarene iodides is reported for the first time. The reaction is stereospecific and provides fair to quantitative yields of fluoroalkenes. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction starting from more hindered and usually reluctant trisubstituted acrylate, to access tetrasubstituted fluoroalkenes, is also reported. Finally, the use of a three-step synthesis sequence, including Mizoroki-Heck reaction, allows the synthesis of fluorinated analogues of therapeutic agents with high yield. PMID:26809942

  17. Single-molecule magnets ``without'' intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Vergnani, L.; Rodriguez-Douton, M. J.; Cornia, A.; Neugebauer, P.; Barra, A. L.; Sorace, L.; Sessoli, R.

    2012-02-01

    Intermolecular magnetic interactions (dipole-dipole and exchange) affect strongly the magnetic relaxation of crystals of single-molecule magnets (SMMs), especially at low temperature, where quantum tunneling of the magnetization (QTM) dominates. This leads to complex many-body problems [l]. Measurements on magnetically diluted samples are desirable to clearly sort out the behaviour of magnetically-isolated SMMs and to reveal, by comparison, the effect of intermolecular interactions. Here, we diluted a Fe4 SMM into a diamagnetic crystal lattice, affording arrays of independent and iso-oriented magnetic units. We found that the resonant tunnel transitions are much sharper, the tunneling efficiency changes significantly, and two-body QTM transitions disappear. These changes have been rationalized on the basis of a dipolar shuffling mechanism and of transverse dipolar fields, whose effect has been analyzed using a multispin model. Our findings directly prove the impact of intermolecular magnetic couplings on the SMM behaviour and disclose the magnetic response of truly-isolated giant spins in a diamagnetic crystalline environment.[4pt] [1] W. Wernsdorfer, at al, PRL 82, 3903 (1999); PRL 89, 197201 (2002); Nature 416, 406 (2002); IS Tupitsyn, PCE Stamp, NV Prokof'ev, PRB 69, 132406 (2004).

  18. All exactly solvable U(1)-invariant quantum spin 1 chains from Hecke algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Alcarez, F.C. ); Koberle, R. ); Lima-Santos, A. )

    1992-12-10

    In this paper, the authors obtain all exactly integrable spin 1 quantum chains, which are U(1) invariant and satisfy the Hecke algebra. The authors present various generalizations for arbitrary spin S and discuss their solution via Bethe ansatz methods.

  19. On a generalization of a theorem of Erich Hecke.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Weintraub, S H

    1982-12-01

    E. Hecke initiated the application of representation theory to the study of cusp forms. He showed that, for p a prime congruent to 3 mod 4, the difference of multiplicities of certain conjugate representations of SL(F(p)) on cusp forms of degree 1, level p, and weight >/=2 is given by the class number h(-p) of the field Q( radical-p). We apply the holomorphic Lefschetz theorem to actions on the Igusa compactification of the Siegel moduli space of degree 2 to compute the values of characters of the representations of Sp(4)(F(p)) on certain spaces of cusp forms of degree 2 and level p at parabolic elements of this group. Our results imply that here too, the difference in multiplicities of conjugate representations of Sp(4)(F(p)) is a multiple of h(-p). PMID:16593264

  20. Selection and identity rules for subductions of type A quantum Iwahori-Hecke algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Chilla, Vincenzo

    2007-11-15

    This paper is concerned with the subduction problem of type A quantum Iwahori-Hecke algebras CH(S{sub f},q{sup 2}) with a real deformation parameter q, i.e., the problem of decomposing irreducible representations of such algebras as direct sum of irreducible representations of the subalgebras CH(S{sub f{sub 1}},q{sup 2})xCH(S{sub f{sub 2}},q{sup 2}), with f{sub 1}+f{sub 2}=f. After giving a suitable combinatorial description for the subduction issue, we provide a selection rule, based on the Richardson-Littlewood criterion, which allows to determine the vanishing coupling coefficients between standard basis vectors for such representations, and we also present an equivariance condition for the subduction coefficients. Such results extend those ones corresponding to the subduction problem in symmetric group algebras CS{sub f}{down_arrow}CS{sub f{sub 1}}xCS{sub f{sub 2}} which are obtained by q approaching the value of 1.

  1. Direct observation of intermolecular interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, Luigi; Thämer, Martin; Reppert, Mike; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-01

    Although intermolecular interactions are ubiquitous in physicochemical phenomena, their dynamics have proven difficult to observe directly, and most experiments rely on indirect measurements. Using broadband two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), we have measured the influence of hydrogen bonding on the intermolecular vibrational coupling between dimerized N-methylacetamide molecules. In addition to strong intramolecular coupling between N-H and C=O oscillators, cross-peaks in the broadband 2DIR spectrum appearing upon dimerization reveal strong intermolecular coupling that changes the character of the vibrations. In addition, dimerization changes the effects of intramolecular coupling, resulting in Fermi resonances between high and low-frequency modes. These results illustrate how hydrogen bonding influences the interplay of inter- and intramolecular vibrations, giving rise to correlated nuclear motions and significant changes in the vibrational structure of the amide group. These observations have direct impact on modeling and interpreting the IR spectra of proteins. In addition, they illustrate a general approach to direct molecular characterization of intermolecular interactions.

  2. Direct observation of intermolecular interactions mediated by hydrogen bonding

    SciTech Connect

    De Marco, Luigi; Reppert, Mike; Thämer, Martin; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2014-07-21

    Although intermolecular interactions are ubiquitous in physicochemical phenomena, their dynamics have proven difficult to observe directly, and most experiments rely on indirect measurements. Using broadband two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), we have measured the influence of hydrogen bonding on the intermolecular vibrational coupling between dimerized N-methylacetamide molecules. In addition to strong intramolecular coupling between N–H and C=O oscillators, cross-peaks in the broadband 2DIR spectrum appearing upon dimerization reveal strong intermolecular coupling that changes the character of the vibrations. In addition, dimerization changes the effects of intramolecular coupling, resulting in Fermi resonances between high and low-frequency modes. These results illustrate how hydrogen bonding influences the interplay of inter- and intramolecular vibrations, giving rise to correlated nuclear motions and significant changes in the vibrational structure of the amide group. These observations have direct impact on modeling and interpreting the IR spectra of proteins. In addition, they illustrate a general approach to direct molecular characterization of intermolecular interactions.

  3. Quantitative Quantum Ergodicity and the Nodal Domains of Hecke-Maass Cusp Forms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Junehyuk

    2016-07-01

    We prove a quantitative statement of the quantum ergodicity for Hecke-Maass cusp forms on the modular surface. As an application of our result, along a density 1 subsequence of even Hecke-Maass cusp forms, we obtain a sharp lower bound for the L 2-norm of the restriction to a fixed compact geodesic segment of {η={iy : y > 0} subset H}. We also obtain an upper bound of {O_ɛ (t_φ^{3/8+ɛ} )} for the {L^∞} norm along a density 1 subsequence of Hecke-Maass cusp forms; for such forms, this is an improvement over the upper bound of {O_ɛ(t_φ^{5/12+ɛ} )} given by Iwaniec and Sarnak. In a recent work of Ghosh, Reznikov, and Sarnak, the authors proved for all even Hecke-Maass forms that the number of nodal domains, which intersect a geodesic segment of {η} , grows faster than {t_φ^{1/12-ɛ}} for any {ɛ > 0} , under the assumption that the Lindelöf Hypothesis is true and that the geodesic segment is long enough. Upon removing a density zero subset of even Hecke-Maass forms, we prove without making any assumptions that the number of nodal domains grows faster than {t_φ^{1/8-ɛ}} for any {ɛ > 0}.

  4. Characterization of human papillomavirus type 13 from focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, H; Hettich, I; Runne, U; Gissmann, L; Chilf, G N

    1983-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck lesions of a Turkish patient were shown to contain papillomavirus-specific DNA, which was molecularly cloned into bacteriophage lambda. It proved to be related to human papillomavirus (HPV) type 6 DNA and HPV type 11 DNA. Reassociation kinetics revealed a cross-hybridization of 4 and 3%, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with HPV type 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, or 10. This papillomavirus type will be referred to as HPV type 13. The DNA was characterized by cleavage with several restriction enzymes, and the cleavage sites were physically mapped. Papules from two additional cases of Morbus Heck contained HPV type 13 DNA as shown by Southern blot hybridization and by the characteristic cleavage patterns. This may indicate that HPV type 13 is more frequently associated with focal epithelial hyperplasia Heck than are other HPV types. Images PMID:6312071

  5. The local Hurwitz constant and Diophantine approximation on Hecke groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehner, J.

    1990-10-01

    Define the Hecke group by {G_q} = < {( {begin{array}{*{20}{c}} 1 & {{⪉mb... ...{array}{*{20}{c}} 0 & { - 1} 1 & 0 } )} rangle , {λ _q} = 2cos π /q , q = 3,4, ldots . We call {G_q}(∞ ) the {G_q} -rationals, and R - {G_q}(∞ ) the {G_q} -irrationals. The problem we treat here is the approximation of {G_q} -irrationals by {G_q} -rationals. Let M(α ) be the upper bound of numbers c for which \\vertα - k/m\\vert < 1/c{m^2} for all {G_q} -irrationals and infinitely many k/m in {G_q}(∞ ) . Set h_q'= {inf _α }M(α ) . We call h_q' the Hurwitz constant for {G_q} . It is known that h_q'= 2 , q even; h_q'= 2{(1 + {(1 - {λ _q}/2)^2})^{1/2}} , q odd. In this paper we prove this result by using {λ _q} -continued fractions, as developed previously by D. Rosen. Write α - frac{{{P_{n - 1}}}}{{{Q_{n - 1}}}} = frac{{{{( - 1)}^{... ...}{\\varepsilon _2} \\cdots {\\varepsilon _n}}}{{{m_{n - 1}}(α )Q_{n - 1}^2}}, where {\\varepsilon _i} = ± 1 and {P_i}/{Q_i} are the convergents of the {λ _q} -continued fraction for α . Then M(α ) = {overline {lim } _n}{m_n}(α ) . We call {m_n}(α ) the local Hurwitz constant. In the final section we prove some results on the local Hurwitz constant. For example (Theorem 4), it is shown that if q is odd and {\\varepsilon _{n + 1}} = {\\varepsilon _{n + 2}} = + 1 , then {m_i} ≥ {(λ _q^2 + 4)^{1/2}} > h_q' for at least one of i = n - 1,n,n + 1 .

  6. Ligand-free Heck reaction: Pd(OAc)2 as an active catalyst revisited.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qingwei; Kinney, Elizabeth P; Yang, Zhi

    2003-09-19

    Palladium acetate was shown to be an extremely active catalyst for the Heck reaction of aryl bromides. Both the base and the solvent were found to have a fundamental influence on the efficiency of the reaction, with K(3)PO(4) and N,N-dimethylacetamide being the optimal base and solvent, respectively. PMID:12968913

  7. Theoretical study on the effect of solvent and intermolecular fluctuations in proton transfer reactions: General theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Nobuhiko; Ida, Tomonori; Endo, Kazunaka

    2004-04-30

    We present a theory of proton transfer reactions which incorporate the modulation of the proton's potential surface by intermolecular vibrations and the effect of coupling to solvent degree of freedom. The proton tunnels between states corresponding to it being localized in the wells of a double minimum potential. The resulting tunnel splitting depends on the intermolecular separation. The solvent response to the proton's charge is modeled as that of a continuous distribution of harmonic oscillators and the intermolecular stretching mode is also damped because of the interaction with solvent degree of freedom. The transition rate is given by the Fermi Gorlden Rule expression.

  8. A simple and facile Heck-type arylation of alkenes with diaryliodonium salts using magnetically recoverable Pd-catalyst

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Heck-type arylation of alkenes was achieved in aqueous polyethylene glycol using a magnetically recoverable heterogenized palladium catalyst employing diaryliodonium salts under ambient conditions. The benign reaction medium and the stability of the catalyst are the salient f...

  9. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    DOEpatents

    Busse, James R.; Dye, Robert C.; Foley, Timothy J.; Higa, Kelvin T.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Sanders, Victor E.; Son, Steven F.

    2010-09-07

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  10. Determination of Multidimensional Intermolecular Potential Energy Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Ronald Carl

    High resolution spectroscopy of the low frequency van der Waals vibrations (also referred to as Vibration -Rotation-Tunneling (VRT) spectroscopy) in weakly bound complexes provides the means to probe intermolecular forces with unprecedented detail and precision. We present an overview of the experimental information on intermolecular forces and intermolecular dynamics which has been obtained by far infrared VRT spectroscopy of 18 complexes. We then turn to a detailed examination of the Ar-H_2O complex, a simple prototype for the study of intermolecular forces. The measurement and analysis of 9 VRT bands is described. These data are first used to obtain a qualitative description of the intermolecular potential energy surface (IPS). A new simple and efficient method for calculating the eigenvalues of the multidimensional intermolecular dynamics on the IPS has been developed. This algorithm (an adaptation of the Collocation Method) was then used in a direct fit to obtain an accurate and detailed description of the intermolecular forces acting within the Ar-H_2O complex.

  11. On boundary fusion and functional relations in the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Babichenko, A.; Regelskis, V.

    2014-04-15

    We construct boundary type operators satisfying fused reflection equation for arbitrary representations of the Baxterized affine Hecke algebra. These operators are analogues of the fused reflection matrices in solvable half-line spin chain models. We show that these operators lead to a family of commuting transfer matrices of Sklyanin type. We derive fusion type functional relations for these operators for two families of representations.

  12. Palladium was supported on superparamagnetic nanoparticles: A magnetically recoverable catalyst for Heck reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fengwei; Niu, Jianrui; Wang, Haibo; Yang, Honglei; Jin, Jun; Liu, Na; Zhang, Yubin; Li, Rong; Ma, Jiantai

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Palladium-based heterogeneous catalyst was prepared facilely via the co-precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles are nearly spherical in shape with an average size of 20 {+-} 1.0 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed magnetic catalyst showed high activity for Heck reaction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture with external magnetic field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalytic efficiency for Heck reaction remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. -- Abstract: A novel and high-performance palladium-based catalyst for Heck reaction was prepared easily by the co-precipitation method. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The catalyst afforded a fast conversion of the 4-bromonitrobenzene to 4-nitrostilbene at a catalyst loading of 5 mol%, and the efficiency of the catalyst remains unaltered even after 6 repeated cycles. The excellent catalytic performance of the Pd/Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} catalyst might be attributed to the enhanced synergistic effect between Pd nanoparticles and magnetite.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of mesoporous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) containing palladium nanoparticles as a novel heterogeneous organocatalyst for Heck reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbasi, Roozbeh Javad; Negahdari, Meysam

    2014-04-01

    Mesoporous poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (MPVP) was prepared through a nanocasting technique based on mesoporous silica KIT-6 as sacrificial templates, and served as an efficient scaffold for supporting Pd nanoparticles. The physical and chemical properties of Pd-MPVP were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, BET, DRS UV-Vis, SEM, TEM and TGA techniques. The application of this novel purely organic heterogeneous catalyst, which combine the advantage of organic polymers and mesoporous materials, was investigated for Csbnd C bond formation through the Heck coupling reaction of aryl iodides, bromides and chlorides with styrene. It was observed that the activity of this catalyst decreased just 5% after nine regeneration processes were performed. This unique result opens new perspectives for application of purely organic mesoporous polymers as structurally defined hydrophobic catalyst in catalytic reactions.

  14. Dendrimer-templated Pd nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles synthesized by reverse microemulsions as efficient nanocatalysts for the Heck reaction: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Noh, Ji-Hyang; Meijboom, Reinout

    2014-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using a dendrimer-templated method using G4, G5 and G6 PAMAM-OH dendrimers as well as a reverse microemulsion method using the water/dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium salt (aerosol-OT, AOT) surfactant/isooctane system with water to surfactant ratios (ω0) of 5, 10 and 13. These 6 catalysts were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, EDX, and XRD. TEM micrographs showed that the average sizes of 2.74-3.32nm with narrower size distribution were achieved by using dendrimer-templated synthetic methods, whereas the reverse microemulsion method resulted in broad size distribution with an average size of 3.87-5.06nm. The influence of various reaction parameters such as base, catalyst dosing, alkene, aryl halide and temperature on the Heck C-C coupling reaction was evaluated. The activation parameters were derived from the reaction rate of each catalyst obtained at various temperatures. A correlation of catalytic activity, enthalpy of activation and particle size is discussed. Particle size changes of each catalyst were investigated after the catalytic reaction. Overall results indicated that dendrimer-templated Pd NP catalysts showed superior activity as compared to the Pd NPs synthesized by reverse microemulsions, with the dendrimer-templated G5-OH(Pd80) showing the best activity. These catalysts were also reusable for 3 cycles, retaining high yield and showing excellent yields under mild conditions. Therefore, the dendrimer-templated Pd NPs are efficient catalyst systems for the ligand-free Heck C-C coupling reaction. PMID:24267330

  15. Metabolic alkene labeling and in vitro detection of histone acylation via the aqueous oxidative Heck reaction

    PubMed Central

    Ourailidou, Maria E.; Dockerty, Paul; Witte, Martin; Poelarends, Gerrit J.; Dekker, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    The detection of protein lysine acylations remains a challenge due to a lack of specific antibodies for acylations with various chain lengths. This problem can be addressed by metabolic labeling techniques using carboxylates with reactive functionalities. Subsequent chemoselective reactions with a complementary moiety connected to a detection tag enable the visualization and quantification of the protein lysine acylome. In this study, we present EDTA-Pd(II) as a novel catalyst for the oxidative Heck reaction on protein-bound alkenes, which allows employment of fully aqueous reaction conditions. We used this reaction to monitor histone lysine acylation in vitro after metabolic incorporation of olefinic carboxylates as chemical reporters. PMID:25672493

  16. Noncovalent Substrate-Directed Enantioselective Heck Reactions: Synthesis of S- and P-Stereogenic Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    de Azambuja, Francisco; Carmona, Rafaela C; Chorro, Tomaz H D; Heerdt, Gabriel; Correia, Carlos Roque D

    2016-08-01

    S- and P-Stereogenic heterocycles were synthesized by a remarkably simple enantioselective Heck desymmetrization reaction based on the unprecedented noncovalent directing effect of S=O and P=O functionalities. Selected prochiral symmetric substrates were efficiently arylated using the recently disclosed chiral PyraBOx ligand under mild and open-flask reaction conditions. Several five-membered aryl- sulfones, sulfoxides, and phosphine oxides were synthesized in good to excellent yields, in good to high diastereoselectivity, and enantiomeric ratios up to 98:2. Theoretical calculations also support the noncovalent directing effect of the S=O and P=O functionalities during the arylation process. PMID:27273079

  17. Hauser-Heck: Efficient Synthesis of γ-Aryl-β-ketoesters en Route to Substituted Naphthalenes.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Frederic; Harms, Klaus; Koert, Ulrich

    2015-11-20

    γ-Aryl-β-ketoesters can be prepared in one step from aryl bromides and bis(trimethylsilyl) enol ethers using catalytic amounts of Pd(dba)2/t-Bu3P and stoichiometric amounts of Bu3SnF. The wide range of γ-(hetero)aryl-β-ketoesters that can be obtained illustrate the scope and limitations of this novel Hauser-Heck combination. γ-Aryl-β-ketoesters with a 1,3-dioxane acetal in the ortho position can easily be transformed into the hydroxy naphthoate in very good yield. Aqueous formic acid at 65 °C provides optimal conditions for this deprotective aromatization. PMID:26536142

  18. Rhodium(i)-catalysed intermolecular alkyne insertion into (2-pyridylmethylene)cyclobutenes.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takanori; Matsumoto, Takeshi

    2016-06-14

    Cyclobutenes with 2-pyridylmethylene groups at the 3 position underwent an intermolecular alkyne insertion reaction in the presence of a rhodium(i) catalyst at 170 °C to afford substituted benzenes. Among the different 2-pyridylmethylene groups examined, 3-methyl-2-pyridyl derivatives showed superior activity and readily coupled with various alkynes, including sterically demanding, heteroaromatic and terminal alkynes. PMID:27193826

  19. Estimation of intermolecular interactions in polymer networks

    SciTech Connect

    Subrananian, P.R.; Galiatsatos, V.

    1993-12-31

    Strain-birefringence measurements have been used to estimate intermolecular interactions in polymer networks. The intensity of the interaction has been quantified through a theoretical scheme recently proposed by Erman. The results show that these interactions diminish with decreasing molecular weight between cross-links and decreasing cross-link functionality.

  20. An improved intermolecular potential for sulfur hexafluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Aziz, R.A.; Slaman, M.J. ); Taylor, W.L.; Hurly, J.J. Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221 )

    1991-01-15

    Second virial coefficient data and viscosity were used to evaluate effective isotropic intermolecular potential functions proposed in the literature for sulfur hexafluoride. It was found that none of the potentials could predict the properties simultaneously. We have constructed a Morse--Morse--Spline--van der Waals (MMSV) potential which satisfactorily correlates second virial coefficient and viscosity data at the same time.

  1. Mapping intermolecular bonding in C60

    PubMed Central

    Sundqvist, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    The formation of intermolecular bonds in C60 has been investigated in detail at pressures below 2.2 GPa and up to 750 K. Fullerene samples were heated in a temperature gradient to obtain data on the formation of dimers and low-dimensional polymers along isobars. Intermolecular bonding was analyzed ex situ by Raman scattering, using both intramolecular modes and intermolecular stretching modes. Semi-quantitative reaction maps are given for the formation of dimers and chains. The activation energy for dimer formation decreases by 0.2 meV pm−1 when intermolecular distances decrease and dimer formation is noticeably affected by the rotational state of molecules. Above 400–450 K larger oligomers are formed; below 1.4 GPa most of these are disordered, with small domains of linear chains, but above this the appearance of stretching modes indicates the existence of ordered one-dimensional polymers. At the highest pressures and temperatures two-dimensional polymers are also observed. PMID:25145952

  2. Use of the Intramolecular Heck Reaction for Forming Congested Quaternary Carbon Stereoenters. Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (±)-Gelsemine

    PubMed Central

    Madin, Andrew; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Oh, Taeboem; Old, David W.; Overman, Larry E.; Sharp, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Intramolecular Heck reactions of α,β-unsaturated 2-haloanilides derived from azatricyclo[4.4.0.02,8]decanone 5 efficiently install the congested spirooxindole functionality of gelsemine. Depending upon the Heck reaction conditions and the nature of the β-substituent, either products having the natural or unnatural configuration of the spirooxindole group are formed predominantly. Efforts to elaborate the hydropyran ring of gelsemine from the endo-oriented nitrile substituent of pentacyclic Heck product 18 were unsuccessful. Important steps in the ultimately successful route to (±)-gelsemine (1) are: (a) intramolecular Heck reaction of tricyclic β-methoxy α,β-unsaturated 2-iodoanilide 68 in the presence of silver phosphate to form pentacyclic product 69 having the unnatural configuration of the spirooxindole fragment, (b) formation of hexacyclic aziridine 80 from the reaction of cyanide with intermediate 79 containing an N-methoxycarbonyl-β-bromoethylamine fragment, (c) introduction of C17 by ring-opening of the aziridinium ion derived from aziridine 80, and (d) base-promoted skeletal rearrangement of pentacyclic equatorial alcohol 82 to form the oxacyclic ring and invert the spirooxindole functional group to provide hexacyclic gelsemine precursor 83. PMID:16366557

  3. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, B.C.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a releasable coupling connecting a control rod to a control rod drive. This remotely operable coupling mechanism can connect two elements which are laterally and angviarly misaligned, and provides a means for sensing the locked condition of the elements. The coupling utilizes a spherical bayonet joint which is locked against rotation by a ball detent lock. (AEC)

  4. Intermolecular electrostatic energies using density fitting

    PubMed Central

    Cisneros, G. Andrés; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Darden, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate the electron-electron and nuclear-electron intermolecular Coulomb interaction energy between two molecules by separately fitting the unperturbed molecular electron density of each monomer. This method is based on the variational Coulomb fitting method which relies on the expansion of the ab initio molecular electron density in site-centered auxiliary basis sets. By expanding the electron density of each monomer in this way the integral expressions for the intermolecular electrostatic calculations are simplified, lowering the operation count as well as the memory usage. Furthermore, this method allows the calculation of intermolecular Coulomb interactions with any level of theory from which a one-electron density matrix can be obtained. Our implementation is initially tested by calculating molecular properties with the density fitting method using three different auxiliary basis sets and comparing them to results obtained from ab initio calculations. These properties include dipoles for a series of molecules, as well as the molecular electrostatic potential and electric field for water. Subsequently, the intermolecular electrostatic energy is tested by calculating ten stationary points on the water dimer potential-energy surface. Results are presented for electron densities obtained at four different levels of theory using two different basis sets, fitted with three auxiliary basis sets. Additionally, a one-dimensional electrostatic energy surface scan is performed for four different systems (H2O dimer, Mg2+–H2O, Cu+–H2O, and n-methyl-formamide dimer). Our results show a very good agreement with ab initio calculations for all properties as well as interaction energies. PMID:16095348

  5. An isotopic mass effect on the intermolecular potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Michael F.; Currier, Robert P.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2015-10-01

    The impact of isotopic variation on the electronic energy and intermolecular potentials is often suppressed when calculating isotopologue thermodynamics. Intramolecular potential energy surfaces for distinct isotopologues are in fact equivalent under the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which is sometimes used to imply that the intermolecular interactions are independent of isotopic mass. In this communication, the intermolecular dipole-dipole interaction between hetero-nuclear diatomic molecules is considered. It is shown that the intermolecular potential contains mass-dependent terms even though each nucleus moves on a Born-Oppenheimer surface. The analysis suggests that mass dependent variations in intermolecular potentials should be included in comprehensive descriptions of isotopologue thermodynamics.

  6. Palladium-Catalyzed 6-Endo Selective Alkyl-Heck Reactions: Access to 5-Phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xu; Han, Ying; Yan, Fachao; Liu, Qing; Wang, Ping; Chen, Kexun; Li, Yueyun; Zhao, Zengdian; Dong, Yunhui; Liu, Hui

    2016-08-01

    A new type of palladium-catalyzed 6-endo-selective alkyl-Heck reaction of unactivated alkyl iodides has been described. This strategy provides efficient access to a variety of 5-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine derivatives, which are important structural motifs for bioactive molecules. This process displays a broad substrate scope with excellent 6-endo selectivity. Mechanistic investigations reveal that this alkyl-Heck reaction performs via a hybrid palladium-radical process. PMID:27409716

  7. An assay for intermolecular exchange of alpha crystallin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    An affinity column of alpha crystallin linked to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose was developed to study the exchange of alpha subunits. Alpha crystallin bound to the Sepharose-alpha complex was dissociated with 8 mol/l urea, followed by quantitation using high-performance reverse-phase liquid chromatography. The time course of binding at 37 degrees C showed a hyperbolic binding pattern reaching equilibrium between 6-18 hr. Under these conditions, binding of beta and gamma crystallins to the same matrix was less than 10% of the alpha values, as was binding of alpha to glycine-coupled Sepharose. This assay was used to demonstrate changes in the subunit exchange of alpha crystallins present in high molecular weight versus lower molecular weight aggregates of the human lens. These results show that this binding procedure was a specific reproducible assay that might be used to study intermolecular interactions of the alpha crystallins.

  8. Intermolecular shielding from molecular magnetic susceptibility. A new view of intermolecular ring current effects.

    PubMed

    Facelli, Julio C

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents calculations of the NICS (nuclear independent chemical shieldings) in a rectangular grid surrounding the molecules of benzene, naphthalene and coronene. Using the relationship between calculated NICS and the induced magnetic field, the calculated NICS are used to predict intermolecular effects due to molecular magnetic susceptibility or ring current effects. As expected from approximate ring current models, these intermolecular shielding effects are concentrated along the direction perpendicular to the molecular plane and they approach asymptotically to a dipolar functional dependence, i.e. (1-3 cos(2)theta)/r(3)). The deviations from the dipolar functional form require that the calculations of these intermolecular effects be done using a suitable interpolation scheme of the NICS calculated on the grid. The analysis of the NICS tensor components shows that these intermolecular shielding effects should be primarily expected on shielding components of the neighboring molecules nuclei, which are perpendicular to the molecular plane of the aromatic compound generating the induced field. The analysis of the calculated NICS along the series benzene, naphthalene and coronene shows that these intermolecular effects increase monotonically with the number of aromatic rings. PMID:16477673

  9. Chemoselective and Sequential Palladium-Catalyzed Couplings for the Generation of Stilbene Libraries via Immobilized Substrates.

    PubMed

    Traficante, Carla I; Fagundez, Catherine; Serra, Gloria L; Mata, Ernesto G; Delpiccolo, Carina M L

    2016-05-01

    A versatile palladium-catalyzed tandem synthetic sequence to afford E-stilbenes libraries has been developed. Excellent regio- and stereocontrol have been achieved by means of the sequence of Hiyama and Heck cross-couplings. Undesirable homocoupling byproducts were avoided employing immobilized substrates. PMID:27073985

  10. Simulating two-dimensional infrared-Raman and Raman spectroscopies for intermolecular and intramolecular modes of liquid water.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hironobu; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-02-21

    Full classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of two-dimensional (2D) infrared-Raman and 2D Raman spectroscopies of liquid water were carried out to elucidate a mode-mode coupling mechanism using a polarizable water model for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrational spectroscopy (POLI2VS). This model is capable of describing both infrared and Raman spectra. Second-order response functions, which consist of one molecular polarizability and two molecular dipole moments for 2D IR-Raman and three molecular polarizabilities for 2D Raman spectroscopies, were calculated using an equilibrium-non-equilibrium hybrid MD approach. The obtained signals were analyzed using a multi-mode Brownian oscillator (BO) model with nonlinear system-bath interactions representing the intramolecular OH stretching, intramolecular HOH bending, hydrogen bonded (HB)-intermolecular librational motion and HB-intermolecular vibrational (translational) motion of liquid water. This model was applied through use of hierarchal Fokker-Planck equations. The qualitative features of the peak profiles in the 2D spectra obtained from the MD simulations are accurately reproduced with the BO model. This indicates that this model captures the essential features of the intermolecular and intramolecular motion. We elucidate the mechanisms governing the 2D signal profiles involving anharmonic mode-mode coupling, the nonlinearities of the polarizability and dipole moment, and the vibrational dephasing processes of liquid water even in the case that the 2D spectral peaks obtained from the MD simulation overlap or are unclear. The mode coupling peaks caused by electrical anharmonic coupling (EAHC) and mechanical anharmonic coupling (MAHC) are observed in all of the 2D spectra. We find that the strength of the MAHC between the OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular vibrational modes is comparable to that between the OH-stretching and HOH bending modes. Moreover, we find that this OH-stretching and HB-intermolecular

  11. The nil Hecke ring and cohomology of G/P for a Kac-Moody group G

    PubMed Central

    Kostant, Bertram; Kumar, Shrawan

    1986-01-01

    Let G be the group with Borel subgroup B, associated to a Kac-Moody Lie algebra [unk] (with Weyl group W and Cartan subalgebra [unk]). Then H*(G/B) has, among others, four distinguished structures (i) an algebra structure, (ii) a distinguished basis, given by the Schubert cells, (iii) a module for W, and (iv) a module for Hecke-type operators Aw, for w [unk] W. We construct a ring R, which we refer to as the nil Hecke ring, which is very simply and explicitly defined as a functor of W together with the W-module [unk] alone and such that all these four structures on H*(G/B) arise naturally from the ring R. PMID:16593661

  12. The nil Hecke ring and cohomology of G/P for a Kac-Moody group G.

    PubMed

    Kostant, B; Kumar, S

    1986-03-01

    Let G be the group with Borel subgroup B, associated to a Kac-Moody Lie algebra [unk] (with Weyl group W and Cartan subalgebra [unk]). Then H(*)(G/B) has, among others, four distinguished structures (i) an algebra structure, (ii) a distinguished basis, given by the Schubert cells, (iii) a module for W, and (iv) a module for Hecke-type operators A(w), for w [unk] W. We construct a ring R, which we refer to as the nil Hecke ring, which is very simply and explicitly defined as a functor of W together with the W-module [unk] alone and such that all these four structures on H(*)(G/B) arise naturally from the ring R. PMID:16593661

  13. COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Frisch, E.; Johnson, C.G.

    1962-05-15

    A detachable coupling arrangement is described which provides for varying the length of the handle of a tool used in relatively narrow channels. The arrangement consists of mating the key and keyhole formations in the cooperating handle sections. (AEC)

  14. Maximizing Singlet Fission by Intermolecular Packing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linjun; Olivier, Yoann; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Beljonne, David

    2014-10-01

    A novel nonadiabatic molecular dynamics scheme is applied to study the singlet fission (SF) process in pentacene dimers as a function of longitudinal and lateral displacements of the molecular backbones. Detailed two-dimensional mappings of both instantaneous and long-term triplet yields are obtained, characterizing the advantageous and unfavorable stacking arrangements, which can be achieved by chemical substitutions to the bare pentacene molecule. We show that the SF rate can be increased by more than an order of magnitude through tuning the intermolecular packing, most notably when going from cofacial to the slipped stacked arrangements encountered in some pentacene derivatives. The simulations indicate that the SF process is driven by thermal electron-phonon fluctuations at ambient and high temperatures, expected in solar cell applications. Although charge-transfer states are key to construct continuous channels for SF, a large charge-transfer character of the photoexcited state is found to be not essential for efficient SF. The reported time domain study mimics directly numerous laser experiments and provides novel guidelines for designing efficient photovoltaic systems exploiting the SF process with optimum intermolecular packing. PMID:26278443

  15. Pd-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) Organic Silica: Synthesis and Application in Carbon-Carbon Coupling Reactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The first Pd-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex in the form of organic silica was prepared using sol-gel method and its application in Heck and Suzuki reaction were demonstrated. These C-C coupling reactions proceeded efficiently under the influence of microwave irradiation, wi...

  16. Palladium(0)/NHC-Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones: A Detailed Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Reek, Joost N H

    2015-12-14

    We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic analysis have provided a detailed insight into the reaction. Progress kinetic analysis demonstrated that neither catalyst decomposition nor product inhibition occurred during the catalysis. The reaction is first order in the palladium and aryl iodide, and zero order in the activated alkene, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, and DIPEA. The experiments with deuterated solvent ([D7]DMF) and deuterated base ([D15]Et3N) supported the role of the amine as a reductant in the reaction. The palladium complex [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] has been identified as the resting state. The kinetic experiments by stopped-flow UV/Vis also revealed that the presence of the second substrate, benzylideneacetone 1, slows down the oxidative addition of 4-iodoanisole through its competing coordination to the palladium center. The kinetic and mechanistic studies indicated that the oxidative addition of the aryl iodide is the rate-determining step. Various scenarios for the oxidative addition step have been analyzed by using DFT calculations (bp86/def2-TZVP) that supported the inhibiting effect of substrate 1 by formation of resting state [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] species at the cost of further increase in the energy barrier of the oxidative addition step. PMID:26561034

  17. X-ray Intermolecular Structure Factor (XISF): separation of intra- and intermolecular interactions from total X-ray scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    Mou, Q.; Benmore, C. J.; Yarger, J. L.

    2015-06-01

    XISF is a MATLAB program developed to separate intermolecular structure factors from total X-ray scattering structure factors for molecular liquids and amorphous solids. The program is built on a trust-region-reflective optimization routine with the r.m.s. deviations of atoms physically constrained. XISF has been optimized for performance and can separate intermolecular structure factors of complex molecules.

  18. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of oximes with allylic alcohols: synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meifang; Chen, Pengquan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-01-01

    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of O-acetyl ketoximes and allylic alcohols to synthesise pyridines. This protocol allows the robust synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones in good to excellent yields with tolerance of various functional groups under mild conditions. The reaction is supposed to go through an oxidative addition of oximes to palladium(0) complexes, generating an alkylideneamino-palladium(II) species, which is utilized as a key intermediate to capture the nonbiased alkenes for carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:26496814

  19. Advances in metal-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of halogenated quinazolinones and their quinazoline derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Maluleka, Marole Maria

    2014-01-01

    Halogenated quinazolinones and quinazolines are versatile synthetic intermediates for the metal-catalyzed carbon-carbon bond formation reactions such as the Kumada, Stille, Negishi, Sonogashira, Suzuki-Miyaura and Heck cross-coupling reactions or carbon-heteroatom bond formation via the Buchwald-Hartwig cross-coupling to yield novel polysubstituted derivatives. This review presents an overview of the application of these methods on halogenated quinazolin-4-ones and their quinazolines to generate novel polysubstituted derivatives. PMID:25356566

  20. Aqueous microwaves assisted cross-coupling reactions applied to unprotected nucleosides.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Len, Christophe; Hervé, Gwénaelle

    2015-02-01

    Nucleoside analogues have attracted much attention due to their potential biological activities. Amongst all synthetic nucleosides, C5-modified pyrimidines and C7- or C8-modified purines have mostly been prepared using palladium cross-coupling reactions and then studied as antitumoral and antiviral agents. Our objective is to focus this review on the Suzuki-Miyaura and on the Heck cross-couplings of nucleosides using microwave irradiations which are an alternative technology compatible with green chemistry and sustainable development.

  1. Intermolecular domain docking in the hairpin ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Minako; White, Neil A.; Julien, Kristine R.; Hoogstraten, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The hairpin ribozyme is a prototype small, self-cleaving RNA motif. It exists naturally as a four-way RNA junction containing two internal loops on adjoining arms. These two loops interact in a cation-driven docking step prior to chemical catalysis to form a tightly integrated structure, with dramatic changes occurring in the conformation of each loop upon docking. We investigate the thermodynamics and kinetics of the docking process using constructs in which loop A and loop B reside on separate molecules. Using a novel CD difference assay to isolate the effects of metal ions linked to domain docking, we find the intermolecular docking process to be driven by sub-millimolar concentrations of the exchange-inert Co(NH3)63+. RNA self-cleavage requires binding of lower-affinity ions with greater apparent cooperativity than the docking process itself, implying that, even in the absence of direct coordination to RNA, metal ions play a catalytic role in hairpin ribozyme function beyond simply driving loop-loop docking. Surface plasmon resonance assays reveal remarkably slow molecular association, given the relatively tight loop-loop interaction. This observation is consistent with a “double conformational capture” model in which only collisions between loop A and loop B molecules that are simultaneously in minor, docking-competent conformations are productive for binding. PMID:23324606

  2. Fluorescence photoactivation by intermolecular proton transfer.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Subramani; Petriella, Marco; Deniz, Erhan; Cusido, Janet; Baker, James D; Bossi, Mariano L; Raymo, Françisco M

    2012-10-11

    We designed a strategy to activate fluorescence under the influence of optical stimulations based on the intermolecular transfer of protons. Specifically, the illumination of a 2-nitrobenzyl derivative at an activating wavelength is accompanied by the release of hydrogen bromide. In turn, the photogenerated acid encourages the opening of an oxazine ring embedded within a halochromic compound. This structural transformation extends the conjugation of an adjacent coumarin fluorophore and enables its absorption at an appropriate excitation wavelength. Indeed, this bimolecular system offers the opportunity to activate fluorescence in liquid solutions, within rigid matrixes and inside micellar assemblies, relying on the interplay of activating and exciting beams. Furthermore, this strategy permits the permanent imprinting of fluorescent patterns on polymer films, the monitoring of proton diffusion within such materials in real time on a millisecond time scale, and the acquisition of images with spatial resolution at the nanometer level. Thus, our operating principles for fluorescence activation can eventually lead to the development of valuable photoswitchable probes for imaging applications and versatile mechanisms for the investigation of proton transport. PMID:22994311

  3. Propagation studies of metastable intermolecular composites (MIC).

    SciTech Connect

    Son, S. F.; Busse, J. R.; Asay, B. W.; Peterson, P. D.; Mang, J. T.; Bockmon, B.; Pantoya, M.

    2002-01-01

    Thermite materials are attractive energetic materials because the reactions are highly exothermic, have high energy densities, and high temperatures of combustion. However, the application of thermite materials has been limited because of the relative slow release of energy compared to other energetic materials. Engineered nano-scale composite energetic materials, such as Al/MoO{sub 3}, show promise for additional energetic material applications because they can react very rapidly. The composite material studied in this work consists of tailored, ultra-fine grain (30-200 nm diameter) aluminum particles that dramatically increase energy release rates of these thermite materials. These reactant clusters of fuel and oxidizer particles are in nearly atomic scale proximity to each other but are constrained from reaction until triggered. Despite the growing importance of nano-scale energetic materials, even the most basic combustion characteristics of these materials have not been thoroughly studied. This paper reports initial studies of the ignition and combustion of metastable intermolecular composites (MIC) materials. The goals were lo obtain an improved understanding of flame propagation mechanisms and combustion behaviors associated with nano-structured energetic materials. Information on issues such as reaction rate and behavior as a function of composition (mixture ratio), initial static charge, and particle size are essential and will allow scientists to design applications incorporating the benefits of these compounds. The materials have been characterized, specifically focusing on particle size, shape, distribution and morphology.

  4. Mechanism of Intermolecular Electron Transfer in Bionanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruodis, A.; Galikova, N.; Šarka, K.; Saulė, R.; Batiuškaitė, D.; Saulis, G.

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. Most patients are inoperable and hepatoma cells are resistant to conventional chemotherapies. Thus, the development of novel therapies for HCC treatment is of paramount importance. Amongst different alimentary factors, vitamin C and vitamin K3 In the present work, it has been shown that the treatment of mouse hepatoma MH-22A cells by vitamin C and vitamin K3 at the ratio of 100:1 greatly enhanced their cytotoxicity. When cells were subjected to vitamin C at 200 μM or to vitamin K3 at 2 μM separately, their viability reduced by only about 10%. However, when vitamins C and K3 were combined at the same concentrations, they killed more than 90% of cells. To elucidate the mechanism of the synergistic cytotoxicity of the C&K3 mixture, theoretical quantum-chemical analysis of the dynamics of intermolecular electron transfer (IET) processes within the complexes containing C (five forms) and K3 (one form) has been carried out. Optimization of the ground state complex geometry has been provided by means of GAUSSIAN03 package. Simulation of the IET has been carried out using NUVOLA package, in the framework of molecular orbitals (MO). The rate of IET has been calculated using Fermi Golden rule. The results of simulations allow us to create the preliminary model of the reaction pathway.

  5. Intermolecular Vibrations of Hydrophobic Amino Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Michael Roy Casselman

    Hydrophobic amino acids interact with their chemical environment through a combination of electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, dipole, induced dipole, and dispersion forces. These interactions all have their own characteristic energy scale and distance dependence. The low-frequency (0.1-5 THz, 5-150 cm-1) vibrational modes of amino acids in the solid state are a direct indicator of the interactions between the molecules, which include interactions between an amino acid functional group and its surroundings. This information is central to understanding the dynamics and morphology of proteins. The alpha-carbon is a chiral center for all of the hydrophobic amino acids, meaning that they exist in two forms, traditionally referred to as L- and D-enantiomers. This nomenclature indicates which direction the molecule rotates plane-polarized visible light (levorotory and dextrorotory). Chiral a-amino acids in proteins are exclusively the L-variety In the solid state, the crystal lattice of the pure L-enantiomer is the mirror image of the D-enantiomer crystal lattice. These solids are energetically identical. Enantiomers also have identical spectroscopic properties except when the measurement is polarization sensitive. A mixture of equal amounts D- and L-amino acid enantiomers can crystallize into a racemic (DL-) structure that is different from that of the pure enantiomers. Whether a solution of both enantiomers will crystallize into a racemic form or spontaneously resolve into a mixture of separate D- and L-crystals largely depends on the interactions between molecules available in the various possible configurations. This is an active area of research. Low-frequency vibrations with intermolecular character are very sensitive to changes in lattice geometry, and consequently the vibrational spectra of racemic crystals are usually quite distinct from the spectra of the crystals of the corresponding pure enantiomers in the far-infrared (far-IR). THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz

  6. Interatomic (Intermolecular) Decay Processes in Clusters: Current Status and Outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Averbukh, V.; Cederbaum, L. S.

    2007-11-29

    Since their theoretical prediction a decade ago, interatomic (intermolecular) Coulombic decay (ICD) and related processes have been in the focus of intensive theoretical and experimental research. The spectacular progress in this direction has been stimulated both by the fundamental importance of the new electronic decay phenomena and by the exciting possibility of their practical application, for example in spectroscopy. We review the current status of the research of interatomic (intermolecular) decay phenomena in clusters and discuss some perspectives of this new field.

  7. Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.

    1990-11-01

    Research continued on the study of intermolecular electron transfer. This report discusses the following topics: fluorescence quenching by electron transfer and the modification of quenching dynamics by solvent properties and net free energy change; transient absorption measurements following selective excitation of 1:1 EDA complex isomers; selective quenching of dual fluorescence from linked EDA systems; electron-transfer sensitized cycloreversion of rubrene endoperoxide; and vibronic modification of adiabatic requirements for intermolecular electron transfer. (CBS)

  8. Synthesis of epoxybenzo[d]isothiazole 1,1-dioxides via a reductive-Heck, metathesis-sequestration protocol†‡

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Naeem; Hanson, Paul R.; Long, Toby R.; Rayabarapu, Dinesh K.; Rolfe, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An atom-economical purification protocol, using solution phase processing via ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) has been developed for the synthesis of tricyclic sultams. This chromatography-free method allows for convenient isolation of reductive-Heck products and reclamation of excess starting material via sequestration involving metathesis catalysts and a catalyst-armed Si-surface. PMID:21727956

  9. Rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-C coupling of 7-azaindoles with vinyl acetates and allyl acetates.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Dong, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of electron-rich alkenes with 7-azaindoles in rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H activation is investigated. Various substituted vinyl acetates and allyl acetates as coupling partners reacted smoothly providing a wide variety of 7-azaindole derivatives, and the selectivity of the coupling reaction is alkene-dependent. In addition, the approaches of rhodium(III)-catalyzed dehydrogenative Heck-type reaction (DHR) and carbonylation reaction were quite novel and simple. PMID:26553424

  10. Intermolecular interactions between imidazole derivatives intercalated in layered solids. Substituent group effect

    SciTech Connect

    González, M.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez-Hernández, J.; Aguirre-Velez, C.I.; Knobel, M.; Reguera, E.

    2013-08-15

    This study sheds light on the intermolecular interactions between imidazole derive molecules (2-methyl-imidazole, 2-ethyl-imidazole and benzimidazole) intercalated in T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layers to form a solid of formula unit T(ImD){sub 2}[Ni(CN){sub 4}]. These hybrid inorganic–organic solids were prepared by soft chemical routes and their crystal structures solved and refined from X-ray powder diffraction data. The involved imidazole derivative molecules were found coordinated through the pyridinic N atom to the axial positions for the metal T in the T[Ni(CN){sub 4}] layer. In the interlayers region ligand molecules from neighboring layers remain stacked in a face-to-face configuration through dipole–dipole and quadrupole–quadrupole interactions. These intermolecular interactions show a pronounced dependence on the substituent group and are responsible for an ImD-pillaring concatenation of adjacent layers. This is supported by the structural information and the recorded magnetic data in the 2–300 K temperature range. The samples containing Co and Ni are characterized by presence of spin–orbit coupling and pronounced temperature dependence for the effective magnetic moment except for 2-ethyl-imidazole related to the local distortion for the metal coordination environment. For this last one ligand a weak ferromagnetic ordering ascribed to a super-exchange interaction between T metals from neighboring layers through the ligands π–π interaction was detected. - Graphical abstract: In the interlayers region imidazole derivative molecules are oriented according to their dipolar and quadrupolar interactions and minimizing the steric impediment. Highlights: • Imidazole derivatives intercalation compounds. • Intermolecular interaction between intercalated imidazole derivatives. • Hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Pi–pi interactions and ferromagnetic coupling. • Dipolar and quadrupolar interactions between intercalated imidazole derivatives.

  11. Investigating the Nature of Palladium Chain-Walking in the Enantioselective Redox-Relay Heck Reaction of Alkenyl Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of the redox-relay Heck reaction was investigated using deuterium-labeled substrates. Results support a pathway through a low energy palladium–alkyl intermediate that immediately precedes product formation, ruling out a tautomerization mechanism. DFT calculations of the relevant transition structures at the M06/LAN2DZ+f/6-31+G* level of theory show that the former pathway is favored by 5.8 kcal/mol. Palladium chain-walking toward the alcohol, following successive β-hydride eliminations and migratory insertions, is also supported in this study. The stereochemistry of deuterium labels is determined, lending support that the catalyst remains bound to the substrate during the relay process and that both cis- and trans-alkenes form from β-hydride elimination. PMID:25186804

  12. Case Report of Focal Epithelial Hyperplasia (Heck's Disease) with Polymerase Chain Reaction Detection of Human Papillomavirus 13.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Mary A; Gordon, Katie; Firan, Miahil; Rady, Peter; Agim, Nnenna

    2016-05-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), or Heck's disease, is an uncommon benign proliferation of oral mucosa caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly subtypes 13 and 32. The disease typically presents in young Native American patients and is characterized by multiple asymptomatic papules and nodules on the oral mucosa, lips, tongue, and gingiva. The factors that determine susceptibility to FEH are unknown, but the ethnic and geographic distribution of FEH suggests that genetic predisposition, particularly having the human lymphocytic antigen DR4 type, may be involved in pathogenesis. We report a case of FEH with polymerase chain reaction detection of HPV13 in a healthy 11-year-old Hispanic girl and discuss the current understanding of disease pathogenesis, susceptibility, and treatment. PMID:27072123

  13. Rational Design of a Second Generation Catalyst for Preparation of Allylsilanes Using the Silyl-Heck Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using rational ligand design, we have developed of a second-generation ligand, bis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)(tert-butyl)phosphine, for the preparation of allylsilanes using the palladium-catalyzed silyl-Heck reaction. This new ligand provides nearly complete suppression of starting material alkene isomerization that was observed with our first-generation catalyst, providing vastly improved yields of allylsilanes from simple alkene starting materials. The studies quantifying the electronic and steric properties of the new ligand are described. Finally, we report an X-ray crystal structure of a palladium complex resulting from the oxidative addition of Me3SiI using an analogous ligand that provides significant insight into the nature of the catalytic system. PMID:25003502

  14. Intermolecular artifacts in probe microscope images of C60 assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, Samuel Paul; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; Sweetman, Adam; Leaf, Jeremy; Taylor, Simon; Moriarty, Philip; Dunn, Janette

    2015-12-01

    Claims that dynamic force microscopy has the capability to resolve intermolecular bonds in real space continue to be vigorously debated. To date, studies have been restricted to planar molecular assemblies with small separations between neighboring molecules. Here we report the observation of intermolecular artifacts over much larger distances in 2D assemblies of C60 molecules, with compelling evidence that in our case the tip apex is terminated by a C60 molecule (rather than the CO termination typically exploited in ultrahigh resolution force microscopy). The complete absence of directional interactions such as hydrogen or halogen bonding, the nonplanar structure of C60, and the fullerene termination of the tip apex in our case highlight that intermolecular artifacts are ubiquitous in dynamic force microscopy.

  15. Qualitative change of character of dispersive interaction with intermolecular distance.

    PubMed

    Haslmayr, Johannes; Renger, Thomas

    2013-07-28

    The dispersive interaction between molecules results from Coulomb-correlated fluctuations of electrons and for large intermolecular distances it can be related to the molecular polarizabilities as in London's theory (F. London, Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 8-26 (1937)). Here, we investigate the interaction between molecules with anisotropic polarizabilities at arbitrary distances using symmetry adapted perturbation theory, which allows us to analyze the different parts of the intermolecular potential separately. Whereas at large distances, in accordance with London's theory, there is no way to describe the dispersive interaction by a sum over pairwise isotropic atom-centered energy terms, at short distances such a description becomes possible. This surprising result has consequences for the development of molecular mechanics force fields, supports the dispersion energy terms applied in dispersion corrected density functional theory, and indicates that there is a qualitative change in electron correlation with distance. Apparently, at short distances intermolecular electron correlation is less influenced by intramolecular electron delocalization. PMID:23901956

  16. Intermolecular Vibrational Modes Speed Up Singlet Fission in Perylenediimide Crystals.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C

    2015-02-01

    We report numerical simulations based on a non-Markovian density matrix propagation scheme of singlet fission (SF) in molecular crystals. Ab initio electronic structure calculations were used to parametrize the exciton and phonon Hamiltonian as well as the interactions between the exciton and the intramolecular and intermolecular vibrational modes. We demonstrate that the interactions of the exciton with intermolecular vibrational modes are highly sensitive to the stacking geometry of the crystal and can, in certain cases, significantly accelerate SF. This result may help in understanding the fast SF experimentally observed in a broad range of molecular crystals and offers a new direction for the engineering of efficient SF sensitizers. PMID:26261948

  17. Intermolecular potentials from shock structure experiments. [for monatomic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturtevant, B.; Steinhilper, E. A.

    1974-01-01

    Ground-state intermolecular interaction potentials determined from shock structure experiments with four monatomic gases are reported. These potentials are assessed for self-consistency, using the law of corresponding states, and their suitability for engineering applications in rarefied gas dynamics is discussed.

  18. Learning about Intermolecular Interactions from the Cambridge Structural Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battle, Gary M.; Allen, Frank H.

    2012-01-01

    A clear understanding and appreciation of noncovalent interactions, especially hydrogen bonding, are vitally important to students of chemistry and the life sciences, including biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacology, and medicine. The opportunities afforded by the IsoStar knowledge base of intermolecular interactions to enhance the…

  19. Morphology and the Strength of Intermolecular Contact in Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matsuura, Yoshiki; Chernov, Alexander A.

    2002-01-01

    The strengths of intermolecular contacts (macrobonds) in four lysozyme crystals were estimated based on the strengths of individual intermolecular interatomic interaction pairs. The periodic bond chain of these macrobonds accounts for the morphology of protein crystals as shown previously. Further in this paper, the surface area of contact, polar coordinate representation of contact site, Coulombic contribution on the macrobond strength, and the surface energy of the crystal have been evaluated. Comparing location of intermolecular contacts in different polymorphic crystal modifications, we show that these contacts can form a wide variety of patches on the molecular surface. The patches are located practically everywhere on this surface except for the concave active site. The contacts frequently include water molecules, with specific intermolecular hydrogen-bonds on the background of non-specific attractive interactions. The strengths of macrobonds are also compared to those of other protein complex systems. Making use of the contact strengths and taking into account bond hydration we also estimated crystal-water interfacial energies for different crystal faces.

  20. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric propargylic dearomatization of indoles.

    PubMed

    Shao, Wen; Li, He; Liu, Chuan; Liu, Chen-Jiang; You, Shu-Li

    2015-06-22

    The first copper-catalyzed intermolecular dearomatization of indoles by an asymmetric propargylic substitution reaction was developed. This method provides a highly efficient synthesis of versatile furoindoline and pyrroloindoline derivatives containing a quaternary carbon stereogenic center and a terminal alkyne moiety with up to 86 % yield and 98 % ee. PMID:25968474

  1. Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces: A Multimodal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Melanie M.; Williams, Leah C.; Underwood, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to use representations of molecular structure to predict the macroscopic properties of a substance is central to the development of a robust understanding of chemistry. Intermolecular forces (IMFs) play an important role in this process because they provide a mechanism for how and why molecules interact. In this study, we investigate…

  2. Hydrogen-hydrogen intermolecular structure of polyethylene in the melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londono, J. D.; Annis, B. K.; Habenschuss, A.; Smith, G. D.; Borodin, O.; Tso, C.; Hsieh, E. T.; Soper, A. K.

    1999-05-01

    Three polyethylene samples, which differed in their degree of deuteration, were studied in neutron diffraction isotopic substitution (NDIS) experiments at 428 K. These results were complemented at small wavevectors by small angle neutron measurements. The intermolecular hydrogen-hydrogen (HH) structure function, hHH(Q), was obtained without recourse to intramolecular structure models, as demonstrated in a prior report. The PE experimental results are compared to computer simulation results for the alkanes C100 at 509 K and C44 at 350, 400, and 450 K. The small temperature dependence of the HH intermolecular radial distribution functions, gHH(r) for C44 indicates that the differences observed between the PE, C100, and C44 (450 K) results are, for the most part, not due to just temperature differences. It is shown that the string model, an analytic result from an integral equation theory of polymers (PRISM), can account approximately for the overall shape of the gHH(r) functions, and that this overall shape is dependent on the radius of gyration of the molecule. Further analysis shows that there are two other contributions to gHH(r), both of which are independent of chain length to first order. The first is due to chain-chain packing, and the second is due to local HH intermolecular correlations. These results are significant because they demonstrate that hHH(Q) is a useful function for studying intermolecular polymer structure, which has been shown to underpin phase behavior in polyolefin blends.

  3. Dancing Crystals: A Dramatic Illustration of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundell, Donald W.

    2007-01-01

    Crystals of naphthalene form on the surface of an acetone solution and dance about in an animated fashion illustrating surface tension, crystallization, and intermolecular forces. Additional experiments reveal the properties of the solution. Flows within the solutions can be visualized by various means. Previous demonstrations of surface motion…

  4. Intermolecular Silacarbonyl Ylide Cycloadditions: A Direct Pathway to Oxasilacyclopentenes

    PubMed Central

    Bourque, Laura E.; Woerpel, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Silacarbonyl ylides, generated by metal-catalyzed silylene transfer to carbonyls, participate in formal intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions with carbonyl compounds and alkynes to form dioxasilacyclopentane acetals and oxasilacyclopentenes in an efficient, one-step process. PMID:18922005

  5. Spin radical enhanced magnetocapacitance effect in intermolecular excited states.

    PubMed

    Zang, Huidong; Wang, Jianguo; Li, Mingxing; He, Lei; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Deqing; Hu, Bin

    2013-11-14

    This article reports the magnetocapacitance effect (MFC) based on both pristine polymer MEH-PPV and its composite system doped with spin radicals (6R-BDTSCSB). We observed that a photoexcitation leads to a significant positive MFC in the pristine MEH-PPV. Moreover, we found that a low doping of spin radicals in polymer MEH-PPV causes a significant change on the MFC signal: an amplitude increase and a line-shape narrowing under light illumination at room temperature. However, no MFC signal was observed under dark conditions in either the pristine MEH-PPV or the radical-doped MEH-PPV. Furthermore, the magnitude increase and line-shape narrowing caused by the doped spin radicals are very similar to the phenomena induced by increasing the photoexcitation intensity. Our studies suggest that the MFC is essentially originated from the intermolecular excited states, namely, intermolecular electron-hole pairs, generated by a photoexcitation in the MEH-PPV. More importantly, by comparing the effects of spin radicals and electrically polar molecules on the MFC magnitude and line shape, we concluded that the doped spin radicals can have the spin interaction with intermolecular excited states and consequently affect the internal spin-exchange interaction within intermolecular excited states in the development of MFC. Clearly, our experimental results indicate that dispersing spin radicals forms a convenient method to enhance the magnetocapacitance effect in organic semiconducting materials. PMID:24144347

  6. Intermolecular energy-band dispersion in PTCDA multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kera, Satoshi; Okudaira, Koji K.; Yoshimura, Daisuke; Seki, Kazuhiko; Ueno, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    The electronic structure of a well-oriented perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid-dianhydride multilayer prepared on MoS2 single crystal surface were studied by angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation. From the photon energy dependence of normal emission spectra, we observed an intermolecular energy-band dispersion of about 0.2 eV for the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) band of single π character. The observed energy-band dispersion showed a cosine curve, which originates from the intermolecular π-π interaction. Analyses using the tight-binding model gave that the transfer integral of about 0.05 eV for the π-π interaction, the effective mass of HOMO hole m*h=5.28m0, and the hole mobility μh>3.8 cm2/V s. This is the first observation of the intermolecular energy-band dispersion of a conventional single-component organic semiconductor only with the weak intermolecular van der Waals interaction.

  7. Fast acquisition of high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhiwei; Zhong, Jianhui

    2009-01-01

    A pulse sequence, IDEAL-II, is proposed based on the concept of intermolecular dipolar-interaction enhanced all lines [Z. Chen et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 446 (2004)] for obtaining one-dimensional (1D) high-resolution liquid NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields via two-dimensional acquisitions. With the new acquisition scheme, the range of magnetic field inhomogeneity rather than chemical shift is sampled in the indirect dimension. This enables a great reduction in acquisition time and amount of data, much improved over the original IDEAL implementation. It is applicable to both isolated and J-coupled spin systems in liquid. For the latter, apparent J coupling constants are magnified threefold in spectra obtained with this sequence. This allows a more accurate measurement of J coupling constants in the cases of small J coupling constants or large inhomogeneous fields. Analytical expression was derived based on intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence treatments. Solution samples that were purposely deshimmed and biological samples with intrinsic field inhomogeneities were tested. Experimental results demonstrate that this sequence retains useful structural information including chemical shifts, relative peak areas, and multiplet patterns of J coupling even when the field inhomogeneity is severe enough to almost erase all spectroscopic information with conventional 1D single-quantum coherence techniques. This sequence is more applicable to weakly coupled and uncoupled spin systems, potentially useful for studying metabolites in in vivo NMR spectroscopy and for characterizing technologically important new materials in combinatorial chemistry. PMID:19256612

  8. An efficient generation of a functionalized tertiary-alkyl radical for copper-catalyzed tertiary-alkylative Mizoroki-Heck type reaction.

    PubMed

    Nishikata, Takashi; Noda, Yushi; Fujimoto, Ryo; Sakashita, Tomomi

    2013-11-01

    α-Halocarbonyl compounds undergo β-hydrogen elimination to give conjugated olefins in the presence of a transition-metal catalyst. However, a copper/triamine catalyst system can induce the alkylative Mizoroki–Heck reaction of styrenes with tertiary-alkyl halides possessing a withdrawing group under very mild conditions. This reaction provides an efficient synthetic methodology for tertiary-alkylated styrenes. PMID:24143934

  9. Dynamics of intermolecular interactions in CCl4via the isotope effect by femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Konarska, Jadwiga; Gadomski, Wojciech; Ratajska-Gadomska, Bożena; Polok, Kamil; Pudłowski, Grzegorz; Kardaś, Tomasz M

    2016-06-21

    We report our study on the ultrafast dynamics of intermolecular interactions in liquid CCl4. A transient transmission time domain signal, obtained in the 40 ps delay range, exhibits beating at the difference frequency of the totally symmetric stretching vibrations of the tetrachloride isotopologues. We show that the spectra obtained as the windowed Fourier transform of different parts of the time domain signal in the range of this totally symmetric vibration, split due to the isotope effect, carry the information about the dynamics of the coherently excited, coupled molecules. We use a simple theoretical model in order to prove that the intermolecular interaction influences the relative amplitudes of the isotopologue peaks in the spectrum. Moreover, we demonstrate that the pump induced coherence in the system leads to additional strengthening of the interaction, which can be observed in the spectra obtained from the experimental time domain signal. PMID:27244535

  10. Probing Intermolecular Interactions in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with 2D IR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krummel, Amber

    2014-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and impact geochemical processes that are critical to sustainable energy resources. For example, asphaltenes exist naturally in geologic formations and their aggregates heavily impact the petroleum economy. Unfortunately, the chemical dynamics that drive asphaltene nanoaggregation processes are still poorly understood. Solvent dynamics and intermolecular interactions such as π-stacking interactions play integral roles in asphaltene nanoaggregation. Linear and nonlinear vibrational spectroscopy including two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy (2DIR), are well suited to explore these fundamental interactions. Teasing apart the vibrational characteristics in PAHs that model asphaltenic compounds represents an important step towards utilizing 2D IR spectroscopy to understand the intermolecular interactions that are prevalent in asphaltene nanoaggregation. A solar dye, N,N'-Dioctyl-3,4,9,10-perylenedicarboximide, is used in this work to model aphaltenes. Carbonyl and ring vibrations are used to probe the nanoaggregates of the model compounds. However, the characteristics of these normal modes change as a function of the size of the conjugated ring system. Thus, in order to fully understand the nature of these normal modes, we include a systematic study of a series of quinones. Our investigation employs a combination of 2DIR spectroscopy and electronic structure calculations to explore vibrational coupling in quinones and PAHs. We compare the calculated vibrational characteristics to those extracted from 2DIR spectra. ATK acknowledges the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund for support of this research.

  11. The Nature of Intermolecular Interactions Between Aromatic Amino Acid Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Gervasio, Francesco; Chelli, Riccardo; Procacci, Piero; Schettino, Vincenzo

    2002-05-01

    The nature of intermolecular interactions between aromatic amino acid residues has been investigated by a combination of molecular dynamics and ab initio methods. The potential energy surface of various interacting pairs, including tryptophan, phenilalanine, and tyrosine, was scanned for determining all the relevant local minima by a combined molecular dynamics and conjugate gradient methodology with the AMBER force field. For each of these minima, single-point correlated ab initio calculations of the binding energy were performed. The agreement between empirical force field and ab initio binding energies of the minimum energy structures is excellent. Aromatic-aromatic interactions can be rationalized on the basis of electrostatic and van der Waals interactions, whereas charge transfer or polarization phenomena are small for all intermolecular complexes and, particularly, for stacked structures.

  12. Separation of intra- and intermolecular contributions to the PELDOR signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöps, Philipp; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Marko, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) is commonly used to measure distances between native paramagnetic centers or spin labels attached to complex biological macromolecules. In PELDOR the energies of electron magnetic dipolar interactions are measured by analyzing the oscillation frequencies of the recorded time resolved signal. Since PELDOR is an ensemble method, the detected signal contains contributions from intramolecular, as well as intermolecular electron spin interactions. The intramolecular part of the signal contains the information about the structure of the studied molecules, thus it is very important to accurately separate intra- and intermolecular contributions to the total signal. This separation can become ambiguous, when the length of the PELDOR signal is not much longer than twice the oscillation period of the signal. In this work we suggest a modulation depth scaling method, which can use short PELDOR signals in order to extract the intermolecular contribution. Using synthetic data we demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and analyze its stability with regard to signal noise. The method was also successfully tested on experimental data of three systems measured at Q-Band frequencies, two model compounds in deuterated and protonated solvents and one biological sample, namely BetP. The application of the new method with an assigned value of the signal modulation depth enables us to determine the interspin distances in all cases. This is especially interesting for the model compound with an interspin distance of 5.2 nm in the protonated solvent and the biological sample, since an accurate separation of the intra- and intermolecular PELDOR signal contributions would be difficult with the standard approach in those cases.

  13. Calculations of helical twisting powers from intermolecular torques.

    PubMed

    Earl, David J; Wilson, Mark R

    2004-05-22

    We present a Monte Carlo molecular simulation method that calculates the helical twisting power of a chiral molecule by sampling intermolecular torques. The approach is applied to an achiral nematic liquid crystalline system, composed of Gay-Berne particles, that is doped with chiral molecules. Calculations are presented for six chiral dopant molecules and the results show a good correlation with the sign and magnitude of experimentally determined helical twisting powers. PMID:15267981

  14. Covalent intermolecular interaction of the nitric oxide dimer (NO)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Gui-Li; Lv, Gang; Geng, Yi-Zhao; Ji, Qing

    2015-09-01

    Covalent bonds arise from the overlap of the electronic clouds in the internucleus region, which is a pure quantum effect and cannot be obtained in any classical way. If the intermolecular interaction is of covalent character, the result from direct applications of classical simulation methods to the molecular system would be questionable. Here, we analyze the special intermolecular interaction between two NO molecules based on quantum chemical calculation. This weak intermolecular interaction, which is of covalent character, is responsible for the formation of the NO dimer, (NO)2, in its most stable conformation, a cis conformation. The natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis gives an intuitive illustration of the formation of the dimer bonding and antibonding orbitals concomitant with the breaking of the π bonds with bond order 0.5 of the monomers. The dimer bonding is counteracted by partially filling the antibonding dimer orbital and the repulsion between those fully or nearly fully occupied nonbonding dimer orbitals that make the dimer binding rather weak. The direct molecular mechanics (MM) calculation with the UFF force fields predicts a trans conformation as the most stable state, which contradicts the result of quantum mechanics (QM). The lesson from the investigation of this special system is that for the case where intermolecular interaction is of covalent character, a specific modification of the force fields of the molecular simulation method is necessary. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 90403007 and 10975044), the Key Subject Construction Project of Hebei Provincial Universities, China, the Research Project of Hebei Education Department, China (Grant Nos. Z2012067 and Z2011133), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11147103), and the Open Project Program of State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China (Grant No. Y5

  15. Energetics of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds in a Hydrophobic Protein Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lan; Baergen, Alyson; Michelsen, Klaus; Kitova, Elena N.; Schnier, Paul D.; Klassen, John S.

    2014-05-01

    This work explores the energetics of intermolecular H-bonds inside a hydrophobic protein cavity. Kinetic measurements were performed on the gaseous deprotonated ions (at the -7 charge state) of complexes of bovine β-lactoglobulin (Lg) and three monohydroxylated analogs of palmitic acid (PA): 3-hydroxypalmitic acid (3-OHPA), 7-hydroxypalmitic acid (7-OHPA), and 16-hydroxypalmitic acid (16-OHPA). From the increase in the activation energy for the dissociation of the (Lg + X-OHPA)7- ions, compared with that of the (Lg + PA)7- ion, it is concluded that the -OH groups of the X-OHPA ligands participate in strong (5 - 11 kcal mol-1) intermolecular H-bonds in the hydrophobic cavity of Lg. The results of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that the -OH groups of 3-OHPA and 16-OHPA act as H-bond donors and interact with backbone carbonyl oxygens, whereas the -OH group of 7-OHPA acts as both H-bond donor and acceptor with nearby side chains. The capacity for intermolecular H-bonds within the Lg cavity, as suggested by the gas-phase measurements, does not necessarily lead to enhanced binding in aqueous solution. The association constant (Ka) measured for 7-OHPA [(2.3 ± 0.2) × 105 M-1] is similar to the value for the PA [(3.8 ± 0.1) × 105 M-1]; Ka for 3-OHPA [(1.1 ± 0.3) × 106 M-1] is approximately three-times larger, whereas Ka for 16-OHPA [(2.3 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1] is an order of magnitude smaller. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the energetic penalty to desolvating the ligand -OH groups, which is necessary for complex formation, is similar in magnitude to the energetic contribution of the intermolecular H-bonds.

  16. Separation of intra- and intermolecular contributions to the PELDOR signal.

    PubMed

    Schöps, Philipp; Plackmeyer, Jörn; Marko, Andriy

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed Electron-electron Double Resonance (PELDOR) is commonly used to measure distances between native paramagnetic centers or spin labels attached to complex biological macromolecules. In PELDOR the energies of electron magnetic dipolar interactions are measured by analyzing the oscillation frequencies of the recorded time resolved signal. Since PELDOR is an ensemble method, the detected signal contains contributions from intramolecular, as well as intermolecular electron spin interactions. The intramolecular part of the signal contains the information about the structure of the studied molecules, thus it is very important to accurately separate intra- and intermolecular contributions to the total signal. This separation can become ambiguous, when the length of the PELDOR signal is not much longer than twice the oscillation period of the signal. In this work we suggest a modulation depth scaling method, which can use short PELDOR signals in order to extract the intermolecular contribution. Using synthetic data we demonstrate the advantages of the new approach and analyze its stability with regard to signal noise. The method was also successfully tested on experimental data of three systems measured at Q-Band frequencies, two model compounds in deuterated and protonated solvents and one biological sample, namely BetP. The application of the new method with an assigned value of the signal modulation depth enables us to determine the interspin distances in all cases. This is especially interesting for the model compound with an interspin distance of 5.2nm in the protonated solvent and the biological sample, since an accurate separation of the intra- and intermolecular PELDOR signal contributions would be difficult with the standard approach in those cases. PMID:27243966

  17. Intermolecular interactions of thrombospondins drive their accumulation in extracellular matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Joong; Christofidou, Elena D.; Keene, Douglas R.; Hassan Milde, Marwah; Adams, Josephine C.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombospondins participate in many aspects of tissue organization in adult tissue homeostasis, and their dysregulation contributes to pathological processes such as fibrosis and tumor progression. The incorporation of thrombospondins into extracellular matrix (ECM) as discrete puncta has been documented in various tissue and cell biological contexts, yet the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We find that collagen fibrils are disorganized in multiple tissues of Thbs1−/− mice. In investigating how thrombospondins become retained within ECM and thereby affect ECM organization, we find that accumulation of thrombospondin-1 or thrombospondin-5 puncta within cell-derived ECM is controlled by a novel, conserved, surface-exposed site on the thrombospondin L-type lectin domain. This site acts to recruit thrombospondin molecules into ECM by intermolecular interactions in trans. This mechanism is fibronectin independent, can take place extracellularly, and is demonstrated to be direct in vitro. The trans intermolecular interactions can also be heterotypic—for example, between thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-5. These data identify a novel concept of concentration-dependent, intermolecular “matrix trapping” as a conserved mechanism that controls the accumulation and thereby the functionality of thrombospondins in ECM. PMID:25995382

  18. Competing intramolecular vs. intermolecular hydrogen bonds in solution.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Peter I

    2014-01-01

    A hydrogen bond for a local-minimum-energy structure can be identified according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC recommendation 2011) or by finding a special bond critical point on the density map of the structure in the framework of the atoms-in-molecules theory. Nonetheless, a given structural conformation may be simply favored by electrostatic interactions. The present review surveys the in-solution competition of the conformations with intramolecular vs. intermolecular hydrogen bonds for different types of small organic molecules. In their most stable gas-phase structure, an intramolecular hydrogen bond is possible. In a protic solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond may disrupt in favor of two solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The balance of the increased internal energy and the stabilizing effect of the solute-solvent interactions regulates the new conformer composition in the liquid phase. The review additionally considers the solvent effects on the stability of simple dimeric systems as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations or on the basis of the calculated potential of mean force curves. Finally, studies of the solvent effects on the type of the intermolecular hydrogen bond (neutral or ionic) in acid-base complexes have been surveyed. PMID:25353178

  19. Competing Intramolecular vs. Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Peter I.

    2014-01-01

    A hydrogen bond for a local-minimum-energy structure can be identified according to the definition of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC recommendation 2011) or by finding a special bond critical point on the density map of the structure in the framework of the atoms-in-molecules theory. Nonetheless, a given structural conformation may be simply favored by electrostatic interactions. The present review surveys the in-solution competition of the conformations with intramolecular vs. intermolecular hydrogen bonds for different types of small organic molecules. In their most stable gas-phase structure, an intramolecular hydrogen bond is possible. In a protic solution, the intramolecular hydrogen bond may disrupt in favor of two solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The balance of the increased internal energy and the stabilizing effect of the solute-solvent interactions regulates the new conformer composition in the liquid phase. The review additionally considers the solvent effects on the stability of simple dimeric systems as revealed from molecular dynamics simulations or on the basis of the calculated potential of mean force curves. Finally, studies of the solvent effects on the type of the intermolecular hydrogen bond (neutral or ionic) in acid-base complexes have been surveyed. PMID:25353178

  20. Transfer operators for Gamma_{0}(n) and the Hecke operators for the period functions of PSL(2,mathbb{Z})

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgert, Joachim; Mayer, Dieter; Movasati, Hossein

    2005-07-01

    In this paper we report on a surprising relation between the transfer operators for the congruence subgroups Gamma_{0}(nm),n,min mathbb{N}, and some kind of Hecke operators on the space of vector valued period functions for the groups Gamma_{0}(n). We study special eigenfunctions of the transfer operators for the groups Gamma_{0}(nm) with eigenvalues mp1 which are also solutions of the Lewis equations for these groups and which are determined by eigenfunctions of the transfer operator for the congruence subgroup Gamma_{0}(n). In the language of the Atkin-Lehner theory of old and new forms one should hence call them old eigenfunctions or old solutions of the Lewis equation for Gamma_{0}(n). It turns out that certain linear combinations of the components of these old solutions for the group Gamma_{0}(nm) determine for any m a solution of the Lewis equation for the group Gamma_{0}(n) and hence also an eigenfunction of the transfer operator for this group.

  1. Raman Q-branch line shapes as a test of the H2-Ar intermolecular potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Sheldon

    1990-01-01

    The line-shape cross sections of vibrational Raman Q-branch spectra are determined theoretically for D2 and H2 in Ar. The calculations are based on accurate close-coupling matrices and the intermolecular potential obtained by Le Roy and Hutson (1987) from spectra of van der Waals complexes. The calculation techniques applied are explained, and the results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail with reference to published experimental data. Agreement to within about 25 percent is obtained for the line widths, but the line shifts are found to be a factor of two smaller than the measured values, and a temperature dependence of line-width cross sections is predicted which is not observed experimentally.

  2. Intermolecular control of thermoswitching and photoswitching phenomena in two spin-crossover polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buron-Le Cointe, M.; Hébert, J.; Baldé, C.; Moisan, N.; Toupet, L.; Guionneau, P.; Létard, J. F.; Freysz, E.; Cailleau, H.; Collet, E.

    2012-02-01

    We discuss here the important role of intermolecular coupling for the thermal- and light-induced molecular state switching in the solid state. Investigations were performed on the two crystalline polymorphs of the spin-crossover [Fe-(PM-BIA)2(NCS)2] material. In addition to structural studies at thermal equilibrium, light-induced phenomena were investigated through photocrystallography, photomagnetic, and dynamical optical measurements. Strong similarities between the thermal-equilibrium and the out-of-equilibrium light-induced transformations are observed in each polymorph: strong cooperative phenomena in one polymorph versus weak cooperative ones in the second polymorph. These different responses of the two crystalline forms of the compound to external perturbations are discussed at the microscopic level in terms of Ising-like model and two-mode description of on-site molecular potentials.

  3. Nonresonant and resonant mode-specific intermolecular vibrational energy transfers in electrolyte aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Bian, Hongtao; Chen, Hailong; Li, Jiebo; Wen, Xiewen; Zheng, Junrong

    2011-10-27

    The donor/acceptor energy mismatch and vibrational coupling strength dependences of interionic vibrational energy transfer kinetics in electrolyte aqueous solutions were investigated with ultrafast multiple-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy. An analytical equation derived from the Fermi's Golden rule that correlates molecular structural parameters and vibrational energy transfer kinetics was found to be able to describe the intermolecular mode specific vibrational energy transfer. Under the assumption of the dipole-dipole approximation, the distance between anions in the aqueous solutions was obtained from the vibrational energy transfer measurements, confirmed with measurements on the corresponding crystalline samples. The result demonstrates that the mode-specific vibrational energy transfer method holds promise as an angstrom molecular ruler. PMID:21916443

  4. Effect of intermolecular orientation upon proton transfer within a polarizable medium.

    PubMed Central

    Scheiner, S; Duan, X

    1991-01-01

    Ab initio calculations are used to investigate the proton transfer process in bacteriorhodopsin. HN = CH2 serves as a small prototype of the Schiff base while HCOO- models its carboxylate-containing counterion and HO- the hydroxyl group of water of tyrosine, leading to the HCOO-..H+..NHCH2 and HO-..H+..NHCH2 complexes. In isolation, both complexes prefer a neutral pair configuration wherein the central proton is associated with the anion. However, the Schiff base may be protonated in the former complex, producing the HCOO-..+HNHCH2 ion pair, when there is a high degree of dielectric coupling with an external polarizable medium. Within a range of intermediate level coupling, the equilibrium position of the proton (on either the carboxylate or Schiff base) can be switched by suitable changes in the intermolecular angle. pK shift resulting from a 60 degrees reorientation are calculated to be some 5-12 pK U within the coupling range where proton transfers are possible. The energy barrier to proton transfer reinforces the ability of changes in angle and dielectric coupling to induce a proton transfer. PMID:1660318

  5. Rubrene: The Interplay between Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions Determines the Planarization of Its Tetracene Core in the Solid State.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Christopher; Marshall, Michael S; Sherrill, C David; Risko, Chad; Brédas, Jean-Luc

    2015-07-15

    Rubrene is one of the most studied molecular semiconductors; its chemical structure consists of a tetracene backbone with four phenyl rings appended to the two central fused rings. Derivatization of these phenyl rings can lead to two very different solid-state molecular conformations and packings: One in which the tetracene core is planar and there exists substantive overlap among neighboring π-conjugated backbones; and another where the tetracene core is twisted and the overlap of neighboring π-conjugated backbones is completely disrupted. State-of-the-art electronic structure calculations show for all isolated rubrene derivatives that the twisted conformation is more favorable (by -1.7 to -4.1 kcal mol(-1)), which is a consequence of energetically unfavorable exchange-repulsion interactions among the phenyl side groups. Calculations based on available crystallographic structures reveal that planar conformations of the tetracene core in the solid state result from intermolecular interactions that can be tuned through well-chosen functionalization of the phenyl side groups and lead to improved intermolecular electronic couplings. Understanding the interplay of these intramolecular and intermolecular interactions provides insight into how to chemically modify rubrene and similar molecular semiconductors to improve the intrinsic materials electronic properties. PMID:26075966

  6. Reliable prediction of three-body intermolecular interactions using dispersion-corrected second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yuanhang; Beran, Gregory J. O.

    2015-07-28

    Three-body and higher intermolecular interactions can play an important role in molecular condensed phases. Recent benchmark calculations found problematic behavior for many widely used density functional approximations in treating 3-body intermolecular interactions. Here, we demonstrate that the combination of second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory plus short-range damped Axilrod-Teller-Muto (ATM) dispersion accurately describes 3-body interactions with reasonable computational cost. The empirical damping function used in the ATM dispersion term compensates both for the absence of higher-order dispersion contributions beyond the triple-dipole ATM term and non-additive short-range exchange terms which arise in third-order perturbation theory and beyond. Empirical damping enables this simple model to out-perform a non-expanded coupled Kohn-Sham dispersion correction for 3-body intermolecular dispersion. The MP2 plus ATM dispersion model approaches the accuracy of O(N{sup 6}) methods like MP2.5 or even spin-component-scaled coupled cluster models for 3-body intermolecular interactions with only O(N{sup 5}) computational cost.

  7. Combination Bands of the Nonpolar OCS Dimer Involving Intermolecular Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Oliaee, J. Norooz; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2012-06-01

    Spectra of the nonpolar carbonyl sulfide in the region of the OCS ν_1 fundamental band were observed in a supersonic slit-jet apparatus. The expansion gas was probed using radiation from a tunable diode laser employed in a rapid-scan signal averaging mode. Three bands centered at 2085.906, 2103.504, and 2114.979 cm-1 were observed and anlysed. The rotational assignment and fitting of the bands were made by fixing the lower state parameters to those for the ground state of nonpolar (OCS)_2, thus confirming that they were indeed combination bands of the of the most stable isomer of OCS dimer. The band centered at 2085.906 cm-1 is a combination of the forbidden A_g intramolecular mode plus the geared bend intermolecular mode and that centered at 2114.979 cm-1 is a combination of the allowed B_u intramolecular mode plus the intermolecular van der Waals stretch. The combination at 2103.504 cm-1 can be assigned as a band whose upper state involves four quanta of the intramolecular bend or the B_u intramolecular mode plus two quanta of the intermolecular torsional mode. Isotopic work is needed to conclusively identify the vibrational assignment of this band. Our experimental frequencies for the geared bend and van der Waals modes are in good agreement with a recent high level ab initio calculation by Brown et al. J. Brown, Xiao-Gang Wang, T. Carrington Jr. and Richard Dawes, Journal of Chemical Physics, submitted.

  8. Computing free energy hypersurfaces for anisotropic intermolecular associations.

    PubMed

    Strümpfer, Johan; Naidoo, Kevin J

    2010-01-30

    We previously used an adaptive reaction coordinate force biasing method for calculating the free energy of conformation (Naidoo and Brady, J Am Chem Soc 1999, 121, 2244) and chemical reactions (Rajamani et al., J Comput Chem 2003, 24, 1775) amongst others. Here, we describe a generalized version able to produce free energies in multiple dimensions, descriptively named the free energies from adaptive reaction coordinate forces method. To illustrate it, we describe how we calculate a multidimensional intermolecular orientational free energy, which can be used to investigate complex systems such as protein conformation and liquids. This multidimensional intermolecular free energy W(r, theta(1), theta(2), phi) provides a measure of orientationally dependent interactions that are appropriate for applications in systems that inherently have molecular anisotropic features. It is a highly informative free energy volume, which can be used to parameterize key terms such as the Gay-Berne intermolecular potential in coarse grain simulations. To demonstrate the value of the information gained from the W(r, theta(1), theta(2), phi) hypersurfaces we calculated them for TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P dimer water models in vacuum. A comparison with a commonly used one-dimensional distance free energy profile is made to illustrate the significant increase in configurational information. The W(r) plots show little difference between the three models while the W(r, theta(1), theta(2), phi) hypersurfaces reveal the underlying energetic reasons why these potentials reproduce tetrahedrality in the condensed phase so differently from each. PMID:19462397

  9. Structurally Defined Molecular Hypervalent Iodine Catalysts for Intermolecular Enantioselective Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Haubenreisser, Stefan; Wöste, Thorsten H.; Martínez, Claudio; Ishihara, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Molecular structures of the most prominent chiral non‐racemic hypervalent iodine(III) reagents to date have been elucidated for the first time. The formation of a chirally induced supramolecular scaffold based on a selective hydrogen‐bonding arrangement provides an explanation for the consistently high asymmetric induction with these reagents. As an exploratory example, their scope as chiral catalysts was extended to the enantioselective dioxygenation of alkenes. A series of terminal styrenes are converted into the corresponding vicinal diacetoxylation products under mild conditions and provide the proof of principle for a truly intermolecular asymmetric alkene oxidation under iodine(I/III) catalysis. PMID:26596513

  10. Photon Antibunching in Complex Intermolecular Fluorescence Quenching Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arjun; Enderlein, Jörg; Kumbhakar, Manoj

    2016-08-18

    We present a novel fluorescence spectroscopic method, which combines fluorescence antibunching, time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC), and steady-state emission spectroscopy, to study chemical reactions at the single molecule level. We exemplify our method on investigating intermolecular fluorescence quenching of Rhodamine110 by aniline. We demonstrate that the combination of measurements of fluorescence antibunching, fluorescence lifetime, and fluorescence steady state intensity, captures the full picture of the complex quenching kinetics, which involves static and dynamics quenching, and which cannot be seen by steady-state or lifetime measurements alone. PMID:27468007

  11. Resonance Raman spectra of organic molecules absorbed on inorganic semiconducting surfaces: Contribution from both localized intramolecular excitation and intermolecular charge transfer excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, ChuanXiang; Zhao, Yi E-mail: liangwz@xmu.edu.cn; Liang, WanZhen E-mail: liangwz@xmu.edu.cn

    2015-10-21

    The time-dependent correlation function approach for the calculations of absorption and resonance Raman spectra (RRS) of organic molecules absorbed on semiconductor surfaces [Y. Zhao and W. Z. Liang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 044108 (2011)] is extended to include the contribution of the intermolecular charge transfer (CT) excitation from the absorbers to the semiconducting nanoparticles. The results demonstrate that the bidirectionally interfacial CT significantly modifies the spectral line shapes. Although the intermolecular CT excitation makes the absorption spectra red shift slightly, it essentially changes the relative intensities of mode-specific RRS and causes the oscillation behavior of surface enhanced Raman spectra with respect to interfacial electronic couplings. Furthermore, the constructive and destructive interferences of RRS from the localized molecular excitation and CT excitation are observed with respect to the electronic coupling and the bottom position of conductor band. The interferences are determined by both excitation pathways and bidirectionally interfacial CT.

  12. Intermolecular Association Provides Specific Optical and NMR Signatures for Serotonin at Intravesicular Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Suman; Balaji, J.; Madhu, P. K.; Maiti, S.

    2008-01-01

    Neurotransmitter vesicles contain biomolecules at extraordinarily high concentrations (hundreds of millimoles/liter). Such concentrations can drive intermolecular associations, which may affect vesicular osmolarity and neuronal signaling. Here we investigate whether aqueous serotonin (a monoamine neurotransmitter) forms oligomers at intravesicular concentrations and whether these oligomers have specific spectroscopic signatures that can potentially be used for monitoring neuronal storage and release. We report that, as serotonin concentration is increased from 60 μM to 600 mM, the normalized fluorescence spectrum of serotonin displays a growing long-wavelength tail, with an isoemissive point at 376 nm. The fluorescence decay is monoexponential with a lifetime of 4 ns at low concentrations but is multiexponential with an average lifetime of 0.41 ns at 600 mM. A 600 mM serotonin solution has 30% less osmolarity than expected for monomeric serotonin, indicating oligomer formation. The proton NMR chemical shifts move upfield by as much as 0.3 ppm at 600 mM compared to those at 10 mM, indicating a stacking of the serotonin indole moieties. However, no intermolecular crosspeak is evident in the two-dimensional NMR rotating frame Overhauser effect spectroscopy spectrum even at 600 mM, suggesting that oligomeric structures are possibly weakly coupled. The appearance of a single peak for each proton suggests that the rate of interconversion between the monomeric and the oligomeric structures is faster than 240 Hz. A stopped-flow kinetic experiment also confirms that the rate of dissociation is faster than 100 ms. We conclude that serotonin forms oligomers at intravesicular concentrations but becomes monomeric quickly on dilution. NMR signatures of the oligomers provide potential contrast agents for monitoring the activity of serotonergic neurons in vivo. PMID:18234835

  13. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    SciTech Connect

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; Mamakhel, Aref H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina M.; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-08-14

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ...Cπinteractions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. Finally, the quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.

  14. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; Mamakhel, Aref H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina M.; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-08-14

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically,more » the presence of Cπ...Cπinteractions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. Finally, the quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations.« less

  15. Intermolecular Hybridization Creating Nanopore Orbital in a Supramolecular Hydrocarbon Sheet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Qi; Björk, Jonas; Barth, Johannes V; Klappenberger, Florian

    2016-07-13

    Molecular orbital engineering is a key ingredient for the design of organic devices. Intermolecular hybridization promises efficient charge carrier transport but usually requires dense packing for significant wave function overlap. Here we use scanning tunneling spectroscopy to spatially resolve the electronic structure of a surface-confined nanoporous supramolecular sheet of a prototypical hydrocarbon compound featuring terminal alkyne (-CCH) groups. Surprisingly, localized nanopore orbitals are observed, with their electron density centered in the cavities surrounded by the functional moieties. Density functional theory calculations reveal that these new electronic states originate from the intermolecular hybridization of six in-plane π-orbitals of the carbon-carbon triple bonds, exhibiting significant electronic splitting and an energy downshift of approximately 1 eV. Importantly, these nanopore states are distinct from previously reported interfacial states. We unravel the underlying connection between the formation of nanopore orbital and geometric arrangements of functional groups, thus demonstrating the generality of applying related orbital engineering concepts in various types of porous organic structures. PMID:27253516

  16. Quantitative analysis of intermolecular interactions in orthorhombic rubrene

    PubMed Central

    Hathwar, Venkatesha R.; Sist, Mattia; Jørgensen, Mads R. V.; Mamakhel, Aref H.; Wang, Xiaoping; Hoffmann, Christina M.; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Overgaard, Jacob; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    2015-01-01

    Rubrene is one of the most studied organic semiconductors to date due to its high charge carrier mobility which makes it a potentially applicable compound in modern electronic devices. Previous electronic device characterizations and first principles theoretical calculations assigned the semiconducting properties of rubrene to the presence of a large overlap of the extended π-conjugated core between molecules. We present here the electron density distribution in rubrene at 20 K and at 100 K obtained using a combination of high-resolution X-ray and neutron diffraction data. The topology of the electron density and energies of intermolecular interactions are studied quantitatively. Specifically, the presence of Cπ⋯Cπ interactions between neighbouring tetracene backbones of the rubrene molecules is experimentally confirmed from a topological analysis of the electron density, Non-Covalent Interaction (NCI) analysis and the calculated interaction energy of molecular dimers. A significant contribution to the lattice energy of the crystal is provided by H—H interactions. The electron density features of H—H bonding, and the interaction energy of molecular dimers connected by H—H interaction clearly demonstrate an importance of these weak interactions in the stabilization of the crystal structure. The quantitative nature of the intermolecular interactions is virtually unchanged between 20 K and 100 K suggesting that any changes in carrier transport at these low temperatures would have a different origin. The obtained experimental results are further supported by theoretical calculations. PMID:26306198

  17. Characterization of intermolecular structure of β(2)-microglobulin core fragments in amyloid fibrils by vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectroscopy and circular dichroism theory.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Koichi; Hiramatsu, Hirotsugu; Gekko, Kunihiko; Namatame, Hirofumi; Taniguchi, Masaki; Woody, Robert W

    2014-03-20

    Intermolecular structures are important factors for understanding the conformational properties of amyloid fibrils. In this study, vacuum-ultraviolet circular dichroism (VUVCD) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) theory were used for characterizing the intermolecular structures of β2-microglobulin (β2m) core fragments in the amyloid fibrils. The VUVCD spectra of β2m20-41, β2m21-31, and β2m21-29 fragments in the amyloid fibrils exhibited characteristic features, but they were affected not only by the backbone conformations but also by the aromatic side-chain conformations. To estimate the contributions of aromatic side-chains to the spectra, the theoretical spectra were calculated from the simulated structures of β2m21-29 amyloid fibrils with various types of β-sheet stacking (parallel or antiparallel) using CD theory. We found that the experimental spectrum of β2m21-29 fibrils is largely affected by aromatic-backbone couplings, which are induced by the interaction between transitions within the aromatic and backbone chromophores, and these couplings are sensitive to the type of stacking among the β-sheets of the fibrils. Further theoretical analyses of simulated structures incorporating mutated aromatic residues suggested that the β2m21-29 fibrils are composed of amyloid accumulations in which the parallel β-sheets stack in an antiparallel manner and that the characteristic Phe-Tyr interactions among the β-sheet stacks affect the aromatic-backbone coupling. These findings indicate that the coupling components, which depend on the characteristic intermolecular structures, induce the spectral differences among three fragments in the amyloid fibrils. These advanced spectral analyses using CD theory provide a useful method for characterizing the intermolecular structures of protein and peptide fragment complexes. PMID:24512563

  18. Substituent-induced intermolecular interaction in organic crystals revealed by precise band-dispersion measurements.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2013-08-23

    We reveal quite small but different intermolecular valence band dispersions of sub-100-meV scale in crystalline films of Zn and Mn phthalocyanine (ZnPc and MnPc) and fluorinated ZnPc (F16ZnPc). The intermolecular transfer integrals are found to be reasonably dependent on the intermolecular distance with the 75±5 meV/Å relation. Furthermore, the angle-resolved photoemission spectra show anomalous dispersive behaviors such as phase flips and local-dimerization-derived periodicities, which originate from the site-specific intermolecular interaction induced by substituents. PMID:24010459

  19. Substituent-Induced Intermolecular Interaction in Organic Crystals Revealed by Precise Band-Dispersion Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hiroyuki; Kosugi, Nobuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We reveal quite small but different intermolecular valence band dispersions of sub-100-meV scale in crystalline films of Zn and Mn phthalocyanine (ZnPc and MnPc) and fluorinated ZnPc (F16ZnPc). The intermolecular transfer integrals are found to be reasonably dependent on the intermolecular distance with the 75±5meV/Å relation. Furthermore, the angle-resolved photoemission spectra show anomalous dispersive behaviors such as phase flips and local-dimerization-derived periodicities, which originate from the site-specific intermolecular interaction induced by substituents.

  20. Visualizing the orientational dependence of an intermolecular potential

    PubMed Central

    Sweetman, Adam; Rashid, Mohammad A.; Jarvis, Samuel P.; Dunn, Janette L.; Rahe, Philipp; Moriarty, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy can now be used to map the properties of single molecules with intramolecular precision by functionalization of the apex of the scanning probe tip with a single atom or molecule. Here we report on the mapping of the three-dimensional potential between fullerene (C60) molecules in different relative orientations, with sub-Angstrom resolution, using dynamic force microscopy (DFM). We introduce a visualization method which is capable of directly imaging the variation in equilibrium binding energy of different molecular orientations. We model the interaction using both a simple approach based around analytical Lennard–Jones potentials, and with dispersion-force-corrected density functional theory (DFT), and show that the positional variation in the binding energy between the molecules is dominated by the onset of repulsive interactions. Our modelling suggests that variations in the dispersion interaction are masked by repulsive interactions even at displacements significantly larger than the equilibrium intermolecular separation. PMID:26879386

  1. Intermolecular forces and energies between ligands and receptors.

    PubMed

    Moy, V T; Florin, E L; Gaub, H E

    1994-10-14

    The recognition mechanisms and dissociation pathways of the avidin-biotin complex and of actin monomers in actin filaments were investigated. The unbinding forces of discrete complexes of avidin or streptavidin with biotin analogs are proportional to the enthalpy change of the complex formation but independent of changes in the free energy. This result indicates that the unbinding process is adiabatic and that entropic changes occur after unbinding. On the basis of the measured forces and binding energies, an effective rupture length of 9.5 +/- 1 angstroms was calculated for all biotin-avidin pairs and approximately 1 to 3 angstroms for the actin monomer-monomer interaction. A model for the correlation among binding forces, intermolecular potential, and molecular function is proposed. PMID:7939660

  2. Visualizing the orientational dependence of an intermolecular potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Adam; Rashid, Mohammad A.; Jarvis, Samuel P.; Dunn, Janette L.; Rahe, Philipp; Moriarty, Philip

    2016-02-01

    Scanning probe microscopy can now be used to map the properties of single molecules with intramolecular precision by functionalization of the apex of the scanning probe tip with a single atom or molecule. Here we report on the mapping of the three-dimensional potential between fullerene (C60) molecules in different relative orientations, with sub-Angstrom resolution, using dynamic force microscopy (DFM). We introduce a visualization method which is capable of directly imaging the variation in equilibrium binding energy of different molecular orientations. We model the interaction using both a simple approach based around analytical Lennard-Jones potentials, and with dispersion-force-corrected density functional theory (DFT), and show that the positional variation in the binding energy between the molecules is dominated by the onset of repulsive interactions. Our modelling suggests that variations in the dispersion interaction are masked by repulsive interactions even at displacements significantly larger than the equilibrium intermolecular separation.

  3. Transetherification on Polyols by Intra- and Intermolecular Nucleophilic Substitutions

    PubMed Central

    Muraoka, Takahiro; Adachi, Kota; Chowdhury, Rainy; Kinbara, Kazushi

    2014-01-01

    Transetherification on polyols involving intra- and intermolecular nucleophilic substitutions is reported. Di- or trialkoxide formation of propane-1,3-diol or 2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol derivatives by NaH triggers the reaction via oxetanes formation, where the order to add NaH and a polyol significantly influences the yields of products. It was demonstrated that the protective group on the pentaerythritol skeleton is apparently transferred to the hydrophilic and hydrophobic chain molecules bearing a leaving group in one-step, and a protective group conversion from tosyl to benzyl was successful using a benzyl-appending triol to afford a desired product in 67% yield. PMID:24663293

  4. Intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state of some organotellurium antioxidants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engman, L.; Kania, I.; Oleksyn, B. J.; Śliwiński, J.; Wojtoń, A.

    2002-05-01

    The X-ray crystal structure analysis was performed for single crystals of bis (4-aminophenyl) telluride ( 1), bis [4-( N, N-dimethylamino)phenyl] telluride ( 2) and bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) telluride hemihydrate ( 3). The molecules of the diaryl tellurides 1- 3 display two types of non-planar conformations: 'butterfly' and 'T-shaped'. They differ in the torsion angles around Te-C bonds. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds occur between water molecules and hydroxyl groups in compound 3 and also between phenyl rings and proton donors in compounds 2 and 3 with -H⋯π distances 2.56(8)-2.95(6) Å. Also, in compounds 1 and 2 short -H⋯π contacts (3.02(4)-3.29(5) Å) were observed.

  5. Van der Waals Interactions in Density Functional Theory: Intermolecular Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannemann, Felix; Becke, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Conventional density functional theory (GGA and hybrid functionals) fails to account for dispersion interactions and is therefore not applicable to systems where van der Waals interactions play a dominant role, such as intermolecular complexes and biomolecules. The exchange-hole dipole moment (XDM) dispersion model of Becke and Johnson [A. D. Becke and E. R. Johnson, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154108 (2007)] corrects for this deficiency. We have previously shown that the XDM dispersion model can be combined with standard GGA functionals (PW86 for exchange and PBE for correlation) to give accurate binding energy curves for rare-gas diatomics [F. O. Kannemann and A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 5, 719 (2009)]. Here we present further tests of the GGA-XDM method using benchmark sets including hydrogen bonding, electrostatic, dispersion and stacking interactions, and systems ranging from rare-gas diatomics to biomolecular complexes.

  6. Intermolecular vibrations and fast relaxations in supercooled ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Mauro C. C.

    2011-06-01

    Short-time dynamics of ionic liquids has been investigated by low-frequency Raman spectroscopy (4 < ω < 100 cm-1) within the supercooled liquid range. Raman spectra are reported for ionic liquids with the same anion, bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, and different cations: 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-butyl-1-methylpiperidinium, trimethylbutylammonium, and tributylmethylammonium. It is shown that low-frequency Raman spectroscopy provides similar results as optical Kerr effect (OKE) spectroscopy, which has been used to study intermolecular vibrations in ionic liquids. The comparison of ionic liquids containing aromatic and non-aromatic cations identifies the characteristic feature in Raman spectra usually assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring. The strength of the fast relaxations (quasi-elastic scattering, QES) and the intermolecular vibrational contribution (boson peak) of ionic liquids with non-aromatic cations are significantly lower than imidazolium ionic liquids. A correlation length assigned to the boson peak vibrations was estimated from the frequency of the maximum of the boson peak and experimental data of sound velocity. The correlation length related to the boson peak (˜19 Å) does not change with the length of the alkyl chain in imidazolium cations, in contrast to the position of the first-sharp diffraction peak observed in neutron and X-ray scattering measurements of ionic liquids. The rate of change of the QES intensity in the supercooled liquid range is compared with data of excess entropy, free volume, and mean-squared displacement recently reported for ionic liquids. The temperature dependence of the QES intensity in ionic liquids illustrates relationships between short-time dynamics and long-time structural relaxation that have been proposed for glass-forming liquids.

  7. Intermolecular interactions in rifabutin—2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin—water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakova, A. V.; Yermolenko, Yu. V.; Konyukhov, V. Yu.; Polshakov, V. I.; Maksimenko, O. O.; Gelperina, S. E.

    2015-05-01

    The possibility of a intermolecular complex rifabutin (RB)-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) formed as a result of the interaction of the piperidine fragment of the RB molecule and the hydrophobic cavity of the HP-β-CD molecule was found. The stability constant of the intermolecular complex was determined.

  8. The use of intermolecular potential functions in fitting pressure induced spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goorvitch, D.; Silvaggio, P. M.; Boese, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    An example is presented which demonstrates the importance of using physically realistic derivatives of the intermolecular potential when fitting pressure-induced spectra. The use of nonrealistic derivatives may mask second-order temperature effects in the theory. As the temperature decreases, the intermolecular potential may have an important angular dependence.

  9. Problem-Based Learning in 9th Grade Chemistry Class: "Intermolecular Forces"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarhan, Leman; Ayar-Kayali, Hulya; Urek, Raziye Ozturk; Acar, Burcin

    2008-01-01

    This research study aims to examine the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) on 9th grade students' understanding of intermolecular forces (dipole-dipole forces, London dispersion forces and hydrogen bonding). The student's alternate conceptions about intermolecular bonding and their beliefs about PBL were also measured. Seventy-eight…

  10. Chloro({2-[mesityl(quinolin-8-yl-κN)boryl]-3,5-dimethyl-phenyl}methyl-κC)palladium(II) as a catalyst for Heck reactions.

    PubMed

    Tamang, Sem Raj; Hoefelmeyer, James D

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported an air and moisture stable 16-electron borapalladacycle formed upon combination of 8-quinolyldimesitylborane with bis(benzonitrile)dichloropalladium(II). The complex features a tucked mesityl group formed upon metalation of an ortho-methyl group on a mesityl; however it is unusually stable due to contribution of the boron pz orbital in delocalizing the carbanion that gives rise to an η4-boratabutadiene fragment coordinated to Pd(II), as evidenced from crystallographic data. This complex was observed to be a highly active catalyst for the Heck reaction. Data of the catalyst activity are presented alongside data found in the literature, and initial comparison reveals that the borapalladacycle is quite active. The observed catalysis suggests the borapalladacycle readily undergoes reductive elimination; however the Pd(0) complex has not yet been isolated. Nevertheless, the ambiphilic ligand 8-quinolyldimesitylborane may be able to support palladium in different redox states. PMID:26193250

  11. Benchmark Calculations of Three-Body Intermolecular Interactions and the Performance of Low-Cost Electronic Structure Methods.

    PubMed

    Řezáč, Jan; Huang, Yuanhang; Hobza, Pavel; Beran, Gregory J O

    2015-07-14

    Many-body noncovalent interactions are increasingly important in large and/or condensed-phase systems, but the current understanding of how well various models predict these interactions is limited. Here, benchmark complete-basis set coupled cluster singles, doubles, and perturbative triples (CCSD(T)) calculations have been performed to generate a new test set for three-body intermolecular interactions. This "3B-69" benchmark set includes three-body interaction energies for 69 total trimer structures, consisting of three structures from each of 23 different molecular crystals. By including structures that exhibit a variety of intermolecular interactions and packing arrangements, this set provides a stringent test for the ability of electronic structure methods to describe the correct physics involved in the interactions. Both MP2.5 (the average of second- and third-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory) and spin-component-scaled CCSD for noncovalent interactions (SCS-MI-CCSD) perform well. MP2 handles the polarization aspects reasonably well, but it omits three-body dispersion. In contrast, many widely used density functionals corrected with three-body D3 dispersion correction perform comparatively poorly. The primary difficulty stems from the treatment of exchange and polarization in the functionals rather than from the dispersion correction, though the three-body dispersion may also be moderately underestimated by the D3 correction. PMID:26575743

  12. Ground state analytical ab initio intermolecular potential for the Cl{sub 2}-water system

    SciTech Connect

    Hormain, Laureline; Monnerville, Maurice Toubin, Céline; Duflot, Denis; Pouilly, Brigitte; Briquez, Stéphane; Bernal-Uruchurtu, Margarita I.; Hernández-Lamoneda, Ramón

    2015-04-14

    The chlorine/water interface is of crucial importance in the context of atmospheric chemistry. Modeling the structure and dynamics at this interface requires an accurate description of the interaction potential energy surfaces. We propose here an analytical intermolecular potential that reproduces the interaction between the Cl{sub 2} molecule and a water molecule. Our functional form is fitted to a set of high level ab initio data using the coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aug-cc-p-VTZ level of electronic structure theory for the Cl{sub 2} − H{sub 2}O complex. The potential fitted to reproduce the three minima structures of 1:1 complex is validated by the comparison of ab initio results of Cl{sub 2} interacting with an increasing number of water molecules. Finally, the model potential is used to study the physisorption of Cl{sub 2} on a perfectly ordered hexagonal ice slab. The calculated adsorption energy, in the range 0.27 eV, shows a good agreement with previous experimental results.

  13. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A. A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R. E.; Reguera, E.

    2015-10-01

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π-π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting.

  14. Impact of Intermolecular Distance on Singlet Fission in a Series of TIPS Pentacene Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yishi; Liu, Ke; Liu, Huiying; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Haoli; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing

    2014-10-16

    Singlet fission has attracted considerable interest for its potential application in organic photovoltaics. However, the underlying microscopic mechanism is not well understood and the molecular parameters that govern SF efficiency remain unclear. We herein study the primary exciton photogeneration and evolution in the thin film of a series of pentacene derivatives (TIPS-Pn and ADPD-Pn) using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. With a favorable "long-edge on" packing motif, the singlet-excited slip-stacked TIPS-Pn and ADPD-Pn molecules undergo ultrafast fission to produce triplet excitonic states with time constants of ∼0.3 ps. More importantly, the ADPD-Pn compound features a considerably higher triplet yield than TIPS-Pn (162 ± 10% vs 114 ± 15%). The enhanced electronic coupling as a result of closer interchromophore distance (3.33 Å for ADPD-Pn vs 3.40 Å for TIPS-Pn) is suggested to account for the much higher triplet yield for ADPD-Pn relative to that for TIPS-Pn, proving SF can be readily modulated by adjusting the intermolecular distance. PMID:26278592

  15. Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside: Intermolecular interactions and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Osiry, H.; Cano, A.; Lemus-Santana, A.A.; Rodríguez, A.; Carbonio, R.E.; Reguera, E.

    2015-10-15

    This contribution discusses the intercalation of imidazole and its 2-ethyl derivative, and pyridine in 2D copper nitroprusside. In the interlayer region, neighboring molecules remain interacting throu gh their dipole and quadrupole moments, which supports the solid 3D crystal structure. The crystal structure of this series of intercalation compounds was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction patterns complemented with spectroscopic information. The intermolecular interactions were studied from the refined crystal structures and low temperature magnetic measurements. Due to strong attractive forces between neighboring molecules, the resulting π–π cloud overlapping enables the ferromagnetic coupling between metal centers on neighboring layers, which was actually observed for the solids containing imidazole and pyridine as intercalated molecules. For these two solids, the magnetic data were properly described with a model of six neighbors. For the solid containing 2-ethylimidazole and for 2D copper nitroprusside, a model of four neighbors in a plane is sufficient to obtain a reliable data fitting. - Highlights: • Intercalation of organic molecules in 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Molecular properties of intercalation compounds of 2D copper (II) nitroprusside. • Magnetic properties of hybrid inorganic–organic solids. • Hybrid inorganic–organic 3D framework.

  16. Intermolecular forces between low generation PAMAM dendrimer condensed DNA helices: role of cation architecture.

    PubMed

    An, Min; Parkin, Sean R; DeRouchey, Jason E

    2014-01-28

    In recent years, dendriplexes, complexes of cationic dendrimers with DNA, have become attractive DNA delivery vehicles due to their well-defined chemistries. To better understand the nature of the forces condensing dendriplexes, we studied low generation poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-DNA complexes and compared them to comparably charged linear arginine peptides. Using osmotic stress coupled with X-ray scattering, we have investigated the effect of molecular chain architecture on DNA-DNA intermolecular forces that determine the net attraction and equilibrium interhelical distance within these polycation condensed DNA arrays. In order to compact DNA, linear cations are believed to bind in DNA grooves and to interact with the phosphate backbone of apposing helices. We have previously shown a length dependent attraction resulting in higher packaging densities with increasing charge for linear cations. Hyperbranched polycations, such as polycationic dendrimers, presumably would not be able to bind to DNA and correlate their charges in the same manner as linear cations. We show that attractive and repulsive force amplitudes in PAMAM-DNA assemblies display significantly different trends than comparably charged linear arginines resulting in lower DNA packaging densities with increasing PAMAM generation. The salt and pH dependencies of packaging in PAMAM dendrimer-DNA and linear arginine-DNA complexes were also investigated. Significant differences in the force curve behaviour and salt and pH sensitivities suggest that different binding modes may be present in DNA condensed by dendrimers when compared to linear polycations. PMID:24651934

  17. Accessing a Biologically Relevant Benzofuran Skeleton by a One-Pot Tandem Heck Alkynylation/Cyclization Reaction Using Well-Defined Palladium N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Gangwar, Manoj Kumar; Prakasham, A P; Mhatre, Darshan; Kalita, Alok Ch; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2016-03-21

    Well-defined palladium N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes were employed in the one-pot tandem Heck alkynylation/cyclization sequence for preparing biologically relevant benzofuran compounds under copper-free conditions in a time-efficient step-reduced fashion. In particular, a series of binuclear palladium complexes, 1b-1e and 2b-2e, of the alkyl-bridged NHC ligands, namely, {1,1'-di-R1-4,4'-R2-di-1,2,4-triazoline-5,5'-diylid-2-ene] (R1 = i-Pr; R2 = -(CH2)2-, -(CH2)3-), and their mononuclear analogues, trans-(NHC)PdBr2(pyridine) (3b) and cis-(NHC)PdBr2(PPh3) (3c), successfully catalyzed the one-pot tandem Heck alkynylation/cyclization reaction of 2-iodophenol with a variety of terminal alkyne substrates, yielding 2-substituted benzofuran derivatives. The mononuclear complexes 3b and 3c were nearly half as active as the representative dinuclear analogue 1c under analogous reaction conditions, thereby implying that, at the same mole percent of the palladium loading, the monometallic 3b and 3c and the bimetallic 1c complexes were equally effective as catalysts. The two sites of the bimetallic complex 1c performed as two separate independent catalytic sites, displaying no cooperativity effect in the catalysis. Finally, the practical utility of the aforementioned catalysts was demonstrated for a representative catalyst 1c through the convenient synthesis of a key intermediate, 3-[2-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-7-methoxybenzofuran-5-yl]propan-1-ol, in a total-synthesis protocol of the natural product Egonol. PMID:26928799

  18. Femtosecond Fourier-transform spectroscopy of low-frequency intermolecular motions in weakly interacting liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Chang, Y.J.; Melinger, J.S.; McMorrow, D.

    1993-07-01

    Recent work on the subject of solvation dynamics has concentrated on understanding the ultrafast dynamics of intermolecular interactions in strongly interacting, polar, and hydrogen-bonding solvents. In general, investigations into the effects of solvation dynamics on chemical reactions have concentrated on the highly polar liquids because it is in these solvents that the largest spectroscopic changes with solvent relaxation are observed. In these very polar liquids, however, the intermolecular dynamics are very complex, consisting of contributions from reorientational diffusion, inertially limited rotations, intermolecular vibrations involving both reorientational (librational) and translational degrees of freedom, and interaction-induced collisional effects. The role of collisional interaction-induced effects in shaping the intermolecular dynamics of molecular liquids has been a subject of considerable discussion. Molecular dynamics simulations have suggested that collisional effects can have a significant role in shaping the femtosecond dynamics and nonlinear-optical properties of molecular liquids. However, for anisotropic molecules, it is difficult to separate experimentally the collisional effects from other phenomena. In this paper the authors examine the intermolecular dynamics of the weakly interacting liquid carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}). Because carbon tetrachloride is a spherical top molecule (belonging to the T{sub d} point group), its intermolecular light-scattering spectrum is purely interaction-induced. By studying this purely collision-induced feature in CCl{sub 4}, the authors hope to gain insight on the lowest-frequency intermolecular vibrational behavior of more complex systems.

  19. Interpreting the widespread nonlinear force spectra of intermolecular bonds

    PubMed Central

    Friddle, Raymond W.; Noy, Aleksandr; De Yoreo, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Single molecule force spectroscopy probes the strength, lifetime, and energetic details of intermolecular interactions in a simple experiment. A growing number of these studies have reported distinctly nonlinear trends in rupture force with loading rate that are typically explained in conventional models by invoking complex escape pathways. Recent analyses suggested that these trends should be expected even for simple barriers based on the basic assumptions of bond rupture dynamics and thus may represent the norm rather than the exception. Here we explore how these nonlinear trends reflect the two fundamental regimes of bond rupture: (i) a near-equilibrium regime, produced either by bond reforming in the case of a single bond or by asynchronized rupture of multiple individual bonds, and (ii) a kinetic regime produced by fast, non-equilibrium bond rupture. We analyze both single- and multi-bonded cases, describe the full evolution of the system as it transitions between near- and far-from-equilibrium loading regimes, and show that both interpretations produce essentially identical force spectra. Data from 10 different molecular systems show that this model provides a comprehensive description of force spectra for a diverse suite of bonds over experimentally relevant loading rates, removes the inconsistencies of previous interpretations of transition state distances, and gives ready access to both kinetic and thermodynamic information about the interaction. These results imply that single-molecule binding free energies for a vast number of bonds have already been measured. PMID:22869712

  20. Thermal selectivity of intermolecular versus intramolecular reactions on surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirera, Borja; Giménez-Agulló, Nelson; Björk, Jonas; Martínez-Peña, Francisco; Martin-Jimenez, Alberto; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jonathan; Pizarro, Ana M.; Otero, Roberto; Gallego, José M.; Ballester, Pablo; Galan-Mascaros, José R.; Ecija, David

    2016-03-01

    On-surface synthesis is a promising strategy for engineering heteroatomic covalent nanoarchitectures with prospects in electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Here we report the thermal tunability of reaction pathways of a molecular precursor in order to select intramolecular versus intermolecular reactions, yielding monomeric or polymeric phthalocyanine derivatives, respectively. Deposition of tetra-aza-porphyrin species bearing ethyl termini on Au(111) held at room temperature results in a close-packed assembly. Upon annealing from room temperature to 275 °C, the molecular precursors undergo a series of covalent reactions via their ethyl termini, giving rise to phthalocyanine tapes. However, deposition of the tetra-aza-porphyrin derivatives on Au(111) held at 300 °C results in the formation and self-assembly of monomeric phthalocyanines. A systematic scanning tunnelling microscopy study of reaction intermediates, combined with density functional calculations, suggests a [2+2] cycloaddition as responsible for the initial linkage between molecular precursors, whereas the monomeric reaction is rationalized as an electrocyclic ring closure.

  1. Development of an optimized intermolecular potential for sulfur dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ketko, MaryBeth H; Kamath, Ganesh; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2011-05-01

    A new force field for sulfur dioxide, capable of predicting accurately the vapor-liquid equilibria, critical properties, vapor pressure, and heats of vaporization is presented. The new force field reproduces the saturated liquid densities, vapor pressures and heats of vaporization to within 0.5, 2, and 2% of experiment, respectively. The predicted critical properties and the normal boiling point are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Pair distribution functions are calculated for the S-S, S-O, and O-O interactions are in close agreement with neutron and X-ray scattering experiments. In addition to the new force field, similar calculations are performed for four SO(2) intermolecular potentials proposed by Sokolic et al. (Sokolic, F.; Guissani, Y. and Guillot, B. J. Phys. Chem. 1985, 89, 3023], which show that these models work reasonably well near the state point where they were originally parametrized, but large errors in the predicted coexistence properties are displayed at higher and lower temperatures. Comparison of the radial distribution functions show the local structure is only weakly affected by the different force field parameters. PMID:21476503

  2. Intermolecular interactions of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasensky, Joshua; Junaid Farooqi, M.; Urayama, Paul

    2008-10-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD^+/NADH) is a coenzyme involved in cellular respiration as an electron transporter. In aqueous solution, the molecule exhibits a folding transition characterized by the stacking of its aromatic moieties. A transition to an unfolded conformation is possible using chemical denaturants like methanol. Because the reduced NADH form is fluorescent, the folding transition can be monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy, e.g., via a blue-shift in the UV-excited emission peak upon methanol unfolding. Here we present evidence of interactions between NADH molecules in solution. We measure the excited-state emission from NADH at various concentrations (1-100 μM in MOPS buffer, pH 7.5; 337-nm wavelength excitation). Unlike for the folded form, the emission peak wavelength of the unfolded form is concentration dependent, exhibiting a red-shift with higher NADH concentration, suggesting the presence of intermolecular interactions. An understanding of NADH spectra in solution would assist in interpreting intercellular NADH measurements used for the in vivo monitoring cellular energy metabolism.

  3. Combined Electrostatics and Hydrogen Bonding Determine PIP2 Intermolecular Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Levental, Ilya; Cebers, Andrejs; Janmey, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane lipids are active contributors to cell function as key mediators in signaling pathways of inflammation, apoptosis, migration, and proliferation. Recent work on multimolecular lipid structures suggests a critical role for lipid organization in regulating the function of both lipids and proteins. Of particular interest in this context are the polyphosphoinositides (PPI’s), specifically phosphatidylinositol (4,5) bisphosphate (PIP2). The cellular functions of PIP2 are numerous but the factors controlling targeting of PIP2 to specific proteins and organization of PIP2 in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane remain poorly understood. To analyze the organization of PIP2 in a simplified planar system, we used Langmuir monolayers to study the effects of subphase conditions on monolayers of purified naturally derived PIP2 and other anionic or zwitterionic phospholipids. We report a significant molecular area expanding effect of subphase monovalent salts on PIP2 at biologically relevant surface densities. This effect is shown to be specific to PIP2 and independent of subphase pH. Chaotropic agents (e.g. salts, trehalose, urea, temperature) that disrupt water structure and the ability of water to mediate intermolecular hydrogen bonding also specifically expanded PIP2 monolayers. These results suggest a combination of water-mediated hydrogen bonding and headgroup charge in determining the organization of PIP2, and may provide an explanation for the unique functionality of PIP2 compared to other anionic phospholipids. PMID:18572937

  4. The origins of the directionality of noncovalent intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changwei; Guan, Liangyu; Danovich, David; Shaik, Sason; Mo, Yirong

    2016-01-01

    The recent σ-hole concept emphasizes the contribution of electrostatic attraction to noncovalent bonds, and implies that the electrostatic force has an angular dependency. Here a set of clusters, which includes hydrogen bonding, halogen bonding, chalcogen bonding, and pnicogen bonding systems, is investigated to probe the magnitude of covalency and its contribution to the directionality in noncovalent bonding. The study is based on the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method that decomposes the binding energy into the steric and the charge transfer (CT) (hyperconjugation) contributions. One unique feature of the BLW method is its capability to derive optimal geometries with only steric effect taken into account, while excluding the CT interaction. The results reveal that the overall steric energy exhibits angular dependency notably in halogen bonding, chalcogen bonding, and pnicogen bonding systems. Turning on the CT interactions further shortens the intermolecular distances. This bond shortening enhances the Pauli repulsion, which in turn offsets the electrostatic attraction, such that in the final sum, the contribution of the steric effect to bonding is diminished, leaving the CT to dominate the binding energy. In several other systems particularly hydrogen bonding systems, the steric effect nevertheless still plays the major role whereas the CT interaction is minor. However, in all cases, the CT exhibits strong directionality, suggesting that the linearity or near linearity of noncovalent bonds is largely governed by the charge-transfer interaction whose magnitude determines the covalency in noncovalent bonds. PMID:26010349

  5. Quantitative tomographic imaging of intermolecular FRET in small animals

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, Vivek; Chen, Jin; Barroso, Margarida; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a nonradiative transfer of energy between two fluorescent molecules (a donor and an acceptor) in nanometer range proximity. FRET imaging methods have been applied to proteomic studies and drug discovery applications based on intermolecular FRET efficiency measurements and stoichiometric measurements of FRET interaction as quantitative parameters of interest. Importantly, FRET provides information about biomolecular interactions at a molecular level, well beyond the diffraction limits of standard microscopy techniques. The application of FRET to small animal imaging will allow biomedical researchers to investigate physiological processes occurring at nanometer range in vivo as well as in situ. In this work a new method for the quantitative reconstruction of FRET measurements in small animals, incorporating a full-field tomographic acquisition system with a Monte Carlo based hierarchical reconstruction scheme, is described and validated in murine models. Our main objective is to estimate the relative concentration of two forms of donor species, i.e., a donor molecule involved in FRETing to an acceptor close by and a nonFRETing donor molecule. PMID:23243567

  6. Thermal selectivity of intermolecular versus intramolecular reactions on surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cirera, Borja; Giménez-Agulló, Nelson; Björk, Jonas; Martínez-Peña, Francisco; Martin-Jimenez, Alberto; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jonathan; Pizarro, Ana M.; Otero, Roberto; Gallego, José M.; Ballester, Pablo; Galan-Mascaros, José R.; Ecija, David

    2016-01-01

    On-surface synthesis is a promising strategy for engineering heteroatomic covalent nanoarchitectures with prospects in electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Here we report the thermal tunability of reaction pathways of a molecular precursor in order to select intramolecular versus intermolecular reactions, yielding monomeric or polymeric phthalocyanine derivatives, respectively. Deposition of tetra-aza-porphyrin species bearing ethyl termini on Au(111) held at room temperature results in a close-packed assembly. Upon annealing from room temperature to 275 °C, the molecular precursors undergo a series of covalent reactions via their ethyl termini, giving rise to phthalocyanine tapes. However, deposition of the tetra-aza-porphyrin derivatives on Au(111) held at 300 °C results in the formation and self-assembly of monomeric phthalocyanines. A systematic scanning tunnelling microscopy study of reaction intermediates, combined with density functional calculations, suggests a [2+2] cycloaddition as responsible for the initial linkage between molecular precursors, whereas the monomeric reaction is rationalized as an electrocyclic ring closure. PMID:26964764

  7. Determination of stepsize parameters for intermolecular vibrational energy transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Tardy, D.C.

    1992-03-01

    Intermolecular energy transfer of highly excited polyatomic molecules plays an important role in many complex chemical systems: combustion, high temperature and atmospheric chemistry. By monitoring the relaxation of internal energy we have observed trends in the collisional efficiency ({beta}) for energy transfer as a function of the substrate's excitation energy and the complexities of substrate and deactivator. For a given substrate {beta} increases as the deactivator's mass increase to {approximately}30 amu and then exhibits a nearly constant value; this is due to a mass mismatch between the atoms of the colliders. In a homologous series of substrate molecules (C{sub 3}{minus}C{sub 8}) {beta} decreases as the number of atoms in the substrate increases; replacing F with H increases {beta}. All substrates, except for CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} and CF{sub 2}HCl below 10,000 cm{sup {minus}1}, exhibited that {beta} is independent of energy, i.e. <{Delta}E>{sub all} is linear with energy. The results are interpreted with a simple model which considers that {beta} is a function of the ocillators energy and its vibrational frequency. Limitations of current approximations used in high temperature unimolecular reactions were evaluated and better approximations were developed. The importance of energy transfer in product yields was observed for the photoactivation of perfluorocyclopropene and the photoproduction of difluoroethyne. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. When do we need attractive-repulsive intermolecular potentials?

    SciTech Connect

    Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2014-12-09

    The role of attractive-repulsive interactions in direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations is studied by comparing with traditional purely repulsive interactions. The larger collision cross section of the long-range LJ potential is shown to result in a higher collision frequency and hence a lower mean free path, by at least a factor of two, for given conditions. This results in a faster relaxation to equilibrium as is shown by comparing the fourth and sixth moments of the molecular velocity distribution obtained using 0-D DSMC simulations. A 1-D Fourier-Couette flow with a large temperature and velocity difference between the walls is used to show that matching transport properties will result in identical solutions using both LJPA and VSS models in the near-continuum regime. However, flows in the transitional regime with Knudsen number, Kn ∼ 0.5 show a dependence on the intermolecular potential in spite of matching the viscosity coefficient due to differences in the collision frequency. Attractive-repulsive potentials should be used when both transport coefficients and collision frequencies should be matched.

  9. Polyelectrolyte brushes in mixed ionic medium studied via intermolecular forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Robert; Laugel, Nicolas; Pincus, Philip; Tirrell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    The vast uses and applications of polyelectrolyte brushes make them an attractive field of research especially with the growing interest in responsive materials. Polymers which respond via changes in temperature, pH, and ionic strength are increasingly being used for applications in drug delivery, chemical gating, etc. When polyelectrolyte brushes are found in either nature (e.g., surfaces of cartilage and mammalian lung interiors) or commercially (e.g., skin care products, shampoo, and surfaces of medical devices) they are always surrounded by mixed ionic medium. This makes the study of these brushes in varying ionic environments extremely relevant for both current and future potential applications. The polyelectrolyte brushes in this work are diblock co-polymers of poly-styrene sulfonate (N=420) and poly-t-butyl styrene (N=20) which tethers to a hydrophobic surface allowing for a purely thermodynamic study of the polyelectrolyte chains. Intermolecular forces between two brushes are measured using the SFA. As multi-valent concentrations are increased, the brushes collapse internally and form strong adhesion between one another after contact (properties not seen in a purely mono-valent environment).

  10. Evolutionary meandering of intermolecular interactions along the drift barrier.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael; Hagner, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular functions depend on highly specific intermolecular interactions, for example transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, microRNAs and their RNA binding sites, the interfaces between heterodimeric protein molecules, the stems in RNA molecules, and kinases and their response regulators in signal-transduction systems. Despite the need for complementarity between interacting partners, such pairwise systems seem to be capable of high levels of evolutionary divergence, even when subject to strong selection. Such behavior is a consequence of the diminishing advantages of increasing binding affinity between partners, the multiplicity of evolutionary pathways between selectively equivalent alternatives, and the stochastic nature of evolutionary processes. Because mutation pressure toward reduced affinity conflicts with selective pressure for greater interaction, situations can arise in which the expected distribution of the degree of matching between interacting partners is bimodal, even in the face of constant selection. Although biomolecules with larger numbers of interacting partners are subject to increased levels of evolutionary conservation, their more numerous partners need not converge on a single sequence motif or be increasingly constrained in more complex systems. These results suggest that most phylogenetic differences in the sequences of binding interfaces are not the result of adaptive fine tuning but a simple consequence of random genetic drift. PMID:25535374

  11. Thermal selectivity of intermolecular versus intramolecular reactions on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Cirera, Borja; Giménez-Agulló, Nelson; Björk, Jonas; Martínez-Peña, Francisco; Martin-Jimenez, Alberto; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Jonathan; Pizarro, Ana M; Otero, Roberto; Gallego, José M; Ballester, Pablo; Galan-Mascaros, José R; Ecija, David

    2016-01-01

    On-surface synthesis is a promising strategy for engineering heteroatomic covalent nanoarchitectures with prospects in electronics, optoelectronics and photovoltaics. Here we report the thermal tunability of reaction pathways of a molecular precursor in order to select intramolecular versus intermolecular reactions, yielding monomeric or polymeric phthalocyanine derivatives, respectively. Deposition of tetra-aza-porphyrin species bearing ethyl termini on Au(111) held at room temperature results in a close-packed assembly. Upon annealing from room temperature to 275 °C, the molecular precursors undergo a series of covalent reactions via their ethyl termini, giving rise to phthalocyanine tapes. However, deposition of the tetra-aza-porphyrin derivatives on Au(111) held at 300 °C results in the formation and self-assembly of monomeric phthalocyanines. A systematic scanning tunnelling microscopy study of reaction intermediates, combined with density functional calculations, suggests a [2+2] cycloaddition as responsible for the initial linkage between molecular precursors, whereas the monomeric reaction is rationalized as an electrocyclic ring closure. PMID:26964764

  12. Evolutionary meandering of intermolecular interactions along the drift barrier

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Michael; Hagner, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Many cellular functions depend on highly specific intermolecular interactions, for example transcription factors and their DNA binding sites, microRNAs and their RNA binding sites, the interfaces between heterodimeric protein molecules, the stems in RNA molecules, and kinases and their response regulators in signal-transduction systems. Despite the need for complementarity between interacting partners, such pairwise systems seem to be capable of high levels of evolutionary divergence, even when subject to strong selection. Such behavior is a consequence of the diminishing advantages of increasing binding affinity between partners, the multiplicity of evolutionary pathways between selectively equivalent alternatives, and the stochastic nature of evolutionary processes. Because mutation pressure toward reduced affinity conflicts with selective pressure for greater interaction, situations can arise in which the expected distribution of the degree of matching between interacting partners is bimodal, even in the face of constant selection. Although biomolecules with larger numbers of interacting partners are subject to increased levels of evolutionary conservation, their more numerous partners need not converge on a single sequence motif or be increasingly constrained in more complex systems. These results suggest that most phylogenetic differences in the sequences of binding interfaces are not the result of adaptive fine tuning but a simple consequence of random genetic drift. PMID:25535374

  13. Effect of donor orientation on ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer in coumarin-amine systems.

    PubMed

    Singh, P K; Nath, S; Bhasikuttan, A C; Kumbhakar, M; Mohanty, J; Sarkar, S K; Mukherjee, T; Pal, H

    2008-09-21

    Effect of donor amine orientation on nondiffusive ultrafast intermolecular electron transfer (ET) reactions in coumarin-amine systems has been investigated using femtosecond fluorescence upconversion measurements. Intermolecular ET from different aromatic and aliphatic amines used as donor solvents to the excited coumarin-151 (C151) acceptor occurs with ultrafast rates such that the shortest fluorescence lifetime component (tau(1)) is the measure of the fastest ET rate (tau(1)=tau(ET) (fast)=(k(ET) (fast))(-1)), assigned to the C151-amine contact pairs in which amine donors are properly oriented with respect to C151 to maximize the acceptor-donor electronic coupling (V(el)). It is interestingly observed that as the amine solvents are diluted by suitable diluents (either keeping solvent dielectric constant similar or with increasing dielectric constant), the tau(1) remains almost in the similar range as long as the amine dilution does not cross a certain critical limit, which in terms of the amine mole fraction (x(A)) is found to be approximately 0.4 for aromatic amines and approximately 0.8 for aliphatic amines. Beyond these dilutions in the two respective cases of the amine systems, the tau(1) values are seen to increase very sharply. The large difference in the critical x(A) values involving aromatic and aliphatic amine donors has been rationalized in terms of the largely different orientational restrictions for the ET reactions as imposed by the aliphatic (n-type) and aromatic (pi-type) nature of the amine donors [A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008)]. Since the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of the n-type aliphatic amines is mostly centralized at the amino nitrogen, only some specific orientations of these amines with respect to the close-contact acceptor dye [also of pi-character; A. K. Satpati et al., J. Mol. Struct. 878, 84 (2008) and E. W. Castner et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 2869 (2000)] can give suitable V(el) and thus

  14. Non-covalent intermolecular carbon-carbon interactions in polyynes.

    PubMed

    Remya, Karunakaran; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H

    2015-10-28

    Polyynes, the smaller analogues of one dimensional infinite chain carbon allotrope carbyne, have been studied for the type and strength of the intermolecular interactions in their dimer and tetramer complexes using density functional theory. The nature of end group functionalities and the chain length of the polyynes are varied to assess their role in modulating the non-covalent interaction energy. As seen in molecular electrostatic potential analysis, all the polyyne complexes showed a multitude of non-covalent CC interactions, resulting from complementary electrostatic interactions between relatively electron rich formal triple bond region of one monomer and the electron deficient formal single bond region of the other monomer. This type of paired (C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)(C-C) bonding interaction, also characterized using quantum theory of atoms-in-molecules, increases with increase in the monomer chain length leading to substantial increase in interaction energy (Eint); -1.07 kcal mol(-1) for the acetylene dimer to -45.83 kcal mol(-1) for the 50yne dimer. The magnitude of Eint increases with substitutions at end positions of the polyyne and this effect persists even up to 50 triple bonds, the largest chain length analyzed in this paper. The role of CC interactions in stabilizing the polyyne dimers is also shown by sliding one monomer in a dimer over the other, which resulted in multiple minima with a reduced number of CC interactions and lower values of Eint. Furthermore, strong cooperativity in the CC bond strength in tetramers is observed as the interaction energy per monomer (Em) of the polyyne is 2.5-2.8 times higher compared to that of the dimer in a test set of four tetramers. The huge gain in energy observed in large polyyene dimers and tetramers predicts the formation of polyyne bundles which may find use in the design of new functional molecular materials. PMID:26412713

  15. Identification and measurement of intermolecular interaction in polyester/polystyrene blends by FTIR-photoacoustic spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectrometry was used to reveal and identify n-p type intermolecular interaction formed in plastic comprising binary blends of polystyrene and a biodegradable polymer, either polylactic acid, polycaprolactone or poly(tetramethyleneadipate-co-terephthalate)....

  16. The intermolecular vibrational dynamics of substituted benzene and cyclohexane liquids, studied by femtosecond OHD-RIKES

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Chang, Yong Joon

    1995-06-01

    By using the femtosecond optical-heterodyne detected, Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy (OHD-RIKES), we have studied the intermolecular dynamics of toluene, benzyl alcohol, benzonitrile, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane in both the time and frequency domains.

  17. Determining the Intermolecular Potential Energy in a Gas: A Physical Chemistry Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbregts, J.; Walgraeve, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which gas viscosity coefficients over a large temperature range are used to determine the parameters of the intermolecular potential energy and other properties such as virial coefficients. (MLH)

  18. Kinetic theory for flows of nonhomogeneous rodlike liquid crystalline polymers with a nonlocal intermolecular potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; E, Weinan; Liu, Chun; Zhang, Pingwen

    2002-05-01

    The Doi kinetic theory for flows of homogeneous, rodlike liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) is extended to model flows of nonhomogeneous, rodlike LCPs through a nonlocal (long-range) intermolecular potential. The theory features (i) a nonlocal, anisotropic, effective intermolecular potential in an integral form that is consistent with the chemical potential, (ii) short-range elasticity as well as long-range isotropic and anisotropic elasticity, (iii) a closed-form stress expression accounting for the nonlocal molecular interaction, and (iv) an extra elastic body force exclusively associated with the integral form of the intermolecular potential. With the effective intermolecular potential, the theory is proven to be well posed in that it warrants a positive entropy production and thereby the second law of thermodynamics. Approximate theories are obtained by gradient expansions of the number density function in the free energy density. PMID:12059561

  19. Relativistic effects in the intermolecular interaction-induced nuclear magnetic resonance parameters of xenon dimer.

    PubMed

    Hanni, Matti; Lantto, Perttu; Ilias, Miroslav; Jensen, Hans Jorgen Aagaard; Vaara, Juha

    2007-10-28

    Relativistic effects on the (129)Xe nuclear magnetic resonance shielding and (131)Xe nuclear quadrupole coupling (NQC) tensors are examined in the weakly bound Xe(2) system at different levels of theory including the relativistic four-component Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method. The intermolecular interaction-induced binary chemical shift delta, the anisotropy of the shielding tensor Deltasigma, and the NQC constant along the internuclear axis chi( parallel) are calculated as a function of the internuclear distance. DHF shielding calculations are carried out using gauge-including atomic orbitals. For comparison, the full leading-order one-electron Breit-Pauli perturbation theory (BPPT) is applied using a common gauge origin. Electron correlation effects are studied at the nonrelativistic (NR) coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbational triples [CCSD(T)] level of theory. The fully relativistic second-order Moller-Plesset many-body perturbation (DMP2) theory is used to examine the cross coupling between correlation and relativity on NQC. The same is investigated for delta and Deltasigma by BPPT with a density functional theory model. A semiquantitative agreement between the BPPT and DHF binary property curves is obtained for delta and Deltasigma in Xe(2). For these properties, the currently most complete theoretical description is obtained by a piecewise approximation where the uncorrelated relativistic DHF results obtained close to the basis-set limit are corrected, on the one hand, for NR correlation effects and, on the other hand, for the BPPT-based cross coupling of relativity and correlation. For chi( parallel), the fully relativistic DMP2 results obtain a correction for NR correlation effects beyond MP2. The computed temperature dependence of the second virial coefficient of the (129)Xe nuclear shielding is compared to experiment in Xe gas. Our best results, obtained with the piecewise approximation for the binary chemical shift combined with the

  20. Theoretical studies for the N{sub 2}–N{sub 2}O van der Waals complex: The potential energy surface, intermolecular vibrations, and rotational transition frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Rui; Zheng, Limin; Yang, Minghui E-mail: yangmh@wipm.ac.cn; Lu, Yunpeng E-mail: yangmh@wipm.ac.cn

    2015-10-21

    Theoretical studies of the potential energy surface (PES) and bound states are performed for the N{sub 2}–N{sub 2}O van der Waals (vdW) complex. A four-dimensional intermolecular PES is constructed at the level of single and double excitation coupled-cluster method with a non-iterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set supplemented with bond functions. Two equivalent T-shaped global minima are located, in which the O atom of N{sub 2}O monomer is near the N{sub 2} monomer. The intermolecular fundamental vibrational states are assigned by inspecting the orientation of the nodal surface of the wavefunctions. The calculated frequency for intermolecular disrotation mode is 23.086 cm{sup −1}, which is in good agreement with the available experimental data of 22.334 cm{sup −1}. A negligible tunneling splitting with the value of 4.2 MHz is determined for the ground vibrational state and the tunneling splitting increases as the increment of the vibrational frequencies. Rotational levels and transition frequencies are calculated for both isotopomers {sup 14}N{sub 2}–N{sub 2}O and {sup 15}N{sub 2}–N{sub 2}O. The accuracy of the PES is validated by the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the transition frequencies and spectroscopic parameters.

  1. Theoretical studies for the N2-N2O van der Waals complex: The potential energy surface, intermolecular vibrations, and rotational transition frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Rui; Zheng, Limin; Lu, Yunpeng; Yang, Minghui

    2015-10-21

    Theoretical studies of the potential energy surface (PES) and bound states are performed for the N2-N2O van der Waals (vdW) complex. A four-dimensional intermolecular PES is constructed at the level of single and double excitation coupled-cluster method with a non-iterative perturbation treatment of triple excitations [CCSD(T)] with aug-cc-pVTZ basis set supplemented with bond functions. Two equivalent T-shaped global minima are located, in which the O atom of N2O monomer is near the N2 monomer. The intermolecular fundamental vibrational states are assigned by inspecting the orientation of the nodal surface of the wavefunctions. The calculated frequency for intermolecular disrotation mode is 23.086 cm(-1), which is in good agreement with the available experimental data of 22.334 cm(-1). A negligible tunneling splitting with the value of 4.2 MHz is determined for the ground vibrational state and the tunneling splitting increases as the increment of the vibrational frequencies. Rotational levels and transition frequencies are calculated for both isotopomers (14)N2-N2O and (15)N2-N2O. The accuracy of the PES is validated by the good agreement between theoretical and experimental results for the transition frequencies and spectroscopic parameters. PMID:26493904

  2. The Raman and vibronic activity of intermolecular vibrations in aromatic-containing complexes and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Maxton, P.M.; Schaeffer, M.W.; Ohline, S.M.; Kim, W.; Venturo, V.A.; Felker, P.M. )

    1994-11-15

    Theoretical and experimental results pertaining to the excitation of intermolecular vibrations in the Raman and vibronic spectra of aromatic-containing, weakly bound complexes and clusters are reported. The theoretical analysis of intermolecular Raman activity is based on the assumption that the polarizability tensor of a weakly bound species is given by the sum of the polarizability tensors of its constituent monomers. The analysis shows that the van der Waals bending fundamentals in aromatic--rare gas complexes may be expected to be strongly Raman active. More generally, it predicts strong Raman activity for intermolecular vibrations that involve the libration or internal rotation of monomer moieties having appreciable permanent polarizability anisotropies. The vibronic activity of intermolecular vibrations in aromatic-rare gas complexes is analyzed under the assumption that every vibronic band gains its strength from an aromatic-localized transition. It is found that intermolecular vibrational excitations can accompany aromatic-localized vibronic excitations by the usual Franck--Condon mechanism or by a mechanism dependent on the librational amplitude of the aromatic moiety during the course of the pertinent intermolecular vibration. The latter mechanism can impart appreciable intensity to bands that are forbidden by rigid-molecule symmetry selection rules. The applicability of such rules is therefore called into question. Finally, experimental spectra of intermolecular transitions, obtained by mass-selective, ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies, are reported for benzene--X (X=Ar, --Ar[sub 2], N[sub 2], HCl, CO[sub 2], and --fluorene), fluorobenzene--Ar and --Kr, aniline--Ar, and fluorene--Ar and --Ar[sub 2]. The results support the conclusions of the theoretical analyses and provide further evidence for the value of Raman methods in characterizing intermolecular vibrational level structures.

  3. A supramolecular photoswitch constructed by intermolecular hydrogen bond between BTEPy and TTF COOH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yanli; Zhang, Qiong; Tan, Wenjuan; Zhang, Deqing; Tu, Yaoquan; Ågren, Hans; Tian, He

    2008-04-01

    A novel supramolecular photoswitch containing bisthienylethene-pyridine (BTEPy) and carboxyl attached tetrathiafluvalene (TTF-COOH) was constructed via intermolecular hydrogen bond. FT-IR spectra, XPS characterizations, 1H NMR and theoretical calculation were carried out to verify the formation of the intermolecular hydrogen bond. The supramolecular self-assemblies BTEPy · 2TTF show good photochromic properties. A molecular switch with UV/vis light as inputs and electrochemical signals as outputs was obtained.

  4. Catalysis in the Service of Green Chemistry: Nobel Prize-Winning Palladium-Catalysed Cross-Couplings, Run in Water at Room Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Lipshutz, Bruce H.; Taft, Benjamin R.; Abela, Alexander R.; Ghorai, Subir; Krasovskiy, Arkady; Duplais, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed cross-couplings, in particular Heck, Suzuki-Miyaura and Negishi reactions developed over three decades ago, are routinely carried out in organic solvents. However, alternative media are currently of considerable interest given an increasing emphasis on making organic processes ‘greener’; for example, by minimising organic waste in the form of organic solvents. Water is the obvious leading candidate in this regard. Hence, this review focuses on the application of micellar catalysis, in which a ‘designer’ surfactant enables these award-winning coupling reactions to be run in water at room temperature. PMID:23555153

  5. Interatomic and intermolecular Coulombic decay: the coming of age story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahnke, T.

    2015-04-01

    In pioneering work by Cederbaum et al an excitation mechanism was proposed that occurs only in loosely bound matter (Cederbaum et al 1997 Phys. Rev. Lett. 79 4778): it turned out, that (in particular) in cases where a local Auger decay is energetically forbidden, an excited atom or molecule is able to decay in a scheme which was termed ‘interatomic Coulombic decay’ (or ‘intermolecular Coulombic decay’) (ICD). As ICD occurs, the excitation energy is released by transferring it to an atomic or molecular neighbor of the initially excited particle. As a consequence the neighboring atom or molecule is ionized as it receives the energy. A few years later the existence of ICD was confirmed experimentally (Marburger et al 2003 Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 203401; Jahnke et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 163401; Öhrwall et al 2004 Phys. Rev. Lett. 93 173401) by different techniques. Since this time it has been found that ICD is not (as initially suspected) an exotic feature of van der Waals or hydrogen bonded systems, but that ICD is a very general and common feature occurring after a manifold of excitation schemes and in numerous weakly bound systems, as revealed by more than 200 publications. It was even demonstrated, that ICD can become more efficient than a local Auger decay in some system. This review will concentrate on recent experimental investigations on ICD. It will briefly introduce the phenomenon and give a short summary of the ‘early years’ of ICD (a detailed view on this episode of investigations can be found in the review article by U Hergenhahn with the same title (Hergenhahn 2011 J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 184 78)). More recent articles will be presented that investigate the relevance of ICD in biological systems and possible radiation damage of such systems due to ICD. The occurrence of ICD and ICD-like processes after different excitation schemes and in different systems is covered in the middle section: in that context the helium dimer (He2

  6. Direct Synthesis of Palladium Catalyst on Supporting WS2 Nanotubes and its Reactivity in Cross-Coupling Reactions.

    PubMed

    Višić, Bojana; Cohen, Hagai; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Tenne, Reshef; Sokolov, Viacheslav I; Abramova, Natalya V; Buyanovskaya, Anastasiya G; Dzvonkovskii, Sergei L; Lependina, Olga L

    2015-10-01

    Palladium nanoparticles were deposited on multiwall WS2 nanotubes. The composite nanoparticles were characterized by a variety of techniques. The Pd nanoparticles were deposited uniformly on the surface of WS2 nanotubes. An epitaxial relationship between the (111) plane of Pd and the (013) plane of WS2 was mostly observed. The composite nanoparticles were found to perform efficiently as catalysts for cross-coupling (Heck and Suzuki) reactions. The role of the nanotubes' support in the catalytic process is briefly discussed. PMID:26097214

  7. Ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions in a series of organic mixed crystals of galvinoxyl radical and its precursory closed shell compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awaga, Kunio; Sugano, Tadashi; Kinoshita, Minoru

    1986-08-01

    The magnetic properties of the 4:1, 6:1, 9:1, and 19:1 mixed crystals of galvinoxyl (4-[[3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene]methyl]-2,6 -bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenoxy) radical and its precursory closed shell compound, hydrogalvinoxyl, have been studied. From the measurements of the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, it is found that the ferromagnetic intermolecular interactions, which are lost below about 85 K in pure galvinoxyl because of the phase transition, are maintained down to 2 K in these mixed crystals, and that the number of galvinoxyl radicals keeping the ferromagnetically coupled structure at low temperature increases as the concentration of hydrogalvinoxyl increases. The magnetic behavior of the mixed crystals at low temperature depends on the thermal history of the sample and is well interpreted by assuming the presence of a glassy state into which the high-temperature, ferromagnetically coupled phase is quenched. The magnetization curves show the spin multiplicity to be almost in proportion to the radical concentration in the mixed crystal and may be qualitatively understood by assuming that the mixed crystal is an assembly of one-dimensional chain segments partitioned by hydrogalvinoxyl within which the galvinoxyl radicals are coupled ferromagnetically.

  8. Comment on 'Intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer from the local density approximation'

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Arvin H.-T.; Chao, S.D.

    2006-01-15

    To verify the recently calculated intermolecular interaction potentials of the methane dimer within the density functional theory using the (Perdew) local density approximation (LDA) [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 034701 (2004)], we have performed a parallel series of calculations using the LDA/6-311++G (3df, 3pd) level of theory with selected exchange functionals (B, G96, MPW, O, PBE, PW91, S, and XA). None of the above calculated intermolecular interaction potentials from the local density approximation reproduce the results reported in the commented paper. In addition, we point out the inappropriateness of using the Lennard-Jones function to model the long-range parts of the calculated intermolecular interaction potentials, as suggested positively by Chen et al.

  9. Intermolecular potential functions and high resolution molecular spectroscopy of weakly bound complexes. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Muenter, J.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report describes accomplishments over the past year in research supported by this grant. Two papers published in this period are briefly discussed. The general goal of the work is to consolidate the understanding of experimental results through a theoretical model of intermolecular potential energy surfaces. Progress in the experimental and theoretical phases of the program are presented and immediate goals outlined. The ability to construct analytic intermolecular potential functions that accurately predict the energy of interaction between small molecules will have great impact in many areas of chemistry, biochemistry, and biology.

  10. Analysis of hypersonic nozzles including vibrational nonequilibrium and intermolecular force effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canupp, Patrick W.; Candler, Graham V.; Perkins, John N.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1992-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics algorithm is developed for the study of high-pressure axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows. The effects of intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium are included in the analysis. The numerical simulation of gases with an arbitrary equation of state is discussed. Simulations for a high pressure nozzle (p(0) = 138 MPa) demonstrate that both intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium have a significant affect on the flow. These nonideal effects tend to increase the Mach number at the nozzle exit plane. Thus, they must be included in the design and analysis of high pressure hypersonic nozzles.

  11. Enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reactions of activated alkenes with acrolein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Peng; Tao, Mengna; Su, Xiao; Zhao, Qingjie; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-06-18

    The enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reaction of acrolein with active olefins has been a long-standing challenge because of the competitive MBH reaction and polymerization. Herein a highly enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reaction of acrolein with 3-acyl acrylates and 2-ene-1,4-diones, which is enabled by newly designed Peng-Phos catalysts. This method is scalable and highly enantioselective (up to 96% ee). Several transformations of the R-C products are carried out to showcase the synthetic utility. PMID:27225510

  12. Computational Analysis of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay Effects in DNA nucleotide Photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, E. L.; Robertson, J.; Andrianarijaona, V. M.

    2016-03-01

    Intermolecular Coulombic Decay (ICD) is the process of how electrons return to their original state after excitation and how this affects their immediate environment. In a previous research presentationwe had considered the hypothetical applications of Intermolecular Coulombic Decay on the adhesiveness of coding proteins within DNA molecules. This presentation is a continuation of the previous in that the results of our DFT-based computational calculations of the ionization potentials of nucleotides and their excitation energies will be presented, as well as how they influence their surroundings. Author would like to acknowledge the PUC Student Senate for financial assistance.

  13. Modulation of the intermolecular interaction of myoglobin by removal of the heme

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Hiroshi; Morita, Takeshi; Sumi, Tomonari; Isogai, Yasuhiro; Kato, Minoru; Nishikawa, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    Toward understanding intermolecular interactions governing self-association of proteins, the present study investigated a model protein, myoglobin, using a small-angle X-ray scattering technique. It has been known that removal of the heme makes myoglobin aggregation-prone. The interparticle interferences of the holomyoglobin and the apomyoglobin were compared in terms of the structure factor. Analysis of the structure factor using a model potential of Derjaguin–Laudau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) suggests that the intermolecular interaction potential of apomyoglobin is more attractive than that of holomyoglobin at short range from the protein molecule. PMID:24121340

  14. Virtual photon exchange, intermolecular interactions and optical response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salam, A.

    2015-11-01

    According to molecular quantum electrodynamics, coupling between material particles occurs due to an exchange of one or more virtual photons. In this work, the relationship between polarisability and hyperpolarisability tensors of atoms and molecules that feature in linear and nonlinear optical processes, and their analytically continued form in the complex frequency domain that appear in formulae describing fundamental inter-particle interactions, is studied. Examples involving a single virtual photon exchange, which are linearly proportional to electric dipole moments at each centre, include the electrostatic energy and the resonant transfer of excitation energy. The Casimir-Polder dispersion potential, and its discriminatory counterpart applicable to coupled chiral molecules, are used to illustrate response properties depending on the exchange of two virtual photons. Meanwhile, the energy shift between two hyperpolarisable species, a higher order discriminatory contribution to the dispersion potential, is employed to represent forces arising from the three virtual photon exchange. It is shown that for energy shifts that are quadratic or bilinear or cubic in the transition dipole moment, it is necessary to account for all two- and three-photon optical processes, such as absorption, emission and linear and nonlinear scattering of light in order to arrive at the correct form of the molecular response tensor.

  15. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-07-15

    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  16. Pigment Spectra and Intermolecular Interaction Potentials in Glasses and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Renge, I.; van Grondelle, R.; Dekker, J. P.

    2007-01-01

    A model is proposed for chromophore optical spectra in solids over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Inhomogeneous band shapes and their pressure dependence, as well as baric shift coefficients of spectral lines, selected by the frequency, were derived using Lennard-Jones potentials of the ground and excited states. Quadratic electron-phonon coupling constants, describing the thermal shift and broadening of zero-phonon lines, were also calculated. Experimentally, thermal shift and broadening of spectral holes were studied between 5 and 40 K for a synthetic pigment, chlorin, embedded in polymer hosts. The baric effects on holes were determined by applying hydrostatic He gas pressure up to 200 bar, at 6 K. Absorption spectra of pheophytin a, chlorophyll a, and β-carotene in polymers and plant photosystem II CP47 complex were measured between 5 (or 77) and 300 K, and subject to Voigtian deconvolution. A narrowing of inhomogeneous bandwidth with increasing temperature, predicted on the basis of hole behavior, was observed as the shrinking of Gaussian spectral component. The Lorentzian broadening was ascribed to optical dephasing up to 300 K in transitions with weak to moderate linear electron-phonon coupling strength. The thermal broadening is purely Gaussian in multiphonon transitions (S2 band of β-carotene, Soret bands of tetrapyrrolic pigments), and the Lorentz process appears to be suppressed, indicating a lack of exponential dephasing. Density, polarity, polarizability, compressibility, and other local parameters of the pigment binding sites in biologically relevant systems can be deduced from spectroscopic data, provided that sufficient background information is available. PMID:17557783

  17. Pd-Catalyzed Intramolecular Heck Reaction, C(sp(2))-H Activation, 1,4-Pd Migration, and Aminopalladation: Chemoselective Synthesis of Dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-Arylindoles.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zheng-Yang; Liu, Cheng-Guo; Wang, Shun-Yi; Ji, Shun-Jun

    2016-05-20

    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular Heck reaction and aminopalladation of N-(2-(1-phenylvinyl)phenyl)aniline for the efficient synthesis of dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridines and 3-arylindoles via tuning of the phosphine ligands and solvents under two optimized conditions are reported. The reaction follows a 1,4-Pd migration, aminopalladation, C(sp(2))-H activation, as well as five- and six-membered-ring fusion to form different products. The dihydroindeno[1,2,3-kl]acridine derivatives showed higher triplet energy (ET) levels than common blue phosphorescent dopant and may serve as good host candidates for blue triplet emitters. PMID:27137482

  18. An Analysis of Two Textbooks on the Topic of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Daniel Kim Chwee; Seng, Chan Kim

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of two commonly used high school (Grades 11 and 12) chemistry textbooks in Singapore to determine if the content presented in the topic of intermolecular forces is consistent with the concepts and propositional knowledge identified by the authors as essential for the learning and understanding of the topic…

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aerobic Annulation of o-Alkenylanilines and Alkynes for Quinoline Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia; Li, Zun; Huang, Liangbin; Wu, Wanqing; Li, Jianxiao; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-08-01

    A new approach to construct 2,3-disubstituted quinolines is described via Pd-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of o-vinylanilines and alkynes with molecular oxygen. This transformation is supposed to undergo intermolecular amination of alkyne, insertion of the olefin, and oxidative cleavage of C-C bond sequence. PMID:27418021

  20. Palladium(0)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Allylic Dearomatization of Indoles by a Formal [4+2] Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Run-Duo; Xu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Bo; Gu, Yiting; Dai, Li-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2016-08-01

    Bridged indoline derivatives were synthesized by an intermolecular Pd-catalyzed allylic dearomatization reaction of substituted indoles. The reaction between indoles and allyl carbonates bearing a nucleophilic alcohol side-chain proceeds in a cascade fashion, providing bridged indolines in excellent enantioselectivity. PMID:27321285

  1. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular chloroazidation of α,β-unsaturated amides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Long; Xing, Haotian; Zhang, Huaibin; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yang, Zhigang

    2016-08-21

    A highly practical copper-catalyzed intermolecular chloroazidation of α,β-unsaturated amides has been described, giving a series of azidochlorides in good-to-excellent yields. The stable azidoiodine(iii) reagent and SOCl2 were used as azide and chlorine sources, respectively. The synthetic applications of this protocol were also explored by a variety of synthetically useful transformations. PMID:27462802

  2. Intermolecular Sulfur···Oxygen Interactions: Theoretical and Statistical Investigations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejin; Gong, Zhen; Li, Jian; Lu, Tao

    2015-10-26

    Intermolecular S···O interactions are very common and are important in biological systems, but until recently, the presence of these contacts in protein-ligand systems largely depended on serendipitous discovery instead of rational design. Here we provide insight into the phenomenon of intermolecular S···O contacts by focusing on three sulfur-containing aromatic rings. Quantum mechanics is employed to characterize the strength and directionality of the S···O interactions and to determine their energy dependence on their geometric parameters. Protein Data Bank mining is performed to systematically determine the occurrence and geometry of intermolecular S···O interactions, and several representative examples are discussed. Three typical cases are investigated using a combined quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach to demonstrate the potential of these interactions in improving binding affinities and physiochemical properties. Overall, our work elucidates the structures and energy features of intermolecular S···O interactions and addresses their use in molecular design. PMID:26393532

  3. Resolving Intra- and Inter-Molecular Structure with Non-Contact Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Samuel Paul

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in molecular investigations at surfaces has been to image individual molecules, and the assemblies they form, with single-bond resolution. Scanning probe microscopy, with its exceptionally high resolution, is ideally suited to this goal. With the introduction of methods exploiting molecularly-terminated tips, where the apex of the probe is, for example, terminated with a single CO, Xe or H2 molecule, scanning probe methods can now achieve higher resolution than ever before. In this review, some of the landmark results related to attaining intramolecular resolution with non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) are summarised before focussing on recent reports probing molecular assemblies where apparent intermolecular features have been observed. Several groups have now highlighted the critical role that flexure in the tip-sample junction plays in producing the exceptionally sharp images of both intra- and apparent inter-molecular structure. In the latter case, the features have been identified as imaging artefacts, rather than real intermolecular bonds. This review discusses the potential for NC-AFM to provide exceptional resolution of supramolecular assemblies stabilised via a variety of intermolecular forces and highlights the potential challenges and pitfalls involved in interpreting bonding interactions. PMID:26307976

  4. Investigation of intermolecular interactions between fluorene-based conjugated polymers using the dispersion-corrected DFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayoub, Sarah; Lagowski, Jolanta B.

    2015-03-01

    Alternating triphenylamine-fluorene, TPAFn (n=1-3), and fluorene-oxadiazole OxFn (n=1-3) conjugated copolymers are important components of novel high-efficiency multi-layer organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this work, we investigate the intermolecular interactions between the various combinations of monomers of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) copolymers using the dispersion-corrected density functional theory (B97D) method. The monomer combinations are taken with and without the presence of long alkyl chains in order to study the effect of side-chains on the polymer backbone intermolecular interactions. The dispersion effect is studied by comparing the structures of the interacting monomers with those in vacuum. In addition, we calculate intermolecular distances, energy gaps and binding energies of monomer dimers corresponding to different pairings of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) monomers. Our results show that the combination of OxF3-TPAF2 monomers exhibites the highest binding energy, closest intermolecular distance, and the best matching of chain lengths amongst all of the combinations of OxFn-TPAFn (n=1-3) monomers. Experiments have shown that OxF3-TPAF2 combination gives the best performance for OLEDS made of OxF-TPAF polymer layers.

  5. Frontier orbital symmetry control of intermolecular electron transfer. Final report, September 15, 1988--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, B.

    1997-07-01

    This report discusses the following topics: the recovery of intermolecular transfer parameters from fluorescence quenching in liquids; photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer in flexible donor/space/acceptor systems containing an extended unsaturated spacer; electron transfer sensitized reaction; the recovery of solute and fractal dimensions from electron transfer quenching data; and frontier orbital symmetry control of back electron transfer.

  6. Intermolecular forces and nonbonded interactions: Superoperator nonlinear time-dependent density-functional-theory response approach

    SciTech Connect

    Harbola, Upendra; Mukamel, Shaul

    2004-11-01

    Electrostatic and dispersive interactions of polarizable molecules are expressed in terms of generalized (nonretarded) charge-density response functions of the isolated molecules, which in turn are expanded using the collective electronic oscillator (CEO) eigenmodes of linearized time-dependent density-functional theory. Closed expressions for the intermolecular energy are derived to sixth order in charge fluctuation amplitudes.

  7. Resolving Intra- and Inter-Molecular Structure with Non-Contact Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Samuel Paul

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in molecular investigations at surfaces has been to image individual molecules, and the assemblies they form, with single-bond resolution. Scanning probe microscopy, with its exceptionally high resolution, is ideally suited to this goal. With the introduction of methods exploiting molecularly-terminated tips, where the apex of the probe is, for example, terminated with a single CO, Xe or H2 molecule, scanning probe methods can now achieve higher resolution than ever before. In this review, some of the landmark results related to attaining intramolecular resolution with non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) are summarised before focussing on recent reports probing molecular assemblies where apparent intermolecular features have been observed. Several groups have now highlighted the critical role that flexure in the tip-sample junction plays in producing the exceptionally sharp images of both intra- and apparent inter-molecular structure. In the latter case, the features have been identified as imaging artefacts, rather than real intermolecular bonds. This review discusses the potential for NC-AFM to provide exceptional resolution of supramolecular assemblies stabilised via a variety of intermolecular forces and highlights the potential challenges and pitfalls involved in interpreting bonding interactions. PMID:26307976

  8. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation to Reinforce Student Understanding of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Phillip R.; Purser, Gordon H.; Cole, Renee S.

    2008-01-01

    Intermolecular forces play an important role in many aspects of chemistry ranging from inorganic to biological chemistry. These forces dictate molecular conformation, species aggregation (including self-assembly), trends in solubility and boiling points, adsorption characteristics, viscosity, phase changes, surface tension, capillary action, vapor…

  9. Salting Effects as an Illustration of the Relative Strength of Intermolecular Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Eric C.; Golden, Donnie R.; Royce, Brenda R.

    2010-01-01

    This quick and inexpensive demonstration of the salting of an alcohol out of an aqueous solution illustrates the impact of intermolecular forces on solubility using materials familiar to many students. Ammonium sulfate (fertilizer) is added to an aqueous 35% solution of isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol and water) containing food coloring as a…

  10. Intermolecular Cyclopropanation of Styrenes Using Iodine and Visible Light via Carbon-Iodine Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Usami, Kaoru; Nagasawa, Yoshitomo; Yamaguchi, Eiji; Tada, Norihiro; Itoh, Akichika

    2016-01-01

    The intermolecular cyclopropanation of aromatic olefins with activated methylene compounds using iodine and visible light irradiation was described. This reaction proceeds under rare-metal-free conditions. Styrenes with various substituted groups (alkyl and electron-withdrawing groups) provided corresponding cyclopropanes in moderate to good yields. PMID:26654114

  11. Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2013-11-01

    By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

  12. THE INTERACTION OF PARAMAGNETIC RELAXATION REAGENTS WITH INTRA- AND INTERMOLECULAR HYDROGEN BONDED PHENOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intermolecular electron-nuclear 13-C relaxation times (T(1)sup e's) from solutions containing the paramagnetic relaxation reagent (PARR), Cr(acac)3, used in conjunction with 13-C T(1)'s in diamagnetic solutions (intramolecular 13-C - (1)H dipolar T(1)'s) provide a significant inc...

  13. Instantaneous normal mode analysis for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from atomic point of view

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu-Chun; Tang, Ping-Han; Wu, Ten-Ming

    2013-11-28

    By exploiting the instantaneous normal mode (INM) analysis for models of flexible molecules, we investigate intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations of water from the atomic point of view. With two flexible SPC/E models, our investigations include three aspects about their INM spectra, which are separated into the unstable, intermolecular, bending, and stretching bands. First, the O- and H-atom contributions in the four INM bands are calculated and their stable INM spectra are compared with the power spectra of the atomic velocity autocorrelation functions. The unstable and intermolecular bands of the flexible models are also compared with those of the SPC/E model of rigid molecules. Second, we formulate the inverse participation ratio (IPR) of the INMs, respectively, for the O- and H-atom and molecule. With the IPRs, the numbers of the three species participated in the INMs are estimated so that the localization characters of the INMs in each band are studied. Further, by the ratio of the IPR of the H atom to that of the O atom, we explore the number of involved OH bond per molecule participated in the INMs. Third, by classifying simulated molecules into subensembles according to the geometry of their local environments or their H-bond configurations, we examine the local-structure effects on the bending and stretching INM bands. All of our results are verified to be insensible to the definition of H-bond. Our conclusions about the intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations in water are given.

  14. Intermolecular electronic interactions in the primary charge separation in bacterial photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Plato, M.; Moebius, K.; Michel-Beyerle, M.E.; Bixon, M.; Jortner, J. )

    1988-10-26

    In this paper the intermolecular overlap approximation is used to calculate the relative magnitudes of the electronic transfer integrals between the excited singlet state ({sup 1}P*) of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P) and the accessory bacteriochlorophyll (B) and between B{sup {minus}} and bacteriopheopytin (H), along the L and M subunits of the reaction center (RC) of Rps. viridis. The ratio of the electron-transfer integrals for B{sub L}{sup {minus}}H{sub L}{sup {minus}}B{sub L}H{sub L}{minus} and for B{sub M}{sup {minus}}H{sub M}{minus}B{sub M}H{sub M}{sup {minus}} was calculated to be 2.1 {plus minus} 0.5, which together with the value of 2.8 {plus minus} 0.7 for the ratio of the transfer integrals for {sup 1}P*B{sub L}-P{sup +}B{sub L}- and for {sup 1}P*B{sub M}-P{sup +}B{sub M}- results in the electronic contribution of 33 {plus minus} 16 to the ratio k{sub L}/k{sub m} of the rate constants k{sub L} and k{sub M} for the primary charge separation across the L and M branches of the RC, respectively. The asymmetry of the electronic coupling terms, which originates from the combination of the asymmetry in the charge distribution of {sup 1}P* and of structural asymmetry of the P-M and B-H arrangements across the L and M subunits, provides a major contribution to the unidirectionality of the charge separation in bacterial photosynthesis. A significant contribution to the transfer integrals between adjacent pigments originates from nearby methyl groups through hyperconjugation. The ratio 6 {plus minus} 2 of the transfer integrals for {sup 1}P*B{sub L}-P{sup +}B{sub L}- and for B{sub L}-H{sub L}-B{sub L}H{sub L}- was utilized to estimate the energetic parameters required to ensure the dominance of the superexchange mediated unistep electron transfer {sup 1}P*BH {yields} P{sup +}BH{sup {minus}} over the thermally activated {sup 1}P*B {yields} P{sup +}B{sup {minus}} process. 31 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Intermolecular interactions of trifluorohalomethanes with Lewis bases in the gas phase: An ab initio study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi-Siang; Yin, Chih-Chien; Chao, Sheng D.

    2014-10-07

    We perform an ab initio computational study of molecular complexes with the general formula CF{sub 3}X—B that involve one trifluorohalomethane CF{sub 3}X (X = Cl or Br) and one of a series of Lewis bases B in the gas phase. The Lewis bases are so chosen that they provide a range of electron-donating abilities for comparison. Based on the characteristics of their electron pairs, we consider the Lewis bases with a single n-pair (NH{sub 3} and PH{sub 3}), two n-pairs (H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}S), two n-pairs with an unsaturated bond (H{sub 2}CO and H{sub 2}CS), and a single π-pair (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) and two π-pairs (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}). The aim is to systematically investigate the influence of the electron pair characteristics and the central atom substitution effects on the geometries and energetics of the formed complexes. The counterpoise-corrected supermolecule MP2 and coupled-cluster single double with perturbative triple [CCSD(T)] levels of theory have been employed, together with a series of basis sets up to aug-cc-pVTZ. The angular and radial configurations, the binding energies, and the electrostatic potentials of the stable complexes have been compared and discussed as the Lewis base varies. For those complexes where halogen bonding plays a significant role, the calculated geometries and energetics are consistent with the σ-hole model. Upon formation of stable complexes, the C–X bond lengths shorten, while the C–X vibrational frequencies increase, thus rendering blueshifting halogen bonds. The central atom substitution usually enlarges the intermolecular bond distances while it reduces the net charge transfers, thus weakening the bond strengths. The analysis based on the σ-hole model is grossly reliable but requires suitable modifications incorporating the central atom substitution effects, in particular, when interaction components other than electrostatic contributions are involved.

  16. Target-catalyzed hairpin assembly and intramolecular/intermolecular co-reaction for signal amplified electrochemiluminescent detection of microRNA.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yan-Qing; Wang, Ji-Peng; Zhao, Min; Hong, Lin-Ru; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo; Zhuo, Ying

    2016-03-15

    Herein, a new electrochemiluminescence (ECL) strategy for enzyme-free microRNA-21 (miR-21) amplified detection was designed based on target-catalyzed hairpin assembly by combining the signal-amplification capability of both intramolecular and intermolecular ECL co-reaction. In this strategy, two hairpin DNA probes of H1 and H2 were designed as capture probes and detection probes, respectively. To be specific, the capture probes of H1 were immobilized on the multilayer interface of AuNPs and thiosemicarbazide (TSC) assembly on the single-walled carbon nanohorns decorated electrode, while the detection probes of H2 was anchored on the nanocarriers of gold nanoparticals functionalized reduced graphene oxide (Au-rGO) which were tagged with the self-enhanced ruthenium complex (PEI-Ru(ΙΙ)) in advance. Based on the target-catalyzed hairpin assembly, target miR-21 could trigger the hybridization of H1 and H2 to further be released for initiating the next hybridization process to capture a large number of H2 bioconjugates on the sensing surface. Herein, the TSC was used not only as a coupling reagent to attach the AuNPs via Au-S and Au-N bonds but also as a novel intermolecular coreactant to enhance the ECL intensity, and the PEI-Ru(ΙΙ) as emitters exhibited enhanced ECL efficiency. Therefore, a strong ECL signal was achieved by the dual amplification strategies of target recycle and the intramolecular/intermolecular co-reaction of PEI-Ru(ΙΙ) and TSC. The designed protocol provided an ultrasensitive ECL detection of miR-21 down to the sub-femtomolar level with a linear response about 6 orders of magnitude (from 1.0 × 10(-16)M to 1.0 × 10(-11)M) with a relatively low detection limit of 0.03 fM (S/N=3). PMID:26453905

  17. Accurate ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface for the quintet state of the O2(3Σg-)-O2(3Σg-) dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolomei, Massimiliano; Carmona-Novillo, Estela; Hernández, Marta I.; Campos-Martínez, José; Hernandez-Lamoneda, Ramón

    2008-06-01

    A new potential energy surface (PES) for the quintet state of rigid O2(3Σg-)+O2(3Σg-) has been obtained using restricted coupled-cluster theory with singles, doubles, and perturbative triple excitations [RCCSD(T)]. A large number of relative orientations of the monomers (65) and intermolecular distances (17) have been considered. A spherical harmonic expansion of the interaction potential has been built from the ab initio data. It involves 29 terms, as a consequence of the large anisotropy of the interaction. The spherically averaged term agrees quite well with the one obtained from analysis of total integral cross sections. The absolute minimum of the PES corresponds to the crossed (D2d) structure (X shape) with an intermolecular distance of 6.224 bohrs and a well depth of 16.27 meV. Interestingly, the PES presents another (local) minimum close in energy (15.66 meV) at 6.50 bohrs and within a planar skewed geometry (S shape). We find that the origin of this second structure is due to the orientational dependence of the spin-exchange interactions which break the spin degeneracy and leads to three distinct intermolecular PESs with singlet, triplet, and quintet multiplicities. The lowest vibrational bound states of the O2-O2 dimer have been obtained and it is found that they reflect the above mentioned topological features of the PES: The first allowed bound state for the 16O isotope has an X structure but the next state is just 0.12 meV higher in energy and exhibits an S shape.

  18. The Development of Versatile Methods for Palladium-Catalyzed Coupling Reactions of Aryl Electrophiles Through the Use of P(t-Bu)3 and PCy3 as Ligands

    PubMed Central

    FU, GREGORY C.

    2009-01-01

    CONSPECTUS Metal-catalyzed coupling reactions of aryl electrophiles with organometallics and with olefins serve as unusually effective tools for forming new carbon-carbon bonds. By 1998, researchers had developed catalysts that achieved reactions of aryl iodides, bromides, and triflates. Nevertheless, many noteworthy challenges remained, among them: couplings of aryl iodides, bromides, and triflates under mild conditions (at room temperature, for example); couplings of hindered reaction partners; and, couplings of inexpensive aryl chlorides. This Account highlights some of the progress that has been made over the past decade, largely through the appropriate choice of ligand, in achieving these synthetic objectives. In particular, we have established that palladium in combination with a bulky trialkylphosphine accomplishes a broad spectrum of coupling processes, including Suzuki, Stille, Negishi, and Heck reactions. These methods have been applied in a wide array of settings, such as natural-product synthesis, materials science, and bioorganic chemistry. PMID:18947239

  19. Intermolecular potential parameters and combining rules determined from viscosity data

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Lucas A.J.; Price, Phillip N.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-05-07

    The Law of Corresponding States has been demonstrated for a number of pure substances and binary mixtures, and provides evidence that the transport properties viscosity and diffusion can be determined from a molecular shape function, often taken to be a Lennard-Jones 12-6 potential, that requires two scaling parameters: a well depth {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and a collision diameter {sigma}{sub ij}, both of which depend on the interacting species i and j. We obtain estimates for {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and {sigma}{sub ij} of interacting species by finding the values that provide the best fit to viscosity data for binary mixtures, and compare these to calculated parameters using several 'combining rules' that have been suggested for determining parameter values for binary collisions from parameter values that describe collisions of like molecules. Different combining rules give different values for {sigma}{sub ij} and {var_epsilon}{sub ij} and for some mixtures the differences between these values and the best-fit parameter values are rather large. There is a curve in ({var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij}) space such that parameter values on the curve generate a calculated viscosity in good agreement with measurements for a pure gas or a binary mixture. The various combining rules produce couples of parameters {var_epsilon}{sub ij}, {sigma}{sub ij} that lie close to the curve and therefore generate predicted mixture viscosities in satisfactory agreement with experiment. Although the combining rules were found to underpredict the viscosity in most of the cases, Kong's rule was found to work better than the others, but none of the combining rules consistently yields parameter values near the best-fit values, suggesting that improved rules could be developed.

  20. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid.

    PubMed

    Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2016-03-14

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm(-1) oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology. PMID:26979698

  1. Intermolecular electron transfer from intramolecular excitation and coherent acoustic phonon generation in a hydrogen-bonded charge-transfer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rury, Aaron S.; Sorenson, Shayne; Dawlaty, Jahan M.

    2016-03-01

    Organic materials that produce coherent lattice phonon excitations in response to external stimuli may provide next generation solutions in a wide range of applications. However, for these materials to lead to functional devices in technology, a full understanding of the possible driving forces of coherent lattice phonon generation must be attained. To facilitate the achievement of this goal, we have undertaken an optical spectroscopic study of an organic charge-transfer material formed from the ubiquitous reduction-oxidation pair hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone. Upon pumping this material, known as quinhydrone, on its intermolecular charge transfer resonance as well as an intramolecular resonance of p-benzoquinone, we find sub-cm-1 oscillations whose dispersion with probe energy resembles that of a coherent acoustic phonon that we argue is coherently excited following changes in the electron density of quinhydrone. Using the dynamical information from these ultrafast pump-probe measurements, we find that the fastest process we can resolve does not change whether we pump quinhydrone at either energy. Electron-phonon coupling from both ultrafast coherent vibrational and steady-state resonance Raman spectroscopies allows us to determine that intramolecular electronic excitation of p-benzoquinone also drives the electron transfer process in quinhydrone. These results demonstrate the wide range of electronic excitations of the parent of molecules found in many functional organic materials that can drive coherent lattice phonon excitations useful for applications in electronics, photonics, and information technology.

  2. The weakly bound He-HCCCN complex: High-resolution microwave spectra and intermolecular potential-energy surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topic, Wendy C.; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2005-08-01

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound He-HCCCN and He-DCCCN van der Waals complexes were observed using a pulsed-nozzle Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer in the 7-26-GHz frequency region. Nuclear quadrupole hyperfine structures due to the N14 and D nuclei (both with nuclear-spin quantum number I =1) were resolved and assigned. Both strong a and weaker b-type transitions were observed and the assigned transitions were used to fit the parameters of a distortable asymmetric rotor model. The dimers are floppy, near T-shaped complexes. Three intermolecular potential-energy surfaces were calculated using the coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations and noniterative inclusion of triple excitations. Bound-state rotational energy levels supported by these surfaces were determined. The quality of the potential-energy surfaces was assessed by comparing the experimental and calculated transition frequencies and also the corresponding spectroscopic parameters. Simple scaling of the surfaces improved both the transition frequencies and spectroscopic constants. Five other recently reported surfaces [O. Akin-Ojo, R. Bukowski, and K. Szalewicz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 8379 (2003)], calculated using a variety of methods, and their agreement with spectroscopic properties of He-HCCCN are discussed.

  3. Molecular and intermolecular effects in collagen fibril mechanics: a multiscale analytical model compared with atomistic and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Marino, Michele

    2016-02-01

    Both atomistic and experimental studies reveal the dependence of collagen fibril mechanics on biochemical and biophysical features such as, for instance, cross-link density, water content and protein sequence. In order to move toward a multiscale structural description of biological tissues, a novel analytical model for collagen fibril mechanics is herein presented. The model is based on a multiscale approach that incorporates and couples: thermal fluctuations in collagen molecules; the uncoiling of collagen triple helix; the stretching of molecular backbone; the straightening of the telopeptide in which covalent cross-links form; slip-pulse mechanisms due to the rupture of intermolecular weak bonds; molecular interstrand delamination due to the rupture of intramolecular weak bonds; the rupture of covalent bonds within molecular strands. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is verified by comparison with available atomistic results and experimental data, highlighting the importance of cross-link density in tuning collagen fibril mechanics. The typical three-region shape and hysteresis behavior of fibril constitutive response, as well as the transition from a yielding-like to a brittle-like behavior, are recovered with a special insight on the underlying nanoscale mechanisms. The model is based on parameters with a clear biophysical and biochemical meaning, resulting in a promising tool for analyzing the effect of pathological or pharmacological-induced histochemical alterations on the functional mechanical response of collagenous tissues. PMID:26220454

  4. Tip relaxation in atomic force microscopy imaging simulations to resolve intermolecular bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Alex; Sakai, Yuki; Chelikowsky, Jim

    Experimental noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies have reported distinct lines in regions with no electron density for a variety of systems. The appearance of these lines is unexpected because Pauli repulsion is thought to be the dominant factor in the AFM imaging mechanism. These lines have been proposed to represent intermolecular bonding. Recent theoretical studies have shown that accounting for tip probe relaxation can sharpen images and highlight features that make simulations more comparable to experiment. We will apply a similar tip relaxation scheme to our computational method-which uses an ab initio real-space pseudopotential formalism with frozen density embedding theory added-to the study of dibenzo[a,h]thianthrene and an 8-hydroxyquinoline dimer to develop our interpretation of imaged intermolecular bonds. Work is supported by the DOE under DOE/DE-FG02-06ER46286 and by the Welch Foundation under Grant F-1837. Computational resources were provided by NERSC and XSEDE.

  5. Changes of microstructure characteristics and intermolecular interactions of preserved egg white gel during pickling.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Zhangyi; Li, Jianke; Xu, Mingsheng; Shao, Yaoyao; Tu, Yonggang

    2016-07-15

    Changes in gel microstructure characteristics and in intermolecular interactions of preserved egg whites during pickling were investigated. Spin-spin relaxation times of preserved egg whites significantly decreased in the first 8 days and remained unchanged after the 16th day. SEM images revealed a three-dimensional gel network, interwoven with a loose linear fibrous mesh structure. The protein gel mesh structure became more regular, smaller, and compacted with pickling time. Free sulfhydryl contents in the egg whites increased significantly, while total sulfhydryl contents dramatically decreased during pickling. The primary intermolecular forces in the preserved egg white gels were ionic and disulfide bonds. Secondary forces included hydrophobic interaction and relatively few hydrogen bonds. During the first 8 days, the proportion of ionic bonds sharply decreased, and that of disulfide bonds increased over the first 24 days. PMID:26948621

  6. Intramolecular and Intermolecular Interactions in Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Alucone Films Grown by Molecular Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Yi-Seul; Kim, Hyein; Cho, Boram; Lee, Chaeyun; Choi, Sung-Eun; Sung, Myung Mo; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-07-13

    Investigation of molecular interactions in polymeric films is crucial for understanding and engineering multiscale physical phenomena correlated to device function and performance, but this often involves a compromise between theoretical and experimental data, because of poor film uniformity. Here, we report the intramolecular and intermolecular interactions inside the ultrathin and conformal hybrid organic-inorganic alucone films grown by molecular layer deposition, based on sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. Varying the carbon chain length of organic precursors, which affects their molecular flexibility, caused intramolecular interactions such as double reactions by bending of the molecular backbone, resulting in formation of hole vacancies in the films. Furthermore, intermolecular interactions in alucone polymeric films are dependent on the thermal kinetics of molecules, leading to binding failures and cross-linking at low and high growth temperatures, respectively. We illustrate these key interactions and identify molecular geometries and potential energies by density functional theory calculations. PMID:27314844

  7. Influence of intermolecular potentials on rarefied gas flows: Fast spectral solutions of the Boltzmann equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-08-01

    The Boltzmann equation with an arbitrary intermolecular potential is solved by the fast spectral method. As examples, noble gases described by the Lennard-Jones potential are considered. The accuracy of the method is assessed by comparing both transport coefficients with variational solutions and mass/heat flow rates in Poiseuille/thermal transpiration flows with results from the discrete velocity method. The fast spectral method is then applied to Fourier and Couette flows between two parallel plates, and the influence of the intermolecular potential on various flow properties is investigated. It is found that for gas flows with the same rarefaction parameter, differences in the heat flux in Fourier flow and the shear stress in Couette flow are small. However, differences in other quantities such as density, temperature, and velocity can be very large.

  8. Controlled electrical doping of organic semiconductors: a combined intra- and intermolecular perspective from first principles.

    PubMed

    Joo, Bora; Kim, Eung-Gun

    2016-07-21

    The process of introducing extra charge carriers into organic semiconductors, or simply molecular doping, takes place via intermolecular charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor molecule. Using density functional theory calculations on diverse donor-acceptor pairs, we show that there are two modes of charge transfer; in one, charge transfer is controlled by the sign and in the other, by the magnitude of the donor HOMO-acceptor LUMO level offset. Despite doping being an intermolecular process, the identification of the transfer modes requires a full account of intramolecular geometric changes during charge transfer. We further show that the degree of charge transfer can be represented entirely by the reorganization energy, a common measure of geometric changes, of either the donor or the acceptor. PMID:27314750

  9. Probing acid-amide intermolecular hydrogen bonding by NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhari, Sachin Rama; Suryaprakash, N.

    2012-05-01

    Benzene carboxylic acids and benzamide act as their self-complement in molecular recognition to form inter-molecular hydrogen bonded dimers between amide and carboxylic acid groups, which have been investigated by 1H, 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. Extensive NMR studies using diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), variable temperature 1D, 2D NMR, established the formation of heterodimers of benzamide with benzoic acid, salicylic acid and phenyl acetic acid in deuterated chloroform solution. Association constants for the complex formation in the solution state have been determined. The results are ascertained by X-ray diffraction in the solid state. Intermolecular interactions in solution and in solid state were found to be similar. The structural parameters obtained by X-ray diffraction studies are compared with those obtained by DFT calculations.

  10. Study of intermolecular interactions in binary mixtures of ethanol in methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharolkar, Aruna P.; Khirade, P. W.; Murugkar, A. G.

    2016-05-01

    Present paper deals with study of physicochemical properties like viscosity, density and refractive index for the binary mixtures of ethanol and methanol over the entire concentration range were measured at 298.15 K. The experimental data further used to determine the excess properties viz. excess molar volume, excess viscosity, excess molar refraction. The values of excess properties further fitted with Redlich-Kister (R-K Fit) equation to calculate the binary coefficients and standard deviation. The resulting excess parameters are used to indicate the presence of intermolecular interactions and strength of intermolecular interactions between the molecules in the binary mixtures. Excess parameters indicate structure making factor in the mixture predominates in the system.

  11. Distinguishability and chiral stability in solution: Effects of decoherence and intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Heekyung; Wardlaw, David M.; Frolov, Alexei M.

    2014-05-28

    We examine the effect of decoherence and intermolecular interactions (chiral discrimination energies) on the chiral stability and the distinguishability of initially pure versus mixed states in an open chiral system. Under a two-level approximation for a system, intermolecular interactions are introduced by a mean-field theory, and interaction between a system and an environment is modeled by a continuous measurement of a population difference between the two chiral states. The resultant equations are explored for various parameters, with emphasis on the combined effects of the initial condition of the system, the chiral discrimination energies, and the decoherence in determining: the distinguishability as measured by a population difference between the initially pure and mixed states, and the decoherence process; the chiral stability as measured by the purity decay; and the stationary state of the system at times long relative to the time scales of the system dynamics and of the environmental effects.

  12. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavda, Bhavin R.; Gandhi, Sahaj A.; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H.; Barot, Vijay M.

    2016-05-01

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb -London -Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  13. Metal-free intermolecular formal cycloadditions enable an orthogonal access to nitrogen heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Niyomchon, Supaporn; Mota, Antonio J.; González, Leticia; Maulide, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen-containing heteroaromatic cores are ubiquitous building blocks in organic chemistry. Herein, we present a family of metal-free intermolecular formal cycloaddition reactions that enable highly selective and orthogonal access to isoquinolines and pyrimidines at will. Applications of the products are complemented by a density functional theory mechanistic analysis that pinpoints the crucial factors responsible for the selectivity observed, including stoichiometry and the nature of the heteroalkyne. PMID:26975182

  14. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular oxyamination of olefins using carboxylic acids and O-benzoylhydroxylamines

    PubMed Central

    Hemric, Brett N

    2016-01-01

    Summary This paper reports a novel approach for the direct and facile synthesis of 1,2-oxyamino moieties via an intermolecular copper-catalyzed oxyamination of olefins. This strategy utilizes O-benzoylhydroxylamines as an electrophilic amine source and carboxylic acids as a nucleophilic oxygen source to achieve a modular difunctionalization of olefins. The reaction proceeded in a regioselective manner with moderate to good yields, exhibiting a broad scope of carboxylic acid, amine, and olefin substrates. PMID:26877805

  15. Comparison of interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics between ionic liquids and concentrated electrolyte solutions.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Shirota, Hideaki

    2009-12-28

    In this study, we have compared the interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics of ionic liquids (ILs) and concentrated electrolyte solutions measured by femtosecond optically heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. A typical anion in ILs, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([NTf(2)](-)), has been chosen as the anion for the sample ILs and concentrated electrolyte solutions. ILs used in this study are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-butylpyridinium, N-butyl-N,N,N-triethylammonium, and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium with [NTf(2)](-). Li[NTf(2)] solutions (approximately 3.3 M) of water, methanol, propylene carbonate, and poly(ethylene glycol) have been selected as control samples. Kerr transients of the ILs and electrolyte solutions show intra- and interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics followed by slow picosecond overdamped relaxation. Fourier transform Kerr spectra have shown a difference in the relative intensities of intraionic vibrational bands of [NTf(2)](-) (280-350 cm(-1)) between the ILs and electrolyte solutions. The origin of the difference is attributed to the change in the conformational equilibrium between cisoid and transoid forms of [NTf(2)](-), which is caused by a favorable stabilization of dipolar cisoid form due to Li(+) and dipolar solvent molecules in the electrolyte solutions. Low-frequency Kerr spectra (0-200 cm(-1)) exhibit unique features with the variation of cation and solvent species. The aromatic ILs have a prominent high-frequency librational motion at about 100 cm(-1) in contrast to the case for the nonaromatic ones. The common structure of the spectra observed at about 20 cm(-1) likely comes from an interionic motion of [NTf(2)](-). The nonaromatic ILs allow a fair comparison with the electrolyte solutions of propylene carbonate and poly(ethylene glycol) because of the structural similarities. The comparison based on the first moment of the interionic/intermolecular vibrational spectrum suggests the

  16. Estimation of Some Parameters from Morse-Morse-Spline-Van Der Waals Intermolecular Potential

    SciTech Connect

    Coroiu, I.

    2007-04-23

    Some parameters such as transport cross-sections and isotopic thermal diffusion factor have been calculated from an improved intermolecular potential, Morse-Morse-Spline-van der Waals (MMSV) potential proposed by R.A. Aziz et al. The treatment was completely classical and no corrections for quantum effects were made. The results would be employed for isotope separations of different spherical and quasi-spherical molecules.

  17. Comparison of interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics between ionic liquids and concentrated electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Tomotsumi; Nishikawa, Keiko; Shirota, Hideaki

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we have compared the interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics of ionic liquids (ILs) and concentrated electrolyte solutions measured by femtosecond optically heterodyne-detected Raman-induced Kerr effect spectroscopy. A typical anion in ILs, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide ([NTf2]-), has been chosen as the anion for the sample ILs and concentrated electrolyte solutions. ILs used in this study are 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium, 1-butylpyridinium, N-butyl-N,N,N-triethylammonium, and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium with [NTf2]-. Li[NTf2] solutions (˜3.3M) of water, methanol, propylene carbonate, and poly(ethylene glycol) have been selected as control samples. Kerr transients of the ILs and electrolyte solutions show intra- and interionic/intermolecular vibrational dynamics followed by slow picosecond overdamped relaxation. Fourier transform Kerr spectra have shown a difference in the relative intensities of intraionic vibrational bands of [NTf2]- (280-350 cm-1) between the ILs and electrolyte solutions. The origin of the difference is attributed to the change in the conformational equilibrium between cisoid and transoid forms of [NTf2]-, which is caused by a favorable stabilization of dipolar cisoid form due to Li+ and dipolar solvent molecules in the electrolyte solutions. Low-frequency Kerr spectra (0-200 cm-1) exhibit unique features with the variation of cation and solvent species. The aromatic ILs have a prominent high-frequency librational motion at about 100 cm-1 in contrast to the case for the nonaromatic ones. The common structure of the spectra observed at about 20 cm-1 likely comes from an interionic motion of [NTf2]-. The nonaromatic ILs allow a fair comparison with the electrolyte solutions of propylene carbonate and poly(ethylene glycol) because of the structural similarities. The comparison based on the first moment of the interionic/intermolecular vibrational spectrum suggests the stronger interionic/intermolecular interaction in

  18. Enantioselective Intermolecular Cyclopropanations for the Synthesis of Chiral Pyrimidine Carbocyclic Nucleosides.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming-Sheng; Zhou, Peng; Niu, Hong-Ying; Qu, Gui-Rong; Guo, Hai-Ming

    2016-09-01

    A direct route to chiral cyclopropylpyrimidine carbocyclic nucleoside analogues has been reported via highly enantioselective intermolecular cyclopropanation reactions of N1-vinylpyrimidines with α-diazoesters. With chiral ruthenium(II)-phenyloxazoline complex (2 mol %) as the catalyst, cyclopropyl pyrimidine nucleoside analogues could be obtained in good yields (71-96% yields) with high levels of diastereo- and enantioselectivities (10:1 to >20:1 dr and 96-99% ee) in 1 min. PMID:27526779

  19. Carbon dioxide hydrate phase equilibrium and cage occupancy calculations using ab initio intermolecular potentials.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J

    2014-01-16

    Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:24328234

  20. Intermolecular interactions in rifabutin-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin-water solutions, according to solubility data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anshakova, A. V.; Vinogradov, E. V.; Sedush, N. G.; Kurtikyan, T. S.; Zhokhov, S. S.; Polshakov, V. I.; Ermolenko, Yu. V.; Konyukhov, V. Yu.; Maksimenko, O. O.; Gelperin, S. E.

    2016-05-01

    The formulations of rifabutin (RB) and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), obtained using different preparation techniques, are studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry and molecular spectroscopy (FTIR, NMR, Raman scattering, and photon correlation light scattering). It is established that molecules of RB do not form inclusion complexes with the molecules of HP-β-CD, and an increase in the solubility of RB determined earlier is caused by the formation of weak intermolecular associates.

  1. Temperature-dependent intermolecular force measurement of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) grafted surface with protein.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Chul; Kim, Yong Deuk; Cho, Kilwon

    2005-06-15

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of the intermolecular force between poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) grafted surface and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) using atomic force microscopy at the nanonewton scale. These observations show that the interaction force is nearly zero below the phase transition temperature of PNiPAM and that it increases steeply during the phase transition. Since the PNiPAM chains are grafted onto the aminosilane (gamma-aminopropyltriethoxysilane)-treated silicon wafer, we measured the force-distance curve of BSA-immobilized tips for the bare and the aminosilane-treated silicon wafer. These surfaces show no temperature dependence and their values are different from those of the PNiPAM-grafted surfaces at 30 degrees C. The results indicate that the measured adhesion force is between the PNiPAM-grafted surface and the BSA-immobilized tip. Our studies on the intermolecular force between other surfaces (CH(3)- and COOH-terminated self-assembled monolayers) and the BSA-immobilized tip indicate that the variation in the intermolecular force between the PNiPAM surface and BSA with temperature can be attributed to the changes in the properties of the PNiPAM chains. From consideration of the PNiPAM phase transition mechanism, it is speculated that the intermolecular force between the PNiPAM-grafted surface and BSA would be affected by changes in the arrangement of the bound water molecules around the PNiPAM chain and by changes in the conformation (i.e., in the chain mobility) of the PNiPAM chain during the phase transition. PMID:15897061

  2. Cupric-Superoxo Mediated Inter-Molecular C-H Activation Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Ryan L.; Himes, Richard A.; Kotani, Hiroaki; Suenobu, Tomoyoshi; Tian, Li; Siegler, Maxime A.; Solomon, Edward I.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2011-01-01

    A new cupric-superoxo complex [LCuII(O2•−)]+, which possesses particularly strong O–O and Cu–O bonding, is capable of intermolecular C-H activation of the NADH analogue 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH). Kinetic studies indicate a first-order dependence on both the Cu-complex and BNAH with a deuterium kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 12.1, similar to that observed for certain copper monooxygenases. PMID:21265534

  3. Intermolecular structure determination of amyloid fibrils with magic-angle spinning and dynamic nuclear polarization NMR

    PubMed Central

    Bayro, Marvin J.; Debelouchina, Galia T.; Eddy, Matthew T.; Birkett, Neil R.; MacPhee, Catherine E.; Rosay, Melanie; Maas, Werner E.; Dobson, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    We describe magic-angle spinning NMR experiments designed to elucidate the interstrand architecture of amyloid fibrils. Three methods are introduced for this purpose, two being based on the analysis of long-range 13C-13C correlation spectra and a third based on the identification of intermolecular interactions in 13C-15N spectra. We show, in studies of fibrils formed by the 86-residue SH3 domain of PI3 kinase (PI3-SH3), that efficient 13C-13C correlation spectra display a resonance degeneracy that establishes a parallel, in-register alignment of the proteins in the amyloid fibrils. In addition, this degeneracy can be circumvented to yield direct intermolecular constraints. The 13C-13C experiments are corroborated by 15N-13C correlation spectrum obtained from a mixed [15N,12C]/[14N,13C] sample which directly quantifies interstrand distances. Furthermore, when the spectra are recorded with signal enhancement provided by dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 100 K, we demonstrate a dramatic increase (from 23 to 52) in the number of intermolecular 15N-13C constraints present in the spectra. The increase in the information content is due to the enhanced signal intensities and to the fact that dynamic processes, leading to spectral intensity losses, are quenched at low temperatures. Thus, acquisition of low temperature spectra addresses a problem that is frequently encountered in MAS spectra of proteins. In total the experiments provide 111 intermolecular 13C-13C and 15N-13C constraints that establish that the PI3-SH3 protein strands are aligned in a parallel, in-register arrangement within the amyloid fibril. PMID:21774549

  4. Effect of intermolecular potential on compressible Couette flow in slip and transitional regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Andrew B.; Venkattraman, A.; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2014-10-01

    The effect of intermolecular potentials on compressible, planar flow in slip and transitional regimes is investigated using the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. Two intermolecular interaction models, the variable hard sphere (VHS) and the Lennard-Jones (LJ) models, are first compared for subsonic and supersonic Couette flows of argon at temperatures of 40, 273, and 1,000 K, and then for Couette flows in the transitional regime ranging from Knudsen numbers (Kn) of 0.0051 to 1. The binary scattering model for elastic scattering using the Lennard-Jones (LJ) intermolecular potential proposed recently [A. Venkattraman and A. Alexeenko, "Binary scattering model for Lennard-Jones potential: Transport coefficients and collision integrals for non-equilibrium gas flow simulations," Phys. Fluids 24, 027101 (2012)] is shown to accurately reproduce both the theoretical collision frequency in an equilibrium gas as well as the theoretical viscosity variation with temperature. The use of a repulsive-attractive instead of a purely repulsive potential is found to be most important in the continuum and slip regimes as well as in flows with large temperature variations. Differences in shear stress of up to 28% between the VHS and LJ models is observed at Kn=0.0051 and is attributed to differences in collision frequencies, ultimately affecting velocity gradients at the wall. For Kn=1 where the Knudsen layer expands the entire domain, the effect of the larger collision frequency in the LJ model relative to VHS diminishes, and a 7% difference in shear stress is observed.

  5. Intermolecular interactions in multi-component crystals of acridinone/thioacridinone derivatives: Structural and energetics investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wera, Michał; Storoniak, Piotr; Trzybiński, Damian; Zadykowicz, Beata

    2016-12-01

    A single crystal X-ray analysis of two multi-component crystals consisting of an acridinone/thioacridinone moiety and a solvent moiety - water and ammonia (1 and 2), respectively, was carried out to determine the crystal structures of obtained crystals. A theoretical approach was undertaken - using the DFT method, lattice energies calculations and Hirshfeld surfaces (HS) - to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the intermolecular interactions within the crystal. HS analysis was showed that the H⋯H, C⋯H/H⋯C and C⋯C contacts for both structures (altogether 81.6% of total Hirshfeld surface area for 1 and 79.3% for 2) and the O⋯H/H⋯O (14.3%) for 1 and the S⋯H/H⋯S (15.2%) contacts for 2 were the characteristic intermolecular contacts in the related crystal structures. Using a computational methods were confirmed that the main contribution to the stabilization of the crystal lattice of compound 1 comes from the Coulombic interactions, whereas in compound 2 electrostatic and van der Waals appear to have similar contribution to the crystal lattice energy. Theoretical calculations of the investigated compounds have also allowed to determine the energy of a single specific intermolecular interaction.

  6. Human DNA ligase III bridges two DNA ends to promote specific intermolecular DNA end joining

    PubMed Central

    Kukshal, Vandna; Kim, In-Kwon; Hura, Gregory L.; Tomkinson, Alan E.; Tainer, John A.; Ellenberger, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian DNA ligase III (LigIII) functions in both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA metabolism. In the nucleus, LigIII has functional redundancy with DNA ligase I whereas LigIII is the only mitochondrial DNA ligase and is essential for the survival of cells dependent upon oxidative respiration. The unique LigIII zinc finger (ZnF) domain is not required for catalytic activity but senses DNA strand breaks and stimulates intermolecular ligation of two DNAs by an unknown mechanism. Consistent with this activity, LigIII acts in an alternative pathway of DNA double strand break repair that buttresses canonical non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and is manifest in NHEJ-defective cancer cells, but how LigIII acts in joining intermolecular DNA ends versus nick ligation is unclear. To investigate how LigIII efficiently joins two DNAs, we developed a real-time, fluorescence-based assay of DNA bridging suitable for high-throughput screening. On a nicked duplex DNA substrate, the results reveal binding competition between the ZnF and the oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide-binding domain, one of three domains constituting the LigIII catalytic core. In contrast, these domains collaborate and are essential for formation of a DNA-bridging intermediate by adenylated LigIII that positions a pair of blunt-ended duplex DNAs for efficient and specific intermolecular ligation. PMID:26130724

  7. Energy of the quasi-free electron in hydrogen, deuterium and oxygen: Probing intermolecular potentials within the local Wigner-Seitz model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krynski, Kamil; Streeter, Zachary; Evans, Cherice; Findley, Gary L.

    We present for the first time the quasi-free electron energy V0 (ρ) for H2, D2 and O2 from gas to liquid densities, on noncritical isotherms and on a near critical isotherm in each fluid. These data illustrate the ability of field enhanced photoemission (FEP) to determine V0 (ρ) accurately in strongly optically absorbing fluids (e.g., O2) and fluids with extremely low critical temperatures (e.g., H2 and D2). We also show that the isotropic local Wigner-Seitz model for V0 (ρ) - when coupled with thermodynamic data for the fluid - can yield optimized parameters for intermolecular potentials, as well as zero kinetic energy electron scattering lengths. All measurements were performed at the University of Wisconsin Synchrotron Radiation Center. This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF CHE-0956719).

  8. Simulations of the THz spectrum of liquid water incorporating the effects of intermolecular charge fluxes through hydrogen bonds

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, Hajime

    2015-12-31

    The intensity of the band at ∼200 cm{sup −1} (∼6 THz) in the Terahertz spectrum of liquid water mainly arises from the modulations of the extent of intermolecular charge transfer through hydrogen bonds, called intermolecular charge fluxes, occurring upon molecular translations along the O…H hydrogen bonds. To obtain reasonable spectral profiles from simulations, it is necessary to effectively incorporate the effects of those intermolecular charge fluxes, but apparently it is not possible by simple classical molecular dynamics simulations with fixed atomic partial charges even if they are amended by molecular induced dipoles due to intermolecular electrostatic interactions. The present paper shows how we can do reasonably correct spectral simulations, without resorting to fully ab initio molecular dynamics.

  9. Using corresponding state theory to obtain intermolecular potentials to calculate pure liquid shock Hugoniots

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, M.L.

    1997-12-01

    Determination of product species, equations-of-state (EOS) and thermochemical properties of high explosives and pyrotechnics remains a major unsolved problem. Although, empirical EOS models may be calibrated to replicate detonation conditions within experimental variability (5--10%), different states, e.g. expansion, may produce significant discrepancy with data if the basic form of the EOS model is incorrect. A more physically realistic EOS model based on intermolecular potentials, such as the Jacobs Cowperthwaite Zwisler (JCZ3) EOS, is needed to predict detonation states as well as expanded states. Predictive capability for any EOS requires a large species data base composed of a wide variety of elements. Unfortunately, only 20 species have known JCZ3 molecular force constants. Of these 20 species, only 10 have been adequately compared to experimental data such as molecular scattering or shock Hugoniot data. Since data in the strongly repulsive region of the molecular potential is limited, alternative methods must be found to deduce force constants for a larger number of species. The objective of the present study is to determine JCZ3 product species force constants by using a corresponding states theory. Intermolecular potential parameters were obtained for a variety of gas species using a simple corresponding states technique with critical volume and critical temperature. A more complex, four parameter corresponding state method with shape and polarity corrections was also used to obtain intermolecular potential parameters. Both corresponding state methods were used to predict shock Hugoniot data obtained from pure liquids. The simple corresponding state method is shown to give adequate agreement with shock Hugoniot data.

  10. Electric Field Effects on the Intermolecular Interactions in Water Whiskers: Insight from Structures, Energetics, and Properties

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bai, Yang; He, Hui-Min; Li, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Gu, Feng-Long; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Huang, Jingsong

    2015-02-19

    Modulation of intermolecular interactions in response to external electric fields could be fundamental to the formation of unusual forms of water, such as water whiskers. However, a detailed understanding of the nature of intermolecular interactions in such systems is lacking. In this study, we present novel theoretical results based on electron correlation calculations regarding the nature of H-bonds in water whiskers, which is revealed by studying their evolution under external electric fields with various field strengths. We find that the water whiskers consisting of 2-7 water molecules all have a chain-length dependent critical electric field. Under the critical electric field,more » the most compact chain structures are obtained, featuring very strong H-bonds, herein referred to as covalent H-bonds. In the case of a water dimer whisker, the bond length of the novel covalent H-bond shortens by 25%, the covalent bond order increases by 9 times, and accordingly the H-bond energy is strengthened by 5 times compared to the normal H-bond in a (H2O)2 cluster. Below the critical electric field, it is observed that with increasing field strength, H-bonding orbitals display gradual evolutions in the orbital energy, orbital ordering, and orbital nature (i.e., from typical -style orbital to unusual -style double H-bonding orbital). We also show that beyond the critical electric field, a single water whisker may disintegrate to form a loosely bound zwitterionic chain due to a relay-style proton transfer, whereas two water whiskers may undergo intermolecular cross-linking to form a quasi-two-dimensional water network. In conclusion, these results help shed new insight on the effects of electric fields on water whisker formation.« less

  11. Electric Field Effects on the Intermolecular Interactions in Water Whiskers: Insight from Structures, Energetics, and Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Yang; He, Hui-Min; Li, Ying; Zhou, Zhong-Jun; Wang, Jia-Jun; Wu, Di; Chen, Wei; Gu, Feng-Long; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Huang, Jingsong

    2015-02-19

    Modulation of intermolecular interactions in response to external electric fields could be fundamental to the formation of unusual forms of water, such as water whiskers. However, a detailed understanding of the nature of intermolecular interactions in such systems is lacking. In this study, we present novel theoretical results based on electron correlation calculations regarding the nature of H-bonds in water whiskers, which is revealed by studying their evolution under external electric fields with various field strengths. We find that the water whiskers consisting of 2-7 water molecules all have a chain-length dependent critical electric field. Under the critical electric field, the most compact chain structures are obtained, featuring very strong H-bonds, herein referred to as covalent H-bonds. In the case of a water dimer whisker, the bond length of the novel covalent H-bond shortens by 25%, the covalent bond order increases by 9 times, and accordingly the H-bond energy is strengthened by 5 times compared to the normal H-bond in a (H2O)2 cluster. Below the critical electric field, it is observed that with increasing field strength, H-bonding orbitals display gradual evolutions in the orbital energy, orbital ordering, and orbital nature (i.e., from typical -style orbital to unusual -style double H-bonding orbital). We also show that beyond the critical electric field, a single water whisker may disintegrate to form a loosely bound zwitterionic chain due to a relay-style proton transfer, whereas two water whiskers may undergo intermolecular cross-linking to form a quasi-two-dimensional water network. In conclusion, these results help shed new insight on the effects of electric fields on water whisker formation.

  12. Real-space identification of intermolecular bonding with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaohui

    2014-03-01

    A covalent bond is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms, whose formation and breaking result in chemical reactions and the production of new substances. Distinct from the covalent bond, the intermolecular interactions are often a vague concept elusive in experimental observations. Nevertheless, intermolecular interactions virtually affect all physical and chemical properties of substances in the condensed phases. The interactions between molecules, particularly the hydrogen bond, are responsible for the structural transformations and functions of biological molecules. Because most of the molecular characterization techniques are more sensitive to the covalent structures of the molecules, it remains a challenge to quantitatively study the weak interactions between molecules despite the tremendous efforts toward this goal. Here we report a real-space identification of the formation of hydrogen bonding between molecules adsorbed on metal substrate using a non-contact atomic force microscope (nc-AFM). The atomically resolved molecular structures with unprecedented details enable a precise determination of the characteristics of the hydrogen bond network, including bonding sites, orientations and lengths. The observed bond contrast was interpreted by ab initio density functional calculations that indicate the electron density contribution from the hybridized electronic state of hydrogen bond. Given the extensively discussion on the nature of hydrogen bonding and the recent redefinition by IUPAC, the observation of hydrogen bonding in real-space may be a stimulating evidence for theoretical chemistry. Meanwhile, the direct identification of local bonding configurations by nc-AFM would advance the understanding of intermolecular interactions in complex molecules with multiple active sites, offering complementary structural information essential for various applications in materials and biological sciences.

  13. The effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the planarity of amides.

    PubMed

    Platts, James A; Maarof, Hasmerya; Harris, Kenneth D M; Lim, Gin Keat; Willock, David J

    2012-09-14

    Ab initio and density functional theory (DFT) calculations on some model systems are presented to assess the extent to which intermolecular hydrogen bonding can affect the planarity of amide groups. Formamide and urea are examined as archetypes of planar and non-planar amides, respectively. DFT optimisations suggest that appropriately disposed hydrogen-bond donor or acceptor molecules can induce non-planarity in formamide, with OCNH dihedral angles deviating by up to ca. 20° from planarity. Ab initio energy calculations demonstrate that the energy required to deform an amide molecule from the preferred geometry of the isolated molecule is more than compensated by the stabilisation due to hydrogen bonding. Similarly, the NH(2) group in urea can be made effectively planar by the presence of appropriately positioned hydrogen-bond acceptors, whereas hydrogen-bond donors increase the non-planarity of the NH(2) group. Small clusters (a dimer, two trimers and a pentamer) extracted from the crystal structure of urea indicate that the crystal field acts to force planarity of the urea molecule; however, the interaction with nearest neighbours alone is insufficient to induce the molecule to become completely planar, and longer-range effects are required. Finally, the potential for intermolecular hydrogen bonding to induce non-planarity in a model of a peptide is explored. Inter alia, the insights obtained in the present work on the extent to which the geometry of amide groups may be deformed under the influence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding provide structural guidelines that can assist the interpretation of the geometries of such groups in structure determination from powder X-ray diffraction data. PMID:22847473

  14. Controlling electronic effects and intermolecular packing in contorted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs): towards high mobility field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Kalishankar; Mukhopadhyay, Titas Kumar; Datta, Ayan

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the electronic and charge transport properties of two regioisomeric contorted polyaromatic hydrocarbons at the molecular level as well as in the crystalline state. Electron and hole transport is studied on the basis of an incoherent charge hopping model through DFT calculations. For trifluro-dibenzoperylene (CF3-DBP, ), which crystallizes as a herringbone network, the computed drift hole and electron mobilities are 0.234 and 0.008 cm(2) V(-1) S(-1), respectively. The greater hole mobility in the DBP crystal (μh/μe = 29) can be rationalized by its lower hole reorganization energy and higher hole transfer integral simultaneously. These calculations for the pristine DBP crystal differ from recent experiments indicating its preferential electron conductivity. This might be attributed to the interaction of the molecules with the gold source/drain electrodes. Its second regioisomer, , having a HOMO-LUMO gap of 3.2 eV and thus expectedly inefficient, can be converted into an effective OFET material by replacing the Ph-CF3 groups by oxo groups (>C[double bond, length as m-dash]O) in the 9 and 10 positions (9,10-dioxotribenzopyrene, ). has a suitable HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.18 eV. This bowl-shaped molecule is predicted to pack in a stacked orientation with preferential concaveconcave pairs having a short intermolecular distance of 4.15 Å and identical inter-chromophoric electron/hole coupling (th ∼ te). This creates an ambipolar charge transport behavior in . Clearly, fine tuning the structure-property relationship opens up the possibility of implanting tailored OFET properties in the existing library of molecules. PMID:27189183

  15. Protein phosphorylation and intermolecular electron transfer: a joint experimental and computational study of a hormone biosynthesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Andy; Pasquinelli, Melissa A; Bernhardt, Rita; Beratan, David N

    2007-04-11

    Protein phosphorylation is a common regulator of enzyme activity. Chemical modification of a protein surface, including phosphorylation, could alter the function of biological electron-transfer reactions. However, the sensitivity of intermolecular electron-transfer kinetics to post-translational protein modifications has not been widely investigated. We have therefore combined experimental and computational studies to assess the potential role of phosphorylation in electron-transfer reactions. We investigated the steroid hydroxylating system from bovine adrenal glands, which consists of adrenodoxin (Adx), adrenodoxin reductase (AdR), and a cytochrome P450, CYP11A1. We focused on the phosphorylation of Adx at Thr-71, since this residue is located in the acidic interaction domain of Adx, and a recent study has demonstrated that this residue is phosphorylated by casein kinase 2 (CK2) in vitro.1 Optical biosensor experiments indicate that the presence of this phosphorylation slightly increases the binding affinity of oxidized Adx with CYP11A1ox but not AdRox. This tendency was confirmed by KA values extracted from Adx concentration-dependent stopped-flow experiments that characterize the interaction between AdRred and Adxox or between Adxred and CYP11A1ox. In addition, acceleration of the electron-transfer kinetics measured with stopped-flow is seen only for the phosphorylated Adx-CYP11A1 reaction. Biphasic reaction kinetics are observed only when Adx is phosphorylated at Thr-71, and the Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations suggest that this phosphorylation may enhance the formation of a secondary Adx-CYP11A1 binding complex that provides an additional electron-transfer pathway with enhanced coupling. PMID:17358057

  16. Copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylarylation of alkenes: mutual activation of arylboronic acid and CF3+ reagent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Dinghai; Mu, Xin; Chen, Pinhong; Liu, Guosheng

    2014-07-23

    A novel copper-catalyzed intermolecular trifluoromethylarylation of alkenes is developed using less active ether-type Togni's reagent under mild reaction conditions. Various alkenes and diverse arylboronic acids are compatible with these conditions. Preliminary mechanistic studies reveal that a mutual activation process between arylboronic acid and CF3(+) reagent is essential. In addition, the reaction might involve a rate-determining transmetalation, and the final aryl C-C bond is derived from reductive elimination of the aryl(alkyl)Cu(III) intermediate. PMID:24983408

  17. Structure and intermolecular interactions of glipizide from laboratory X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Burley, Jonathan C

    2005-12-01

    The crystal structure of glipizide, used as a major treatment of type-2 diabetes, has been determined ab initio using variable-temperature laboratory X-ray powder diffraction combined with a direct-space Monte Carlo/simulated annealing methodology. The strengths of the intermolecular interactions (van der Waals, pi-pi stacking, hydrogen bonding and steric interlock) were quantitatively estimated using the thermal expansion data, which were collected in the same set of experiments as those used to determine the structure. PMID:16306678

  18. Studies of interdiffusion, chemical bonding, and intermolecular interactions in fiber-matrix adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Chiate.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the key factors involved in adhesion was conducted to determine a quantitative relation between the underlying physicochemical mechanisms of adhesion and the adhesive performance at the fiber-matrix interface. Aramid fiber was modified by attaching pendent chains to its surface to change the nature of its interaction with matrix materials. The relative importance of the three fundamental factors of adhesion (interdiffusion, intermolecular interactions, and chemical bonding) was studied by evaluating the fiber-matrix adhesive performance of these modified fiber-matrix systems.

  19. Intermolecular Interactions between Eosin Y and Caffeine Using (1)H-NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Okuom, Macduff O; Wilson, Mark V; Jackson, Abby; Holmes, Andrea E

    2013-12-31

    DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using (1)H-NMR, (1)H-COSY, and (1)H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed. PMID:25018772

  20. Intermolecular interactions in photodamaged DNA from density functional theory symmetry-adapted perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Sadeghian, Keyarash; Bocola, Marco; Schütz, Martin

    2011-05-01

    The intermolecular interactions of the photodamaged cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) lesion with adjacent nucleobases in the native intrahelical DNA double strand are investigated at the level of density functional theory symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (DFT-SAPT) and compared to the original (or repaired) case with pyrimidines (TpT) instead of CPD. The CPD aggregation is on average destabilized by about 6 kcal mol(-1) relative to that involving TpT. The effect of destabilization is asymmetric, that is, it involves a single H-bonding (Watson-Crick (WC) type) base-pair interaction. PMID:21452189

  1. Intermolecular forces in phase-change heat transfer: 1998 Kern award review

    SciTech Connect

    Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1999-10-01

    The variation of long-range intermolecular forces near interfaces profoundly affects the performance of change-of-phase heat exchangers. Starting with the fundamental electromagnetic force between molecules (dielectric properties), the effects of shape (Kelvin effect), temperature (Clapeyron effect) and concentration on the heat-transfer characteristics of thin films and larger systems are reviewed and connected. A judicious selection of literature gives a consistent set of models of particular use in heat transfer. Examples of experimental verification of these interfacial models in this rapidly developing field are also presented.

  2. Ab Initio and Analytic Intermolecular Potentials for Ar–CH3OH

    SciTech Connect

    Tasic, Uros; Alexeev, Yuri; Vayner, Grigoriy; Crawford, T Daniel; Windus, Theresa L.; Hase, William L.

    2006-09-20

    Ab initio calculations at the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory were used to characterize the Ar–CH₃y6tOH intermolecular potential energy surface (PES). Potential energy curves were calculated for four different Ar + CH₃OH orientations and used to derive an analytic function for the intermolecular PES. A sum of Ar–C, Ar–O, Ar–H(C), and Ar–H(O) two-body potentials gives an excellent fit to these potential energy curves up to 100 kcal mol¯¹, and adding an additional r¯¹n term to the Buckingham two-body potential results in only a minor improvement in the fit. Three Ar–CH₃OH van der Waals minima were found from the CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pVTZ//MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ calculations. The structure of the global minimum is in overall good agreement with experiment (X.-C. Tan, L. Sun and R. L. Kuczkowski, J. Mol. Spectrosc., 1995, 171, 248). It is T-shaped with the hydroxyl H-atom syn with respect to Ar. Extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, the global minimum has a well depth of 0.72 kcal mol¯¹ with basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction. The aug-cc-pVTZ basis set gives a well depth only 0.10 kcal mol¯¹ smaller than this value. The well depths of the other two minima are within 0.16 kcal mol¯¹ of the global minimum. The analytic Ar–CH₃OH intermolecular potential also identifies these three minima as the only van der Waals minima and the structures predicted by the analytic potential are similar to the ab initio structures. The analytic potential identifies the same global minimum and the predicted well depths for the minima are within 0.05 kcal mol¯1 of the ab initio values. Combining this Ar–CH₃OH intermolecular potential with a potential for a OH-terminated alkylthiolate self-assembled monolayer surface (i.e., HO-SAM) provides a potential to model Ar + HO-SAM collisions.

  3. Iron(II)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Aminofluorination of Unfunctionalized Olefins Using Fluoride Ion.

    PubMed

    Lu, Deng-Fu; Zhu, Cheng-Liang; Sears, Jeffrey D; Xu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    We herein report a new catalytic method for intermolecular olefin aminofluorination using earth-abundant iron catalysts and nucleophilic fluoride ion. This method tolerates a broad range of unfunctionalized olefins, especially nonstyrenyl olefins that are incompatible with existing olefin aminofluorination methods. This new iron-catalyzed process directly converts readily available olefins to internal vicinal fluoro carbamates with high regioselectivity (N vs F), many of which are difficult to prepare using known methods. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrate that it is possible to exert asymmetric induction using chiral iron catalysts and that both an iron-nitrenoid and carbocation species may be reactive intermediates. PMID:27529196

  4. Intermolecular transfer integrals for organic molecular materials: can basis set convergence be achieved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos

    2004-05-01

    Intermolecular transfer integrals, and associated band-structures of organic molecular materials can be calculated through a dimer approach. Extensive numerical studies are performed on an ethylene π-dimer to investigate the basis sets dependence of transfer integrals. Convergence of calculated transfer integrals is achieved with respect to both Gaussian and plane-wave basis sets, provided the same level of theory is used. Effects of diffuse and polarization Gaussian functions on transfer integrals are identified. Comparison of experimental and theoretical values of transfer integrals of the TTF-TCNQ charge transfer salt is also presented.

  5. Modification of PEGylated enzyme with glutaraldehyde can enhance stability while avoiding intermolecular crosslinking†

    PubMed Central

    McShane, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an enzyme stabilization approach whereby a model enzyme is PEGylated, followed by controlled chemical modification with glutaraldehyde. Using this stabilization strategy, size increases and aggregation due to intermolecular crosslinking are avoided. Immediately following synthesis, the PEGylated enzyme with and without glutaraldehyde modification possessed specific activities of 372.9 ± 20.68 U/mg and 373.9 ± 15.14 U/mg, respectively (vs. 317.7 ± 19.31 U/mg for the native enzyme). The glutaraldehyde-modified PEGylated enzyme retains 73% original activity after 4 weeks at 37 °C (vs. 2% retention for control). PMID:26052433

  6. Intermolecular Interactions between Eosin Y and Caffeine Using 1H-NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Okuom, Macduff O.; Wilson, Mark V.; Jackson, Abby; Holmes, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    DETECHIP has been used in testing analytes including caffeine, cocaine, and tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) from marijuana, as well as date rape and club drugs such as flunitrazepam, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and methamphetamine. This study investigates the intermolecular interaction between DETECHIP sensor eosin Y (DC1) and the analyte (caffeine) that is responsible for the fluorescence and color changes observed in the actual array. Using 1H-NMR, 1H-COSY, and 1H-DOSY NMR methods, a proton exchange from C-8 of caffeine to eosin Y is proposed. PMID:25018772

  7. Regiodivergent Intermolecular [3+2] Cycloadditions of Vinyl Aziridines and Allenes: Stereospecific Synthesis of Chiral Pyrrolidines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao-Yan; Zhu, Chao-Ze; Zhang, Peichao; Wang, Yidong; Wu, Hai-Hong; Feng, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-08-26

    The first rhodium-catalyzed intermolecular [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of vinyl aziridines and allenes for the synthesis of enantioenriched functionalized pyrrolidines was realized. [3+2] cycloaddition with the proximal C=C bond of N-allenamides gave 3-methylene-pyrrolidines in high regio- and diastereoselectivity, whereas, 2-methylene-pyrrolidines were obtained as the major products by the cycloadditions of vinyl aziridines with the distal C=C bond of allenes. Use of readily available starting materials, a broad substrate scope, high selectivity, mild reaction conditions, as well as versatile functionalization of the cycloadducts make this approach very practical and attractive. PMID:27485044

  8. Character of intermolecular interaction in pyridine-argon complex: Ab initio potential energy surface, internal dynamics, and interrelations between SAPT energy components.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid

    2016-05-28

    The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm(-1) is close to that of 387 cm(-1) calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics. PMID:27250287

  9. Pyruvate Occupancy in the Carboxyl Transferase Domain of Pyruvate Carboxylase Facilitates Product Release from the Biotin Carboxylase Domain through an Intermolecular Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Westerhold, Lauren E; Adams, Stephanie L; Bergman, Hanna L; Zeczycki, Tonya N

    2016-06-21

    Protein structure, ligand binding, and catalytic turnover contributes to the governance of catalytic events occurring at spatially distinct domains in multifunctional enzymes. Coordination of these catalytic events partially rests on the ability of spatially discrete active sites to communicate with other allosteric and active sites on the same polypeptide chain (intramolecular) or on different polypeptide chains (intermolecular) within the holoenzyme. Often, communication results in long-range effects on substrate binding or product release. For example, pyruvate binding to the carboxyl transferase (CT) domain of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) increases the rate of product release in the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain. In order to address how CT domain ligand occupancy is "sensed" by other domains, we generated functional, mixed hybrid tetramers using the E218A (inactive BC domain) and T882S (low pyruvate binding, low activity) mutant forms of PC. The apparent Ka pyruvate for the pyruvate-stimulated release of Pi catalyzed by the T882S:E218A[1:1] hybrid tetramer was comparable to the wild-type enzyme and nearly 10-fold lower than that for the T882S homotetramer. In addition, the ratio of the rates of oxaloacetate formation to Pi release for the WT:T882S[1:1] and E218A:T882S[1:1] hybrid tetramer-catalyzed reactions was 0.5 and 0.6, respectively, while the T882S homotetramer exhibited a near 1:1 coupling of the two domains, suggesting that the mechanisms coordinating catalytic events is more complicated that we initially assumed. The results presented here are consistent with an intermolecular communication mechanism, where pyruvate binding to the CT domain is "sensed" by domains on a different polypeptide chain within the tetramer. PMID:27254467

  10. Character of intermolecular interaction in pyridine-argon complex: Ab initio potential energy surface, internal dynamics, and interrelations between SAPT energy components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarewicz, Jan; Shirkov, Leonid

    2016-05-01

    The pyridine-Ar (PAr) van der Waals (vdW) complex is studied using a high level ab initio method. Its structure, binding energy, and intermolecular vibrational states are determined from the analytical potential energy surface constructed from interaction energy (IE) values computed at the coupled cluster level of theory with single, double, and perturbatively included triple excitations with the augmented correlation consistent polarized valence double-ζ (aug-cc-pVDZ) basis set complemented by midbond functions. The structure of the complex at its global minimum with Ar at a distance of 3.509 Å from the pyridine plane and shifted by 0.218 Å from the center of mass towards nitrogen agrees well with the corresponding equilibrium structure derived previously from the rotational spectrum of PAr. The PAr binding energy De of 392 cm-1 is close to that of 387 cm-1 calculated earlier at the same ab initio level for the prototypical benzene-Ar (BAr) complex. However, under an extension of the basis set, De for PAr becomes slightly lower than De for BAr. The ab initio vdW vibrational energy levels allow us to estimate the reliability of the methods for the determination of the vdW fundamentals from the rotational spectra. To disclose the character of the intermolecular interaction in PAr, the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) is employed for the analysis of different physical contributions to IE. It is found that SAPT components of IE can be approximately expressed in the binding region by only two of them: the exchange repulsion and dispersion energy. The total induction effect is negligible. The interrelations between various SAPT components found for PAr are fulfilled for a few other complexes involving aromatic molecules and Ar or Ne, which indicates that they are valid for all rare gas (Rg) atoms and aromatics.

  11. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Thompson, Hugh P G; Day, Graeme M

    2016-08-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%. PMID:27484370

  12. Conformational diversity in prion protein variants influences intermolecular [beta]-sheet formation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seungjoo; Antony, Lizamma; Hartmann, Rune; Knaus, Karen J.; Surewicz, Krystyna; Surewicz, Witold K.; Yee, Vivien C.

    2010-04-19

    A conformational transition of normal cellular prion protein (PrP{sup C}) to its pathogenic form (PrP{sup Sc}) is believed to be a central event in the transmission of the devastating neurological diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies. The common methionine/valine polymorphism at residue 129 in the PrP influences disease susceptibility and phenotype. We report here seven crystal structures of human PrP variants: three of wild-type (WT) PrP containing V129, and four of the familial variants D178N and F198S, containing either M129 or V129. Comparison of these structures with each other and with previously published WT PrP structures containing M129 revealed that only WT PrPs were found to crystallize as domain-swapped dimers or closed monomers; the four mutant PrPs crystallized as non-swapped dimers. Three of the four mutant PrPs aligned to form intermolecular {beta}-sheets. Several regions of structural variability were identified, and analysis of their conformations provides an explanation for the structural features, which can influence the formation and conformation of intermolecular {beta}-sheets involving the M/V129 polymorphic residue.

  13. Intermolecular associations determine the dynamics of the circadian KaiABC oscillator

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Ximing; Byrne, Mark; Mori, Tetsuya; Zou, Ping; Williams, Dewight R.; Mchaourab, Hassane; Johnson, Carl Hirschie

    2010-01-01

    Three proteins from cyanobacteria (KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC) can reconstitute circadian oscillations in vitro. At least three molecular properties oscillate during this reaction, namely rhythmic phosphorylation of KaiC, ATP hydrolytic activity of KaiC, and assembly/disassembly of intermolecular complexes among KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We found that the intermolecular associations determine key dynamic properties of this in vitro oscillator. For example, mutations within KaiB that alter the rates of binding of KaiB to KaiC also predictably modulate the period of the oscillator. Moreover, we show that KaiA can bind stably to complexes of KaiB and hyperphosphorylated KaiC. Modeling simulations indicate that the function of this binding of KaiA to the KaiB•KaiC complex is to inactivate KaiA's activity, thereby promoting the dephosphorylation phase of the reaction. Therefore, we report here dynamics of interaction of KaiA and KaiB with KaiC that determine the period and amplitude of this in vitro oscillator. PMID:20679240

  14. Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, vibrational analysis and molecular structure of 4-chlorobenzothioamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 4-chlorobenzothioamide were investigated. The FT-IR (400-4000 cm-1) and μ-Raman spectra (100-4000 cm-1) of 4-chlorobenzothioamide in the solid phase were recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared and Raman intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory (B3LYP) methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and the theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 4-chlorobenzothioamide was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while the in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯S hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.

  15. Effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding, vibrational analysis and molecular structure of a biomolecule: 5-Hydroxymethyluracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çırak, Çağrı; Sert, Yusuf; Ucun, Fatih

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, the experimental and theoretical vibrational spectra of 5-hydroxymethyluracil were investigated. The FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1) spectrum of the molecule in the solid phase was recorded. The geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles), vibrational frequencies, Infrared intensities of the title molecule in the ground state were calculated using density functional B3LYP and M06-2X methods with the 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for the first time. The optimized geometric parameters and theoretical vibrational frequencies were found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data, and with the results found in the literature. The vibrational frequencies were assigned based on the potential energy distribution using the VEDA 4 program. The dimeric form of 5-hydroxymethyluracil molecule was also simulated to evaluate the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on its vibrational frequencies. It was observed that the Nsbnd H stretching modes shifted to lower frequencies, while its in-plane and out-of-plane bending modes shifted to higher frequencies due to the intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond. Also, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energies and diagrams were presented.

  16. Non-continuum correlated intermolecular dynamical displacements in entangled biopolymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Kenneth S.; Dell, Zachary E.; Tsang, Boyce; Jiang, Lingxiang; Granick, Steve

    Understanding correlated intermolecular motion is important in biology and of fundamental interest in polymer physics. We performed real space measurements of the correlated dynamical displacements of a pair of biopolymers in entangled F-actin solutions over mesoscopic and continuum length scales, and on time scales beyond the entanglement crossover but much shorter than the reptation time. A microscopic theory is constructed based on generalizing a recent force-level statistical mechanical approach for predicting the separation-dependent, non-hydrodynamic relative friction of a pair of colloids in polymer melts and in dense suspensions. In the mesoscopic time regime, individual biopolymers move by reptation, and the dynamically-emergent intermolecular correlation hole is proposed as the mechanism for inducing non-hydrodynamic collective Fickian motion. Non-continuum cross correlations are predicted to dominate for inter-polymer separations up to the rod length (~15 microns), beyond which a crossover to hydrodynamic behavior occurs. The theoretical results agree well with our measurements at different observation times and physical mesh values.

  17. Polarizable intermolecular potentials for water and benzene interacting with halide and metal ions

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Fabien; Soteras, Ignacio; Luque, F. Javier; Schulten, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    A complete derivation of polarizable intermolecular potentials based on high-level, gas-phase quantum-mechanical calculations is proposed. The importance of appreciable accuracy together with inherent simplicity represents a significant endeavor when enhancement of existing force fields for biological systems is sought. Toward this end, symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) can provide an expansion of the total interaction energy into physically meaningful e.g. electrostatic, induction and van der Waals terms. Each contribution can be readily compared with its counterpart in classical force fields. Since the complexity of the different intermolecular terms cannot be fully embraced using a minimalist description, it is necessary to resort to polyvalent expressions capable of encapsulating overlooked contributions from the quantum-mechanical expansion. This choice results in consistent force field components that reflect the underlying physical principles of the phenomena. This simplified potential energy function is detailed and definitive guidelines are drawn. As a proof of concept, the methodology is illustrated through a series of test cases that include the interaction of water and benzene with halide and metal ions. In each case considered, the total energy is reproduced accurately over a range of biologically relevant distances. PMID:21113276

  18. Structural changes and intermolecular interactions of filled ice Ic structure for hydrogen hydrate under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, S.; Hirai, H.; Kawamura, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yagi, T.

    2010-03-01

    High-pressure experiments of hydrogen hydrate were performed using a diamond anvil cell under conditions of 0.1-44.2 GPa and at room temperature. Also, high pressure Raman studies of solid hydrogen were performed in the pressure range of 0.1-43.7 GPa. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) for hydrogen hydrate revealed that a known high-pressure structure, filled ice Ic structure, of hydrogen hydrate transformed to a new high-pressure structure at approximately 35-40 GPa. A comparison of the Raman spectroscopy of a vibron for hydrogen molecules between hydrogen hydrate and solid hydrogen revealed that the extraction of hydrogen molecules from hydrogen hydrate occurred above 20 GPa. Also, the Raman spectra of a roton revealed that the rotation of hydrogen molecules in hydrogen hydrate was suppressed at around 20 GPa and that the rotation recovered under higher pressure. These results indicated that remarkable intermolecular interactions in hydrogen hydrate between neighboring hydrogen molecules and between guest hydrogen molecules and host water molecules might occur. These intermolecular interactions could produce the stability of hydrogen hydrate.

  19. Validation of intermolecular transfer integral and bandwidth calculations for organic molecular materials.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingsong; Kertesz, Miklos

    2005-06-15

    We present an interpretation of the intermolecular transfer integral that is independent from the origin of the energy scale allowing convergence studies of this important parameter of organic molecular materials. We present extensive numerical studies by using an ethylene pi dimer to investigate the dependence of transfer integrals on the level of theory and intermolecular packing. Transfer integrals obtained from semiempirical calculations differ substantially from one another and from ab initio results. The ab initio results are consistent across all the levels used including Hartree-Fock, outer valence Green's function, and various forms of density functional theory (DFT). Validation of transfer integrals and bandwidths is performed by comparing the calculated values with the experimental values of tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane (TTF-TCNQ), bis[1,2,5]thiadiazolo-p-quinobis(1,3-dithiole), (BTQBT) K-TCNQ, and hexagonal graphite. DFT in one of its presently popular forms, such as Perdew-Wang functionals (PW91), in combination with sufficient basis sets provides reliable transfer integrals, and therefore can serve as a basis for energy band calculations for soft organic materials with van der Waals gaps. PMID:16008473

  20. Intermolecular Forces as a Key to Understanding the Environmental Fate of Organic Xenobiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, Ryan E.; Pittman, Faith A.

    2005-02-01

    Environmental education for undergraduate nonscience majors and high school students is key in fostering an increased understanding of environmental issues among the general public. We have developed an environmental chemistry module that can be used in high schools or undergraduate nonscience courses to relate chemical structures and properties to the macroscopic behavior of environmentally relevant organic chemicals like pesticides, PCBs, and solvents. The module introduces the concepts of intermolecular forces, polarity, and partitioning to explain complex phenomena such as environmental transport and biomagnification of xenobiotics (human-made chemicals). The level 1 version 2.11 model, developed by Trent University, is used in a laboratory segment that allows students to explore the relationship between chemical properties and environmental distribution. The initial material on polarity and intermolecular forces can lead to additional applications, including: bioaccumulation and biomagnification of organic chemicals; toxicology or pharmacology (ability of molecules to cross membranes); and groundwater contamination. This module can enhance chemistry courses by presenting detailed applications and allowing students to make powerful, verifiable predictions. See Featured Molecules .

  1. Intermolecular stabilization of 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) compressed to 20 GPa.

    PubMed

    Chellappa, Raja S; Dattelbaum, Dana M; Coe, Joshua D; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stevens, Lewis L; Liu, Zhenxian

    2014-08-01

    The room temperature stability of 3,3'-diamino-4,4'-azoxyfurazan (DAAF) has been investigated using synchrotron far-infrared, mid-infrared, Raman spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) up to 20 GPa. The as-loaded DAAF samples exhibited subtle pressure-induced ordering phenomena (associated with positional disorder of the azoxy "O" atom) resulting in doubling of the a-axis, to form a superlattice similar to the low-temperature polymorph. Neither high pressure synchrotron XRD, nor high pressure infrared or Raman spectroscopies indicated the presence of structural phase transitions up to 20 GPa. Compression was accommodated in the unit cell by a reduction of the c-axis between the planar DAAF layers, distortion of the β-angle of the monoclinic lattice, and an increase in intermolecular hydrogen bonding. Changes in the ring and -NH2 deformation modes and increased intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions with compression suggest molecular reorganizations and electronic transitions at ∼ 5 GPa and ∼ 10 GPa that are accompanied by a shifting of the absorption band edge into the visible. A fourth-order Birch-Murnaghan fit to the room temperature isotherm afforded an estimate of the zero-pressure isothermal bulk modulus, K0 = 12.4 ± 0.6 GPa and its pressure derivative K0' = 7.7 ± 0.3. PMID:25011055

  2. Rh-Catalyzed Intermolecular Syn-Carboamination of Alkenes via a Transient Directing Group

    PubMed Central

    Piou, Tiffany; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Alkenes are the most ubiquitous pro-chiral functional groups accessible to synthetic chemists. For this reason, difunctionalization reactions of alkenes are particularly important, as they can be used to access highly complex molecular architectures.1,2 Stereoselective oxidation reactions, including dihydroxylation, aminohydroxylation and halogenation reactions,3,4,5,6 are well-established methods for functionalizing alkenes. However, the intermolecular incorporation of both carbon- and nitrogen-based functionalities stereoselectively across an alkene has not been reported. In this manuscript, we describe the Rh(III)-catalyzed syn carboamination of alkenes initiated by a C–H activation event that uses enoxyphthalimides as the source of the carbon and the nitrogen functionalities. The reaction methodology allows for the stereospecific formation of one C–C and one C–N bond across an alkene in a fully intermolecular sense, which is unprecedented. The reaction design involves the in situ generation of a bidentate directing group and the use of a novel cyclopentadienyl ligand to control the reactivity of Rh(III). The results provide a new route to functionalized alkenes and are expected to lead to the more convergent and stereoselective assembly of amine-containing acyclic molecules. PMID:26503048

  3. Physical properties and intermolecular dynamics of an ionic liquid compared with its isoelectronic neutral binary solution.

    PubMed

    Shirota, Hideaki; Castner, Edward W

    2005-10-27

    In this study, we address the following question about room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs). Are the properties of a RTIL more dependent on the charges of the molecular ions or on the fact that the liquid is a complex mixture of two species, one or both of which are asymmetric? To address this question and to better understand the interactions and dynamics in RTILs, we have prepared the organic ionic liquid 1-methoxyethylpyridinium dicyanoamide (MOEPy(+)/DCA(-)) and compared this RTIL with the analogous isoelectronic binary solution, comprised of equal parts of 1-methoxyethylbenzene (MOEBz) and dicyanomethane (DCM). In essence, we have created a RTIL and a nearly identical neutral pair in which we have effectively turned off the charges. To understand the intermolecular interactions in both of these liquids, we have characterized the bulk density and shear viscosity. Using femtosecond optical Kerr effect spectroscopy, we have also characterized the intermolecular vibrational dynamics and diffusive reorientation. To verify that the shape, polarizability, and electronic structure of the RTIL ions and the components of the neutral pair are truly quite similar, we have carried out density functional theory calculations on the individual molecular ion and neutral species. PMID:16866386

  4. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Thompson, Hugh P. G.; Day, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%. PMID:27484370

  5. Pressure and temperature effects on intermolecular vibrational dynamics of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Penna, Tatiana C; Faria, Luiz F O; Matos, Jivaldo R; Ribeiro, Mauro C C

    2013-03-14

    Low frequency Raman spectra of ionic liquids have been obtained as a function of pressure up to ca. 4.0 GPa at room temperature and as a function of temperature along the supercooled liquid and glassy state at atmospheric pressure. Intermolecular vibrations are observed at ~20, ~70, and ~100 cm(-1) at room temperature in ionic liquids based on 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium cations. The component at ~100 cm(-1) is assigned to librational motion of the imidazolium ring because it is absent in non-aromatic ionic liquids. There is a correspondence between the position of intermolecular vibrational modes in the normal liquid state and the spectral features that the Raman spectra exhibit after partial crystallization of samples at low temperatures or high pressures. The pressure-induced frequency shift of the librational mode is larger than the other two components that exhibit similar frequency shifts. The lowest frequency vibration observed in a glassy state corresponds to the boson peak observed in light and neutron scattering spectra of glass-formers. The frequency of the boson peak is not dependent on the length scale of polar∕non-polar heterogeneity of ionic liquids, it depends instead on the strength of anion-cation interaction. As long as the boson peak is assigned to a mixing between localized modes and transverse acoustic excitations of high wavevectors, it is proposed that the other component observed in Raman spectra of ionic liquids has a partial character of longitudinal acoustic excitations. PMID:23514505

  6. Optimization of intermolecular potential parameters for the CO2/H2O mixture.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Gustavo A; Economou, Ioannis G; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z

    2014-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble were used to obtain optimized intermolecular potential parameters to describe the phase behavior of the mixture CO2/H2O, over a range of temperatures and pressures relevant for carbon capture and sequestration processes. Commonly used fixed-point-charge force fields that include Lennard-Jones 12-6 (LJ) or exponential-6 (Exp-6) terms were used to describe CO2 and H2O intermolecular interactions. For force fields based on the LJ functional form, changes of the unlike interactions produced higher variations in the H2O-rich phase than in the CO2-rich phase. A major finding of the present study is that for these potentials, no combination of unlike interaction parameters is able to adequately represent properties of both phases. Changes to the partial charges of H2O were found to produce significant variations in both phases and are able to fit experimental data in both phases, at the cost of inaccuracies for the pure H2O properties. By contrast, for the Exp-6 case, optimization of a single parameter, the oxygen-oxygen unlike-pair interaction, was found sufficient to give accurate predictions of the solubilities in both phases while preserving accuracy in the pure component properties. These models are thus recommended for future molecular simulation studies of CO2/H2O mixtures. PMID:25198539

  7. Intermolecular exciton-exciton annihilation in phospholipid vesicles doped with [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De la Cadena, Alejandro; Pascher, Torbjörn; Davydova, Dar'ya; Akimov, Denis; Herrmann, Felix; Presselt, Martin; Wächtler, Maria; Dietzek, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    The ultrafast photophysics of [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ (dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2‧,3‧-c]-phenazine) embedded into the walls of phospholipid vesicles has been studied by femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. While [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ has been studied intensively with respect to its intramolecular charge transfer processes, which are associated with the well known light-switch effect, this study focuses on intermolecular energy transfer processes taking place upon dense packing of the complexes into a phospholipid membrane composed of dipalmitoyl-L-α-phosphatidylglycerol, which can be thought of as a simplistic model of a cellular membrane. The data indicate additional quenching of excited [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ upon increasing the pump-pulse intensity. Hence, the observed photophysics, which is assigned to the presence of intermolecular exciton-exciton annihilation at high pump-intensities, might be related to the ultrafast photophysics of [Ru(bpy)2dppz]2+ when used as a chromophore to stain cells, an effect that may be taken into account during the employment of novel cellular markers based on Ru polypyridine complexes.

  8. Intermolecular interactions in solid-state metalloporphyrins and their impacts on crystal and molecular structures.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Seth C; Smith, Brenda A; Hoffmann, Christina M; Wang, Xiaoping; Chen, Yu-Sheng; McIntyre, Garry J; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2014-11-01

    A variable-temperature (VT) crystal structure study of [Fe(TPP)Cl] (TPP(2-) = meso-tetraphenylporphyrinate) and Hirshfeld surface analyses of its structures and previously reported structures of [M(TPP)(NO)] (M = Fe, Co) reveal that intermolecular interactions are a significant factor in structure disorder in the three metalloporphyrins and phase changes in the nitrosyl complexes. These interactions cause, for example, an 8-fold disorder in the crystal structures of [M(TPP)(NO)] at room temperature that obscures the M-NO binding. Hirshfeld analyses of the structure of [Co(TPP)(NO)] indicate that the phase change from I4/m to P1 leads to an increase in void-volume percentage, permitting additional structural compression through tilting of the phenyl rings to offset the close-packing interactions at the interlayer positions in the crystal structures with temperature decrease. X-ray and neutron structure studies of [Fe(TPP)Cl] at 293, 143, and 20 K reveal a tilting of the phenyl groups away from being perpendicular to the porphyrin ring as a result of intermolecular interactions. Structural similarities and differences among the three complexes are identified and described by Hirshfeld surface and void-volume calculations. PMID:25338536

  9. Effect of the electronic structure of quinoline and its derivatives on the capacity for intermolecular interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Privalova, N.Yu.; Sokolova, I.V.

    1985-05-01

    Calculations of the ground and excited states of quinoline and its 20H-, 70H-, 7NH2-, 7N(CH3)2-, and 7N(C2H5)2- substituted derivatives were undertaken by the INDO method, and the effect of intramolecular proton transfer (IPT) on their electronic structure was studied. The proton-accepting capacity of the compounds for intermolecular interactions was estimated by the molecular electrostatic potential method. It was shown that the proton-accepting capacity with respect to intermolecular interactions increases during the tautomeric transformation of the enolic form of 2-OH-quinoline to its keto form. The change in the basicity of the two forms of the molecules is affected by the orbital nature, and the multiplicity of the state is also important for the keto form. Substitution by electron-donating groups leads to increase in the proton-accepting capacity of both forms of the compounds in the S0, S/sub */, and T/sub */ states.

  10. A Practical and Catalytic Reductive Olefin Coupling

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A redox-economic method for the direct coupling of olefins that uses an inexpensive iron catalyst and a silane reducing agent is reported. Thus, unactivated olefins can be joined directly to electron-deficient olefins in both intra- and intermolecular settings to generate hindered bicyclic systems, vicinal quaternary centers, and even cyclopropanes in good yield. The reaction is not sensitive to oxygen or moisture and has been performed on gram-scale. Most importantly, it allows access to many compounds that would be difficult or perhaps impossible to access using other methods. PMID:24428607

  11. Squeezing water clusters between graphene sheets: energetics, structure, and intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, S; Kang, H C

    2014-12-21

    The behavior of water confined at the nanoscale between graphene sheets has attracted much theoretical and experimental attention recently. However, the interactions, structure, and energy of water at the molecular scale underpinning the behavior of confined water have not been characterized by first-principles calculations. In this work we consider small water clusters up to the hexamer adsorbed between graphene sheets using density functional theory calculations with van der Waals corrections. We investigate the effects on structure, energy, and intermolecular interactions due to confinement between graphene sheets. For interlayer distances of about one nanometer or more, the cluster adsorption energy increases approximately linearly with the cluster size by 0.1 eV per molecule in the cluster. As the interlayer distance decreases, the cluster adsorption energy reaches a maximum at 6 to 7 Å with approximately 0.16 eV stabilization energy relative to large interlayer distances. This suggests the possibility of controlling the amount of adsorption in graphene nanomaterials by varying the interlayer distance. We also quantify the intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the clusters by calculating the dissociation energy required to remove one molecule from each cluster. For each cluster size, this is constant for interlayer distances larger than approximately 6 to 8 Å. For smaller distances the intermolecular interaction decreases rapidly thus leading to weaker cohesion between molecules in a squeezed cluster. We expect a mechanism of concerted motion for hydrogen-bonded water molecules confined between graphene sheets, as has been observed for water confined within the carbon nanotubes. Thus, the decrease in the dissociation energy we observed here is consistent with experimental results for water transport through graphene and related membranes that are of interest in nanofiltration. We also calculate the corrugation in the interaction potential between graphene

  12. Photoinduced intermolecular cross-linking of gas phase triacylglycerol lipid ions.

    PubMed

    Nie, Shuai; Pham, Huong T; Blanksby, Stephen J; Reid, Gavin E

    2015-01-01

    Complex mixtures of plant derived triglycerol (TG) lipids are commonly used as feedstock components for the production of industrial polymers. However, there remains a need for the development of analytical strategies to investigate the intrinsic intermolecular cross-linking reactivity of individual TG molecules within these mixtures as a function of their structures and physicochemical properties, and for the characterization of the resultant products. Here, to address this need, we describe a novel multistage tandem mass spectrometry based method for intermolecular cross-linking and subsequent structural characterization of TG lipid ions in the gas phase. Cross-linking reactions were initiated using 266 nm ultraviolet photodissociation tandem mass spectrometry (UVPD-MS/MS) of saturated or unsaturated TG dimers introduced via electrospray ionization into a linear ion trap mass spectrometer as noncovalent complexes with protonated 3,4-, 2,4- or 3,5- diiodoaniline (diIA). UVPD resulted in the initial formation of an anilinyl biradical via the sequential loss of two iodine radicals, which underwent further reaction to yield multiple cross-linked TG products along with competing noncross-linking processes. These chemistries are proposed to occur via sequential combinations of hydrogen abstraction (H-abstraction), radical addition and radical recombination. Multistage collision induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (CID-MS(n)) was used to obtain evidence for the structures and mechanisms of formation for these products, as a function of both the TG lipid and diIA ion structures. The efficiency of the UVPD reaction was shown to be dependent on the number of unsaturation sites present within the TG lipids. However, when unsaturation sites were present, formation of the cross-linked and noncross-linked product ions via H-abstraction and radical addition mechanisms was found to be competitive. Finally, the identity of the anilinyl biradical (e.g., 3,4- versus 2

  13. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines

    SciTech Connect

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-07

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π–π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  14. Insights into the Complexity of Weak Intermolecular Interactions Interfering in Host-Guest Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Chatelet, Bastien; Serrano, Eloisa; Perraud, Olivier; Dutasta, Jean-Pierre; Robert, Vincent; Martinez, Alexandre

    2015-10-01

    The recognition properties of heteroditopic hemicryptophane hosts towards anions, cations, and neutral pairs, combining both cation-π and anion-π interaction sites, were investigated to probe the complexity of interfering weak intermolecular interactions. It is suggested from NMR experiments, and supported by CASSCF/CASPT2 calculations, that the binding constants of anions can be modulated by a factor of up to 100 by varying the fluorination sites on the electron-poor aromatic rings. Interestingly, this subtle chemical modification can also reverse the sign of cooperativity in ion-pair recognition. Wavefunction calculations highlight how short- and long-range interactions interfere in this recognition process, suggesting that a disruption of anion-π interactions can occur in the presence of a co-bound cation. Such molecules can be viewed as prototypes for examining complex processes controlled by the competition of weak interactions. PMID:26401973

  15. Intermolecular hydrogen bonded and self-assembled β-pleated sheet structures of β-sulfidocarbonyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Sahid; Das, Gopal; Chaudhuri, Mihir K.

    2007-06-01

    The three crystal structures of β-sulfidocarbonyls 1, 2 and 3 synthesized from the reaction of acryl amide with cystiene, 1,2-dithiol and 1,3-dithiols, respectively, in water catalyzed by borax, have been determined at 273 K. The characteristic features of the structures are self-assembly through intermolecular hydrogen bonding leading to infinite chains of molecules in one direction, in addition to the stacking of layers of such molecular chains in the perpendicular direction ultimately giving rise to β-pleated sheets of 3D molecular network involving N-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯S bonding in the crystal lattice.

  16. Metal-Free Intermolecular Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Promoted by Glycerol.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Gras, Emmanuel; Pericàs, Miquel A; Gómez, Montserrat

    2015-12-14

    Metal-free intermolecular Huisgen cycloadditions using nonactivated internal alkynes have been successfully performed in neat glycerol, both under thermal and microwave dielectric heating. In sharp contrast, no reaction occurs in other protic solvents, such as water, ethanol, or diols. DFT calculations have shown that the BnN3/glycerol adduct promotes a more important stabilization of the corresponding LUMO than that produced in the analogous BnN3/alcohol adducts, favoring the reactivity with the alkyne in the first case. The presence of copper salts in the medium did not change the reaction pathway (Cu(I) acts as spectator), except for disubstituted silylalkynes, for which desilylation takes place in contrast to the metal-free system. PMID:26541267

  17. Communication: Frequency shifts of an intramolecular hydrogen bond as a measure of intermolecular hydrogen bond strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl; Knee, J. L.

    2012-09-01

    Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy has been applied to study the infrared spectra of the supersonically cooled gas phase complexes of formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, formamide, and water with 9-hydroxy-9-fluorenecarboxylic acid (9HFCA), an analog of glycolic acid. In these complexes each binding partner to 9HFCA can function as both proton donor and acceptor. Relative to its frequency in free 9HFCA, the 9-hydroxy (9OH) stretch is blue shifted in complexes with formic, acetic, and propionic acids, but is red shifted in the complexes with formamide and water. Density functional calculations on complexes of 9HFCA to a variety of H bonding partners with differing proton donor and acceptor abilities reveal that the quantitative frequency shift of the 9OH can be attributed to the balance struck between two competing intermolecular H bonds. More extensive calculations on complexes of glycolic acid show excellent consistency with the experimental frequency shifts.

  18. Intramolecular and intermolecular vibrational energy relaxation of CH 2I 2 dissolved in supercritical fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, K.; Shimojima, A.; Kajimoto, O.

    2002-04-01

    A pump-probe experiment was performed to examine vibrational population relaxation of diiodomethane (CH 2I 2) molecule dissolved in supercritical CO 2. Using an apparatus with femtosecond time resolution, we observed the contributions of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) and intermolecular vibrational energy transfer (VET) separately. IVR and VET rates were measured with varying solvent densities at a constant temperature. It is shown that the IVR rate is not density dependent while the VET rate increases with increasing density from 0.4 to 0.8 g cm-3. This observation suggests that the rate of the VET process is determined by solute-solvent collisions whereas the IVR rate is not much affected by solute-solvent interaction.

  19. Cobalt-catalysed site-selective intra- and intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuesong; Yang, Ke; Zhao, Yan; Sun, Hao; Li, Guigen; Ge, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt-catalysed sp2 C–H bond functionalization has attracted considerable attention in recent years because of the low cost of cobalt complexes and interesting modes of action in the process. In comparison, much less efforts have been devoted to the sp3 carbons. Here we report the cobalt-catalysed site-selective dehydrogenative cyclization of aliphatic amides via a C–H bond functionalization process on unactivated sp3 carbons with the assistance of a bidentate directing group. This method provides a straightforward synthesis of monocyclic and spiro β- or γ-lactams with good to excellent stereoselectivity and functional group tolerance. In addition, a new procedure has been developed to selectively remove the directing group, which enables the synthesis of free β- or γ-lactam compounds. Furthermore, the first cobalt-catalysed intermolecular dehydrogenative amination of unactivated sp3 carbons is also realized. PMID:25753366

  20. Inhibition of tau aggregation by a rosamine derivative that blocks tau intermolecular disulfide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Mamunul; Kim, Dohee; Yu, Young Hyun; Lim, Sungsu; Kim, Dong Jin; Chang, Young-Tae; Ha, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Yun Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal tau aggregates are presumed to be neurotoxic and are an important therapeutic target for multiple neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Growing evidence has shown that tau intermolecular disulfide cross-linking is critical in generating tau oligomers that serve as a building block for higher-order aggregates. Here we report that a small molecule inhibitor prevents tau aggregation by blocking the generation of disulfide cross-linked tau oligomers. Among the compounds tested, a rosamine derivative bearing mild thiol reactivity selectively labeled tau and effectively inhibited oligomerization and fibrillization processes in vitro. Our data suggest that controlling tau oxidation status could be a new therapeutic strategy for prevention of abnormal tau aggregation. PMID:24919397

  1. Intermolecular interactions during complex coacervation of pea protein isolate and gum arabic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuanghui; Cao, Yuan-Long; Ghosh, Supratim; Rousseau, Dérick; Low, Nicholas H; Nickerson, Michael T

    2010-01-13

    The nature of intermolecular interactions during complexation between pea protein isolate (PPI) and gum arabic (GA) was investigated as a function of pH (4.30-2.40) by turbidimetric analysis and confocal scanning microscopy in the presence of destabilizing agents (100 mM NaCl or 100 mM urea) and at different temperatures (6-60 degrees C). Complex formation followed two pH-dependent structure-forming events associated with the formation of soluble and insoluble complexes and involved interactions between GA and PPI aggregates. Complex formation was driven by electrostatic attractive forces between complementary charged biopolymers, with secondary stabilization by hydrogen bonding. Hydrophobic interactions were found to enhance complex stability at lower pH (pH 3.10), but not with its formation. PMID:19938857

  2. Always look on the bright site of Rho: structural implications for a conserved intermolecular interface.

    PubMed

    Dvorsky, Radovan; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza

    2004-12-01

    The signalling functions of Rho-family GTPases are based on the formation of distinctive protein-protein complexes. Invaluable insights into the structure-function relationships of the Rho GTPases have been obtained through the resolution of several of their structures in complex with regulators and downstream effectors. In this review, we use these complexes to compare the binding and specificity-determining sites of the Rho GTPases. Although the properties that characterize these sites are diverse, some fundamental conserved principles that govern their intermolecular interactions have emerged. Notably, all of the interacting partners of the Rho GTPases, irrespective of their function, bind to a common set of conserved amino acids that are clustered on the surface of the switch regions. This conserved region and its specific structural characteristics exemplify the convergence of the Rho GTPases on a consensus binding site. PMID:15577926

  3. Evidence of pressure induced intermolecular proton transfer via mutarotation: the case of supercooled d-fructose.

    PubMed

    Cecotka, Adam; Tripathy, Satya N; Paluch, Marian

    2015-07-15

    This paper describes a systematic investigation on the role of pressure in mutarotation kinetics of supercooled d-fructose using dielectric spectroscopy. The structural relaxation time acts as a suitable dynamical observable to monitor the mutarotation process that enables the construction of the kinetic curves. The reaction kinetic shapes have been analyzed using the Avrami model. At low temperature, sigmoidal kinetic curves are noted, which correspond to the high concentration of furanosidic forms. The magnitude of activation energy of the process significantly decreases with increasing pressure and is comparable to the solvated systems at 100 MPa. A potential connection between cooperative motion and the origin of intermolecular proton transfer via mutarotation at elevated pressure is also discussed. These experimental observations have fundamental significance on theoretical explanation of the mechanism involving mutarotation in sugars. PMID:26144525

  4. Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp Hassel, Egon; Hellmann, Robert Bich, Eckard

    2015-06-28

    We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N{sub 2}O–N{sub 2}O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N{sub 2}O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data.

  5. Second Virial Coefficients and Transport Properties of Hexafluoride Gases from an Improved Intermolecular Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroiu, Ilioara; Demco, D. E.

    1997-10-01

    Second virial coefficients and a large number of Chapman-Cowling collision integrals were calculated for gases obeying an improved intermolecular potential proposed by Aziz et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 94, 1034 (1991)]. The results are tabulated for a large reduced temperature range, kT/ɛ from 0.1 to 100. The treatment was entirely classical, and no corrections for quantum effects were made. The higher approximations to the transport coefficients were also calculated and tabulated for the same temperature range. These results should be applicable to characterize the bulk properties of various spherical molecules, especially to predict gaseous transport properties. Evaluation of the potential parameters for uranium hexafluoride, together with fitting to second virial coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity and self-diffusion data are also presented. This potential appears to have the best overall predictive ability for gaseous hexafluoride data.

  6. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface.

  7. Graphene-enhanced intermolecular interaction at interface between copper- and cobalt-phthalocyanines.

    PubMed

    Dou, Wei-Dong; Huang, Shu-Ping; Lee, Chun-Sing

    2015-10-01

    Interfacial electronic structures of copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc), cobalt-phthalocyanine (CoPc), and graphene were investigated experimentally by using photoelectron spectroscopy. While the CuPc/graphene interface shows flat band structure and negligible interfacial dipole indicating quite weak molecule-substrate interaction, the CuPc/CoPc/graphene interface shows a large interfacial dipole and obvious energy level bending. Controlled experiments ruled out possible influences from the change in film structure of CuPc and pure π-π interaction between CoPc and CuPc. Analysis based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and density functional theory reveals that the decrease in the work function for the CuPc/CoPc/graphene system is induced by the intermolecular interaction between CuPc and CoPc which is enhanced owning to the peculiar electronic properties at the CoPc-graphene interface. PMID:26450327

  8. Crystal structures and intermolecular interactions of two novel antioxidant triazolyl-benzimidazole compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Karayel, A. E-mail: yccaoh@hotmail.com; Özbey, S.; Ayhan-Kılcıgil, G.; Kuş, C.

    2015-12-15

    The crystal structures of 5-(2-(p-chlorophenylbenzimidazol-1-yl-methyl)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)-2, 4-dihydro-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thione (G6C) and 5-(2-(p-chlorophenylbenzimidazol-1-yl-methyl)-4-(2-methylphenyl)-2, 4-dihydro-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thione (G4C) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Benzimidazole ring systems in both molecules are planar. The triazole part is almost perpendicular to the phenyl and the benzimidazole parts of the molecules in order to avoid steric interactions between the rings. The crystal structures are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the amino group of the triazole and the nitrogen atom of benzimidazole of a neighboring molecule.

  9. Genetic analysis of response regulator activation in bacterial chemotaxis suggests an intermolecular mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Re, Sandra Da; Tolstykh, Tatiana; Wolanin, Peter M.; Stock, Jeffry B.

    2002-01-01

    Response regulator proteins of two-component systems are usually activated by phosphorylation. The phosphorylated response regulator protein CheY∼P mediates the chemotaxis response in Escherichia coli. We performed random mutagenesis and selected CheY mutants that are constitutively active in the absence of phosphorylation. Although a single amino acid substitution can lead to constitutive activation, no single DNA base change can effect such a transition. Numerous different sets of mutations that activate in synergy were selected in several different combinations. These mutations were all located on the side of CheY defined by α4, β5, α5, and α1. Our findings argue against the two-state hypothesis for response regulator activation. We propose an alternative intermolecular mechanism that involves a dynamic interplay between response regulators and their effector targets. PMID:12381847

  10. Interfacial and intermolecular interactions determining the rotational orientation of C60 adsorbed on Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paßens, Michael; Karthäuser, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Close-packed monolayers of fullerenes on metallic substrates are very rich systems with respect to their rotational degrees of freedom and possible interactions with different adsorption sites or next neighbours. In this connection, we report in detail on the (2√3 × 2√3)R30°-superstructure of C60 with respect to the Au(111)-surface. We use molecular orbital imaging in systematic UHV-STM studies to reveal the delicate balance of interfacial and intermolecular interactions in this system. Thus, bright C60-molecules in 5:6-top and 6:6-top geometries are observed depending on the respective next neighbours. Moreover, tiny changes in the appearance of the unoccupied molecular orbitals of dim C60-molecules in hex-vac positions are identified which are caused by the respective interaction with the facets surrounding the Au-vacancy.

  11. A structural study of the intermolecular interactions of tyramine in the solid state and in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Rodolfo; Nuñez-Dallos, Nelson; Wurst, Klaus; Duarte-Ruiz, Álvaro

    2012-12-01

    The nature of the interactions between tyramine units was investigated in the solid state and in solution. Crystals of tyramine in its free base form were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystal structure shows a linear molecular organization held together by "head-to-tail" intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the amino groups and the phenolic hydroxyl groups. These chains are arranged in double layers that can geometrically favor the formation of templates in solution, which may facilitate macrocyclization reactions to form azacyclophane-type compounds. Computational calculations using the PM6-DH+ method and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) reveal that the formation of a hydrogen-bonded tyramine dimer is favored in solution.

  12. New mechanism for the ring-opening polymerization of lactones? Uranyl aryloxide-induced intermolecular catalysis.

    PubMed

    Walshe, Aurora; Fang, Jian; Maron, Laurent; Baker, Robert J

    2013-08-01

    The uranyl aryloxide [UO2(OAr)2(THF)2] (Ar = 2,6-(t)Bu2-C6H2) is an active catalyst for the ring-opening cyclo-oligomerization of ε-caprolactone and δ-valerolactone but not for β-butyrolactone, γ-butyrolactone, and rac-lactide. (1)H EXSY measurements give the thermodynamic parameters for exchange of monomer and coordinated THF, and rates of polymerization have been determined. A comprehensive theoretical examination of the mechanism is discussed. From both experiment and theory, the initiation step is intramolecular and in keeping with the accepted mechanism, while computational studies indicate that propagation can go via an intermolecular pathway, which is the first time this has been observed. The lack of polymerization for the inactive monomers has been investigated theoretically and C-H···π interactions stabilize the coordination of the less rigid monomers. PMID:23879703

  13. Ab initio intermolecular potential energy surface and thermophysical properties of nitrous oxide.

    PubMed

    Crusius, Johann-Philipp; Hellmann, Robert; Hassel, Egon; Bich, Eckard

    2015-06-28

    We present an analytical intermolecular potential energy surface (PES) for two rigid nitrous oxide (N2O) molecules derived from high-level quantum-chemical ab initio calculations. Interaction energies for 2018 N2O-N2O configurations were computed utilizing the counterpoise-corrected supermolecular approach at the CCSD(T) level of theory using basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ supplemented with bond functions. A site-site potential function with seven sites per N2O molecule was fitted to the pair interaction energies. We validated our PES by computing the second virial coefficient as well as shear viscosity and thermal conductivity in the dilute-gas limit. The values of these properties are substantiated by the best experimental data. PMID:26133428

  14. Crystal structures and intermolecular interactions of two novel antioxidant triazolyl-benzimidazole compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karayel, A.; Özbey, S.; Ayhan-Kılcıgil, G.; Kuş, C.

    2015-12-01

    The crystal structures of 5-(2-( p-chlorophenylbenzimidazol-1-yl-methyl)-4-(3-fluorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thione (G6C) and 5-(2-( p-chlorophenylbenzimidazol-1-yl-methyl)-4-(2-methylphenyl)-2,4-dihydro-[1,2,4]-triazole-3-thione (G4C) have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Benzimidazole ring systems in both molecules are planar. The triazole part is almost perpendicular to the phenyl and the benzimidazole parts of the molecules in order to avoid steric interactions between the rings. The crystal structures are stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds between the amino group of the triazole and the nitrogen atom of benzimidazole of a neighboring molecule.

  15. Manifestation of structure and intermolecular interactions of biologically active brassinosteroids in infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisevich, N. A.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Khripach, V. A.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Zhabinskii, V. N.

    2007-09-01

    We have analyzed the IR spectra obtained for steroidal phytohormones 24-epibrassinolide, 24-epicastasterone, 28-homobrassinolide, and 28-homocastasterone. The characteristic frequencies of the stretching vibrations of the hydrocarbon groups CH3, CH2, and CH and also the C=O groups in the spectra of brassinolides are higher than in the spectra of castasterones, which makes it possible to identify them from the IR spectra. Study of the spectra of these brassinosteroids in different media (pressed samples in KBr, films, solutions in CHCl3 and CDCl3) allowed us to establish the presence of intermolecular interactions in which C=O and OH groups, OH-OH groups participate, and also the possible formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds between the OH groups of the molecules.

  16. Influence of intermolecular contacts on the structure of recombinant prolidase from Thermococcus sibiricus

    PubMed Central

    Trofimov, A. A.; Slutskaya, E. A.; Polyakov, K. M.; Dorovatovskii, P. V.; Gumerov, V. M.; Popov, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    Prolidases are peptidases that are specific for dipeptides with proline as the second residue. The structure of recombinant prolidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus sibiricus (Tsprol) was determined at 2.6 Å resolution. The homodimer of Tsprol is characterized by a complete lack of interactions between the N- and C-terminal domains of the two subunits and hence can be considered to be the most open structure when compared with previously structurally studied prolidases. This structure exists owing to intermolecular coordination bonds between cadmium ions derived from the crystallization solution and histidine residues of a His tag and aspartate and glutamate residues, which link the dimers to each other. This linking leads to the formation of a crystal with a loose packing of protein molecules and low resistance to mechanical influence and temperature increase. PMID:23143231

  17. Intermolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory study of large organic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Heßelmann, Andreas; Korona, Tatiana

    2014-09-07

    Binding energies for the complexes of the S12L database by Grimme [Chem. Eur. J. 18, 9955 (2012)] were calculated using intermolecular symmetry-adapted perturbation theory combined with a density-functional theory description of the interacting molecules. The individual interaction energy decompositions revealed no particular change in the stabilisation pattern as compared to smaller dimer systems at equilibrium structures. This demonstrates that, to some extent, the qualitative description of the interaction of small dimer systems may be extrapolated to larger systems, a method that is widely used in force-fields in which the total interaction energy is decomposed into atom-atom contributions. A comparison of the binding energies with accurate experimental reference values from Grimme, the latter including thermodynamic corrections from semiempirical calculations, has shown a fairly good agreement to within the error range of the reference binding energies.

  18. Projectile containing metastable intermolecular composites and spot fire method of use

    DOEpatents

    Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Sanders, V. Eric; Foley, Timothy; Novak, Alan M.; Busse, James R.

    2012-07-31

    A method for altering the course of a conflagration involving firing a projectile comprising a powder mixture of oxidant powder and nanosized reductant powder at velocity sufficient for a violent reaction between the oxidant powder and the nanosized reductant powder upon impact of the projectile, and causing impact of the projectile at a location chosen to draw a main fire to a spot fire at such location and thereby change the course of the conflagration, whereby the air near the chosen location is heated to a temperature sufficient to cause a spot fire at such location. The invention also includes a projectile useful for such method and said mixture preferably comprises a metastable intermolecular composite.

  19. Bile salt–induced intermolecular disulfide bond formation activates Vibrio cholerae virulence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Menghua; Liu, Zhi; Hughes, Chambers; Stern, Andrew M.; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Fenical, William; Zhu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    To be successful pathogens, bacteria must often restrict the expression of virulence genes to host environments. This requires a physical or chemical marker of the host environment as well as a cognate bacterial system for sensing the presence of a host to appropriately time the activation of virulence. However, there have been remarkably few such signal–sensor pairs identified, and the molecular mechanisms for host-sensing are virtually unknown. By directly applying a reporter strain of Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, to a thin layer chromatography (TLC) plate containing mouse intestinal extracts, we found two host signals that activate virulence gene transcription. One of these was revealed to be the bile salt taurocholate. We then show that a set of bile salts cause dimerization of the transmembrane transcription factor TcpP by inducing intermolecular disulfide bonds between cysteine (C)-207 residues in its periplasmic domain. Various genetic and biochemical analyses led us to propose a model in which the other cysteine in the periplasmic domain, C218, forms an inhibitory intramolecular disulfide bond with C207 that must be isomerized to form the active C207–C207 intermolecular bond. We then found bile salt–dependent effects of these cysteine mutations on survival in vivo, correlating to our in vitro model. Our results are a demonstration of a mechanism for direct activation of the V. cholerae virulence cascade by a host signal molecule. They further provide a paradigm for recognition of the host environment in pathogenic bacteria through periplasmic cysteine oxidation. PMID:23341592

  20. Improving intermolecular interactions in DFTB3 using extended polarization from chemical-potential equalization

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Anders S. E-mail: cui@chem.wisc.edu; Cui, Qiang E-mail: cui@chem.wisc.edu; Elstner, Marcus

    2015-08-28

    Semi-empirical quantum mechanical methods traditionally expand the electron density in a minimal, valence-only electron basis set. The minimal-basis approximation causes molecular polarization to be underestimated, and hence intermolecular interaction energies are also underestimated, especially for intermolecular interactions involving charged species. In this work, the third-order self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding method (DFTB3) is augmented with an auxiliary response density using the chemical-potential equalization (CPE) method and an empirical dispersion correction (D3). The parameters in the CPE and D3 models are fitted to high-level CCSD(T) reference interaction energies for a broad range of chemical species, as well as dipole moments calculated at the DFT level; the impact of including polarizabilities of molecules in the parameterization is also considered. Parameters for the elements H, C, N, O, and S are presented. The Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) interaction energy is improved from 6.07 kcal/mol to 1.49 kcal/mol for interactions with one charged species, whereas the RMSD is improved from 5.60 kcal/mol to 1.73 for a set of 9 salt bridges, compared to uncorrected DFTB3. For large water clusters and complexes that are dominated by dispersion interactions, the already satisfactory performance of the DFTB3-D3 model is retained; polarizabilities of neutral molecules are also notably improved. Overall, the CPE extension of DFTB3-D3 provides a more balanced description of different types of non-covalent interactions than Neglect of Diatomic Differential Overlap type of semi-empirical methods (e.g., PM6-D3H4) and PBE-D3 with modest basis sets.

  1. A Colloidal Description of Intermolecular Interactions Driving Fibril-Fibril Aggregation of a Model Amphiphilic Peptide.

    PubMed

    Owczarz, Marta; Motta, Anna C; Morbidelli, Massimo; Arosio, Paolo

    2015-07-14

    We apply a kinetic analysis platform to study the intermolecular interactions underlying the colloidal stability of dispersions of charged amyloid fibrils consisting of a model amphiphilic peptide (RADA 16-I). In contrast to the aggregation mechanisms observed in the large majority of proteins and peptides, where several elementary reactions involving both monomers and fibrils are present simultaneously, the system selected in this work allows the specific investigation of the fibril-fibril aggregation process. We examine the intermolecular interactions driving the aggregation reaction at pH 2.0 by changing the buffer composition in terms of salt concentration, type of ion as well as type and concentration of organic solvent. The aggregation kinetics are followed by dynamic light scattering, and the experimental data are simulated by Smoluchowski population balance equations, which allow to estimate the energy barrier between two colliding fibrils in terms of the Fuchs stability ratio (W). When normalized on a dimensionless time weighted on the Fuchs stability ratio, the aggregation profiles under a broad range of conditions collapse on a single master curve, indicating that the buffer composition modifies the aggregation kinetics without affecting the aggregation mechanism. Our results show that the aggregation process does not occur under diffusion-limited conditions. Rather, the reaction rate is limited by the presence of an activation energy barrier that is largely dominated by electrostatic repulsive interactions. Such interactions could be reduced by increasing the concentration of salt, which induces charge screening, or the concentration of organic solvent, which affects the dielectric constant. It is remarkable that the dependence of the activation energy on the ionic strength can be described quantitatively in terms of charge screening effects in the frame of the DLVO theory, although specific anion and cation effects are also observed. While anion

  2. Intermolecular Interactions of Cardiac Transcription Factors NKX2.5 and TBX5.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Lagnajeet; Gopal, Sunil; Li, Shichang; Ashur, Shayan; Suryanarayanan, Saai; Kasahara, Hideko; Nam, Hyun-Joo

    2016-03-29

    Heart development in mammalian systems is controlled by combinatorial interactions of master cardiac transcription factors such as TBX5 and NKX2.5. They bind to promoters/enhancers of downstream targets as homo- or heteromultimeric complexes. They physically interact and synergistically regulate their target genes. To elucidate the molecular basis of the intermolecular interactions, a heterodimer and a homodimer of NKX2.5 and TBX5 were studied using X-ray crystallography. Here we report a crystal structure of human NKX2.5 and TBX5 DNA binding domains in a complex with a 19 bp target DNA and a crystal structure of TBX5 homodimer. The ternary complex structure of NKX2.5 and TBX5 with the target DNA shows physical interactions between the two proteins through Lys158 (NKX2.5), Asp140 (TBX5), and Pro142 (TBX5), residues that are highly conserved in TBX and NKX families across species. Extensive homodimeric interactions were observed between the TBX5 proteins in both crystal structures. In particular, in the crystal structure of TBX5 protein that includes the N-terminal and DNA binding domains, intermolecular interactions were mediated by the N-terminal domain of the protein. The N-terminal domain of TBX5 was predicted to be "intrinsically unstructured", and in one of the two molecules in an asymmetric unit, the N-terminal domain assumes a β-strand conformation bridging two β-sheets from the two molecules. The structures reported here may represent general mechanisms for combinatorial interactions among transcription factors regulating developmental processes. PMID:26926761

  3. Key intermolecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome revealed by coarse-grained analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y; Voth, Gregory A

    2011-10-26

    The ribosome is a very large complex that consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, intermolecular interactions in the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins and to capture functional motions in the ribosome, and then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs, and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, and they are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all the bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; however, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the intermolecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

  4. Anomalous Reactivity and Selectivity in the Intermolecular Diels-Alder Reactions of Multisubstituted Acyclic Dienes with Geometrical Isomers of Enals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jia-Hui; Cai, Sai-Hu; Xu, Yun-He; Loh, Teck-Peng

    2016-05-20

    A Lewis-acid catalyzed intermolecular Diels-Alder reaction between multisubstituted acyclic dienes and the E and Z isomers of α,β-enals was studied. It was found that the diene reacted selectively with the Z-isomer of the α,β-enal. PMID:27132468

  5. A Hands-On Activity to Build Mastery of Intermolecular Forces and Its Impacts on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruck, Laura B.

    2016-01-01

    The intermolecular forces activity presented in this article is designed to foster concept-building through students' use of concrete, manipulative objects, and it was developed to be pedagogically sound. Data analysis via pre- and posttesting and subsequent exam questions indicated that students who had the opportunity to participate in the…

  6. Intermolecular Interactions and Cooperative Effects from Electronic Structure Calculations: An Effective Means for Developing Interaction Potentials for Condensed Phase Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2004-05-01

    The modeling of the macroscopic properties of homogeneous and inhomogeneous systems via atomistic simulations such as molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) techniques is based on the accurate description of the relevant solvent-solute and solvent-solvent intermolecular interactions. The total energy (U) of an n-body molecular system can be formally written as [1,2,3

  7. Analysis of Intermolecular Interactions Using Calculated Molecular Properties: AN AB Initio Quantum Chemical Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinck, Nils Tore

    The objective of this study has been to investigate the use of computed molecular properties in predicting and interpreting intermolecular interactions. The molecular properties have been calculated rigorously from ab initio wave functions. We have found the electrostatic potential to be a good tool for the analysis of nonbonding intermolecular interactions. It is demonstrated that the calculated electrostatic potentials around carbon-halogen bonds can be used to explain the directional preferences of halogen interactions in crystals. We also show that the orientation of the molecules in weak gas phase complexes between dihalogens and Lewis bases can be rationalized from their electrostatic potentials. However an analysis of the bonding in boron trifluoride and boron trichloride and their complexes with ammonia indicates that the relative stabilities of these complexes are dictated by charge transfer rather than electrostatics. The higher binding affinity for boron trichloride compared to boron trifluoride is explained by the higher charge capacity of the former. This is contrary to the commonly accepted explanation, which is based on backbonding. A local charge separation index has been defined from surface electrostatic potentials. This provides a measure of local polarity, even for molecules with zero dipole moments. Average local ionization energies computed on molecular surfaces permit predictions of relative reactivities of various sites toward electrophilic attack. There is a very good relationship between {rm p}K_{a} and minima in |{I}({bf r}), designated as |{I}_{S,min }, for a series of azines and azoles. Excellent correlations have also been found between { rm p}K_{a} values for a variety of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen acids and the |{I}_{S,min} of their conjugate bases. A study of the electrostatic potentials and average local ionization energies of the V-VII hydrides of the first three rows of the periodic table and their anions demonstrates the

  8. Theory and assignment of intermolecular charge transfer states in squaraines and their impact on efficiency in bulk heterojunction solar cells (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collison, Christopher J.; Zheng, Chenyu; Hestand, Nicholas; Cona, Brandon; Penmetcha, Anirudh; Spencer, Susan; Cody, Jeremy; Spano, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Squaraines are targeted for organic photovoltaic devices because of their high extinction coefficients over a broad wavelength range from visible to near infra-red (NIR). Moreover, their side groups can be changed with profound effects upon their ability to crystallize, leading to improvements in charge mobility and exciton diffusion. The broadening in squaraine absorption is often qualitatively attributed to H- and J-aggregates based on the exciton model, proposed by Kasha. However, such assignment is misleading considering that spectral shifts can arise from sources other than excitonic coupling. Our group has shown that packing structure influences the rate of charge transfer; thus a complete and accurate reassessment of the excited states must be completed before the true charge transfer mechanism can be confirmed. In this work, we will show how squaraine H-aggregates can pack in complete vertical stacks or slipped vertical stacks depending upon sidegroups and processing conditions. Hence, we uncover the contribution of an intermolecular charge transfer (IMCT) state through essential states modeling validated by spectroscopic and X-Ray diffraction data. We further show external quantum efficiency data that describe the influence of the IMCT state on the efficiency of our devices. This comprehensive understanding of squaraine aggregates drives the development of more efficient organic photovoltaic devices, leading towards a prescription for derivatives that can be tailored for optimized exciton diffusion, charge transfer, higher mobilities and reduced recombination in small molecule OPV devices.

  9. Effect of Intermolecular Hydrogen Bonding on the Nuclear Quadrupole Interaction in Imidazole and its Derivatives as Studied by ab initio Molecular Orbital Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Nobuo; Masui, Hirotsugo; Ueda, Takahiro

    2000-02-01

    Ab initio Hartree-Fock molecular orbital calculations were applied to the crystalline imidazole and its derivatives in order to examine systematically the effect of possible N-H---N type hydrogen bond-ing on the nuclear quadrupole interaction parameters in these materials. The nitrogen quadrupole coupling constant (QCC) and the asymmetry parameter (η) of the electric field gradient (EFG) were found to depend strongly on the size of the molecular clusters, from single molecule, to dimer, trimer and to the infinite molecular chain, i.e., crystalline state, implying that the intermolecular N-H -N hydrogen bond affects significantly the electronic structure of imidazole molecule. A certain correla-tion between the QCC of 14N and the N-H bond distance R was also found and interpreted on the basis of the molecular orbital theory. However, we found that the value of the calculated EFG at the hy-drogen position of the N-H group, or the corresponding QCC value of 2 H, increases drastically as R-3 when R is shorter than about 0.1 nm, due probably to the inapplicability of the Gaussian basis sets to the very short chemical bond as revealed in the actual imidazole derivatives. We suggested that the ob-served N-H distances in imidazole derivatives should be re-examined.

  10. Combining docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis and k-nearest neighbor correlation for the discovery of new check point kinase 1 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nour Jamal; Khanfar, Mohammad A; Habash, Maha; Taha, Mutasem Omar

    2015-06-01

    Check point kinase 1 (Chk1) is an important protein in G2 phase checkpoint arrest required by cancer cells to maintain cell cycle and to prevent cell death. Therefore, Chk1 inhibitors should have potential as anti-cancer therapeutics. Docking-based comparative intermolecular contacts analysis (dbCICA) is a new three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship method that depends on the quality and number of contact points between docked ligands and binding pocket amino acid residues. In this presented work we implemented a novel combination of k-nearest neighbor/genetic function algorithm modeling coupled with dbCICA to select critical ligand-Chk1 contacts capable of explaining anti-Chk1 bioactivity among a long list of inhibitors. The finest set of contacts were translated into two valid pharmacophore hypotheses that were used as 3D search queries to screen the National Cancer Institute's structural database for new Chk1 inhibitors. Three potent Chk1 inhibitors were discovered with IC50 values ranging from 2.4 to 69.7 µM. PMID:25956379

  11. Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water.

    PubMed

    Shvab, I; Sadus, Richard J

    2013-11-21

    The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g∕cm(3) for a wide range of temperatures (298-650 K) and pressures (0.1-700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC∕E and TIP4P∕2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC∕E and TIP4P∕2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K. PMID:24320337

  12. Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2013-11-01

    The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm3 for a wide range of temperatures (298-650 K) and pressures (0.1-700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.

  13. Theoretical study of intermolecular interactions in nanoporous networks on boron doped silicon surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukari, Khaoula; Duverger, Eric; Hanf, Marie-Christine; Stephan, Régis; Sonnet, Philippe

    2014-11-01

    Supramolecular networks on a doped boron silicon surface under ultra high vacuum (UHV) have been recently obtained (Makoudi et al., 2013). The used molecule contains different end-groups, bearing either bromine, iodine or hydrogen atoms denoted 1,3,5-tri(4‧-bromophenyl)benzene (TBB), 1,3,5-tri(4-iodophenyl)benzene (TIB) and 1,3,5-triphenyl-benzene (THB). To explain the formation of the nanoporous structures, interactions of the type aryl-X⋯H hydrogen bonds (X being a halogen atom) have been proposed. In order to obtain a complete insight of the stabilizing interaction in these networks adsorbed on the Si(1 1 1)√3x√3R30°-boron surface, we present a full density-functional-theory study taking the van der Waals interactions into account. We investigated the energetic and structural properties of three different nanoporous networks constituted by TBB, TIB and THB molecules. The electronic studies allow us to identify hydrogen bond and dipole-dipole intermolecular interactions in the supramolecular halogen networks, whereas only dipole-dipole interactions are present in the 1,3,5-triphenyl-benzene nanoporous network.

  14. Arginine-phosphate salt bridges between histones and DNA: Intermolecular actuators that control nucleosome architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusufaly, Tahir I.; Li, Yun; Singh, Gautam; Olson, Wilma K.

    2014-10-01

    Structural bioinformatics and van der Waals density functional theory are combined to investigate the mechanochemical impact of a major class of histone-DNA interactions, namely, the formation of salt bridges between arginine residues in histones and phosphate groups on the DNA backbone. Principal component analysis reveals that the configurational fluctuations of the sugar-phosphate backbone display sequence-specific directionality and variability, and clustering of nucleosome crystal structures identifies two major salt-bridge configurations: a monodentate form in which the arginine end-group guanidinium only forms one hydrogen bond with the phosphate, and a bidentate form in which it forms two. Density functional theory calculations highlight that the combination of sequence, denticity, and salt-bridge positioning enables the histones to apply a tunable mechanochemical stress to the DNA via precise and specific activation of backbone deformations. The results suggest that selection for specific placements of van der Waals contacts, with high-precision control of the spatial distribution of intermolecular forces, may serve as an underlying evolutionary design principle for the structure and function of nucleosomes, a conjecture that is corroborated by previous experimental studies.

  15. Resolution enhancement in MR spectroscopy of red bone marrow fat via intermolecular double-quantum coherences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jianfeng; Cui, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuqing; Zhong, Jianhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-08-01

    High-resolution 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is generally inaccessible in red bone marrow (RBM) tissues using conventional MRS techniques. This is because signal from these tissues suffers from severe inhomogeneity in the main static B0 field originated from the intrinsic honeycomb structures in trabecular bone. One way to reduce effects of B0 field inhomogeneity is by using the intermolecular double quantum coherence (iDQC) technique, which has been shown in other systems to obtain signals insensitive to B0 field inhomogeneity. In the present study, we employed an iDQC approach to enhance the spectral resolution of RBM. The feasibility and performance of this method for achieving high resolution MRS was verified by experiments on phantoms and pig vertebral bone samples. Unsaturated fatty acid peaks which overlap in the conventional MRS were well resolved and identified in the iDQC spectrum. Quantitative comparison of fractions of three types of fatty acids was performed between iDQC spectra on the in situ RMB and conventional MRS on the extracted fat from the same RBM. Observations of unsaturated fatty acids with iDQC MRS may provide valuable information and may hold potential in diagnosis of diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and leukemia.

  16. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfers in hydrogenase deduced from steady-state activity measurements.

    PubMed

    Dementin, Sébastien; Burlat, Bénédicte; Fourmond, Vincent; Leroux, Fanny; Liebgott, Pierre-Pol; Abou Hamdan, Abbas; Léger, Christophe; Rousset, Marc; Guigliarelli, Bruno; Bertrand, Patrick

    2011-07-01

    Electrons are transferred over long distances along chains of FeS clusters in hydrogenases, mitochondrial complexes, and many other respiratory enzymes. It is usually presumed that electron transfer is fast in these systems, despite the fact that there has been no direct measurement of rates of FeS-to-FeS electron transfer in any respiratory enzyme. In this context, we propose and apply to NiFe hydrogenase an original strategy that consists of quantitatively interpreting the variations of steady-state activity that result from changing the nature of the FeS clusters which connect the active site to the redox partner, and/or the nature of the redox partner. Rates of intra- and intermolecular electron transfer are deduced from such large data sets. The mutation-induced variations of electron transfer rates cannot be explained by changes in intercenter distances and reduction potentials. This establishes that FeS-to-FeS rate constants are extremely sensitive to the nature and coordination of the centers. PMID:21615141

  17. Density-based Energy Decomposition Analysis for Intermolecular Interactions with Variationally Determined Intermediate State Energies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Q.; Ayers, P.W.; Zhang, Y.

    2009-10-28

    The first purely density-based energy decomposition analysis (EDA) for intermolecular binding is developed within the density functional theory. The most important feature of this scheme is to variationally determine the frozen density energy, based on a constrained search formalism and implemented with the Wu-Yang algorithm [Q. Wu and W. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 2498 (2003) ]. This variational process dispenses with the Heitler-London antisymmetrization of wave functions used in most previous methods and calculates the electrostatic and Pauli repulsion energies together without any distortion of the frozen density, an important fact that enables a clean separation of these two terms from the relaxation (i.e., polarization and charge transfer) terms. The new EDA also employs the constrained density functional theory approach [Q. Wu and T. Van Voorhis, Phys. Rev. A 72, 24502 (2005)] to separate out charge transfer effects. Because the charge transfer energy is based on the density flow in real space, it has a small basis set dependence. Applications of this decomposition to hydrogen bonding in the water dimer and the formamide dimer show that the frozen density energy dominates the binding in these systems, consistent with the noncovalent nature of the interactions. A more detailed examination reveals how the interplay of electrostatics and the Pauli repulsion determines the distance and angular dependence of these hydrogen bonds.

  18. Effects of strong hydrogen bonds and weak intermolecular interactions on supramolecular assemblies of 4-fluorobenzylamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi; Ding, Xue-Hua; Li, Yong-Hua; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    A series of supramolecular salts have been obtained by the self-assembly of 4-fluorobenzylamine and halide ions or metal chloride with 18-crown-6 as the host in the hydrochloric acid medium, i.e. (C7H9FN)+ṡX- (X = Cl-, 1; Br-, 2), [(C7H9FN)2ṡ(18-crown-6)2]2+ṡ(MCl4)2- (M = Mn, 3; Co, 5; Zn, 7; Cd, 8), [(C7H9FN)ṡ(18-crown-6)]+ṡ(FeCl4)- (4) and [(C7H9FN)ṡ(18-crown-6)]+ṡ1/2(CuCl4)2- (6). Structural analyses indicate that 1-2 crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1, 4 in orthorhombic space group Pnma and 3, 5, 6-8 in the monoclinic space group P21/c or C2/c. In these compounds, extensive intermolecular interactions have been utilized for the self-assembly of diverse supramolecular architectures, ranging from strong N-H⋯X (X = O, Cl, Br) hydrogen bonds to weak C-H⋯Y (Y = F, Cl, π) interactions. N-H⋯Cl/Br hydrogen bonds offer the major driving force in the crystal packing of salts 1-2 while N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds are found in salts 3-8.

  19. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications. PMID:26955887

  20. Kirromycin-induced modifications facilitate the separation of EF-Tu species and reveal intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Anborgh, P H; Swart, G W; Parmeggiani, A

    1991-11-01

    A simplified method for the separation of a kirromycin-sensitive tufB-encoded elongation factor Tu (EF-TuBs) from a kirromycin-resistant tufA product (EF-TuAr) was obtained by exploiting the specific increase of negative [corrected] charges induced by the antibiotic, resulting in a retarded elution of kirromycin-bound EF-TuBs on ionic chromatography. The kirromycin-free EF-TuBs is active in poly(Phe) synthesis and shows similar properties to EF-TuAsBs. As expected for these two distinct species, the dissociation of the EF-TuArBs.GTP complex in the presence of kirromycin shows a biphasic curve; in contrast, a monophasic GTP dissociation rate was found for a combination of two mutated EF-Tu species, EF-TuArBo, revealing the existence of intermolecular interactions. These observations prove for the first time the existence of cooperative phenomena between EF-Tu species in vitro, as suggested earlier by in vivo experiments. PMID:1959611

  1. A facile synthesis of 2-aryloxypyrimidine derivatives via a tandem reductive amination/intermolecular SNAr sequence*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hai-feng; Zhang, Pei-zhi; Wu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    A novel tandem reductive amination/intermolecular nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) sequence has been established for the synthesis of amine containing pyrimidine in formation of one carbon-oxygen and one carbon-nitrogen bonds in a one-pot fashion. Treatment of aldehyde with arylamine, 2-methanesulfonyl-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidine and sodium borohydride provides good overall yield. The p-toluenesulfonic acid (PTSA) can be used as activator and is generally needed in the reaction. Dioxane is the preferred reaction solvent, but reactions can also be carried out in tetrahydrofuran (THF), MeCN, toluene and dichloromethane. The procedure is carried out effectively in the presence of K2CO3. The reaction proceeds smoothly with aromatic aldehydes and arylamines possessing electron-donating or -withdrawing groups. This method can be applied to the synthesis of the oilseed rape herbicide and is superior to the classical one in several aspects: cutting out several purification steps, minimizing solvent use and chemical waste, and saving time. Its advantages such as operational convenience, high-efficient synthesis, and starting material availability make it a desirable method for preparing amines with molecular diversity and biological activity. PMID:20104643

  2. New insights into the dual fluorescence of methyl salicylate: effects of intermolecular hydrogen bonding and solvation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Panwang; Hoffmann, Mark R; Han, Keli; He, Guozhong

    2015-02-12

    In this paper, we propose a new and complete mechanism for dual fluorescence of methyl salicylate (MS) under different conditions using a combined experimental (i.e., steady-state absorption and emission spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra) and theoretical (i.e., time-dependent density function theory) study. First, our theoretical study indicates that the barrier height for excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction of ketoB depends on the solvent polarity. In nonpolar solvents, the ESIPT reaction of ketoB is barrierless; the barrier height will increase with increasing solvent polarity. Second, we found that, in alcoholic solvents, intermolecular hydrogen bonding plays a more important role. The ketoB form of MS can form two hydrogen bonds with alcoholic solvents; one will facilitate ESIPT and produce the emission band in the blue region; the other one precludes ESIPT and produces the emission band in the near-UV region. Our proposed new mechanism can well explain previous results as well as our new experimental results. PMID:24678946

  3. Hydrogen versus fluorine: effects on molecular structure and intermolecular interactions in a platinum isocyanate complex.

    PubMed

    Raven, William; Joschko, Thomas; Kalf, Irmgard; Englert, Ulli

    2016-03-01

    At the molecular level, the enantiomerically pure square-planar organoplatinum complex (SP-4-4)-(R)-[2-(1-aminoethyl)-5-fluorophenyl-κ(2)C(1),N][(R)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)ethylamine-κN](isocyanato-κN)platinum(II), [Pt(C8H9FN)(NCO)(C8H10FN)], and its congener without fluorine substituents on the aryl rings adopt the same structure within error. The similarities between the compounds extend to the most relevant intermolecular interactions, i.e. N-H...O and N-H...N hydrogen bonds link neighbouring molecules into chains along the shortest lattice parameter in each structure. Differences between the crystal structures of the fluoro-substituted and parent complex become obvious with respect to secondary interactions perpendicular to the classical hydrogen bonds; the fluorinated compound features short C-H...F contacts with an F...H distance of ca 2.6 Å. The fluorine substitution is also reflected in reduced backbonding from the metal cation to the isocyanate ligand. PMID:26942427

  4. Determination of a silane intermolecular force field potential model from an ab initio calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Arvin Huang-Te; Chao, Sheng D.; Chang, Chien-Cheng

    2010-12-15

    Intermolecular interaction potentials of the silane dimer in 12 orientations have been calculated by using the Hartree-Fock (HF) self-consistent theory and the second-order Moeller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. We employed basis sets from Pople's medium-size basis sets [up to 6-311++G(3df, 3pd)] and Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets (up to the triply augmented correlation-consistent polarized valence quadruple-zeta basis set). We found that the minimum energy orientations were the G and H conformers. We have suggested that the Si-H attractions, the central silicon atom size, and electronegativity play essential roles in weakly binding of a silane dimer. The calculated MP2 potential data were employed to parametrize a five-site force field for molecular simulations. The Si-Si, Si-H, and H-H interaction parameters in a pairwise-additive, site-site potential model for silane molecules were regressed from the ab initio energies.

  5. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-03-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications.

  6. Rh(I)–Bisphosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric, Intermolecular Hydroheteroarylation of α-Substituted Acrylate Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Asymmetric hydroheteroarylation of alkenes represents a convenient entry to elaborated heterocyclic motifs. While chiral acids are known to mediate asymmetric addition of electron-rich heteroarenes to Michael acceptors, very few methods exploit transition metals to catalyze alkylation of heterocycles with olefins via a C–H activation, migratory insertion sequence. Herein, we describe the development of an asymmetric, intermolecular hydroheteroarylation reaction of α-substituted acrylates with benzoxazoles. The reaction provides 2-substitued benzoxazoles in moderate to excellent yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities. Notably, a series of mechanistic studies appears to contradict a pathway involving enantioselective protonation of a Rh(I)–enolate, despite the fact that such a mechanism is invoked almost unanimously in the related addition of aryl boronic acids to methacrylate derivatives. Evidence suggests instead that migratory insertion or beta-hydride elimination is enantiodetermining and that isomerization of a Rh(I)–enolate to a Rh(I)–heterobenzyl species insulates the resultant α-stereocenter from epimerization. A bulky ligand, CTH-(R)-Xylyl-P-Phos, is crucial for reactivity and enantioselectivity, as it likely discourages undesired ligation of benzoxazole substrates or intermediates to on- or off-cycle rhodium complexes and attenuates coordination-promoted product epimerization. PMID:25545834

  7. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Jaslyn E. M. M.; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira; Thygesen, Mikkel B.; Sørensen, Kasper K.; Jensen, Knud J.; Stougaard, Jens; Thirup, Søren; Blaise, Mickaël

    2015-03-01

    The crystal and solution structures of the T. thermophilus NlpC/P60 d, l-endopeptidase as well as the co-crystal structure of its N-terminal LysM domains bound to chitohexaose allow a proposal to be made regarding how the enzyme recognizes peptidoglycan. LysM domains, which are frequently present as repetitive entities in both bacterial and plant proteins, are known to interact with carbohydrates containing N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) moieties, such as chitin and peptidoglycan. In bacteria, the functional significance of the involvement of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering solution studies of this endopeptidase revealed the presence of a homodimer. The structure of the two LysM domains co-crystallized with N-acetyl-chitohexaose revealed a new intermolecular binding mode that may explain the differential interaction between LysM domains and short or long chitin oligomers. By combining the structural information with the three-dimensional model of peptidoglycan, a model suggesting how protein dimerization enhances the recognition of peptidoglycan is proposed.

  8. Modeling intermolecular interactions of physisorbed organic molecules using pair potential calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Kroeger, Ingo; Stadtmueller, Benjamin; Wagner, Christian; Weiss, Christian; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan; Kumpf, Christian

    2011-12-21

    The understanding and control of epitaxial growth of organic thin films is of crucial importance in order to optimize the performance of future electronic devices. In particular, the start of the submonolayer growth plays an important role since it often determines the structure of the first layer and subsequently of the entire molecular film. We have investigated the structure formation of 3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic dianhydride and copper-phthalocyanine molecules on Au(111) using pair-potential calculations based on van der Waals and electrostatic intermolecular interactions. The results are compared with the fundamental lateral structures known from experiment and an excellent agreement was found for these weakly interacting systems. Furthermore, the calculations are even suitable for chemisorptive adsorption as demonstrated for copper-phthalocyanine/Cu(111), if the influence of charge transfer between substrate and molecules is known and the corresponding charge redistribution in the molecules can be estimated. The calculations are of general applicability for molecular adsorbate systems which are dominated by electrostatic and van der Waals interaction.

  9. Inter-molecular β-sheet structure facilitates lung-targeting siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jihan; Li, Dong; Wen, Hao; Zheng, Shuquan; Su, Cuicui; Yi, Fan; Wang, Jue; Liang, Zicai; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Demin; Zhang, Li-He; Liang, Dehai; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Size-dependent passive targeting based on the characteristics of tissues is a basic mechanism of drug delivery. While the nanometer-sized particles are efficiently captured by the liver and spleen, the micron-sized particles are most likely entrapped within the lung owing to its unique capillary structure and physiological features. To exploit this property in lung-targeting siRNA delivery, we designed and studied a multi-domain peptide named K-β, which was able to form inter-molecular β-sheet structures. Results showed that K-β peptides and siRNAs formed stable complex particles of 60 nm when mixed together. A critical property of such particles was that, after being intravenously injected into mice, they further associated into loose and micron-sized aggregates, and thus effectively entrapped within the capillaries of the lung, leading to a passive accumulation and gene-silencing. The large size aggregates can dissociate or break down by the shear stress generated by blood flow, alleviating the pulmonary embolism. Besides the lung, siRNA enrichment and targeted gene silencing were also observed in the liver. This drug delivery strategy, together with the low toxicity, biodegradability, and programmability of peptide carriers, show great potentials in vivo applications. PMID:26955887

  10. Intermolecular interactions and solvent diffusion in ordered nanostructures formed by self-assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Zhiyong

    Hydrogels formed by Poloxamer poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) (PEO-PPO) block copolymers find various pharmaceutical and biomedical applications. A variety of ordered structures can be exhibited by Poloxamer block copolymers in selective solvents such as water, for example, micellar cubic phase, hexagonal phase, lamellar phase, etc. We are interested in the thermodynamic and transport properties of water in such hydrogels that have an ordered (lyotropic liquid crystalline) structure. We have investigated the time evolution of water loss from Poloxamer gel films under a driving force of known water vapor pressure in the air in contact with the film. The experimental data on the drying process have been fitted to the diffusion equation for water in the film, under a boundary condition that includes the water concentration in the gel at infinite time; the water diffusion coefficient and other parameters have thus been obtained. The water chemical potential and osmotic pressure in the gel have been obtained from osmotic stress measurements. The osmotic pressure (force), together with data on the corresponding lyotropic liquid crystal spacing (distance) that we obtained from Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) measurements, have been analyzed to provide information on the prevailing intermolecular (inter-assembly) forces in the gel. The forces in the gel reveal interactions that occur at two levels, that of the PEO coil and that of the PEO segment.

  11. Keto-enol tautomerization and intermolecular proton transfer in photoionized cyclopentanone dimer in the gas phase

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Arup K.; Chatterjee, Piyali; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2014-07-28

    Time-of-flight mass spectra of cyclopentanone and its clusters cooled in a supersonic jet expansion have been measured following 4-, 3-, and 2-photon ionizations by the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonic wavelengths, respectively, of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The mass spectra reveal signatures of energetically favored keto to enol tautomerization of the molecular ion leading to intermolecular proton transfer, and this observation is found sharply dependent on the ionization wavelengths used. Electronic structure calculation predicts that in spite of the energetic preference, keto-enol conversion barrier of isolated molecular ion is high. However, the barrier is significantly reduced in a CH⋯O hydrogen-bonded dimer of the molecule. The transition states associated with tautomeric conversion of both cyclopentanone monomer and dimer cations have been identified by means of intrinsic reaction co-ordinate calculation. In a supersonic jet expansion, although a weakly bound dimer is readily generated, the corresponding cation and also the protonated counterpart are observed only for ionization by 532 nm. For other two ionization wavelengths, these species do not register in the mass spectra, where the competing reaction channels via α-cleavage of the ring become dominant. In contrast to the report of a recent study, we notice that the intact molecular ion largely survives fragmentations when ionized from the 2-photon resonant 3p Rydberg state as intermediate using nanosecond laser pulses, and the corresponding resonant 3-photon ionization spectrum has been recorded probing the intact molecular ion.

  12. Intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie-hua; Zhu, Ying-Yao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jun; Shen, Ya-Jing

    2013-02-01

    The intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking methods. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of the BSA at 338 nm by prednisolone resulted from the formation of prednisolone-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) for prednisolone binding on BSA was approximately equal to 1. Base on the sign and magnitude of the enthalpy and entropy changes (ΔH0 = -149.6 kJ mol-1 and ΔS0 = -370.7 J mol-1 K-1) and the results of molecular docking, it could be suggested that the interaction forces were mainly Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, in the binding process of BSA with prednisolone, prednisolone molecule can be inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of subdomain IIIA (site II) of BSA. The distance between prednisolone and Trp residue of BSA was calculated as 2.264 nm according to Forster's non-radiative energy transfer theory.

  13. IR spectroscopy of monohydrated tryptamine cation: Rearrangement of the intermolecular hydrogen bond induced by photoionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakota, Kenji; Kouno, Yuuki; Harada, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Fujii, Masaaki; Sekiya, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    Rearrangement of intermolecular hydrogen bond in a monohydrated tryptamine cation, [TRA(H2O)1]+, has been investigated in the gas phase by IR spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations. In the S0 state of TRA(H2O)1, a water molecule is hydrogen-bonded to the N atom of the amino group of a flexible ethylamine side chain [T. S. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 105, 8827 (2001), 10.1021/jp011659+]. A remarkable change in the hydrogen-bonding motif of [TRA(H2O)]+ occurs upon photoionization. In the D0 state of [TRA(H2O)1]+, the water molecule is hydrogen-bonded to the NH group of the indole ring of TRA+, indicating that the water molecule transfers from the amino group to NH group. Quantum chemical calculations are performed to investigate the pathway of the water transfer. Two potential energy barriers emerge in [TRA(H2O)1]+ along the intrinsic reaction coordinate of the water transfer. The water transfer event observed in [TRA(H2O)1]+ is not an elementary but a complex process.

  14. Intermolecular interactions and substrate effects for an adamantane monolayer on a Au(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Yuki; Nguyen, Giang D.; Capaz, Rodrigo B.; Coh, Sinisa; Pechenezhskiy, Ivan V.; Hong, Xiaoping; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael F.; Saito, Susumu; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2013-12-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the infrared (IR) spectrum of an adamantane monolayer on a Au(111) surface. Using a STM-based IR spectroscopy technique (IRSTM) we are able to measure both the nanoscale structure of an adamantane monolayer on Au(111) as well as its infrared spectrum, while DFT-based ab initio calculations allow us to interpret the microscopic vibrational dynamics revealed by our measurements. We find that the IR spectrum of an adamantane monolayer on Au(111) is substantially modified with respect to the gas-phase IR spectrum. The first modification is caused by the adamantane-adamantane interaction due to monolayer packing, and it reduces the IR intensity of the 2912 cm-1 peak (gas phase) by a factor of 3.5. The second modification originates from the adamantane-gold interaction, and it increases the IR intensity of the 2938 cm-1 peak (gas phase) by a factor of 2.6 and reduces its frequency by 276 cm-1. We expect that the techniques described here can be used for an independent estimate of substrate effects and intermolecular interactions in other diamondoid molecules and for other metallic substrates.

  15. Biaxial Dielectrophoresis Force Spectroscopy: A Stoichiometric Approach for Examining Intermolecular Weak Binding Interactions.

    PubMed

    Park, In Soo; Kwak, Tae Joon; Lee, Gyudo; Son, Myeonggu; Choi, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seungyeop; Nam, Kihwan; Lee, Sei-Young; Chang, Woo-Jin; Eom, Kilho; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Sangyoup; Bashir, Rashid; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-04-26

    The direct quantification of weak intermolecular binding interactions is very important for many applications in biology and medicine. Techniques that can be used to investigate such interactions under a controlled environment, while varying different parameters such as loading rate, pulling direction, rupture event measurements, and the use of different functionalized probes, are still lacking. Herein, we demonstrate a biaxial dielectrophoresis force spectroscopy (BDFS) method that can be used to investigate weak unbinding events in a high-throughput manner under controlled environments and by varying the pulling direction (i.e., transverse and/or vertical axes) as well as the loading rate. With the BDFS system, we can quantitatively analyze binding interactions related to hydrogen bonding or ionic attractions between functionalized microbeads and a surface within a microfluidic device. Our BDFS system allowed for the characterization of the number of bonds involved in an interaction, bond affinity, kinetic rates, and energy barrier heights and widths from different regimes of the energy landscape. PMID:27007455

  16. Predicted occupancies in gas hydrates on Titan and Mars: sensitivity on treatment of intermolecular interactions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Caroline; Picaud, Sylvain; Ballenegger, Vincent; Mousis, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    We investigate here the sensitivity of gas hydrate occupancies predicted on the basis of van der Waals-Platteeuw theory, as a function of the treatment of the intermolecular guest-water interaction potential. First, we determine the minimum number of water molecules that have to be taken into account in the calculations of this interaction potential. We show that analytical correction terms that account for the interactions with the water molecules beyond the cutoff distance (typically chosen to take into account at least 4 water layers around the guest molecule) must be introduced to improve significantly the convergence rate, and hence the efficiency of the computation of the Langmuir constants. Then we use different recent guest-water interaction potential models to calculate the cage occupancies in pure methane or carbon dioxide clathrates. We show that the corresponding predicted cage occupancies can vary significantly depending on the model, although all the results are within the uncertainties of the available experimental data. That sensitivity becomes especially strong in the case of multiple guest clathrates, and, for instance, the results obtained for guest clathrate hydrates potentially formed on the surface of Mars can vary by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the model. These results underline the strong need for experimental data on pure and multiple guest clathrate hydrates, in particular in the temperature and pressure range that are relevant in extreme environment conditions, to discriminate among the theoretical models.

  17. Sensitivity of predicted gas hydrate occupancies on treatment of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Caroline; Picaud, Sylvain; Ballenegger, Vincent; Mousis, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    The sensitivity of gas hydrate occupancies predicted on the basis of van der Waals-Platteeuw theory is investigated, as a function of the intermolecular guest-water interaction potential model, and of the number of water molecules taken into account. Simple analytical correction terms that account for the interactions with the water molecules beyond the cutoff distance are introduced, and shown to improve significantly the convergence rate, and hence the efficiency of the computation of the Langmuir constants. The predicted cage occupancies in pure methane and pure carbon dioxide clathrates, calculated using different recent guest-water pair potentials models derived from ab initio calculations, can vary significantly depending on the model. That sensitivity becomes especially strong in the case of multiple guest clathrates. It is shown that the abundances of coenclathrated molecules in multiple guest clathrate hydrates potentially formed on the surface of Mars can vary by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the model. These results underline the strong need for experimental data on pure and multiple guest clathrate hydrates, in particular in the temperature and pressure range that are relevant in extreme environment conditions, to discriminate among the theoretical models.

  18. Spatiotemporal patterns enhanced by intra- and inter-molecular fluctuations in arrays of allosterically regulated enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Yuichi; Casagrande, Vanessa

    2015-03-01

    Enzymatic reactions often involve slow conformational changes, with reaction cycles that sometimes require milliseconds or seconds to complete. The dynamics are strongly affected by fluctuations at the nanoscale. However, such enzymes often occur in small numbers in a cell; hence, the fluctuations caused by finite numbers of molecules should also be substantial. Because of these factors, the behavior of the system is likely to deviate from that of classical reaction-diffusion equations, in which immediate reaction events are assumed to occur without memory and between a huge number of molecules. In this work, we model each enzyme as a unit represented by a phase variable to investigate the effects of fluctuations in arrays of enzymes. Using an analysis based on partial differential equations and stochastic simulations, we show that fluctuations arising from internal states of enzymes (intramolecular fluctuations) and those arising from the stochastic nature of interactions between molecules (intermolecular fluctuations) have distinctive effects on spatiotemporal patterns; the former generally disturb synchronization at high frequencies, whereas the latter can enhance synchronization. The balance of the two types of fluctuations may determine the spatiotemporal behavior of biochemical processes.

  19. Evidence for a strong intermolecular bond in the phenolṡN2 cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, S. R.; Geppert, W. D.; Chapman, D. M.; Watkins, M. J.; Dessent, C. E. H.; Cockett, M. C. R.; Müller-Dethlefs, K.

    1998-12-01

    The phenolṡN2 complex cation has been studied with a combination of two-color resonant zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopies to probe the interaction of a polar cation with a quadrupolar solvent molecule. Extended vibrational progressions are observed in three modes which are assigned as the in-plane bend (35 cm-1), the stretch (117 cm-1), and in-plane wag (130 cm-1) intermolecular vibrations, and are consistent with a structure where the N2 forms a directional bond to the phenol OH group in the plane of the aromatic ring. Ab initio calculations at the UMP2/6-31G*, UHF/cc-pVDZ, and UMP2/cc-pVDZ levels of theory support this assignment. The spectra also provide a value for the adiabatic ionization energy (67 423 cm-1±4.5 cm-1) and an estimate of the dissociation energy of the cluster (1650±20 cm-1) which illustrate that the quadrupolar nitrogen molecule binds considerably more strongly to the phenol cation than a rare gas atom. These results constitute the first report of an aromaticṡN2 complex where the interaction can be described in terms of weak hydrogen bonding, rather than in terms of a van der Waals bond to the π-system of the benzene ring.

  20. Rovibrational transitions of the methane-water dimer from intermolecular quantum dynamical computations.

    PubMed

    Sarka, János; Császár, Attila G; Althorpe, Stuart C; Wales, David J; Mátyus, Edit

    2016-08-17

    Rovibrational quantum nuclear motion computations, with J = 0, 1, and 2, are reported for the intermolecular degrees of freedom of the methane-water dimer, where J is the quantum number describing the overall rotation of the complex. The computations provide the first explanation of the far-infrared spectrum of this complex published in J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 100, 863. All experimentally reported rovibrational transitions, up to J = 2, can be assigned to transitions between the theoretically computed levels. The deviation of the experimental and computed rovibrational transitions is 0.5 cm(-1) for the ortho and 2 cm(-1) for the para species with a variance of 0.005 cm(-1). In addition to a lower systematic error, the overall agreement of theory and experiment is also better for the ortho species (involving ortho-H2O). Most importantly, for this species all levels of the 24-fold tunneling splitting manifold corresponding to the zero-point vibration (ZPV) are involved in at least one experimentally reported transition. For the para species there are a few energy levels in the computed ZPV manifold that are not involved in the reported experimental transitions. Furthermore, computed energy levels are identified that correspond to the ZPV tunneling splitting manifold of the secondary minimum structure of the dimer, which presumably appear in rovibrational transitions in the same energy regime as the observed transitions, but have not been experimentally reported. PMID:27390887

  1. Modeling the intermolecular interactions: molecular structure of N-3-hydroxyphenyl-4-methoxybenzamide.

    PubMed

    Karabulut, Sedat; Namli, Hilmi; Kurtaran, Raif; Yildirim, Leyla Tatar; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-03-01

    The title compound, N-3-hydroxyphenyl-4-methoxybenzamide (3) was prepared by the acylation reaction of 3-aminophenol (1) and 4-metoxybenzoylchloride (2) in THF and characterized by ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR and elemental analysis. Molecular structure of the crystal was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and DFT calculations. 3 crystallizes in monoclinic P2₁/c space group. The influence of intermolecular interactions (dimerization and crystal packing) on molecular geometry has been evaluated by calculations performed for three different models; monomer (3), dimer (4) and dimer with added unit cell contacts (5). Molecular structure of 3, 4 and 5 was optimized by applying B3LYP method with 6-31G+(d,p) basis set in gas phase and compared with X-ray crystallographic data including bond lengths, bond angles and selected dihedral angles. It has been concluded that although the crystal packing and dimerization have a minor effect on bond lengths and angles, however, these interactions are important for the dihedral angles and the rotational conformation of aromatic rings. PMID:24361848

  2. Intermolecular interactions and conformation of antibody dimers present in IgG1 biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Iwura, Takafumi; Fukuda, Jun; Yamazaki, Katsuyoshi; Kanamaru, Shuji; Arisaka, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    Intermolecular interactions and conformation in dimer species of Palivizumab, a monoclonal antibody (IgG1), were investigated to elucidate the physical and chemical properties of the dimerized antibody. Palivizumab solution contains ∼1% dimer and 99% monomer. The dimer species was isolated by size-exclusion chromatography and analysed by a number of methods including analytical ultracentrifugation-sedimantetion velocity (AUC-SV). AUC-SV in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate indicated that approximately half of the dimer fraction was non-covalently associated, whereas the other half was dimerized by covalent bond. Disulphide bond and dityrosine formation were likely to be involved in the covalent dimerization. Limited proteolysis of the isolated dimer by Lys-C and mass spectrometry for the resultant products indicated that the dimer species were formed by Fab-Fc or Fab-Fab interactions, whereas Fc-Fc interactions were not found. It is thus likely that the dimerization occurs mainly via the Fab region. With regard to the conformation of the dimer species, the secondary and tertiary structures were shown to be almost identical to those of the monomer. Furthermore, the thermal stability turned out also to be very similar between the dimer and monomer. PMID:24155259

  3. Polarization contributions to intermolecular interactions revisited with fragment electric-field response functions

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, Paul R. E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu; Head-Gordon, Martin E-mail: mhg@cchem.berkeley.edu

    2015-09-21

    The polarization energy in intermolecular interactions treated by self-consistent field electronic structure theory is often evaluated using a constraint that the atomic orbital (AO) to molecular orbital transformation is blocked by fragments. This approach is tied to AO basis sets, overestimates polarization energies in the overlapping regime, particularly in large AO basis sets, and lacks a useful complete basis set limit. These problems are addressed by the construction of polarization subspaces based on the responses of isolated fragments to weak electric fields. These subspaces are spanned by fragment electric-field response functions, which can capture effects up to the dipole (D), or quadrupole (DQ) level, or beyond. Schemes are presented for the creation of both non-orthogonal and orthogonal fragment subspaces, and the basis set convergence of the polarization energies computed using these spaces is assessed. Numerical calculations for the water dimer, water–Na{sup +}, water–Mg{sup 2+}, water–F{sup −}, and water–Cl{sup −} show that the non-orthogonal DQ model is very satisfactory, with small differences relative to the orthogonalized model. Additionally, we prove a fundamental difference between the polarization degrees of freedom in the fragment-blocked approaches and in constrained density schemes. Only the former are capable of properly prohibiting charge delocalization during polarization.

  4. Polarization contributions to intermolecular interactions revisited with fragment electric-field response functions.

    PubMed

    Horn, Paul R; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-09-21

    The polarization energy in intermolecular interactions treated by self-consistent field electronic structure theory is often evaluated using a constraint that the atomic orbital (AO) to molecular orbital transformation is blocked by fragments. This approach is tied to AO basis sets, overestimates polarization energies in the overlapping regime, particularly in large AO basis sets, and lacks a useful complete basis set limit. These problems are addressed by the construction of polarization subspaces based on the responses of isolated fragments to weak electric fields. These subspaces are spanned by fragment electric-field response functions, which can capture effects up to the dipole (D), or quadrupole (DQ) level, or beyond. Schemes are presented for the creation of both non-orthogonal and orthogonal fragment subspaces, and the basis set convergence of the polarization energies computed using these spaces is assessed. Numerical calculations for the water dimer, water-Na(+), water-Mg(2+), water-F(-), and water-Cl(-) show that the non-orthogonal DQ model is very satisfactory, with small differences relative to the orthogonalized model. Additionally, we prove a fundamental difference between the polarization degrees of freedom in the fragment-blocked approaches and in constrained density schemes. Only the former are capable of properly prohibiting charge delocalization during polarization. PMID:26395691

  5. Conformational analysis and intramolecular/intermolecular interactions of N,N‧-dibenzylideneethylenediamine derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbagh, Hossein A.; Zamani, Mehdi; Farrokhpour, Hossein; Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Barati, Kazem

    2010-11-01

    The molecular structures, conformational stability and molecular energy profile of three derivatives of RC 6H 4CHNCH 2CH 2NCHC 6H 4R including N, N'-dibenzylideneethylenediamine ( 1, R = H), N, N'-bis(4-trifluoromethoxybenzylidene)ethylenediamine ( 2, R = OCF 3), and N, N'-bis(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene)ethylenediamine ( 3, R = N(CH 3) 2) were obtained at B3LYP/6-31++G ** and HF/6-31++G ** levels of theory and compared with X-ray single crystal structures. The conformation of 1 and 2 is anti, while that of 3 is gauche in solid state (X-ray geometry). Based on calculations, there are seven energy minima in potential energy curves. A gauche conformer of 1, 2 and 3 has the lowest energy minimum (in the calculations modeling gas phase conditions) among all the other conformers. This is in contrast to X-ray findings (solid phase) for 1 and 2 but complements the X-ray finding for 3. These results were analyzed by natural bond orbital (NBO) and molecular orbital (MO) to determine the role of intra- and/or intermolecular interactions in the crystal structures.

  6. Pressure waves generated by metastable intermolecular composites in an aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maines, G.; Radulescu, M.; Bacciochini, A.; Jodoin, B.; Lee, J. J.

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, pressure waves generated by a metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) have been measured experimentally in an aqueous environment and correlated with flame speed measurements. Underwater experiments were performed in a 1.0 L high-pressure chamber mounted with high-resolution pressure transducers and designed with optical access. Samples consisting of a stoichiometric mixture of aluminium and copper(II)-oxide particles were evaluated. Two types of samples were synthesized; a mixture of micron-sized raw powders, and ball-milled powders with a fine-scale nano-structure. A planetary mill was used to refine reactant powders from micron- to nano-scale dimensions. The dynamics of the pressure wave and high-pressure gas bubble were monitored via pressure histories and high-speed Schlieren visualization. The effect of reactant particle size has been evaluated quantitatively. The dynamics of the pressure wave were correlated with the rate of expansion of the high-pressure gas bubble.

  7. Pressure waves generated by metastable intermolecular composites in an aqueous environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maines, Geoff; Radulescu, Matei; Bacciochini, Antoine; Jodoin, Bertrand; Lee, Julian

    2013-06-01

    In the present study, pressure waves generated by a metastable intermolecular composite (MIC) have been measured experimentally in an aqueous environment. Experiments were performed in a 1.0 L high pressure chamber mounted with high resolution pressure transducers and designed with optical access. Samples consisting of a stoichiometric mixture of aluminum and copper(II)oxide particles were evaluated. Two types of samples were constructed; a mixture of micron-sized raw powders, and ball milled powders with a lamellated nanostructure. A planetary mill was used to refine reactant powders from micron- to nano-scale dimensions. Manual compaction and cold spray deposition techniques were used to consolidate powders in various densities. The dynamics of the pressure wave and high pressure gas bubble were monitored via pressure data and high-speed Schlieren visualization. The effects of reactant particle size and sample density have been evaluated quantitatively and compared with equilibrium calculations. Dynamics of the pressure wave were correlated with the amount of gas released and the rate of burning of the sample material. Work supported by DRDC Suffield (Dr. Julian J. Lee).

  8. Intermolecular potentials and the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water

    SciTech Connect

    Shvab, I.; Sadus, Richard J.

    2013-11-21

    The ability of intermolecular potentials to correctly predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid water at a density of 0.998 g/cm{sup 3} for a wide range of temperatures (298–650 K) and pressures (0.1–700 MPa) is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for the pressure, thermal pressure coefficient, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal and adiabatic compressibilities, isobaric and isochoric heat capacities, and Joule-Thomson coefficient of liquid water using the non-polarizable SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials. The results are compared with both experiment data and results obtained from the ab initio-based Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine non-additive (MCYna) [J. Li, Z. Zhou, and R. J. Sadus, J. Chem. Phys. 127, 154509 (2007)] potential, which includes polarization contributions. The data clearly indicate that both the SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 potentials are only in qualitative agreement with experiment, whereas the polarizable MCYna potential predicts some properties within experimental uncertainty. This highlights the importance of polarizability for the accurate prediction of the thermodynamic properties of water, particularly at temperatures beyond 298 K.

  9. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  10. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, William S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  11. Ab initio intermolecular potential of Ar-C2H2 refined using high-resolution spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Lauzin, Clément; Coudert, Laurent H; Herman, Michel; Liévin, Jacques

    2013-12-19

    The high-resolution infrared spectra of the ν1 + ν3 (2CH) band of the Ar-C2H2 complex has been recorded from 6544 to 6566 cm(-1). The previously reported K(a) = 1 ← 0, 2 ← 1, and 0 ← 1 subbands were observed and the K(a) = 1 ← 2, 2 ← 3, and 3 ← 2 subbands were assigned for the first time. The intermolecular potential energy surface of this complex has been calculated ab initio and optimized by fitting the new high-resolution data. Refined intermolecular potential energy surfaces have been obtained for the ground vibrational state and for the excited v1 = v3 = 1 stretching state. For the former state, the results of the analysis are satisfactory and the microwave transitions of the complex are reproduced with a root-mean-square deviation of 5 MHz. For the latter state, systematic discrepancies arise in the analysis. PMID:24111882

  12. Gibb's energy and intermolecular free length of 'Borassus Flabellifier' (BF) and Adansonia digitata (AnD) aqueous binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phadke, Sushil; Darshan Shrivastava, Bhakt; Ujle, S. K.; Mishra, Ashutosh; Dagaonkar, N.

    2014-09-01

    One of the potential driving forces behind a chemical reaction is favourable a new quantity known as the Gibbs free energy (G) of the system, which reflects the balance between these forces. Ultrasonic velocity and absorption measurements in liquids and liquid mixtures find extensive application to study the nature of intermolecular forces. Ultrasonic velocity measurements have been successfully employed to detect weak and strong molecular interactions present in binary and ternary liquid mixtures. After measuring the density and ultrasonic velocity of aqueous solution of 'Borassus Flabellifier' BF and Adansonia digitata And, we calculated Gibb's energy and intermolecular free length. The velocity of ultrasonic waves was measured, using a multi-frequency ultrasonic interferometer with a high degree of accuracy operating Model M-84 by M/s Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, at a fixed frequency of 2MHz. Natural sample 'Borassus Flabellifier' BF fruit pulp and Adansonia digitata AnD powder was collected from Dhar, District of MP, India for this study.

  13. Intermolecular vs molecule–substrate interactions: A combined STM and theoretical study of supramolecular phases on graphene/Ru(0001)

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Michael; Uhl, Benedikt; Künzel, Daniela; Hoster, Harry E; Groß, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Summary The competition between intermolecular interactions and long-range lateral variations in the substrate–adsorbate interaction was studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and force field based calculations, by comparing the phase formation of (sub-) monolayers of the organic molecules (i) 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(6-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidine (3,3'-BTP) and (ii) 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) on graphene/Ru(0001). For PTCDA adsorption, a 2D adlayer phase was formed, which extended over large areas, while for 3,3'-BTP adsorption linear or ring like structures were formed, which exclusively populated the areas between the maxima of the moiré structure of the buckled graphene layer. The consequences for the competing intermolecular interactions and corrugation in the adsorption potential are discussed and compared with the theoretical results. PMID:22003444

  14. Intermolecular vs molecule-substrate interactions: A combined STM and theoretical study of supramolecular phases on graphene/Ru(0001).

    PubMed

    Roos, Michael; Uhl, Benedikt; Künzel, Daniela; Hoster, Harry E; Groß, Axel; Behm, R Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    The competition between intermolecular interactions and long-range lateral variations in the substrate-adsorbate interaction was studied by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and force field based calculations, by comparing the phase formation of (sub-) monolayers of the organic molecules (i) 2-phenyl-4,6-bis(6-(pyridin-3-yl)-4-(pyridin-3-yl)pyridin-2-yl)pyrimidine (3,3'-BTP) and (ii) 3,4,9,10-perylene tetracarboxylic-dianhydride (PTCDA) on graphene/Ru(0001). For PTCDA adsorption, a 2D adlayer phase was formed, which extended over large areas, while for 3,3'-BTP adsorption linear or ring like structures were formed, which exclusively populated the areas between the maxima of the moiré structure of the buckled graphene layer. The consequences for the competing intermolecular interactions and corrugation in the adsorption potential are discussed and compared with the theoretical results. PMID:22003444

  15. Synthesis of 3-iodoindoles by the Pd/Cu-catalyzed coupling of N,N-dialkyl-2-iodoanilines and terminal acetylenes, followed by electrophilic cyclization.

    PubMed

    Yue, Dawei; Yao, Tuanli; Larock, Richard C

    2006-01-01

    [reaction: see text] 3-Iodoindoles have been prepared in excellent yields by coupling terminal acetylenes with N,N-dialkyl-o-iodoanilines in the presence of a Pd/Cu catalyst, followed by an electrophilic cyclization of the resulting N,N-dialkyl-o-(1-alkynyl)anilines using I2 in CH2Cl2. Aryl-, vinylic-, alkyl-, and silyl-substituted terminal acetylenes undergo this process to produce excellent yields of 3-iodoindoles. The reactivity of the carbon-nitrogen bond cleavage during cyclization follows the following order: Me > n-Bu, Me > Ph, and cyclohexyl > Me. Subsequent palladium-catalyzed Sonogashira, Suzuki, and Heck reactions of the resulting 3-iodoindoles proceed smoothly in good yields. PMID:16388618

  16. Highly regio- and enantioselective synthesis of N-substituted 2-pyridones: iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Yang, Ze-Peng; Huang, Lin; You, Shu-Li

    2015-02-01

    The first iridium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reaction with 2-hydroxypyridines has been developed, thus providing a highly efficient synthesis of enantioenriched N-substituted 2-pyridone derivatives from readily available starting materials. This protocol features a good tolerance of functional groups in both the allylic carbonates and 2-hydroxypyridines, thereby delivering multifunctionalized heterocyclic products with up to 98% yield and 99% ee. PMID:25504907

  17. Synthesis of chiral biphenol-based diphosphonite ligands and their application in palladium-catalyzed intermolecular asymmetric allylic amination reactions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ce; Chien, Chih-Wei; Ojima, Iwao

    2011-02-01

    A library of new 2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphinoyloxy)-1,1'-binaphthyl (binapo)-type chiral diphosphonite ligands was designed and synthesized based on chiral 3,3',5,5',6,6'-hexasubstituted biphenols. These bop ligands have exhibited excellent efficiency in a palladium-catalyzed intermolecular allylic amination reaction, which provides a key intermediate for the total synthesis of Strychnos indole alkaloids with enantiopurities of up to 96% ee. PMID:21254441

  18. Energetic aminated-azole assemblies from intramolecular and intermolecular N-HO and N-HN hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    He, Chunlin; Yin, Ping; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2016-06-21

    Compounds with adjacent C-NO2, C-NH2 and N-NH2 groups were designed and synthesized via amination. Their structures were characterized by infrared, and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and X-ray single crystal diffraction. The effect of intramolecular and intermolecular N-HO and N-HN hydrogen bonds is discussed. Detonation properties were calculated by EXPLO 5 software based on calculated HOFs and experimental densities. PMID:27270751

  19. Dibromodiphenylstannane: isolated centrosymmetric dimers as a new structure motif for the intermolecular association of diorganotin(IV) dihalides.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Reuter, Hans

    2012-04-01

    In the crystalline state, the low-melting title compound [common name: diphenyltin(IV) dibromide], [SnBr(2)(C(6)H(5))(2)], consists of distorted tetrahedral molecules with compressed halide and enlarged carbon opening angles of 102.741 (9) and 123.53 (8)°, respectively, and Sn-C and Sn-Br bond lengths of 2.109 (2)/2.113 (2) and 2.4710 (3)/2.4947 (3) Å, respectively. Intermolecular Sn...Br interactions, typical for diorganotin(IV) dihalides, R(2)SnHal(2) (with Hal = Cl, Br, I), and sterically less demanding organic groups lead to the formation of a hitherto unknown association pattern consisting of centrosymmetric dimers with an antiparallel orientation of the dipole moments and two weak intermolecular Sn...Br distances of 3.8482 (3) Å between one of the two Br atoms and its neighbouring Sn atom, and vice versa. The second Br atom is not involved in intermolecular interactions and lies somewhat outside the association plane that, therefore, is not coplanar [interplanar angle = 1.750 (2)°] with the tin-halide plane. The new structure motif of intermolecular tin-halide interaction can be classified as 2a(i), which indicates the number of molecules (i.e. '2') composing the oligomer, the antiparallel orientation (i.e. 'a') of their dipole moments and the centre of symmetry (i.e. 'i') giving rise to the association pattern. PMID:22476138

  20. Nonadditive intermolecular forces from the spectroscopy of van der Waals trimers: A theoretical study of Ar[sub 2]-HF

    SciTech Connect

    Ernesti, A.; Hutson, J.M. )

    1995-01-01

    Calculations of vibrational energies and rotational constants are carried out for the van der Waals trimer Ar[sub 2]-HF. The calculations include all five intermolecular degrees of freedom. The different intramolecular vibrational states [ital v] of the HF molecule are separated out adiabatically, so that the calculations are carried out on effective intermolecular potentials for each HF vibrational state separately. Calculations are performed both on pairwise-additive potentials, derived from the well-known Ar-Ar and Ar-HF potentials, and on nonadditive potentials, incorporating various different contributions to the three-body forces. The results are compared with experimental results from high-resolution spectroscopy, and provide detailed information on the anisotropy of the nonadditive intermolecular forces. As in previous work on Ar[sub 2]-HCl, it is found that a very important nonadditive term arises from the interaction between the permanent multipoles of the HF molecule and the exchange quadrupole caused by distortion of the two Ar atoms as they overlap. An improved model of this term is described.

  1. Permutationally invariant fitting of intermolecular potential energy surfaces: A case study of the Ne-C2H2 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Guo, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The permutation invariant polynomial-neural network (PIP-NN) approach is extended to fit intermolecular potential energy surfaces (PESs). Specifically, three PESs were constructed for the Ne-C2H2 system. PES1 is a full nine-dimensional PIP-NN PES directly fitted to ˜42 000 ab initio points calculated at the level of CCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pCVTZ-F12, while the other two consist of the six-dimensional PES for C2H2 [H. Han, A. Li, and H. Guo, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 244312 (2014)] and an intermolecular PES represented in either the PIP (PES2) or PIP-NN (PES3) form. The comparison of fitting errors and their distributions, one-dimensional cuts and two-dimensional contour plots of the PESs, as well as classical trajectory collisional energy transfer dynamics calculations shows that the three PESs are very similar. We conclude that full-dimensional PESs for non-covalent interacting molecular systems can be constructed efficiently and accurately by the PIP-NN approach for both the constituent molecules and intermolecular parts.

  2. Subunit–subunit interactions are critical for proton sensitivity of ROMK: Evidence in support of an intermolecular gating mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Qiang; MacGregor, Gordon G.; Dong, Ke; Giebisch, Gerhard; Hebert, Steven C.

    2006-01-01

    The tetrameric K channel ROMK provides an important pathway for K secretion by the mammalian kidney, and the gating of this channel is highly sensitive to changes in cytosolic pH. Although charge–charge interactions have been implicated in pH sensing by this K channel tetramer, the molecular mechanism linking pH sensing and the gating of ion channels is poorly understood. The x-ray crystal structure KirBac1.1, a prokaryotic ortholog of ROMK, has suggested that channel gating involves intermolecular interactions of the N- and C-terminal domains of adjacent subunits. Here we studied channel gating behavior to changes in pH using giant patch clamping of Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing WT or mutant ROMK, and we present evidence that no single charged residue provides the pH sensor. Instead, we show that N–C- and C–C-terminal subunit–subunit interactions form salt bridges, which function to stabilize ROMK in the open state and which are modified by protons. We identify a highly conserved C–C-terminal arginine–glutamate (R-E) ion pair that forms an intermolecular salt bridge and responds to changes in proton concentration. Our results support the intermolecular model for pH gating of inward rectifier K channels. PMID:16446432

  3. Isolating the non-polar contributions to the intermolecular potential for water-alkane interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballal, Deepti; Venkataraman, Pradeep; Fouad, Wael A.; Cox, Kenneth R.; Chapman, Walter G.

    2014-08-01

    Intermolecular potential models for water and alkanes describe pure component properties fairly well, but fail to reproduce properties of water-alkane mixtures. Understanding interactions between water and non-polar molecules like alkanes is important not only for the hydrocarbon industry but has implications to biological processes as well. Although non-polar solutes in water have been widely studied, much less work has focused on water in non-polar solvents. In this study we calculate the solubility of water in different alkanes (methane to dodecane) at ambient conditions where the water content in alkanes is very low so that the non-polar water-alkane interactions determine solubility. Only the alkane-rich phase is simulated since the fugacity of water in the water rich phase is calculated from an accurate equation of state. Using the SPC/E model for water and TraPPE model for alkanes along with Lorentz-Berthelot mixing rules for the cross parameters produces a water solubility that is an order of magnitude lower than the experimental value. It is found that an effective water Lennard-Jones energy ɛW/k = 220 K is required to match the experimental water solubility in TraPPE alkanes. This number is much higher than used in most simulation water models (SPC/E—ɛW/k = 78.2 K). It is surprising that the interaction energy obtained here is also higher than the water-alkane interaction energy predicted by studies on solubility of alkanes in water. The reason for this high water-alkane interaction energy is not completely understood. Some factors that might contribute to the large interaction energy, such as polarizability of alkanes, octupole moment of methane, and clustering of water at low concentrations in alkanes, are examined. It is found that, though important, these factors do not completely explain the anomalously strong attraction between alkanes and water observed experimentally.

  4. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-10-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  5. Possible intermolecular interaction between quinolones and biphenylacetic acid inhibits gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor sites.

    PubMed Central

    Akahane, K; Kimura, Y; Tsutomi, Y; Hayakawa, I

    1994-01-01

    The combination of some new quinolone antibacterial agents with 4-biphenylacetic acid (BPAA), a metabolite of fenbufen, is known to specifically induce functional blockade of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. The mechanisms of these drug interactions were further examined. Scatchard analysis of [3H]muscimol binding to rat brain plasma membranes in the presence of enoxacin and BPAA revealed that a significant decrease in the number of muscimol binding sites was produced without affecting the affinity of binding to the receptors. In the presence of norfloxacin, BPAA inhibited muscimol binding the most potently of the six BPAA-related compounds tested. Fenbufen and 9,10-dihydro-gamma-oxo-2-phenanthrenebutyric acid also inhibited the binding, and 4-biphenylcarboxylic acid and methyl 4-biphenylacetate inhibited it slightly, but 3-benzoylpropionic acid exhibited no competitive inhibition. Accordingly, hybrid molecules of norfloxacin and BPAA were synthesized for stereochemical analysis of these drug interactions. A hybrid with a -CONH(CH2)3- chain between norfloxacin and BPAA (flexible structure) inhibited muscimol binding, and intracisternal injection of this hybrid caused clonic convulsions in mice more potently than the combination of norfloxacin and BPAA did. In contrast, a hybrid linked by -CONH- (stretched structure) showed almost no such inhibitory effect. 1H NMR analysis indicated the presence of intramolecular attraction at the quinoline ring of the hybrid exhibiting the antagonistic activity. These results suggest the possibility that quinolones and BPAA interact with the GABA receptor at nearby sites and that the binding affinity of quinolones to the GABA receptors is largely enhanced by the intermolecular interaction with BPAA. PMID:7840564

  6. Using electronic polarization from the internal continuum (EPIC) for intermolecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Truchon, Jean-François; Nicholl's, Anthony; Grant, J Andrew; Iftimie, Radu I; Roux, Benoît; Bayly, Christopher I

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the vacuum-phase molecular polarizability tensor of various molecules has been accurately modeled (Truchon et al., J Chem Theory Comput 2008, 4, 1480) with an intramolecular continuum dielectric model. This preliminary study showed that electronic polarization can be accurately modeled when combined with appropriate dielectric constants and atomic radii. In this article, using the parameters developed to reproduce ab initio quantum mechanical (QM) molecular polarizability tensors, we extend the application of the "electronic polarization from internal continuu" (EPIC) approach to intermolecular interactions. We first derive a dielectric-adapted least-square-fit procedure similar to RESP, called DRESP, to generate atomic partial charges based on a fit to a QM abinitio electrostatic potential (ESP). We also outline a procedure to adapt any existing charge model to EPIC. The ability of this to reproduce local polarization, as opposed to uniform polarization, is also examined leading to an induced ESP relative root mean square deviation of 1%, relative to ab initio, when averaged over 37 molecules including aromatics and alkanes. The advantage of using a continuum model as opposed to an atom-centered polarizable potential is illustrated with a symmetrically perturbed atom and benzene. We apply EPIC to a cation-pi binding system formed by an atomic cation and benzene and show that the EPIC approach can accurately account for the induction energy. Finally, this article shows that the ab initio electrostatic component in the difficult case of the H-bonded 4-pyridone dimer, a highly polar and polarized interaction, is well reproduced without adjusting the vacuum-phase parameters. PMID:19598266

  7. The Assembly and Intermolecular Properties of the Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 Molecular Chaperone Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Trcka, Filip; Durech, Michal; Man, Petr; Hernychova, Lenka; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borivoj

    2014-01-01

    Maintenance of protein homeostasis by molecular chaperones Hsp70 and Hsp90 requires their spatial and functional coordination. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 is influenced by their interaction with the network of co-chaperone proteins, some of which contain tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains. Critical to these interactions are TPR domains that target co-chaperone binding to the EEVD-COOH motif that terminates Hsp70/Hsp90. Recently, the two-TPR domain-containing protein, Tomm34, was reported to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Here we characterize the structural basis of Tomm34-Hsp70/Hsp90 interactions. Using multiple methods, including pull-down assays, fluorescence polarization, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and site-directed mutagenesis, we defined the binding activities and specificities of Tomm34 TPR domains toward Hsp70 and Hsp90. We found that Tomm34 TPR1 domain specifically binds Hsp70. This interaction is partly mediated by a non-canonical TPR1 two-carboxylate clamp and is strengthened by so far unidentified additional intermolecular contacts. The two-carboxylate clamp of the isolated TPR2 domain has affinity for both chaperones, but as part of the full-length Tomm34 protein, the TPR2 domain binds specifically Hsp90. These binding properties of Tomm34 TPR domains thus enable simultaneous binding of Hsp70 and Hsp90. Importantly, we provide evidence for the existence of an Hsp70-Tomm34-Hsp90 tripartite complex. In addition, we defined the basic conformational demands of the Tomm34-Hsp90 interaction. These results suggest that Tomm34 represents a novel scaffolding co-chaperone of Hsp70 and Hsp90, which may facilitate Hsp70/Hsp90 cooperation during protein folding. PMID:24567332

  8. Helical folding of conjugated oligo(phenyleneethynylene): chain-length dependence, solvent effects, and intermolecular assembly.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ningbo; Yan, Qifan; Luo, Zhouyang; Zhai, You; Zhao, Dahui

    2012-10-01

    As a representative folding system that features a conjugated backbone, a series of monodispersed (o-phenyleneethynylene)-alt-(p-phenyleneethynylene) (PE) oligomers of varied chain length and different side chains were studied. Molecules with the same backbone but different side-chain structures were shown to exhibit similar helical conformations in respectively suitable solvents. Specifically, oligomers with dodecyloxy side chains folded into the helical structure in apolar aliphatic solvents, whereas an analogous oligomer with tri(ethylene glycol) (Tg) side chains adopted the same conformation in polar solvents. The fact that the oligomers with the same backbone manifested a similar folded conformation independent of side chains and the nature of the solvent confirmed the concept that the driving force for folding was the intramolecular aromatic stacking and solvophobic interactions. Although all were capable of inducing folding, different solvents were shown to bestow slightly varied folding stability. The chain-length dependence study revealed a nonlinear correlation between the folding stability with backbone chain length. A critical size of approximately 10 PE units was identified for the system, beyond which folding occurred. This observation corroborated the helical nature of the folded structure. Remarkably, based on the absorption and emission spectra, the effective conjugation length of the system extended more effectively under the folded state than under random conformations. Moreover, as evidenced by the optical spectra and dynamic light-scattering studies, intermolecular association took place among the helical oligomers with Tg side chains in aqueous solution. The demonstrated ability of such a conjugated foldamer in self-assembling into hierarchical supramolecular structures promises application potential for the system. PMID:22829335

  9. Keto-enol tautomerization and intermolecular proton transfer in photoionized cyclopentanone dimer in the gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Arup K.; Chatterjee, Piyali; Chakraborty, Tapas

    2014-07-01

    Time-of-flight mass spectra of cyclopentanone and its clusters cooled in a supersonic jet expansion have been measured following 4-, 3-, and 2-photon ionizations by the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th harmonic wavelengths, respectively, of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The mass spectra reveal signatures of energetically favored keto to enol tautomerization of the molecular ion leading to intermolecular proton transfer, and this observation is found sharply dependent on the ionization wavelengths used. Electronic structure calculation predicts that in spite of the energetic preference, keto-enol conversion barrier of isolated molecular ion is high. However, the barrier is significantly reduced in a CH⋯O hydrogen-bonded dimer of the molecule. The transition states associated with tautomeric conversion of both cyclopentanone monomer and dimer cations have been identified by means of intrinsic reaction co-ordinate calculation. In a supersonic jet expansion, although a weakly bound dimer is readily generated, the corresponding cation and also the protonated counterpart are observed only for ionization by 532 nm. For other two ionization wavelengths, these species do not register in the mass spectra, where the competing reaction channels via α-cleavage of the ring become dominant. In contrast to the report of a recent study, we notice that the intact molecular ion largely survives fragmentations when ionized from the 2-photon resonant 3p Rydberg state as intermediate using nanosecond laser pulses, and the corresponding resonant 3-photon ionization spectrum has been recorded probing the intact molecular ion.

  10. Aggregation and other intermolecular interactions of biological buffers observed by capillary electrophoresis and UV photometry.

    PubMed

    Vespalec, R; Vlcková, M; Horáková, H

    2004-10-01

    Electrophoretic and photometric experiments strongly indicate that monovalent anions, which arise by deprotonation of the nitrogen atom in zwitterionic Good's buffers 3-(cyclohexylamino)-2-hydroxy-1-propanesulfonic acid (CAPSO) and 3-morpholinopropanesulfonic acid (MOPS), spontaneously aggregate. Cationic migration of sanguinarine (SA) and chelerythrine (CHE) in highly alkaline 1,3-bis[tris(hydroxymethyl)methylamino]propane (Bis-Tris-propane), in which the concentration of cations of both alkaloids is negligible, may be explained by the existence of an aggregate, which contains uncharged sanguinarine or chelerythrine and one monovalent cation of Bis-Tris-propane at least. Tendency of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), bis (2-hydroxyethyl)iminotris(hydroxymethyl)methane (Bis-Tris) and Bis-Tris-propane cations to ion pairing with synthetic cluster borane anions and with fused silica markedly rises up with the size and charge of these cations. The drop in mobility of cluster borane compounds sometimes exceeds 50% of their mobility found at identical pH and ionic strength in buffers with sodium cation. The electroosmosis drop approached 70% if background electrolyte contained Bis-Tris-propane cations instead of sodium cations. Nitrate, taken as a model inorganic ion, and four randomly chosen organic anions interacted markedly less with Tris, Bis-Tris and Bis-Tris-propane cations than cluster borane anions. 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic (MES) acid anions present in background electrolyte affect the ion pairing of Tris, Bis-Tris and Bis-Tris-propane cations with anionic analytes and, in this way influence also mobilites of these anionic analytes. Limited hydrophilicity at least one of interacting species appears to be the most probable cause of observed intermolecular interactions of biological buffers. PMID:15532558

  11. Intermolecular interactions and electrostatic properties of the β-hydroquinone apohost: implications for supramolecular chemistry.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Henrik F; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Overgaard, Jacob; Koutsantonis, George A; Spackman, Mark A; Iversen, Bo B

    2011-11-17

    The crystal structure of the β-polymorph of hydroquinone (β-HQ), the apohost of a large family of clathrates, is reported with a specific focus on intermolecular interactions and the electrostatic nature of its cavity. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals subtle close contacts between two interconnecting HQ networks, and the local packing and related close contacts were examined by breakdown of the fingerprint plot. An experimental multipole model containing anisotropic thermal parameters for hydrogen atoms has been successfully refined against 15(2) K single microcrystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The experimental electron density model has been compared with a theoretical electron density calculated with the molecule embedded in its own crystal field. Hirshfeld charges, interaction energies and the electrostatic potential calculated for both models are qualitatively in good agreement, but small differences in the electrostatic potential persist due to charge transfer from all hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atoms in the theoretical model. The electrostatic potential in the center of the cavity is positive, very shallow and highly symmetric, suggesting that the inclusion of polar molecules in the void will involve a balance between opposing effects. The electric field is by symmetry zero in the center of the cavity, increasing to a value of 0.0185 e/Å(2) (0.27 V/Å) 1 Å along the 3-fold axis and 0.0105 e/Å(2) (0.15 V/Å) 1 Å along the perpendicular direction. While these values are substantial in a macroscopic context, they are quite small for a molecular cavity and are not expected to strongly polarize a guest molecule. PMID:21809888

  12. Energy Decomposition Analysis with a Stable Charge-Transfer Term for Interpreting Intermolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lao, Ka Un; Herbert, John M

    2016-06-14

    Many schemes for decomposing quantum-chemical calculations of intermolecular interaction energies into physically meaningful components can be found in the literature, but the definition of the charge-transfer (CT) contribution has proven particularly vexing to define in a satisfactory way and typically depends strongly on the choice of basis set. This is problematic, especially in cases of dative bonding and for open-shell complexes involving cation radicals, for which one might expect significant CT. Here, we analyze CT interactions predicted by several popular energy decomposition analyses and ultimately recommend the definition afforded by constrained density functional theory (cDFT), as it is scarcely dependent on basis set and provides results that are in accord with chemical intuition in simple cases, and in quantitative agreement with experimental estimates of the CT energy, where available. For open-shell complexes, the cDFT approach affords CT energies that are in line with trends expected based on ionization potentials and electron affinities whereas some other definitions afford unreasonably large CT energies in large-gap systems, which are sometimes artificially offset by underestimation of van der Waals interactions by density functional theory. Our recommended energy decomposition analysis is a composite approach, in which cDFT is used to define the CT component of the interaction energy and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) defines the electrostatic, polarization, Pauli repulsion, and van der Waals contributions. SAPT/cDFT provides a stable and physically motivated energy decomposition that, when combined with a new implementation of open-shell SAPT, can be applied to supramolecular complexes involving molecules, ions, and/or radicals. PMID:27049750

  13. Intermolecular Interactions and Electrostatic Properties of the [beta]-Hydroquinone Apohost: Implications for Supramolecular Chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, Henrik F.; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Overgaard, Jacob; Koutsantonis, George A.; Spackman, Mark A.; Iversen, Bo B.

    2012-02-07

    The crystal structure of the {beta}-polymorph of hydroquinone ({beta}-HQ), the apohost of a large family of clathrates, is reported with a specific focus on intermolecular interactions and the electrostatic nature of its cavity. Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals subtle close contacts between two interconnecting HQ networks, and the local packing and related close contacts were examined by breakdown of the fingerprint plot. An experimental multipole model containing anisotropic thermal parameters for hydrogen atoms has been successfully refined against 15(2) K single microcrystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data. The experimental electron density model has been compared with a theoretical electron density calculated with the molecule embedded in its own crystal field. Hirshfeld charges, interaction energies and the electrostatic potential calculated for both models are qualitatively in good agreement, but small differences in the electrostatic potential persist due to charge transfer from all hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atoms in the theoretical model. The electrostatic potential in the center of the cavity is positive, very shallow and highly symmetric, suggesting that the inclusion of polar molecules in the void will involve a balance between opposing effects. The electric field is by symmetry zero in the center of the cavity, increasing to a value of 0.0185 e/{angstrom}{sup 2} (0.27 V/{angstrom}) 1 {angstrom} along the 3-fold axis and 0.0105 e/{angstrom}{sup 2} (0.15 V/{angstrom}) 1 {angstrom} along the perpendicular direction. While these values are substantial in a macroscopic context, they are quite small for a molecular cavity and are not expected to strongly polarize a guest molecule.

  14. The role of entropy and polarity in intermolecular contacts in protein crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Cieślik, Marcin; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2009-05-01

    Logistic regression was used to study the amino-acid composition and structure of crystal contacts in monomeric proteins. Crystal contacts are generally depleted of large flexible amino acids and enriched in small and hydrophobic residues such as Gly and Leu; additionally, larger contacts have cores depleted of polar residues. The integrity and X-ray diffraction quality of protein crystals depend on the three-dimensional order of relatively weak but reproducible intermolecular contacts. Despite their importance, relatively little attention has been paid to the chemical and physical nature of these contacts, which are often regarded as stochastic and thus not different from randomly selected protein surface patches. Here, logistic regression was used to analyze crystal contacts in a database of 821 unambiguously monomeric proteins with structures determined to 2.5 Å resolution or better. It is shown that the propensity of a surface residue for incorporation into a crystal contact is not a linear function of its solvent-accessible surface area and that amino acids with low exposed surfaces, which are typically small and hydrophobic, have been underestimated with respect to their contact-forming potential by earlier area-based calculations. For any given solvent-exposed surface, small and hydrophobic residues are more likely to be involved in crystal contacts than large and charged amino acids. Side-chain entropy is the single physicochemical property that is most negatively correlated with the involvement of amino acids in crystal contacts. It is also shown that crystal contacts with larger buried surfaces containing eight or more amino acids have cores that are depleted of polar amino acids.

  15. Energy of the quasi-free electron in H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}: Probing intermolecular potentials within the local Wigner-Seitz model

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, C. M. Krynski, Kamil; Streeter, Zachary; Findley, G. L.

    2015-12-14

    We present for the first time the quasi-free electron energy V{sub 0}(ρ) for H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} from gas to liquid densities, on noncritical isotherms and on a near critical isotherm in each fluid. These data illustrate the ability of field enhanced photoemission (FEP) to determine V{sub 0}(ρ) accurately in strongly absorbing fluids (e.g., O{sub 2}) and fluids with extremely low critical temperatures (e.g., H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}). We also show that the isotropic local Wigner-Seitz model for V{sub 0}(ρ) — when coupled with thermodynamic data for the fluid — can yield optimized parameters for intermolecular potentials, as well as zero kinetic energy electron scattering lengths.

  16. Contrasting intermolecular and intramolecular exciplex formation of a 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad.

    PubMed

    Imoto, Mitsutaka; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Takayuki; Taniguchi, Hisaji; Tamaki, Akihiro; Takeda, Motonori; Mizuno, Kazuhiko

    2010-05-01

    An intramolecular exciplex is formed upon excitation of the cyclohexane solution of the 1,4-dicyano-2-methylnaphthalene-N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine dyad, but little if any intramolecular CT complex exists in the ground state of this substance in solution. In contrast, in the crystalline state, the dyad forms an intermolecular mixed-stack CT complex in the ground state and an intermolecular exciplex when it is photoexcited. PMID:20353197

  17. Optical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, J. J.; Gundersen, J.; Lee, A. T.; Richards, P. L.; Wollack, E.

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes contributions to the CMBpol Technology Study Workshop concerning optical coupling structures. These are structures in or near the focal plane which convert the free space wave to a superconducting microstrip on a SI wafer, or to the waveguide input to a HEMT receiver. In addition to an introduction and conclusions by the editor, this paper includes independent contributions by Bock on 'Planar Antenna-Coupled Bolometers for CMB Polarimetry', by Gunderson and Wollack on 'Millimeter-Wave Platlet Feeds', and by Lee on 'Multi-band Dual-Polarization Lens-coupled Planar Antennas for Bolometric CMB polarimetry.'

  18. Aerobic palladium(II)-catalyzed dehydrogenative heck reaction in the synthesis of pyrenyl fluorophores. a photophysical study of β-pyrenyl acrylates in solution and in the solid state.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, Michał; Zakrzewski, Janusz; Métivier, Rémi; Brosseau, Arnaud; Makal, Anna; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    An aerobic dehydrogenative Heck reaction of pyrene (1a) and 2,7-di-tert-butylpyrene (1b) with ethyl acrylate is reported. The reaction is catalyzed by a Pd(OAc)2/4,5-diazafluoren-9-one (DAF) system and takes place in acetic or pivalic acid as solvents at 110-130 °C. The reaction of 1a afforded a 6:1 mixture of C-1- and C-4-alkenylated pyrenes (2a and 3a, respectively) in 71% yield. In the case of 1b, only a C-4-substituted product (3b) was formed in 46% yield. Compounds 2a and 3a,b exhibited fluorescence in solution and in the solid state. In chloroform and THF solution the fluorescence maxima were in the range of 440-465 nm, and quantum yields decreased in the order 2a > 3a> 3b. In the solid state, 3a,b showed blue-green fluorescence (ΦF = 0.26 and 0.14, respectively), whereas 2a emitted yellow-green fluorescence) (ΦF = 0.35). Besides blue-emitting monomers, the presence of green-emitting aggregated species (preformed dimers) in the crystals of 3a,b and red-emitting dynamic excimers in the crystals of 2a has been demonstrated. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses of 2a and 3b confirmed π-stacking of pyrenyl moieties in the crystals of the former and the absence of stacking in the crystals of the latter compound. PMID:25642784

  19. TDDFT study of twisted intramolecular charge transfer and intermolecular double proton transfer in the excited state of 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol in ethanol solvent.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Ying; Cong, Lin; Li, Hui

    2015-02-25

    Time-dependent density functional theory method at the def-TZVP/B3LYP level was employed to investigate the intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding dynamics in the first excited (S1) state of 4'-dimethylaminoflavonol (DMAF) monomer and in ethanol solution. In the DMAF monomer, we demonstrated that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) takes place in the S1 state. This excited state ICT process was followed by intramolecular proton transfer. Our calculated results are in good agreement with the mechanism proposed in experimental work. For the hydrogen-bonded DMAF-EtOH complex, it was demonstrated that the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can induce the formation of the twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state and the conformational twisting is along the C3-C4 bond. Moreover, the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can also facilitate the intermolecular double proton transfer in the TICT state. A stepwise intermolecular double proton transfer process was revealed. Therefore, the intermolecular hydrogen bonds can alter the mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer and proton transfer in the excited state for the DMAF molecule. PMID:25282020

  20. The fragment spin difference scheme for triplet-triplet energy transfer coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Zhi-Qiang; Hsu, Chao-Ping

    2010-08-01

    To calculate the electronic couplings in both inter- and intramolecular triplet energy transfer (TET), we have developed the "fragment spin difference" (FSD) scheme. The FSD was a generalization from the "fragment charge difference" (FCD) method of Voityuk et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 117, 5607 (2002)] for electron transfer (ET) coupling. In FSD, the spin population difference was used in place of the charge difference in FCD. FSD is derived from the eigenstate energies and populations, and therefore the FSD couplings contain all contributions in the Hamiltonian as well as the potential overlap effect. In the present work, two series of molecules, all-trans-polyene oligomers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were tested for intermolecular TET study. The TET coupling results are largely similar to those from the previously developed direct coupling scheme, with FSD being easier and more flexible in use. On the other hand, the Dexter's exchange integral value, a quantity that is often used as an approximate for the TET coupling, varies in a large range as compared to the corresponding TET coupling. To test the FSD for intramolecular TET, we have calculated the TET couplings between zinc(II)-porphyrin and free-base porphyrin separated by different numbers of p-phenyleneethynylene bridge units. Our estimated rate constants are consistent with experimentally measured TET rates. The FSD method can be used for both intermolecular and intramolecular TET, regardless of their symmetry. This general applicability is an improvement over most existing methodologies.

  1. Mechanochemical mechanism for fast reaction of metastable intermolecular composites based on dispersion of liquid metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Asay, Blaine W.; Son, Steven F.; Pantoya, Michelle

    2007-04-01

    An unexpected mechanism for fast reaction of Al nanoparticles covered by a thin oxide shell during fast heating is proposed and justified theoretically and experimentally. For nanoparticles, the melting of Al occurs before the oxide fracture. The volume change due to melting induces pressures of 1-2 GPa and causes dynamic spallation of the shell. The unbalanced pressure between the Al core and the exposed surface creates an unloading wave with high tensile pressures resulting in dispersion of atomic scale liquid Al clusters. These clusters fly at high velocity and their reaction is not limited by diffusion (this is the opposite of traditional mechanisms for micron particles and for nanoparticles at slow heating). Physical parameters controlling the melt dispersion mechanism are found by our analysis. In addition to an explanation of the extremely short reaction time, the following correspondence between our theory and experiments are obtained: (a) For the particle radius below some critical value, the flame propagation rate and the ignition time delay are independent of the radius; (b) damage of the oxide shell suppresses the melt dispersion mechanism and promotes the traditional diffusive oxidation mechanism; (c) nanoflakes react more like micron size (rather than nanosize) spherical particles. The reasons why the melt dispersion mechanism cannot operate for the micron particles or slow heating of nanoparticles are determined. Methods to promote the melt dispersion mechanism, to expand it to micron particles, and to improve efficiency of energetic metastable intermolecular composites are formulated. In particular, the following could promote the melt dispersion mechanism in micron particles: (a) Increasing the temperature at which the initial oxide shell is formed; (b) creating initial porosity in the Al; (c) mixing of the Al with a material with a low (even negative) thermal expansion coefficient or with a phase transformation accompanied by a volume reduction

  2. Studies on the stability and intermolecular interactions of cellulose and polylactide systems using molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karst, David T.

    The stability and intermolecular interactions of cellulose and polylactide (PLA) systems were studied using molecular modeling. This work explains how grafting various groups onto cellulose increases hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages of cellulose. A substituent increases hydrolysis of cellulose by serving as an anchor to the end of the cleaved cellulose to which it is bonded, making it less mobile, and allowing it to have stronger interactions than those in pure hydrolyzed cellulose. Hydrolysis increases with the size of the substituent. Molecules sorbed but not grafted to cellulose do not increase hydrolysis. Hydrolysis mainly occurs at glucoses bonded to the substituent. A substituent on the sixth carbon position of cellulose increases hydrolysis to a greater extent than does one on the second or third carbon position. The effect of blending poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(D-lactide) (PDLA) and the effect of various arrangements of L-lactide and D-lactide in poly(L-lactide-co-D-lactide) on the resistance of polylactide (PLA) to hydrolysis has been explained. Among the homopolymer blends, the 50/50 PLLA/PDLA blend has the greatest resistance to hydrolysis due to its having stronger hydrogen-bonding and van der Waals forces than pure PLLA or PDLA. The change in potential energy for hydrolysis decreases linearly with increasing % PLLA or % PDLA from 0 to 50%. Among the copolymers containing a given percentage of L-lactide and D-lactide, those containing longer blocks of L-lactide and D-lactide have greater resistance to hydrolysis compared to those with shorter blocks or random copolymers because copolymers with longer blocks are more stable before hydrolysis compared to the other copolymers. Among the copolymers with long blocks of L- and D-lactide, those containing 50% L-lactide have a greater resistance to hydrolysis compared to the copolymers with 26% or 74% L-lactide. Blends or copolymers that are mirror images of each other have the same resistance to

  3. Intermolecular hydroamination of vinylarenes by iminoanilide alkaline-earth catalysts: a computational scrutiny of mechanistic pathways.

    PubMed

    Tobisch, Sven

    2014-07-14

    A thorough computational exploration of the mechanistic intricacies of the intermolecular hydroamination (HA) of vinylarenes by a recently reported class of kinetically stabilised iminoanilide [{N^N}Ae{N(SiMe3)2}⋅(THF)n] alkaline-earth amido compounds (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) is presented. Two distinct mechanistic pathways for catalytic HA mediated by alkaline-earth and rare-earth compounds have emerged over the years that account equally well for the specific features of the process. On one hand, a concerted proton-assisted pathway to deliver the amine product in a single step can be invoked and, on the other, a stepwise σ-insertive pathway that comprises a rapid, reversible migratory olefin insertion step linked to a less facile, irreversible Ae-C alkyl bond aminolysis. The results of the study presented herein, which employed a heavily benchmarked and reliable DFT methodology, supports a stepwise σ-insertive pathway that involves fast and reversible migratory C=C bond insertion into the polar Ae-N pyrrolido σ bond. This proceeds with strict 2,1 regioselectivity via a highly polarised four-centre transition state (TS) structure, linked to irreversible intramolecular Ae-C bond aminolysis of the alkaline-earth alkyl intermediate as the energetically favourable mechanism. Turnover-limiting aminolysis is consistent with the significant KIE measured; the DFT-derived effective barrier matches the Eyring parameter empirically determined for the best-performing {N^N}Ba(NR2) catalyst gratifyingly well. It also predicts the observed trend in reactivity (Ca

  4. Probing Intramolecular versus Intermolecular CO2 Adsorption on Amine-Grafted SBA-15.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Chun-Jae; Lee, Li-Chen; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-12-15

    A mesoporous silica SBA-15 is modified with an array of amine-containing organosilanes including (i) propylamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NH2 (MONO), (ii) propylethylenediamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 (DI), (iii) propyldiethylenetriamine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2NHCH2CH2NH2 (TRI), and (iv) propyltriethylenetetramine, SiCH2CH2CH2NHCH2CH2N(CH2CH2NH2)2 (TREN) and the low loading silane adsorbents (∼0.45 mmol silane/g) are evaluated for their CO2 adsorption properties, with a focus on gaining insight into the propensity for intramolecular vs intermolecular CO2 adsorption. Adsorption isotherms at low CO2 coverages are measured while simultaneously recording the heat evolved via a Tian-Calvet calorimeter. The results are compared on a silane molecule efficiency basis (mol CO2 adsorbed/mol silane) to assess the potential for intramolecular CO2 adsorption, employing two amine groups in a single silane molecule. As the number of amines in the silane molecule increases (MONO < DI < TREN ∼ TRI), the silane molecule efficiency is enhanced owing to the ability to intramolecularly capture CO2. Analysis of the CO2 uptake for samples with the surface silanols removed by capping demonstrates that cooperative uptake due to amine-CO2-silanol interactions is also possible over these adsorbents and is the primary mode of sorption for the MONO material at the studied low silane loading. As the propensity for intramolecular CO2 capture increases due to the presence of multiple amines in a single silane molecule (MONO < DI < TREN ∼ TRI), the measured heat of adsorption also increases. This study of various amine-containing silanes at low coverage is the first to provide significant, direct evidence for intramolecular CO2 capture in a single silane molecule. Furthermore, it provides evidence for the relative heats of adsorption for physisorption on a silanol laden surface (ca. 37 kJ/mol), a silanol-capped surface (ca. 25 kJ/mol), via amine-CO2-silanol interactions (ca. 46 kJ/mol), and via amine-CO2

  5. Room-Temperature Direct β-Arylation of Thiophenes and Benzo[b]thiophenes and Kinetic Evidence for a Heck-type Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The first example of a regioselective β-arylation of benzo[b]thiophenes and thiophenes at room temperature with aryl iodides as coupling partners is reported. This methodology stands out for its operational simplicity: no prefunctionalization of either starting material is required, the reaction is insensitive to air and moisture, and it proceeds at room temperature. The mild conditions afford wide functional group tolerance, often with complete regioselectivity and high yields, resulting in a highly efficient catalytic system. Initial mechanistic studies, including 13C and 2H KIEs, suggest that this process occurs via a concerted carbo-palladation across the thiophene double bond, followed by a base-assisted anti-elimination. PMID:26788885

  6. Pd-porphyrin functionalized ionic liquid-modified mesoporous SBA-15: An efficient and recyclable catalyst for solvent-free Heck reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Guo-Feng; Popovic, Zora; Lu, Yong; Liu, Ye

    2010-11-15

    The Pd-porphyrin functionalized ionic liquid could be covalently anchored in the channels of mesoporous SBA-15 through ion-pair electrostatic interaction between imidazolium-cationic and Pd-porphyrin-anionic moieties. Such modified SBA-15 materials were prepared successfully via a post-synthesis (surface sol-gel polymerization) or a one-pot sol-gel procedure, which were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, N{sub 2} sorption, elemental analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. The modified SBA-15 materials are efficient and recyclable catalysts for cross-coupling of aryl iodides or activated aryl bromides with ethyl acrylate without activity loss and Pd leaching even after 9 runs.

  7. Ferromagnetic coupling mediated by Coπ non-covalent contacts in a pentacoordinate Co(ii) compound showing field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization.

    PubMed

    Nemec, I; Herchel, R; Trávníček, Z

    2016-08-01

    [Co(II)(dpt)(NCS)2], where dpt = bis(3-aminopropyl)amine, was identified as a pentacoordinate Co(II) compound showing field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. Furthermore, intermolecular ferromagnetic coupling mediated by Coπ non-covalent contacts, where π orbitals originate from the thiocyanato ligand, is reported for the first time. PMID:27435418

  8. Visible-Light-Promoted Direct Amination of Phenols via Oxidative Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yating; Huang, Binbin; Yang, Chao; Xia, Wujiong

    2016-07-15

    A transition-metal-free approach was disclosed for intermolecular aryl C-N bonds formation between phenols and cyclic anilines via cross-dehydrogenative coupling (CDC) amination that was mediated by visible light, wherein K2S2O8 served as an external oxidant. The salient features of this protocol include circumventing the requirement for prefunctionalized starting materials and achieving single regioselectivity of amination adducts at room temperature. PMID:27364730

  9. Vibrational lifetimes of cyanide ion in aqueous solution from molecular dynamics simulations: intermolecular vs intramolecular accepting modes.

    PubMed

    Talapatra, Surma; Geva, Eitan

    2014-07-01

    The lifetimes of the first vibrational state of (12)C(14)N(-) and (13)C(15)N(-) dissolved in H2O or D2O were calculated. The calculations were based on the Landau-Teller formula that puts the vibrational lifetimes in terms of the autocorrelation function of the force exerted on the C-N stretch by the remaining degrees of freedom. The force autocorrelation functions were calculated from classical molecular dynamics simulations of the four cyanide/water isotopomer combinations ((12)C(14)N(-)/H2O, (12)C(14)N(-)/D2O, (13)C(15)N(-)/H2O, (13)C(15)N(-)/D2O). The cyanide ion was described by a polarizable force field, and the water was described by either the rigid SPC/E model or the flexible SPC/Fw model, in order to compare two different types of accepting modes, namely, (1) intermolecular (translational and rotational) solvent accepting modes (rigid SPC/E water) and (2) intramolecular (vibrational) solvent accepting modes (flexible SPC/Fw water). Since quantum effects are expected to increase in size with increasing frequency mismatch between relaxing and accepting modes, different quantum correction factors were employed depending on the identity of the accepting modes, more specifically, the harmonic/Schofield quantum correction factor in the case of intermolecular accepting modes and the standard quantum correction factor in the case of intramolecular accepting modes. The lifetimes with either the rigid SPC/E or flexible SPC/Fw water models were found to be in good quantitative agreement with the experimentally measured values for all isotopomer combinations. Our results suggest that taking into account quantum effects on the vibrational energy relaxation of cyanide in aqueous solution can make the intermolecular pathway at least as likely as the intramolecular pathway. PMID:24927159

  10. Molecular and ionic diffusion in aqueous - deep eutectic solvent mixtures: probing inter-molecular interactions using PFG NMR.

    PubMed

    D'Agostino, Carmine; Gladden, Lynn F; Mantle, Mick D; Abbott, Andrew P; Ahmed, Essa I; Al-Murshedi, Azhar Y M; Harris, Robert C

    2015-06-21

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR has been used to probe self-diffusion of molecular and ionic species in aqueous mixtures of choline chloride (ChCl) based deep eutectic solvents (DESs), in order to elucidate the effect of water on motion and inter-molecular interactions between the different species in the mixtures, namely the Ch(+) cation and hydrogen bond donor (HBD). The results reveal an interesting and complex behaviour of such mixtures at a molecular level. In general, it is observed that the hydroxyl protons ((1)H) of Ch(+) and the hydrogen bond donor have diffusion coefficients significantly different from those measured for their parent molecules when water is added. This indicates a clear and significant change in inter-molecular interactions. In aqueous Ethaline, the hydroxyl species of Ch(+) and HBD show a stronger interaction with water as water is added to the system. In the case of Glyceline, water has little effect on both hydroxyl proton diffusion of Ch(+) and HBD. In Reline, it is likely that water allows the formation of small amounts of ammonium hydroxide. The most surprising observation is from the self-diffusion of water, which is considerably higher that expected from a homogeneous liquid. This leads to the conclusion that Reline and Glyceline form mixtures that are inhomogeneous at a microscopic level despite the hydrophilicity of the salt and HBD. This work shows that PFG NMR is a powerful tool to elucidate both molecular dynamics and inter-molecular interactions in complex liquid mixtures, such as the aqueous DES mixtures. PMID:25994171

  11. Collecting high-order interactions in an effective pairwise intermolecular potential using the hydrated ion concept: The hydration of Cf{sup 3+}

    SciTech Connect

    Galbis, Elsa; Pappalardo, Rafael R.; Marcos, Enrique Sánchez; Hernández-Cobos, Jorge

    2014-06-07

    This work proposes a new methodology to build interaction potentials between a highly charged metal cation and water molecules. These potentials, which can be used in classical computer simulations, have been fitted to reproduce quantum mechanical interaction energies (MP2 and BP86) for a wide range of [M(H{sub 2}O){sub n}]{sup m+}(H{sub 2}O){sub ℓ} clusters (n going from 6 to 10 and ℓ from 0 to 18). A flexible and polarizable water shell model (Mobile Charge Density of Harmonic Oscillator) has been coupled to the cation-water potential. The simultaneous consideration of poly-hydrated clusters and the polarizability of the interacting particles allows the inclusion of the most important many-body effects in the new polarizable potential. Applications have been centered on the californium, Cf(III) the heaviest actinoid experimentally studied in solution. Two different strategies to select a set of about 2000 structures which are used for the potential building were checked. Monte Carlo simulations of Cf(III)+500 H{sub 2}O for three of the intermolecular potentials predict an aquaion structure with coordination number close to 8 and average R{sub Cf−−O} in the range 2.43–2.48 Å, whereas the fourth one is closer to 9 with R{sub Cf−−O} = 2.54 Å. Simulated EXAFS spectra derived from the structural Monte Carlo distribution compares fairly well with the available experimental spectrum for the simulations bearing 8 water molecules. An angular distribution similar to that of a square antiprism is found for the octa-coordination.

  12. Prosthesis coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reswick, J. B.; Mooney, V.; Bright, C. W.; Owens, L. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coupling for use in an apparatus for connecting a prosthesis to the bone of a stump of an amputated limb is described which permits a bio-compatible carbon sleeve forming a part of the prosthesis connector to float so as to prevent disturbing the skin seal around the carbon sleeve. The coupling includes a flexible member interposed between a socket that is inserted within an intermedullary cavity of the bone and the sleeve. A lock pin is carried by the prosthesis and has a stem portion which is adapted to be coaxially disposed and slideably within the tubular female socket for securing the prosthesis to the stump. The skin around the percutaneous carbon sleeve is able to move as a result of the flexing coupling so as to reduce stresses caused by changes in the stump shape and/or movement between the bone and the flesh portion of the stump.

  13. FLEXIBLE COUPLING

    DOEpatents

    Babelay, E.F.

    1962-02-13

    A flexible shaft coupling for operation at speeds in excess of 14,000 rpm is designed which requires no lubrication. A driving sleeve member and a driven sleeve member are placed in concentric spaced relationship. A torque force is transmitted to the driven member from the driving member through a plurality of nylon balls symmetrically disposed between the spaced sleeves. The balls extend into races and recesses within the respective sleeve members. The sleeve members have a suitable clearance therebetween and the balls have a suitable radial clearance during operation of the coupling to provide a relatively loose coupling. These clearances accommodate for both parallel and/or angular misalignments and avoid metal-tometal contact between the sleeve members during operation. Thus, no lubrication is needed, and a minimum of vibrations is transmitted between the sleeve members. (AEC)

  14. Enantioselective Intermolecular [2 + 2] Photocycloaddition Reactions of 2(1H)-Quinolones Induced by Visible Light Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of a chiral thioxanthone catalyst (10 mol %) the title compounds underwent a clean intermolecular [2 + 2] photocycloaddition with electron-deficient olefins at λ = 419 nm. The reactions not only proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity but also delivered the respective cyclobutane products with significant enantiomeric excess (up to 95% ee). Key to the success of the reactions is a two-point hydrogen bonding between quinolone and catalyst enabling efficient energy transfer and high enantioface differentiation. Preliminary work indicated that solar irradiation can be used for this process and that the substrate scope can be further expanded to isoquinolones. PMID:27268908

  15. Enantioselective Intermolecular [2 + 2] Photocycloaddition Reactions of 2(1H)-Quinolones Induced by Visible Light Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Tröster, Andreas; Alonso, Rafael; Bauer, Andreas; Bach, Thorsten

    2016-06-29

    In the presence of a chiral thioxanthone catalyst (10 mol %) the title compounds underwent a clean intermolecular [2 + 2] photocycloaddition with electron-deficient olefins at λ = 419 nm. The reactions not only proceeded with excellent regio- and diastereoselectivity but also delivered the respective cyclobutane products with significant enantiomeric excess (up to 95% ee). Key to the success of the reactions is a two-point hydrogen bonding between quinolone and catalyst enabling efficient energy transfer and high enantioface differentiation. Preliminary work indicated that solar irradiation can be used for this process and that the substrate scope can be further expanded to isoquinolones. PMID:27268908

  16. Coordination compounds of tetravalent silicon, germanium and tin: the structure, chemical bonding and intermolecular interactions in them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korlyukov, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    The review is devoted to analysis and generalization of the results of (i) quantum chemical studies on the structure, chemical bonding and intermolecular interactions in coordination compounds of tetravalent silicon, germanium and tin in crystals, in solutions and in the gas phase and (ii) experimental investigations of the electron density distribution in these systems. The bibliography includes 147 references. In memoriam of Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences M Yu Antipin (1951 - 2013), Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences M G Voronkov (1921 - 2014) and Dr. S P Knyazev, Lomonosov Moscow University of Fine Chemical Technology (1949 - 2012).

  17. Intra- and intermolecular effects on the Compton profile of the ionic liquid 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Koskelo, J. Juurinen, I.; Ruotsalainen, K. O.; Lehtola, S.; Galambosi, S.; Hämäläinen, K.; Huotari, S.; Hakala, M.; McGrath, M. J.; Kuo, I-F.

    2014-12-28

    We present a comprehensive simulation study on the solid-liquid phase transition of the ionic liquid 1,3-dimethylimidazolium chloride in terms of the changes in the atomic structure and their effect on the Compton profile. The structures were obtained by using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Chosen radial distribution functions of the liquid structure are presented and found generally to be in good agreement with previous ab initio molecular dynamics and neutron scattering studies. The main contributions to the predicted difference Compton profile are found to arise from intermolecular changes in the phase transition. This prediction can be used for interpreting future experiments.

  18. Intermolecular Tl···H-C anagostic interactions in luminescent pyridyl functionalized thallium(I) dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Singh, Vikram; Gupta, Ajit N; Drew, Michael G B; Singh, Nanhai

    2015-01-28

    Crystal structures of novel pyridyl functionalised [Tl(L)]∞ (L = (N-benzyl-N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L1) 1, bis(N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L2) 2, (N-methyl(1,4-benzodioxane-6-yl)-N-methylpyridyl)dithiocarbamate(L3) 3, (N-ferrocenyl-N-methylpyridyl) dithiocarbamate(L4) 4) complexes revealed rare intermolecular C-H···Tl anagostic and C-S···Tl interactions forming a six-membered chelate ring about the metal center, which have been assessed by DFT calculations. The strong thallophilic bonding is responsible for the strong luminescent characteristics of the complexes in the solid phase. PMID:25461980

  19. The Divergent Synthesis of Nitrogen Heterocycles by Rhodium(I)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Cycloadditions of Vinyl Aziridines and Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jian-Jun; Lin, Tao-Yan; Zhu, Chao-Ze; Wang, Huamin; Wu, Hai-Hong; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-02-24

    Catalyst-controlled divergent intermolecular cycloadditions of vinylaziridines with alkynes have been developed. By using [Rh(NBD)2]BF4 as the catalyst, a [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction was achieved with broad substrate scope and high stereoselectivity under mild reaction conditions. Moreover, the chirality of vinylaziridines can be completely transferred to the [3 + 2] cycloadducts. When the catalyst was changed to [Rh(η(6)-C10H8) (COD)]SbF6, the alternative [5 + 2] cycloadducts were selectively formed under otherwise identical conditions. PMID:26859710

  20. Intermolecular interactions in mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol on density, viscosity, and ultrasonic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2014-12-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for binary mixtures of ethyl formate with methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol at 303 K. From the experimental data, adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance ( Z), viscous relaxation time (τ), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), internal pressure (πi), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) have been deduced. It is shown that strength of intermolecular interactions between ethyl formate with selected 1-alcohols were in the order of methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol.

  1. Noncovalent intermolecular interactions between dehydroepiandrosterone and the active site of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase: A density functional theory based treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astani, Elahe; Heshmati, Emran; Chen, Chun-Jung; Hadipour, Nasser L.; Shekarsaraei, Setareh

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical study was performed to characterize noncovalent intermolecular interactions, especially hydrogen bond (HB), in the active site of enzyme human dehydroepiandrosterone sulphotransferase (SULT2A1/DHEA) using the local (M06-L) and hybrid (M06, M06-2X) meta-GGA functionals of density functional theory (DFT). Results revealed that DHEA is able to form HBs with residues His99, Tyr231, Met137 and Met16 in the active site of the SULT2A1/DHEA. It was found that DHEA interacts with the other residues through electrostatic and Van der Waals interactions.

  2. Intermolecular decarboxylative direct C-3 arylation of indoles with benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Cornella, Josep; Lu, Pengfei; Larrosa, Igor

    2009-12-01

    A palladium catalyzed C-H activation of indoles and a silver catalyzed decarboxylative C-C activation of ortho substituted benzoic acids are synergistically combined to synthesize indoles arylated exclusively in the C-3 position. This novel decarboxylative C-H arylation methodology is compatible with electron-donating and -withdrawing substituents in both coupling partners. PMID:19877661

  3. DFT studies on the directing group dependent arene-alkene cross-couplings: arene activation vs. alkene activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Fang, De-Cai

    2015-08-01

    Due to its green-chemistry advantages, the dehydrogenative Heck reaction (DHR) has experienced enormous growth over the past few decades. In this work, two competing reaction channels were comparatively studied for the Pd(OAc)2-catalyzed DHRs of arenes with alkenes, referred to herein as the arene activation mechanism and the alkene activation mechanism, respectively, which mainly differ in the involvement of the reactants in the C-H activation step. Our calculations reveal that the commonly accepted arene activation mechanism is plausible for the desired arene-alkene cross-coupling; in contrast, the alternative alkene activation mechanism is kinetically inaccessible for the desired cross-coupling, but it is feasible for the homo-coupling of alkenes. The nature of directing groups on reactants could mainly determine the dominance of the two competing reaction routes, and therefore, influence the experimental yields. A wide range of directing groups experimentally used are examined by the density functional theory (DFT) method in this work, providing theoretical guidance for screening compatible reactants. PMID:26108375

  4. Tuning magnetoresistance and magnetic-field-dependent electroluminescence through mixing a strong-spin-orbital-coupling molecule and a weak-spin-orbital-coupling polymer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yue; Xu, Zhihua; Hu, Bin; Howe, Jane Y

    2007-01-01

    We report a tunable magnetoresistance by uniformly mixing strong-spin-orbital-coupling molecule fac-tris (2-phenylpyridinato) iridium [Ir(ppy)3] and weak-spin-orbital-coupling polymer poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVK). Three possible mechanisms, namely charge transport distribution, energy transfer, and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction, are discussed to interpret the Ir(ppy)3 concentration-dependent magnetoresistance in the PVK+Ir(ppy)3 composite. The comparison between the magnetic field effects measured from energy-transfer and non-energy-transfer Ir(ppy)3 doped polymer composites indicates that energy transfer and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction lead to rough and fine tuning for the magnetoresistance, respectively. Furthermore, the photocurrent dependence of magnetic field implies that the excited states contribute to the magnetoresistance through dissociation. As a result, the modification of singlet or triplet ratio of excited states through energy transfer and intermolecular spin-orbital interaction form a mechanism to tune the magnetoresistance in organic semiconducting materials.

  5. Lack of evidence for intermolecular epistatic interactions between adiponectin and resistin gene polymorphisms in Malaysian male subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Cia-Hin; Muniandy, Sekaran

    2012-01-01

    Epistasis (gene-gene interaction) is a ubiquitous component of the genetic architecture of complex traits such as susceptibility to common human diseases. Given the strong negative correlation between circulating adiponectin and resistin levels, the potential intermolecular epistatic interactions between ADIPOQ (SNP+45T > G, SNP+276G > T, SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G) and RETN (SNP-420C > G and SNP+299G > A) gene polymorphisms in the genetic risk underlying type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) were assessed. The potential mutual influence of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels was also examined. The rare homozygous genotype (risk alleles) of SNP-420C > G at the RETN locus tended to be co-inherited together with the common homozygous genotypes (protective alleles) of SNP+639T > C and SNP+1212A > G at the ADIPOQ locus. Despite the close structural relationship between the ADIPOQ and RETN genes, there was no evidence of an intermolecular epistatic interaction between these genes. There was also no reciprocal effect of the ADIPOQ and RETN genes on their adipokine levels, i.e., ADIPOQ did not affect resistin levels nor did RETN affect adiponectin levels. The possible influence of the ADIPOQ gene on RETN expression warrants further investigation. PMID:22481872

  6. Influence of intermolecular amide hydrogen bonding on the geometry, atomic charges, and spectral modes of acetanilide: An ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binoy, J.; Prathima, N. B.; Murali Krishna, C.; Santhosh, C.; Hubert Joe, I.; Jayakumar, V. S.

    2006-08-01

    Acetanilide, a compound of pharmaceutical importance possessing pain-relieving properties due to its blocking the pulse dissipating along the nerve fiber, is subjected to vibrational spectral investigation using NIR FT Raman, FT-IR, and SERS. The geometry, Mulliken charges, and vibrational spectrum of acetanilide have been computed using the Hartree-Fock theory and density functional theory employing the 6-31G (d) basis set. To investigate the influence of intermolecular amide hydrogen bonding, the geometry, charge distribution, and vibrational spectrum of the acetanilide dimer have been computed at the HF/6-31G (d) level. The computed geometries reveal that the acetanilide molecule is planar, while twisting of the secondary amide group with respect to the phenyl ring is found upon hydrogen bonding. The trans isomerism and “amido” form of the secondary amide, hyperconjugation of the C=O group with the adjacent C-C bond, and donor-acceptor interaction have been investigated using computed geometry. The carbonyl stretching band position is found to be influenced by the tendency of the phenyl ring to withdraw nitrogen lone pair, intermolecular hydrogen bonding, conjugation, and hyperconjugation. A decrease in the NH and C=O bond orders and increase in the C-N bond orders due to donor-acceptor interaction can be observed in the vibrational spectra. The SERS spectral analysis reveals that the flat orientation of the molecule on the adsorption plane is preferred.

  7. Investigation on Intermolecular Interaction in Supersaturation State of Cadmium Sulphate Mixed Zinc tris-THIOUREA Sulphate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muley, G. G.; Naik, A. B.; Gambhire, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) is a well known nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal widely used for various NLO applications. The NLO, physical and chemical properties can be modified by adding impurities and/or modifying crystal growth conditions. The impurities present in the growth solution and growth conditions can affect the crystal growth parameters at great extent. Thus, the study on the nature of intermolecular interaction with the dopant in the solution during crystal growth process becomes important. In the present investigation, the ultrasonic velocity was measured in the aqueous solutions of pure and cadmium sulphate mixed ZTS in the supersaturation state at 313.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length, acoustic impedance and relative associations have been calculated from the ultrasonic data and densities of water and solutions at 313.15 K, and the nature of intermolecular interaction has been discussed. FT-IR spectra of all mixtures in the solid form at room temperature were recorded and the shifts in the absorption peaks corresponding to the functional groups of ZTS have been reported.

  8. Spectral Moments of Collision-Induced Absorption of CO2 Pairs: The Role of the Intermolecular Potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruszka, Marcin; Borysow, Aleksandra

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we examine the role of the anisotropy of the intermolecular potential in the rototranslational collision-induced absorption of the CO2 pairs. Using newly developed formulas that include the effects of anisotropy of the potential to all orders, we calculate the two lowest spectral moments gamma(prime), and alpha(prime), for four different classes of C02 pair potentials and compare the results with the experimental values. We assumed only multipolar induction in the process of forming the induced dipole, with the second-order contributions included. Using a site-site LJ and a site-site semi-ab initio intermolecular potentials we were able to reproduce the experimental values of gamma(prime), and alpha(prime) moments over entire temperature range from 230 to 330 K. Also, the role of an electrostatic interaction between two C02 molecules and its impact on the spectral moments is thoroughly investigated. An isotropic core with a point quadrupole centered at each molecule is shown to be an inadequate representation of the C02-CO2 potential. Additionally, we show the results obtained with the first- and second-order perturbation theory to be more than twice too small.

  9. Basis set effects on the intermolecular interaction energies of methane dimers obtained by the Moeller-Plesset perturbation theory calculation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Tanabe, Kazutoshi )

    1991-03-21

    Intermolecular interaction energies of methane dimer were calculated by using several basis sets up to 6-311G(3d,4p) with electron correlation energy correction by the Moeller-Plesset perturbation method and basis set superposition error (BSSE) correction by the counterpoise method to evaluate the basis set effect. The calculated interaction energies depended on the basis set considerably. Whereas the interaction energies of repulsive component calculated at HF level were not affected by the change of basis set, the dispersion energy component dependent greatly on the basis set used. The dispersion energies calculated with the Moeller-Plesset second- and third-order perturbation by using 6-311G(2d,2p) basis set were 0-10% and 4-6% smaller than those obtained with the fourth-order (MP4(SDTQ)) perturbation, respectively. The BSSE's calculated by the counterpoise method were still about 30% of the calculated intermolecular interaction energies for the conformers of energy minima event at the MP4(SDTQ)/6-311G(2d,2p) level. The calculated interaction potentials of dimers at the MP4(SDTQ)/6-311G(2d,2p) level were considerably shallower than those obtained by MM2 force fields but were close to the potentials given by the Williams potential and by the recently reported MM3 force field.

  10. Method for Slater-Type Density Fitting for Intermolecular Electrostatic Interactions with Charge Overlap. I. The Model.

    PubMed

    Öhrn, Anders; Hermida-Ramon, Jose M; Karlström, Gunnar

    2016-05-10

    The effects of charge overlap, or charge penetration, are neglected in most force fields and interaction terms in QM/MM methods. The effects are however significant at intermolecular distances near the van der Waals minimum. In the present study, we propose a method to evaluate the intermolecular Coloumb interaction using Slater-type functions, thus explicitly modeling the charge overlap. The computational cost of the method is low, which allows it to be used in large systems with most force fields as well as in QM/MM schemes. The charge distribution is modeled as a distributed multipole expansion up to quadrupole and Slater-type functions of angular momentum up to L = 1. The exponents of the Slater-type functions are obtained using a divide-and-conquer method to avoid the curse of dimensionality that otherwise is present for large nonlinear optimizations. A Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied in the fitting process. A set of parameters is obtained for each molecule, and the process is fully automated. Calculations have been performed in the carbon monoxide and the water dimers to illustrate the model. Results show a very good accuracy of the model with relative errors in the electrostatic potential lower than 3% over all reasonable separations. At very short distances where the charge overlaps is the most significant, errors are lower than 8% and lower than 3.5% at distances near the van der Waals minimum. PMID:27015000

  11. Influence of intermolecular interactions on solid state luminescence of imidazopyridines: theoretical interpretations using FMO-TDDFT and ONIOM approaches.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Yasuhiro; Mutai, Toshiki; Houjou, Hirohiko; Araki, Koji

    2014-07-28

    6-Cyano-2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]-pyridine (6CN-HPIP) shows polymorph-dependent luminescence with the three different crystal forms exhibiting the packing-controlled tuning of bright colors, orange, yellow, and red. The distinctive emission in aggregated states was treated with finite cluster models and analyzed by means of quantum chemistry calculations. The influence of structural displacements and intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state on solid state luminescence was examined in detail using the Fragment Molecular Orbital (FMO) scheme, suitable for studies of aggregated molecular systems. The FMO pair interaction analysis of the S1-S0 emission maxima indicated that the intermolecular side-to-side interactions cause hypsochromic shifts; facial interactions induce bathochromic shifts; and crystal packing effects in total induce hypsochromic shifts. The FMO predictions of the emission maxima offered qualitatively satisfactory agreements with the experiments. However, the small cluster models including up to 17 molecules did not reach quantitative convergence, i.e., the emission colour order among them was not well reproduced. PMID:24598819

  12. Intermolecular charge flux as the origin of infrared intensity enhancement upon halogen-bond formation of the peptide group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Hajime

    2010-07-01

    The changes in the vibrational properties of the peptide group upon formation of O⋯X and N⋯X halogen bonds are studied theoretically. Calculations are carried out for complexes of N-methylacetamide (NMA), a well known model molecule of the peptide group, with halogen-containing molecules. For comparison, calculations are also carried out for some NMA-water hydrogen-bonding complexes. It is shown that the infrared (IR) intensity of the amide I mode of the peptide group is enhanced significantly (up to about 520 km mol-1 or 2.6 times) upon CO⋯X halogen-bond formation, in spite of rather modest magnitudes of the intermolecular electric field and of the changes in the CO bond length and in the amide I vibrational frequency as compared with the cases of the CO⋯H(D) hydrogen bonding. From the analysis of the changes in the dipole derivative and in the electronic structure, it is shown that this IR intensity enhancement arises from the intermolecular charge flux. For the N⋯X halogen bonding complexes, some characteristic changes in the vibrational properties are seen, among which the IR intensity enhancement of the ND out-of-plane wagging mode is most notable. The reason why such large IR intensity enhancements are seen for these particular vibrational modes is examined.

  13. A regioselective double Stille coupling reaction of bicyclic stannolanes.

    PubMed

    Kamimura, Akio; Tanaka, Toshiyuki; So, Masahiro; Itaya, Tomoyuki; Matsuda, Kantaro; Kawamoto, Takuji

    2016-09-14

    A regioselective double Stille coupling reaction was explored using bicyclic stannolanes that were easily prepared from the radical cascade reaction of β-amino-α-methylene esters. Various 1-bromo-2-iodoarenes underwent the double coupling reaction to afford benzoisoindole derivatives in a regioselective manner, where the carbon attached to the iodine selectively coupled with the vinylic carbon, and then the carbon attached to bromine coupled with the alkyl carbon. The combination of intra- and intermolecular coupling reactions provided hexahydroindeno[1,2-b]pyrrole derivatives in good yields. The yields were further improved in the presence of excess amounts of CsF. An attempt to identify the reaction intermediate was made wherein the decomposition of the stannolanes with aqueous HCl and HBr afforded trigonal bipyramidal (TBP) pentacoordinated tin complexes, as confirmed by microanalyses and (119)Sn NMR. Using DCl for the decomposition selectively introduced a deuterium to the E-position of the exomethylene unit. The complexes smoothly underwent the intramolecular Stille coupling reaction in the presence of both a palladium catalyst and DABCO, affording hexahydroindeno[1,2-b]pyrroles in good yields. These results suggest that the double coupling reaction progresses through a TBP tin complex, promoting the second intramolecular coupling reaction between the aryl halide and Csp(3)-tin bond. PMID:27506959

  14. Transport and intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluids. Technical progress report, September 15-December 15, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Jonas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Preparations for the study of naphthalene diffusion dissolved in the supercritical fluids carbon dioxide and ethylene have proceeded as follows. As we have discussed in previous reports, we plan to use the fixed field gradient NMR technique to monitor the diffusion of the dissolved naphthalene. However, the technique is not feasible in systems with spin-spin coupling among the nuclei of interest; unfortunately the protons on naphthalene exhibit this coupling. We thus intend to use totally deuterated naphthalene and monitor the deuterium signal, a nucleus whose coupling is negligible. We therefore have designed and built a new high pressure NMR probe for the measurement of deuterium. This probe is similar to the one used in the previous naphthalene solubility study, and accommodates the same supercritical sample cells. The probe is machined from Vespel SP-1 (a high temperature plastic), and houses a 17 1/2 turn solenoid NMR coil along with thermocouples located slightly above and below the sample area. The probe has been successfully tested to 2 kbar gas pressure.

  15. Access to Isoquinolines and Isoquinolin-3-ols via Rh(III)-Catalyzed Coupling/Cyclization Cascade Reaction of Arylimidates and Diazo Compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing Guang; Sun, Min; Jin, Qiao; Liu, Kai; Liu, Pei Nian

    2016-05-01

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization cascade reaction is described, which involves arylimidates and diazo compounds and proceeds via intermolecular C-C bond formation and subsequent intramolecular C-N bond formation. Mechanistic investigation revealed that the reaction is a two-step process: the initial Rh(III)-catalyzed coupling/cyclization proceeds very fast and the following dehydration is rather slow. The reaction provides a direct approach to isoquinolines and isoquinolin-3-ols without any oxidants. PMID:27042947

  16. "Homeopathic" palladium nanoparticle catalysis of cross carbon-carbon coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Deraedt, Christophe; Astruc, Didier

    2014-02-18

    Catalysis by palladium derivatives is now one of the most important tools in organic synthesis. Whether researchers design palladium nanoparticles (NPs) or nanoparticles occur as palladium complexes decompose, these structures can serve as central precatalysts in common carbon-carbon bond formation. Palladium NPs are also valuable alternatives to molecular catalysts because they do not require costly and toxic ligands. In this Account, we review the role of "homeopathic" palladium catalysts in carbon-carbon coupling reactions. Seminal studies from the groups of Beletskaya, Reetz, and de Vries showed that palladium NPs can catalyze Heck and Suzuki-Miyaura reactions with aryl iodides and, in some cases, aryl bromides at part per million levels. As a result, researchers coined the term "homeopathic" palladium catalysis. Industry has developed large-scale applications of these transformations. In addition, chemists have used Crooks' concept of dendrimer encapsulation to set up efficient nanofilters for Suzuki-Miyaura and selective Heck catalysis, although these transformations required high PdNP loading. With arene-centered, ferrocenyl-terminated dendrimers containing triazolyl ligands in the tethers, we designed several generations of dendrimers to compare their catalytic efficiencies, varied the numbers of Pd atoms in the PdNPs, and examined encapsulation vs stabilization. The catalytic efficiencies achieved "homeopathic" (TON = 540 000) behavior no matter the PdNP size and stabilization type. The TON increased with decreasing the Pd/substrate ratio, which suggested a leaching mechanism. Recently, we showed that water-soluble arene-centered dendrimers with tri(ethylene glycol) (TEG) tethers stabilized PdNPs involving supramolecular dendritic assemblies because of the interpenetration of the TEG branches. Such PdNPs are stable and retain their "homeopathic" catalytic activities for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions for months. (TONs can reach 2.7 × 10(6) at 80 °C for aryl

  17. Controlling Molecular Motion, Assembly and Coupling as a Step towards Molecular Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Colin James

    In order to incorporate molecules as actuators in synthetic molecular machines, methods must be developed to drive the motion of individual molecules using external energy sources and to couple the motion of these molecules to other agents. Therefore, this dissertation will first focus on the production of multiple surface-bound molecular devices that function through the same mechanism, and subsequently investigate the intermolecular interactions of surface bound molecules. Chapter 2 outlines the flashing temperature-like ratchet mechanism by which the molecular machines are coupled to electrical energy. In Chapter 3, copper atoms from a surface are incorporated into Ullman-coupling intermediate based molecular rotors, producing one of the few reported altitudinal surface-bound molecular rotor. Chapter 4 deals with directing the diffusion of molecules across metal surfaces. In Chapter 5, dithiaethers are examined as molecular walkers and the impact of chain flexibility and binding site preference on their diffusion is investigated. The coupling of molecules requires intermolecular interactions and ideally, these connections should be spatially resolved, directable and reversible. Therefore, the second section of the dissertation examines how intermolecular interactions are modified by chemical and surface changes. Chapters 6 and 7 examine 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine, a carbon-boron-nitrogen heterocyclic compound that is isoelectronic to benzene. Interestingly, the incorporation of the B-N unit produces a molecular dipole and has the potential to form dihydrogen bonds. Therefore, chapter 6 quantifies the impact of these additional intermolecular interactions by comparing desorption of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine and benzene from identical surfaces. Chapter 7 examines how intermolecular interactions drive the formation of 1,2-dihydro-1,2-azaborine magic clusters on two metal surfaces. Next, chapter 8 examines how subtle variations in molecular geometry lead to drastic

  18. A unique quinolineboronic acid-based supramolecular structure that relies on double intermolecular B-N bonds for self-assembly in solid state and in solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Minyong; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Gao, Xingming; Fang, Xikui; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Hardcastle, Kenneth; Yang, Jenny; Wang, Binghe

    2007-04-16

    The boronic acid functional group plays very important roles in sugar recognition, catalysis, organic synthesis, and supramolecular assembly. Therefore, understanding the unique properties of this functional group is very important. 8-Quinolineboronic acid (8-QBA) is found to be capable of self-assembling in solid state through a unique intermolecular B-N bond mechanism reinforced by intermolecular boronic anhydride formation, π-π stacking, and hydrogen bond formation. NMR NOE and diffusion studies indicate that intermolecular B-N interaction also exists in solution with 8-QBA. In contrast, a positional isomer of 8-QBA, 5-quinolineboronic acid (5-QBA) showed very different behaviors in crystal packing and in solution and therefore different supramolecular network. Understanding the structural features of this unique 8-QBA assembly could be very helpful for the future design of new sugar sensors, molecular catalysts, and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:18414645

  19. A unique quinolineboronic acid-based supramolecular structure that relies on double intermolecular B-N bonds for self-assembly in solid state and in solution

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Minyong; Chandrasekaran, Sekar; Gao, Xingming; Fang, Xikui; Lee, Hsiau-Wei; Hardcastle, Kenneth; Yang, Jenny; Wang, Binghe

    2007-01-01

    The boronic acid functional group plays very important roles in sugar recognition, catalysis, organic synthesis, and supramolecular assembly. Therefore, understanding the unique properties of this functional group is very important. 8-Quinolineboronic acid (8-QBA) is found to be capable of self-assembling in solid state through a unique intermolecular B-N bond mechanism reinforced by intermolecular boronic anhydride formation, π-π stacking, and hydrogen bond formation. NMR NOE and diffusion studies indicate that intermolecular B-N interaction also exists in solution with 8-QBA. In contrast, a positional isomer of 8-QBA, 5-quinolineboronic acid (5-QBA) showed very different behaviors in crystal packing and in solution and therefore different supramolecular network. Understanding the structural features of this unique 8-QBA assembly could be very helpful for the future design of new sugar sensors, molecular catalysts, and supramolecular assemblies. PMID:18414645

  20. Spectroscopic proof for intermolecular or intramolecular hydrogen bonds in ketoenol tautomers of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Toyotoshi; Akama, Yoshifumi

    1994-06-01

    The broad infrared bands of the polymorphic crystals of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolone (PMBP) were assigned unequivocally by examining the IR spectra of solutions and Raman spectra. The strong band at 2550 cm -1 of a colourless crystal was attributed to an intermolecular hydrogen bond NH…OC of the NH keto form, and the strong band at 3100 cm -1 of a yellow crystal, to an intermolecular hydrogen bond OH…OC of the O(1)H enol forms.

  1. Dimorphic intra- and intermolecular aryl motifs in symmetrical hexafaceted molecules (ArnX)3Y-Z-Y(XArn)3.

    PubMed

    Scudder, Marcia; Dance, Ian

    2002-12-01

    A variety of crystals containing molecules formulated generally as (ArnX)3Y-Z-Y(XArn)3 with exact or pseudo S6 symmetry have been analysed for the presence of intra- and intermolecular multiple aryl embraces composed of offset-face-to-face (OFF) and edge-to-face (EF) local motifs. Ar is phenyl or substituted phenyl; n = 1, 2 or 3; the linkage Z is linear diatomic, linear monatomic, absent (Y-Y bond), or void (Y atoms unconnected). Representative molecular systems analysed are (PhCH2)3Si-O-Si(CH2Ph)3, (PhCH2)3Sn-Sn(CH2Ph)3, (4-Me-C6H4CH2)3Ge-O-Ge(CH2C6H4-4-Me)3, [(PhS)3Fe-O-Fe(SPh)3]-, [(PhCH2)3P-Cu-P(CH2Ph)3]+ and [(Ph3P)3Ag-CN-Ag(PPh3)3]+. One characteristic intramolecular motif is a sixfold phenyl embrace (6PE) in which aryl groups fold back to the central domain of the molecule forming a rhombohedral box maintained by (EF)6. When the aryl groups are in exo positions there is an (EF)3 motif, like a tractor wheel, at each end of the molecule: [(Ph2N)3Ti-O-Ti(NPh2)3] possesses both intramolecular motifs as (EF)3-(EF)6-(EF)3. The molecules in this set are hexafaceted, and the crystal packing is generally based on intermolecular EF or OFF motifs with these faces, either from the central (EF)6 set or the end (EF)3-(EF)3 sets. Three types of subtle crystal packing isomerism occur: 1) the faces of the rhombohedral boxlike molecules slide over each other with variation of the intermolecular motifs, forming dimorphic crystals in space groups R3 or P1; 2) the faces of the tractor wheels (EF)3 slide over each other or 3) very similar molecules crystallise with the rhombohedral box or tractor wheel structures. In general the molecules considered are shape auspicious rather than shape awkward; solvent is included in a small proportion of the crystals and the crystal packing in these compounds is evidently efficient. Some principles for elaboration of these systems and the design of molecular crystal lattices are considered. PMID:12561318

  2. Tubular Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, Bernard J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for coupling a vascular overflow graft or cannula to a heart pump. A pump pipe outlet is provided with an external tapered surface which receives the end of a compressible connula. An annular compression ring with a tapered internal bore surface is arranged about the cannula with the tapered internal surface in a facing relationship to the external tapered surface. The angle of inclination of the tapered surfaces is converging such that the spacing between the tapered surfaces decreases from one end of the external tapered surface to the other end thereby providing a clamping action of the tapered surface on a cannula which increases as a function of the length of cannula segment between the tapered surfaces. The annular compression ring is disposed within a tubular locking nut which threadedly couples to the pump and provides a compression force for urging the annular ring onto the cannula between the tapered surfaces. The nut has a threaded connection to the pump body. The threaded coupling to the pump body provides a compression force for the annular ring. The annular ring has an annular enclosure space in which excess cannula material from the compression between the tapered surfaces to "bunch up" in the space and serve as an enlarged annular ring segment to assist holding the cannula in place. The clamped cannula provides a seamless joint connection to the pump pipe outlet where the clamping force is uniformly applied to the cannula because of self alignment of the tapered surfaces. The nut can be easily disconnected to replace the pump if necessary.

  3. Intramolecular Dehydrogenative Coupling of 2,3-Diaryl Acrylic Compounds: Access to Substituted Phenanthrenes.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vijay; Rao, V U Bhaskara; Das, Tamal; Vanka, Kumar; Singh, Ravi P

    2016-07-01

    A simple, facile, and environmentally benign intramolecular dehydrogenative coupling of various 1,2-diarylethylenes for the synthesis of phenanthrenes in excellent yield has been described. This new methodology uses ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as a promoter at room temperature and has been extended to intermolecular synthesis of biaryl compounds. The electron transfer from methoxyarene to cerium leads to cationic radical formation, which further proceeds to intramolecular coupling. Preliminary mechanistic investigation by EPR spectroscopy and density functional theory calculation suggested a similar view. PMID:27232691

  4. Rhodium-catalyzed C-C coupling reactions via double C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai-Shuai; Qin, Liu; Dong, Lin

    2016-05-18

    Various rhodium-catalyzed double C-H activations are reviewed. These powerful strategies have been developed to construct C-C bonds, which might be widely embedded in complex aza-fused heterocycles, polycyclic skeletons and heterocyclic scaffolds. In particular, rhodium(iii) catalysis shows good selectivity and reactivity to functionalize the C-H bond, generating reactive organometallic intermediates in most of the coupling reactions. Generally, intermolecular, intramolecular and multi-component coupling reactions via double C-H activations with or without heteroatom-assisted chelation are discussed in this review. PMID:27099126

  5. Development of a General, Sequential, Ring Closing Metathesis/Intramolecular Cross-Coupling Reaction for the Synthesis of Polyunsaturated Macrolactones

    PubMed Central

    Denmark, Scott E.; Muhuhi, Joseck M.

    2010-01-01

    A general strategy for the construction of macrocyclic lactones containing conjugated Z,Z-1,3-diene subunits has been is described. The centerpiece of the strategy is a sequential ring-closing metathesis that forms an unsaturated siloxane ring followed by an intramolecular cross-coupling reaction with a pendant alkenyl iodide. A highly modular assembly of the various precursors allowed the preparation of unsaturated macrolactones containing 11-, 12-, 13- and 14-membered rings. Although the ring closing metathesis process proceeded uneventfully, the intramolecular cross-coupling required extensive optimization of palladium source, solvent, fluoride source and particularly fluoride hydration level. Under the optimal conditions (including syringe pump high dilution), the macrolactones were produced in 53-78% yield as single stereoisomers. A benzo fused 12-membered ring macrolactone containing an E,Z-1,3-diene unit was also prepared by the same general strategy. The E-2-styryl iodide was prepared by a novel Heck reaction of an aryl nonaflate with vinyltrimethylsilane followed by iododesilylation with ICl. PMID:20666473

  6. PKA RIα Homodimer Structure Reveals an Intermolecular Interface with Implications for Cooperative cAMP Binding and Carney Complex Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bruystens, Jessica G.H.; Wu, Jian; Fortezzo, Audrey; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Blumenthal, Donald K.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The regulatory (R) subunit is the cAMP receptor of protein kinase A. Following cAMP binding, the inactive PKA holoenzyme complex separates into two active catalytic (C) subunits and a cAMP-bound R dimer. Thus far, only monomeric R structures have been solved, which fell short in explaining differences of cAMP binding for the full-length protein as compared to the truncated R subunits. Here we solved a full-length R-dimer structure that reflects the biologically relevant conformation, and this structure agrees well with small angle X-ray scattering. An isoform-specific interface is revealed between the protomers. This interface acts as an intermolecular sensor for cAMP and explains the cooperative character of cAMP binding to the RIα dimer. Mutagenesis of residues on this interface not only leads to structural and biochemical changes, but is also linked to Carney complex disease. PMID:24316401

  7. Intermolecular disulfide bond in the dimerization of S-periaxin mediated by Cys88 and Cys139.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Ren, Yemei; Shi, Yawei

    2016-04-01

    Periaxin is expressed in mammalian Schwann cells and lens fiber cells, and has been identified in a screen for cytoskeleton-associated proteins. Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4F is caused by losses or mutations of theperiaxingene. Theperiaxingene encodes two protein isoforms, namely, L-periaxin and S-periaxin.S-periaxin contains 147 amino acid residues and has an N-terminal PDZ domain. In this paper, S-periaxin was reported to be homodimerized through the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds with its Cys88 and Cys139 residues under mild oxidation conditions. The covalent dimer of S-periaxin was also observed by western blot analysis and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses. S-periaxin dimerization formation could be regulated by cellular redox fluctuations. These results offer a possible mechanism to the formation of periaxin complexes, improvement of complex stability, and establishment of a link between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton. PMID:26940996

  8. Copper-Catalyzed Cascade Reaction via Intramolecular Hydroamination Cyclization of Homopropargylic Amines and Intermolecular Povarov Reaction with Imines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Chan; Huang, Kaimeng; Liu, Lingyan; Chang, Weixing; Li, Jing

    2016-05-20

    A new one-pot cascade reaction of homopropargylic amines with simple imines is developed in the presence of Cu(OTf)2 and affords a series of hexahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,2-c]quinoline derivatives in good to high yields. This reaction proceeds through an intramolecular hydroamination cyclization of homopropargylic amine to generate a highly reactive dihydropyrrole intermediate in situ. It subsequently reacts with imine via an intermolecular inverse-electron-demand aza-Diels-Alder reaction and a 1,3-H shift to give the fused pyrroloquinoline structures, forming two new C-C bonds and one C-N bond and one N-H bond. PMID:27128977

  9. Physical nature of intermolecular interactions inside Sir2 homolog active site: molecular dynamics and ab initio study.

    PubMed

    Czeleń, Przemysław; Czyżnikowska, Żaneta

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we analyze the interactions of NAD+-dependent deacetylase (Sir2 homolog yeast Hst2) with carba-nicotinamide-adenine-dinucleotide (ADP-HPD). For the Sir2 homolog, a yeast Hst2 docking procedure was applied. The structure of the protein-ADP-HPD complex obtained during the docking procedure was used as a starting point for molecular dynamics simulation. The intermolecular interaction energy partitioning was performed for protein-ADP-HPD complex resulting from molecular dynamics simulation. The analysis was performed for ADP-HPD and 15 amino acids forming a deacetylase binding pocket. Although the results indicate that the first-order electrostatic interaction energy is substantial, the presence of multiple hydrogen bonds in investigated complexes can lead to significant value of induction component. PMID:27154340

  10. Electronic structures of intermolecular hydrogen bond contacts with solute in aqueous solution: glycine as a working prototype.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingbiao; Wu, Weidong; Lin, Zijing

    2016-06-21

    The intermolecular hydrogen bond (H-bond) interactions play vital roles in many biological systems. Despite continued interest, the nature of their electronic structures has remained elusive. Based on the unique features of aqueous solution, a simple model depicting the H-bond electronic states by orbital hybridizations is developed. The model is demonstrated by reproducing the experimental IR data and yielding favorable solute-solvent interactions for the prototype glycine. The H-bond state for solute H, O and N atoms is found to be characterized by sp(1), sp(2), and sp(3) hybridizations, respectively. The model provides a new way for probing the intricate solute-solvent contacts. PMID:27243041

  11. Measurement of the intermolecular vibration-rotation tunneling spectrum of the ammonia dimer by tunable far infrared laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havenith, M.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1991-04-01

    Over 150 lines in six tunneling subbands of an intermolecular vibration located near 25/cm have been measured with partial hyperfine resolution and assigned to (NH3)2. The transitions sample all three types of tunneling states (A, G, E) and are consistent with the following assumptions: (1) G36 is the appropriate molecular symmetry group, (2) the equilibrium structure contains a plane of symmetry, (3) interchange tunneling of inequivalent monomers occurs via a trans path, (4) the 2C3 + I limit of hydrogen exchange tunneling is appropriate, and (5) tunneling and rotational motions are separable. A qualitative vibration-rotation tunneling energy level diagram is presented. Strong perturbations are observed among the states of E symmetry. This work supports the conclusions of Nelson et al. (1987).

  12. Intermolecular interactions in methyl formate-ethanol mixtures at 303-313 K according to ultrasonic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2014-04-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for a binary mixture composed of methyl formate and ethanol at 303, 308, and 313 K. The adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance (Z), free length ( L f ), free volume ( V f ), internal pressure (π i ), viscous relaxation time (τ), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) were calculated from the experimental data. The excess values of these parameters (β E , Z E , L {/f E }, V {/f E }, π {/i E }, τ E , and Δ G E ) have also been calculated using the determined parameters and interpreted in terms of molecular interactions. The deviations in the sign and values of these excess parameters from the ideal mixing reveal the nature of intermolecular interactions between components of the mixture.

  13. Theoretical study of intermolecular interactions in CB4H8-HOX (X=F, Cl, Br, I) complexes.

    PubMed

    Derikvand, Zohreh; Zabardasti, Abedien; Azadbakht, Azadeh

    2015-11-01

    The molecular aggregation based on intermolecular interactions between CB4H8 and HOX (X=F, Cl, Br and I) with particular emphasis on their bonding characteristics have been investigated using second order Moller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) method with aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. Different kinds of interactions including hydrogen bond (HB; H⋯O, XH; H⋯X), dihydrogen bond (DiHB; H⋯H) and non-classical B-B⋯H interactions were found between CB4H8 and HOX molecules. The structures of complexes have been analyzed using AIM and natural bond orbital methodologies. Good correlations have been found between the interaction energies (SE), the second-order perturbation energies E((2)), and the charge transfer qCT in the studied systems. PMID:26103431

  14. Transformations of PTCDA structures on rutile TiO2 induced by thermal annealing and intermolecular forces.

    PubMed

    Godlewski, Szymon; Prauzner-Bechcicki, Jakub S; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Szymoński, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Transformations of molecular structures formed by perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules on a rutile TiO2(110) surface are studied with low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy. We demonstrate that metastable molecular assemblies transform into differently ordered structures either due to additional energy provided by thermal annealing or when the influence of intermolecular forces is increased by the enlarged amount of deposited molecules. Proper adjustment of molecular coverage and substrate temperature during deposition allows for fabrication of desired assemblies. Differences between PTCDA/TiO2(110) and PTCDA/TiO2(011) systems obtained through identical experimental procedures are discussed. PMID:26199854

  15. Formation of intermolecular crosslinks by the actinocin derivatives with DNA in interaction under conditions of semidilute solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinnikova, D. N.; Moroshkina, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Interaction of native calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) with the actinocin derivatives containing protonated diethylamino groups, dimethylamino groups and unsubstituted amino groups and having different length of the alkyl chain have been studied by the method of viscometry. An anomalous hydrodynamic behavior of solutions of DNA with very low amount of ligands prepared under conditions of semidilute solution was revealed. We assumed that such an anomalous behavior of solutions of DNA complexes with actinocin derivatives associated with the formation of intermolecular crosslinks while the preparation of the complex was in terms of overlapping of macromolecular coils in solution. Comparative study of the hydrodynamic behavior of the DNA complexes with various actinocin structures lead us to the conclusion of the formation of crosslinks by the compounds containing protonated diethylamino groups.

  16. Mass analyzed threshold ionization of phenolṡCO: Intermolecular binding energies of a hydrogen-bonded complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines, Stephen R.; Dessent, Caroline E. H.; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    1999-08-01

    [PhenolṡCO]+ was studied using a combination of two-color resonant zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy and mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy to investigate the interaction of the CO ligand with a hydrogen-bonding cation. Vibrational progressions were observed in three intermolecular modes, the in-plane bend (42 cm-1), stretch (130 cm-1), and in-plane wag (160 cm-1), and are consistent with a planar hydrogen-bonded structure where the CO bonds through the carbon atom to the phenol OH group. Dissociation energies for the S0, S1, and D0 states were determined as 659±20, 849±20, and 2425±10 cm-1, respectively. The cationic and neutral dissociation energies of the phenolṡCO complex are considerably stronger than those of phenolṡN2, demonstrating the extent to which the larger quadrupole of CO affects the strength of binding.

  17. Calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association of host-guest systems from the intermolecular potential of mean force.

    PubMed

    Ghoufi, Aziz; Malfreyt, Patrice

    2006-12-14

    The authors report calculations of the intermolecular potential of mean force (PMF) in the case of the host-guest interaction. The host-guest system is defined by a water soluble calixarene and a cation. With an organic cation such as the tetramethylammonium cation, the calixarene forms an insertion complex, whereas with the Lanthane cation, the supramolecular assembly is an outer-sphere complex. The authors apply a modified free energy perturbation method and the force constraint technique to establish the PMF profiles as a function of the separation distance between the host and guest. They use the PMF profile for the calculation of the absolute thermodynamic properties of association that they compare to the experimental values previously determined. They finish by giving some structural features of the insertion and outer-sphere complexes at the Gibbs free energy minimum. PMID:17176145

  18. Transformations of PTCDA structures on rutile TiO2 induced by thermal annealing and intermolecular forces

    PubMed Central

    Godlewski, Szymon; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst; Szymoński, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transformations of molecular structures formed by perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) molecules on a rutile TiO2(110) surface are studied with low-temperature scanning tunnelling microscopy. We demonstrate that metastable molecular assemblies transform into differently ordered structures either due to additional energy provided by thermal annealing or when the influence of intermolecular forces is increased by the enlarged amount of deposited molecules. Proper adjustment of molecular coverage and substrate temperature during deposition allows for fabrication of desired assemblies. Differences between PTCDA/TiO2(110) and PTCDA/TiO2(011) systems obtained through identical experimental procedures are discussed. PMID:26199854

  19. Rational design of viscosity reducing mutants of a monoclonal antibody: Hydrophobic versus electrostatic inter-molecular interactions

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Pilarin; Li, Li; Kumar, Sandeep; Buck, Patrick M; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Balthazor, Bryan; Conley, Tami R; Sek, David; Allen, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    High viscosity of monoclonal antibody formulations at concentrations ≥100 mg/mL can impede their development as products suitable for subcutaneous delivery. The effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic intermolecular interactions on the solution behavior of MAB 1, which becomes unacceptably viscous at high concentrations, was studied by testing 5 single point mutants. The mutations were designed to reduce viscosity by disrupting either an aggregation prone region (APR), which also participates in 2 hydrophobic surface patches, or a negatively charged surface patch in the variable region. The disruption of an APR that lies at the interface of light and heavy chain variable domains, VH and VL, via L45K mutation destabilized MAB 1 and abolished antigen binding. However, mutation at the preceding residue (V44K), which also lies in the same APR, increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1 without sacrificing antigen binding or thermal stability. Neutralizing the negatively charged surface patch (E59Y) also increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1, but charge reversal at the same position (E59K/R) caused destabilization, decreased solubility and led to difficulties in sample manipulation that precluded their viscosity measurements at high concentrations. Both V44K and E59Y mutations showed similar increase in apparent solubility. However, the viscosity profile of E59Y was considerably better than that of the V44K, providing evidence that inter-molecular interactions in MAB 1 are electrostatically driven. In conclusion, neutralizing negatively charged surface patches may be more beneficial toward reducing viscosity of highly concentrated antibody solutions than charge reversal or aggregation prone motif disruption. PMID:25559441

  20. Density functional investigation of intermolecular effects on {sup 13}C NMR chemical-shielding tensors modeled with molecular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, Sean T.; Dybowski, Cecil; Iuliucci, Robbie J.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2014-10-28

    A quantum-chemical method for modeling solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance chemical-shift tensors by calculations on large symmetry-adapted clusters of molecules is demonstrated. Four hundred sixty five principal components of the {sup 13}C chemical-shielding tensors of 24 organic materials are analyzed. The comparison of calculations on isolated molecules with molecules in clusters demonstrates that intermolecular effects can be successfully modeled using a cluster that represents a local portion of the lattice structure, without the need to use periodic-boundary conditions (PBCs). The accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using a cluster rivals the accuracy of calculations which model the solid state using PBCs, provided the cluster preserves the symmetry properties of the crystalline space group. The size and symmetry conditions that the model cluster must satisfy to obtain significant agreement with experimental chemical-shift values are discussed. The symmetry constraints described in the paper provide a systematic approach for incorporating intermolecular effects into chemical-shielding calculations performed at a level of theory that is more advanced than the generalized gradient approximation. Specifically, NMR parameters are calculated using the hybrid exchange-correlation functional B3PW91, which is not available in periodic codes. Calculations on structures of four molecules refined with density plane waves yield chemical-shielding values that are essentially in agreement with calculations on clusters where only the hydrogen sites are optimized and are used to provide insight into the inherent sensitivity of chemical shielding to lattice structure, including the role of rovibrational effects.

  1. Explosives sensing by using electron-rich supramolecular polymers: role of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in significant enhancement of sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gole, Bappaditya; Song, Wentao; Lackinger, Markus; Mukherjee, Partha Sarathi

    2014-10-13

    We demonstrate here that supramolecular interactions enhance the sensitivity towards detection of electron-deficient nitro-aromatic compounds (NACs) over discrete analogues. NACs are the most commonly used explosive ingredients and are common constituents of many unexploded landmines used during World War II. In this study, we have synthesised a series of pyrene-based polycarboxylic acids along with their corresponding discrete esters. Due to the electron richness and the fluorescent behaviour of the pyrene moiety, all the compounds act as sensors for electron-deficient NACs through a fluorescence quenching mechanism. A Stern-Volmer quenching constant determination revealed that the carboxylic acids are more sensitive than the corresponding esters towards NACs in solution. The high sensitivity of the acids was attributed to supramolecular polymer formation through hydrogen bonding in the case of the acids, and the enhancement mechanism is based on an exciton energy migration upon excitation along the hydrogen-bond backbone. The presence of intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the acids in solution was established by solvent-dependent fluorescence studies and dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiments. In addition, the importance of intermolecular hydrogen bonds in solid-state sensing was further explored by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) experiments at the liquid-solid interface, in which structures of self-assembled monolayer of the acids and the corresponding esters were compared. The sensitivity tests revealed that these supramolecular sensors can even detect picric acid and trinitrotoluene in solution at levels as low as parts per trillion (ppt), which is much below the recommended permissible level of these constituents in drinking water. PMID:25187022

  2. Rational design of viscosity reducing mutants of a monoclonal antibody: hydrophobic versus electrostatic inter-molecular interactions.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Pilarin; Li, Li; Kumar, Sandeep; Buck, Patrick M; Singh, Satish K; Goswami, Sumit; Balthazor, Bryan; Conley, Tami R; Sek, David; Allen, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    High viscosity of monoclonal antibody formulations at concentrations ≥100 mg/mL can impede their development as products suitable for subcutaneous delivery. The effects of hydrophobic and electrostatic intermolecular interactions on the solution behavior of MAB 1, which becomes unacceptably viscous at high concentrations, was studied by testing 5 single point mutants. The mutations were designed to reduce viscosity by disrupting either an aggregation prone region (APR), which also participates in 2 hydrophobic surface patches, or a negatively charged surface patch in the variable region. The disruption of an APR that lies at the interface of light and heavy chain variable domains, VH and VL, via L45K mutation destabilized MAB 1 and abolished antigen binding. However, mutation at the preceding residue (V44K), which also lies in the same APR, increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1 without sacrificing antigen binding or thermal stability. Neutralizing the negatively charged surface patch (E59Y) also increased apparent solubility and reduced viscosity of MAB 1, but charge reversal at the same position (E59K/R) caused destabilization, decreased solubility and led to difficulties in sample manipulation that precluded their viscosity measurements at high concentrations. Both V44K and E59Y mutations showed similar increase in apparent solubility. However, the viscosity profile of E59Y was considerably better than that of the V44K, providing evidence that inter-molecular interactions in MAB 1 are electrostatically driven. In conclusion, neutralizing negatively charged surface patches may be more beneficial toward reducing viscosity of highly concentrated antibody solutions than charge reversal or aggregation prone motif disruption. PMID:25559441

  3. Key Inter-molecular Interactions in the E. Coli 70S Ribosome Revealed by Coarse-Grained Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Sanbonmatsu, Karissa Y.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2011-01-01

    The ribosome is a very large complex, which consists of many RNA and protein molecules and plays a central role in protein biosynthesis in all organisms. Extensive interactions between different molecules are critical to ribosomal functional dynamics. In this work, inter-molecular interactions in the E. coli 70S ribosome are investigated by coarse-grained (CG) analysis. CG models are defined to preserve dynamic domains in RNAs and proteins, and capture functional motions in the ribosome, then the CG sites are connected by harmonic springs and spring constants are obtained by matching the computed fluctuations to those of an all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Those spring constants indicate how strong the interactions are between the ribosomal components, which are in good agreement with various experimental data. Nearly all of bridges between the small and large ribosomal subunits are indicated by CG interactions with large spring constants. The head of the small subunit is very mobile because it has the minimal CG interactions with the rest of the subunit; However, a large number of small subunit proteins bind to maintain the internal structure of the head. The results show a clear connection between the inter-molecular interactions and the structural and functional properties of the ribosome because of the reduced complexity in domain-based CG models. The present approach also provides a useful strategy to map interactions between molecules within large biomolecular complexes since it is not straightforward to investigate these by either atomistic MD simulations or residue-based elastic network models. PMID:21910449

  4. Crossover from layering to island formation in Langmuir-Blodgett growth: Role of long-range intermolecular forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Smita; Datta, Alokmay

    2011-04-01

    Combined studies by atomic force microscopy, x-ray reflectivity, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on transition-metal stearate (M-St, M = Mn, Co, Zn, and Cd) Langmuir-Blodgett films clearly indicate association of bidentate coordination of the metal-carboxylate head group to layer-by-layer growth as observed in MnSt and CoSt and partially in ZnSt. Crossover to islandlike growth, as observed in CdSt and ZnSt, is associated with the presence of unidentate coordination in the head group. Morphological evolutions as obtained from one, three, and nine monolayers (MLs) of M-St films are consistent with Frank van der Merwe, Stranski-Krastanov, and Volmer Weber growth modes for M=Mn/Co, Zn, and Cd, respectively, as previously assigned, and are found to vary with number (n) of metal atoms per head group, viz. n=1 (Mn/Co), n=0.75 (Zn), and n=0.5 (Cd). The parameter n is found to decide head-group coordination such that n=1.0 corresponds to bidentate and n=0.5 corresponds to unidentate coordination; the intermediate value in Zn corresponds to a mixture of both. The dependence of the growth mode on head-group structure is explained by the fact that in bidentate head groups, with the in-plane dipole moment being zero, intermolecular forces between adjacent molecules are absent and hence growth proceeds via layering. On the other hand, in unidentate head groups, the existence of a nonzero in-plane dipole moment results in the development of weak in-plane intermolecular forces between adjacent molecules causing in-plane clustering leading to islandlike growth.

  5. Dark coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S. E-mail: d.hernandez@uam.es E-mail: omena@ific.uv.es

    2009-07-01

    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed.

  6. Thermoacoustic couple

    DOEpatents

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1983-10-04

    An apparatus and method for determining acoustic power density level and its direction in a fluid using a single sensor are disclosed. The preferred embodiment of the apparatus, which is termed a thermoacoustic couple, consists of a stack of thin, spaced apart polymeric plates, selected ones of which include multiple bimetallic thermocouple junctions positioned along opposite end edges thereof. The thermocouple junctions are connected in series in the nature of a thermopile, and are arranged so as to be responsive to small temperature differences between the opposite edges of the plates. The magnitude of the temperature difference, as represented by the magnitude of the electrical potential difference generated by the thermopile, is found to be directly related to the level of acoustic power density in the gas.

  7. Core hole-electron correlation in coherently coupled molecules.

    PubMed

    Scholz, M; Holch, F; Sauer, C; Wiessner, M; Schöll, A; Reinert, F

    2013-07-26

    We study the core hole-electron correlation in coherently coupled molecules by energy dispersive near edge x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. In a transient phase, which exists during the transition between two bulk arrangements, 1,4,5,8-naphthalene-tetracarboxylicacid-dianhydride multilayer films exhibit peculiar changes of the line shape and energy position of the x-ray absorption signal at the C K-edge with respect to the bulk and gas phase spectra. By a comparison to a theoretical model based on a coupling of transition dipoles, which is established for optical absorption, we demonstrate that the observed spectroscopic differences can be explained by an intermolecular delocalized core hole-electron pair. By applying this model we can furthermore quantify the coherence length of the delocalized core exciton. PMID:23931410

  8. Rotational excitation of symmetric top molecules by collisions with atoms: Close coupling, coupled states, and effective potential calculations for NH3-He

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.

    1976-01-01

    The formalism for describing rotational excitation in collisions between symmetric top rigid rotors and spherical atoms is presented both within the accurate quantum close coupling framework and also the coupled states approximation of McGuire and Kouri and the effective potential approximation of Rabitz. Calculations are reported for thermal energy NH3-He collisions, treating NH3 as a rigid rotor and employing a uniform electron gas (Gordon-Kim) approximation for the intermolecular potential. Coupled states are found to be in nearly quantitative agreement with close coupling results while the effective potential method is found to be at least qualitatively correct. Modifications necessary to treat the inversion motion in NH3 are discussed.

  9. MOLECULAR PACKING AND NPT-MOLECULAR DYNAMICS INVESTIGATION OF THE TRANSFERABILITY OF THE RDX INTERMOLECULAR POTENTIAL TO 2,4,6,8,1O,12- HEXANITROHEXAAZAISOWURTZITANE (HNIW)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have explored the degree to which an intermolecular potential for the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-s-triazine (RDX) is transferable for predictions of crystal structures (within the approximation of rigid molecules) of a similar chemical system,in this case, polymo...

  10. A Closer Look at Trends in Boiling Points of Hydrides: Using an Inquiry-Based Approach to Teach Intermolecular Forces of Attraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazier, Samantha; Marano, Nadia; Eisen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We describe how we use boiling-point trends of group IV-VII hydrides to introduce intermolecular forces in our first-year general chemistry classes. Starting with the idea that molecules in the liquid state are held together by some kind of force that must be overcome for boiling to take place, students use data analysis and critical reasoning to…

  11. Transition Metal Free Intermolecular Direct Oxidative C-N Bond Formation to Polysubstituted Pyrimidines Using Molecular Oxygen as the Sole Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Li, Chunsheng; Liao, Jianhua; Ji, Fanghua; Liu, Dongqing; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2016-07-01

    Various polysubstituted pyrimidines are smoothly formed via a base-promoted intermolecular oxidation C-N bond formation of allylic C(sp(3))-H and vinylic C(sp(2))-H of allyllic compounds with amidines using O2 as the sole oxidant. This protocol features protecting group free nitrogen sources, good functional group tolerance, high atom economy, and environmental advantages. PMID:27275869

  12. Molecular simulation of fluids with non-identical intermolecular potentials: Thermodynamic properties of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiegler, Thomas; Sadus, Richard J.

    2015-02-01

    General methods for combining interactions between particles characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials are investigated. The combination methods are tested by performing molecular dynamics simulations to determine the pressure, energy, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures. In addition to the two non-identical Mie potentials, mixtures are also studied with non-identical intermolecular parameters. The combination methods are compared with results obtained by simply averaging the Mie exponents. When either the energy or size parameters are non-identical, very significant differences emerge in the thermodynamic properties predicted by the alternative combination methods. The isobaric heat capacity is the thermodynamic property that is most affected by the relative magnitude of the intermolecular potential parameters and the method for combining non-identical potentials. Either the arithmetic or geometric combination of potentials provides a simple and effective way of performing simulations involving mixtures of components characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials, which is independent of their functional form.

  13. Low-valent niobium-catalyzed intermolecular [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition of tert-butylacetylene and arylnitriles to form 2,3,6-trisubstituted pyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Yasushi; Obora, Yasushi

    2013-08-01

    A catalytic system based on low-valent niobium has been developed, consisting of NbCl5, Zn, and an alkoxysilane. This combination has been shown to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of pyridine derivatives from the intermolecular cycloaddition of alkynes and nitriles via a niobacyclopentadiene intermediate. PMID:23848456

  14. Molecular simulation of fluids with non-identical intermolecular potentials: Thermodynamic properties of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Stiegler, Thomas; Sadus, Richard J.

    2015-02-28

    General methods for combining interactions between particles characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials are investigated. The combination methods are tested by performing molecular dynamics simulations to determine the pressure, energy, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, thermal expansion coefficient, isothermal compressibility, Joule-Thomson coefficient, and speed of sound of 10-5 + 12-6 Mie potential binary mixtures. In addition to the two non-identical Mie potentials, mixtures are also studied with non-identical intermolecular parameters. The combination methods are compared with results obtained by simply averaging the Mie exponents. When either the energy or size parameters are non-identical, very significant differences emerge in the thermodynamic properties predicted by the alternative combination methods. The isobaric heat capacity is the thermodynamic property that is most affected by the relative magnitude of the intermolecular potential parameters and the method for combining non-identical potentials. Either the arithmetic or geometric combination of potentials provides a simple and effective way of performing simulations involving mixtures of components characterised by non-identical intermolecular potentials, which is independent of their functional form.

  15. A New, Dispersion-Driven Intermolecular Arrangement for the Benzene-Water Octamer Complex: Isomers and Analysis of their Vibrational Spectra.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Aprà, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2016-08-01

    The anharmonic spectra of the gas phase cubic water octamer (W8, D2d and S4 isomers) have been theoretically calculated at the second order Møller-Plesset perturbation (MP2) and the coupled cluster with single, double and a perturbative estimate of triple replacements [CCSD(T)] theories. The CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies are the first ones reported for this cluster. An additional band at ∼3500 cm(-1) is reported, in a spectral area that was not previously accessible experimentally due to technical reasons. The IR spectra of the S4 isomer have a larger number of fundamental bands than the spectra of the D2d isomer, in accordance with the presence of lower symmetry in the former compared to the latter. When W8 interacts with benzene (BZ), the dispersion interaction plays a major role in determining the resulting intermolecular arrangement. Calculations at the MP2, DFT (with the ωB97XD functional which includes dispersion corrections) and CCSD(T) levels of theory suggest an optimal arrangement in which BZ is almost parallel to one of the faces of the W8 cube. This structure differs from the previously reported one in which one of the "free" OH bonds of the W8 cube pointed toward the center of BZ (Science 276, 1678 (1997)) that was determined at the DFT level with the dispersionless B3LYP functional and was used to assign the experimentally measured IR spectra. Five low-lying isomers, three of the S4-like and two of the D2d-like type, were determined, and their spectra were assigned. The perturbation of BZ to the W8 vibrational bands amounts to (i) the localization of the normal modes of W8 thus resulting in more IR active bands and (ii) the lowering of the overall symmetry of the complex that results in the splitting of the doubly degenerate bands of the bare W8. Our results further suggest that a future recording of the IR spectra in the HOH bending region can definitively aid in the assignment of the various isomers of both the BZ and the BZ-W8 complexes. PMID

  16. What the heck is a Theremin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambdin, Ken

    2009-10-01

    This talk will in introduce the Theremin, one of the first electronic musical instruments. The inner workings of the instrument will be examined, explaining how this bizarre instrument can be played without any physical contact!

  17. Intermolecular interactions and proton transfer in the hydrogen halide-superoxide anion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sebastian J R; Mullinax, J Wayne; Schaefer, Henry F

    2016-02-17

    The superoxide radical anion O2(-) is involved in many important chemical processes spanning different scientific disciplines (e.g., environmental and biological sciences). Characterizing its interaction with various substrates to help elucidate its rich chemistry may have far reaching implications. Herein, we investigate the interaction between O2(-) (X[combining tilde] (2)Πg) and the hydrogen halides (X[combining tilde] (1)Σ) with coupled-cluster theory. In contrast to the short (1.324 Å) hydrogen bond formed between the HF and O2(-) monomers, a barrierless proton transfer occurs for the heavier hydrogen halides with the resulting complexes characterized as long (>1.89 Å) hydrogen bonds between halide anions and the HO2 radical. The dissociation energy with harmonic zero-point vibrational energy (ZPVE) for FHO2(-) (X[combining tilde] (2)A'') → HF (X[combining tilde] (1)Σ) + O2(-) (X[combining tilde] (2)Πg) is 31.2 kcal mol(-1). The other dissociation energies with ZPVE for X(-)HO2 (X[combining tilde] (2)A'') → X(-) (X[combining tilde] (1)Σ) + HO2 (X[combining tilde] (2)A'') are 25.7 kcal mol(-1) for X = Cl, 21.9 kcal mol(-1) for X = Br, and 17.9 kcal mol(-1) for X = I. Additionally, the heavier hydrogen halides can form weak halogen bonds H-XO2(-) (X[combining tilde] (2)A'') with interaction energies including ZPVE of -2.3 kcal mol(-1) for HCl, -8.3 kcal mol(-1) for HBr, and -16.7 kcal mol(-1) for HI. PMID:26852733

  18. Structure, stability, and thermodynamics of a short intermolecular purine-purine-pyrimidine triple helix

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, D.S.; Shafer, R.H. ); Levenson, C. )

    1991-06-25

    The authors have investigated the structure and physical chemistry of the d(C{sub 3}T{sub 4}C{sub 3}){center dot}2(d(G{sub 3}A{sub 4}G{sub 3})) triple helix by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), {sup 1}H NMR, and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. The triplex was stabilized with MgCl{sub 2} at neutral pH. PAGE studies verify the stoichiometry of the strands comprising the triplex and indicate that the orientation of the third strand in purine-purine-pyrimidine (pur-pur-pyr) triplexes is antiparallel with respect to the purine strand of the underlying duplex. Imino proton NMR spectra provide evidence for the existence of new purine-purine (pur{center dot}pur) hydrogen bonds, in addition to those of the Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairs, in the triplex structure. These new hydrogen bonds are likely to correspond to the interaction between third-strand guanine NH1 imino protons and the N7 atoms of guanine residues on the puring strand of the underlying duplex. Thermal denaturation of the triplex proceeds to single strands in one step, under the conditions used in this study. Binding of the third strand appears to enhance the thermal stability of the duplex by 1-3 C, depending on the DNA concentration. This marked enhancement in stability, coupled with the lack of an acidic pH requirement, suggests that pur-pur-pyr triplexes are appealing choices for use in applications involving oligonucleotide targeting of duplex DNA in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Intermolecular carbon-carbon, nitrogen-nitrogen and oxygen-oxygen non-covalent bonding in dipolar molecules.

    PubMed

    Remya, Karunakaran; Suresh, Cherumuttathu H

    2015-07-28

    Clear evidence for the existence of intermolecular carbon-carbon (C···C), nitrogen-nitrogen (N···N) and oxygen-oxygen (O···O) interactions between atoms in similar chemical environments in homogeneous dimers of organic dipolar molecules has been obtained from molecular orbital (MO), natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms-in-molecule (AIM) electron density analyses at the M06L/6-311++G(d,p) level of density functional theory (DFT). These X···X type interactions are mainly the result of local polarization effects, causing segregation of electron-rich and electron-deficient regions in the X atoms, leading to complementary electrostatic interactions. NBO analysis provides evidence of charge transfer between the two X atoms. Even in symmetrical molecules such as acetylene, induced dipoles in the dimer create C···C bonding interactions. The strength of this type of interaction increases with increase in the dipole moment of the molecule. Energy decomposition analysis (EDA) shows that the electrostatic component of the interaction energy (Eint) is very high, up to 95.86%. The C···C interactions between similar carbon atoms are located for several crystal structures obtained from the literature. In addition, MO, AIM and electrostatic potential analyses support interactions between similar oxygen (O···O) and nitrogen (N···N) atoms in a variety of molecular dimers. Good prediction of Eint is achieved in terms of the total gain in electron density at non-covalently interacting intermolecular bonds (∑ρ) and the monomer dipole moment (μ). A rigorously tested QSAR equation has been derived to predict Eint for all dimer systems: Eint (kcal mol(-1)) = -138.395∑ρ(au) - 0.551μ (Debye). This equation suggests that the polarization-induced bonding interaction between atoms in a similar chemical environment could well be a general chemical phenomenon. The results have been further validated by different density functional methods and also by G3MP2 method

  20. The HOMO Nodal Arrangement in Polychromophoric Molecules and Assemblies Controls the Interchromophoric Electronic Coupling.

    PubMed

    Talipov, Marat R; Navale, Tushar S; Rathore, Rajendra

    2015-11-23

    Triptycenes spontaneously assemble into two-dimensional networks in which long-range charge transport is facilitated by the extensive electronic coupling through the triptycene framework (intramolecularly) and by cofacial π-stacking (intermolecularly). While designing and synthesizing next-generation triptycenes containing polyaromatic chromophores, the electronic coupling amongst the chromophores was observed to be highly dependent on the nature and position of the substituents. Herein, we demonstrate using hexaalkoxytriptycenes that the electronic coupling amongst the chromophores is switched on and off by a simple repositioning of the substituents, which alters the nodal arrangement of the HOMOs of the individual chromophores. A visual inspection of the HOMOs can thus provide a ready evaluation of the electronic coupling in polychromophoric molecules/assemblies, and will serve as an important tool for the rational design of modern charge-transport materials. PMID:26425818