Analysis of internal conversion coefficients
Coursol; Gorozhankin; Yakushev; Briancon; Vylov
2000-03-01
An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z = 30 to Z = 103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10 < or = Z < or = 104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Rosel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations. PMID:10724406
Ratios of internal conversion coefficients
Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.
2006-03-15
We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.
Dirac-Fock Internal Conversion Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, I. M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Nestor, C. W.; Tikkanen, P. O.; Raman, S.
2002-05-01
Internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) obtained from relativistic self-consistent-field Dirac-Fock (DF) calculations are presented. The exchange terms of DF equations are included exactly, both for the interaction between bound electrons and for the interaction between bound and free electrons. Static and dynamic effects resulting from finite nuclear size are taken into account, the latter using the surface current model. Experimental electron-binding energies are used wherever possible. The hole in the atomic shell from which an electron was emitted is not taken into consideration because there is no compelling experimental evidence to warrant it. ICCs are given here for each Z between Z=10 and Z=126; for K, L1, L2, and L3 atomic shells; for nuclear-transition multipolarities E1… E5, M1… M5; and for nuclear-transition energies from ˜1 keV above the L1 threshold to 2000 keV. Also given are the total ICCs. Accurate (≤5%) experimental ICCs ( K and total) are known for 77 transitions with multipolarities E2, M3, E3, M4, or E5. For these transitions, the theoretical DF values are, on average, about 3% lower than the theoretical relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater (RHFS) values. The DF values are in better agreement with experimental results than the RHFS values.
Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P. T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D. M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P. J.; Barton, C. J.; Jenkins, D. G.
2016-03-01
A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of 154Sm, 152Sm and 166Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.
INTERNAL CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS - HOW GOOD ARE THEY NOW?
KIBEDI,T.; BURROWS, T.W.; TRZHASKOVSKAYA, M.B.; NESTOR, JR., C.W.; DAVIDSON, P.M.
2007-04-22
Internal conversion coefficients involving atomic electrons (ICC) and electron-positron pairs (IPC) are often required to determine transition multipolarities and total transition rates. A new internal conversion coefficient data base, BrIcc has been developed which integrates a number of tabulations on ICC and IPC, as well as {Omega}(E0) electronic factors. To decide which theoretical internal conversion coefficient table to use, the accurately determined experimental {alpha}{sub K}, {alpha}{sub L}, {alpha}{sub Total} and {alpha}{sub K}/{alpha}{sub L} values were compared with the new Dirac-Fock calculations using extreme assumptions on the effect of the atomic vacancy. While the overall difference between experiment and theory is less than 1%, our analysis shows preference towards the so called ''Frozen Orbital'' approximation, which takes into account the effect of the atomic vacancy.
Internal Conversion Coefficients for Low-Energy Nuclear Transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Band, I. M.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
1993-09-01
Presented here are calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) of gamma rays for 35 observed low-energy nuclear transitions having Eγ ≲ 3 keV. Additionally, the ICCs for 24 high-multipole-order transitions which have been measured extensively are also given. The ICC calculations have been performed using Dirac-Fock electron wave functions, the exchange terms of the Dirac-Fock equations being included wthout any approximations both for the interaction between bound electrons and the interaction between bound and free electrons. Our previous studies have shown that the Dirac-Fock method allows ICC values to be obtained in best agreement with experimental data.
Internal conversion coefficients of high multipole transitions: Experiment and theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerl, J.; Vijay Sai, K.; Sainath, M.; Gowrishankar, R.; Venkataramaniah, K.
2008-09-01
A compilation of the available experimental internal conversion coefficients (ICCs), αT, αK, αL, and ratios K/L and K/LM of high multipole ( L > 2) transitions for a number of elements in the range 21 ⩽ Z ⩽ 94 is presented. Our listing of experimental data includes 194 data sets on 110 E3 transitions, 10 data sets on 6 E4 transitions, 11 data sets on 7 E5 transitions, 38 data sets on 21 M3 transitions, and 132 data sets on 68 M4 transitions. Data with less than 10% experimental uncertainty have been selected for comparison with the theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer [R.S. Hager, E.C. Seltzer, Nucl. Data Tables A 4 (1968) 1], Rosel et al. [F. Rösel, H.M. Fries, K. Alder, H.C. Pauli, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21 (1978) 91], and BRICC. The relative percentage deviations (%Δ) have been calculated for each of the above theories and the averages (%Δ¯) are estimated. The Band et al. [I.M. Band, M.B. Trzhaskovskaya, C.W. Nestor Jr., P.O. Tikkanen, S. Raman, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 81 (2002) 1] tables, using the BRICC interpolation code, are seen to give theoretical ICCs closest to experimental values.
New features of the IC(4) code and comparison of internal conversion coefficient calculations.
Gorozhankin, V M; Coursol, N; Yakushev, E A; Vylov, Ts; Briançon, C
2002-01-01
The IC(4) software developed to compare calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC) has been enhanced by adding new features through the use of Borland Delphi and TeeChart. Particularly, the 3D-graph option enhances the possibilities of analyzing calculated ICC values. For example, the comparison between the results given by three sets of theoretical ICC tables for any arbitrary pair of calculated ICC can be presented in a much clearer manner. Their differences can be displayed as energy vs. atomic number surfaces. Results from the analyses of K-shell and total ICCs for E2, E3, M2, M3, and M4 multipolarity are discussed. PMID:11839014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Németh, Zsolt
1992-02-01
A large set of accurately measured E3, M3, E4 and M4 internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) has been compared with various theoretical values. ICCs calculated by considering Dirac-Fock wave functions are found in best agreement with the experimental values, although dependence of their discrepancies on transition energy, multipolarity and parity, as well as on nuclear charge and shell, has been revealed. The ICCs of Rösel et al., after the adjustment of Németh and Veres, proved to be the most successful in reproducing the experimental values. The adjusted ICCs of Rösel et al. are recommended and revision of the ICCs and γ-emission probabilities of isomeric transitions in evaluated data compilations such as Nuclear Data Sheets is suggested. Selection from the contradicting K and total ICCs of the 661.66 keV transition of 137Ba is proposed.
Resonance behavior of internal conversion coefficients at low γ-ray energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Kibédi, T.; Nikulin, V. K.
2010-02-01
A resonance-like structure of internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) at low γ-ray energy (≲100 keV) is studied. Our calculations revealed new, previously unknown resonance minima in the energy dependence of ICCs for the ns shells at E2-E5 transitions. The resonances are the most defined for ICCs in light and medium elements with Z≲ 50. It is shown that ICCs may have up to four resonances for outer shells while it has been assumed so far that only one resonance exists. Well-pronounced resonances in ICCs at E1 transition were discovered for the ns shells with n⩾2 as well as for the np shells with n⩾3 and the nd shells with n⩾4 of all elements up to superheavy ones. Simple expressions for approximate values of the E1 resonance energy were obtained which are of importance for determination of the resonance energy range where the interpolation of ICCs taken from tables or databases may give significant errors. The occurrence of resonances in ICCs is explained by vanishing conversion matrix elements under changes of sign. The peculiarities of the behavior of the matrix elements and electron wave functions at the resonance energy are considered. Available experimental ICCs for electric transitions with energies near the expected position of resonances satisfactory agree with our calculations.
Comparison of experimental and theoretical high multipole-order internal conversion coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Németh, Zs.; Veres, Á.
1990-01-01
Sixty-four accurately measured (1 σ ⩽ 5%) internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) of high multipole-order (E3, M3, E4, M4) gamma-transitions have been compared with the theoretical values of Rösel et al. and Hager and Seltzer. Individual measurements were carefully examined and modified, if necessary. The discrepancies among the experimental values and the Rösel calculations tend to fall within a narrow band and do not reveal any dependence on atomic number, shell or transition energy. However, discrepancies between the experimental data and the calculations of Hager and Seltzer depend on transition energy, viz., increases up to 10% occur when the transition energy approaches the K binding energy. The calculations of Rösel et al. are preferred, and it is proposed that their third and fourth order ICCs are multiplied by factors of 0.975±0.010 and 0.975±0.005 respectively, to give better agreement with the experimental data. The accuracy of the corrected theoretical values is higher than most of the experimental data. This comparison also implies that the recommended source of ICCs and total transition probabilities needs to be reconsidered by the International Nuclear Structure and Decay Data Network.
Pure E2 transitions: A test for BRICC Internal Conversion Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerl, J.; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.; Gowrishankar, R.; Venkataramaniah, K.
2009-01-01
The most widely used theoretical internal conversion coefficient (ICC) tables are of Hager and Seltzer (HS), Rosel et al. and BRICC (Band et al. tables using BRICC interpolation code). A rigorous comparison of experimental ICCs with various theoretical tabulations is possible only when a large data on experimental ICCs is available at one place. For this reason, a compilation of all the available experimental ICCs, αT, αK, αL of E2 transitions for a number of elements in the range of 24⩽Z⩽94 is presented. Listing of experimental data includes 595 datasets corresponding to 505 E2 transitions in 165 nuclei across the nuclear chart. Data with less than 10% experimental uncertainty have been selected for comparison with the theoretical values of Hager and Seltzer, Rosel et al. and BRICC. The relative percentage deviation (%Δ) have been calculated for each of the above theories and the average (%Δ¯) are estimated. The Band et al. tables, using the BRICC interpolation code are seen to give theoretical ICCs closest to experimental values.
Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Balonek, C.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2008-03-15
Recently we measured the ratio of K-shell internal conversion coefficients, {alpha}{sub K}, for the 127.5-keV E3 transition in {sup 134}Cs and the 661.7-keV M4 transition in {sup 137}Ba. We here report a measurement of the 165.9-keV M1 transition in {sup 139}La, based on which we convert our earlier ratio measurement into individual {alpha}{sub K} values for the transitions in {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Ba. These results continue to confirm the Dirac-Fock calculations of internal conversion coefficients that incorporate the atomic K-shell vacancy.
Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.
2006-01-01
Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…
Lattice effect in solid state internal conversion
Kalman, Peter; Keszthelyi, Tamas
2009-03-15
The effect of the crystal lattice on nuclear fusion reactions p+d{yields}{sup 3}He taking place in internal conversion channels is studied. Fusionable particles solved in the investigated crystalline material form a sublattice. Fusion reaction is generated by a flux of incoming fusionable particles. The calculated cross sections are compared with those of an ordinary fusion reaction. The internal conversion coefficients are also calculated.
Personal Dose Equivalent Conversion Coefficients For Photons To 1 GEV
Veinot, K. G.; Hertel, N. E.
2010-09-27
The personal dose equivalent, H{sub p}(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity Effective Dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk where personal dosemeters are usually worn and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 cm X 30 cm X 15 cm slab-type phantom. For this condition the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H{sub p,slab}(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several MeV, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H{sub p,slab}(10) and H{sub p,slab}(3) using both the kerma approximation and by tracking secondary charged particles. For H{sub p}(0.07) the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H{sub p,slab}(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared to the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on
Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.
Otto, Thomas
2016-01-01
Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458
Conversion coefficients of the isomeric state in {sup 72}Br
Briz, J. A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Maira, A.; Perea, A.; Tengblad, O.; Agramunt, J.; Algora, A.; Estevez, E.; Nacher, E.; Rubio, B.; Fraile, L. M.; Deo, A.; Farrelly, G.; Gelletly, W.; Podolyak, Z.
2010-04-26
In order to determine the Gamow-Teller strength distribution for the N Z nucleus {sup 72}Kr an experiment was performed with a Total Absorption Gamma Spectrometer. To fully accomplish this task it is crucial to determine the multipolarity of the low energy transitions as the spin-parity of the daughter ground state has been debated. This is done by experimental determination of the conversion coefficients. Preliminary results for the multipolarity and conversion coefficients of the transition connecting the isomeric state at 101 keV with the {sup 72}Br ground state are presented.
Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for electrons to 1 Ge V.
Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E
2012-04-01
In a previous paper, conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent, H(p)(d), for photons were reported. This note reports values for electrons calculated using similar techniques. The personal dose equivalent is the quantity used to approximate the protection quantity effective dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations and in practice the personal dose equivalent is determined using a 30×30×15 cm slab-type phantom. Conversion coefficients to 1 GeV have been calculated for H(p)(10), H(p)(3) and H(p)(0.07) in the recommended slab phantom. Although the conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, analytical fits of the conversion coefficients over the energy range are provided using a similar formulation as in the photon results previously reported. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared with the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on Radiological Protection guidance. Effects of eyewear on H(p)(3) are also discussed. PMID:21715410
Comparison of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for deuterons, tritons and helions.
Copeland, Kyle; Friedberg, Wallace; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji
2012-02-01
Secondary radiation in aircraft and spacecraft includes deuterons, tritons and helions. Two sets of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients for isotropic exposure to these particles were compared: one used the particle and heavy ion transport code system (PHITS) radiation transport code coupled with the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reference phantoms (PHITS-ICRP) and the other the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) radiation transport code coupled with modified BodyBuilder™ phantoms (MCNPX-BB). Also, two sets of fluence-to-effective dose equivalent conversion coefficients calculated using the PHITS-ICRP combination were compared: one used quality factors based on linear energy transfer; the other used quality factors based on lineal energy (y). Finally, PHITS-ICRP effective dose coefficients were compared with PHITS-ICRP effective dose equivalent coefficients. The PHITS-ICRP and MCNPX-BB effective dose coefficients were similar, except at high energies, where MCNPX-BB coefficients were higher. For helions, at most energies effective dose coefficients were much greater than effective dose equivalent coefficients. For deuterons and tritons, coefficients were similar when their radiation weighting factor was set to 2. PMID:21474471
Endo, Akira; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Zankl, Maria; Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Hertel, Nolan E; Hunt, John G; Pelliccioni, Maurizio; Schlattl, Helmut; Menzel, Hans-Georg
2014-10-01
This paper reviews the ICRP Publications 110 and 116 describing the reference computational phantoms and dose conversion coefficients for external exposures. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its 2007 Recommendations made several revisions to the methods of calculation of the protection quantities. In order to implement these recommendations, the DOCAL task group of the ICRP developed computational phantoms representing the reference adult male and female and then calculated a set of dose conversion coefficients for various types of idealised external exposures. This paper focuses on the dose conversion coefficients for neutrons and investigates their relationship with the conversion coefficients of the protection and operational quantities of ICRP Publication 74. Contributing factors to the differences between these sets of conversion coefficients are discussed in terms of the changes in phantoms employed and the radiation and tissue weighting factors. PMID:24285286
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Lienard A.
In the event of a radiological accident or attack, it is important to estimate the organ doses to those exposed. In general, it is difficult to measure organ dose directly in the field and therefore dose conversion coefficients (DCC) are needed to convert measurable values such as air kerma to organ dose. Previous work on these coefficients has been conducted mainly for adults with a focus on radiation protection workers. Hence, there is a large gap in the literature for pediatric values. This study coupled a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code with International Council of Radiological Protection (ICRP)-adopted University of Florida and National Cancer Institute pediatric reference phantoms to calculate a comprehensive list of dose conversion coefficients (mGy/mGy) to convert air-kerma to organ dose. Parameters included ten phantoms (newborn, 1-year, 5-year, 10-year, 15-year old male and female), 28 organs over 33 energies between 0.01 and 20 MeV in six (6) irradiation geometries relevant to a child who might be exposed to a radiological release: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral (RLAT), left-lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT), and isotropic (ISO). Dose conversion coefficients to the red bone marrow over 36 skeletal sites were also calculated. It was hypothesized that the pediatric organ dose conversion coefficients would follow similar trends to the published adult values as dictated by human anatomy, but be of a higher magnitude. It was found that while the pediatric coefficients did yield similar patterns to that of the adult coefficients, depending on the organ and irradiation geometry, the pediatric values could be lower or higher than that of the adult coefficients.
Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for embryo and fetus.
Chen, Jing; Meyerhof, Dorothy; Vlahovich, Slavica
2004-01-01
A problem of concern in radiation protection is the exposure of pregnant women to ionising radiation, because of the high radiosensitivity of the embryo and fetus. External neutron exposure is of concern when pregnant women travel by aeroplane. Dose assessments for neutrons frequently rely on fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients. While neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for adults are recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection publications and International Commission on Radiological Units and Measurements reports, conversion coefficients for embryos and fetuses are not given in the publications. This study undertakes Monte Carlo calculations to determine the mean absorbed doses to the embryo and fetus when the mother is exposed to neutron fields. A new set of mathematical models for the embryo and fetus has been developed at Health Canada and is used together with mathematical phantoms of a pregnant female developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Monoenergetic neutrons from 1 eV to 10 MeV are considered in this study. The irradiation geometries include antero-posterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO) geometries. At each of these standard irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the fetal brain and body are calculated; for the embryo at 8 weeks and the fetus at 3, 6 or 9 months. Neutron fluence-to-absorbed dose conversion coefficients are derived for the four age groups. Neutron fluence-to-equivalent dose conversion coefficients are given for the AP irradiations which yield the highest radiation dose to the fetal body in the neutron energy range considered here. The results indicate that for neutrons <10 MeV more protection should be given to pregnant women in the first trimester due to the higher absorbed dose per unit neutron fluence to the fetus. PMID:15353732
Personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients for photons to 1 GeV.
Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E
2011-04-01
The personal dose equivalent, H(p)(d), is the quantity recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) to be used as an approximation of the protection quantity effective dose when performing personal dosemeter calibrations. The personal dose equivalent can be defined for any location and depth within the body. Typically, the location of interest is the trunk, where personal dosemeters are usually worn, and in this instance a suitable approximation is a 30 × 30 × 15 cm(3) slab-type phantom. For this condition, the personal dose equivalent is denoted as H(p,slab)(d) and the depths, d, are taken to be 0.007 cm for non-penetrating and 1 cm for penetrating radiation. In operational radiation protection a third depth, 0.3 cm, is used to approximate the dose to the lens of the eye. A number of conversion coefficients for photons are available for incident energies up to several megaelectronvolts, however, data to higher energies are limited. In this work, conversion coefficients up to 1 GeV have been calculated for H(p,slab)(10) and H(p,slab)(3) both by using the kerma approximation and tracking secondary charged particles. For H(p)(0.07), the conversion coefficients were calculated, but only to 10 MeV due to computational limitations. Additionally, conversions from air kerma to H(p,slab)(d) have been determined and are reported. The conversion coefficients were determined for discrete incident energies, but analytical fits of the coefficients over the energy range are provided. Since the inclusion of air can influence the production of secondary charged particles incident on the face of the phantom, conversion coefficients have been determined both in vacuo and with the source and slab immersed within a sphere in air. The conversion coefficients for the personal dose equivalent are compared with the appropriate protection quantity, calculated according to the recommendations of the latest International Commission on Radiological
Converse magneto-electric coefficient of concentric multiferroic composite ring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavez, Andres C.; Lopez, Mario; Youssef, George
2016-06-01
The converse magnetoelectric (CME) coefficient of an artificial, multiferroic composite cylinder was determined for two interface boundary conditions; specifically epoxy-bonded and shrink-fit. The composite consists of two concentrically bonded rings with the inner and outer rings made from Terfenol-D and lead zirconate titanate, respectively. The diameter of the inner annulus was 25 mm, and the outer ring diameter was 30 mm. Electric fields ranging from 20 kV/m to 80 kV/m with AC components cycling at frequencies from 4 kHz to 50 kHz were applied for actuation of the composite. A magnetic bias field from 0 Oe to 2300 Oe was applied for enhancement of the CME coefficient. It has been found that the maximum CME for epoxy-bonded rings occurs at lower bias magnetic field than shrink-fitted rings. Resonance for the epoxy-bonded composite was found to be 36 kHz whereas the resonant frequency for the shrink-fit structure was 34 kHz. The maximum CME coefficients were approximately 535 mG/V at 100 Vpp and 330 mG/V at 400 Vpp for the epoxy-bonded and shrink-fit configurations, respectively.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2015-01-01
In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…
Qiu, Rui; Li, Junli; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Bi, Lei; Ren, Li
2009-02-01
A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ-absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on the Chinese mathematical phantom, a whole-body mathematical phantom model. The model was developed based on the methods of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory mathematical phantom series and data from the Chinese Reference Man and the Reference Asian Man. This work is carried out to obtain the conversion coefficients based on this model, which represents the characteristics of the Chinese population, as the anatomical parameters of the Chinese are different from those of Caucasians. Monte Carlo simulation with MCNP code is carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Before the calculation, the effects from the physics model and tally type are investigated, considering both the calculation efficiency and precision. In the calculation irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Conversion coefficients from this study are compared with those recommended in the Publication 74 of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP74) since both the sets of data are calculated with mathematical phantoms. Overall, consistency between the two sets of data is observed and the difference for more than 60% of the data is below 10%. However, significant deviations are also found, mainly for the superficial organs (up to 65.9%) and bone surface (up to 66%). The big difference of the dose conversion coefficients for the superficial organs at high photon energy could be ascribed to kerma approximation for the data in ICRP74. Both anatomical variations between races and the calculation method contribute to the difference of the data for bone surface. PMID:19376886
Lee, Choonsik; Lee, Choonik; Lee, Jai-Ki
2007-05-01
International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) reported comprehensive dose conversion coefficients for adult population, which is exposed to external photon sources in the Publication 74. However, those quantities were calculated from so-called stylized (or mathematical) phantoms composed of simplified mathematical surface equations so that the discrepancy between the phantoms and real human anatomy has been investigated by several authors using Caucasian-based voxel phantoms. To address anatomical and racial limitations of the stylized phantoms, several Asian-based voxel phantoms have been developed by Korean and Japanese investigators, independently. In the current study, photon dose conversion coefficients of ICRP 74 were compared with those from a total of five Asian-based male voxel phantoms, whose body dimensions were almost identical. Those of representative radio-sensitive organs (testes, red bone marrow, colon, lungs, and stomach), and effective dose conversion coefficients were obtained for comparison. Even though organ doses for testes, colon and lungs, and effective doses from ICRP 74 agreed well with those from Asian voxel phantoms within 10%, absorbed doses for red bone marrow and stomach showed significant discrepancies up to 30% which was mainly attributed to difference of phantom description between stylized and voxel phantoms. This study showed that the ICRP 74 dosimetry data, which have been reported to be unrealistic compared to those from Caucasian-based voxel phantoms, are also not appropriate for Asian population. PMID:17337194
Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sijtsma, Klaas
2015-01-01
I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…
Behrens, R
2012-09-01
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has issued a standard series on photon reference radiation qualities (ISO 4037). In this series, no conversion coefficients are contained for the quantity personal dose equivalent at a 3 mm depth, H(p)(3). In the past, for this quantity, a slab phantom was recommended as a calibration phantom; however, a cylinder phantom much better approximates the shape of a human head than a slab phantom. Therefore, in this work, the conversion coefficients from air kerma to H(p)(3) for the cylinder phantom are supplied for X- and gamma radiation qualities defined in ISO 4037. PMID:22434922
Dose conversion coefficients for electron exposure of the human eye lens.
Behrens, R; Dietze, G; Zankl, M
2009-07-01
Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low dose threshold (below 0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimized and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. Two questions arise from this situation: first, which dose quantity is related to the risk of developing a cataract, and second, which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring this dose quantity. While the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(0.07) has often been seen as being sufficiently accurate for monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye, this would be questionable in the case when the dose limits were reduced and, thus, it may be necessary to generally use the dose equivalent quantity H(p)(3) for this purpose. The basis for a decision, however, must be the knowledge of accurate conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens. This is especially important for low-penetrating radiation, for example, electrons. Formerly published values of conversion coefficients are based on quite simple models of the eye. In this paper, quite a sophisticated model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was used for the calculations and precise conversion coefficients for electrons with energies between 0.2 MeV and 12 MeV, and for angles of radiation incidence between 0 degrees and 45 degrees are presented. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are up to 1000 times smaller for electron energies below 1 MeV, nearly equal at 1 MeV and above 4 MeV, and by a factor of 1.5 larger at about 1.5 MeV electron energy. PMID:19502705
Dose conversion coefficients for photon exposure of the human eye lens.
Behrens, R; Dietze, G
2011-01-21
In recent years, several papers dealing with the eye lens dose have been published, because epidemiological studies implied that the induction of cataracts occurs even at eye lens doses of less than 500 mGy. Different questions were addressed: Which personal dose equivalent quantity is appropriate for monitoring the dose to the eye lens? Is a new definition of the dose quantity H(p)(3) based on a cylinder phantom to represent the human head necessary? Are current conversion coefficients from fluence to equivalent dose to the lens sufficiently accurate? To investigate the latter question, a realistic model of the eye including the inner structure of the lens was developed. Using this eye model, conversion coefficients for electrons have already been presented. In this paper, the same eye model-with the addition of the whole body-was used to calculate conversion coefficients from fluence (and air kerma) to equivalent dose to the lens for photon radiation from 5 keV to 10 MeV. Compared to the values adopted in 1996 by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), the new values are similar between 40 keV and 1 MeV and lower by up to a factor of 5 and 7 for photon energies at about 10 keV and 10 MeV, respectively. Above 1 MeV, the new values (calculated without kerma approximation) should be applied in pure photon radiation fields, while the values adopted by the ICRP in 1996 (calculated with kerma approximation) should be applied in case a significant contribution from secondary electrons originating outside the body is present. PMID:21178237
A Method for Maximizing the Internal Consistency Coefficient Alpha.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pepin, Michel
This paper presents three different ways of computing the internal consistency coefficient alpha for a same set of data. The main objective of the paper is the illustration of a method for maximizing coefficient alpha. The maximization of alpha can be achieved with the aid of a principal component analysis. The relation between alpha max. and the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlattl, H.; Zankl, M.; Petoussi-Henss, N.
2007-04-01
A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360° rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%.
Schlattl, H; Zankl, M; Petoussi-Henss, N
2007-04-21
A new series of organ equivalent dose conversion coefficients for whole body external photon exposure is presented for a standardized couple of human voxel models, called Rex and Regina. Irradiations from broad parallel beams in antero-posterior, postero-anterior, left- and right-side lateral directions as well as from a 360 degrees rotational source have been performed numerically by the Monte Carlo transport code EGSnrc. Dose conversion coefficients from an isotropically distributed source were computed, too. The voxel models Rex and Regina originating from real patient CT data comply in body and organ dimensions with the currently valid reference values given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for the average Caucasian man and woman, respectively. While the equivalent dose conversion coefficients of many organs are in quite good agreement with the reference values of ICRP Publication 74, for some organs and certain geometries the discrepancies amount to 30% or more. Differences between the sexes are of the same order with mostly higher dose conversion coefficients in the smaller female model. However, much smaller deviations from the ICRP values are observed for the resulting effective dose conversion coefficients. With the still valid definition for the effective dose (ICRP Publication 60), the greatest change appears in lateral exposures with a decrease in the new models of at most 9%. However, when the modified definition of the effective dose as suggested by an ICRP draft is applied, the largest deviation from the current reference values is obtained in postero-anterior geometry with a reduction of the effective dose conversion coefficient by at most 12%. PMID:17404459
Dose conversion coefficients for ICRP110 voxel phantom in the Geant4 Monte Carlo code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martins, M. C.; Cordeiro, T. P. V.; Silva, A. X.; Souza-Santos, D.; Queiroz-Filho, P. P.; Hunt, J. G.
2014-02-01
The reference adult male voxel phantom recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection no. 110 was implemented in the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. Geant4 was used to calculate Dose Conversion Coefficients (DCCs) expressed as dose deposited in organs per air kerma for photons, electrons and neutrons in the Annals of the ICRP. In this work the AP and PA irradiation geometries of the ICRP male phantom were simulated for the purpose of benchmarking the Geant4 code. Monoenergetic photons were simulated between 15 keV and 10 MeV and the results were compared with ICRP 110, the VMC Monte Carlo code and the literature data available, presenting a good agreement.
Photon extremity absorbed dose and kerma conversion coefficients for calibration geometries.
Veinot, K G; Hertel, N E
2007-02-01
Absorbed dose and dose equivalent conversion coefficients are routinely used in personnel dosimetry programs. These conversion coefficients can be applied to particle fluences or to measured air kerma values to determine appropriate operational monitoring quantities such as the ambient dose equivalent or personal dose equivalent for a specific geometry. For personnel directly handling materials, the absorbed dose to the extremities is of concern. This work presents photon conversion coefficients for two extremity calibration geometries using finger and wrist/arm phantoms described in HPS N13.32. These conversion coefficients have been calculated as a function of photon energy in terms of the kerma and the absorbed dose using Monte Carlo techniques and the calibration geometries specified in HPS N13.32. Additionally, kerma and absorbed dose conversion coefficients for commonly used x-ray spectra and calibration source fields are presented. The kerma values calculated in this work for the x-ray spectra and calibration sources compare well to those listed in HPS N13.32. The absorbed dose values, however, differ significantly for higher energy photons because charged particle equilibrium conditions have not been satisfied for the shallow depth. Thus, the air-kerma-to-dose and exposure-to-dose conversion coefficients for Cs and Co listed in HPS N13.32 overestimate the absorbed dose to the extremities. Applying the conversion coefficients listed in HPS N13.32 for Cs, for example, would result in an overestimate of absorbed dose of 62% for the finger phantom and 55% for the wrist phantom. PMID:17220720
International and American Students' Perceptions of Informal English Conversations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Eun Jeong
2016-01-01
This study investigated international and American students' perceptions of structured but informal English conversations with each other. American and international students perceived the effects of these conversations differently. While the international students claimed increased linguistic and cultural competence, the Americans identified…
Test of internal-conversion theory with measurements in {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Ba
Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Rockwell, W. E.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2007-02-15
We have measured the ratio of K-shell internal conversion coefficients, {alpha}{sub K}, for the 127.5-keV E3 transition in {sup 134}Cs and the 661.7-keV M4 transition in {sup 137}Ba. Previous measurements of these {alpha}{sub K} values led to a ratio that differed from calculated internal conversion coefficients. Our measured result, 30.01(15), disagrees with, but is a factor of three more precise than, the previous average of all experimental results. Our new result is consistent with calculations.
Chang, S J; Hung, S Y; Liu, Y L; Jiang, S H; Wu, J
2015-11-01
Reference man has been widely used for external and internal dose evaluation of radiation protection. The parameters of the mathematical model of organs suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are adopted from the average data of Caucasians. However, the organ masses of Asians are significantly different from the data of Caucasians, leading to potentially dosimetric errors. In this study, a total of 40 volunteers whose heights and weights corresponded to the statistical average of Taiwanese adults were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and T2-weighted images were acquired. The Taiwanese reference man and woman were constructed according to the measured organ masses. The dose conversion coefficients (DCFs) for anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT) and left lateral (LLAT) irradiation geometries were simulated. For the Taiwanese reference man, the average differences of the DCFs compared with the results of ICRP-74 were 7.6, 5.1 and 11.1 % for 0.1, 1 and 10 MeV photons irradiated in the AP direction. The maximum difference reached 51.7 % for the testes irradiated by 10 MeV photons. The size of the trunk, the volume and the geometric position of organs can cause a significant impact on the DCFs for external exposure of radiation. The constructed Taiwanese reference man and woman can be used in radiation protection to increase the accuracy of dose evaluation for the Taiwanese population. PMID:25944957
Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Ning, Jing; Zhou, Hongmei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan
2016-01-01
A set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for neutrons with energies <20 MeV using a developed voxel mouse model and Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP), for the purpose of neutron radiation effect evaluation. The calculation used 37 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10−9 MeV to 20 MeV, under five different source irradiation configurations: left lateral, right lateral, dorsal–ventral, ventral–dorsal, and isotropic. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for selected organs of the body were presented in the paper, and the effect of irradiation geometry conditions, neutron energy and the organ location on the organ dose was discussed. The results indicated that neutron dose conversion coefficients clearly show sensitivity to irradiation geometry at neutron energy below 1 MeV. PMID:26661852
Zhang, Xiaomin; Xie, Xiangdong; Qu, Decheng; Ning, Jing; Zhou, Hongmei; Pan, Jie; Yang, Guoshan
2016-03-01
A set of fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients has been calculated for neutrons with energies <20 MeV using a developed voxel mouse model and Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP), for the purpose of neutron radiation effect evaluation. The calculation used 37 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10(-9) MeV to 20 MeV, under five different source irradiation configurations: left lateral, right lateral, dorsal-ventral, ventral-dorsal, and isotropic. Neutron fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients for selected organs of the body were presented in the paper, and the effect of irradiation geometry conditions, neutron energy and the organ location on the organ dose was discussed. The results indicated that neutron dose conversion coefficients clearly show sensitivity to irradiation geometry at neutron energy below 1 MeV. PMID:26661852
Calculation of conversion coefficients for clinical photon spectra using the MCNP code.
Lima, M A F; Silva, A X; Crispim, V R
2004-01-01
In this work, the MCNP4B code has been employed to calculate conversion coefficients from air kerma to the ambient dose equivalent, H*(10)/Ka, for monoenergetic photon energies from 10 keV to 50 MeV, assuming the kerma approximation. Also estimated are the H*(10)/Ka for photon beams produced by linear accelerators, such as Clinac-4 and Clinac-2500, after transmission through primary barriers of radiotherapy treatment rooms. The results for the conversion coefficients for monoenergetic photon energies, with statistical uncertainty <2%, are compared with those in ICRP publication 74 and good agreements were obtained. The conversion coefficients calculated for real clinic spectra transmitted through walls of concrete of 1, 1.5 and 2 m thick, are in the range of 1.06-1.12 Sv Gy(-1). PMID:15367760
Further Test of Internal-conversion Theory with a Measurement in 119Sn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.
2014-06-01
Precise measurements are being used to test theoretical K-shell internal conversion coefficients (ICCs): in particular, our program has focused on examining whether the atomic K-vacancy formed during the conversion process must be incorporated into the calculations. We report here a measurement on the 65.66-keV, M4 isomeric transition in 119Sn. Our preliminary result is αK = 1610 (27), which confirms the importance of including the vacancy in the ICC calculations.
Chapter 4: Ultrafast Internal Conversion of Pyrazine via Conical Intersection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, T.; Suzuki, Y. I.
2014-04-01
We describe recent experimental studies of internal conversion via conical intersection in pyrazine. Ultrafast S2 - S1 internal conversion is observed in real time using a time-resolved photoelectron imaging (TRPEI) method with a time resolution of 22 fs. This method enables us to obtain a time-energy map of the photoelectron angular anisotropy, which unambiguously reveals the signature of internal conversion. Furthermore, the time-energy map of the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution (PKED) exhibits vibrational quantum beats of totally symmetric modes in S1 after internal conversion. We also studied similar conical intersections between D1(π-1) and D0(n-1) by He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy and pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy. The existence of ultrafast internal conversion from D1 to D0 is confirmed by broadening of He(I) photoelectron spectra of pyrazine and deuterated pyrazine. Comparison of these spectra with one-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) spectra of the 3s Rydberg states clearly indicates that the conical intersection between D1 and D0 induces ultrafast internal conversion from the Rydberg state with a D1 ion core to that with a D0 ion core.
Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X George
2009-01-01
Protection of pregnant women and their foetus against external proton irradiations poses a unique challenge. Assessment of foetal dose due to external protons in galactic cosmic rays and as secondaries generated in aircraft walls is especially important during high-altitude flights. This paper reports a set of fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients for the foetus and its brain for external monoenergetic proton beams of six standard configurations (the antero-posterior, the postero-anterior, the right lateral, the left lateral, the rotational and the isotropic). The pregnant female anatomical definitions at each of the three gestational periods (3, 6 and 9 months) are based on newly developed RPI-P series of models whose organ masses were matched within 1% with the International Commission on Radiological Protection reference values. Proton interactions and the transport of secondary particles were carefully simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended code (MCNPX) and the phantoms consisting of several million voxels at 3 mm resolution. When choosing the physics models in the MCNPX, it was found that the advanced Cascade-Exciton intranuclear cascade model showed a maximum of 9% foetal dose increase compared with the default model combination at intermediate energies below 5 GeV. Foetal dose results from this study are tabulated and compared with previously published data that were based on simplified anatomy. The comparison showed a strong dependence upon the source geometry, energy and gestation period: the dose differences are typically less than 20% for all sources except ISO where systematically 40-80% of higher doses were observed. Below 200 MeV, a larger discrepancy in dose was found due to the Bragg peak shift caused by different anatomy. The tabulated foetal doses represent the latest and most detailed study to date offering a useful set of data to improve radiation protection dosimetry against external protons. PMID:19246483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, A. K.; Altaher, K.; Hussein, M. A.; Amer, M.; Farid, K. Y.; Alghamdi, A. A.
2014-02-01
In this work we will present a new set of photon fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients using the Saudi population-based voxel phantom developed recently by our group. The phantom corresponds to an average Saudi male of 173 cm tall weighing 77 kg. There are over 125 million voxels in the phantom each of which is 1.37×1.37×1.00 mm3. Of the 27 organs and tissues of radiological interest specified in the recommendations of ICRP Publication 103, all but the oral mucosa, extrathoracic tissue and the lymph nodes were identified in the current version of the phantom. The bone surface (endosteum) is too thin to be identifiable; it is about 10 μm thick. The dose to the endosteum was therefore approximated by the dose to the bones. Irradiation geometries included anterior-posterior (AP), left (LLAT) and rotational (ROT). The simulations were carried out with the MCNPX code version 2.5.0. The fluence in free air and the energy depositions in each organ were calculated for monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV to obtain the conversion coefficients. The radiation and tissue weighting factors were taken from ICRP Publication 60 and 103. The results from this study will also be compared with the conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 116.
Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Zhan; Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Bi, Lei; Li, Wenqian
2009-07-01
A set of conversion coefficients from kerma free-in-air to the organ absorbed dose are presented for external monoenergetic photon beams from 10 keV to 10 MeV based on a whole-body, Chinese adult male voxel phantom. This computational phantom, called the Chinese voxel phantom (CVP), including totally 23 organs, was developed from magnetic resonance imaging of a young healthy Chinese man at a resolution of 2 x 2 mm. Compared with the ICRP Reference Man, more than half of the organs or tissues in the CVP show mass differences of more than 20. Monte Carlo simulations with MCNP code were carried out to calculate the organ dose conversion coefficients. Irradiation conditions include anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior (PA), right-lateral, left-lateral, rotational and isotropic geometries. Organ dose conversion coefficients from this study are compared with the data from the Asian voxel phantoms Visible Chinese Human and KORMAN. These data sets agree with each other within 10% for photon energy >5 MeV. However, discrepancies of 34-63% were observed for organs of the alimentary tract, such as the oesophagus and stomach, those of the urinary system, such as the bladder wall and thyroid, especially at low photon energy range and PA geometry. These results suggest that the anatomical variation within the Chinese population, as represented by these adult male voxel phantoms, can lead to uncertainties when a standard phantom is used for the entire population. PMID:19457976
Xiao, Pingping; Wang, Xianping; Sun, Jingjing; Huang, Meizhen; Chen, Xianfeng; Cao, Zhuangqi
2012-06-18
A new scheme is proposed to measure the electro-optical (EO) and converse-piezoelectric (CPE) coefficients of the PMN-PT ceramics simultaneously, in which the PMN-PT ceramics acts as the guiding layer of a symmetrical metal-cladding waveguide. As the applied electric field exerts on the waveguide, the effective refractive index (RI) (or synchronous angle) can be effectively tuned from a selected mode to another adjacent mode owing to the high sensitivity and the small spacing of the ultra-high order modes. Subsequently, a correlation between EO and CPE coefficients is established. With this correlation and the measurement of the effective RI change to the applied voltage, the quadratic EO and CPE coefficients of PMN-PT ceramics are obtained simultaneously. The obtained results are further checked by fitting the variations of effective RI to a quadratic function. Our measurement method can be extended to a wide range of other materials. PMID:22714448
Conversion Intentions of Interns: What Are the Motivating Factors?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hurst, Jessica L.; Good, Linda K.; Gardner, Phil
2012-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate interns' supervisory support expectations, psychological contract obligations, job satisfaction, perception of advancement opportunities and affective organisational commitment in an attempt to gain a better understanding of how these variables influence interns' conversion intentions.…
Organ dose conversion coefficients for tube current modulated CT protocols for an adult population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Wanyi; Tian, Xiaoyu; Sahbaee, Pooyan; Zhang, Yakun; Segars, William Paul; Samei, Ehsan
2016-03-01
In computed tomography (CT), patient-specific organ dose can be estimated using pre-calculated organ dose conversion coefficients (organ dose normalized by CTDIvol, h factor) database, taking into account patient size and scan coverage. The conversion coefficients have been previously estimated for routine body protocol classes, grouped by scan coverage, across an adult population for fixed tube current modulated CT. The coefficients, however, do not include the widely utilized tube current (mA) modulation scheme, which significantly impacts organ dose. This study aims to extend the h factors and the corresponding dose length product (DLP) to create effective dose conversion coefficients (k factor) database incorporating various tube current modulation strengths. Fifty-eight extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were included in this study representing population anatomy variation in clinical practice. Four mA profiles, representing weak to strong mA dependency on body attenuation, were generated for each phantom and protocol class. A validated Monte Carlo program was used to simulate the organ dose. The organ dose and effective dose was further normalized by CTDIvol and DLP to derive the h factors and k factors, respectively. The h factors and k factors were summarized in an exponential regression model as a function of body size. Such a population-based mathematical model can provide a comprehensive organ dose estimation given body size and CTDIvol. The model was integrated into an iPhone app XCATdose version 2, enhancing the 1st version based upon fixed tube current modulation. With the organ dose calculator, physicists, physicians, and patients can conveniently estimate organ dose.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Z.; Toksoz, M. N.
2014-12-01
Theoretical calculation of seismoelectric conversion coefficients is difficult because it requires a large number of parameters that are hard to obtain. Much laboratory data are needed to validate the theoretical results. The most critical issue is determining independently the effect of porosity and permeability on seismoelectric coefficients. In general, when the rock porosity increases, the permeability increases too, and vice versa. In this study, we make measurements on both synthetic sandstone and two Berea (500 and 100) samples. We built a man-made "sandstone" sample with round cracks which are distributed in a horizontal plane. Thus the small cube (1.7 cm^3 ) only has one value of porosity and different permeabilities in the three directions. It is a sample with anisotropy in permeability. Laboratory experiments in a water tank show that the seismoelectric conversion coefficient is related to permeabilities in the three directions. The seismoelectric coefficient is highest in the direction of maximum permeability and lowest in the direction of minimum permeability. The measurements with the isotropic Berea samples show that seismoelectric coefficient increases with both porosity and permeability. Application of the result to borehole logging measurements requires analysis of the data from P, S, and Stoneley waves. P and Stoneley waves give large seismoelectric signals in the presence of fractures or high permeability zones. Shear waves, that do not induce fluid flow, provide very small seismoelectric signals. If the fracture strike in the formation is along the borehole axis, the P-wave induces stronger seismoelectric signal. Seismoelectric well logging might prove help for exploring the fractures or micro fractures in a borehole wall.
Miri Hakimabad, H; Rafat Motavalli, L; Karimi Shahri, K
2009-03-01
Neutron fluence to absorbed dose conversion coefficients have been evaluated for the analytical ORNL modified adult phantom in 21 body organs using MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The calculation used 20 monodirectional monoenergetic neutron beams in the energy range 10(-9)-20 MeV, under four irradiation conditions: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), left-lateral (LLAT) and right-lateral (RLAT). Then the conversion coefficients are compared with the data reported in ICRP publication 74 for mathematical MIRD type phantoms and by Bozkurt et al for the VIPMAN voxel model. Although the ORNL results show fewer differences with the ICRP results than the Bozkurt et al data, one can deduce neither complete agreement nor disparity between this study and other data sets. This comparison shows that in some cases any differences in applied Monte Carlo codes or simulated body models could significantly change the organ dose conversion factors. This sensitivity should be considered for radiological protection programmes. For certain organs, the results of two models with major differences can be in a satisfactory agreement because of the similarity in those organ models. PMID:19225185
Further test of internal-conversion theory with a measurement in {sup 197}Pt
Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Goodwin, J.; Balonek, C.; Hernberg, M.; Nolan, J.; Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.
2009-12-15
We have measured the K-shell internal conversion coefficient, {alpha}{sub K}, for the 346.5-keV M4 transition in {sup 197}Pt to be 4.23(7). This result differs from a previous value, which disagreed significantly from theory. Our new value agrees well with Dirac-Fock calculations and removes the earlier discrepancy as a source of concern.
Actinide co-conversion by internal gelation
Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Dauby, Jacques; Dumont-Shintu, Corinne; Machon, Estelle; Grandjean, Stephane
2007-07-01
Suitable microstructures and homogenous microspheres of actinide compounds are of interest for future nuclear fuel or transmutation target concepts to prevent the generation and dispersal of actinide powder. Sol-gel routes are being investigated as one of the possible solutions for producing these compounds. Preliminary work is described involving internal gelation to synthesize mixed compounds including minor actinides, particularly mixed actinide or mixed actinide-inert element compounds. A parameter study is discussed to highlight the importance of the initial broth composition for obtaining gel microspheres without major defects (cracks, craters, etc.). In particular, conditions are defined to produce gel beads from Zr(IV)/Y(III)/Ce(III) or Zr(IV)/An(III) systems. After gelation, the heat treatment of these microspheres is described for the purpose of better understanding the formation of cracks after calcination and verifying the effective synthesis of an oxide solid-solution. (authors)
Further Test of Internal-conversion Theory with a Measurement in {sup 119}Sn
Nica, N. Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.
2014-06-15
Precise measurements are being used to test theoretical K-shell internal conversion coefficients (ICCs): in particular, our program has focused on examining whether the atomic K-vacancy formed during the conversion process must be incorporated into the calculations. We report here a measurement on the 65.66-keV, M4 isomeric transition in {sup 119}Sn. Our preliminary result is α{sub K}=1610(27), which confirms the importance of including the vacancy in the ICC calculations.
Internal conversion in highly-stripped {sup 83}Kr ions
Rehm, K.E.; Ahmad, I.; Gehring, J.
1995-08-01
The transition probability per unit time for the decay of a nuclear level via internal conversion (IC), {lambda}IC, depends on the electron environment of the nucleus. For example, inner-shell conversion in highly-charged ions can change appreciably as electrons are successively removed from the ion. Magnetic dipole (Ml) transitions are especially sensitive to this effect since the internal conversion depends strongly on the electron density at the nucleus. Hence, measurements of {lambda}IC,q, the internal conversion rate in an ion with charge state q, can provide good tests of theoretical electron wave functions if the electron configuration in the ions is known. In a previous experiment, a new method which identifies charge-changing events during passage of ion beams through a magnetic spectrometer was used to determine {lambda}IC,q for the 14.4-keV isomer in {sup 57}Fe. This contribution reports measurements made using the same technique for the 9.4-keV isomer in {sup 83}Kr. A beam of {sup 83}Kr with energy 650 MeV bombarded a Au target with a thickness 300 {mu}g cm{sup -2}. Secondary scattered beams were accepted and analyzed by an Enge magnetic spectrometer. The numbers of excited nuclei decaying during passage through the spectrometer and their internal conversion rates were deduced from the pattern of events measured in the spectrometer focal plane.
Santos, J C; Mariano, L; Tomal, A; Costa, P R
2016-03-01
According to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), the relationship between effective dose and incident air-kerma is complex and depends on the attenuation of x-rays in the body. Therefore, it is not practical to use this quantity for shielding design purposes. This correlation is adopted in practical situations by using conversion coefficients calculated using validated mathematical models by the ICRU. The ambient dose equivalent, H*(10), is a quantity adopted by the IAEA for monitoring external exposure. Dose constraint levels are established in terms of H*(10), while the radiation levels in radiometric surveys are calculated by means of the measurements of air-kerma with ion chambers. The resulting measurements are converted into ambient dose equivalents by conversion factors. In the present work, an experimental study of the relationship between the air-kerma and the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent was conducted using different experimental scenarios. This study was done by measuring the primary x-ray spectra and x-ray spectra transmitted through materials used in dedicated chest radiographic facilities, using a CdTe detector. The air-kerma to ambient dose equivalent conversion coefficients were calculated from these measured spectra. The resulting values of the quantity ambient dose equivalent using these conversion coefficients are more realistic than those available in the literature, because they consider the real energy distribution of primary and transmitted x-ray beams. The maximum difference between the obtained conversion coefficients and the constant value recommended in national and international radiation protection standards is 53.4%. The conclusion based on these results is that a constant coefficient may not be adequate for deriving the ambient dose equivalent. PMID:26835613
Dong, Liang; Li, Taosheng; Liu, Chunyu
2015-04-01
A set of fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients of external exposure to muons were investigated for Chinese hybrid phantom references, which include both male and female. Both polygon meshes and Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) surfaces were used to descried the boundary of the organs and tissues in these phantoms. The 3D-DOCTOR and Rhinoceros software were used to polygonise the colour slice images and generate the NURBS surfaces, respectively. The voxelisation is completed using the BINVOX software and the assembly finished by using MATLAB codes. The voxel resolutions were selected to be 0.22 × 0.22 × 0.22 cm(3) and 0.2 × 0.2 × 0.2 cm(3) for male and female phantoms, respectively. All parts of the final phantoms were matched to their reference organ masses within a tolerance of ±5%. The conversion coefficients for negative and positive muons were calculated with the FLUKA transport code. There were 21 external monoenergetic beams ranging from 0.01 GeV to 100 TeV in 5 different geometrical conditions of irradiation. PMID:25313173
Optimised geometry to calculate dose rate conversion coefficient for external exposure to photons.
Askri, B; Manai, K; Trabelsi, A; Baccari, B
2008-01-01
A single-parameter geometry to describe soil is achieved for Monte Carlo calculation of absorbed dose rate in air for photon emitters from natural radionuclides. This optimised geometry based on physical assumptions consists of the soil part whose emitted radiation has a given minimum probability to reach the detector. This geometry was implemented in Geant4 toolkit and a significant reduction in computation time was achieved. Simulation tests have shown that for soil represented by a cylinder of 40 m radius and 1 m deep, >98% of the calculated dose rate conversion coefficients in air at 1 m above the ground is generated by only 6% of the soil volume in the case of uniform distribution of radioactivity, and >99.2% of the calculated dose rate for an exponential distribution. When the soil is represented by the entire optimised geometry, 99% of the conversion coefficients values are reached for a soil depth of 1 m and 100% for that of approximately 2 m. PMID:17959610
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi
2010-11-01
Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shougeng; Wang, Jue; Wang, Zhanqi
2009-09-01
Relating supplementary cultivated land (SCL) quantity and quality with the occupied cultivated land (OCL) grade as well as realizing conversion between them are crucial to keep the balance between SCL and OCL, to protect the limited farming resources, to guarantee the security of national food, to harmonize the relationship between human and land resources, and to promote sustainable economic development. The Jianhan plain, one of China's grain production bases, was chosen for a case study to quantify the relationships between the grade index of farmland utilization and standard food output based on the resulting grade of agricultural land. Linear regression is used to model the relationships for 2778 samples from the grade of agricultural land obtained by field mapping. The average of grade index for different utilization grades was estimated by the area weighted average method. The results demonstrate that quantity-quality grade conversion coefficient of supplementary cultivated land, and the method used in this study are powerful tools to quantify the relationship between the quantity and quality of the SCL and the grade and realize conversion of OCL. Theses results can be used for protecting the quantity and quality of cultivated land and optimizing design for land consolidation project as well as determining the reasonable scale and layout of land use planning in the Jianghan plain.
The non-ergodic nature of internal conversion.
Sølling, Theis I; Kuhlman, Thomas S; Stephansen, Anne B; Klein, Liv B; Møller, Klaus B
2014-02-01
The absorption of light by molecules can induce ultrafast dynamics and coupling of electronic and nuclear vibrational motion. The ultrafast nature in many cases rests on the importance of several potential energy surfaces in guiding the nuclear motion-a concept of central importance in many aspects of chemical reaction dynamics. This Minireview focuses on the non-ergodic nature of internal conversion, that is, on the concept that the nuclear dynamics only sample a reduced phase space, potentially resulting in localization of the dynamics in real space. A series of results that highlight the nonstatistical nature of the excited-state deactivation process is presented. The examples are categorized into four groups. 1) Localization of the energy in one degree of freedom in S2 →S1 transitions, in which the transition is either determined by the time spent in the S2 →S1 coupling region or by the time it takes to reach it. 2) Localization of energy into a single reactive mode, which is dictated by the internal conversion process. 3) Initiation of the internal conversion by activation of a single complex motion, which then specifically couples to a reactive mode. 4) Nonstatistical internal conversion as a tool to accomplish biomolecular stability. Herein, the discussion on nonstatistical internal conversion in DNA as a mechanism to eliminate electronic excitation energy is extended to include molecules with an S-S bond as a model of the disulfide bridge in peptides. All of these examples are summed up in Kasha's rule. For systems with multiple degrees of freedom it will be possible to locate an appropriate motion somewhere in phase space that will take the wavepacket to the coupling region and facilitate an ultrafast transition to S1. Once at S1, the momentum of the wavepacket is lost and the only options left are the statistical processes of reaction or light emission. PMID:24375886
Miao, L; Tanemura, S; Huang, R; Liu, C Y; Huang, C M; Xu, G
2010-08-01
Titanate nanotubes Na(2-x)H(x)Ti(3)O(7) produced by alkali hydrothermally treated ground TiO(2) aerogels are investigated as possible materials for high-temperature thermoelectric conversion by measuring their thermoelectric properties. Strikingly, the Seebeck coefficients increased sharply in the temperature range 745 to 1032 K, reaching a maximum of 302 muV/K. The electrical resistivity of the TNNTs ranged from 325 to 525 Omegam, which is lower than that of bulk TiO(2), and thermal conductivities at room temperature were also very low, ranging from 0.55 to 0.75 Wm(-1) K(-1). The hollow structure of the titanate nanotubes, with small, uniform diameters, is thought to be responsible for the ultralow thermal conductivity. The large thermoelectric power and ultralow thermal conductivity suggest that titanate nanotubes represent a new kind of p-type oxide thermoelectric material. PMID:20735107
Dose conversion coefficients for neutron exposure to the lens of the human eye
Manger, Ryan P; Bellamy, Michael B; Eckerman, Keith F
2011-01-01
Dose conversion coefficients for the lens of the human eye have been calculated for neutron exposure at energies from 1 x 10{sup -9} to 20 MeV and several standard orientations: anterior-to-posterior, rotational and right lateral. MCNPX version 2.6.0, a Monte Carlo-based particle transport package, was used to determine the energy deposited in the lens of the eye. The human eyeball model was updated by partitioning the lens into sensitive and insensitive volumes as the anterior portion (sensitive volume) of the lens being more radiosensitive and prone to cataract formation. The updated eye model was used with the adult UF-ORNL mathematical phantom in the MCNPX transport calculations.
Internal-conversion process in superintense ultrashort x-ray pulses
Kis, Daniel; Kalman, Peter; Keszthelyi, Tamas; Szivos, Janos
2010-01-15
The electron-nucleus interaction in a super-intense few-cycle x-ray pulse is investigated. The super-intense few-cycle x-ray pulse-induced internal conversion (IC) process is discussed in detail. The x-ray laser-pulse induced IC coefficient is calculated, and in particular, it is derived in the case of a pulse of Gaussian shape and for a bound-free electron transition. The IC coefficient of the IC process induced by a super-intense few-cycle soft-x-ray laser pulse in the case of the {sup 99m}Tc isomer is determined numerically. The results obtained for the IC coefficient show significant carrier angular frequency, carrier-envelope phase, and pulse-length dependencies. The infinite pulse-length limit and experimental aspects are also discussed.
Khailov, A M; Ivannikov, A I; Skvortsov, V G; Stepanenko, V F; Tsyb, A F; Trompier, F; Hoshi, M
2010-02-01
In the present study, MCNP4B simulation code is used to simulate neutron and photon transport. It gives the conversion coefficients that relate neutron fluence to the dose in tooth enamel (molars and pre-molars only) for 20 energy groups of monoenergetic neutrons with energies from 10-9 to 20 MeV for five different irradiation geometries. The data presented are intended to provide the basis for connection between EPR dose values and standard protection quantities defined in ICRP Publication 74. The results of the calculations for critical organs were found to be consistent with ICRP data, with discrepancies generally less than 10% for the fast neutrons. The absorbed dose in enamel was found to depend strongly on the incident neutron energy for neutrons over 10 keV. The dependence of the data on the irradiation geometry is also shown. Lower bound estimates of enamel radiation sensitivity to neutrons were made using obtained coefficients for the secondary photons. Depending on neutron energy, tooth enamel was shown to register 10-120% of the total neutron dose in the human body in the case of pure neutron exposure and AP irradiation geometry. PMID:20065707
Hursin, M.; Koeberl, O.; Perret, G.
2012-07-01
High Conversion Light Water Reactors (HCLWR) allows a better usage of fuel resources thanks to a higher breeding ratio than standard LWR. Their uses together with the current fleet of LWR constitute a fuel cycle thoroughly studied in Japan and the US today. However, one of the issues related to HCLWR is their void reactivity coefficient (VRC), which can be positive. Accurate predictions of void reactivity coefficient in HCLWR conditions and their comparisons with representative experiments are therefore required. In this paper an inter comparison of modern codes and cross-section libraries is performed for a former Benchmark on Void Reactivity Effect in PWRs conducted by the OECD/NEA. It shows an overview of the k-inf values and their associated VRC obtained for infinite lattice calculations with UO{sub 2} and highly enriched MOX fuel cells. The codes MCNPX2.5, TRIPOLI4.4 and CASMO-5 in conjunction with the libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, -VII.0, JEF-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 are used. A non-negligible spread of results for voided conditions is found for the high content MOX fuel. The spread of eigenvalues for the moderated and voided UO{sub 2} fuel are about 200 pcm and 700 pcm, respectively. The standard deviation for the VRCs for the UO{sub 2} fuel is about 0.7% while the one for the MOX fuel is about 13%. This work shows that an appropriate treatment of the unresolved resonance energy range is an important issue for the accurate determination of the void reactivity effect for HCLWR. A comparison to experimental results is needed to resolve the presented discrepancies. (authors)
Gualdrini, G; Ferrari, P
2007-01-01
Effective dose is the main radiation protection quantity. Progresses in radiation studies brought ICRP to revise ICRP 60 recommendations. A new publication, already circulated in form of draft, is expected to change some aspects of effective dose evaluation method. The organ absorbed doses for neutrons at various energies and incidence angles, necessary to estimate the effective dose, have been published in ICRU 57 and ICRP 74 reports for ADAM and EVA analytical male and female phantoms and similar calculations were also performed, based on the MCNP code, for VIP-MAN voxel phantom. The NORMAN voxel phantom, developed on the basis of magnetic resonance data of an adult male at HPA (formerly NRPB), is an accurate model (with a voxel element of approximately 8 mm(3)), which well approximates the standard man and has been already employed for radiation protection studies with photons. In the present paper, a modified version, called NORMAN-05, including a new organ, the salivary glands (as suggested in the mentioned ICRP draft), and a more detailed skeletal description, especially devoted to red bone marrow dose evaluation, has been employed with the Monte Carlo code MCNPX to calculate neutron conversion coefficients from thermal energies to 20 MeV. Some preliminary results, for antero-posterior and postero-anterior irradiation conditions, are presented and compared with the available published data. PMID:17502319
Observation of internal wave polarity conversion generated by a rising tide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lan; Wang, Caixia; Grimshaw, Roger
2015-05-01
The observations reported here are based on time series of in situ observation data in Laoshan Bay off the Qingdao coast. A chain of thermistors (T-chain) at a fixed location recorded a sequence of elevation internal waves followed by depression internal waves passing by over an elapsed time of about 1 h. This observed polarity conversion at a fixed location is caused by the vertical stratification variation mainly induced by the rising tide, which is believed to be the first reported observation of this kind. The process of an elevation internal wave train converting to a depression wave train is simulated using the variable-coefficient extended Korteweg-de Vries (veKdV) equation, which also provides a further comparison between theory and the reported observations.
Intense few-cycle hard-UV-pulse-induced internal conversion processes
Kis, Daniel; Kalman, Peter; Keszthelyi, Tamas
2010-08-15
The internal conversion coefficient for bound-free electron transition of originally energetically forbidden internal conversion processes induced by intense, few-cycle UV laser pulse of Gaussian shape in the case of isomers {sup 107}Ag{sup m} (K shell, E3, 25.47 keV), {sup 90}Nb{sup m} (L{sub 2} shell, M2+E3, 2.3 keV), {sup 183}W{sup m1}(M{sub 5} shell, E2, 1.79 keV), {sup 183}W{sup m2} (N{sub 1} shell, E1, 548 eV), and {sup 188}Re{sup m} (M{sub 2} shell, M3+E4, 2.63 keV), and {sup 235}U{sup m} (O{sub 4} and O{sub 5} shells, E3, 73.5 eV) is determined numerically. Experimental conditions and possibilities of the laser-induced internal conversion process of {sup 183}W{sup m2} from the N{sub 1} shell are discussed in more detail.
Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines
Carroll, B.I.
1987-01-13
An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.
Yamashita, Osamu Odahara, Hirotaka; Ochi, Takahiro; Satou, Kouji
2007-10-02
The thermo-emf {delta}V and current {delta}I generated by imposing the alternating temperature gradients (ATG) at a period of T and the steady temperature gradient (STG) on a thermoelectric (TE) composite were measured as a function of t, where t is the lapsed time and T was varied from 60 to or {infinity} s. The STG and ATG were produced by imposing steadily and alternatively a source voltage V in the range from 1.0 to 4.0 V on two Peltier modules sandwiching a composite. {delta}T, {delta}V, {delta}I and V{sub P} oscillate at a period T and their waveforms vary significantly with a change of T, where {delta}V and V{sub P} are the voltage drops in a load resistance R{sub L} and in resistance R{sub P} of two modules. The resultant Seebeck coefficient |{alpha}| = |{delta}V|/{delta}T of a composite under the STG was found to be expressed as |{alpha}| = |{alpha}{sub 0}|(1 - R{sub comp}/R{sub T}), where R{sub T} is the total resistance of a circuit for measuring the output signals and R{sub comp} is the resistance of a composite. The effective generating power {delta}W{sub eff} has a local maximum at T = 960 s for the p-type composite and at T = 480 s for the n-type one. The maximum energy conversion efficiency {eta} of the p- and n-type composites under the ATG produced by imposing a voltage of 4.0 V at an optimum period were 0.22 and 0.23% at {delta}T{sub eff} = 50 K, respectively, which are 42 and 43% higher than those at {delta}T = 42 K under the STG. These maximum {eta} for a TE composite sandwiched between two Peltier modules, were found to be expressed theoretically in terms of R{sub P}, R{sub T}, R{sub L}, {alpha}{sub P} and {alpha}, where {alpha}{sub P} and {alpha} are the resultant Seebeck coefficients of Peltier modules and a TE composite.
Conversion coefficients for the estimation of effective dose in cone-beam CT
Kim, Dong-Soo; Rashsuren, Oyuntugs
2014-01-01
Purpose To determine the conversion coefficients (CCs) from the dose-area product (DAP) value to effective dose in cone-beam CT. Materials and Methods A CBCT scanner with four fields of view (FOV) was used. Using two exposure settings of the adult standard and low dose exposure, DAP values were measured with a DAP meter in C mode (200mm×179 mm), P mode (154 mm×154 mm), I mode (102 mm×102 mm), and D mode (51 mm×51 mm). The effective doses were also investigated at each mode using an adult male head and neck phantom and thermoluminescent chips. Linear regressive analysis of the DAP and effective dose values was used to calculate the CCs for each CBCT examination. Results For the C mode, the P mode at the maxilla, and the P mode at the mandible, the CCs were 0.049 µSv/mGycm2, 0.067 µSv/mGycm2, and 0.064 µSv/mGycm2, respectively. For the I mode, the CCs at the maxilla and mandible were 0.076 µSv/mGycm2 and 0.095 µSv/mGycm2, respectively. For the D mode at the maxillary incisors, molars, and mandibular molars, the CCs were 0.038 µSv/mGycm2, 0.041 µSv/mGycm2, and 0.146 µSv/mGycm2, respectively. Conclusion The CCs in one CBCT device with fixed 80 kV ranged from 0.038 µSv/mGycm2 to 0.146 µSv/mGycm2 according to the imaging modes and irradiated region and were highest for the D mode at the mandibular molar. PMID:24701455
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nogueira, P.; Zankl, M.; Schlattl, H.; Vaz, P.
2011-11-01
The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation—the germinative cells—absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krstic, D.; Nikezic, D.
2007-09-01
Dose conversion coefficients for different organs of age-dependent ORNL phantoms, due to the 137Cs in soil have been calculated using the MCNP-4B code. A cylindrical source at a depth of 20 cm was subdivided into 10 smaller cylinders, each of height 2 cm. Any one of these smaller cylinders could be considered as a source of photons with the energies of 661.6 keV. The ORNL phantoms stand exactly above the center of the cylinders. MCNP-4B energy deposition tally (F6) in MeV/g per one emitted photon was used to calculate absorbed doses in organs of phantoms. Then, conversion of units was made to obtain absorbed dose in fGy (femto-Gray) per Bq s kg -1. Absorbed doses in all major organs and the remainder, defined in reports ICRP60 and 74, were calculated as a function of the 137Cs source depth. Conversion coefficients decrease as the phantom age increases.
Electron-nucleus interaction in laser fields: The laser-assisted internal conversion process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kálmán, Péter; Bükki, Tamás
2002-05-01
We present a general formalism for an efficient treatment of a broad range of electron-nucleus laser processes. The interaction with the laser beam is taken into account by transforming the system into an oscillating frame, called the Henneberger picture. General expressions for the transition probability per unit time are given in the weak laser field and in the n photonic cases, and connection to previous methods is demonstrated in the appropriate limits. As an example, the transition probability per unit time of laser-induced internal conversion (IC) processes is presented. The conservation of angular momentum in the multiphoton process can be traced well in our calculation. Numerical values of the IC coefficient of the energetically forbidden IC process in case of 99mTc ignited by the absorption of up to three soft-x-ray laser photons are also given. The increase in the rate of IC decay is found comparable to or greater than the natural decay rate of the isomer in case of appropriate intensity and photon energy of the laser. Hard UV laser-induced internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) are also calculated for energetically forbidden shells of 107Agm (K shell, E3, 25.47 keV), 90Nbm (L2 shell, M2+E3, 2.3 keV), 183Wm (N1 shell, E1, 544 eV and M5 shell, E2, 1.79 keV), 188Rem (M2 shell, M3+E4, 2.63 keV), 205Pbm (M5 shell, E2, 2.4 keV), and 235Um (O4 and O5 shells, E3, 73.5 eV). Measurable induced ICCs are found in case of available intensities and photon energies of the laser beam for the above isomers. Experiments, that may demonstrate the effect and may be tools for determination of nuclear transition energies, are also suggested.
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
An empirical correlation of volumetric mass transfer coefficient was developed for a pilot scale internal-loop rectangular airlift bioreactor that was designed for biotechnology. The empirical correlation combines classic turbulence theory, Kolmogorov’s isotropic turbulence theory with Higbie’s pen...
Nogueira, P; Zankl, M; Schlattl, H; Vaz, P
2011-11-01
The radiation-induced posterior subcapsular cataract has long been generally accepted to be a deterministic effect that does not occur at doses below a threshold of at least 2 Gy. Recent epidemiological studies indicate that the threshold for cataract induction may be much lower or that there may be no threshold at all. A thorough study of this subject requires more accurate dose estimates for the eye lens than those available in ICRP Publication 74. Eye lens absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients for electron irradiation were calculated using a geometrical model of the eye that takes into account different cell populations of the lens epithelium, together with the MCNPX Monte Carlo radiation transport code package. For the cell population most sensitive to ionizing radiation-the germinative cells-absorbed dose per unit fluence conversion coefficients were determined that are up to a factor of 4.8 higher than the mean eye lens absorbed dose conversion coefficients for electron energies below 2 MeV. Comparison of the results with previously published values for a slightly different eye model showed generally good agreement for all electron energies. Finally, the influence of individual anatomical variability was quantified by positioning the lens at various depths below the cornea. A depth difference of 2 mm between the shallowest and the deepest location of the germinative zone can lead to a difference between the resulting absorbed doses of up to nearly a factor of 5000 for electron energy of 0.7 MeV. PMID:21983644
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glownia, J. H.; Misewich, J.; Sorokin, P. P.
1987-09-01
An apparatus combining subpicosecond 248.5 nm pump pulses with a time-resolved subpicosecond broadband infrared absorption spectroscopy probe has been utilized to measure an internal conversion rate in 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane vapor. A subpicosecond (⪅ 500 fs) internal conversion rate has been determined.
Internal Conversion and Vibrational Energy Redistribution in Chlorophyll A.
Shenai, Prathamesh M; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian; Bricker, William P; Tretiak, Sergei; Zhao, Yang
2016-01-14
We have computationally investigated the role of intramolecular vibrational modes in determining nonradiative relaxation pathways of photoexcited electronic states in isolated chlorophyll A (ChlA) molecules. To simulate the excited state relaxation from the initially excited Soret state to the lowest excited state Qy, the approach of nonadiabatic excited state molecular dynamics has been adopted. The intramolecular vibrational energy relaxation and redistribution that accompany the electronic internal conversion process is followed by analyzing the excited state trajectories in terms of the ground state equilibrium normal modes. The time dependence of the normal mode velocities is determined by projecting instantaneous Cartesian velocities onto the normal mode vectors. Our analysis of the time evolution of the average mode energies uncovers that only a small subset of the medium-to-high frequency normal modes actively participate in the electronic relaxation processes. These active modes are characterized by the highest overlap with the nonadiabatic coupling vectors (NACRs) during the electronic transitions. Further statistical analysis of the nonadiabatic transitions reveals that the electronic and vibrational energy relaxation occurs via two distinct pathways with significantly different time scales on which the hopping from Soret to Qx occurs thereby dictating the overall dynamics. Furthermore, the NACRs corresponding to each of the transitions have been consistently found to be predominantly similar to a set of normal modes that vary depending upon the transition and the identified categories. Each pathway exhibits a differential time scale of energy transfer and also a differential set of predominant active modes. Our present analysis can be considered as a general approach allowing identification of a reduced subset of specific vibrational coordinates associated with nonradiative relaxation pathways. Therefore, it represents an adequate prior strategy that
Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine.
Gordon, Robert J; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo
2015-04-14
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S2 and S1 states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S2 potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S0 → S2 followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser. PMID:25877582
Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gordon, Robert J.; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Singha, Sima; Sukharev, Maxim; Zhao, Youbo
2015-04-01
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S2 and S1 states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S2 potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S0 → S2 followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.
Coherent phase control of internal conversion in pyrazine
Gordon, Robert J. Singha, Sima; Zhao, Youbo; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Sukharev, Maxim
2015-04-14
Shaped ultrafast laser pulses were used to study and control the ionization dynamics of electronically excited pyrazine in a pump and probe experiment. For pump pulses created without feedback from the product signal, the ion growth curve (the parent ion signal as a function of pump/probe delay) was described quantitatively by the classical rate equations for internal conversion of the S{sub 2} and S{sub 1} states. Very different, non-classical behavior was observed when a genetic algorithm (GA) employing phase-only modulation was used to minimize the ion signal at some pre-determined target time, T. Two qualitatively different control mechanisms were identified for early (T < 1.5 ps) and late (T > 1.5 ps) target times. In the former case, the ion signal was largely suppressed for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the ion signal produced by the GA-optimized pulse and a transform limited (TL) pulse coalesced. In contrast, for T > 1.5 ps, the ion growth curve followed the classical rate equations for t < T, while for t ≫ T, the quantum yield for the GA-optimized pulse was much smaller than for a TL pulse. We interpret the first type of behavior as an indication that the wave packet produced by the pump laser is localized in a region of the S{sub 2} potential energy surface where the vertical ionization energy exceeds the probe photon energy, whereas the second type of behavior may be described by a reduced absorption cross section for S{sub 0} → S{sub 2} followed by incoherent decay of the excited molecules. Amplitude modulation observed in the spectrum of the shaped pulse may have contributed to the control mechanism, although this possibility is mitigated by the very small focal volume of the probe laser.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chidambaram, N.; Balma, D.; Nigon, R.; Mazzalai, A.; Matloub, R.; Sandu, C. S.; Muralt, P.
2015-04-01
The use of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) in conjunction with ferroelectric thin films shows many attractive features for piezoelectric MEMS applications. In this work, growth of {1 0 0}-textured lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films was achieved on insulating MgO buffered, oxidized silicon substrates. IDEs were fabricated by lift-off techniques and cantilevers were formed by dicing. The deflection upon application of a sweeping voltage was measured as large signal response in parallel to the ferroelectric polarization (PV loop). Likewise, the small signal piezoelectric response was measured in parallel to the capacitance-voltage (CV) measurement. In this way, a complete picture of the ferroelectric-piezoelectric element was obtained. From the deflection, the in-plane piezoelectric stress in the PZT thin film was derived and, from this, the effective piezoelectric coefficients. For the latter, two types were defined: an engineering type corresponding to the average value along the IDE, which can directly be compared to coefficient of a parallel plate electrode (PPE) capacitor and a second one that approximately yields the idealized coefficient governing between the electrode fingers. The IDE structures were experimentally compared with PPE structures of identical film thickness. The resulting coefficients were of opposite sign, as expected. In spite of a much better polarization loop, the IDE device showed a lower average piezoelectric stress. The estimated peak value between the fingers was about the same as in the PPE device, corresponding to about 20 C m-2. Nevertheless, the result is very promising for cases where compressive piezoelectric stresses are required and for preventing cracking due to large piezoelectric tensile stresses in PPE systems.
Internal Evaluation a Quarter-Century Later: A Conversation with Arnold J. Love
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Volkov, Boris B.
2011-01-01
This chapter features a recent conversation with Dr. Arnold J. Love, a long-time proponent of internal evaluation and one of the most cited internal evaluation authors. In 1983, Love edited the first issue of "New Directions for Program Evaluation" on the topic of internal evaluation. He is the author of the book "Internal Evaluation: Building…
Measurement of K-shell fluorescent yield in iridium: testing internal-conversion theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montague, J. R.; Nica, N.; Iacob, V. E.; Hardy, J. C.
2004-10-01
Internal conversion coefficients (ICC) play an essential role in nuclear decay schemes. Even so, calculated ICCs agree with experiment only to within a few percent and, for transitions with high multipolarity and energies close to the electron binding energies, they depend strongly on whether the final state is taken to include the atomic vacancy created by the conversion process. Recently, we measured the ratio of K X-rays to γ -rays for the 80.2-keV M4 transition in ^193mIr, determined the product ω _Kα K and extracted α K using the value ω _K=0.958(4) taken from a global fit to a set of elements not including iridium. The result strongly supported the calculation that includes the vacancy. To solidify this result, we now report a new experiment to determine directly the ω K for iridium. We selected the 129.4-keV M1+E2 transition in ^191Ir for which the α K calculation is nearly independent of the vacancy treatment. We again used the X-to-γ decay-rate ratio but this time divided the result by the calculated α K to obtain ω _K. Our preliminary result is ω _K=0.948(8), in good agreement with the value taken from the global fit.
Mclean, Thomas D; Justus, Alan L; Gadd, S Milan; Olsher, Richard H; Devine, Robert T
2009-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Perry; Lee, Choonsik; Johnson, Kevin; Siragusa, Daniel; Bolch, Wesley E.
2009-06-01
In this study, the influence of patient size on organ and effective dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) was investigated for a representative interventional fluoroscopic procedure—cardiac catheterization. The study was performed using hybrid phantoms representing an underweight, average and overweight American adult male. Reference body sizes were determined using the NHANES III database and parameterized based on standing height and total body mass. Organ and effective dose conversion coefficients were calculated for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left anterior oblique and right anterior oblique projections using the Monte Carlo code MCNPX 2.5.0 with the metric dose area product being used as the normalization factor. Results show body size to have a clear influence on DCCs which increased noticeably when body size decreased. It was also shown that if patient size is neglected when choosing a DCC, the organ and effective dose will be underestimated to an underweight patient and will be overestimated to an underweight patient, with errors as large as 113% for certain projections. Results were further compared with those published for a KTMAN-2 Korean patient-specific tomographic phantom. The published DCCs aligned best with the hybrid phantom which most closely matched in overall body size. These results highlighted the need for and the advantages of phantom-patient matching, and it is recommended that hybrid phantoms be used to create a more diverse library of patient-dependent anthropomorphic phantoms for medical dose reconstruction.
Olsher, R H; McLean, T D; Justus, A L; Devine, R T; Gadd, M S
2010-03-01
Monte Carlo simulations were performed to extend existing neutron personal dose equivalent fluence-to-dose conversion coefficients to an energy of 250 MeV. Presently, conversion coefficients, H(p,slab)(10,alpha)/Phi, are given by ICRP-74 and ICRU-57 for a range of angles of radiation incidence (alpha = 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 75 degrees ) in the energy range from thermal to 20 MeV. Standard practice has been to base operational dose quantity calculations <20 MeV on the kerma approximation, which assumes that charged particle secondaries are locally deposited, or at least that charged particle equilibrium exists within the tally cell volume. However, with increasing neutron energy the kerma approximation may no longer be valid for some energetic secondaries such as protons. The Los Alamos Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX was used for all absorbed dose calculations. Transport models and collision-based energy deposition tallies were used for neutron energies >20 MeV. Both light and heavy ions (HIs) (carbon, nitrogen and oxygen recoil nuclei) were transported down to a lower energy limit (1 keV for light ions and 5 MeV for HIs). Track energy below the limit was assumed to be locally deposited. For neutron tracks <20 MeV, kerma factors were used to obtain absorbed dose. Results are presented for a discrete set of angles of incidence on an ICRU tissue slab phantom. PMID:19887515
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Ritsuko; Inaba, Toru; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Koyama, Yasushi; Zhang, Jian-Ping
2003-02-01
Near-infrared, subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy of all- trans carotenoids having the number of conjugated double bonds, n=9-13, identified two different pathways of internal conversion in accordance with the energy diagram recently determined by measurements of resonance-Raman excitation profiles (RREPs) [K. Furuichi, T. Sashima, Y. Koyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547]: the 1B u+→1B u-→2A g- internal conversion for neurosporene ( n=9) and spheroidene ( n=10), whereas the 1B u+→3A g-→2A g- internal conversion for lycopene ( n=11), anhydrorhodovibrin ( n=12) and spirilloxanthin ( n=13).
Conversion coefficients from fluence to effective dose for heavy ions with energies up to 3 GeV/A.
Sato, T; Tsuda, S; Sakamoto, Y; Yamaguchi, Y; Niita, K
2003-01-01
Radiological protection against high-energy heavy ions has been an essential issue in the planning of long-term space missions. The fluence to effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for heavy ions using the particle and heavy ion transport code system PHITS coupled with an anthropomorphic phantom of the MIRD5 type. The calculations were performed for incidences of protons and typical space heavy ions--deuterons, tritons, 3He, alpha particles, 12C, 20Ne, 40Ar, 40Ca and 56Fe--with energies up to 3 GeV/A in the isotropic and anterior-posterior irradiation geometries. A simple fitting formula that can predict the effective dose from almost all kinds of space heavy ions below 3 GeV/A within an accuracy of 30% is deduced from the results. PMID:14653334
5 CFR 315.712 - Conversion based on service as a Federal Career Intern.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... Career Intern. 315.712 Section 315.712 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.712 Conversion based on service as a Federal Career...
5 CFR 315.712 - Conversion based on service as a Federal Career Intern.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... Career Intern. 315.712 Section 315.712 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.712 Conversion based on service as a Federal Career...
5 CFR 315.712 - Conversion based on service as a Federal Career Intern.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... Career Intern. 315.712 Section 315.712 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.712 Conversion based on service as a Federal Career...
Topical applications of resonance internal conversion in laser produced plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karpeshin, F. F.
2007-04-01
Physical aspects of resonance effects arising in plasma due to interactions of nuclei with the electrons are considered. Among them are resonance conversion (TEEN) and the reverse process of NEET. These processes are of great importance for pumping the excited nuclear states (isomers) and for accelerating their decay. Experiment is discussed on studying the unique 3.5-eV 229m Th nuclide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei
2009-11-01
A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper.
Liu, Liye; Zeng, Zhi; Li, Junli; Qiu, Rui; Zhang, Binquan; Ma, Jizeng; Li, Ren; Li, Wenqian; Bi, Lei
2009-11-01
A high-resolution whole-body voxel model called CAM representing the Chinese adult male was constructed in this paper based on a previous individual voxel model. There are more than 80 tissues and organs in CAM, including almost all organs required in the ICRP new recommendation. The mass of individual organs has been adjusted to the Chinese reference data. Special considerations were given to representing the gross spatial distribution of various bone constituents as realistically as possible during the construction of the site-specific skeleton. Organ dose conversion coefficients were calculated for six idealized external photon exposures from 10 keV to 10 MeV by using Monte Carlo simulation. The resulting dose coefficients were then compared with those from other models, e.g. CMP, ICRP 74, Rex, HDRK-man and VIP-man. Old and new effective male doses of CAM were calculated by using the tissue weighting factors from ICRP 60 and 103 Publications, respectively. Dosimetric differences between mathematical and voxel models, and the differences between Asian and Caucasian models are also discussed in this paper. PMID:19841518
Sato, Motoki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Suzuki, Toshinori
2016-07-14
Isomerization of tetramethylethylene (TME) following ultrafast internal conversion was investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with vacuum-ultraviolet probe pulses. The difference photoelectron spectrum at τ = 15 ps was reasonably well reproduced using a linear combination of static photoelectron spectra of TME and its isomers. The isomers were produced as a consequence of unimolecular reaction of vibrationally hot TME, created by internal conversion from the excited state. PMID:27030934
Wiebke, Jonas; Pahl, Elke; Schwerdtfeger, Peter
2012-07-01
A simple and efficient internal-coordinate importance sampling protocol for the Monte Carlo computation of (up to fourth-order) virial coefficients ̅B(n) of atomic systems is proposed. The key feature is a multivariate sampling distribution that mimics the product structure of the dominating pairwise-additive parts of the ̅B(n). This scheme is shown to be competitive over routine numerical methods and, as a proof of principle, applied to neon: The second, third, and fourth virial coefficients of neon as well as equation-of-state data are computed from ab initio two- and three-body potentials; four-body contributions are found to be insignificant. Kirkwood-Wigner quantum corrections to first order are found to be crucial to the observed agreement with recent ab initio and experimental reference data sets but are likely inadequate at very low temperatures. PMID:22779666
The maximum coefficient of performance of internally irreversible refrigerators and heat pumps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ait-Ali, Mohand A.
1996-04-01
A class of irreversible refrigeration cycles is investigated to determine the maximum coefficient of performance in the heat pump mode and the refrigerator mode. For the purpose of generality and simplicity of the results, finite-time heat transfer in the condenser and evaporator is expressed in terms of arithmetic mean temperature differences. The generic source of internal irreversibility is measured by a single irreversibility factor which transforms the Clausius inequality into an equality to simplify the cycle model. These optimum cycle performances are obtained as closed form analytical expressions in which the irreversibility factor has been shown to be simply related to the ratio of the actual and endoreversible cycle coefficients of performance.
Bourgois, L; Antoni, R
2016-01-01
Conversion coefficients fluence to local skin equivalent dose, as introduced in ICRP Publication 116, 2010, are calculated for positrons of energies ranging from 10 keV to 10 MeV using the code MCNP6. Fluence to dose equivalent conversion coefficients H'(0.07,0°)/Φ are calculated for positrons of energy ranging between 20 keV and 10 MeV. A comparison between operational dose quantity H'(0.07,0°) and the Local-Skin equivalent Dose shows an overall good agreement between these two quantities, except between 60 keV and 100 keV. PMID:26623930
Suzuki, Toshinori
2014-01-01
This article describes our recent experimental studies on internal conversion via a conical intersection using photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrafast S2(ππ*)-S1(nπ*) internal conversion in pyrazine is observed in real time using sub-20 fs deep ultraviolet pulses (264 and 198 nm). While the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution does not exhibit a clear signature of internal conversion, the photoelectron angular anisotropy unambiguously reveals the sudden change of electron configuration upon internal conversion. An explanation is presented as to why these two observables have different sensitivities to internal conversion. The 198 nm probe photon energy is insufficient for covering the entire Franck-Condon envelopes upon photoionization from S2/S1 to D1/D0. A vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (SCSS) producing 161 nm radiation is employed to solve this problem, while its pulse-to-pulse timing jitter limits the time resolution to about 1 ps. The S2-S1 internal conversion is revisited using the sub-20 fs 159 nm pulse created by filamentation four-wave mixing. Conical intersections between D1(π-1) and D0(n-1) and also between the Rydberg state with a D1 ion core and that with a D0 ion core of pyrazine are studied by He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy and one-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. Finally, ultrafast S2(ππ*)-S1(ππ*) internal conversion in benzene and toluene are compared with pyrazine. PMID:24566311
Inequalities, the arts and public health: Towards an international conversation
Parkinson, Clive; White, Mike
2014-01-01
This paper considers how participatory arts informed by thinking in public health can play a significant part internationally in addressing inequalities in health. It looks beyond national overviews of arts and health to consider what would make for meaningful international practice, citing recent initiatives of national networks in English-speaking countries and examples of influential developments in South America and the European Union. In the context of public health thinking on inequalities and social justice, the paper posits what would make for good practice and appropriate research that impacts on policy. As the arts and health movement gathers momentum, the paper urges the arts to describe their potency in the policy-making arena in the most compelling ways to articulate their social, economic and cultural values. In the process, it identifies the reflexive consideration of participatory practice – involving people routinely marginalised from decision-making processes – as a possible avenue into this work. PMID:25729409
Patni, H K; Nadar, M Y; Akar, D K; Bhati, S; Sarkar, P K
2011-11-01
The adult reference male and female computational voxel phantoms recommended by ICRP are adapted into the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The FLUKA code is then utilised for computation of dose conversion coefficients (DCCs) expressed in absorbed dose per air kerma free-in-air for colon, lungs, stomach wall, breast, gonads, urinary bladder, oesophagus, liver and thyroid due to a broad parallel beam of mono-energetic photons impinging in anterior-posterior and posterior-anterior directions in the energy range of 15 keV-10 MeV. The computed DCCs of colon, lungs, stomach wall and breast are found to be in good agreement with the results published in ICRP publication 110. The present work thus validates the use of FLUKA code in computation of organ DCCs for photons using ICRP adult voxel phantoms. Further, the DCCs for gonads, urinary bladder, oesophagus, liver and thyroid are evaluated and compared with results published in ICRP 74 in the above-mentioned energy range and geometries. Significant differences in DCCs are observed for breast, testis and thyroid above 1 MeV, and for most of the organs at energies below 60 keV in comparison with the results published in ICRP 74. The DCCs of female voxel phantom were found to be higher in comparison with male phantom for almost all organs in both the geometries. PMID:21147784
Experimental demonstration of internal wavelength conversion in the magnesium atomic filter.
Chan, Y C; Tabat, M D; Gelbwachs, J A
1989-07-15
We describe what is to our knowledge the first experimental demonstration of internal wavelength conversion in the metastable Mg atomic filter. The filter operates at a Fraunhofer line, thereby offering intrinsic solar background rejection. Incoming green Fraunhofer photons (518 nm) are absorbed by metastable Mg atoms in an oven cell and are converted into UV (384-nm) photons. We observed a green-to-UV conversion efficiency of greater than 50%. PMID:19752947
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Shivakumar, Netra D.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan
1991-01-01
A compendium is presented of the ground and inflight scanner and nonscanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS, NOAA-9, and NOAA-10 satellites for the 1 Nov. 1984 to 31 Dec. 1986.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tozer, Erinn E.; Hayes, Jeffrey A.
2004-01-01
This study examined the potential influence of religiosity, sexual orientation identity development, and internalized homonegativity on the propensity to seek conversion therapy to change one's sexual orientation. An Internet sample of 76 women and 130 men who were gay-identified, lesbian-identified, same-sex attracted, and "questioning" was…
Leenheer, Andrew J.; Narang, Prineha; Atwater, Harry A.; Lewis, Nathan S.
2014-04-07
Collection of hot electrons generated by the efficient absorption of light in metallic nanostructures, in contact with semiconductor substrates can provide a basis for the construction of solar energy-conversion devices. Herein, we evaluate theoretically the energy-conversion efficiency of systems that rely on internal photoemission processes at metal-semiconductor Schottky-barrier diodes. In this theory, the current-voltage characteristics are given by the internal photoemission yield as well as by the thermionic dark current over a varied-energy barrier height. The Fowler model, in all cases, predicts solar energy-conversion efficiencies of <1% for such systems. However, relaxation of the assumptions regarding constraints on the escape cone and momentum conservation at the interface yields solar energy-conversion efficiencies as high as 1%–10%, under some assumed (albeit optimistic) operating conditions. Under these conditions, the energy-conversion efficiency is mainly limited by the thermionic dark current, the distribution of hot electron energies, and hot-electron momentum considerations.
Jacques, S L; McAuliffe, D J
1991-06-01
The explosive vaporization of melanosomes in situ in skin during pulsed laser irradiation (pulse duration less than 1 microsecond) is observed as a visible whitening of the superficial epidermal layer due to stratum corneum disruption. In this study, the ruby laser (694 nm) was used to determine the threshold radiant exposure, H0 (J/cm2), required to elicit whitening for in vitro black (Negroid) human skin samples which were pre-equilibrated at an initial temperature, Ti, of 0, 20, or 50 degrees C. A plot of H0 vs Ti yields a straight line whose x-intercept indicates the threshold temperature of explosive vaporization to be 112 +/- 7 degrees C (SD, N = 3). The slope, delta H0/delta Ti, specifies the internal absorption coefficient, mua, within the melanosome: mua = -rho C/(slope(1 + 7.1 Rd)), where rho C is the product of density and specific heat, and Rd is the total diffuse reflectance from the skin. A summary of the absorption spectrum (mua) for the melanosome interior (351-1064 nm) is presented based on H0 data from this study and the literature. The in vivo absorption spectrum (380-820 nm) for human epidermal melanin was measured by an optical fiber spectrophotometer and is compared with the melanosome spectrum. PMID:1886936
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Stassi, Joseph C.; Wilson, Robert; Bolden, William; Thomas, Susan; Gibson, M. Alan
1993-01-01
This document contains a compendium of the ground and in-flight scanner and non-scanner offsets and count conversion (gain) coefficients used for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) production processing of data from the ERBS satellite for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 1989; for the NOAA-9 satellite, for the month of January 1987; and for the NOAA-10 satellite, for the period from 1 January 1987 to 31 May 1989.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alves, M. C.; Santos, W. S.; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E.; Hunt, John G.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.
2014-12-01
The conversion coefficients (CCs) relate protection quantities, mean absorbed dose (DT) and effective dose (E), with physical radiation field quantities, such as fluence (Φ). The calculation of CCs through Monte Carlo simulations is useful for estimating the dose in individuals exposed to radiation. The aim of this work was the calculation of conversion coefficients for absorbed and effective doses per fluence (DT/ Φ and E/Φ) using a sitting and standing female hybrid phantom (UFH/NCI) exposure to monoenergetic protons with energy ranging from 2 MeV to 10 GeV. The radiation transport code MCNPX was used to develop exposure scenarios implementing the female UFH/NCI phantom in sitting and standing postures. Whole-body irradiations were performed using the recommended irradiation geometries by ICRP publication 116 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO). In most organs, the conversion coefficients DT/Φ were similar for both postures. However, relative differences were significant for organs located in the abdominal region, such as ovaries, uterus and urinary bladder, especially in the AP, RLAT and LLAT geometries. Anatomical differences caused by changing the posture of the female UFH/NCI phantom led an attenuation of incident protons with energies below 150 MeV by the thigh of the phantom in the sitting posture, for the front-to-back irradiation, and by the arms and hands of the phantom in the standing posture, for the lateral irradiation.
Beidler, C. D.; Allmaier, K.; Isaev, Maxim Yu; Kasilov, K.; Kernbichler, W.; Leitold, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Murakami, Masanori; Schmidt, M.; Spong, Donald A; Tribaidos, V.; Wakasa, A.
2011-01-01
Numerical results for the three mono-energetic transport coefficients required for a complete neoclassical description of stellarator plasmas have been benchmarked within an international collaboration. These transport coefficients are flux-surface-averaged moments of solutions to the linearized drift kinetic equation which have been determined using field-line-integration techniques, Monte Carlo simulations, a variational method employing Fourier-Legendre test functions and a finite-difference scheme. The benchmarking has been successfully carried out for past, present and future devices which represent different optimization strategies within the extensive configuration space available to stellarators. A qualitative comparison of the results with theoretical expectations for simple model fields is provided. The behaviour of the results for the mono-energetic radial and parallel transport coefficients can be largely understood from such theoretical considerations but the mono-energetic bootstrap current coefficient exhibits characteristics which have not been predicted.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bachilo, S. M.; Spangler, C. W.; Gillbro, T.
1998-02-01
Time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence investigations on a series of α,ω-diphenylpolyenes have been made. Dual S 1/S 2 fluorescence was observed for polyenes with more than three double bonds in the polyene chain and the intensity and lifetime of the S 1 fluorescence decreased with increasing chain length. The 1B u energy was almost inversely proportional to the square root of the total molecular length. A similar dependence was found for the energy of the 1A g level, but the length without the phenyl rings was used. The logarithm of the S 1→S 0 internal conversion rate in long-chain diphenylpolyenes exhibits a linear dependence on the S 1 energy. The rate in diphenylhexatriene is slightly higher than the value predicted from the linear dependence, while the internal conversion of diphenylbutadiene is much faster due to stronger S 1-S 2 interaction.
A new interpretation of internal heat transfer coefficients of porous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dybbs, A.; Kar, K.; Groeneweg, M.; Ling, J. X.; Naraghi, M.
1984-01-01
The results of laser anemometer and flow visualization based fluid mechanics studies of porous media are used to obtain heat transfer coefficients for porous materials. Average pore flow Re ranging from 0.16-700 were examined. Darcy, inertial steady laminar, unsteady laminar and turbulent flow regimes were detected. A passage length model was devised to derive the heat transfer coefficient. Sample data from flows through porous metals composed of powders and fibers validated the passage length for Darcy and inertial flow regimes. Unsteady laminar and turbulent flow coefficients require the identification of new parameters.
Raffo-Caiado, Ana Claudia; Begovich, John M; Ferrada, Juan J
2009-11-01
This is the final report that closed a joint collaboration effort between DOE and the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Brazil (CNEN). In 2005, DOE and CNEN started a collaborative effort to evaluate measures that can strengthen the effectiveness of international safeguards at a natural uranium conversion plant (NUCP). The work was performed by DOE s Oak Ridge National Laboratory and CNEN. A generic model of a NUCP was developed and typical processing steps were defined. Advanced instrumentation and techniques for verification purposes were identified and investigated. The scope of the work was triggered by the International Atomic Energy Agency s 2003 revised policy concerning the starting point of safeguards at uranium conversion facilities. Prior to this policy only the final products of the uranium conversion plant were considered to be of composition and purity suitable for use in the nuclear fuel cycle and therefore, subject to the IAEA safeguards control. DOE and CNEN have explored options for implementing the IAEA policy, although Brazil understands that the new policy established by the IAEA is beyond the framework of the Quadripartite Agreement of which it is one of the parties, together with Argentina, the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) and the IAEA. Two technical papers on this subject were published at the 2005 and 2008 INMM Annual Meetings.
Psychometric Inferences from a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Internal Consistency Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Botella, Juan; Suero, Manuel; Gambara, Hilda
2010-01-01
A meta-analysis of the reliability of the scores from a specific test, also called reliability generalization, allows the quantitative synthesis of its properties from a set of studies. It is usually assumed that part of the variation in the reliability coefficients is due to some unknown and implicit mechanism that restricts and biases the…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nolan, J.; Nica, N.; Hardy, J. C.; Hernberg, M.; Goodwin, J. R.; Iacob, V. E.
2008-10-01
Precise values for internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) are important in the study of nuclear decay schemes; they are also useful for detector efficiency calibration. A recent survey revealed that few measured ICCs are known to a high precision (˜ 1%); in addition, there is some theoretical uncertainty over how to deal with the atomic vacancy left by the departing electron during the internal conversion process. Texas A&M has previously precisely measured the ICCs for ^193Ir, ^137Ba, and ^134Cs as a test of internal conversion theory; we now consider the ICC for ^197Pt^m as a further test. The ^197Pt^m was produced by thermal neutron activation of separated ^196Pt (97.43% pure). Two separate sources were produced; x-ray and gamma-ray emissions from each source were recorded by a High Purity Germanium Detector (+/- 0.20% absolute efficiency uncertainty). After impurity subtraction and attenuation correction, preliminary results for the αk value for the two sources have now been obtained. The αk from source one is 4.24 (13); the αk from source two is 4.26 (8). While these values are still tentative, the results show agreement with the theory that considers the atomic vacancy.
Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Burghardt, Irene
2015-05-01
Quantum-dynamical simulations are used to investigate the interplay of exciton delocalization and vibronically induced internal conversion processes in the elementary charge separation steps at regioregular donor-acceptor heterojunctions. Ultrafast internal conversion leads to efficient deexcitation within the excitonic and charge transfer manifolds, thus modifying the charge separation dynamics. We address a model donor-acceptor junction representative of regioregular P3HT-PCBM, using high-dimensional quantum dynamics simulations by multiconfigurational methods. While partial trapping into an interfacial charge separated state occurs, long-range charge-separated states are accessed as previously demonstrated in the work of Tamura and Burghardt [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 16364]. For an H-aggregate type, stacked donor species, the initial bright state undergoes ultrafast internal conversion within the excitonic manifold, creating multiple charge transfer pathways before reaching the lowest-energy dark exciton, which is uncoupled from the charge transfer manifold. This process profoundly affects the charge separation mechanism and efficiency. For small energetic offsets between the interfacial excitonic and charge transfer states, a delocalized initial bright state proves less prone to electron-hole capture by the interfacial trap than a localized, vibronic wavepacket close to the interface. For both delocalized and localized initial states, a comparable yield of free carriers is obtained, which is found to be optimal for energetic offsets of the order of the Coulomb barrier to charge separation. Interfacial trapping is significantly reduced as the barrier height decreases with fullerene aggregation. Despite the high-dimensional nature of the system, charge separation is an ultrafast coherent quantum process exhibiting oscillatory features as observed in recent experiments. PMID:26263337
Mokhtari, Arash; Preußler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Kambiz; Akbari, Mahmood; Schneider, Thomas
2012-09-24
A fully electrically tunable microwave photonic filter is realized by the implementation of delay lines based on frequency-time conversion. The frequency response and free spectral range (FSR) of the filter can be engineered by a simple electrical tuning of the delay lines. The method has the capability of being integrated on a silicon photonic platform. In the experiment, a 2-tap tunable microwave photonic filter with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.55 GHz, a FSR of 4.016 GHz, a FSR maximum tuning range from -354 MHz to 354 MHz and a full FSR translation range is achieved. PMID:23037423
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Rauer, Clemens; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Martínez, Todd J.
2016-03-01
Full multiple spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and ab initio multiple spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. The results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalism and its implementation.
Liebel, M; Schnedermann, C; Kukura, P
2014-05-16
Coupling of nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom mediates energy flow in molecules after optical excitation. The associated coherent dynamics in polyatomic systems, however, remain experimentally unexplored. Here, we combined transient absorption spectroscopy with electronic population control to reveal nuclear wave packet dynamics during the S2 → S1 internal conversion in β-carotene. We show that passage through a conical intersection is vibrationally coherent and thereby provides direct feedback on the role of different vibrational coordinates in the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. PMID:24877970
Lai, M.; Botsis, J.; Coric, D.; Cugnoni, J.
2008-08-28
The increasing needs of extending the lifetime in high-technology fields, such as space and aerospace, rail transport and naval systems, require quality enhancing of the composite materials either from a processing standing point or in the sense of resistance to service conditions. It is well accepted that the final quality of composite materials and structures is strongly influenced by processing parameters like curing and post-curing temperatures, rate of heating and cooling, applied vacuum, etc. To optimize manufacturing cycles, residual strains evolution due to chemical shrinkage and other physical parameters of the constituent materials must be characterized in situ. Such knowledge can lead to a sensible reduction in defects and to improved physical and mechanical properties of final products. In this context continuous monitoring of strains distribution developed during processing is important in understanding and retrieving components' and materials' characteristics such as local strains gradients, degree of curing, coefficient of thermal expansion, moisture absorption, etc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Werner, Ute; Mitrić, Roland; Bonačić-Koutecký, Vlasta
2010-05-01
We present an approach for the simulation of time resolved photoelectron spectra based on the combination of the ab initio nonadiabatic molecular dynamics "on the fly" with the Stieltjes imaging method utilizing discrete neutral states above the ionization limit for the approximate description of the ionization continuum. Our approach has been implemented in the framework of the time-dependent density functional theory and has been applied to interrogate the ultrafast internal conversion between the S2 and S1 states in pyrazine. The simulations reveal that, parallel to the S2→S1 internal conversion, a change in the dominant ionization process (S2→D1 versus S1→D0) occurs on the time scale of 20 fs such that no significant change in the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution is observed. The presented results are in full agreement with the experimental results presented in the accompanying paper [Suzuki et al., J. Chem. Phys. 132, 174302 (2010)] and provide an insight into the interplay between the nonradiative relaxation and the photoionization process in pyrazine as reflected in the time resolved photoelectron spectrum. Our approach represents a general tool for the investigation of ultrafast photoionization processes in complex systems and thus can be used to investigate the ultrafast femtochemistry of complex molecular systems including all degrees of freedom.
Nica, N.; Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.; Montague, J.R.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.
2005-05-01
We have measured the total intensity of K x rays relative to 129.4-keV {gamma} rays from decay of the second excited state in {sup 191}Ir. This (M1+E2) transition was observed following the {beta} decay of 15.4-d {sup 191}Os. Our measured ratio yields the result {alpha}{sub K}{omega}{sub K}=2.044(11). When combined with a recent measurement of the same ratio for the 80.2-keV M4 transition from {sup 193}Ir{sup m}, this result strongly confirms the need for the K-shell hole to be included in calculations of internal-conversion coefficients {alpha}{sub K}. Since the {alpha}{sub K} value calculated for the {sup 191}Ir transition is virtually independent of the hole treatment, our result also yields a model-independent value for the iridium fluorescence yield, {omega}{sub K}=0.954(9)
Masuda, Ryo Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Mitsui, Takaya; Iga, Fumitoshi; Seto, Makoto
2014-02-24
A detection system for synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectroscopy was developed to enhance the nuclear resonant scattering counting rate and thus increase the available nuclides. In the system, a windowless avalanche photodiode (APD) detector was combined with a vacuum cryostat to detect the internal conversion (IC) electrons and fluorescent X-rays accompanied by nuclear de-excitation. As a feasibility study, the SR-based Mössbauer spectrum using the 76.5 keV level of {sup 174}Yb was observed without {sup 174}Yb enrichment of the samples. The counting rate was five times higher than that of our previous system, and the spectrum was obtained within 10 h. This result shows that nuclear resonance events can be more efficiently detected by counting IC electrons for nuclides with high IC coefficients. Furthermore, the windowless detection system enables us to place the sample closer to the APD elements and is advantageous for nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements. Therefore, this detection system can not only increase the number of nuclides accessible in SR-based Mössbauer spectroscopy but also allows the nuclear resonant inelastic scattering measurements of small single crystals or enzymes with dilute probe nuclides that are difficult to measure with the previous detection system.
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Sibener, S. J.; Lee, Y. T.
1978-05-01
An experiment was performed which confirms the existence of an internal mode dependence of molecular sticking probabilities for collisions of molecules with a cold surface. The scattering of a velocity selected effusive beam of CCl{sub 4} from a 90 K CC1{sub 4} ice surface has been studied at five translational velocities and for two different internal temperatures. At a surface temperature of 90 K (approx. 99% sticking probability) a four fold increase in reflected intensity was observed for the internally excited (560 K) CC1{sub 4} relative to the room temperature (298 K) CC1{sub 4} at a translational velocity of 2.5 X 10{sup 4} cm/sec. For a surface temperature of 90 K all angular distributions were found to peak 15{sup 0} superspecularly independent of incident velocity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Colombani, Olivier; Langelier, Ophelie; Martwong, Ekkachai; Castignolles, Patrice
2011-01-01
The use of an internal standard is a conventional and convenient way to monitor the conversion of one or several monomers during a controlled radical polymerization. However, the validity of this technique relies on an accurate determination of the initial monomer-to-internal standard ratio, A[subscript 0], because all subsequent calculations of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galeano, D. C.; Santos, W. S.; Alves, M. C.; Souza, D. N.; Carvalho, A. B.
2016-04-01
The aim of this work was to modify the standing posture of the anthropomorphic reference phantoms of ICRP publication 110, AM (Adult Male) and AF (Adult Female), to the sitting posture. The change of posture was performed using the Visual Monte Carlo software (VMC) to rotate the thigh region of the phantoms and position it between the region of the leg and trunk. Scion Image software was used to reconstruct and smooth the knee and hip contours of the phantoms in a sitting posture. For 3D visualization of phantoms, the VolView software was used. In the change of postures, the organ and tissue masses were preserved. The MCNPX was used to calculate the equivalent and effective dose conversion coefficients (CCs) per fluence for photons for six irradiation geometries suggested by ICRP publication 110 (AP, PA, RLAT, LLAT, ROT and ISO) and energy range 0.010-10 MeV. The results were compared between the standing and sitting postures, for both sexes, in order to evaluate the differences of scattering and absorption of radiation for different postures. Significant differences in the CCs for equivalent dose were observed in the gonads, colon, prostate, urinary bladder and uterus, which are present in the pelvic region, and in organs distributed throughout the body, such as the lymphatic nodes, muscle, skeleton and skin, for the phantoms of both sexes. CCs for effective dose showed significant differences of up to 16% in the AP irradiation geometry, 27% in the PA irradiation geometry and 13% in the ROT irradiation geometry. These results demonstrate the importance of using phantoms in different postures in order to obtain more precise conversion coefficients for a given exposure scenario.
Kölle, Patrick; Schnappinger, Thomas; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2016-03-21
Oligothiophenes and polythiophenes are building blocks of organic-based energy conversion materials. Therefore the lifetime of the excited states plays a central role. As a first step to understand the factors influencing the performance, we investigated the deactivation processes from the first excited state S1 of thiophene and small oligothiophenes containing up to four rings using quantum chemical calculations. For thiophene a low-lying S1/S0 conical intersection seam is easily accessible and drives the fast internal conversion. In oligothiophenes barriers inhibit this passage while deactivation pathways via intersystem crossing channels open. The first one is responsible for the high triplet quantum yields and takes place shortly after the Franck-Condon region. The second one occurs in the vicinity of a local S1 minimum. The calculated spin-orbit coupling strength together with the singlet-triplet energy gaps can explain the decreasing triplet and increasing fluorescence quantum yields for growing chain length. From the triplets the ground state is reachable by inter-ring torsions and T1/S0 intersections. The present results allow a deeper understanding of the deactivation pathways of thiophene and small oligothiophenes and are of potential interest for the photophysics of longer oligothiophenes and polythiophenes used in optical devices. PMID:26914290
Curchod, Basile F. E.; Rauer, Clemens; Marquetand, Philipp; Gonzalez, Leticia; Martinez, Todd J.
2016-03-11
Full Multiple Spawning is a formally exact method to describe the excited-state dynamics of molecular systems beyond the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. However, it has been limited until now to the description of radiationless transitions taking place between electronic states with the same spin multiplicity. This Communication presents a generalization of the full and ab initio Multiple Spawning methods to both internal conversion (mediated by nonadiabatic coupling terms) and intersystem crossing events (triggered by spin-orbit coupling matrix elements) based on a spin-diabatic representation. Lastly, the results of two numerical applications, a model system and the deactivation of thioformaldehyde, validate the presented formalismmore » and its implementation.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1993-03-01
With regard to accelerated introduction of high efficient energy conversion technology to developing countries, the paper investigates the countries' thoughts of the introduction of the technology and the status of the introduction bases. The countries for survey are the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. The Philippine government expects to develop cogeneration as well as large power sources and to widen effective use of natural energy. In Indonesia, they largely expect effective use of biomass energy using Stirling engines by international cooperation and the promoted local electrification using standalone distributed fuel cells. In Malaysia, they have great expectations of the introduction of air conditioning facilities using Stirling engines and the use of standalone distributed fuel cells for promotion of local electrification. Thailand hopes for the use of Stirling engines to air conditioning systems, and the development of solar Stirling generators with solar energy as a heat source and electric vehicles.
Cyr, D.R.; Hayden, C.C.
1995-08-01
The authors have studied the dynamics of ultrafast internal conversion processes using femtosecond time-resolved photoionization and photoelectron spectroscopy. In hexatriene, following femtosecond pulse excitation at 250 nm, they use time-delayed photoionization to observe the formation and decay of an intermediate species on the subpicosecond time scale. With time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy, the rapid evolution of vibrational excitation in this intermediate is observed, as electronic energy is converted to vibrational energy in the molecule. The photodynamics of cis and trans isomers of hexatriene are compared and found to be surprisingly different on the 2-3 psec time scale. These results are important for understanding the fundamental photochemical processes in linear polyenes, which have served as models for the active chromophores of many biological photosystems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stock, K.; Bizjak, T.; Lochbrunner, S.
2002-03-01
The intramolecular excited-state proton transfer (ESIPT) and internal conversion (IC) of o-hydroxybenzaldehyde was investigated by transient absorption measurements with 30 fs time resolution and quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy. A 45 fs delayed rise of the product emission and coherently excited vibrations indicate that the ESIPT is a ballistic motion of a well defined wavepacket along skeletal coordinates of the H-chelate ring. The IC proceeds as thermally activated process over an energy barrier of about 200 meV caused by an avoided crossing between the ππ∗- and πσ∗-state. The coordinates involved in the ESIPT and in the IC are found to be orthogonal.
Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Bordy, J M
2011-03-01
This work has been performed within the frame of the European Union ORAMED project (Optimisation of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff). The main goal of the project is to improve standards of protection for medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially high exposures and to develop methodologies for better assessing and for reducing, exposures to medical staff. The Work Package WP2 is involved in the development of practical eye-lens dosimetry in interventional radiology. This study is complementary of the part of the ENEA report concerning the calculations with the MCNP-4C code of the conversion factors related to the operational quantity H(p)(3). In this study, a set of energy- and angular-dependent conversion coefficients (H(p)(3)/K(a)), in the newly proposed square cylindrical phantom made of ICRU tissue, have been calculated with the Monte-Carlo code PENELOPE and MCNP5. The H(p)(3) values have been determined in terms of absorbed dose, according to the definition of this quantity, and also with the kerma approximation as formerly reported in ICRU reports. At a low-photon energy (up to 1 MeV), the two results obtained with the two methods are consistent. Nevertheless, large differences are showed at a higher energy. This is mainly due to the lack of electronic equilibrium, especially for small angle incidences. The values of the conversion coefficients obtained with the MCNP-4C code published by ENEA quite agree with the kerma approximation calculations obtained with PENELOPE. We also performed the same calculations with the code MCNP5 with two types of tallies: F6 for kerma approximation and *F8 for estimating the absorbed dose that is, as known, due to secondary electrons. PENELOPE and MCNP5 results agree for the kerma approximation and for the absorbed dose calculation of H(p)(3) and prove that, for photon energies larger than 1 MeV, the transport of the secondary electrons has to be taken into account. PMID:21242167
Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Partricia; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.
2013-01-01
Recent research and development of high temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential of converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The figure-of-merit, ZT, still needs to improve from the current value of 1.0 - 1.5 to above 2 to be competitive to other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as an important area for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the implementing agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is Part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main focuses in Part I are on two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Böttner, Harald; König, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolet, Alex; Senawiratne, Jayantha; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Gilbert, Patricia; Sharp, Jeff W.; Lo, Jason; Kleinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo
2013-04-01
Recent research and development of high-temperature thermoelectric materials has demonstrated great potential for converting automobile exhaust heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectrics based on classic bismuth telluride have also started to impact the automotive industry by enhancing air-conditioning efficiency and integrated cabin climate control. In addition to engineering challenges of making reliable and efficient devices to withstand thermal and mechanical cycling, the remaining issues in thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration are mostly materials related. The dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, still needs to be improved from the current value of 1.0 to 1.5 to above 2.0 to be competitive with other alternative technologies. In the meantime, the thermoelectric community could greatly benefit from the development of international test standards, improved test methods, and better characterization tools. Internationally, thermoelectrics have been recognized by many countries as a key component for improving energy efficiency. The International Energy Agency (IEA) group under the Implementing Agreement for Advanced Materials for Transportation (AMT) identified thermoelectric materials as an important area in 2009. This paper is part I of the international round-robin testing of transport properties of bulk thermoelectrics. The main foci in part I are the measurement of two electronic transport properties: Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosikhin, Ahmad; Winata, Toto
2016-04-01
Internal transmission profile in charges carrier generation layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been explored theoretically. Photovoltaic device was constructed from graphene/Si heterojunction forming a multilayer stuck with Si as generation layer. The graphene/Si sheet was layered on ITO/glass wafer then coated by Al forming Ohmic contact with Si. Photon incident propagate from glass substrate to metal electrode and assumed that there is no transmission in Al layer. The wavelength range spectra used in this calculation was 200 - 1000 nm. It found that transmission intensity in the generation layer show non-linear behavior and partitioned by few areas which related with excitation process. According to this information, it may to optimize the photons absorption to create more excitation process by inserting appropriate material to enhance optical properties in certain wavelength spectra because of the exciton generation is strongly influenced by photon absorption.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1994-03-01
Following cooperative researches on fuel cell jointly conducted by NEDO and EGAT (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand), the survey on international cooperation relating to high efficiency energy conversion technology was carried out for the ASEAN countries. The paper summed up the results of the survey. The study of the international cooperation is made for the following three items: a program for periodical exchange of information with EGAT, a project for cooperative research on phosphoric acid fuel cell in Indonesia, and a project for cooperative research with EGAT on electric power storage by advanced battery. In Malaysia, which is small in scale of state, part of the Ministry of Energy, Telecommunication and Posts is only in charge of the energy issue. Therefore, the situation is that they cannot answer well to many items of research/development cooperation brought in from Japan. The item of medium- and long-term developmental research in the Philippines is about the problems which are seen subsequently in the Manila metropolitan area where the problem of outage is being settled. Accordingly, it is essential to promote the cooperative research, well confirming policies and systems of the Ministry of Energy and the national electricity corporation.
Spin-symmetry conversion and internal rotation in high J molecular systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, Justin; Harter, William
2006-05-01
Dynamics and spectra of molecules with internal rotation or rovibrational coupling is approximately modeled by rigid or semi-rigid rotors with attached gyroscopes. Using Rotational Energy (RE)^1 surfaces, high resolution molecular spectra for high angular momentum show two distinct but related phenomena; spin-symmetry conversion and internal rotation. For both cases the high total angular momentum allows for transitions that would otherwise be forbidden. Molecular body-frame J-localization effects associated with tight energy level-clusters dominate the rovibronic spectra of high symmetry molecules, particularly spherical tops at J>10. ^2 The effects include large and widespread spin-symmetry mixing contrary to conventional wisdom^3 about weak nuclear moments. Such effects are discussed showing how RE surface plots may predict them even at low J. Classical dynamics of axially constrained rotors are approximated by intersecting rotational-energy-surfaces (RES) that have (J-S).B.(J-S) forms in the limit of constraints that do no work. Semi-classical eigensolutions are compared to those found by direct diagonalization. ^1 W.G Hater, in Handbook of Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, edited by G.W.F Drake (Springer, Germany 2006) ^2 W. G. Harter, Phys. Rev. A24,192-262(1981). ^3 G. Herzberg, Infrared and Raman Spectra (VanNostrand 1945) pp. 458,463.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schell, W. R.; Vives-Batlle, J.; Yoon, S. R.; Tobin, M. J.
1999-02-01
Low levels of radioactive gases are released from nuclear electric power generation, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, nuclear weapons tests and from diagnostic medical uses of radioactive gas tracers. A prototype model of an inorganic scintillator - Crystal Gas Electron Detector (CGED) - was built for measurements of xenon isotopes in-line by detecting the beta and internal conversion (IC) electrons present in atmospheric samples. The detection and quantification of the radionuclide spectra are accomplished, during air flow, without complete purification of the fission gases. Initial operational tests and calibrations made permit the integration of the CGED into a portable Gas Analysis, Separation and Purification (GASP) system [1-3]. The CGED detector, Pulse Shaping and Timing (PSA) electronics, and mathematical treatment of the accumulated spectra are used to resolve the K and LMNO-IC electrons and beta continuum. These data are used, in-line, for dating the age of an air parcel containing fission gases released from nuclear reactors and/or from nuclear weapons tests, as part of the monitoring equipment required to enforce the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, CTBT. This report is one of a series of papers providing the design features, operational methods, calibration, and applications of radioactive gas analysis system to the International CTBT.
Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N.
2008-07-15
The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)
Keum, Mihyun; Park, Jae Hong; Park, Sung Ho; Ahn, Seung Do
2014-03-01
A Monte Carlo program for calculating organ doses for patients undergoing medical x-ray examination (PCXMC) was used to calculate effective dose conversion coefficients for Korean adults. Two sets of effective dose results were calculated based on tissue weighting factors recommended in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 60 and 103 for monochromatic energy photons of 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 100 and 150 keV. The results were obtained for monoenergetic photons, since effective dose conversion coefficients recommended in ICRP Publications 74 and 116 were given for monochromatic energies, thereby enabling the comparison of our result to those suggested by the ICRP publications. The areas of comparison include: to observe effects due to changes in tissue weighting factors, modification within Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) phantoms and differences in phantom types. The phantom employed in the PCXMC program is a modified version of the phantom used in ICRP Publication 74, with additional organs that were added in order to take into account the updated tissue weighting factors given in ICRP Publication 103. Both use MIRD phantoms but our study modified the phantom size to the average physical condition of Korean adults, while ICRP Publication 74 uses the phantom size of the reference man defined in ICRP Publication 23. On the other hand, the effective dose suggested in ICRP 116 was calculated using an entirely different type of phantom: a voxel phantom with the size of reference man. Although significant differences were observed for certain organ doses in the lateral beam directions, differences in the effective doses were within 5% for the anterior-posterior (AP) and posterior-anterior (PA) directions, and within 16% in lateral directions when tissue weighting factors were applied and the variations were adjusted for all three comparisons. The results show that calculation of effective doses for Korean adults
McCaffery, Anthony J
2015-09-14
Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H2, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H2, as Δj = - 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H2 in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H2 + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism. PMID:26374034
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2015-09-14
Little is known of the mechanism by which H and H{sub 2}, the principal constituents of the post-re-combination early Universe, cooled sufficiently to permit cluster formation, nucleosynthesis, and, eventually, the formation of structured objects. Radiative decay primarily cools the internal modes of H{sub 2}, as Δj = − 2 jumps accompany quadrupolar emission. This, however, would be a self-limiting mechanism. In this work, a translational energy cooling mechanism based on collision-induced, translation-to-internal mode conversion, is extended, following an earlier study [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] of ensembles comprising H{sub 2} in a H atom bath gas. Here, the possible influence of minor species, such as HD, on this cooling mechanism is investigated. Results suggest that the influence of HD is small but not insignificant. Conversion is very rapid and an overall translation-to-internal energy conversion efficiency of some 5% could be expected. This finding may be of use in the further development of models of this complex phase of early Universe evolution. An unexpected finding in this study was that H{sub 2} + HD ensembles are capable of very rapid translation-to-internal conversion with efficiencies of >40% and relaxation rates that appear to be relatively slow. This may have potential as an energy storage mechanism.
Stereo-selective partitioning of translation-to-internal energy conversion in gas ensembles
McCaffery, Anthony J.
2014-11-07
A recent computational study of translation-to-internal energy transfer to H{sub 2} (v = 0,j = 0), hereinafter denoted H{sub 2} (0;0), in a bath of H atoms [A. J. McCaffery and R. J. Marsh, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 234310 (2013)] revealed an unexpected energy partitioning in which the H{sub 2} vibrational temperature greatly exceeds that of rotation. This occurs despite rotation and vibration distributions being close to Boltzmann from early in ensemble evolution. In this work, the study is extended to include H{sub 2} (0;0), O{sub 2} (0;0), and HF (0;0) in a wide range of atomic bath gases comprising some 22 ensembles in all. Translation-to-internal energy conversion in the systems studied was found to be relatively inefficient, falling approximately with (√μ′){sup −1} as bath gas mass increases, where μ′ is the reduced mass of the diatomic–bath gas pair. In all 22 systems studied, T{sub v} exceeds T{sub r} – by a factor > 4 for some pairs. Analysis of the constraints that influence (0;0) → (1;j) excitation for each diatomic–atom pair in momentum–angular momentum space demonstrates that a vibrational preference results from energy constraints that limit permitted collision trajectories to those of low effective impact parameter, i.e., to those that are axial or near axial on impact with the Newton surface. This implies that a steric constraint is an inherent feature of vibration-rotation excitation and arises because momentum and energy barriers must be overcome before rotational states may be populated in the higher vibrational level.
Guo, Yuanqing; Bhattacharya, Atanu; Bernstein, Elliot R
2011-09-01
Electronically nonadiabatic processes such as ultrafast internal conversion (IC) from an upper electronic state (S(1)) to the ground electronic state (S(0)) though a conical intersection (CI), can play an essential role in the initial steps of the decomposition of energetic materials. Such nonradiative processes following electronic excitation can quench emission and store the excitation energy in the vibrational degrees of freedom of the ground electronic state. This excess vibrational energy in the ground electronic state can dissociate most of the chemical bonds of the molecule and can generate stable, small molecule products. The present study determines ultrafast IC dynamics of a model nitramine energetic material, dimethylnitramine (DMNA). Femtosecond (fs) pump-probe spectroscopy, for which a pump pulse at 271 nm and a probe pulse at 405.6 nm are used, is employed to elucidate the IC dynamics of this molecule from its S(1) excited state. A very short lifetime of the S(1) excited state (∼50 ± 16 fs) is determined for DMNA. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations show that an (S(1)/S(0))(CI) CI is responsible for this ultrafast decay from S(1) to S(0). This decay occurs through a reaction coordinate involving an out-of-plane bending mode of the DMNA NO(2) moiety. The 271 nm excitation of DMNA is not sufficient to dissociate the molecule on the S(1) potential energy surface (PES) through an adiabatic NO(2) elimination pathway. PMID:21351779
Visualizing competing intersystem crossing and internal conversion with a complementary measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yuzhu; Gerber, Thomas; Qin, Chaochao; Jin, Feng; Knopp, Gregor
2016-02-01
A complementary measurement method based on a home-built double-sided velocity map imaging setup is introduced. This method can simultaneously obtain time-resolved photoelectron imaging and fragment ion imaging. It has been successfully applied to investigate the ultrafast dynamics of the second singlet electronically excited state (S2) in m-xylene. Time-resolved photoelectron and ion signals derived from the initial populated S2 state are tracked following two-photon absorption of a pump pulse. Time-of-flight mass spectra (TOFMS) show that there are dominant parent ions and one fragment ions with methyl loss during such a process. According to the measured photoelectron images and fragment ions images, transient kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of the generated photoelectrons and fragments are obtained and analyzed. Compared to stand-alone photoelectron imaging, the obtained fragment ion imaging is powerful for further understanding the mechanisms especially when the dissociation occurs during the pump-probe ionization. Two competing channels intersystem crossing T3←S2 and internal conversion S1←S2 are attributed to the deactivation of the S2 state. A lifetime of ˜50 fs for the initially excited S2 state, of ˜276 fs for the secondary populated S1 state, and of 5.76 ps for the T3 state is inferred.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bozkurt, A.; Chao, T. C.; Xu, X. G.; Bozkurt, A.; Chao, T. C.
2000-10-01
A new set of fluence-to-absorbed dose and fluence-to-effective dose conversion coefficients have been calculated for neutrons below 20 MeV using a whole-body anatomical model, VIP-Man, developed from the high-resolution transverse colour photographic images of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project®. Organ dose calculations were performed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP for 20 monoenergetic neutron beams between 1×10-9 MeV and 20 MeV under six different irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, right lateral, left lateral, rotational and isotropic. The absorbed dose for 24 major organs and effective dose results based on the realistic VIP-Man are presented and compared with those based on the simplified MIRD-based phantoms reported in the literature. Effective doses from VIP-Man are not significantly different from earlier results for neutrons in the energy range studied. There are, however, remarkable deviations in organ doses due to the anatomical differences between the image-based and the earlier mathematical models.
Nica, N.; Hardy, J.C.; Iacob, V.E.; Raman, S.; Nestor, C.W. Jr.; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.
2004-11-01
The 10.5-day isomer in {sup 193}Ir decays by a single 80.2-keV M4 transition directly to the ground state of that nucleus. We have measured the total intensity of K x rays relative to 80.2-keV {gamma} rays for this transition to be 98.7(6). With the K-shell fluorescent yield for iridium taken to be 0.958(4), this result yields {alpha}{sub K}=103.0(8) for the K-shell internal conversion coefficient (ICC). The calculated {alpha}{sub K} for this transition is particularly sensitive to the treatment of the hole that is created by conversion in the atomic K shell. Recent ICC tables, which ignore the hole, yield {alpha}{sub K}=92.0. We demonstrate that calculations incorporating the hole produce values between 99.6 and 103.3 depending on the approximation used. Our result strongly supports the need to include the hole.
Taprogge, J.; Jungclaus, A.; Grawe, H.; Nishimura, S.; Xu, Z. Y.; Doornenbal, P.; Lorusso, G.; Nacher, E.; Simpson, G. S.; Soderstrom, P. A.; Sumikama, T.; Kondev, F. G.
2014-11-10
The decay of an isomeric state in the neutron-rich nucleus 129Cd has been observed via the detection of internal conversion and Compton electrons providing first experimental information on excited states in this nucleus. The isomer was populated in the projectile fission of a 238U beam at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory at RIKEN. From the measured yields of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, a multipolarity of E 3 was tentatively assigned to the isomeric transition. A half-life of T1/2=3.6(2) msT1/2=3.6(2) ms was determined for the new state which was assigned a spin of (21/2+)(21/2+), based on a comparison to shell model calculations performed using state-of-the-art realistic effective interactions.
Precise αK Measurement of 346.5 keV Transition in ^197Pt as a Test of Internal Conversion Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernberg, Mark; Hardy, John; Nica, Ninel; Goodwin, John; Iacob, Victor
2007-10-01
We have determined the K-shell internal conversion coefficient (ICC) of the 346.5 keV M4 transition in ^197Pt using an HPGe detector at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron. ICCs are used in the study of nuclear decay schemes, branching ratios and transition rates, as well as spin and parity assignments. We have recently been measuring ICCs (in ^193Ir , ^137Ba, ^134Cs) with the specific purpose of testing the method used to treat the atomic vacancy in calculating ICCs. Previous measurements of the ICC for the 346.5 keV transition in ^197Pt have disagreed significantly from calculated coefficients regardless of the method used to consider the vacancy. This could have indicated some other unknown factor causing a problem in the calculations. Our preliminary result, determined with an uncertainty of 3% is αK= 4.24(13). This disagrees with previous measurements (αK= 4.02(8)) and is now consistent with the calculated ICCs.
Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.
1987-06-30
The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fairall, C. W.; Bariteau, L.; Grachev, A. A.; Hill, R. J.; Wolfe, D. E.; Brewer, W. A.; Tucker, S. C.; Hare, J. E.; Angevine, W. M.
2006-12-01
In this paper, we examine observations of shallow, stable boundary layers in the cool waters of the Gulf of Maine between Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and Nova Scotia, obtained in the 2004 New England Air Quality Study (NEAQS-04), which was part of the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research into Transport and Transformation (ICARTT). The observations described herein were made from the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. The ship was instrumented for measurements of meteorological, gas-phase and aerosol atmospheric chemistry variables. Meteorological instrumentation included a Doppler lidar, a radar wind profiler, rawinsonde equipment, and a surface flux package. In this study, we focus on direct comparisons of the NEAQS-04 flux observations with the COARE bulk flux algorithm to investigate possible coastal influences on air-sea interactions. We found significant suppression of the transfer coefficients for momentum, sensible heat, and latent heat; the suppression was correlated with lighter winds, more stable surface layers, S-SE wind direction, and lower boundary layer heights. Analysis of the details shows the suppression is not a measurement, stability correction, or surface wave effect. The correlation with boundary layer height is consistent with an interpretation that our measurements at 18-m height do not realize the full surface flux in shallow boundary layers. We also find that a bulk Richardson number threshold of 0.1 gives a better estimate of boundary layer height than 0.25 or 0.5. Mean ozone deposition velocity is estimated as 0.44 mm s-1, corresponding to a boundary removal timescale of about 1 day.
The multivesicular body is the major internal site of prion conversion
Yim, Yang-In; Park, Bum-Chan; Yadavalli, Rajgopal; Zhao, Xiaohong; Eisenberg, Evan; Greene, Lois E.
2015-01-01
ABSTRACT The conversion of the properly folded prion protein, PrPc, to its misfolded amyloid form, PrPsc, occurs as the two proteins traffic along the endocytic pathway and PrPc is exposed to PrPsc. To determine the specific site of prion conversion, we knocked down various proteins in the endocytic pathway including Rab7a, Tsg101 and Hrs (also known as HGS). PrPsc was markedly reduced in two chronically infected cell lines by preventing the maturation of the multivesicular body, a process that begins in the early endosome and ends with the sorting of cargo to the lysosome. By contrast, knocking down proteins in the retromer complex, which diverts cargo away from the multivesicular body caused an increase in PrPsc levels. These results suggest that the multivesicular body is the major site for intracellular conversion of PrPc to PrPsc. PMID:25663703
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing
2008-08-01
This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.
Chen Jing
2008-08-07
This study used the Monte-Carlo code MCNPX to determine mean absorbed doses to the embryo and foetus when the mother is exposed to external muon fields. Monoenergetic muons ranging from 20 MeV to 50 GeV were considered. The irradiation geometries include anteroposterior (AP), postero-anterior (PA), lateral (LAT), rotational (ROT), isotropic (ISO), and top-down (TOP). At each of these irradiation geometries, absorbed doses to the foetal body were calculated for the embryo of 8 weeks and the foetus of 3, 6 or 9 months, respectively. Muon fluence-to-absorbed-dose conversion coefficients were derived for the four prenatal ages. Since such conversion coefficients are yet unknown, the results presented here fill a data gap.
Comparison of 50-year and 70-year internal-dose-conversion factors
Ryan, M.T.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.
1981-03-01
The 50-year inhalation and ingestion dose commitments associated with an acute intake (of a radionuclide) of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq (1 ..mu..Ci) in one day were compared with the corresponding dose commitments calculated for a 70-year integration period resulting from a chronic intake of the same amount at a rate of 101 Bq/d (0.00274 ..mu..Ci/d) for one year. These values, known as dose conversion factors, estimate the dose accumulated during a given period of time following a unit of intake of a radionuclide. It was demonstrated that the acute intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq in one day and the chronic intake of 101 Bq/d for one year (a total intake of 3.7 x 10/sup 4/ Bq) result in essentially the same dose commitment for a relatively long integration period. Therefore, the comparison of 50-year acute dose conversion factors and 70-year chronic dose conversion factors is essentially only a measure of the additional dose accumulated in the 50 to 70 year period. It was found that for radionuclides with atomic mass less than 200 the percent difference in the 70-year and 50-year dose conversion factors was essentially zero in most cases. Differences of approximately 5 to 50% were obtained for dose conversion factors for most alpha emitters with atomic masses of greater than 200. Comparisons were made on the basis of both organ dose equivalent and effective dose equivalent. The implications and significance of these results are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grunnet-Jepsen, A.; Aubrecht, I.; Solymar, L.
1995-05-01
An experimental investigation of the electric field in the bulk of a Bi12SiO20 crystal is carried out, and a two-region model is developed that can account for the buildup of screening charges near the electrodes. In light of our results, a simple method is proposed for the determination of the effective electro-optic coefficients based on applying a sufficiently high-frequency square-wave voltage to prevent screening charge buildup. A demonstration of this method for Bi12SiO20 leads to a value of 4.4 pm / V for the stress-free (unclamped) coefficient, and a subsequent consideration of piezoelastic contributions allows the strain-free (clamped) coefficient to be estimated at 3.7 pm / V.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Abasi, Ali R.; Graves, Barbara
2008-01-01
In this study we examine how university plagiarism policies interact with international graduate students' academic writing in English as they develop identities as authors and students. The study is informed by the sociocultural theoretical perspective [Vygotsky, L. (1978). "Mind in society: The development of higher mental processes." Cambridge,…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerridge, Richard; Cinnamond, Sacha
2012-01-01
Richard Kerridge and Sacha Cinnamond explain how their history department built a culture of international dialogue and collaboration that enriches their students' historical learning. Video-conferencing is at the centre of these activities. Their story begins with an initial, moving encounter with the First World War battlefields that soon turned…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bauer, Patricia J.; Stark, Emily N.; Lukowski, Angela F.; Rademacher, Jennifer; Van Abbema, Dana L.; Ackil, Jennifer K.
2005-01-01
Mother-child conversations about a devastating tornado and about 2 nontraumatic events were examined to determine whether there were (a) differences in use of internal states language when talking about traumatic and nontraumatic events and (b) similarities in mothers' and children's use of internal states language. At Session 1, which took place…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalcante, F. R.; Galeano, D. C.; Carvalho Júnior, A. B.; Hunt, J.
2014-02-01
Due to the difficulty in implementing invasive techniques for calculations of dose for some exposure scenarios, computational simulators have been created to represent as realistically as possible the structures of the human body and through radiation transport simulations to obtain conversion coefficients (CCs) to estimate dose. In most published papers simulators are implemented in the standing posture and this may not describe a real scenario of exposure. In this work we developed exposure scenarios in the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code using a female simulator in standing and sitting postures. The simulator was irradiated in the antero-posterior (AP) geometry by a plane source of monoenergetic photons with energy from 10 keV to 2 MeV. The conversion coefficients for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (HT/Kair) were calculated for both scenarios and compared. The results show that the percentage difference of CCs for the organs of the head and thorax was not significant (less than 5%) since the anatomic position of the organs is the same in both postures. The percentage difference is more significant to the ovaries (71% for photon energy of 20 keV), to the bladder (39% at 60 keV) and to the uterus (37% at 100 keV) due to different processes of radiation interactions in the legs of the simulator when its posture is changed. For organs and tissues that are distributed throughout the entire body, such as bone (21% at 100 keV) and muscle (30% at 80 keV) the percentage difference of CCs reflects a reduction of interaction of photons with the legs of the simulator. Therefore, the calculation of conversion coefficients using simulators in the sitting posture is relevant for a more accurate dose estimation in real exposures to radiation.
Yu, G.; Heeger, A.J.
1995-10-01
The photosensitivity of semiconducting polymers can be enhanced by blending donor and acceptor polymers to optimize photoinduced charge separation. We describe a novel phase-separated polymer blend (composite) made with poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{prime}-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene], MEH-PPV, as donor and cyano-PPV, CN-PPV, as acceptor. The photoluminescence and electroluminescence of both component polymers are quenched in the blend, indicative of rapid and efficient separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs with electrons on the acceptor and holes on the donor. Diodes made with such a composite semiconducting polymer as the photosensitive medium show promising photovoltaic characteristics with carrier collection efficiency of 5% electrons/photon and energy conversion efficiency of 0.9%, {similar_to}20 times larger than in diodes made with pure MEH-PPV and {similar_to}100 times larger than in diodes made with CN-PPV. The photosensitivity and the quantum yield increase with reverse bias voltage, to 0.3 A/W and 80% electrons/photon respectively at {minus}10 V, comparable to results obtained from photodiodes made with inorganic semiconductors. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Yuji
2006-09-01
This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering contains a selection of papers from the Fifth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2005). The meeting was held on 28-30 November 2005 in Tokyo, Japan, and was supported by the 21COE Program 'Mechanical Systems Innovation' at the University of Tokyo. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, encompassing microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The series of PowerMEMS workshops started in 2000 in Sendai, Japan and then moved to Tsukuba, Makuhari, Kyoto and Tokyo. At the 2005 meeting there were four invited, 25 oral and 26 poster presentations from 14 different countries. From the 55 papers in the proceedings, 18 papers have been selected for this special issue. The papers were chosen on the basis of their quality, scientific impact and relevance to the scope of the journal. The authors of the selected papers were invited to expand their manuscripts beyond the workshop page limitation and to revise the papers to meet the criteria of archival journal publication. All papers have been subjected to the journal's standard peer review process. The papers included herein are ordered according to four areas: energy harvesting, micro combustors and fuel processors, micro fuel cells, and micro engines and generators. It is my pleasure to present these selected papers from PowerMEMS 2005, and I hope that this special issue provides a valuable overview of the latest research in micro and nanotechnology for power generation and energy conversion.
Zhu, Lin; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Kim, Changsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2016-05-16
We calculated the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc and the optimized subcell bandgap energies of 1 to 5 junction solar cells without and with intermediate reflectors under 1-sun AM1.5G and 1000-sun AM1.5D irradiations, particularly including the impact of internal radiative efficiency (ηint) below unity for realistic subcell materials on the basis of an extended detailed-balance theory. We found that the conversion-efficiency limit ηsc significantly drops when the geometric mean ηint* of all subcell ηint in the stack reduces from 1 to 0.1, and that ηsc degrades linearly to logηint* for ηint* below 0.1. For ηint*<0.1 differences in ηsc due to additional intermediate reflectors became very small if all subcells are optically thick for sun light. We obtained characteristic optimized bandgap energies, which reflect both ηint* decrease and AM1.5 spectral gaps. These results provide realistic efficiency targets and design principles. PMID:27409948
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grinev, Timur; Brumer, Paul
2015-12-01
Molecular excitation with incoherent light is examined using realistic turn-on time scales, and results are compared to those obtained via commonly used sudden turn-on, or pulses. Two significant results are obtained. First, in contrast to prior studies involving sudden turn-on, realistic turn-on is shown to lead to stationary coherences for natural turn-on time scales. Second, the time to reach the final stationary mixed state, known to result from incoherent excitation, is shown to depend directly on the inverse of the molecular energy level spacings, in both sudden and realistic turn-on cases. The S0 → S2/S1 internal conversion process in pyrazine is used as an example throughout. Implications for studies of natural light harvesting systems are noted.
Giacomelli, L.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Hellesen, C.; Conroy, S.; Sunden, E. Andersson; Ericsson, G.; Johnson, M. Gatu; Sjoestrand, H.; Weiszflog, M.; Kaellne, J.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.
2008-10-15
The effect of ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) on ({sup 3}He)D plasmas at JET was studied with the time of flight optimized rate (TOFOR) spectrometer dedicated to 2.5 MeV dd neutron measurements. In internal transport barrier (ITB) plasma experiments with large {sup 3}He concentrations (X({sup 3}He)>15%) an increase in neutron yield was observed after the ITB disappeared but with the auxiliary neutral beam injection and ICRH power still applied. The analysis of the TOFOR data revealed the formation of a high energy (fast) D population in this regime. The results were compared to other mode conversion experiments with similar X({sup 3}He) but slightly different heating conditions. In this study we report on the high energy neutron tails originating from the fast D ions and their correlation with X({sup 3}He) and discuss the light it can shed on ICRH-plasma power coupling mechanisms.
Yu, Hui; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Jose A; Pollum, Marvin; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E; Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia; Ullrich, Susanne
2016-07-27
The photodynamic properties of molecules determine their ability to survive in harsh radiation environments. As such, the photostability of heterocyclic aromatic compounds to electromagnetic radiation is expected to have been one of the selection pressures influencing the prebiotic chemistry on early Earth. In the present study, the gas-phase photodynamics of uracil, 5-methyluracil (thymine) and 2-thiouracil-three heterocyclic compounds thought to be present during this era-are assessed in the context of their recently proposed intersystem crossing pathways that compete with internal conversion to the ground state. Specifically, time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy measurements evidence femtosecond to picosecond timescales for relaxation of the singlet (1)ππ* and (1)nπ* states as well as for intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold. Trapping in the excited triplet state and intersystem crossing back to the ground state are investigated as potential factors contributing to the susceptibility of these molecules to ultraviolet photodamage. PMID:27189184
Grinev, Timur; Brumer, Paul
2015-12-28
Molecular excitation with incoherent light is examined using realistic turn-on time scales, and results are compared to those obtained via commonly used sudden turn-on, or pulses. Two significant results are obtained. First, in contrast to prior studies involving sudden turn-on, realistic turn-on is shown to lead to stationary coherences for natural turn-on time scales. Second, the time to reach the final stationary mixed state, known to result from incoherent excitation, is shown to depend directly on the inverse of the molecular energy level spacings, in both sudden and realistic turn-on cases. The S{sub 0} → S{sub 2}/S{sub 1} internal conversion process in pyrazine is used as an example throughout. Implications for studies of natural light harvesting systems are noted.
Zhu, Lin Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Shintaroh; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Kanemitsu, Yoshihiko
2014-01-20
To develop a realistic design principle, we calculated the maximum conversion efficiency η{sub sc} and optimized sub-cell band-gap energies E{sub g} in double-junction tandem solar cells via a detailed-balance theory, paying particular attention to their dependence on internal luminescence quantum yields y{sub int} of the top and bottom sub-cell materials. A strong drop in the maximum η{sub sc} occurs when y{sub int} slightly drops from 1 to 0.9, where the drop in y{sub int} of the bottom cell causes a stronger effect than that of the top cell. For low values of y{sub int}, the maximum η{sub sc} has a simple logarithmic dependence on the geometric mean of the two sub-cells'y{sub int}.
Internal dose conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public
Not Available
1988-07-01
This publication contains 50-year committed dose equivalent factors, in tabular form. The document is intended to be used as the primary reference by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors for calculating radiation dose equivalents for members of the public, resulting from ingestion or inhalation of radioactive materials. Its application is intended specifically for such materials released to the environment during routine DOE operations, except in those instances where compliance with 40 CFR 61 (National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants) requires otherwise. However, the calculated values may be equally applicable to unusual releases or to occupational exposures. The use of these committed dose equivalent tables should ensure that doses to members of the public from internal exposures are calculated in a consistent manner at all DOE facilities.
Ören, Ünal; Andersson, Martin; Rääf, Christopher L; Mattsson, Sören
2016-06-01
The purpose of this study was to derive calibration coefficients (in terms of cps kBq(-1)) and minimum detectable activities, MDA, (in terms of kBq and corresponding dose rate) for the dual head gamma camera part of an SPECT/CT-instrument when used for in vivo internal contamination measurements in radiation emergency situations. A cylindrical-conical PMMA phantom with diameters in the range of 7-30 cm was developed in order to simulate different body parts and individuals of different sizes. A series of planar gamma camera investigations were conducted using an SPECT/CT modality with the collimators removed for (131)I and (137)Cs, radionuclides potentially associated with radiation emergencies. Energy windows of 337-391 and 490-690 keV were selected for (131)I and (137)Cs, respectively. The measurements show that the calibration coefficients for (137)Cs range from 10 to 19 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values in the range of 0.29-0.55 kBq for phantom diameters of 10-30 cm. The corresponding values for (131)I are 12-37 cps kBq(-1) with MDA values of 0.08-0.26 kBq. An internal dosimetry computer program was used for the estimation of minimum detectable dose rates. A thyroid uptake of 0.1 kBq (131)I (representing MDA) corresponds to an effective dose rate of 0.6 µSv d(-1) A (137)Cs source position representing the colon with an MDA of 0.55 kBq corresponds to an effective dose rate was 1 µSv y(-1) This method using a simple phantom for the determination of calibration coefficients, and MDA levels can be implemented within the emergency preparedness plans in hospitals with nuclear medicine departments. The derived data will help to quickly estimate the internal contamination of humans following radiation emergencies. PMID:26769903
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taranenko, Valery; Xu, X. George
2008-03-01
Protection of fetuses against external neutron exposure is an important task. This paper reports a set of absorbed dose conversion coefficients for fetal and maternal organs for external neutron beams using the RPI-P pregnant female models and the MCNPX code. The newly developed pregnant female models represent an adult female with a fetus including its brain and skeleton at the end of each trimester. The organ masses were adjusted to match the reference values within 1%. For the 3 mm cubic voxel size, the models consist of 10-15 million voxels for 35 organs. External monoenergetic neutron beams of six standard configurations (AP, PA, LLAT, RLAT, ROT and ISO) and source energies 0.001 eV-100 GeV were considered. The results are compared with previous data that are based on simplified anatomical models. The differences in dose depend on source geometry, energy and gestation periods: from 20% up to 140% for the whole fetus, and up to 100% for the fetal brain. Anatomical differences are primarily responsible for the discrepancies in the organ doses. For the first time, the dependence of mother organ doses upon anatomical changes during pregnancy was studied. A maximum of 220% increase in dose was observed for the placenta in the nine months model compared to three months, whereas dose to the pancreas, small and large intestines decreases by 60% for the AP source for the same models. Tabulated dose conversion coefficients for the fetus and 27 maternal organs are provided.
Blancafort, Lluís; Ovejas, Virginia; Montero, Raúl; Fernández-Fernández, Marta; Longarte, Asier
2016-04-01
The photochemical and photophysical pathways operative in N-methylpyrrole, after excitation in the near part of its ultraviolet absorption spectrum, have been investigated by the combination of time-resolved total ion yield and photoelectron spectroscopies with high-level ab initio calculations. The results collected are remarkably different from the observations made for pyrrole and other aromatic systems, whose dynamics is dictated by the presence of πσ* excitations on X-H (X: N, O, S, ...) bonds. The presence of a barrier along the C-N dissociation coordinate that can not be tunneled triggers two alternative decay mechanisms for the S1 A″ πσ* state. While at low vibrational content the C-N dissociation occurs on the surface of a lower (3)ππ* state reached after efficient intersystem crossing, at higher excitation energies, the A″ πσ* directly internally converts to the ground state through a ring-twisted S1/S0 conical intersection. The findings explain previous observations on the molecule and may be relevant for more complex systems containing similar C-N bonds, such as the DNA nucleotides. PMID:26978190
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Diane Carlson; Vigfusdottir, Thorbjorg Helga; Lee, Yoonsun
2004-01-01
This research evaluates the contributions of three dimensions of appearance culture (appearance magazine exposure, appearance conversations with friends, and peer appearance criticism) and body mass index (BMI) to internalization of appearance ideals and body image dissatisfaction. Four hundred thirty-three girls and 347 boys in Grades 7 through…
Cao, Jun; Xie, Zhi-Zhong
2016-03-01
The ab initio electronic structure calculations and CASSCF-based nonadiabatic dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the internal conversion and intersystem crossing process of both trans-acrolein and 2-cyclopentenone in the gas phase. Our calculation results show that relaxation from the Franck-Condon region to an S1 minimum is ultrafast and that the S1 state will dominantly undergo intersystem crossing to triplet states due to the existence of significant barriers to access the S1/S0 intersection points and of energetically close-lying triplet states. The S1/T2/T1 three-state intersection is observed in our dynamics simulations to play an important role in the population of the lowest triplet state, which is consistent with previous suggestions. Although the evolution into triplet states involves a similar path and gives rise to a similar triplet quantum yield for these two molecules, the intersystem crossing rate of 2-cyclopentenone is lower owing to the ring constraint that results in a smaller spin-orbital coupling in the singlet-triplet crossing region. The present theoretical study reproduces the experimental results and gives an explanation about the structural factors that govern the excited-state decay of some types of α,β-enones. PMID:26882275
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ao, Guanghong; Qian, Xuemin; Xiao, Zhengguo; Li, Zhongguo; Nie, Zhongquan; Wang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Xueru; Song, Yinglin
2015-08-01
Meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP), (meso-tetrakis(4-cyanophenyl)porphyrin [TPP(CN)4)] and (meso-tetrakis(4-methoxyphenyl)porphyrin [TPP(OMe)4]) are synthesized. The donor methoxy substitute (OMe) and acceptor cyano substitute (CN) are introduced into TPP in order to examine their influence on the photophysical properties of TPP. The nonlinear absorption properties of these three porphyrins are studied using open-aperture Z-scan and time-resolved pump-probe techniques in picosecond and nanosecond regimes, and the results are elucidated successfully by a five-level model. As compared to TPP, TPP(OMe)4 exhibits an accelerated internal conversion from S1 to S0 state (0.02 ns), and S1 to T1 state (0.03 ns). Moreover, a changeover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed in TPP(OMe)4 in the ps regime. Whereas the nonlinear absorption behavior of TPP(CN)4 is similar to that of TPP. The results imply that these two substituents, especially the OMe group, could modulate the photophysical properties of TPP, which may provide a useful option for porphyrin-related applications.
Li, Shengquan; Zhang, Kezhao; Li, Juan; Liu, Chao
2016-03-01
This paper deals with the critical issue in a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a direct-driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG): the rejection of lumped disturbance, including the system uncertainties in the internal dynamics and unknown external forces. To simultaneously track the motor speed in real time and capture the maximum power, a maximum power point tracking strategy is proposed based on active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) theory. In real application, system inertia, drive torque and some other parameters change in a wide range with the variations of disturbances and wind speeds, which substantially degrade the performance of WECS. The ADRC design must incorporate the available model information into an extended state observer (ESO) to compensate the lumped disturbance efficiently. Based on this principle, a model-compensation ADRC is proposed in this paper. Simulation study is conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed control strategy. It is shown that the effect of lumped disturbance is compensated in a more effective way compared with the traditional ADRC approach. PMID:26775089
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yin-Jung; Shih, Ko-Han
2016-05-01
Internal photoemission (IPE) across an n-type Schottky junction due to standard AM1.5G solar illumination is quantified with practical considerations for Cu, Ag, and Al under direct and fully nondirect transitions, all in the context of the constant matrix element approximation. Under direct transitions, photoemitted electrons from d bands dominate the photocurrent and exhibit a strong dependence on the barrier energy ΦB but are less sensitive to the change in the metal thickness. Photocurrent is shown to be nearly completely contributed by s-state electrons in the fully nondirect approximation that offers nearly identical results as in the direct transition for metals having a free-electron-like band structure. Compared with noble metals, Al-based IPE has the highest quantum yield up to about 5.4% at ΦB = 0.5 eV and a maximum power conversion efficiency of approximately 0.31% due mainly to its relatively uniform and wide Pexc energy spectral width. Metals (e.g., Ag) with a larger interband absorption edge are shown to outperform those with shallower d-bands (e.g., Cu and Au).
McCamant, David W.; Kukura, Philipp; Mathies, Richard A.
2005-01-01
We have developed the technique of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), which allows the rapid collection of high-resolution vibrational spectra on the femtosecond time scale. FSRS combines a sub-50 fs actinic pump pulse with a two-pulse stimulated Raman probe to obtain vibrational spectra whose frequency resolution limits are uncoupled from the time resolution. This allows the acquisition of spectra with <100 fs time resolution and <30 cm−1 frequency resolution. Additionally, FSRS is unaffected by background fluorescence, provides rapid (100 ms) acquisition times, and exhibits traditional spontaneous Raman line shapes. FSRS is used here to study the relaxation dynamics of β-carotene. Following optical excitation to S2 (1Bu+) the molecule relaxes in 160 fs to S1 (2Ag−) and then undergoes two distinct stages of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) with 200 and 450 fs time constants. These processes are attributed to rapid (200 fs) distribution of the internal conversion energy from the S1 C=C modes into a restricted bath of anharmonically coupled modes followed by complete IVR in 450 fs. FSRS is a valuable new technique for studying the vibrational structure of chemical reaction intermediates and transition states. PMID:16710440
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galeano, D. C.; Cavalcante, F. R.; Carvalho, A. B.; Hunt, J.
2014-02-01
The dose conversion coefficient (DCC) is important to quantify and assess effective doses associated with medical, professional and public exposures. The calculation of DCCs using anthropomorphic simulators and radiation transport codes is justified since in-vivo measurement of effective dose is extremely difficult and not practical for occupational dosimetry. DCCs have been published by the ICRP using simulators in a standing posture, which is not always applicable to all exposure scenarios, providing an inaccurate dose estimation. The aim of this work was to calculate DCCs for equivalent dose in terms of air kerma (H/Kair) using the Visual Monte Carlo (VMC) code and the VOXTISS8 adult male voxel simulator in sitting and standing postures. In both postures, the simulator was irradiated by a plane source of monoenergetic photons in antero-posterior (AP) geometry. The photon energy ranged from 15 keV to 2 MeV. The DCCs for both postures were compared and the DCCs for the standing simulator were higher. For certain organs, the difference of DCCs were more significant, as in gonads (48% higher), bladder (16% higher) and colon (11% higher). As these organs are positioned in the abdominal region, the posture of the anthropomorphic simulator modifies the form in which the radiation is transported and how the energy is deposited. It was also noted that the average percentage difference of conversion coefficients was 33% for the bone marrow, 11% for the skin, 13% for the bone surface and 31% for the muscle. For other organs, the percentage difference of the DCCs for both postures was not relevant (less than 5%) due to no anatomical changes in the organs of the head, chest and upper abdomen. We can conclude that is important to obtain DCCs using different postures from those present in the scientific literature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2014-11-01
It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 14th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2014, in Awaji Island, Japan. The aim of PowerMEM is to present the latest research results in the field of miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference will also- give us the opportunity to exchange informations and new ideas in the field of Power MEMS/NEMS. The current status of the field of PowerMEMS spans the full spectrum from basic research to practical applications. We will enjoy valuable discussions not only from the viewpoint of academia but from commercial and industrial perspectives. In the conference, three invited speakers lead the technical program. We received 172 abstracts and after a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 133 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organized into 16 Oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions including some late-news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are published by the Institute of Physics (IOP). We have also organized a PowerMEMS School in Kobe-Sannomiya contiguous to the main conference. This two-day school will cover various topics of energy harvesting. World leading experts will give invited lectures on their main topics. This is a new experiment to broaden the technology remit of our conference by organizing mini symposiums that aim to gather the latest research on the following topics by the organizers: Microscale Combustion, Wideband Vibration Energy Harvesting, RF Energy Transfer and Industrial Application. We hope this, and other activities will make PowerMEMS2014 a memorable success. One of the important programs in an international conference is the social program, and we prepare the PowerMEMS2014 banquet in the banquet room at the Westin Awaji Island Hotel. This will provide an opportunity to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Shuji; Toriyama, Toshiyuki
2005-09-01
This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the Fourth International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2004). The workshop was held in Kyoto, Japan, on 28-30 November 2004, by The Ritsumeikan Research Institute of Micro System Technology in cooperation with The Global Emerging Technology Institute, The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan, The Sensors and Micromachines Society, The Micromachine Center and The Kyoto Nanotech Cluster. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of power MEMS was proposed in the late 1990s by Epstein's group at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where they continue to study MEMS-based gas turbine generators. Since then, the research and development of power MEMS have been promoted by the need for compact power sources with high energy and power density. Since its inception, power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. At the last workshop, various devices and systems, such as portable fuel cells and their peripherals, micro and small turbo machinery, energy harvesting microdevices, and microthrusters, were presented. Their power levels vary from ten nanowatts to hundreds of watts, spanning ten orders of magnitude. The first PowerMEMS workshop was held in 2000 in Sendai, Japan, and consisted of only seven invited presentations. The workshop has grown since then, and in 2004 there were 5 invited, 20 oral and 29 poster presentations. From the 54 papers in the proceedings, 12 papers have been selected for this special issue. I would like to express my appreciation to the members of the Organizing Committee and Technical Program Committee. This special issue was
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve
2013-12-01
It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitcheson, Paul; Beeby, Steve
2013-12-01
It is a pleasure to welcome you to The Royal Society in London and the 13th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Technology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications, or PowerMEMS 2013. The objective of PowerMEMS 2013 is to catalyse innovation in miniature, micro- and nano-scale technologies for power generation and energy conversion. The conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, and the development of new ideas in the Power MEMS/NEMS field as well as at the meso-scale. It will allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering. The technical program is led by four invited speakers covering inductive power transfer, chip scale power sources, thermal energy harvesting and implantable biofuel cells. We received 177 abstracts and following a careful reviewing process by the Technical Program Committee a total of 137 papers were selected for presentation. These have been organised into 16 oral sessions in two parallel streams and two poster sessions that have been augmented by 10 late news papers. The oral and regular poster papers are, for the first time, being published by the Institute of Physics. We have made every effort to make PowerMEMS 2013 the busiest yet and have included for the first time the PowerMEMS School. This two-day school held at Imperial College London covered a wide range of power-MEMS topics including technologies for power generation, power transmission, energy storage, power electronics interfaces and metrology. Registrations for the School exceeded our expectations and it was full by early November. We hope this, and other activities such as the Discussion Panel and the inclusion of late news papers, will make PowerMEMS 2013 a memorable success. We have also reached out to new communities, such as those working in wireless power transfer and RF harvesting to broaden the technology remit of
McGuire, Lynne I; Poleggi, Anna; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Suardi, Silvia; Grznarova, Katarina; Shi, Song; de Vil, Bart; Sarros, Shannon; Satoh, Katsuya; Cheng, Keding; Cramm, Maria; Fairfoul, Graham; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Cras, Patrick; Equestre, Michele; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Knox, David; Collins, Steven; Haïk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Green, Alison
2016-07-01
Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) has been proposed as a sensitive diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; however, before this assay can be introduced into clinical practice, its reliability and reproducibility need to be demonstrated. Two international ring trials were undertaken in which a set of 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analyzed by a total of 11 different centers using a range of recombinant prion protein substrates and instrumentation. The results show almost complete concordance between the centers and demonstrate that RT-QuIC is a suitably reliable and robust technique for clinical practice. Ann Neurol 2016;80:160-165. PMID:27130376
McGuire, Lynne I.; Poleggi, Anna; Poggiolini, Ilaria; Suardi, Silvia; Grznarova, Katarina; Shi, Song; de Vil, Bart; Sarros, Shannon; Satoh, Katsuya; Cheng, Keding; Cramm, Maria; Fairfoul, Graham; Schmitz, Matthias; Zerr, Inga; Cras, Patrick; Equestre, Michele; Tagliavini, Fabrizio; Atarashi, Ryuichiro; Knox, David; Collins, Steven; Haïk, Stéphane; Parchi, Piero; Pocchiari, Maurizio
2016-01-01
Real‐time quaking‐induced conversion (RT‐QuIC) has been proposed as a sensitive diagnostic test for sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease; however, before this assay can be introduced into clinical practice, its reliability and reproducibility need to be demonstrated. Two international ring trials were undertaken in which a set of 25 cerebrospinal fluid samples were analyzed by a total of 11 different centers using a range of recombinant prion protein substrates and instrumentation. The results show almost complete concordance between the centers and demonstrate that RT‐QuIC is a suitably reliable and robust technique for clinical practice. Ann Neurol 2016;80:160–165 PMID:27130376
Anderson, John L
2011-01-01
Om July 18, 2010, the eve of the 21st International Congress on the Education of the Deaf (ICED 2010), the International Leaders Summit was held at the Center for Dialogue at Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. A total of 120 world leaders from 32 countries participated. Presenters, including students, led the conversation on current perspectives, teacher preparation, worldwide resources, and major issues affecting the education of d/Deaf and hard of hearing infants, children, and youth. Summit participants recognized that advances in detection, early intervention, and technology present challenges in meeting the needs of a student population more diverse than at any other stage in history. While it was acknowledged that needs differ in various parts of the world, there was a consensus that change is required to prepare students to handle challenges in the 21st century. PMID:21949967
Fujimura, Miki; Tominaga, Teiji
2015-01-01
Moyamoya disease is a chronic cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, which is characterized by bilateral steno-occlusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. Moyamoya disease is known to have unique and dynamic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki's angiographic staging established in 1969. Insufficiency of this 'IC-EC conversion system' may result in cerebral ischemia, as well as in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral vascular network, both of which represent the clinical presentation of moyamoya disease. Therefore, surgical revascularization by extracranial-intracranial bypass is the preferred procedure for moyamoya disease to complement 'IC-EC conversion' and thus to avoid cerebral infarction and/or intracranial hemorrhage. Long-term outcome of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease is favorable, but rapid increase in cerebral blood flow on the affected hemisphere could temporarily cause unfavorable phenomenon such as cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. We would review the current status of revascularization surgery for moyamoya disease based on its basic pathology, and sought to discuss the significance of measuring cerebral blood flow in the acute stage and intensive perioperative management. PMID:25971859
Lee, Jae Hoon; Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo
2012-09-01
The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral thigh (ALT)-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with plating and bone grafting in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures. A total of 21 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 18 months and the mean age was 46.7 years. There were 18 men and three women. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 11.6 days. The mean size of flaps used was 15.3 × 8.2 cm. The mean size of bone defects was 2.26 cm. Segmental bone defects were observed in 5 five cases, for which bone transport or vascularized fibular graft were performed. When flaps were successful and the fracture sites did not have any evidence of infection, internal fixation with plates and bone grafting were performed. Flaps survived in 20 cases. In the 20 cases with successful flaps, two cases developed osteomyelitis, but the 20 cases achieved solid bone union at a mean of 8.6 months after the injury, salvaging the lower extremity in 100% of the cases. At the last follow-up, 9 nine cases were measured excellent or good; 6, fair; and 6, poor in the functional assessment based on the method developed by Puno et al. ALT- free flaps to cover soft tissue defects in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures are considered as useful option for the treatment of composite defects. In addition, conversion to internal fixation and bone grafting can be an alternative method in order to reduce the risk of complications and inconvenience of external fixators. PMID:22434519
Law, Ryan; Grimm, Ian S; Stavas, Joseph M; Baron, Todd H
2016-03-01
Patients with acute cholecystitis sometimes require placement of percutaneous cholecystostomy catheters, either as a bridge to surgery or as primary therapy. In patients who cannot undergo surgery, subsequent removal of the catheter can lead to recurrence of cholecystitis, whereas leaving the drain in place can cause adverse events. We investigated internalization of percutaneous cholecystostomy drainage catheters, using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided placement of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) as an alternative treatment strategy. Seven patients (median age, 57 years; 6 men) underwent EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy for internalization of gallbladder drainage with EUS-guided placement of a 10- or 15-mm LAMS. All had initially been treated with placement of a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter for cholecystitis and were later deemed unfit for cholecystectomy. Technical success was achieved in all patients in 1 endoscopic session, with subsequent removal of all percutaneous drains. Two patients required placement of self-expandable metal stents within the LAMS to successfully bridge the gallbladder and gastrointestinal lumen. No adverse events occurred after a median follow-up of 2.5 months. EUS-guided cholecystoenterostomy using a LAMS is therefore a viable option for internal gallbladder drainage in patients who have a percutaneous cholecystostomy catheter and are poor candidates for cholecystectomy. PMID:26528802
Solvent-mediated internal conversion in diphenoxyethane-(H{sub 2}O){sub n}clusters, n = 2-4
Walsh, Patrick S.; Buchanan, Evan G.; Gord, Joseph R.; Zwier, Timothy S.
2015-04-21
1,2-diphenoxyethane (DPOE) is a flexible bichromophore whose excited states come in close-lying pairs whose splitting and vibronic coupling can be modulated by solvent. Building on the ground state infrared spectroscopy of DPOE-(H{sub 2}O){sub n} clusters with n = 2-4 from the adjoining paper [Walsh et al., J. Chem. Phys. 142, 154303 (2015)], the present work focuses on the vibronic and excited state infrared spectroscopies of the clusters. The type and degree of asymmetry of the water cluster binding to DPOE is reflected in the variation in the magnitude of the S{sub 1}/S{sub 2} splitting with cluster size. Excited state resonant ion-dip infrared spectroscopy was performed at the electronic origins of the first two excited states in order to explore how the water clusters’ OH stretch spectra report on the nature of the two excited states, and the interaction of the S{sub 2} state with nearby S{sub 1} vibronic levels mediated by the water clusters. The data set, when taken as a whole, provides a state-to-state view of internal conversion and the role of solvent in mediating conversion of electronic excitation between two chromophores, providing a molecular-scale view of Kasha’s rule.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kakitani, Yoshinori; Miki, Takeshi; Koyama, Yasushi; Nagae, Hiroyoshi; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Kanematsu, Yasuo
2009-07-01
The time constants of the vibrational relaxation, υ = 2 → υ = 1 and υ = 1 → υ = 0, in the 1Bu+ manifold and those of internal conversion from the 1Bu+(0) level, which is isoenergetic (so-called 'diabatic') with the 1Bu- vibronic levels in neurosporene and spheroidene and with the 3Ag- vibronic levels in lycopene and anhydrorhodovibrin, were determined by Kerr-gate fluorescence spectroscopy. The time constants of the vibrational relaxation were in the ˜1:2 ratio, and those of internal conversion agreed with the lifetimes of the diabatic counterparts, i.e., the 1Bu- and 3Ag- electronic states, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livermore, C.; Velásquez-García, L. F.
2015-12-01
Greetings, and welcome to Boston, MA and PowerMEMS 2015 - the 15th International Conference on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications! The objective of PowerMEMS 2015 is to catalyze innovation in micro- and nano-scale technologies for the energy domain. The scope of the meeting ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of Power MEMS range from the harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning of energy, to integrated systems that manage these processes, to actuation, pumping, and propulsion. Our Conference aims to stimulate the exchange of insights and information, as well as the development of new ideas, in the Power MEMS field. Our goal is to allow the attendees to interact and network within our multidisciplinary community that includes professionals from many branches of science and engineering, as well as energy, policy, and entrepreneurial specialists interested in the commercialization of Power MEMS technologies. Since the first PowerMEMS in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the Conference has grown in size, reputation, impact, and technical breadth. This continuing growth is evident in this year's technical program, which includes an increasing number of papers on nanomaterials, additive manufacturing for energy systems, actuators, energy storage, harvesting strategies and integrated energy harvesting systems, for example. This year's technical program is highlighted by six plenary talks from prominent experts on piezoelectrics, robotic insects, thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, nanocomposite cathodes, and thermal energy conversion systems. The contributed program received a large number of abstract submissions this year, 169 in total. After careful review by the 34-member Technical Program Committee, a total of 135 papers were selected for presentation. The 60 contributed oral presentations are arranged in two parallel sessions. The 75 posters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Fujii, Ritsuko; Koyama, Yasushi
2003-07-01
Subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectra were recorded in the visible region for a set of photosynthetic carotenoids having different numbers of conjugated double bonds ( n), which include neurosporene ( n=9), spheroidene ( n=10), lycopene ( n=11), anhydrorhodovibrin ( n=12) and spirilloxanthin ( n=13). Singular-value decomposition and global fitting of the spectral-data matrices lead us to a branched relaxation scheme including both (1) the singlet internal conversion in the sequence of 1 1B u+ → 1 1B u- → 2 1A g- → 1 1A g-(ground), and (2) the singlet-to-triplet conversion of 1 1B u- → 1 3A g followed by triplet internal conversion of 1 3A g → 1 3B u.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanaka, Shuji
2009-09-01
This special issue of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from The 8th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2008) with the 2nd Symposium on Micro Environmental Machine Systems (μMEMS 2008). The workshop was held in Sendai, Japan on 9-12 November 2008 by Tohoku University. This is the second time that the PowerMEMS workshop has been held in Sendai, following the first workshop in 2000. Power MEMS is one of the newest categories of MEMS, which encompasses microdevices and microsystems for power generation, energy conversion and propulsion. The first concept of Power MEMS was born in the late 1990's from a MEMS-based gas turbine project at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After that, the research and development of Power MEMS have been promoted by the strong need for compact power sources with high energy and/or power density. Since its inception, Power MEMS has expanded to include not only various MEMS-based power generators but also small energy machines and microdevices for macro power generators. Previously, the main topics of the PowerMEMS workshop were miniaturized gas turbines and micro fuel cells, but recently, energy harvesting has been the hottest topic. In 2008, energy harvesting had a 41% share in the 118 accepted regular papers. This special issue includes 19 papers on various topics. Finally, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, the Local Organizing Committee and financial supporters. This special issue was edited in collaboration with the staff of IOP Publishing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Young-Ho
2012-09-01
This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 11th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2011), held at Sejong Hotel in Seoul, Korea during 15-18 November 2011. Since the first PowerMEMS workshop held in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the workshop has developed as the premier forum for reporting research results in micro and nanotechnology for power generation, energy conversion, harvesting and processing applications, including in-depth technical issues on nanostructures and materials for small-scale high-density energy and thermal management. Potential PowerMEMS applications cover not only portable power devices for consumer electronics and remote sensors, but also micro engines, impulsive thrusters and fuel cells for systems ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale. The 2011 technical program consists of 1 plenary talk, 4 invited talks and 118 contributed presentations. The 48 oral and 70 poster presentations, selected by 27 Technical Program Committee Members from 131 submitted abstracts, have stimulated lively discussion maximizing the interaction between participants. Among them, this special section includes 9 papers covering micro-scale power generators, energy converters, harvesters, thrusters and thermal coolers. Finally, we are grateful to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, and the Local Organizing Committee for their efforts and contributions to PowerMEMS 2011. We also thank the two companies Samsung Electro-Mechanics and LG Elite for technical tour arrangements. Special thanks go to Dr Ian Forbes, the editorial staff of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, as well as to the staff of IOP Publishing for making this special section possible.
Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Fara
2012-01-01
This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…
Yasin, Muhammad; Park, Shinyoung; Jeong, Yeseul; Lee, Eun Yeol; Lee, Jinwon; Chang, In Seop
2014-10-01
This study proposed a submerged hollow fibre membrane bioreactor (HFMBR) system capable of achieving high carbon monoxide (CO) mass transfer for applications in microbial synthesis gas conversion systems. Hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fibres were used to fabricate a membrane module, which was used for pressurising CO in water phase. Pressure through the hollow fibre lumen (P) and membrane surface area per unit working volume of the liquid (A(S)/V(L)) were used as controllable parameters to determine gas-liquid volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) values. We found a k(L)a of 135.72 h(-1) when P was 93.76 kPa and AS/VL was fixed at 27.5m(-1). A higher k(L)a of 155.16 h(-1) was achieved by increasing AS/VL to 62.5m(-1) at a lower P of 37.23 kPa. Practicality of HFMBR to support microbial growth and organic product formation was assessed by CO/CO2 fermentation using Eubacterium limosum KIST612. PMID:25105269
Kobayashi, Masanao; Ootsuka, Tomoko; Suzuki, Syoichi
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to reappraise the accuracy of a conversion coefficient (k) reported by International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 102 Table A.2. The effective doses of the routine head computed tomography (CT), the routine chest CT, the perfusion CT, and the coronary CT were evaluated using the conversion coefficient (adult head: 0.021 mSv·mGy⁻¹·cm⁻¹, adult chest: 0.014 mSv·mGy⁻¹·cm⁻¹). The dose length product (DLP) used the value displayed on the console on each scanning condition. The effective doses were evaluated using a human body type phantom (Alderson Rando phantom) and thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) elements for comparison with the converted value. This paper reported that the effective doses evaluated from conversion coefficient became different by 0.3 mSv (17%) compared with measurements, the effective dose computed with the conversion coefficient of the adult chest may be underestimated by 45%, and the bolus-tracking which scans the narrow beams should not use a conversion coefficient. PMID:23358334
Felder, W.
1980-09-01
Reliable kinetic data on isolated elementary combustion reactions spanning a broad temperature range are required for modeling and scaling studies aimed at improving the performance of, and reducing the pollutant formation from, fossil-fuel burning devices. Such data are generally not available. In the present work a new technique, High Temperature Photochemistry (HTP), has been developed to provide such data. It combines the technology of the high-temperature, fast-flow reactors (HTFFR) we developed to study kinetics of metal atom/oxide reactions in the 300 to 1900 K range with the methodology of the flash photolysis technique which, although used widely for study of such combustion reactions, has previously been limited to studies at or near room temperature. This report discusses aspects of the complete HTP study on the benchmark reaction, O + CH/sub 4/ ..-->../sup (1)/ OH + CH/sub 3/, including new data in the 1500 to 1700 K range obtained in the present contract year. The data which extend from 400 to 1700 K overlap the previous low temperature (250 to 950 K) and high temperature (1200 to 2600 K) measurements of k/sub 1/(T) and show a curved Arrhenius plot, in excellent agreement with the more reliable work of others and with recent theoretical work. The HTP data can be fit by an empirical rate coefficient expression which is given. The HTP apparatus has been modified to conduct measurements on the reaction OH + C/sub 6/H/sub 6/ and these experiments have been initiated.
Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almehrizi, Rashid S.
2013-01-01
The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…
Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs
Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou
2013-10-01
This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.
Recirculation in multiple wave conversions
Kaufman, A. N.; Brizard, A.J.; Kaufman, A.N.; Tracy, E.R.
2008-07-30
A one-dimensional multiple wave-conversion model is constructed that allows energy recirculation in ray phase space. Using a modular eikonal approach, the connection coefficients for this model are calculated by ray phase-space methods. Analytical results (confirmed numerically) show that all connection coefficients exhibit interference effects that depend on an interference phase, calculated from the coupling constants and the area enclosed by the intersecting rays. This conceptual model, which focuses on the topology of intersecting rays in phase space, is used to investigate how mode conversion between primary and secondary waves is modified by the presence of a tertiary wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghodssi, Reza; Livermore, Carol; Arnold, David
2010-10-01
This special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering presents papers selected from the 9th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2009), which was held in Washington DC, USA from 1-4 December 2009. Since it was first held in Sendai, Japan in 2000, the PowerMEMS workshop has focused on small-scale systems that process, convert, or generate macroscopically significant amounts of power, typically with high power density or high energy density. In the workshop's early years, much of the research presented was on small-scale fueled systems, such as micro heat engines and micro fuel cells. The past nine years have seen a dramatic expansion in the range of technologies that are brought to bear on the challenge of high-power, small-scale systems, as well as an increase in the applications for such technologies. At this year's workshop, 158 contributed papers were presented, along with invited and plenary presentations. The papers focused on applications from micro heat engines and fuel cells, to energy harvesting and its enabling electronics, to thermal management and propulsion. Also presented were the technologies that enable these applications, such as the structuring of microscale, nanoscale and biological systems for power applications, as well as combustion and catalysis at small scales. This special section includes a selection of 12 expanded papers representing energy harvesting, chemical and fueled systems, and elastic energy storage at small scales. We would like to express our appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee, the Local Organizing Committee, and to the workshop's financial supporters. We are grateful to the referees for their contributions to the review process. Finally, we would like to thank Dr Ian Forbes, the editorial staff of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, and the staff
Coefficients for Interrater Agreement.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zegers, Frits E.
1991-01-01
The degree of agreement between two raters rating several objects for a single characteristic can be expressed through an association coefficient, such as the Pearson product-moment correlation. How to select an appropriate association coefficient, and the desirable properties and uses of a class of such coefficients--the Euclidean…
Atmospheric Science Data Center
2013-03-12
... 1,000,000 1,000,000 micrometers nano- 1,000,000,000 1,000,000,000 nanometers ... conversions, see the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publications: NIST Guide to SI Units: ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hebling, C.; Woias, P.
2008-10-01
This special issue of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM) contains a selection of papers from the 7th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnologies for Power Generation and Energy Conversion (PowerMEMS 2007). The workshop was held in Freiburg, Germany on 27-29 November 2007 under the joint organization of the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (FhG-ISE), Freiburg and the Department of Microsystems Engineering (IMTEK) of the Albert-Ludwig-University of Freiburg. PowerMEMS 2007 continues a series of workshops initiated in 2000 in Japan to create an annual discussion forum in the emerging field of micro energy technology. With a single exception in 2001, the workshop has continued as an annual meeting ever since, with a continuous increase in the number of presentations and participants. The program of PowerMEMS 2007 was composed of 2 invited talks, 25 oral talks and 61 poster presentations. From these 88 presentations 16 have been selected for this special issue. It was at the end of 1959 when the Caltech physicist Richard Feynman gave his famous lecture entitled 'There Is Plenty of Room at the Bottom' in which he discussed the possibilities of miniaturization for both storage capacity ('Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin') as well as micro machining ('rearranging the atoms'), although there were absolutely no technological possibilities in sight for an adequate realization of such ideas. Now, nearly 50 years later, we not only have incredible knowledge about the nanoworld, but even more we are now able to generate microelectromechanical devices which, next to their electronic properties, can integrate physical and analytical functions. Today, Feynman might easily have added a second lecture entitled 'There is Plenty of Energy at the Bottom'. Micro energy technology has seen a tremendous rise in MEMS and material sciences and is regarded today as one of their hot topics. Also, there are more and more companies in this
New calculations of neutron kerma coefficients and dose equivalent.
Liu, Zhenzhou; Chen, Jinxiang
2008-06-01
For neutron energies ranging from 1 keV to 20 MeV, the kerma coefficients for elements H, C, N, O, light water, and ICRU tissue were deduced respectively from microscopic cross sections and Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP code). The results are consistent within admitted uncertainties with values evaluated by an international group (Chadwick et al 1999 Med. Phys. 26 974-91). The ambient dose equivalent generated in the ISO-recommended neutron field for an Am-Be neutron source (ISO 8529-1: 2001(E)) was obtained from the kerma coefficients and Monte Carlo calculation. In addition, it was calculated directly by multiplying the neutron fluence by the fluence-to-ambient dose conversion coefficients recommended by ICRP (ICRP 1996 ICRP Publication 74 (Oxford: Pergamon)). The two results agree well with each other. The main feature of this work is our Monte Carlo simulation design and the treatments differing from the work of others in the calculation of neutron energy transfer in non-elastic processes. PMID:18495982
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xia, Jiang
1998-01-01
Describes an activity for use in the conversational English-as-a-foreign-language classroom. The activity involves having each student say one or two sentences that continues a story being made up as the activity goes along. Students were positive about the activity, because saying only one or two sentences helped them not to feel pressured or…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave
2014-05-01
Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave
2015-05-01
Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".
Coefficients of Effective Length.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Roger H.
1981-01-01
Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)
Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reinhardt, Brian M.
Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…
My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronbach, Lee J.; Shavelson, Richard J.
2004-01-01
In 1997, noting that the 50th anniversary of the publication of "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests" was fast approaching, Lee Cronbach planned what have become the notes published here. His aim was to point out the ways in which his views on coefficient alpha had evolved, doubting now that the coefficient was the best way of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vullers, Ruud
2011-10-01
This special section of Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering features papers selected from the 10th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications (PowerMEMS 2010). The workshop was organized in Leuven, Belgium from 30 November to 3 December 2010 by Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the imec/Holst Centre. This was a special PowerMEMS Workshop, for several reasons. First of all, we celebrated the 10th anniversary of the workshop: the first PowerMEMS meeting was organized in Sendai, Japan in 2000. None of the organizers or participants of this first meeting could have predicted the impact of the workshop over the next decade. The second reason was that, for the first time, the conference organization spanned two countries: Belgium and the Netherlands. Thanks to the advances in information technology, teams from Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium) and the imec/Holst Centre in Eindhoven (the Netherlands) have been able to work together seamlessly as one team. The objective of the PowerMEMS Workshop is to stimulate innovation in micro and nanotechnology for power generation and energy conversion applications. Its scope ranges from integrated microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for power generation, dissipation, harvesting, and management, to novel nanostructures and materials for energy-related applications. True to the objective of the PowerMEMSWorkshop, the 2010 technical program covered a broad range of energy related research, ranging from the nanometer to the millimeter scale, discussed in 5 invited and 52 oral presentations, and 112 posters. This special section includes 14 papers covering vibration energy harvesters, thermal applications and micro power systems. Finally, we wish to express sincere appreciation to the members of the International Steering Committee, the Technical Program Committee and last but not least the Local Organizing Committee. This special issue was edited in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naqvi, K. Razi; Jávorfi, Tamás; Melø, T. B.; Garab, Gyözö
1998-12-01
Wavelength-selective photo-excitation of samples containing a detergent and LHCII (the main light-harvesting complex pertaining to photosystem II of green plants) is used for recording time-resolved triplet-minus-singlet (TmS) difference spectra, with a view to probing interactions between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b), and between Chl a and lutein (Lut). Once the detergent concentration ( CD) exceeds a threshold, C©, the TmS spectrum becomes sensitive to λ⊗, the wavelength of excitation, and to t, the delay between excitation and observation. Each increment in CD brings about a diminution in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer (triplet-triplet transfer from Chl a to Lut) and a rise in both the triplet formation yield and the fluorescence yield of Chl a. What is more, b*→ a* transfer (singlet-singlet transfer from Chl b to Chl a) slackens to such an extent that Chl b*→Chl b† intersystem crossing, negligible when CD is below C©, begins to vie with transfer, for the deactivation of Chl b* (in the foregoing an asterisk/dagger denotes singlet/triplet excitation). The reduction in the efficiencies of the two transfers is easily understood by: (i) invoking the Kühlbrandt-Wang-Fujiyoshi model of LHCII, which posits each Chl b in contact with a Chl a and each Chl a in contact with a Lut, and (ii) assuming that the detergent severs contact between adjacent chromophores. That a growth in the triplet yield of Chl a* accompanies the detergent-induced decrease in the efficiency of a†→ x† transfer becomes intelligible if one assumes, further, that internal conversion in Chla* is faster than that in overlineChla * , where under or over lining betokens the presence or absence of a carotenoid neighbour. When CD is close to C©, most Chl a molecules are adjacent to a Lut, internal conversion dominates, and the overall triplet yield is low. As CD is gradually raised the Chla → overlineChla transformation sets in, causing concomitant drops in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Springborg, Michael; Kirtman, Bernard
2013-03-01
Piezoelectricity results from a coupling between responses to mechanical and electric perturbations and leads to changes in the polarization due to strain or stress or, alternatively, the occurrence of strain as a function of an applied external, electrostatic field (i.e., converse piezoelectricity). Theoretical studies of those properties for extended systems require accordingly that their dipole moment or polarization can be calculated. However, whereas the definition of the operator for the dipole moment for any finite system is trivial, it is only within the last 2 decades that the expressions for the equivalent operator in the independent-particle approximation for the infinite and periodic system have been presented. Here, we demonstrate that the so called branch dependence of the polarization for the infinite, periodic system is related to physical observables in contrast to what often is assumed. This is related to the finding that converse piezoelectric properties depend both on the surfaces of the samples of interest even for samples with size well above the thermodynamic limit. However, we shall demonstrate that these properties can be calculated without explicitly taking the surfaces into account. Both the foundations and results for real system shall be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Slapac, Alina; Kim, Sujin
2014-01-01
Building a culturally responsive learning community begins with global awareness and cultural responsiveness. Preservice and PreK-12 practicing teachers can use the interactive questions showcased here to enhance their intercultural competence by drawing on the knowledge, skills, and experiences of international faculty and colleagues.
Woodall, J.M.
1982-02-16
Energy conversion capable of receiving input energy in thermal or radiant form at a variable rate and releasing energy in thermal, radiant or electrical form independent of rate is accomplished by providing a buffer member of a material that has three criteria: a melting temperature above 1300/sup degree/ K, a thermal conductance greater than 0.1 in calories per square centimeter per centimeter per degree per second and a latent heat of fusion of the order of 1 kilocalorie per mole. The converter can absorb energy of multiple types, store it and then release it in a form compatible with the prospective use. Sunlight of daylight duration and varying intensity is converted to steady 24 hour a day electrical output.
Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients
Boonserm, Petarpa; Visser, Matt
2008-11-15
While over the last century or more considerable effort has been put into the problem of finding approximate solutions for wave equations in general, and quantum mechanical problems in particular, it appears that as yet relatively little work seems to have been put into the complementary problem of establishing rigourous bounds on the exact solutions. We have in mind either bounds on parametric amplification and the related quantum phenomenon of particle production (as encoded in the Bogoliubov coefficients), or bounds on transmission and reflection coefficients. Modifying and streamlining an approach developed by one of the present authors [M. Visser, Phys. Rev. A 59 (1999) 427-438, (arXiv:quant-ph/9901030)], we investigate this question by developing a formal but exact solution for the appropriate second-order linear ODE in terms of a time-ordered exponential of 2x2 matrices, then relating the Bogoliubov coefficients to certain invariants of this matrix. By bounding the matrix in an appropriate manner, we can thereby bound the Bogoliubov coefficients.
Effectiveness Factors and Conversion in a Biocatalytic Membrane Reactor
Godongwana, Buntu
2016-01-01
Analytical expressions of the effectiveness factor of a biocatalytic membrane reactor, and its asymptote as the Thiele modulus becomes large, are presented. The evaluation of the effectiveness factor is based on the solution of the governing equations for solute transport in the two regions of the reactor, i.e. the lumen and the matrix (with the biofilm immobilized in the matrix). The lumen solution accounts for both axial diffusion and radial convective flow, while the matrix solution is based on Robin-type boundary conditions. The effectiveness factor is shown to be a function of the Thiele modulus, the partition coefficient, the Sherwood number, the Peclet number, and membrane thickness. Three regions of Thiele moduli are defined in the effectiveness factor graphs. These correspond with reaction rate limited, internal-diffusion limited, and external mass transfer limited solute transport. Radial convective flows were shown to only improve the effectiveness factor in the region of internal diffusion limitation. The assumption of first order kinetics is shown to be applicable only in the Thiele modulus regions of internal and external mass transfer limitation. An iteration scheme is also presented for estimating the effectiveness factor when the solute fractional conversion is known. The model is validated with experimental data from a membrane gradostat reactor immobilised with Phanerochaete chrysosporium for the production of lignin and manganese peroxidases. The developed model and experimental data allow for the determination of the Thiele modulus at which the effectiveness factor and fractional conversion are optimal. PMID:27104954
"The Clearing": Conversations at the Wabash Center
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pence, Nadine S.
2007-01-01
The study of religion seeks to understand life and life practices, which means that it is internally suited to dynamic teaching-learning methods such as exploration, conversation, and imaginative construction. Wabash Center hospitality enables reflective conversations about the nature of our craft, the shape of our vocation, and the direction of…
How Metric Conversion Affects Administrative Practices
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Straka, M. K.
1977-01-01
Changes necessary in the administrative activities of educational institutions following conversion to the metric system are outlined for secretarial practices, purchasing, internal reporting and forms, computer operations, travel, publications, buildings and plant, new buildings, sport facilities, and health services. (MF)
Cupola Corner 1 - Conversation With Chris Ferguson
Atlantis Commander Chris Ferguson joined Expedition 28 Flight Engineer Ron Garan in the International Space Station cupola for some conversation about the space shuttle, and how the astronauts can ...
Optical Control of Internal Conversion in Pyrazine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barry, Grant; Singha, Sima; Hu, Zhan; Seideman, Tamar; Gordon, Robert
2014-03-01
We apply quantum control schemes previously reserved for atoms and small molecules to more complex polyatomic molecules. Pyrazine was chosen as a model polyatomic molecule for its well-studied conical intersection seam between the S1 and S2 potential energy surfaces (PESs). Using shaped ultraviolet femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate optical control of the excited state dynamics of this molecule under collisionless conditions. This was achieved in a pump-probe experiment by employing a genetic algorithm programmed to suppress ionization of the pyrazine molecules at a preselected time. Our findings indicate that the optimized pulses localize the wave packet for times up to 1.5 ps at a location on the coupled S1/S2 PESs where ionization is energetically forbidden. Our approach is general and does not require knowledge of the molecular Hamiltonian. Funding provided by National Science Foundation grant no. CHE-0848198.
Document Conversion Methodology.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bovee, Donna
1990-01-01
Discusses digital imaging technology and examines document database conversion considerations. Two types of document imaging systems are described: (1) a work in process system, and (2) a storage and retrieval system. Conversion methodology is outlined, and a document conversion scenario is presented as a practical guide to conversion. (LRW)
Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku
This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Mark G.; Lang, Jeffrey
2013-11-01
Welcome to this special section of the Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (JMM). This section, co-edited by myself and by Professor Jeffrey Lang of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, contains expanded versions of selected papers presented at the Power MEMS meeting held in Atlanta, GA, USA, in December of 2012. Professor Lang and I had the privilege of co-chairing Power MEMS 2012, the 12th International Workshop on Micro and Nanotechnology for Power Generation and Energy Conversion Applications. The scope of the PowerMEMS series of workshops ranges from basic principles, to materials and fabrication, to devices and systems, to applications. The many applications of power MEMS (microelectromehcanical systems) range from MEMS-enabled energy harvesting, storage, conversion and conditioning, to integrated systems that manage these processes. Why is the power MEMS field growing in importance? Smaller-scale power and power supplies (microwatts to tens of watts) are gaining in prominence due to many factors, including the ubiquity of low power portable electronic equipment and the proliferation of wireless sensor nodes that require extraction of energy from their embedding environment in order to function. MEMS manufacturing methods can be utilized to improve the performance of traditional power supply elements, such as allowing batteries to charge faster or shrinking the physical size of passive elements in small-scale power supplies. MEMS technologies can be used to fabricate energy harvesters that extract energy from an embedding environment to power wireless sensor nodes, in-body medical implants and other devices, in which the harvesters are on the small scales that are appropriately matched to the overall size of these microsystems. MEMS can enable the manufacturing of energy storage elements from nontraditional materials by bringing appropriate structure and surface morphology to these materials as well as fabricating the electrical interfaces
26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies....
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, M. V.; Solis, N. W.; Peretyagin, P. Yu.; Okun'kova, A. A.; Torrecillas, R.
2016-04-01
Using quantum and semiclassical approaches, the energy excitation threshold for induced Raman scattering is estimated and a relationship between the excitation threshold and the concentration of optically active molecules in a bilayer microresonator is established. Estimates are made during the formation of specially configured optical fields: internal and external photonic nanojets. Based on the amount of stored energy per mode and the value of the threshold intensity, an additional generalized selection rule for whispering gallery modes is suggested. It is shown that the bilayer microresonator can focus incident radiation (laser pumping) into a submicron focal volume at a low threshold intensity.
Pashto Conversation Manual and Pashto Conversation Tapescript.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tegey, Habibullah; Robson, Barbara
This conversation manual and tapescript are part of a set of materials that have been developed to teach oral and written Afghan Pashto to English speakers. In addition to the conversation manual and tapescript, the set consists of a beginning textbook, an intermediate textbook, a reader, and a set of taped lessons that correlate with the…
Conversion electron study of 110Cd: Evidence of new E0 branches
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jigmeddorj, B.; Garrett, P. E.; Diaz Varela, A.; Ball, G. C.; Bangay, J. C.; Cross, D. S.; Demand, G. A.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Green, K. L.; Hackman, G.; Kulp, W. D.; Leach, K. G.; Orce, J. N.; Rand, E. T.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Svensson, C. E.; Triambak, S.; Wong, J.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.
2016-02-01
Excited states of 110Cd were studied with conversion electron spectroscopy following the β+/EC decay of 110In. Internal conversion coefficients from K-shell electrons are extracted from γ- e- coincidences and compared with expected values for E1, M1, and E2 transitions, allowing the assignment of the transition multipolarities. The αK values for transitions connecting the 4+ and 6+ members of the deformed intruder band and the ground-state band show evidence for E0 components. The extracted ρ2(E0)\\cdot 103 value for the 4+3→ 4+1 708 keV transition is determined to be 106^{+98}_{-91}.
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.
Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.
2011-01-01
Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…
Thermal Energy Conversion Branch
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.
2004-01-01
The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.
Biotechnology of biomass conversion
Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.R.
1990-01-01
This book covers: An introduction to biomass crops; The microbiology of fermentation processes; The production of ethanol from biomass crops, such as sugar cane and rubbers; The energy of biomass conversion; and The economics of biomass conversion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Kakitani, Yoshinori; Tamura, Hiroshi; Koyama, Yasushi
2006-09-01
Key Raman lines ascribable to the 1Bu+, 3Ag-, 1Bu- and 2Ag- states were identified in the subpicosecond time-resolved Raman spectra of spheroidene and lycopene having 10 and 11 conjugated double bonds, respectively. The sequential rise-and-decay of the key Raman lines showed the internal conversion processes of 1Bu+→3Ag-→1Bu-→2Ag-→1Ag- (ground). The time constant in each step of internal conversion reflects the energy gap between the relevant states that had been determined by measurement of resonance - Raman excitation profiles [K. Furuichi, T. Sashima, Y. Koyama, Chem. Phys. Lett. 356 (2002) 547].
Transfer having a coupling coefficient higher than its active material
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lesieutre, George A. (Inventor); Davis, Christopher L. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A coupling coefficient is a measure of the effectiveness with which a shape-changing material (or a device employing such a material) converts the energy in an imposed signal to useful mechanical energy. Device coupling coefficients are properties of the device and, although related to the material coupling coefficients, are generally different from them. This invention describes a class of devices wherein the apparent coupling coefficient can, in principle, approach 1.0, corresponding to perfect electromechanical energy conversion. The key feature of this class of devices is the use of destabilizing mechanical pre-loads to counter inherent stiffness. The approach is illustrated for piezoelectric and thermoelectrically actuated devices. The invention provides a way to simultaneously increase both displacement and force, distinguishing it from alternatives such as motion amplification, and allows transducer designers to achieve substantial performance gains for actuator and sensor devices.
RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT
EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...
Standardized Discriminant Coefficients: A Rejoinder.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mueller, Ralph O.; Cozad, James B.
1993-01-01
Although comments of D.J. Nordlund and R. Nagel are welcomed, their arguments are not sufficient to accept the recommendation of using total variance estimates to standardize canonical discriminant function coefficients. If standardized coefficients are used to help interpret a discriminant analysis, pooled within-group variance estimates should…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Corliss, William R.
This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…
Iterated multidimensional wave conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.
2011-12-01
Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.
Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, J. F.
1981-01-01
Performance expectations for thermionic and thermoelectric energy conversion systems are reviewed. It is noted that internal radiation effects diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K; the effective thermal conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. It is argued that a consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high temperature heat sources should include utilization of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles, or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, J. F.
1981-01-01
Thermionic energy conversion (TEC) and metallic-fluid heat pipes (MFHPs), offering unique advantages in terrestrial and space energy processing by virtue of operating on working-fluid vaporization/condensation cycles that accept great thermal power densities at high temperatures, share complex materials problems. Simplified equations are presented that verify and solve such problems, suggesting the possibility of cost-effective applications in the near term for TEC and MFHP devices. Among the problems discussed are: the limitation of alkali-metal corrosion, protection against hot external gases, external and internal vaporization, interfacial reactions and diffusion, expansion coefficient matching, and creep deformation.
Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McGee, Holly
1999-01-01
When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.
Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity
Loewe, W.E.
2001-07-31
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For purposes of § 1.1001-1(a), the conversion to the euro of legacy currencies (as defined in §...
26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For purposes of § 1.1001-1(a), the conversion to the euro of legacy currencies (as defined in §...
26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro... Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). (a) Conversion of currencies. For purposes of § 1.1001-1(a), the conversion to the euro of legacy currencies (as defined in §...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2004-01-01
I/NET, Inc., is making the dream of natural human-computer conversation a practical reality. Through a combination of advanced artificial intelligence research and practical software design, I/NET has taken the complexity out of developing advanced, natural language interfaces. Conversational capabilities like pronoun resolution, anaphora and ellipsis processing, and dialog management that were once available only in the laboratory can now be brought to any application with any speech recognition system using I/NET s conversational engine middleware.
Transport coefficients of heavy baryons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolos, Laura; Torres-Rincon, Juan M.; Das, Santosh K.
2016-08-01
We compute the transport coefficients (drag and momentum diffusion) of the low-lying heavy baryons Λc and Λb in a medium of light mesons formed at the later stages of high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ the Fokker-Planck approach to obtain the transport coefficients from unitarized baryon-meson interactions based on effective field theories that respect chiral and heavy-quark symmetries. We provide the transport coefficients as a function of temperature and heavy-baryon momentum, and analyze the applicability of certain nonrelativistic estimates. Moreover we compare our outcome for the spatial diffusion coefficient to the one coming from the solution of the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation, and we find a very good agreement between both calculations. The transport coefficients for Λc and Λb in a thermal bath will be used in a subsequent publication as input in a Langevin evolution code for the generation and propagation of heavy particles in heavy-ion collisions at LHC and RHIC energies.
Alpine radar conversion for LAWR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savina, M.; Burlando, P.
2012-04-01
The Local Area Weather Radar (LAWR) is a ship-born weather radar system operating in X-band developed by the DHI Group to detect precipitation in urban areas. To date more than thirty units are installed in different settings around the world. A LAWR was also deployed in the Alps, at 3883 m a.s.l. on the Kl. Matterhorn (Valais, Switzerland). This was the highest LAWR of the world and it led to the development of an Alpine LAWR system that, besides featuring important technological improvements needed to withstand the severe Alpine conditions, required the development of a new Alpine Radar COnversion Model (ARCOM), which is the main focus of this contribution. The LAWR system is equipped with the original FURUNO fan-beam slotted antenna and the original logarithmic receiver, which limits the radar observations to the video signal (L) withour providing the reflectivity (Z). The beam is 0.95 deg wide and 20 deg high. It can detect precipitation to a max range of 60 km. In order to account for the limited availability of raw signal and information and the specific mountain set-up, the conversion model had to be developed differently from the state-of-the-art radar conversion technique used for this class of radars. In particular, the ARCOM is based on a model used to simulate a spatial dependent factor, hereafter called ACF, which is in turn function of parameters that take in account climatological conditions, also used in other conversion methods, but additionally accounting for local radar beam features and for orographic forcings such as the effective sampling power (sP), which is modelled by means of antenna pattern, geometric ground clutter and their interaction. The result is a conversion factor formulated to account for a range correction that is based on the increase of the sampling volume, partial beam blocking and local climatological conditions. The importance of the latter in this study is double with respect to the standard conversion technique for this
2001-05-01
This appendix presents tables of some of the more common conversion factors for units of measure used throughout Current Protocols manuals, as well as prefixes indicating powers of ten for SI units. Another table gives conversions between temperatures on the Celsius (Centigrade) and Fahrenheit scales. PMID:18770653
Assessment through Conversation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fu, Danling; Lamme, Linda L.
2002-01-01
Presents conversations with parents, teachers, and children around portfolios that provide a better picture of a child's growth and understanding than standardized test scores ever can. Concludes that the involvement of students, teachers, and parents in conversation about children's literacy development brings the potential of a common vision and…
Marathi Conversational Situations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berntsen, Maxine; Nimbkar, Jai
This volume is an elementary Marathi conversation text for adult learners of Marathi, both foreign and Indian. Designed to be used in conjunction with "Marathi Structural Patterns. Book One," the volume presents over 80 conversations that include material required in everyday situations. Each section contains basic and more difficult…
Energy conversion alternatives study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shure, L. T.
1979-01-01
Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.
Seaborg, G.T.
1960-09-13
A nuclear conversion apparatus is described which comprises a body of neutron moderator, tubes extending therethrough, uranium in the tubes, a fluid- circulating system associated with the tubes, a thorium-containing fluid coolant in the system and tubes, and means for withdrawing the fluid from the system and replacing it in the system whereby thorium conversion products may be recovered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porto, Mark
2007-01-01
In this article, a principal is inspired to change the conversations with students and staff members from discipline and deficit to hope and planning for future achievement. He wants conversations to be more about academic goals and decision making and less about discipline and random acceptance of postsecondary plans. He has asked all staff…
Oxidative methane conversion in dielectric barrier discharge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Młotek, Michał; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Pryciak, Krzysztof; Schmidt-Szałowski, Krzysztof
2013-02-01
A dielectric barrier discharge was used for the oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) with oxygen at the pressure of 1.2 bar. A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was powered at the frequency of about 6 kHz. Molar ratio CH4/O2 in the inlet gas containing 50% or 25% of argon was 3, 6 and 12. The effects of temperature (110, 150 and 340 ◦C), gas flow rate, molar ratio of methane to oxygen on the overall methane and oxygen conversion and methane conversion to methanol, ethanol, hydrocarbons, carbon oxides and water were studied. In the studied system the increase of the temperature decreases the conversion of methane to methanol. The increase of the molar ratio of methane to oxygen increased the methane conversion to hydrocarbons and strongly decreased the methane conversion to alcohols. The conversion of methane to hydrocarbons increased and the conversion of methane to methanol decreased with the decrease of the gas flow rate from 2 to 1 NL/h. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.
Seebeck coefficient of one electron
Durrani, Zahid A. K.
2014-03-07
The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ΔT between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ΔT are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ΔT, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.
Efficient second harmonic generation in internal asymmetric plasmonic slot waveguide.
Huang, Tianye; Tagne, Patrick Moteng; Fu, Songnian
2016-05-01
We theoretically propose an internal asymmetric plasmonic slot waveguide (IAPSW), containing two different materials in the slot region. The IAPSW is used for second harmonic generation (SHG) at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The required phase matching condition is satisfied between the 0th-order mode at the fundamental frequency and the 1st-order mode at the second harmonic frequency. By choosing appropriate slot geometry and materials, the mode field distribution is engineered to enhance the nonlinear coupling coefficient for SHG. With an 11 μm long IAPSW, a conversion efficiency of 24% (1.8 × 10^{5} W^{-1}cm^{-2} normalized conversion efficiency) is predicted. Furthermore, the SHG efficiency is more pronounced in IAPSW with thinner slot. PMID:27137584
ICRP Publication 119: Compendium of dose coefficients based on ICRP Publication 60.
Eckerman, K; Harrison, J; Menzel, H-G; Clement, C H
2012-01-01
This report is a compilation of dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides by workers and members of the public, and conversion coefficients for use in occupational radiological protection against external radiation from Publications 68, 72, and 74 (ICRP, 1994b, 1996a,b). It serves as a comprehensive reference for dose coefficients based on the primary radiation protection guidance given in the Publication 60 recommendations (ICRP, 1991). The coefficients tabulated in this publication will be superseded in due course by values based on the Publication 103 recommendations (ICRP, 2007). PMID:23025851
ICRP dose coefficients: computational development and current status.
Bolch, W E; Petoussi-Henss, N; Paquet, F; Harrison, J
2016-06-01
Major current efforts within Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) involve the development of dose coefficients for inhalation and ingestion of radionuclides, and those for exposure to environmental radiation fields. These efforts build upon changes in radiation and tissue weighting factors (Publication 103), radionuclide decay schemes (Publication 107), computational phantoms of the adult reference male and female (Publication 110), external dose coefficients for adult reference workers for idealised radiation fields (Publication 116), models of radionuclide intake (Publications 66, 100 and 130), and models of radionuclide systemic biokinetics (Publication 130). This paper will review the overall computational framework for both internal and external dose coefficients. For internal exposures, the work entails assessment of organ self-dose and cross-dose from monoenergetic particle emissions (specific absorbed fraction), absorbed dose per nuclear transformation (S value), time-integrated activity of the radionuclide in source tissues (inhalation, ingestion, and systemic biokinetic models), and their numerical combination to yield the organ equivalent dose or effective dose per activity inhaled or ingested. Various challenges are reviewed that were not included in the development of Publication 30 dose coefficients, which were based upon much more simplified biokinetic models and computational phantoms. For external exposures, the computations entail the characterisation of environmental radionuclide distributions, the transport of radiation particles through that environment, and the tracking of energy deposition to the organs of the exposed individual. Progress towards the development of dose coefficients to members of the general public (adolescents, children, infants and fetuses) are also reviewed. PMID:27048756
Integer Solutions of Binomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbertson, Nicholas J.
2016-01-01
A good formula is like a good story, rich in description, powerful in communication, and eye-opening to readers. The formula presented in this article for determining the coefficients of the binomial expansion of (x + y)n is one such "good read." The beauty of this formula is in its simplicity--both describing a quantitative situation…
Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients
Rathbun, Ronald E.
1990-01-01
Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, N.
1974-01-01
Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.
Estimating the Polyserial Correlation Coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bedrick, Edward J.; Breslin, Frederick C.
1996-01-01
Simple noniterative estimators of the polyserial correlation coefficient are developed by exploiting a general relationship between the polyserial correlation and the point polyserial correlation to give extensions of the biserial estimators of K. Pearson (1909), H. E. Brogden (1949), and F. M. Lord (1963) to the multicategory setting. (SLD)
Postoperative conversion disorder.
Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A
2016-05-01
Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. PMID:27041258
Community Conversations: Toward Shared Understandings of American Identity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, David A.; Marshall, Emma Jo; Eisenberg, Diane U.
This document describes a program called Community Conversations, a joint effort between Phi Theta Kappa, the international honor society of the two-year college, and the Community College Humanities Association. The program consisted of a series of national and regional conversations among students and community members, addressing what it means…
Inverse problem of electro-seismic conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jie; Yang, Yang
2013-11-01
When a porous rock is saturated with an electrolyte, electrical fields are coupled with seismic waves via the electro-seismic conversion. Pride (1994 Phys. Rev. B 50 15678-96) derived the governing models, in which Maxwell equations are coupled with Biot's equations through the electro-kinetic mobility parameter. The inverse problem of the linearized electro-seismic conversion consists in two steps, namely the inversion of Biot's equations and the inversion of Maxwell equations. We analyze the reconstruction of conductivity and electro-kinetic mobility parameter in Maxwell equations with internal measurements, while the internal measurements are provided by the results of the inversion of Biot's equations. We show that knowledge of two internal data based on well-chosen boundary conditions uniquely determines these two parameters. Moreover, a Lipschitz-type stability is proved based on the same sets of well-chosen boundary conditions.
Responsive Teaching through Conversation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dozier, Cheryl; Garnett, Susan; Tabatabai, Simeen
2011-01-01
Conversations are the heart of responsive teaching. By talking with struggling learners, teachers can find out about their interests in order to design effective, personalized instruction; build relationships; work through complexities in teaching and learning; and celebrate successes.
Structured luminescence conversion layer
Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin
2012-12-11
An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semenov, N. N.; Shilov, A. E.
The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of current theoretical and experimental research related to the conversion and practical utilization of solar energy. Topics discussed include semiconductor photovoltaic cells, orbital solar power stations, chemical and biological methods of solar energy conversion, and solar energy applications. Papers are included on new theoretical models of solar cells and prospects for increasing their efficiency, metrology and optical studies of solar cells, and some problems related to the thermally induced deformations of large space structures.
High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology
Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.
2010-12-15
We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
Conversational Flow Promotes Solidarity
Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H.
2013-01-01
Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of “we-ness”. Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed. PMID:24265683
Ionization coefficients in gas mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marić, D.; Šašić, O.; Jovanović, J.; Radmilović-Rađenović, M.; Petrović, Z. Lj.
2007-03-01
We have tested the application of the common E/N ( E—electric field, N—gas number density) or Wieland approximation [Van Brunt, R.J., 1987. Common parametrizations of electron transport, collision cross section, and dielectric strength data for binary gas mixtures. J. Appl. Phys. 61 (5), 1773-1787.] and the common mean energy (CME) combination of the data for pure gases to obtain ionization coefficients for mixtures. Test calculations were made for Ar-CH4, Ar-N2, He-Xe and CH4-N2 mixtures. Standard combination procedure gives poor results in general, due to the fact that the electron energy distribution is considerably different in mixtures and in individual gases at the same values of E/N. The CME method may be used for mixtures of gases with ionization coefficients that do not differ by more than two orders of magnitude which is better than any other technique that was proposed [Marić, D., Radmilović-Rađenović, M., Petrović, Z.Lj., 2005. On parametrization and mixture laws for electron ionization coefficients. Eur. Phys. J. D 35, 313-321.].
Pyroelectric energy conversion: optimization principles.
Sebald, Gael; Lefeuvre, Elie; Guyomar, Daniel
2008-03-01
In the framework of microgenerators, we present in this paper the key points for energy harvesting from temperature using ferroelectric materials. Thermoelectric devices profit from temperature spatial gradients, whereas ferroelectric materials require temporal fluctuation of temperature, thus leading to different applications targets. Ferroelectric materials may harvest perfectly the available thermal energy whatever the materials properties (limited by Carnot conversion efficiency) whereas thermoelectric material's efficiency is limited by materials properties (ZT figure of merit). However, it is shown that the necessary electric fields for Carnot cycles are far beyond the breakdown limit of bulk ferroelectric materials. Thin films may be an excellent solution for rising up to ultra-high electric fields and outstanding efficiency. Different thermodynamic cycles are presented in the paper: principles, advantages, and drawbacks. Using the Carnot cycle, the harvested energy would be independent of materials properties. However, using more realistic cycles, the energy conversion effectiveness remains dependent on the materials properties as discussed in the paper. A particular coupling factor is defined to quantify and check the effectiveness of pyroelectric energy harvesting. It is defined similarly to an electromechanical coupling factor as k2=p2theta0/(epsilontheta33cE), where p, theta0, epsilontheta33, cE are pyroelectric coefficient, maximum working temperature, dielectric permittivity, and specific heat, respectively. The importance of the electrothermal coupling factor is shown and discussed as an energy harvesting figure of merit. It gives the effectiveness of all techniques of energy harvesting (except the Carnot cycle). It is finally shown that we could reach very high efficiency using 1110.75Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)-0.25PbTiO3 single crystals and synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (almost 50% of Carnot efficiency). Finally, practical implementation key
Isomolybdate conversion coatings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)
2002-01-01
A conversion coating solution and process forms a stable and corrosion-resistant layer on metal substrates or layers or, more preferably, on a boehmite layer or other base conversion coating. The conversion coating process involves contacting the substrate, layer or coating with an aqueous alkali metal isomolybdate solution in order to convert the surface of the substrate, layer or coating to a stable conversion coating. The aqueous alkali metal molybdates are selected from sodium molybdate (Na.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), lithium molybdate (Li.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), potassium molybdate (K.sub.2 MoO.sub.4), or combinations thereof, with the most preferred alkali metal molybdate being sodium molybdate. The concentration of alkali metal molybdates in the solution is preferably less than 5% by weight. In addition to the alkali metal molybdates, the conversion coating solution may include alkaline metal passivators selected from lithium nitrate (LiNO.sub.3), sodium nitrate (NaNO.sub.3), ammonia nitrate (NH.sub.4 NO.sub.3), and combinations thereof; lithium chloride, potassium hexafluorozirconate (K.sub.2 ZrF.sub.6) or potassium hexafluorotitanate (K.sub.2 TiF.sub.6).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jalufka, N. W.
1989-01-01
The conversion of laser energy to other, more useful, forms is an important element of any space power transmission system employing lasers. In general the user, at the receiving sight, will require the energy in a form other than laser radiation. In particular, conversion to rocket power and electricity are considered to be two major areas where one must consider various conversion techniques. Three systems (photovoltaic cells, MHD generators, and gas turbines) have been identified as the laser-to-electricity conversion systems that appear to meet most of the criteria for a space-based system. The laser thruster also shows considerable promise as a space propulsion system. At this time one cannot predict which of the three laser-to-electric converters will be best suited to particular mission needs. All three systems have some particular advantages, as well as disadvantages. It would be prudent to continue research on all three systems, as well as the laser rocket thruster. Research on novel energy conversion systems, such as the optical rectenna and the reverse free-electron laser, should continue due to their potential for high payoff.
Kharrati, Hedi
2005-05-01
In this study, a new approach has been introduced for derivation of the effective dose from air kerma to calculate shielding requirements in mammography facilities. This new approach has been used to compute the conversion coefficients relating air kerma to the effective dose for the mammography reference beam series of the Netherlands Metrology Institute Van Swinden Laboratorium, National Institute of Standards and Technology, and International Atomic Energy Agency laboratories. The results show that, in all cases, the effective dose in mammography energy range is less than 25% of the incident air kerma for the primary and the scatter radiations and does not exceed 75% for the leakage radiation.
Campbell, J.R.; Luthy, R.G.
1984-06-01
Experimental and modeling activities were performed to assess techniques for measurement and prediction of distribution coefficients for aromatic solutes between water and immiscible organic solvents. Experiments were performed to measure distribution coefficients in both clean water and wastewater systems, and to assess treatment of a wastewater by solvent extraction. The theoretical portions of this investigation were directed towards development of techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Experiments were performed to assess treatment of a phenolic-laden coal conversion wastewater by solvent extraction. The results showed that solvent extraction for recovery of phenolic material offered several wastewater processing advantages. Distribution coefficients were measured in clean water and wastewater systems for aromatic solutes of varying functionality with different solvent types. It was found that distribution coefficients for these compounds in clean water systems were not statistically different from distribution coefficients determined in a complex coal conversion process wastewater. These and other aromatic solute distribution coefficient data were employed for evaluation of modeling techniques for prediction of solute-solvent/water distribution coefficients. Eight solvents were selected in order to represent various chemical classes: toluene and benzene (aromatics), hexane and heptane (alkanes), n-octanol (alcohols), n-butyl acetate (esters), diisopropyl ether (ethers), and methylisobutyl ketone (ketones). The aromatic solutes included: nonpolar compounds such as benzene, toluene and naphthalene, phenolic compounds such as phenol, cresol and catechol, nitrogenous aromatics such as aniline, pyridine and aminonaphthalene, and other aromatic solutes such as naphthol, quinolinol and halogenated compounds. 100 references, 20 figures, 34 tables.
Discharge coefficients of cooling holes with radiused and chamfered inlets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, N.; Spencer, A.
1991-06-01
The flow of cooling air within the internal passages of gas turbines is controlled and metered using holes in disks and casings. The effects of inlet radiusing and chamfering of these holes on the discharge coefficient are discussed. Experimental results for a range of radiusing and chamfering ratios for holes of different length to diameter ratios are presented, covering the range of pressure ratios of practical interest. The results indicate that radiusing and chamfering are both beneficial in increasing the discharge coefficient. Increases of 10-30 percent are possible. Chamfered holes give the more desirable performance characteristics in addition to being easier to produce than radiused holes.
Massier, P.F.; Back, L.H.; Ryan, M.A.; Fabris, G.
1992-01-07
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1991 through December 31, 1991. Research on AMTEC and on LMMHD was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions (Refs. 1--5) contain descriptive and performance discussions of the following direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (Nitionol heat engine); and also, more complete descriptive discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.
1989-12-01
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.
Digital optical conversion module
Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.
1991-02-26
A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.
Digital optical conversion module
Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.
1988-07-19
A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massier, Paul F.; Bankston, C. P.; Williams, R.; Underwood, M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Fabris, G.
1989-01-01
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal Magnetohydrodynamic Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1, 1989 through December 31, 1989. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic, thermophotovoltaic, thermoacoustic, thermomagnetic, thermoelastic (nitinol heat engines); and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.
Digital optical conversion module
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotter, Dale K.; Rankin, Richard A.
1988-07-01
A digital optical conversion module is used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.
Predictability of Conversation Partners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki
2011-08-01
Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.
Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.
Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle
2005-10-01
A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.
Zeng, Fei; Wang, Jun; Yao, Jianping
2005-09-01
A novel all-optical microwave bandpass filter with negative coefficients is presented. Positive and negative coefficients are obtained through conversion from phase modulation to intensity modulation by passing the phase-modulated optical carriers through chirped fiber Bragg gratings having group-delay responses with positive and negative slopes. A two-tap transversal microwave filter with one negative coefficient is experimentally implemented. PMID:16190418
Back, L.H.; Fabris, G.; Ryan, M.A.
1992-07-01
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. Initially, two systems were selected for exploratory research and advanced development. These are Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC) and Two-Phase Liquid Metal MD Generator (LMMHD). This report describes progress that has been made during the first six months of 1992 on research activities associated with these two systems. (GHH)
Accessory apartment conversion programs.
Retsinas, J; Retsinas, N P
1991-01-01
In recent years, state housing finance agencies have joined with state units on aging to develop programs to help the frail, elderly homeowner. Under an accessory apartment conversion program, a low-income homeowner will borrow money at a reduced interest rate to underwrite conversion of excess space into a rental apartment. The tenant will provide additional income as well as, ideally, certain kinds of personal assistance and a friendly presence. To date, few elderly clients have used this option. The initial rationale for the program is explained as are plausible reasons for the fact that it has not met expectations. PMID:10186784
ADEPT: Efficient Power Conversion
2011-01-01
ADEPT Project: In today’s increasingly electrified world, power conversion—the process of converting electricity between different currents, voltage levels, and frequencies—forms a vital link between the electronic devices we use every day and the sources of power required to run them. The 14 projects that make up ARPA-E’s ADEPT Project, short for “Agile Delivery of Electrical Power Technology,” are paving the way for more energy efficient power conversion and advancing the basic building blocks of power conversion: circuits, transistors, inductors, transformers, and capacitors.
Analytic expressions for ULF wave radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients
Ozeke, Louis G; Mann, Ian R; Murphy, Kyle R; Jonathan Rae, I; Milling, David K
2014-01-01
We present analytic expressions for ULF wave-derived radiation belt radial diffusion coefficients, as a function of L and Kp, which can easily be incorporated into global radiation belt transport models. The diffusion coefficients are derived from statistical representations of ULF wave power, electric field power mapped from ground magnetometer data, and compressional magnetic field power from in situ measurements. We show that the overall electric and magnetic diffusion coefficients are to a good approximation both independent of energy. We present example 1-D radial diffusion results from simulations driven by CRRES-observed time-dependent energy spectra at the outer boundary, under the action of radial diffusion driven by the new ULF wave radial diffusion coefficients and with empirical chorus wave loss terms (as a function of energy, Kp and L). There is excellent agreement between the differential flux produced by the 1-D, Kp-driven, radial diffusion model and CRRES observations of differential electron flux at 0.976 MeV—even though the model does not include the effects of local internal acceleration sources. Our results highlight not only the importance of correct specification of radial diffusion coefficients for developing accurate models but also show significant promise for belt specification based on relatively simple models driven by solar wind parameters such as solar wind speed or geomagnetic indices such as Kp. Key Points Analytic expressions for the radial diffusion coefficients are presented The coefficients do not dependent on energy or wave m value The electric field diffusion coefficient dominates over the magnetic PMID:26167440
Quantum yield of conversion of the dental photoinitiator camphorquinone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yin-Chu; Ferracane, Jack L.; Prahl, Scott A.
2005-06-01
The primary absorber in dental resins is the photoinitiators, which start the photo polymerization process. We studied the quantum yield of conversion of camphorquinone (CQ), a blue light photoinitiator, using 3M FreeLight LED lamp as the light curing unit. The molar extinction coefficient, ɛ469, of CQ was measured to be 46+/-2 cm-1/(mol/L) at 469 nm. The absorption coefficient change to the radiant exposure was measured at three different irradiances. The relationship between the CQ absorption coefficient and curing lamp radiant exposure was the same for different irradiances and fit an exponential function: μa469(H)= μao exp(-H/Hthreshold), where μao is 4.46+/-0.05 cm-1, and Hthreshold=43+/-4 J/cm2. Combining this exponential relationship with CQ molar extinction coefficient and the absorbed photon energy (i.e., the product of the radiant exposure with the absorption coefficient), we plotted CQ concentration [number of molecules/cm3] as a function of the accumulated absorbed photons per volume. The slope of the relationship is the quantum yield of the CQ conversion. Therefore, in our formulation (0.7 w% CQ with reducing agents 0.35 w% DMAEMA and 0.05 w% BHT) the quantum yield was solved to be 0.07+/-0.01 CQ conversion per absorbed photon.
Higher Order Macro Coefficients in Periodic Homogenization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conca, Carlos; San Martin, Jorge; Smaranda, Loredana; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2011-09-01
A first set of macro coefficients known as the homogenized coefficients appear in the homogenization of PDE on periodic structures. If energy is increased or scale is decreased, these coefficients do not provide adequate approximation. Using Bloch decomposition, it is first realized that the above coefficients correspond to the lowest energy and the largest scale. This naturally paves the way to introduce other sets of macro coefficients corresponding to higher energies and lower scales which yield better approximation. The next task is to compare their properties with those of the homogenized coefficients. This article reviews these developments along with some new results yet to be published.
Catalyst increases COS conversion
Goodboy, K.P.
1985-02-18
Increasingly stringent air quality legislation is placing greater emphasis on conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/ in Claus plants for the maximum sulfur recovery. Overall sulfur recovery goals are dependent upon outstanding service from the Claus catalyst in each reactor because catalyst activity is a major factor influencing plant performance. Today's catalyst are much improved over those used 10 years ago for the Claus (H/sub 2/S/SO/sub 2/) reaction. Recent technical efforts have focused on the conversion of COS and CS/sub 2/. These carbon-sulfur compounds can account for as much as 50% of the sulfur going to the incinerator, which essentially converts all remaining sulfur species to SO/sub 2/ for atmospheric dispersion. Previously, the mechanism of Claus COS conversion, i.e., hydrolysis or oxidation by SO/sub 2/, was studied and the conclusion was that oxidation by SO/sub 2/ appears to be the predominate mode of COS conversion on sulfated alumina catalysts.
Mechanochemical Energy Conversion
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pines, E.; And Others
1973-01-01
Summarizes the thermodynamics of macromolecular systems, including theories and experiments of cyclic energy conversion with rubber and collagen as working substances. Indicates that an early introduction into the concept of chemical potential and solution thermodynamics is made possible through the study of the cyclic processes. (CC)
Planetary image conversion task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Martin, M. D.; Stanley, C. L.; Laughlin, G.
1985-01-01
The Planetary Image Conversion Task group processed 12,500 magnetic tapes containing raw imaging data from JPL planetary missions and produced an image data base in consistent format on 1200 fully packed 6250-bpi tapes. The output tapes will remain at JPL. A copy of the entire tape set was delivered to US Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz. A secondary task converted computer datalogs, which had been stored in project specific MARK IV File Management System data types and structures, to flat-file, text format that is processable on any modern computer system. The conversion processing took place at JPL's Image Processing Laboratory on an IBM 370-158 with existing software modified slightly to meet the needs of the conversion task. More than 99% of the original digital image data was successfully recovered by the conversion task. However, processing data tapes recorded before 1975 was destructive. This discovery is of critical importance to facilities responsible for maintaining digital archives since normal periodic random sampling techniques would be unlikely to detect this phenomenon, and entire data sets could be wiped out in the act of generating seemingly positive sampling results. Reccomended follow-on activities are also included.
Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael
2012-06-01
Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate. PMID:22741420
Clinical Linguistics: Conversational Reflections
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crystal, David
2013-01-01
This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference…
National conversion pilot project
Floyd, D.; Nichols, F.; Lily, A.
1994-12-31
Manufacturing Sciences Corporation (MSC) has undertaken a project from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to convert buildings that are currently contaminated at Rocky Flats into buildings that are capable of producing commercial products. This conversion project is called the National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP). The mission of the NCPP is to explore and demonstrate at the Rocky Flats site the feasibility of economic conversion at DOE facilities. This project was officially started on April 1 with the signing of a Cooperative Assistance Agreement between MSC and the DOE. The NCPP was jointly announced by Roy Romer, Governor of the State of Colorado; Mark Silverman, Manager of the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Office; Jack McGraw, Activity Administrator for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 8; and Tom Looby, Director of the Office of Environment from the Colorado Department of Health. On March 25, 1994, Hazel O`Leary, the Secretary of the DOE, toured the site of the NCPP and heartily endorsed the project as an example of how the DOE and commercial industry can jointly accomplish the conversion and cleanup of government facilities into productive commercial ventures.
Economics of Grassland Conversion
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In this paper we provide an overview of economic factors that contribute to changes in grassland area including the relative profitability of crop and livestock production, effects of land productivity, and effects of conversion costs. We also identify other potential socio-economic influences on gr...
Electromechanical Energy Conversion.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
LePage, Wilbur R.
This programed text on electromechanical energy conversion (motors and generators) was developed under contract with the U.S. Office of Education as Number 12 in a series of materials for use in an electrical engineering sequence. It is intended to be used in conjunction with other materials and with other short texts in the series. (DH)
Evaluating Energy Conversion Efficiency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byvik, C. E.; Smith, B. T.; Buoncristiani, A. M.
1983-01-01
Devices that convert solar radiation directly into storable chemical or electrical energy, have characteristic energy absorption spectrum; specifically, each of these devices has energy threshold. The conversion efficiency of generalized system that emcompasses all threshold devices is analyzed, resulting in family of curves for devices of various threshold energies operating at different temperatures.
A Conversation about Observation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mather, John C.; Mao, Minnie Yuan
2012-01-01
In the spirit of the Lindau Meeting, we present a dialogue between a Nobel laureate and a young researcher. This interchange started online, where it continues to unfold. Here is a digest of this conversation, which has developed across time and space.
Teaching Conversation with Trivia.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crawford, Michael J.
2002-01-01
Presents a rationale for utilizing trivia to teach conversation. Shows how trivia-based materials fit into communicative language teaching approaches and provides examples of trivia-based activities and explains how to use them in the classroom. (Author/VWL)
Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bell, Robert A.
1985-01-01
Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)
Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S.
2008-03-01
If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces
Mechanism for the para-ortho conversion of hydrogen by diamagnetic substances
Stevenson, R.
1983-01-01
Various thories for the conversion are considered. The role of internal electric fields can be seen by comparing the rates of experimentally observed conversion reactions for hydrogen in simple liquids. The magnetic field due to the proton magnetic moment is the same magnitude. The p-o conversion is shown to be caused by paramagnetic centers, but not in all cases.
Risk coefficient for gamma-rays with regard to solid cancer.
Kellerer, Albrecht M; Walsh, Linda; Nekolla, Elke A
2002-06-01
A previous investigation has uncoupled the solid cancer risk coefficient for neutrons from the low dose estimates of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons and the photon risk coefficient, and has related it to two more tangible quantities, the excess relative risk (ERR1) due to an intermediate reference dose D1 = 1 Gy of gamma-rays and the RBE of neutrons, R1, against this reference dose. With tentatively assumed RBE values between 20 and 50 and in terms of organ-averaged doses--rather than the usually invoked colon doses--the neutron risk factor was seen to be in general agreement with the current risk estimate of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). The present assessment of the risk coefficient for gamma-rays incorporates--in terms of the unchanged A-bomb dosimetry system, DS86--this treatment of the neutrons, but is otherwise largely analogous to the evaluation of the A-bomb data for the ICRP report and for the recent report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of ionizing radiation, UNSCEAR. The resulting central estimate of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) for solid cancer mortality is 0.043/Gy for a working population (ages 25-65), and is nearly the same whether the age at exposure or the attained age model is used for risk projection. For a population of all ages 0.042/Gy is obtained with the attained age model and 0.068/Gy with the age at exposure model. The values do not include a dose and dose rate effectiveness factor (DDREF), and they are only half as large as the new UNSCEAR estimates of 0.082/Gy (attained age model and all ages) and 0.13/Gy (age at exposure model and all ages). The difference is only partly due to the more explicit treatment of the neutrons. It reflects also the fact that UNSCEAR has converted ERR into LAR in a way that differs from the ICRP procedure, and that it has summed the overall risk coefficient for solid tumor mortality and incidence from separate estimates
Calculations of accommodation coefficients for diatomic molecular gases.
Ambaye, Hailemariam; Manson, J R
2006-03-01
A theoretical study of energy and momentum accommodation coefficients and reduced force coefficients for molecular gases exchanging energy with surfaces has been carried out. The theoretical model uses classical mechanics for describing translational and rotational motions while internal molecular vibrational modes are treated quantum mechanically. Calculations for diatomic molecular gases are compared with recent measurements using hypersonic beams of N2 incident on SiO2 layers deposited on Kapton substrates. The theory gives good qualitative predictions of the behavior of the various accommodation coefficients as functions of the available experimentally controllable parameters such as incident translational energy, incident beam angle, molecular and surface masses, and surface temperature. Quantitative comparisons with measurements for energy and normal momentum accommodation indicate that these experiments can be used to obtain basic physical information about the molecule-surface interaction such as the physisorption potential well depth and the extent of surface roughness. PMID:16605510
Experiments on topographies lacking tidal conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maas, Leo; Paci, Alexandre; Yuan, Bing
2015-11-01
In a stratified sea, internal tides are supposedly generated when the tide passes over irregular topography. It has been shown that for any given frequency in the internal wave band there are an infinite number of exceptions to this rule of thumb. This ``stealth-like'' property of the topography is due to a subtle annihilation of the internal waves generated during the surface tide's passage over the irregular bottom. We here demonstrate this in a lab-experiment. However, for any such topography, subsequently changing the surface tide's frequency does lead to tidal conversion. The upshot of this is that a tidal wave passing over an irregular bottom is for a substantial part trapped to this irregularity, and only partly converted into freely propagating internal tides. Financially supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme HYDRALAB IV.
Minimum Sample Size for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha: A Monte-Carlo Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yurdugul, Halil
2008-01-01
The coefficient alpha is the most widely used measure of internal consistency for composite scores in the educational and psychological studies. However, due to the difficulties of data gathering in psychometric studies, the minimum sample size for the sample coefficient alpha has been frequently debated. There are various suggested minimum sample…
Assessment of the Maximal Split-Half Coefficient to Estimate Reliability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Barry L.; Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2010-01-01
The maximal split-half coefficient is computed by calculating all possible split-half reliability estimates for a scale and then choosing the maximal value as the reliability estimate. Osburn compared the maximal split-half coefficient with 10 other internal consistency estimates of reliability and concluded that it yielded the most consistently…
The emission coefficient of uranium plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.
1973-01-01
The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (Temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range (200 A - 6000 A). The results are compared to theory and other measurements. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xiao-Le
2015-12-01
For the converse magnetoelectric coupling effect of the piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric tri-layer symmetric magnetoelectric laminates, based on the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of the giant magnetostrictive materials and the thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive equations of the piezoelectric materials, according to Newton's second law and the magnetic circuit theorem, an equivalent circuit is established. Then an expression of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient describing nonlinear thermo-magneto-electro-mechanical coupling is established. The curve of the nonlinear converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus the bias magnetic field, is predicted effectively by the expression, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental result both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, the model can predict the complex influences of the bias magnetic field, the stress and the ambient temperature on the converse magnetoelectric coefficient. It can be found from these predictions that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient decreases with the increasing temperature and increases with the increasing tensile stress. Under the common effect of the ambient temperature and the stress, it is also found that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient changes sharply with the ambient temperature when the tensile stress is applied on the laminates, but it has a good stability of temperature when a large compressive stress is applied. Therefore, this work contributes to the researches on the giant converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the designs of magnetoelectric devices based on the converse magnetoelectric coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balonek, Christine; Nica, Ninel; Hardy, John
2006-10-01
Precise internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) are crucial to the study of nuclear decay schemes, including spin and parity designations, transition rates, and branching ratios. However, various calculations of ICCs disagree with one another and with experiment by several percent. The situation is further confused by the fact that very few ICC measurements have uncertainties under 1%. Until recently, it was even unclear if the calculations should incorporate the hole left by the departing conversion electron. To remedy this situation, we have set out to measure the K-shell ICC values of three different isotopes to that precision. The ICCs for 127.55 keV E3 transition of ^134Cs^m and 661.657 keV M4 transition of ^137Ba have already been completed. We report here on the third and final case: the 165.858 keV M1 transition in ^139La.
Jansen, Jan T M; Shrimpton, Paul C
2016-07-21
The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990's. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of ±6% and ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10's of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners. PMID:27362736
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansen, Jan T. M.; Shrimpton, Paul C.
2016-07-01
The ImPACT (imaging performance assessment of CT scanners) CT patient dosimetry calculator is still used world-wide to estimate organ and effective doses (E) for computed tomography (CT) examinations, although the tool is based on Monte Carlo calculations reflecting practice in the early 1990’s. Subsequent developments in CT scanners, definitions of E, anthropomorphic phantoms, computers and radiation transport codes, have all fuelled an urgent need for updated organ dose conversion factors for contemporary CT. A new system for such simulations has been developed and satisfactorily tested. Benchmark comparisons of normalised organ doses presently derived for three old scanners (General Electric 9800, Philips Tomoscan LX and Siemens Somatom DRH) are within 5% of published values. Moreover, calculated normalised values of CT Dose Index for these scanners are in reasonable agreement (within measurement and computational uncertainties of ±6% and ±1%, respectively) with reported standard measurements. Organ dose coefficients calculated for a contemporary CT scanner (Siemens Somatom Sensation 16) demonstrate potential deviations by up to around 30% from the surrogate values presently assumed (through a scanner matching process) when using the ImPACT CT Dosimetry tool for newer scanners. Also, illustrative estimates of E for some typical examinations and a range of anthropomorphic phantoms demonstrate the significant differences (by some 10’s of percent) that can arise when changing from the previously adopted stylised mathematical phantom to the voxel phantoms presently recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), and when following the 2007 ICRP recommendations (updated from 1990) concerning tissue weighting factors. Further simulations with the validated dosimetry system will provide updated series of dose coefficients for a wide range of contemporary scanners.
M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2010-01-01
In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.
Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.
2010-01-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…
Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menard, Scott
2011-01-01
Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…
Review of solar cell temperature coefficients for space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Landis, Geoffrey A.
1994-01-01
Energy conversion efficiency is an important parameter for solar cells, and well reported in the literature. However, solar cells heat up in sunlight, and the efficiency decreases. The temperature coefficient of the conversion efficiency is thus also extremely important, especially in mission modeling, but is much less well reported. It is of value to have a table which compiles into a single document values of temperature coefficients reported in the literature. In addition to modeling performance of solar cells in Earth orbit, where operating temperatures may range from about 20 C to as high as 85 C, it is of interest to model solar cells for several other recently proposed missions. These include use for the surface of Mars, for solar electric propulsion missions that may range from Venus to the Asteroid belt, and for laser-photovoltaic power that may involve laser intensities equivalent several suns. For all of these applications, variations in operating temperature away from the nominal test conditions result in significant changes in operating performance. In general the efficiency change with temperature is non-linear, however, in the range from negative 100 C through room temperature to a few hundred degrees C, efficiency is usually quite well modeled as a linear function of temperature (except for a few unusual cell types, such as amorphous silicon, and for extremely low bandgap cells, such as InGaAs).
Longrigg, Paul
1987-01-01
The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.
Movement Coordination during Conversation
Latif, Nida; Barbosa, Adriano V.; Vatiokiotis-Bateson, Eric; Castelhano, Monica S.; Munhall, K. G.
2014-01-01
Behavioral coordination and synchrony contribute to a common biological mechanism that maintains communication, cooperation and bonding within many social species, such as primates and birds. Similarly, human language and social systems may also be attuned to coordination to facilitate communication and the formation of relationships. Gross similarities in movement patterns and convergence in the acoustic properties of speech have already been demonstrated between interacting individuals. In the present studies, we investigated how coordinated movements contribute to observers’ perception of affiliation (friends vs. strangers) between two conversing individuals. We used novel computational methods to quantify motor coordination and demonstrated that individuals familiar with each other coordinated their movements more frequently. Observers used coordination to judge affiliation between conversing pairs but only when the perceptual stimuli were restricted to head and face regions. These results suggest that observed movement coordination in humans might contribute to perceptual decisions based on availability of information to perceivers. PMID:25119189
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)
2001-01-01
Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.
Catalytic conversions of chlorodecalin
Takhistov, U.V.; Kovyazin, V.E.
1985-10-01
This paper studies catalytic conversions of chlorinated decahydronaphthalene (chlorodecalin), since the introduction of chlorine into the hydrocarbon molecule would facilitate formation of the original carbonium ion required for conversion to adamantane. Analysis of the fractions obtained showed that two main products are formed: the tricyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/ and the bicyclic hydrocarbon C/sub 10/H/sub 16/. Therefore, the C/sub 10/H/sub 17/ cation formed by removal of chlorine from chlorodecalin, C/sub 10/H/sub 17/CI, undergoes changes in two directions: addition of hydride ions from other chlorodecalin molecules to form Decalin, and loss of a proton to give a tricyclic system of the adamantane weries and its isomer. Introduction of a substituent (chlorine) into the Decalin molecule made it possible to conduct the process at low temperatures.
Duffy, J.M.; Greenwood, J.R.; Shapiro, R.
1981-12-02
The Praxis Conversion Utilities are a set of Praxis routines which convert data objects to/from Ascii strings. For instance, the AsciiInteger function converts an array of characters to an integer value. These routines are implemented as a consistent set of utilities with complete control over the various formatting options and fill characters. Most of the parameters for each routine are optional such that they are easy to invoke for standard cases, yet allowing the detailed control when necessary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.
1988-12-01
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Massier, P. F.; Bankston, C. P.; Fabris, G.; Kirol, L. D.
1988-01-01
The overall objective of the Direct Conversion Technology task is to develop an experimentally verified technology base for promising direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion systems that have potential application for energy conservation in the end-use sectors. This report contains progress of research on the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), and on the Two-Phase Liquid-Metal MHD Electrical Generator (LMMHD) for the period January 1988 through December 1988. Research on these concepts was initiated during October 1987. In addition, status reviews and assessments are presented for thermomagnetic converter concepts and for thermoelastic converters (Nitinol heat engines). Reports prepared on previous occasions contain discussions on the following other direct conversion concepts: thermoelectric, pyroelectric, thermionic thermophotovoltaic and thermoacoustic; and also, more complete discussions of AMTEC and LMMHD systems. A tabulated summary of the various systems which have been reviewed thus far has been prepared. Some of the important technical research needs are listed and a schematic of each system is shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Sondra; Hardy, John; Nica, Ninel; Goodwin, John
2011-10-01
Precise internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) are vital to the study of nuclear decay schemes, determining transition rates, spin and parity designations, and branching ratios. However, there are very few experimental tests of the calculated ICC's and in fact there are only ~10 measurements available with errors of less than 1%. Such a paucity of data complicates scientists' efforts to determine what theoretical calculations should be used to model the ICC. The goal of our present experiment is to determine the αk for the 65.7-keV M4 transition in 119Sn. However, the energy of the 119Sn x-rays is below the energy range that our HPGe detector is accurately calibrated for. The β-decay of 116In populates states in 116Sn which produce a few strong transitions with well established conversion coefficients. This allows us to calibrate our detector at the energy of the Sn x-rays, which is an essential requirement for the measurement of the 119Sn ICC. REU student from Florida A&M University.
Conversion of Questionnaire Data
Powell, Danny H; Elwood Jr, Robert H
2011-01-01
During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann
26 CFR 1.985-8 - Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rules applicable to the European Monetary Union (conversion to euro). 1.985-8 Section 1.985-8 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... environment in which a significant part of the QBU's activities are conducted; (B) After conversion, the...
Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation
Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar
2008-06-30
Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.
Crucial Conversations about America's Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Draper, John C.; Protheroe, Nancy
2010-01-01
It's up to school leaders to shift the momentum away from conversations based on misperceptions and toward those that study critical issues about school improvement. "Crucial Conversations About America's Schools" talks about how to do this and provides examples of how to reframe conversations on the hot-button but important topics of…
The Personal Enjoyment of Conversation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Keller, Paul W.
Conversation reminds us that we are not alone, that shared language is the opportunity to try on our many masks to see how many of them we can do without. The variety of pleasures accrued from conversation--"layers of pleasure"--deepen only as they move away from the individual orbits into the circle of mutual experience. When conversation is…
ENHANCEMENT OF METHANE CONVERSION USING ELECTRIC FIELDS
Richard G. Mallinson; Lance L. Lobban
2000-05-01
This report summarizes the conditions and results of this multifaceted program. Detailed experimental descriptions and results and discussion can be found in the publications cited in the Appendix. The goal of this project is the development of novel, economical, processes for the conversion of natural gas to more valuable projects such as synthesis gas or direct conversion to methanol, ethylene and other organic oxygenates or higher hydrocarbons. The methodologies of the project are to investigate and develop low temperature electric discharges and electric discharge-enhanced catalysis for carrying out these conversions. With the electric discharge-enhanced conversion, the operating temperatures are expected to be far below those currently required for such processes as oxidative coupling, thereby allowing for a higher degree of catalytic selectivity while maintaining high activity. In the case of low temperature discharges, the conversion is carried out at ambient temperature, trading high temperature thermal energy for electric energy as the driving force for conversion. The low operating temperatures remove thermodynamic constraints on the product distribution due to the non-equilibrium nature of the low temperature plasma. This also removes the requirements of large thermal masses that need very large-scale operation to maximize efficiency that is the characteristic of current technologies, including high temperature plasma processes. This potentially allows much smaller scale processes to be efficient. Additionally, a gas conversion process that is electrically driven provides an internal use for excess power generated by proposed Fischer Tropsch gas-to-liquids processes and can increase their internal thermal efficiency and reduce capital costs. This project has studied three primary types of low temperature plasma reactor and operating conditions. The organization of this program is shown schematically in the report. Typical small scale laboratory reactor
Ion diffusion coefficient measurements in nanochannels at various concentrations.
Wang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jianming; Hu, Guoqing
2014-03-01
Diffusion is one of the most fundamental properties of ionic transport in solutions. Here, we present experimental studies and theoretical analysis on the ion diffusion in nanochannels. Based on Fick's second law, we develop a current monitoring method to measure ion diffusion coefficient of high solution concentrations in nanochannels. This method is further extended to the cases at medium and low concentrations. Through monitoring ionic current during diffusion, we obtain diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride solution at different concentrations in nanochannels. These diffusion coefficients within the confined space are close to theirs bulk values. It is also found that the apparent ion diffusion equilibrium in the present experiments is very slow at low concentration, which we attribute to the slow equilibrium of the nanochannel surface charge. Finally, we get a primary acknowledge of the equilibrium rate between the nanochannel surface charge and electrolyte solution. The results in this work have improved the understanding of nanoscale diffusion and nanochannel surface charge and may be useful in nanofluidic applications such as ion-selective transport, energy conversion, and nanopore biosensors. PMID:24803967
Ion diffusion coefficient measurements in nanochannels at various concentrations
Wang, Junrong; Zhang, Li; Xue, Jianming; Hu, Guoqing
2014-01-01
Diffusion is one of the most fundamental properties of ionic transport in solutions. Here, we present experimental studies and theoretical analysis on the ion diffusion in nanochannels. Based on Fick's second law, we develop a current monitoring method to measure ion diffusion coefficient of high solution concentrations in nanochannels. This method is further extended to the cases at medium and low concentrations. Through monitoring ionic current during diffusion, we obtain diffusion coefficients of potassium chloride solution at different concentrations in nanochannels. These diffusion coefficients within the confined space are close to theirs bulk values. It is also found that the apparent ion diffusion equilibrium in the present experiments is very slow at low concentration, which we attribute to the slow equilibrium of the nanochannel surface charge. Finally, we get a primary acknowledge of the equilibrium rate between the nanochannel surface charge and electrolyte solution. The results in this work have improved the understanding of nanoscale diffusion and nanochannel surface charge and may be useful in nanofluidic applications such as ion-selective transport, energy conversion, and nanopore biosensors. PMID:24803967
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sedere, M. U.; Feldt, Leonard S.
1977-01-01
Two new reliability coefficients have been derived for situations in which a test must be divided into parts of unequal length. This report summarizes a study of the statistical bias and the standard errors of these coefficients and compares them to Guttman's lambda coefficients and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. (Author/JKS)
Gas-film coefficients for streams
Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.
1983-01-01
Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.
Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients
Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce
2015-01-01
The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, W. S.; Carvalho, A. B., Jr.; Hunt, J. G.; Maia, A. F.
2014-02-01
The objective of this study was to estimate doses in the physician and the nurse assistant at different positions during interventional radiology procedures. In this study, effective doses obtained for the physician and at points occupied by other workers were normalised by air kerma-area product (KAP). The simulations were performed for two X-ray spectra (70 kVp and 87 kVp) using the radiation transport code MCNPX (version 2.7.0), and a pair of anthropomorphic voxel phantoms (MASH/FASH) used to represent both the patient and the medical professional at positions from 7 cm to 47 cm from the patient. The X-ray tube was represented by a point source positioned in the anterior posterior (AP) and posterior anterior (PA) projections. The CC can be useful to calculate effective doses, which in turn are related to stochastic effects. With the knowledge of the values of CCs and KAP measured in an X-ray equipment, at a similar exposure, medical professionals will be able to know their own effective dose.
Zinc phosphate conversion coatings
Sugama, T.
1997-02-18
Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.
Zinc phosphate conversion coatings
Sugama, Toshifumi
1997-01-01
Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.
Solar photothermophotovoltaic energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woolf, L. D.
A solar photothermophotovoltaic (PTPV) process for solar energy conversion is proposed in which concentrated solar radiation impinges on a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell with a back surface reflector. The above band-gap blackbody radiation is converted into electricity, while the below band-gap radiation is reflected back to the blackbody. Computer modeling has shown the PTPV system to be much less sensitive to parasitic losses than a comparable TPV system, and to operate at a significantly lower blackbody absorber/emitter temperature. PTPV efficiency is also shown to be as much as 50 percent higher than that for a comparable photovoltaic system.
Frequency conversion in free-standing periodically oriented gallium nitride
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Christopher G.; Bowman, Steven R.; Hite, Jennifer K.; Freitas, Jaime A.; Kub, Francis J.; Eddy, Charles R.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Leach, Jacob H.; Udwary, Kevin
2016-03-01
Gallium nitride's (GaN) material properties of broadband transparency, high thermal conductivity, and wide-band gap make it a promising candidate for high-power frequency conversion devices. The strong internal polarization of GaN leads to large second-order nonlinearity, but conventional phase matching is prevented due to weak birefringence. To obtain efficient nonlinear optic frequency conversion, patterned inversion growth has been developed to induce quasiphase matching (QPM). We have fabricated and tested periodically oriented GaN (PO-GaN) devices to obtain QPM frequency conversion. This report discusses our recent measurements of second harmonic generation resonances for these devices.
A toy model for hostility between two populations in dependency on their internal frustration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wieder, Thomas
2014-10-01
Hostility between two populations n and m is described in terms of a first-order differential equation system for the population sizes n(t) and m(t) over time t. Each population is subdivided into two subpopulations 'Doves' and 'Hawks'. Hawks represent the strategy aggression against the other population. The number of hawks which actually exert aggression depends on the overall frustration within their population. Conversely, aggression causes the conversion from doves to hawks in the attacked population. Thus, a system of flows among the subpopulation is established. The actual behaviour of n(t) and m(t) over time t depends on the coefficients chosen for the differential system and in particular on the temporal development of the frustration parameters. No calculation or simulation of actual population sizes is intended. The only goal of the paper is to establish a model which describes an never ending conflict between both populations caused by internal frustrations.
Natural gas conversion process
Not Available
1991-01-01
The main objective is to design and operate a laboratory apparatus for the catalytic reforming of natural gas in order to provide data for a large-scale process. To accelerate the assembly and calibration of this equipment, a request has been made to the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for assistance, under the DOE's Industrial Visitor Exchange Program. Pr. Heinz Heinemann (Catalysis), Dr. John Apps (Geochemistry) and Dr. Robert Fulton (Mechanical Engineering) have expressed interest in supporting our request. Pr. Heinemann's recent results on the conversion of Petroleum Coke residues into CO2 and H2 mixtures using highly basic metal oxides catalysts, similar to ours, are very encouraging regarding the possibility of converting the Coke residue on our catalyst into Syngas in the Regenerator/riser, as proposed. To minimize Coke formation in the vapor phase, by the Plasmapyrolytic Methane Conversion reactions, the experimental data of H. Drost et al. (Ref. 12) have been reviewed. Work is underway to design equipment for the safe and non-polluting disposal of the two gaseous product streams of the flow loop. 2 refs.
Murphy, L.M.
1985-09-16
The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.
Murphy, Lawrence M.
1987-01-01
The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.
Direct somatic lineage conversion.
Tanabe, Koji; Haag, Daniel; Wernig, Marius
2015-10-19
The predominant view of embryonic development and cell differentiation has been that rigid and even irreversible epigenetic marks are laid down along the path of cell specialization ensuring the proper silencing of unrelated lineage programmes. This model made the prediction that specialized cell types are stable and cannot be redirected into other lineages. Accordingly, early attempts to change the identity of somatic cells had little success and was limited to conversions between closely related cell types. Nuclear transplantation experiments demonstrated, however, that specialized cells even from adult mammals can be reprogrammed into a totipotent state. The discovery that a small combination of transcription factors can reprogramme cells to pluripotency without the need of oocytes further supported the view that these epigenetic barriers can be overcome much easier than assumed, but the extent of this flexibility was still unclear. When we showed that a differentiated mesodermal cell can be directly converted to a differentiated ectodermal cell without a pluripotent intermediate, it was suggested that in principle any cell type could be converted into any other cell type. Indeed, the work of several groups in recent years has provided many more examples of direct somatic lineage conversions. Today, the question is not anymore whether a specific cell type can be generated by direct reprogramming but how it can be induced. PMID:26416679
Jonsson, E.B.
1997-08-01
The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.
Micromechanical power conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noworolski, J. Mark
A new concept in power conversion, based on electromechanical energy storage, is developed. Mechanical energy storage using Silicon offers a 2 order of magnitude improvement in volumetric energy storage density over conventional approaches using magnetic components. Two broad classes of electromechanical power converter topologies are introduced and analyzed: resonant and boost. Both are shown to scale well to smaller electromechanical device dimensions. A novel self-aligned micromachined polysilicon on nitride (SAMPSON) process flow was developed to fabricate mumechanical devices suitable for the boost conversion function. The process utility includes simplified fabrication of conventional surface micromachined resonators. Calculations showed that well-designed boost converters can achieve step-up factors in excess of 10 while using only a single mumechanical device. Boost converter tests utilizing discrete devices and the fabricated mumechanical elements demonstrated a step-up factor of 1.7. Measurements conducted on representative test devices indicate that power densities an order of magnitude higher than those in conventional power converters are attainable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Myra, J. R.
2006-10-01
Fast magnetosonic waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) can convert to much shorter wavelength modes such as ion Bernstein waves (IBW) and ion cyclotron waves (ICW) [1]. These modes are potentially useful for plasma control through the generation of localized currents and sheared flows. As part of the SciDAC Center for Simulation of Wave-Plasma Interactions project, the AORSA global-wave solver [2] has been ported to the new, dual-core Cray XT-3 (Jaguar) at ORNL where it demonstrates excellent scaling with the number of processors. Preliminary calculations using 4096 processors have allowed the first full-wave simulations of mode conversion in ITER. Mode conversion from the fast wave to the ICW is observed in mixtures of deuterium, tritium and helium3 at 53 MHz. The resulting flow velocity and electric field shear will be calculated. [1] F.W. Perkins, Nucl. Fusion 17, 1197 (1977). [2] E.F. Jaeger, L.A. Berry, J.R. Myra, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 195001-1 (2003).
Coupling coefficient of gain-guided lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.
1984-01-01
An analytical model is presented for the coupling coefficient for two gain-guided coupled waveguides, e.g., semiconductor laser arrays. A common parabolic gain distribution is assumed for the lasers, and the effective dielectric constant distribution is approximated in terms of the bulk refraction index, wavelength, power filling factor, and the antiguiding factor. The fundamental mode is then formulated and used in an integral for the coupling coefficient. The dependence of the coefficient of various waveguide parameters is described.
Computation of virial coefficients from integral equations.
Zhang, Cheng; Lai, Chun-Liang; Pettitt, B Montgomery
2015-06-01
A polynomial-time method of computing the virial coefficients from an integral equation framework is presented. The method computes the truncated density expansions of the correlation functions by series transformations, and then extracts the virial coefficients from the density components. As an application, the method was used in a hybrid-closure integral equation with a set of self-consistent conditions, which produced reasonably accurate virial coefficients for the hard-sphere fluid and Gaussian model in high dimensions. PMID:26049482
Computation of virial coefficients from integral equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Cheng; Lai, Chun-Liang; Pettitt, B. Montgomery
2015-06-01
A polynomial-time method of computing the virial coefficients from an integral equation framework is presented. The method computes the truncated density expansions of the correlation functions by series transformations, and then extracts the virial coefficients from the density components. As an application, the method was used in a hybrid-closure integral equation with a set of self-consistent conditions, which produced reasonably accurate virial coefficients for the hard-sphere fluid and Gaussian model in high dimensions.
Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.
1990-01-01
An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.
Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations
Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou
2013-09-01
This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and
LTE plasma reactors for materials conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolacinski, Zbigniew; Szymanski, Lukasz; Raniszewski, Grzegorz
2013-02-01
Plasma aided materials conversion is the use of charged particles for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties or to convert unwanted materials such as waste into environmentally friendly products. The near LTE plasma (in atmospheric or reduced pressure) is a nice tool for engineering of materials which in consequence upgrades the performance of most of the consumer goods. The paper presents a few samples of the own research results related to the design and use of some plasma reactors for synthesis of nanomaterials and hazardous materials destruction with their conversion into valuable products. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.
Conversion acoustic resonances in orthorhombic crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyubimov, V. N.; Bessonov, D. A.; Alshits, V. I.
2016-05-01
A classification of acoustic-beam reflection resonances in orthorhombic crystals under conditions where a proximity to conversion is implemented in the vicinity of total internal reflection is proposed. In this case, the energy from the incident pump beam falls almost entirely into a narrow intense reflected beam propagating at a small angle with respect to the surface. The crystal boundary is parallel to one of the elastic symmetry planes, and the excited beam propagates near one of axes 2 in this plane. Depending on the relations between the elastic moduli and the chosen propagation geometry, 18 types of resonances may occur, but no more than three in each crystal. The developed theory combines an approximate analytical description and accurate computer analysis. The relations between the elastic moduli providing minimum energy loss over the parasite reflected wave are determined. Some crystals with resonant excitation very close to conversion are revealed.
Río-Casanova, Lucía Del; González, Anabel; Páramo, Mario; Brenlla, Julio
2016-01-01
Previous reviews have focused on neurobiological and physiological mechanisms underlying conversion disorder, but they do not usually distinguish between negative and positive conversion symptoms. Some authors have proposed that different phenomena should underlie both situations and that diverse emotion regulation strategies (under- vs. overregulation of affect) should be related to different internal experiences (excitatory experiences with hyperarousal manifestations vs. inhibitory experiences coexisting with hypoarousal states, respectively). After a careful review of the literature, we conclude that there is not a unique theory comprising all findings. Nevertheless, we have also collected some replicated findings that should be salient. Patients manifesting positive conversion symptoms tended to present with limbic hyperfunction, not sufficiently counteracted by prefrontal control. This leads to underregulation of affect mechanisms, increased emotional reactivity and autonomic hyperarousal. The opposite pattern (with a prefrontal overfunction working as a cognitive brake over the limbic system) has been described during negative conversion manifestations. We also highlight the influence of fronto-limbic circuits over cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits' regulation, whose horizontal and vertical synchronization has been at the spotlight of the genesis of conversion and dissociative disorders. PMID:26259230
Distribution Coefficients of Impurities in Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, J. V.
2014-04-01
Impurities dissolved in very pure metals at the level of parts per million often cause an elevation or depression of the freezing temperature of the order of millikelvins. This represents a significant contribution to the uncertainty of standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrations. An important parameter for characterizing the behavior of impurities is the distribution coefficient , which is the ratio of the solid solubility to liquid solubility. A knowledge of for a given binary system is essential for contemporary methods of evaluating or correcting for the effect of impurities, and it is therefore of universal interest to have the most complete set of values possible. A survey of equilibrium values of (in the low concentration limit) reported in the literature for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 fixed points of Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Au, Ag, and Cu is presented. In addition, thermodynamic calculations of using MTDATA are presented for 170 binary systems. In total, the combined values of from all available sources for 430 binary systems are presented. In addition, by considering all available values of for impurities in 25 different metal solvents (1300 binary systems) enough data are available to characterize patterns in the value of for a given impurity as a function of its position in the periodic table. This enables prediction of for a significant number of binary systems for which data and calculations are unavailable. By combining data from many sources, values of for solutes (atomic number from 1 to 94) in ITS-90 fixed points from Hg to Cu are suggested, together with some tentative predicted values where literature data and calculations are unavailable.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Whitehouse, John
1974-01-01
In his position as retiring chief of the Workers' Education Branch of the International Labour Office (ILO), Paul B. J. Chu is interviewed on worker education, the ILO organization and tole, personal disappointments and satisfactions, future educational developments in which the ILO will be involved, and problems facing workers' education. (AG)
Laser plasmadynamic energy conversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shimada, K.
1976-01-01
The generation of electrons ions by interacting an intense laser beam with cesium vapor is considered. Theoretical calculation shows that the conversion efficiency is as high as 40 percent if the entire photon energy is utilized in ionizing the cesium vapor that is generated initially by the incoming laser beam. An output voltage is expected to be generated across two electrodes, one of which is the liquid cesium, by keeping the other electrode at a different work function. Evaluation of the laser plasmadynamic (LPD) converter was performed using pulsed ruby and Nd-glass lasers. Although the results obtained to date indicate an efficiency smaller than that of theoretical predictions, an unoptimized LPD converter did demonstrate the capability of converting laser energy at large power levels. The limitations in the performance may by due to converter geometry, the types of lasers used, and other limitations inherent to the cesium plasma.
Optomechanical down-conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Groeblacher, Simon; Hofer, Sebastian; Wieczorek, Witlef; Vanner, Michael; Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus
2011-03-01
One of the central interactions in quantum optics is two-mode squeezing, also known as down-conversion. It has been used in a multitude of pioneering experiments to demonstrate non-classical states of light and it is at the heart of generating quantum entanglement in optical fields. Here we demonstrate first experimental results towards the optomechanical analogue, in which an optical and a mechanical mode interact via a two-mode squeezing operation. In addition, we make use of the fact that large optomechanical coupling strengths provide access to an interaction regime beyond the rotating wave approximation. This allows for simultaneous cooling of the mechanical mode, which will eventually enable the preparation of pure initial mechanical states and is hence an important precondition to achieve the envisioned optomechanical entanglement.
Gyroharmonic conversion experiments
Hirshfield, J. L.; LaPointe, M. A.; Ganguly, A. K.
1999-05-07
Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250-350 kV, 20-30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself.
Gyroharmonic conversion experiments
Hirshfield, J.L.; LaPointe, M.A.; Ganguly, A.K.; LaPointe, M.A.
1999-05-01
Generation of high power microwaves has been observed in experiments where a 250{endash}350 kV, 20{endash}30 A electron beam accelerated in a cyclotron autoresonance accelerator (CARA) passes through a cavity tuned gyroharmonic) and at 8.6 GHz (3rd harmonic) will be described. Theory indicates that high conversion efficiency can be obtained for a high quality beam injected into CARA, and when mode competition can be controlled. Comparisons will be made between the experiments and theory. Planned 7th harmonic experiments will also be described, in which phase matching between the TE-72 mode at 20 GHz, and the TE-11 mode at 2.86 GHz, allows efficient 20 GHz co-generation within the CARA waveguide itself. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aharonian, Gregory
1986-01-01
The most pratical solution to the conversion of FORTRAN to other programming languages which STO and a few others have adopted, uses an intermediate language that is easy to translate FORTRAN into, and allows for source codes in other languages to be generated automatically. The intermediate language is the union of all other programming languages (and the trick is to create a useful union) with some extensions that reflect the nature of the algorithms. The benefits of this approach are many. First the original FORTRAN program has to be rewritten only once, and then only parts of the program: most FORTRAN code passes through without and change (i.e., assignment and simple IF statements). Software tools are provided to ease this initial translation. Once in the intermediate language, the algorithm can then be obtained in any other language automatically. An example of a subroutine from the Rispack library in ten different languages is given.
Newton, M. A.
1997-02-01
The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.
Direct MC conversion of absorbed dose to graphite to absorbed dose to water for 60Co radiation.
Lye, J E; Butler, D J; Franich, R D; Harty, P D; Oliver, C P; Ramanathan, G; Webb, D V; Wright, T
2013-06-01
The ARPANSA calibration service for (60)Co gamma rays is based on a primary standard graphite calorimeter that measures absorbed dose to graphite. Measurements with the calorimeter are converted to the absorbed dose to water using the calculation of the ratio of the absorbed dose in the calorimeter to the absorbed dose in a water phantom. ARPANSA has recently changed the basis of this calculation from a photon fluence scaling method to a direct Monte Carlo (MC) calculation. The MC conversion uses an EGSnrc model of the cobalt source that has been validated against water tank and graphite phantom measurements, a step that is required to quantify uncertainties in the underlying interaction coefficients in the MC code. A comparison with the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM) as part of the key comparison BIPM.RI(I)-K4 showed an agreement of 0.9973 (53). PMID:23152147
Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2009-01-01
The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…
Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fymat, A. L.
1977-01-01
Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.
On Burnett coefficients in periodic media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conca, Carlos; Orive, Rafael; Vanninathan, Muthusamy
2006-03-01
The aim of this work is to demonstrate a curious property of general periodic structures. It is well known that the corresponding homogenized matrix is positive definite. We calculate here the next order Burnett coefficients associated with such structures. We prove that these coefficients form a tensor which is negative semidefinite. We also provide some examples showing degeneracy in multidimension.
Implications of NGA for NEHRP site coefficients
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2012-01-01
Three proposals are provided to update tables 11.4-1 and 11.4-2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (7-10), by the American Society of Civil Engineers (2010) (ASCE/SEI 7-10), with site coefficients implied directly by NGA (Next Generation Attenuation) ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs). Proposals include a recommendation to use straight-line interpolation to infer site coefficients at intermediate values of ̅vs (average shear velocity). Site coefficients are recommended to ensure consistency with ASCE/SEI 7-10 MCER (Maximum Considered Earthquake) seismic-design maps and simplified site-specific design spectra procedures requiring site classes with associated tabulated site coefficients and a reference site class with unity site coefficients. Recommended site coefficients are confirmed by independent observations of average site amplification coefficients inferred with respect to an average ground condition consistent with that used for the MCER maps. The NGA coefficients recommended for consideration are implied directly by the NGA GMPEs and do not require introduction of additional models.
A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.
2013-01-01
We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.
Diffusion coefficients of several aqueous alkanolamine solutions
Snijder, E.D.; Riele, M.J.M. te; Versteeg, G.F.; Swaaij, W.P.M. van . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)
1993-07-01
In absorption processes of acid gases (H[sub 2]S, CO[sub 2], COS) in alkanolamine solutions, diffusion coefficients are used for the calculation of the mass transfer rate. The Taylor dispersion technique was applied for the determination of diffusion coefficients of various systems. Experiments with the system KCl in water showed that the experimental setup provides accurate data. For the alkanolamines monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and di-2-propanolamine (DIPA), correlations for the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature at different concentrations are given. A single relation for every amine has been derived which correlates the diffusion coefficients as a function of temperature and concentration. The temperature was varied between 298 and 348 K, and the concentration between 0 and 4000-5000 mol/m[sup 3]. Furthermore, a modified Stokes-Einstein relation is presented for the prediction of the diffusion coefficients in the alkanolamines in relation to the viscosity of the solvent and the diffusion coefficient at infinite dilution. The diffusion coefficients at low concentrations are compared with some available relations for the estimation of diffusion coefficients at infinite dilution, and it appears that the agreement is fairly good.
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
Calculator program set up for film coefficients
Gracey, J.O.; Teter, D.L.
1982-11-15
Describes a mechanized computation scheme for the film coefficients used in heat transfer calculations designed for the Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculator. Presents tables showing application conditions (small diagram included) and the corresponding heat transfer equations for 10 heat flow situations; symbols used; user instructions, a complete film coefficient program; and storage assignments. Example problem and corresponding printout are given.
Code System to Calculate Correlation & Regression Coefficients.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1999-11-23
Version 00 PCC/SRC is designed for use in conjunction with sensitivity analyses of complex computer models. PCC/SRC calculates the partial correlation coefficients (PCC) and the standardized regression coefficients (SRC) from the multivariate input to, and output from, a computer model.
Discharge coefficients of holes angled to the flow direction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hay, N.; Henshall, S. E.; Manning, A.
1992-06-01
In the cooling passages of gas turbine blades, branches are often angled to the direction of the internal flow. This is particularly the case with film cooling holes. Accurate knowledge of the discharge coefficient of such holes at the design stage is vital so that the holes are correctly sized thus avoiding wastage of coolant and the formation of hot spots on the blade. This paper describes an experimental investigation to determine the discharge coefficient of 30 deg inclined holes with various degrees of inlet radiusing and with the axis of the hole at various orientation angles to the direction of the flow. Results are given for nominal main flow Mach numbers of 0, 0.15 and 0.3. The effects of radiusing, orientation and cross flow Mach number are quantified in the paper, the general trends are described, and the criteria for optimum performance are identified.
An agreement coefficient for image comparison
Ji, L.; Gallo, K.
2006-01-01
Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Justification for change in AXAIR dispersion coefficients
Simpkins, A.A.
1994-02-01
AXAIR is the primary dose assessment code used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to predict doses following hypothetical releases of relatively short durations. The atmospheric dispersion coefficients currently used in AXAIR are analytical expressions developed to fit the curves in the Turner Workbook as referred to in USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.145. This report explores the ramifications and benefits of changing the dispersion coefficients to a combination of Pasquill`s lateral dispersion coefficients and Briggs` vertical dispersion coefficients. The differences in the dispersion coefficients have a minor effect on the relative air concentrations for stability classes A--D, but a significant difference is seen for classes E, F, and G.
Analytic structure of one-loop coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Wang, Honghui
2013-05-01
By the unitarity cut method, analytic expressions of one-loop coefficients have been given in spinor forms. In this paper, we present one-loop coefficients of various bases in Lorentz-invariant contraction forms of external momenta. Using these forms, the analytic structure of these coefficients becomes manifest. Firstly, coefficients of bases contain only second-type singularities while the first-type singularities are included inside scalar bases. Secondly, the highest degree of each singularity is correlated with the degree of the inner momentum in the numerator. Thirdly, the same singularities will appear in different coefficients, thus our explicit results could be used to provide a clear physical picture under various limits (such as soft or collinear limits) when combining contributions from all bases.
Metallurgical technologies, energy conversion, and magnetohydrodynamic flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branover, Herman; Unger, Yeshajahu
The present volume discusses metallurgical applications of MHD, R&D on MHD devices employing liquid working medium for process applications, electromagnetic (EM) modulation of molten metal flow, EM pump performance of superconducting MHD devices, induction EM alkali-metal pumps, a physical model for EM-driven flow in channel-induction furnaces, grain refinement in Al alloys via EM vibrational method, dendrite growth of solidifying metal in dc magnetic field, MHD for mass and heat transfer in single-crystal melt growth, inverse EM shaping, and liquid-metal MHD development in Israel. Also discussed are the embrittlement of steel by lead, an open cycle MHD disk generator, the acceleration of gas-liquid piston flows for molten-metal MHD generators, MHD flow around a cylinder, new MHD drag coefficients, liquid-metal MHD two-phase flow, and two-phase liquid gas mixers for MHD energy conversion. (No individual items are abstracted in this volume)
Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water
Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-11-01
Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.
On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.
1973-01-01
The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.
Determination of absorption coefficients of thin films
Lodenquai, J.F. )
1994-08-01
The equations that are usually presented as those used to determine the absorption coefficients of materials in film form based on measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients are fundamentally incorrect. These equations omit a multiplicative factor arising from the complex nature of the refractive indices of the materials. This factor enters explicitly into the relationship between the transmission and reflection coefficients for such materials and is not necessarily close to unity, although in practice this factor can be approximated by unity at least in the infrared through the optical range of wavelengths.
Diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea.
Haltrin, V I
1999-02-20
A differential equation of a Riccati type for the diffuse reflection coefficient of a stratified sea is proposed. For a homogeneous sea with arbitrary inherent optical properties this equation is solved analytically. For an inhomogeneous sea it is solved approximately for any arbitrary stratification. The resulting equation expresses the diffuse reflection coefficient of the sea through vertical profiles of absorption and backscattering coefficients, bottom albedo, and sea depth. The results of calculations with this equation are compared with Monte Carlo computations. It was found that the precision of this approach is in the range of 15%. PMID:18305694
Generalized Coefficients for Hopf Cyclic Cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Kucerovsky, Dan; Rangipour, Bahram
2014-09-01
A category of coefficients for Hopf cyclic cohomology is defined. It is shown that this category has two proper subcategories of which the smallest one is the known category of stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld modules. The middle subcategory is comprised of those coefficients which satisfy a generalized SAYD condition depending on both the Hopf algebra and the (co)algebra in question. Some examples are introduced to show that these three categories are different. It is shown that all components of Hopf cyclic cohomology work well with the new coefficients we have defined.
Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models
Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang
2008-01-01
The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950
Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.
2010-07-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.
[Radon and internal contamination].
Stanga, A; Trenta, F
2008-01-01
Because of hits everywhere presence in air and in water needful mediums for life, radon is a omnipresent risk for every person. Therefore, in relation to those vital functions, lungs and gastro-enteric tract represent the principal target organs of this noble radioactive gas (and mainly of hits radioactive daughters). International organisms evaluated the effective dose coefficients for both target organs, so it is possible e quantitative assessment of the exposure risk related to this noble gas. PMID:19288807
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2002-09-01
PDB to AMPL Conversion was written to convert protein data base files to AMPL files. The protein data bases on the internet contain a wealth of information about the structue and makeup of proteins. Each file contains information derived by one or more experiments and contains information on how the experiment waw performed, the amino acid building blocks of each chain, and often the three-dimensional structure of the protein extracted from the experiments. The waymore » a protein folds determines much about its function. Thus, studying the three-dimensional structure of the protein is of great interest. Analysing the contact maps is one way to examine the structure. A contact map is a graph which has a linear back bone of amino acids for nodes (i.e., adjacent amino acids are always connected) and vertices between non-adjacent nodes if they are close enough to be considered in contact. If the graphs are similar then the folds of the protein and their function should also be similar. This software extracts the contact maps from a protein data base file and puts in into AMPL data format. This format is designed for use in AMPL, a programming language for simplifying linear programming formulations.« less
Geothermal energy conversion facility
Kutscher, C.F.
1997-12-31
With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.
2007-01-19
The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle in motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂactualÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.
Bean, R.M. )
1989-10-01
The objectives of this project were to describe in detail the degradation of coals by fungi and microbes, to expand the range of applicability of the process to include new microbes and other coal types, to identify the means by which biosolubilization of coal is accomplished, and to explore means to enhance the rates and extent of coal bioconversion. The project was initiated in a response to the discovery by Dr. Martin Cohen at the University of Hartford, of a fungal strain of Coriolus versicolor that would render a solid coal substance, leonardite, into a liquid product. The project has identified the principal agent of leonardite solubilization as a powerful metal chelator, most likely a fungal-produced siderophore. Another nonlaccase enzyme has also been identified as a unique biosolubilizing agent produced by C. versicolor. Assays were developed for the quantitative determination of biological coal conversion, and for the determination of potency of biosolubilizing agent. Screening studies uncovered several microbial organisms capable of coal biodegradation, and led to the discovery that prolonged heating in air at the moderate temperature of 150{degree}C allowed the biodegradation of Illinois {number sign}6 coal to material soluble in dilute base. Chemical studies showed that leonardite biosolubilization was accompanied by relatively small change in composition, while solubilization of Illinois {number sign}6 coal involves considerable oxidation of the coal. 24 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
2007-01-19
The Static Scale Conversion (SSC) software is a unique enhancement to the AIMVEE system. It enables a SSC to weigh and measure vehicles and cargo dynamically (i.e., as they pass over the large scale. Included in the software is the AIMVEE computer code base. The SSC and AIMVEE computer system electronically continue to retrieve deployment information, identify vehicle automatically and determine total weight, individual axle weights, axle spacing and center-of-balance for any wheeled vehicle inmore » motion. The AIMVEE computer code system can also perform these functions statically for both wheel vehicles and cargo with information. The AIMVEE computer code system incorporates digital images and applies cubing algorithms to determine length, width, height for cubic dimensions of both vehicle and cargo. Once all this information is stored, it electronically links to data collection and dissemination systems to provide ÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂactualÃÂ¢ÃÂÃÂ weight and measurement information for planning, deployment, and in-transit visibility.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary
2011-01-01
Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.
Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium
Killough, G. G.
1982-03-01
For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.
Record Conversion at Oregon State.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watkins, Deane
1985-01-01
Describes the conversion of card catalog records at William Jasper Kerr Library, Oregon State University, to an online system. Discussion covers the use of OCLC and student assistants, procedures and specifications, and problems associated with massive retrospective conversion needs and uncertain budget allocations. Eight sources are recommended.…
Career Conversations in Vocational Schools
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mittendorff, Kariene; den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and relationship. Results showed that career…
Children's Understanding of Conversational Principles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Conti, Daniel J.; Camras, Linda A.
1984-01-01
Investigates the development of awareness of conversational principles in preschool, first-, and third-grade children by presenting them with short stories ending with a verbal statement by a story character. Results suggest that children's understanding of conversational principles improves considerably between preschool and first grade.…
Faculty Meetings: Hidden Conversational Dynamics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Richard F.
2015-01-01
In the everydayness of faculty meetings, collegial conversations mirror distinctive dynamics and practices, which either enhance or undercut organizational effectiveness. A cluster of conversational practices affect how colleagues connect, engage, interact, and influence others during faculty meetings in diverse educational settings. The…
Conversational Competence in Academic Settings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bowman, Richard F.
2014-01-01
Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…
Career Techniques and Interventions: Themes from an International Conversation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feller, Rich W.; Russell, Martha; Whichard, Judy A.
2005-01-01
The need for appropriate, timely, and increasingly comprehensive career development and education programs continues to escalate. It is interesting that despite the differences in cultures, religions, economies, political systems, and education structures, many countries face similar challenges when designing and implementing career development…
State of Practice for Emerging Waste Conversion Technologies
RTI International (RTI) was contracted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Research and Development to conduct research to prepare a “State of Practice” report to support State and local decision-makers on the subject of emerging waste conversion technolo...
Life and Literacy in Haiti: A Conversation with Jocelyne Trouillot
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lehman, Barbara A.; Logan, Cheryl L.
2011-01-01
A year after the earthquake that devastated Haiti in January 2010, Lehman and Logan have a virtual conversation with Jocelyne Trouillot, author and publisher of Haitian Creole children's books, founder of the Haiti section of the International Board on Books for Young People, and head of the Universite Caraibe in Port-au-Prince. They discuss the…
19 CFR 351.415 - Conversion of currency.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of currency. 351.415 Section 351.415 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value §...
Universal relations of transport coefficients from holography
Cherman, Aleksey; Nellore, Abhinav
2009-09-15
We show that there are universal high-temperature relations for transport coefficients of plasmas described by a wide class of field theories with gravity duals. These theories can be viewed as strongly coupled large-N{sub c} conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The transport coefficients we study are the speed of sound and bulk viscosity, as well as the conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and charge susceptibility of probe U(1) charges. We show that the sound bound v{sub s}{sup 2}{<=}1/3 is satisfied at high temperatures in these theories and also discuss bounds on the diffusion coefficient, the conductivity, and the bulk viscosity.
Factors affecting miscible flooding dispersion coefficients
Yellig, W.F.; Baker, L.E.
1980-01-01
Miscible solvent slug size, and therefore cost, is dependent on the mixing or dispersion taking place in the reservoir. Fluid mixing also can be important in the interpretation of laboratory simulations of miscible floods. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of velocity, viscosity ratio, rock type, and core length on dispersion (mixing) coefficients measured in short cores, with the objective of scaling laboratory measurements to field systems. Statistical analysis of the results of the tests, matched with the capacitance-dispersion (dead-end pore volume) model, shows that an effective dispersion coefficient derived from the model is the most consistent measure of mixing in the systems studied. Viscosity ratios differing by + 4% from unity had no significant effect on the effective dispersion coefficient. The effect of system length on the effective dispersion coefficient is shown.
Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging
Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-01-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227
Second coefficient of viscosity in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan
1991-01-01
Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.
26 CFR 1.1001-5 - European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false European Monetary Union (conversion to the euro). 1.1001-5 Section 1.1001-5 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Determination of Amount of and Recognition of Gain Or Loss § 1.1001-5 European...
26 CFR 1.168(i)-6 - Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Like-kind exchanges and involuntary conversions. 1.168(i)-6 Section 1.168(i)-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.168(i)-6 Like-kind exchanges...
On computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerasimov, I. A.; Vinnikov, E. L.
The algorithm of computing Laplace's coefficients and their derivatives is proposed with application of recurrent relations. The A.G.M.-method is used for the calculation of values L0(0), L0(1). The FORTRAN-program corresponding to the algorithm is given. The precision control was provided with numerical integrating by Simpsons method. The behavior of Laplace's coefficients and their third derivatives whith varying indices K, n for fixed values of the α-parameter is presented graphically.
Basis and implications of the CAP88 age-specific dose coefficients.
Leggett, Richard; Scofield, Patricia; Eckerman, Keith
2013-08-01
Recent versions of CAP88 incorporate age-specific dose coefficients based on biokinetic and dosimetric models applied in Federal Guidance Report 13, "Cancer Risk Coefficients for Environmental Exposure to Radionuclides." With a few exceptions the models are those recommended in a series of reports by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on estimation of doses to the public from environmental radionuclides. This paper describes the basis for the ICRP's age-specific biokinetic and dosimetric models and examines differences with age in dose coefficients derived from those models. PMID:23803668
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similiar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
..., into money or into dissimilar property. 1.1033(a)-2 Section 1.1033(a)-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Common Nontaxable Exchanges § 1.1033(a)-2 Involuntary conversion into similar property, into money or... recognized. Such nonrecognition of gain is mandatory. (c) Conversion into money or into dissimilar...
Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dubroca, Danielle
1987-01-01
A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)
Roadmap on optical energy conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang
2016-07-01
For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light–matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the
Experimental Mg IX photorecombination rate coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schippers, S.; Schnell, M.; Brandau, C.; Kieslich, S.; Müller, A.; Wolf, A.
2004-07-01
The rate coefficient for radiative and dielectronic recombination of beryllium-like magnesium ions was measured with high resolution at the Heidelberg heavy-ion storage ring TSR. In the electron-ion collision energy range 0-207 eV resonances due to 2s -> 2p (Δ N = 0) and 2s -> 3l (Δ N=1) core excitations were detected. At low energies below 0.15 eV the recombination rate coefficient is dominated by strong 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonances with the strongest one occuring at an energy of only 21 meV. These resonances decisively influence the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient in a low temperature plasma. The experimentally derived Mg IX dielectronic recombination rate coefficient (±15% systematical uncertainty) is compared with the recommendation by Mazzotta et al. (1998, A&AS, 133, 403) and the recent calculations by Gu (2003, ApJ, 590, 1131) and by Colgan et al. (2003, A&A, 412, 597). These results deviate from the experimental rate coefficient by 130%, 82% and 25%, respectively, at the temperature where the fractional abundance of Mg IX is expected to peak in a photoionized plasma. At this temperature a theoretical uncertainty in the 1s2 (2s 2p 3P) 7l resonance positions of only 100 meV would translate into an uncertainty of the plasma rate coefficient of almost a factor 3. This finding emphasizes that an accurate theoretical calculation of the Mg IX recombination rate coefficient from first principles is challenging.
Quantitative Ultrasound Imaging Using Acoustic Backscatter Coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boote, Evan Jeffery
Current clinical ultrasound scanners render images which have brightness levels related to the degree of backscattered energy from the tissue being imaged. These images offer the interpreter a qualitative impression of the scattering characteristics of the tissue being examined, but due to the complex factors which affect the amplitude and character of the echoed acoustic energy, it is difficult to make quantitative assessments of scattering nature of the tissue, and thus, difficult to make precise diagnosis when subtle disease effects are present. In this dissertation, a method of data reduction for determining acoustic backscatter coefficients is adapted for use in forming quantitative ultrasound images of this parameter. In these images, the brightness level of an individual pixel corresponds to the backscatter coefficient determined for the spatial position represented by that pixel. The data reduction method utilized rigorously accounts for extraneous factors which affect the scattered echo waveform and has been demonstrated to accurately determine backscatter coefficients under a wide range of conditions. The algorithms and procedures used to form backscatter coefficient images are described. These were tested using tissue-mimicking phantoms which have regions of varying scattering levels. Another phantom has a fat-mimicking layer for testing these techniques under more clinically relevant conditions. Backscatter coefficient images were also formed of in vitro human liver tissue. A clinical ultrasound scanner has been adapted for use as a backscatter coefficient imaging platform. The digital interface between the scanner and the computer used for data reduction are described. Initial tests, using phantoms are presented. A study of backscatter coefficient imaging of in vivo liver was performed using several normal, healthy human subjects.
Energy conversion and storage program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1990-12-01
The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemical and chemical engineering principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels; (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy storage; (4) characterization of complex chemical processes; and (5) the application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, and advanced methods of analysis. The following five areas are discussed: electrochemical energy storage and conversion; microstructured materials; biotechnology; fossil fuels; and high temperature superconducting processing. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.
Mialdun, A; Shevtsova, V
2015-12-14
We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), Soret (S(T)), and thermodiffusion (D(T)) coefficients in toluene-cyclohexane mixture with mass fraction of toluene 0.40 onboard of the International Space Station. The coefficients were measured in the range of the mean temperatures between 20 °C and 34 °C. The Soret coefficient is negative within the investigated temperature range and its absolute value |S(T)| decreases with increasing temperature. The diffusion coefficient for this system increases with temperature rising. For comparison, the temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient was measured in ground laboratory using counter-flow cell technique and revealed a good agreement with microgravity results. A non-direct comparison of the measured onboard Soret coefficients with different systems indicated a similar trend for the temperature dependent behavior. Unexpected experimental finding is that for this system the thermodiffusion coefficient D(T) does not depend on temperature. PMID:26671399
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mialdun, A.; Shevtsova, V.
2015-12-01
We report on the measurement of diffusion (D), Soret (ST), and thermodiffusion (DT) coefficients in toluene-cyclohexane mixture with mass fraction of toluene 0.40 onboard of the International Space Station. The coefficients were measured in the range of the mean temperatures between 20 °C and 34 °C. The Soret coefficient is negative within the investigated temperature range and its absolute value |ST| decreases with increasing temperature. The diffusion coefficient for this system increases with temperature rising. For comparison, the temperature dependence of diffusion coefficient was measured in ground laboratory using counter-flow cell technique and revealed a good agreement with microgravity results. A non-direct comparison of the measured onboard Soret coefficients with different systems indicated a similar trend for the temperature dependent behavior. Unexpected experimental finding is that for this system the thermodiffusion coefficient DT does not depend on temperature.
Yotsukura, N.; Stedfast, D.A.; Draper, R.E.; Brutsaert, W.H.
1983-01-01
Three tests were conducted in a straight 5.2-km reach of the Cowaselon Creek, Canastota, New York, in order to assess feasibility of the steady-state propane-gas tracer method as a means of estimating in situ reaeration coefficients. It is concluded that the steady-state method, which combines as instantaneous injection of dye tracer with a long-duration injection of propane tracer, is an operationally feasible field technique and provides a very reliable means of determining the propane desorption coefficient in steady-channel flow. The effect of wind shear on propane desorption coefficients was not detected in any tests, apparently due to the sheltering effect of high banks. The reaeration coefficient is estimated by applying a conversion factor determined from laboratory experiments to the gas desorption coefficient. (USGS)
Composite Transport Coefficient for Electron Thermal Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coppi, B.; Daughton, W.
1996-11-01
A series of experiments by the Alcator C-Mod machine over a range of heating conditions (ohmic to strongly r.f. heated) has led to the construction of a composite transport coefficient for the electron thermal energy. This is represented by the difference of two terms: one corresponding to an outflow of thermal energy and the other one corresponding to an inflow. There are theoretical arguments(B. Coppi and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Fluids B) 3 p. 2582 (1991) in support of a composite transport coefficient involving the elements of a transport matrix with an inflow term related for instance to the features of the current density profile relative to those of the electron temperature. In deriving the transport coefficient D_e^th that has been used to simulate the Alcator C-Mod plasmas, we have assumed that the driving factor of the underlying modes is the plasma pressure gradient. Thus D_e^th ∝ D_e^o [β_p* - C] where β_p* = (8π p* / B_p^2), p* ≡ -r(dp/dr) is evaluated at the point of maximum pressure gradient, C ≈ 3/16 is a positive numerical coefficient and D_e^o ∝ I_p/(nT)^5/6 is basically the Coppi-Mazzucato-Gruber diffusion coefficient introduced earlier to reproduce the results of experiments with ohmic heating. Supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy
Estimation of soil sorption coefficients using QSARs
Doucette, W.J.
1994-12-31
Sorption coefficients quantitatively describe the extent to which an organic chemical distributes itself between an environmental solid and the aqueous phase that it is contact with at equilibrium. Because of the difficulty and expense associated with measuring sorption coefficients, estimated values are often used in place of site specific, experimental values for fate modeling. Most reported methods for estimating the sorption of organic chemicals onto environmental solids are based on observation that for many organic chemicals, and in particular neutral hydrophobic organics, sorption is directly proportional to the quantity of organic matter associated with the solid. Normalizing soil or sediment specific sorption coefficients to the organic carbon content of the sorbent yields a new ``constant``, Koc, that is considered unique property of the organic chemical being sorbed. Values of Koc are then typically estimated from correlations between Koc and various descriptors of hydrophobicity such as octanol/water partition coefficients (Kow), aqueous solubility (S), molecular connectivity indices (MCIs) and retention times or capacity factors generated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Group contribution methods have also been described. While the so-called ``Koc approach`` for estimating sorption coefficients is most appropriate for neutral, hydrophobic organic chemicals on environmental solids containing a significant amount of organic matter, it has been applied to a wide variety of chemical and soil types. This presentation will focus on a discussion of the Koc approach, its applicability and limitations. A comparison of several widely used methods for estimating Koc will be presented.
A Conversation Well Worth Remembering
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woolven-Allen, John
2009-01-01
To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.
Effective communication during difficult conversations.
Polito, Jacquelyn M
2013-06-01
A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior PMID:23833841
Enzymes for improved biomass conversion
Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.
2016-02-02
Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.
Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification
DeVolpi, A.
1991-11-01
When a pair of images are compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitation of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair images. Results show that three-stage procedure, consisting of first establishing congruence of the two images, than using the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives, and finally qualifying a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These algorithmic stages would be especially useful in arms control treaty verification.
Temperature coefficients of multijunction solar cells
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Virshup, G. F.; Chung, B.-C.; Ladle Ristow, M.; Kuryla, M. S.; Brinker, D.
1990-01-01
Temperature coefficients measured in solar simulators with those measured under AM0 solar illumination are compared to illustrate the challenges in making these measurements. It is shown that simulator measurements of the short-circuit current (delta Jsc/delta T) are inaccurate due to the mismatch between the solar spectrum and the simulators at the bandgaps of the solar cells. Especially susceptible to error is the delta Jsc/delta T of cells which are components in monolithic multijunction solar cells, such as GaAs filtered by 1.93-eV AlGaAs, which has an AM0 coefficient of 6.82 micro-A/sq cm/deg C, compared to a Xenon simulator coefficient of 22.2 micro-A/sq cm/deg C.
Improved Diffusion Coefficients for Stellar Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brassard, P.; Fontaine, G.
2014-04-01
We are currently working on the fourth generation of our codes for building evolutionary and static models of hot subdwarf and white dwarf stars. One of the improvements of these codes consists in an update of all the microphysics involved in the computations. As part of our efforts, we have taken a look at possible improvements for the diffusion coefficients. Since the publication of the widely used diffusion coefficients of Paquette et al. (1986), the number-crunching power of computers has immensely increased, allowing more accurate computations of the triple collision integrals. We have thus produced new tables of diffusion coefficients with higher accuracy and higher resolution than before, of general use in stellar astrophysics.
Frequency conversion of structured light
Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.
2016-01-01
Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448
Frequency conversion of structured light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P.
2016-02-01
Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.
Frequency conversion of structured light.
Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P
2016-01-01
Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging. PMID:26875448
Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals
Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.
2000-07-15
Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides
Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.
2015-05-15
Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.
Virial expansion coefficients in the harmonic approximation.
Armstrong, J R; Zinner, N T; Fedorov, D V; Jensen, A S
2012-08-01
The virial expansion method is applied within a harmonic approximation to an interacting N-body system of identical fermions. We compute the canonical partition functions for two and three particles to get the two lowest orders in the expansion. The energy spectrum is carefully interpolated to reproduce ground-state properties at low temperature and the noninteracting high-temperature limit of constant virial coefficients. This resembles the smearing of shell effects in finite systems with increasing temperature. Numerical results are discussed for the second and third virial coefficients as functions of dimension, temperature, interaction, and transition temperature between low- and high-energy limits. PMID:23005730
Huge Seebeck coefficients in nonaqueous electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, M.; Nakamae, S.; Roger, M.; Guenoun, P.
2011-03-01
The Seebeck coefficients of the nonaqueous electrolytes tetrabutylammonium nitrate, tetraoctylphosphonium bromide, and tetradodecylammonium nitrate in 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and ethylene-glycol are measured in a temperature range from T = 30 °C to T = 45 °C. The Seebeck coefficient is generally of the order of a few hundreds of microvolts per Kelvin for aqueous solution of inorganic ions. Here we report huge values of 7 mV/K at 0.1 M concentration for tetrabutylammonium nitrate in 1-dodecanol. These striking results open the question of unexpectedly large kosmotrope or "structure making" effects of tetraalkylammonium ions on the structure of alcohols.
Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishida, Akihiro; Thao, Hoang Thi Xuan; Yamamoto, Hidenari; Kinoshita, Yohei; Ishikiriyama, Mamoru
2015-10-01
Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.
Energy production from biomass (Part 2): Conversion technologies.
McKendry, Peter
2002-05-01
The use of biomass to provide energy has been fundamental to the development of civilisation. In recent times pressures on the global environment have led to calls for an increased use of renewable energy sources, in lieu of fossil fuels. Biomass is one potential source of renewable energy and the conversion of plant material into a suitable form of energy, usually electricity or as a fuel for an internal combustion engine, can be achieved using a number of different routes, each with specific pros and cons. A brief review of the main conversion processes is presented, with specific regard to the production of a fuel suitable for spark ignition gas engines. PMID:12058830
PAC91 - PROPERTIES AND COEFFICIENTS 1991
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcbride, B. J.
1994-01-01
The two principal functions of PAC91 are to provide a means of generating theoretical thermodynamic functions from molecular constant data and to supply a means of fitting these functions to empirical equations by using a least-squares fit. The coefficients obtained from the fit may then be used to generate a library of thermodynamic data in a uniform and easy-to-use format for use in other computer codes. Several large compilations of selected or calculated thermodynamic data currently exist. Nevertheless, there is a continuing need for additional calculations due to the discovery of new species, the revision of existing molecular constant data and structural parameters, the need for data at temperatures other than those already published, the availability of new or revised heats of formation, dissociation or transition, and the revision of fundamental constants or atomic weights. Calculations may also be needed to compare the results of assuming various possible forms of the partition function. In addition, there is often a preference for thermodynamic data in functional rather than tabular form. In order to satisfy these needs, the PAC91 program can perform any combination of the following: (1) calculate thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy) for any set of 1 to 202 temperatures, (2) obtain a least-squares fit of the first three of these functions (either individually, two at a time, or all three simultaneously) for up to eight temperature intervals, and (3) calculate, as a function of temperature, heats of formation and equilibrium constants from assigned reference elements. The thermodynamic functions for ideal gases may be calculated from molecular constant data using one of several partition function variations provided by the program. For monatomic gases, one of three partition function cutoff techniques may be selected by the user, and unobserved but predicted electronic energy levels may be included by the program
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.
Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.
Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor
2016-01-01
Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible. PMID:26441420
Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James
2004-01-01
Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
Transport coefficients for electrons in Hg vapor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dujko, Sasa; White, Ron; Petrovic, Zoran
2012-06-01
Transport coefficients and distribution functions are calculated for electrons in Hg vapor under swarm conditions using a multi term theory for solving the Boltzmann equation, over a range of E/N values and temperatures relevant to lamp discharges. It is shown that for higher E/N the electron distribution is non-thermal for all Hg vapor temperatures considered, and that the speed distribution function significantly deviates from a Maxwellian under these conditions. Our work has been motivated, in part, by recent suggestions that highly accurate data for transport coefficients required as input in fluid models of Hg vapor lamp discharges may significantly improve the existing models. Current models of such lamps require a knowledge of the plasma electrical conductivity, which can be calculated from the cross sections for electron scattering in Hg vapor and mobility coefficients presented in this work. The effect of metastable atoms on the swarm parameters is also discussed. The influence of a magnetic field on electron transport coefficients in Hg vapor is investigated over a range of B/N values and angles between the fields.
A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.
1989-01-01
Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)
Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok
2015-04-01
Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.
Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...
Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...
Microcomputer Listens to the Coefficient of Restitution.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, P. A.; And Others
1981-01-01
Describes a procedure for determining the coefficient of restitution using a microcomputer which collects and sends data to a large computer where analysis is done and graphical output is generated. The data collection hardware and software are described, and results are illustrated. (Author/SK)
A Primer on Partial Correlation Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Waliczek, Tina M.
Part and partial correlation coefficients are used to measure the strength of a relationship between a dependent variable and an independent variable while controlling for one or more other variables. The present paper discusses the uses and limitations of partial correlations and presents a small heuristic data set to illustrate the discussion.…
Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...
The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors
Mahan, G. D.
2015-01-28
We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.
Uses and Misuses of the Correlation Coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Daniel, Larry G.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth critical analysis of the use and misuse of correlation coefficients. Various analytical and interpretational misconceptions are reviewed, beginning with the egregious assumption that correlational statistics may be useful in inferring causality. Additional misconceptions, stemming from…
EXAMINATION OF SCALE-DEPENDENT DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS
Many hydrologists have observed that dispersion coefficients, when measured in the field, turn out to be scale-dependent. Recently, Guven, et al., (1983) presented a study which contains a basis for understanding the phenomenon of scale-dependent dispersion within a deterministic...
The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.
2008-01-01
This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…
Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
1990-01-01
Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)
Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.
1989-01-01
Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.
Multipass configuration to achieve high-frequency conversion in Li2B4O7 crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Udit; Gangopadhyay, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chittaranjan; Bhar, Gopal C.
2005-02-01
A multipass configuration for second-harmonic generation of Nd:YAG laser radiation is demonstrated to produce, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in twin lithium tetraborate crystals, as much as 21% conversion efficiency even though the effective nonlinear coefficient of the crystal is as low as 1/6th that of KDP. Apart from crystals that have large walk-off angles, low effective nonlinear coefficients, or both, the simple experimental setup would also be quite suitable for those crystals, especially infrared crystals, that have large effective nonlinear coefficients but low laser damage thresholds.
Multipass configuration to achieve high-frequency conversion in Li2B4O7 crystals.
Chatterjee, Udit; Gangopadhyay, Sudipta; Ghosh, Chittaranjan; Bhar, Gopal C
2005-02-10
A multipass configuration for second-harmonic generation of Nd:YAG laser radiation is demonstrated to produce, for the first time to the authors' knowledge in twin lithium tetraborate crystals, as much as 21% conversion efficiency even though the effective nonlinear coefficient of the crystal is as low as 1/6th that of KDP. Apart from crystals that have large walk-off angles, low effective nonlinear coefficients, or both, the simple experimental setup would also be quite suitable for those crystals, especially infrared crystals, that have large effective nonlinear coefficients but low laser damage thresholds. PMID:15751864
Energy Conversion and Storage Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cairns, E. J.
1993-06-01
This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.
Measuring correlations between non-stationary series with DCCA coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoufek, Ladislav
2014-05-01
In this short report, we investigate the ability of the DCCA coefficient to measure correlation level between non-stationary series. Based on a wide Monte Carlo simulation study, we show that the DCCA coefficient can estimate the correlation coefficient accurately regardless the strength of non-stationarity (measured by the fractional differencing parameter d). For a comparison, we also report the results for the standard Pearson correlation coefficient. The DCCA coefficient dominates the Pearson coefficient for non-stationary series.
OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
Sands, M. Dale
1980-08-01
Significant achievements in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology have increased the probability of producing OTEC-derived power in this decade with subsequent large-scale commercialization to follow by the turn of the century. Under U.S. Department of Energy funding, Interstate Electronics has prepared an OTEC Programmatic Environmental Assessment (EA) that considers tne development, demonstration, and commercialization of OTEC power systems. The EA considers several tecnnological designs (open cycle and closed cycle), plant configurations (land-based, moored, and plantship), and power usages (baseload electricity and production of ammonia and aluminum). Potencial environmental impacts, health and safety issues, and a status update of international, federal, and state plans and policies, as they may influence OTEC deployments, are included.
[George Herbert Mead. Thought as the conversation of interior gestures].
Quéré, Louis
2010-01-01
For George Herbert Mead, thinking amounts to holding an "inner conversation of gestures ". Such a conception does not seem especially original at first glance. What makes it truly original is the "social-behavioral" approach of which it is a part, and, particularly, two ideas. The first is that the conversation in question is a conversation of gestures or attitudes, and the second, that thought and reflexive intelligence arise from the internalization of an external process supported by the social mechanism of communication: that of conduct organization. It imports then to understand what distinguishes such ideas from those of the founder of behavioral psychology, John B. Watson, for whom thinking amounts to nothing other than subvocal speech. PMID:20533805
Robust adiabatic sum frequency conversion.
Suchowski, Haim; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav; Oron, Dan; Arie, Ady; Silberberg, Yaron
2009-07-20
We discuss theoretically and demonstrate experimentally the robustness of the adiabatic sum frequency conversion method. This technique, borrowed from an analogous scheme of robust population transfer in atomic physics and nuclear magnetic resonance, enables the achievement of nearly full frequency conversion in a sum frequency generation process for a bandwidth up to two orders of magnitude wider than in conventional conversion schemes. We show that this scheme is robust to variations in the parameters of both the nonlinear crystal and of the incoming light. These include the crystal temperature, the frequency of the incoming field, the pump intensity, the crystal length and the angle of incidence. Also, we show that this extremely broad bandwidth can be tuned to higher or lower central wavelengths by changing either the pump frequency or the crystal temperature. The detailed study of the properties of this converter is done using the Landau-Zener theory dealing with the adiabatic transitions in two level systems. PMID:19654679
Thermal to Electric Energy Conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagelstein, Peter L.
2005-12-01
As research in the area of excess power production moves forward, issues associated with thermal to electric conversion become increasingly important. This paper provides a brief tutorial on basic issues, including the Carnot limit, entropy, and thermoelectric conversion. Practical thermal to electric conversion is possible well below the Carnot limit, and this leads to a high threshold for self-sustaining operation in Pons-Fleischmann type experiments. Excess power production at elevated temperatures will become increasingly important as we move toward self-sustaining devices and energy production for applications. Excess power production in heat-producing systems that do not require electrical input have an enormous advantage over electrochemical systems. Such systems should be considered seriously within our community in the coming years.
Conversations with Environmental Educators: A Conversation with Four Classroom Teachers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Volk, Trudi L.
2003-01-01
This article includes a conversation with four environmental education classroom teachers. The author introduces the four classroom teachers, Marie Marrs, Barb Pietrucha, Vicki Newberry, and Dara Lukonen. In the interview, the four environmental education classroom teachers describe the environmental education in their classrooms. Three of these…
Calculation Methods and Conversions for Pesticide Application.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cole, Herbert, Jr.
This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University consists of conversion tables and formulas for determining concentration and rate of application of pesticides. Contents include: (1) Area and volume conversions; (2) Important conversion formulae; (3) Conversions for rates of application; (4) Quantities of pesticide…
Seismic Rheological Model and Reflection Coefficients of the Brittle-Ductile Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carcione, José M.; Poletto, Flavio
2013-12-01
It is well established that the upper—cooler—part of the crust is brittle, while deeper zones present ductile behaviour. In some cases, this brittle-ductile transition is a single seismic reflector with an associated reflection coefficient. We first develop a stress-strain relation including the effects of crust anisotropy, seismic attenuation and ductility in which deformation takes place by shear plastic flow. Viscoelastic anisotropy is based on the eigenstrain model and the Zener and Burgers mechanical models are used to model the effects of seismic attenuation, velocity dispersion, and steady-state creep flow, respectively. The stiffness components of the brittle and ductile media depend on stress and temperature through the shear viscosity, which is obtained by the Arrhenius equation and the octahedral stress criterion. The P- and S-wave velocities decrease as depth and temperature increase due to the geothermal gradient, an effect which is more pronounced for shear waves. We then obtain the reflection and transmission coefficients of a single brittle-ductile interface and of a ductile thin layer. The PP scattering coefficient has a Brewster angle (a sign change) in both cases, and there is substantial PS conversion at intermediate angles. The PP coefficient is sensitive to the layer thickness, unlike the SS coefficient. Thick layers have a well-defined Brewster angle and show higher reflection amplitudes. Finally, we compute synthetic seismograms in a homogeneous medium as a function of temperature.
A contribution to film coefficient estimation in piston cooling galleries
Torregrosa, A.J.; Broatch, A.; Olmeda, P.; Martin, J.
2010-02-15
The need to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emissions in internal combustion engines has been drastically increased during last years. One of the most important processes affecting these parameters is heat transfer from the in-cylinder gas to the surrounding walls, as this mechanism has a direct influence on the combustion process. Regarding the different walls (liner, cylinder head and piston surfaces), heat flow to the piston is especially important, as it is essential to avoid excessively high temperatures that could result in material damage and/or oil cracking. With this purpose different cooling strategies are used, among which the improvement of the piston cooling system by using oil galleries is preferred. In this work, the heat flow through the oil gallery in a Diesel piston was investigated on a dedicated test bench. This bench consists of a controlled heat source and a piston oil cooling system in which different test conditions were evaluated in order to obtain a correlation for the film coefficient associated with piston oil cooling. These experimental results were then incorporated into a lumped model for engine heat transfer. Finally, in order to evaluate the accuracy of this model and the effects of the correlation for oil gallery coefficient on engine heat flows, results obtained on a conventional engine test bench equipped with a Diesel engine, in which two piston temperatures had been measured, were used. The results show an improvement in piston temperature predictions when compared with those obtained using a previously reported expression for the calculation of the oil film coefficient. (author)
Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion
Nozik, Arthur J; Miller, John
2010-11-10
This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer.
Review of betavoltaic energy conversion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Olsen, Larry C.
1993-01-01
Betavoltaic energy conversion refers to the generation of power by coupling a beta source to a semiconductor junction device. The theory of betavoltaic energy conversion and some past studies of the subject are briefly reviewed. Calculations of limiting efficiencies for semiconductor cells versus bandgap are presented along with specific studies for Pm-147 and Ni-63 fueled devices. The approach used for fabricating Pm-147 fueled batteries by the author in the early 1970's is reviewed. Finally, the potential performance of advanced betavoltaic power sources is considered.
Pronunciation models for conversational speech
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Keith
2005-09-01
Using a pronunciation dictionary of clear speech citation forms a segment deletion rate of nearly 12% is found in a corpus of conversational speech. The number of apparent segment deletions can be reduced by constructing a pronunciation dictionary that records one or more of the actual pronunciations found in conversational speech; however, the resulting empirical pronunciation dictionary often fails to include the citation pronunciation form. Issues involved in selecting pronunciations for a dictionary for linguistic, psycholinguistic, and ASR research will be discussed. One conclusion is that Ladefoged may have been the wiser for avoiding the business of producing pronunciation dictionaries. [Supported by NIDCD Grant No. R01 DC04330-03.
Power conversion in electrical networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wood, J. R.
1974-01-01
Aspects of dc to dc conversion were studied in terms of a class of switching voltage regulators from a stability viewpoint. Background concepts of nonlinear system theory were considered, including the problem of obtaining suitable realizations for a class of positive operators. It is shown that the state evolution equations for a power conversion network are in general of bilinear form, and that the theory of lie groups and lie algebras is useful in analyzing such systems. The feedback stabilization of a class of bilinear systems whose state space is a manifold is also discussed.
The coefficient of thermal expansion of highly enriched 28Si
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartl, Guido; Nicolaus, Arnold; Kessler, Ernest; Schödel, René; Becker, Peter
2009-10-01
For the new definition of the SI unit of mass based on a fundamental constant, a redetermination of Avogadro's constant is the goal of an international collaboration of numerous national laboratories and universities. Since a relative uncertainty of about 2 × 10-8 is aimed at, the macroscopic density, the isotopic composition and the volume of the unit cell of a silicon single crystal have to be measured with high precision. One step to improve the precision was the production of a silicon crystal of highly enriched 28Si. This paper addresses the effect of thermal expansion of that material in order to account for a possible discrepancy between the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of natural silicon and that of 28Si. The results of two independent CTE measuring methods are presented and compared in this paper.
Activity coefficient of aqueous sodium bicarbonate
Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Peiper, J. Christopher
1980-09-01
The determination of the activity coefficient and related properties of sodium bicarbonate presents special problems because of the appreciable vapor pressure of CO_{2} above such solutions. With the development of reliable equations for the thermodynamic properties of mixed electrolytes, it is possible to determine the parameters for NaHCO_{3} from cell measurements or NaCl-NaHCO_{3} mixtures. Literature data are analyzed to illustrate the method and provide interim values, hoever it is noted that further measurements over a wider range of concentrations would yield more definitive results. Lastly, an estimate is also given for the activity coefficient of KHCO_{3}.
Rotational dissipation and the Miesowicz coefficients.
Simões, M; Yamaguti, K; Palangana, A J
2009-12-01
In this work, we will study the relative contribution of each of the two dissipative channels of the Eriksen, Leslie, and Parodi (ELP) approach to the observed values of the Miesowicz viscosity coefficients of the nematic liquid crystals. According to the fundamental equation of the liquid crystal's viscosity dissipative process, TS=-integral d3r(sigma)ijA(ij)+hxN , there are two channels by which the nematic viscous dissipation can occur: or it occurs by means of a shear flow configuration, where A(ij) is the characterizing term, or it occurs by means of a rotational configuration, where N is the characterizing term (these parameters will be defined in the paper). It will be also shown that this relative contribution can be measured by a simple relationship connecting the Miesowicz coefficients, which exhibits a quasitemperature independent behavior, suggesting that it is nearly constant through the entire domain of the nematic phase. PMID:20365179
Partition coefficients of three new anticonvulsants.
Hernandez-Gallegos, Z; Lehmann, P A
1990-11-01
The partition coefficients of three homologous anticonvulsant phenylalkylamides [racemic alpha-hydroxy-alpha-ethyl-alpha-phenylacetamide (HEPA); beta-hydroxy-beta-ethyl-beta-phenylpropionamide (HEPP); and gamma-hydroxy-gamma-ethyl-gamma-phenylbutyramide (HEPB)] were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The system was calibrated with a series of simple amines and amides, using their published log P values. The log kw values (methanol:water, extrapolated to 100% water) were 1.260 for HEPA, 1.670 for HEPP, and 1.852 for HEPB. From these results, the partition coefficients (log P) were calculated by regression as 1.20, 1.83, and 2.11, respectively. The log P values were essentially equal to those calculated by the Leo-Hansch fragmental method. Since the potency of the three anticonvulsants is approximately the same in a variety of tests, no dependence on lipophilicity could be established. PMID:2292764
Solute concentration effect on osmotic reflection coefficient.
Adamski, R P; Anderson, J L
1983-01-01
A theory for the effect of concentration on osmotic reflection coefficient, correct to first order, was developed at the molecular level by considering the effect of solute-solute interactions on solute concentration and the fluid stress tensor within a solvent-filled pore. The solvent was modeled as a continuous fluid and potential energies between solute molecules and the pore wall were assumed to be pairwise additive. Although the theory is more general, calculations are presented only for excluded volume effects (hard-sphere for solute, hard-wall for pore). The relationship between the first-order concentration effect and the infinite dilution value of reflection coefficient appears to be geometry independent. The theory is discussed in light of experimental studies of osmotic flow that have recently appeared in the literature. PMID:6626681
Minior Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment
Nolan E. Hertel; Dwayne Blaylock
2008-04-10
The "Minor Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment" was a Department of Energy (DOE) U-NERI funded project intended to assess the viability of using either the FLATTOP or the COMET critical assembly to measure high temperature Doppler coefficients. The goal of the project was to calculate using the MCNP5 code the gram amounts of Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-241, AM-241, AM-242m, Am-243, and CM-244 needed to produce a 1E-5 in reactivity for a change in operating temperature 800C to 1000C. After determining the viability of using the assemblies and calculating the amounts of each actinide an experiment will be designed to verify the calculated results. The calculations and any doncuted experiments are designed to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative in conducting safety analysis of advanced fast reactor or acceoerator-driven transmutation systems with fuel containing high minor actinide content.
Thermoelectric and Seebeck coefficients of granular metals.
Glatz, A.; Beloborodov, I. S.; Materials Science Division; California State Univ.
2009-01-01
In this work we present a detailed study and derivation of the thermopower and thermoelectric coefficient of nanogranular metals at large tunneling conductance between the grains, g{sub T} >> 1. An important criterion for the performance of a thermoelectric device is the thermodynamic figure of merit which is derived using the kinetic coefficients of granular metals. All results are valid at intermediate temperatures, E{sub c} >> T/g{sub T} > {delta}, where {delta} is the mean energy-level spacing for a single grain and E{sub c} is its charging energy. We show that the electron-electron interaction leads to an increase in the thermopower with decreasing grain size and discuss our results in light of future generation thermoelectric materials for low-temperature applications. The behavior of the figure of merit depending on system parameters such as grain size, tunneling conductance, and temperature is presented.
Thermally driven electrokinetic energy conversion with liquid water microjets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Royce K.; Gamlieli, Zach; Harris, Stephen J.; Saykally, Richard J.
2015-11-01
A goal of current energy research is to design systems and devices that can efficiently exploit waste heat and utilize solar or geothermal heat energy for electrical power generation. We demonstrate a novel technique exploiting water's large coefficient of thermal expansion, wherein modest thermal gradients produce the requisite high pressure for driving fast-flowing liquid water microjets, which can effect the direct conversion of the kinetic energy into electricity and gaseous hydrogen. Waste heat in thermoelectric generating plants and combustion engines, as well as solar and geothermal energy could be used to drive these systems.
Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.
1973-01-01
A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.
Force Coefficients on Surging Rigid and Flexible Wings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mancini, Peter; Jones, Anya; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael
2013-11-01
This study considers an aspect ratio 4 rigid flat plate and an aspect ratio 4.5 flexible wing, undergoing rectilinear motion in a water tunnel over several chord lengths at a Reynolds number of 20,000. Varying incidence angle, Reynolds number, and acceleration profile led to an extensive parameter study for both wings. Acceleration regions were linear with time and varied with distances of 0.25 to 6.0 chord-lengths. Measurements include lift and drag histories along with flow visualization of leading and trailing edge vortices throughout the entire motion by fluorescent dye injection illuminated by a laser sheet. A non-circulatory bump in lift coefficient at the end of the acceleration region was observed for each rigid wing case. The rigid wing also experienced a significant decrease in lift shortly after the wing reached its terminal velocity. This dip was followed by a second peak in lift around 6 chords traveled for every case, although the magnitudes differed among the acceleration profiles. Conversely, the flexible wing exhibited little to no non-circulatory peak at the end of acceleration and did not experience this dip and rise in lift. This study explores the influence of planform and chordwise flexibility on leading edge vortex formation, retention, and shedding.
The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.
1974-01-01
A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).