Science.gov

Sample records for international aid

  1. International Aid to Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavot, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  2. Confronting AIDS: international consensus?

    PubMed

    1998-08-01

    A coordinated effort by the World Bank, the European Commission, and UNAIDS, and drawing from a number of academic disciplines, including epidemiology, public health, and public economics, the recently published book "Confronting AIDS: Public Priorities in a Global Epidemic" argues that the global HIV/AIDS epidemic can be overcome and that national governments have a major role in preventing the spread of AIDS and tempering its impact. Considerable evidence is presented in support of the argument. The original idea for the book came out of collaboration between individuals in the European Commission and the World Bank. The World Bank's recognition of the importance of AIDS is a milestone in the course of the pandemic. Confronting AIDS highlights the potential and actual impact of AIDS upon households, communities, and countries; argues the case for interventions in both HIV prevention and care; and generally considers some of the difficult choices which need to be made about how scarce resources will be allocated, especially in developing countries. PMID:12294024

  3. Is international conservation aid enough?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  4. Student Financial Aid: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Loans have become an important, even essential, ingredient of college financial aid and family financial planning. The World Bank and other international groups, such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, regularly review the experiences of many countries in financing education. Their findings are discussed. (MLW)

  5. Measurement of hearing aid internal noise1

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Goodman, Shawn S.; Bentler, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Hearing aid equivalent input noise (EIN) measures assume the primary source of internal noise to be located prior to amplification and to be constant regardless of input level. EIN will underestimate internal noise in the case that noise is generated following amplification. The present study investigated the internal noise levels of six hearing aids (HAs). Concurrent with HA processing of a speech-like stimulus with both adaptive features (acoustic feedback cancellation, digital noise reduction, microphone directionality) enabled and disabled, internal noise was quantified for various stimulus levels as the variance across repeated trials. Changes in noise level as a function of stimulus level demonstrated that (1) generation of internal noise is not isolated to the microphone, (2) noise may be dependent on input level, and (3) certain adaptive features may contribute to internal noise. Quantifying internal noise as the variance of the output measures allows for noise to be measured under real-world processing conditions, accounts for all sources of noise, and is predictive of internal noise audibility. PMID:20370034

  6. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - AIDS 2008 and the global response to AIDS

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The impact of the XVII International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2008) was reflected in a number of commitments from political and business leaders, who announced initiatives ranging from implementing comprehensive sexual education for young people in Latin America to reducing regulatory barriers and the price of drugs in the host country. The unprecedented media coverage brought attention and public awareness to the epidemic in Latin America. Several meetings and sessions at AIDS 2008 also addressed the potential for the International AIDS Conference to play an even stronger role in tracking progress towards universal access and in improving accountability in the global response to AIDS, particularly given some of the inherent weaknesses in the United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) review process. The impact of AIDS 2008 was strongest in Mexico, the host country, and in Latin America. Highlights included the policy changes announced by President Calderon on pharmaceutical manufacturing to the focus on sex workers and gay and other MSM in marches, activism and the conference programme. The next two years will determine whether the successes reported in Mexico are sustained and whether there is progress in addressing the barriers that continue to hamper an evidence-based response to HIV/AIDS. The next International AIDS Conference is scheduled for the universal address deadline of 2010. PMID:19811673

  7. International Monetary Fund and aid displacement.

    PubMed

    Stuckler, David; Basu, Sanjay; McKee, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several recent papers find evidence that global health aid is being diverted to reserves, education, military, or other sectors, and is displacing government spending. This is suggested to occur because ministers of finance have competing, possibly corrupt, priorities and deprive the health sector of resources. Studies have found that development assistance for health routed to governments has a negative impact on health spending and that similar assistance routed to private nongovernmental organizations has a positive impact. An alternative hypothesis is that World Bank and IMF macro-economic policies, which specifically advise governments to divert aid to reserves to cope with aid volatility and keep government spending low, could be causing the displacement of health aid. This article evaluates whether aid displacement was greater when countries undertook a new borrowing program from the IMF between 1996 and 2006. As found in existing studies, for each $1 of development assistance for health, about $0.37 is added to the health system. However, evaluating IMF-borrowing versus non-IMF-borrowing countries reveals that non-borrowers add about $0.45 whereas borrowers add less than $0.01 to the health system. On average, health system spending grew at about half the speed when countries were exposed to the IMF than when they were not. It is important to take account of the political economy of global health finance when interpreting data on financial flows. PMID:21319721

  8. AIDS and international security in the United Nations System.

    PubMed

    Rushton, Simon

    2010-11-01

    Two assumptions underpin much of the literature that has examined the links between HIV/AIDS and security: (1) that HIV/AIDS is now firmly established as an international security issue; and (2) that Resolution 1308, adopted by the UN Security Council in July 2000, was the decisive moment in the securitization process. This article questions both of those assumptions. It argues that even within the Security Council, HIV/AIDS' status as a bona fide threat to international peace and security is not entirely secure. Despite the fact that the Resolution was adopted unanimously, there is considerable doubt over the extent to which the Council members were persuaded that HIV/AIDS is genuinely a threat to international peace and security. Furthermore, the Council's subsequent actions suggest a retreat from the issue. The article moves on to examine statements made in and by some of the other key UN System bodies grappling with HIV/AIDS. Focusing in particular on the General Assembly, the Economic and Social Council and UNAIDS, it is argued that the international security framing of HIV/AIDS has not generally achieved a great deal of traction within these bodies. Alternative framings, in particular international development and human rights, occur far more frequently. This raises issues for our understanding of both securitization theory and the global governance of HIV/AIDS. PMID:20961950

  9. International law, human rights and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, David; London, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    This article explores the relevance of international human rights law in the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic at national and international levels. Public health advocates can use arguments based on this body of law to promote responses to HIV/AIDS that reflect sound public health principles and documented best practice. Development assistance is increasingly linked to rights-based approaches, such as participatory processes, and strategic alliances between health professionals, organizations of people living with HIV/AIDS, and affected communities. Legal and human rights advocacy strategies are increasingly productive and necessary. PMID:12571725

  10. Perspectives on International Aid in Conflict Affected Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Lore

    2011-01-01

    For many, 1 March 2011 is a significant date. On the one hand, it was the day that David Mitchell, the international development secretary, presented the key outcomes of two major reviews on international aid to the Houses of Parliament; and on the other, 1 March was the date chosen for the simultaneous launch of the 2011 Global Monitoring Report…

  11. International Aid Offers Promise, but Roadblocks Remain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Marion

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of the devastating January 2010 earthquake in Haiti, international humanitarian groups and volunteers poured into the country, bolstering what was already one of the world's hot spots for nongovernmental organizations. But the magnitude of the disaster--an estimated 300,000 were killed and one million left homeless out of a…

  12. Student Financial Aid: An International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, Joseph M.

    1986-01-01

    Student loans have become an essential ingredient of financial planning for college. The Guaranteed Student Loan Program's default rate is over 10 percent. World Bank and other international data suggest three solutions: longer repayment terms, graduated repayment schedules, and forgiveness for individuals choosing public service. (8 references)…

  13. Human rights and the requirement for international medical aid.

    PubMed

    Tolchin, Benjamin

    2008-08-01

    Every year approximately 18 million people die prematurely from treatable medical conditions including infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies. The deaths occur primarily amongst the poorest citizens of poor developing nations. Various groups and individuals have advanced plans for major international medical aid to avert many of these unnecessary deaths. For example, the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health estimated that eight million premature deaths could be prevented annually by interventions costing roughly US$57 bn per year. This essay advances an argument that human rights require high-income nations to provide such aid. The essay briefly examines John Rawls' obligations of justice and the reasons that their applicability to cases of international medical aid remains controversial. Regardless, the essay argues that purely humanitarian obligations bind the governments and citizens of high-income liberal democracies at a minimum to provide major medical aid to avert premature deaths in poor nations. In refusing to undertake such medical relief efforts, developed nations fail to adequately protect a fundamental human right to life. PMID:19143091

  14. What International Aid Organizations Can Learn from International Adult Learning: Experiences from Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkvens, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many countries receive international support to strengthen professional capacity. The effect of these professional development activities (PDAs), however, is often negligible. This article provides useful insights on how international aid organizations could improve their PDAs, by describing an intervention developed and applied in…

  15. International aspects of the AIDS/HIV epidemic.

    PubMed

    Kimball, A M; Berkley, S; Ngugi, E; Gayle, H

    1995-01-01

    This review provides the reader with pertinent information on the epidemiology, prevention, and new technologies of the ongoing HIV pandemic. These aspects are key to international policy discussions surrounding the public health response to the international spread of HIV. Our understanding of the impact of AIDS on other diseases is evolving, as is our insight into the demographic and economic effects of the epidemic on the global community. Observations on the success of certain prevention strategies allow rational allocation of resources in newly affected epidemic areas. Information on the origin and nature of HIV transmission exemplifies the phenomenon of global emerging infections. As world populations are brought closer together through transportation, communication, trade, and commerce, insight into emerging infections of epidemic potential becomes increasingly important to the practitioner of public health. Although important, legal and social aspects of the epidemic will not be emphasized here. The epidemics of HIV/AIDS in the United States and Europe are not reviewed here. The global pandemic has recently been described in an overview in this publication to which the reader is also referred. PMID:7639874

  16. 78 FR 58305 - Honeywell International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... Honeywell International, Inc.; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public Comment AGENCY... unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the allegations.... The following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and...

  17. The Ignorant Donor: A Radical Reimagination of International Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brehm, William C.; Silova, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The logic behind international aid to development has typically centered on economics. Notwithstanding the variation in focus--from macroeconomic monetary and trade policies, to economic wealth programs aimed at creating jobs, to supply- and demand-side reforms--the central discourse on international aid has been dominated by a political…

  18. Tracking development assistance for HIV/AIDS: the international response to a global epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Matthew T.; Birger, Maxwell; Haakenstad, Annie; Singh, Lavanya; Hamavid, Hannah; Chapin, Abigail; Murray, Christopher J.L.; Dieleman, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To better understand the global response to HIV/AIDS, this study tracked development assistance for HIV/AIDS at a granular, program level. Methods: We extracted data from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation's Financing Global Health 2015 report that captured development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 1990 to 2015 for all major bilateral and multilateral aid agencies. To build on these data, we extracted additional budget data, and disaggregated development assistance for HIV/AIDS into nine program areas, including prevention, treatment, and health system support. Results: Since 2000, $109.8 billion of development assistance has been provided for HIV/AIDS. Between 2000 and 2010, development assistance for HIV/AIDS increased at an annualized rate of 22.8%. Since 2010, the annualized rate of growth has dropped to 1.3%. Had development assistance for HIV/AIDS continued to climb after 2010 as it had in the previous decade, $44.8 billion more in development assistance would have been available for HIV/AIDS. Since 1990, treatment and prevention were the most funded HIV/AIDS program areas receiving $24.6 billion and $22.7 billion, respectively. Since 2010, these two program areas and HIV/AIDS health system strengthening have continued to grow, marginally, with majority support from the US government and the Global Fund. An average of $252.9 of HIV/AIDS development assistance per HIV/AIDS prevalent case was disbursed between 2011 and 2013. Conclusion: The scale-up of development assistance for HIV/AIDS from 2000 to 2010 was unprecedented. During this period, international donors prioritized HIV/AIDS treatment, prevention, and health system support. Since 2010, funding for HIV/AIDS has plateaued. PMID:26950317

  19. Aiding Education in Conflict: The Role of International Education Providers Operating in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmer, Adele; Stoddard, Abby; DiDomenico, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Amid rising violence against civilian aid operations in insecure environments, attacks on the education sector pose a unique set of challenges for international aid actors. In recent years incidents of violence targeting the education sector in Afghanistan and the conflict-affected areas of Pakistan have increased. This article synthesizes recent…

  20. Effectiveness of Protected Areas in the Pan-Tropics and International Aid for Conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. H.

    2015-12-01

    Protected areas are crucial for tropical forest conservation efforts. Estimation of the effectiveness of protected areas is thus important for evaluating the efficacy of forest conservation policies and priorities. However, comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects of Protected Areas and international aid is lacking. However, with the recent availability of long-term, large-scale forest cover change data at 30-m resolution, it has become possible to address some of the issues surrounding the effectiveness of protected areas. To evaluate the effectiveness of Protected Areas in the pan-tropics and international aid for conservation, we use the 30m resolution data along with econometrics 1) to estimate avoided deforestation by PAs in the tropics during the 2000s, 2) estimate effects of international aid on avoided deforestation by PAs and 3) analyze the relationships between the socio-economic variables and increases in deforestation, avoided deforestation by PAs and effects of international aid. Our results show that protected areas avoided 83,500 ± 21,200 km2 of deforestation during the 2000s. Brazil showed the highest estimates of effects of international aid on the avoided deforestation of 22 m2/USD, which is about 50 times higher compared to Indonesia (0.5 m2/USD). The regression analysis between avoided deforestation, effects of international aid and socio-economic factors demonstrates that PAs have been relatively more effective in the countries where the deforestation pressures were increasing and that governance and forest change monitoring capacity may be important factors enhancing the efficacy of international aid. Our study presents the first pan-tropical analysis of the long-term evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas, international aid and their regulating factors using spatially explicit fine resolution data. Our findings allow us to pinpoint where conservation initiatives and resource management are effectively practiced and to

  1. Development of an instrument to measure internalized stigma in those with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kenneth D; Moneyham, Linda; Tavakoli, Abbas

    2011-01-01

    Stigma has grave consequences for persons living with HIV/AIDS. Stigma hampers prevention of HIV transmission to sexual partners and to unborn babies, diagnosis, and early treatment, and negatively affects mental and physical health, quality of life, and life satisfaction. Internalized stigma of HIV/AIDS may have even more severe consequences than perceived or enacted stigma. The purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure internalized stigma in those with HIV/AIDS. Data were drawn from the Rural Women's Health Project. Research assistants administered structured interviews at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Instruments used in these analyses included a demographic data form, the Centers for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), the Perceived Stigma Scale (PSS), and the Internalized Stigma of AIDS Tool (ISAT). Exploratory factor analysis confirmed that the ten items of the ISAT measure a single factor that explains 88% of the variance in the construct. Internal consistency was demonstrated by a Cronbach's alpha of .91 (Time 1), .92 (Time 2), and .92 (Time 3). Convergent validity was supported with significant positive correlations with the CES-D (rho = 0.33, p < 0.0001) and the PSS (rho = 0.56, < 0.0001). The Internalized Stigma of AIDS Tool appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure internalization of the stigma of HIV/AIDS. It may be of value in research and clinical assessment. PMID:21692574

  2. International health financing and the response to AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Samuel; Gottret, Pablo; Yeh, Ethan; de Beyer, Joy; Oelrichs, Robert; Zewdie, Debrework

    2009-11-01

    Efforts to finance HIV responses have generated large increases in funding, catalyzed activism and institutional innovation, and brought renewed attention to health issues and systems. The benefits go well beyond HIV programs. The substantial increases in HIV funding are a tiny percentage of overall increases in health financing, with other areas also seeing large absolute increases. Data on health funding suggest an improved "pro-poor" distribution, with Africa benefiting relatively more from increased external flows. A literature review found few evidence-based analyses of the impact of AIDS programs and funding on broader health financing. Conceptual frameworks that would facilitate such analysis are summarized. PMID:19858937

  3. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Regional focus

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from presentations, discussions and debates addressing major policy and programmatic responses to HIV in six geographical regions: Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and the Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America, Caribbean, and Middle East and North Africa. It draws from AIDS 2008 Leadership and Community Programmes, particularly the six regional sessions, and Global Village activities. While the epidemiological, cultural and socio-economic contexts in these regions vary considerably, several common, overarching principles and themes emerged. They include: advancing basic human rights, particularly for vulnerable and most at risk populations; ensuring the sustainability of the HIV response through long-term, predictable financing; strengthening health systems; investing in strategic health information; and improving accountability and the involvement of civil society in the response to AIDS. Equally important is the need to address political barriers to implementing evidence-based interventions such as opioid substitution therapy (OST), needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), comprehensive sexuality education for youth, and sexual and reproductive rights. Finally, these regional discussions emphasized the need for legislative and policy reforms related to structural barriers facing women and girls, MSM, IDUs, sex workers and migrant populations. PMID:19811672

  4. International epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Choopanya, K; Vanichseni, S; Ward, T P

    1992-10-01

    HIV/AIDS and iv drug use (IVDU) are of significant multinational scope and growing. Supporting increased IVDU in many countries are countries' geographical proximity to illicit drug trafficking distribution routes, law enforcement efforts which increase the demand for more efficient drug distribution and consumption, and countries' infrastructural and social modernization. Given the failures of intensified law enforcement efforts to thwart the use and proliferation of illegal drugs, countries with substantial IVDU should look away from preventing use to preventing HIV transmission within drug user populations. With HIV seroprevalence rates rapidly reaching 40-50% in some developing country IVDU groups, a variety of prevention programs is warranted. Such programs should be supported and implemented while prevention remains feasible. This paper examines the variation in HIV seroprevalence among IVD users, rapid HIV spread among users, HIV among IVDUs in Bangkok, emerging issues in HIV transmission among IVDUs, non-AIDS manifestations of HIV infection among IVDUs, prevention programs and effectiveness, and harm reduction. PMID:1466837

  5. Contributions of international cooperation projects to the HIV/AIDS response in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jiangping; Liu, Hui; Li, Hui; Wang, Liqiu; Guo, Haoyan; Shan, Duo; Bulterys, Marc; Korhonen, Christine; Hao, Yang; Ren, Minghui

    2010-01-01

    Background For 20 years, China has participated in 267 international cooperation projects against the HIV/AIDS epidemic and received ∼526 million USD from over 40 international organizations. These projects have played an important role by complementing national efforts in the fight against HIV/AIDS in China. Methods The diverse characteristics of these projects followed three phases over 20 years. Initially, stand-alone projects provided technical support in surveillance, training or advocacy for public awareness. As the epidemic spread across China, projects became a part of the comprehensive and integrated national response. Currently, international best practices encourage the inclusion of civil society and non-governmental organizations in an expanded response to the epidemic. Results Funding from international projects has accounted for one-third of the resources provided for the HIV/AIDS response in China. Beyond this strong financial support, these programmes have introduced best practices, accelerated the introduction of AIDS policies, strengthened capacity, improved the development of grassroots social organizations and established a platform for communication and experience sharing with the international community. However, there are still challenges ahead, including integrating existing resources and exploring new programme models. The National Centre for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention (NCAIDS) in China is consolidating all international projects into national HIV prevention, treatment and care activities. Conclusion International cooperation projects have been an invaluable component of China’s response to HIV/AIDS, and China has now been able to take this information and share its experiences with other countries with the help of these same international programmes. PMID:21113032

  6. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed

    Ooms, Gorik; Hammonds, Rachel; Waris, Attiya; Criel, Bart; Van Damme, Wim; Whiteside, Alan

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving 'beyond aid'. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes 'universal health coverage' as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest?Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a 'race to the bottom' due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies - a kind of 'equalization' at the international level.The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a 'convergence to the middle'. However, the 'middle' where 'convergence' of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check.The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to 'convergence' of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed international equalization scheme

  7. Computers and terminals as an aid to international technology transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    As technology transfer becomes more popular and proves to be an economical method for companies of all sizes to take advantage of a tremendous amount of new and available technology from sources all over the world, the introduction of computers and terminals into the international technology transfer process is proving to be a successful method for companies to take part in this beneficial approach to new business opportunities.

  8. Beyond health aid: would an international equalization scheme for universal health coverage serve the international collective interest?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that the international community is moving ‘beyond aid’. International co-financing in the international collective interest is expected to replace altruistically motivated foreign aid. The World Health Organization promotes ‘universal health coverage’ as the overarching health goal for the next phase of the Millennium Development Goals. In order to provide a basic level of health care coverage, at least some countries will need foreign aid for decades to come. If international co-financing of global public goods is replacing foreign aid, is universal health coverage a hopeless endeavor? Or would universal health coverage somehow serve the international collective interest? Using the Sustainable Development Solutions Network proposal to finance universal health coverage as a test case, we examined the hypothesis that national social policies face the threat of a ‘race to the bottom’ due to global economic integration and that this threat could be mitigated through international social protection policies that include international cross-subsidies – a kind of ‘equalization’ at the international level. The evidence for the race to the bottom theory is inconclusive. We seem to be witnessing a ‘convergence to the middle’. However, the ‘middle’ where ‘convergence’ of national social policies is likely to occur may not be high enough to keep income inequality in check. The implementation of the international equalization scheme proposed by the Sustainable Development Solutions Network would allow to ensure universal health coverage at a cost of US$55 in low income countries-the minimum cost estimated by the World Health Organization. The domestic efforts expected from low and middle countries are far more substantial than the international co-financing efforts expected from high income countries. This would contribute to ‘convergence’ of national social policies at a higher level. We therefore submit that the proposed

  9. Holographic aids for internal combustion engine flow studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, C.

    1984-01-01

    Worldwide interest in improving the fuel efficiency of internal combustion (I.C.) engines has sparked research efforts designed to learn more about the flow processes of these engines. The flow fields must be understood prior to fuel injection in order to design efficient valves, piston geometries, and fuel injectors. Knowledge of the flow field is also necessary to determine the heat transfer to combustion chamber surfaces. Computational codes can predict velocity and turbulence patterns, but experimental verification is mandatory to justify their basic assumptions. Due to their nonintrusive nature, optical methods are ideally suited to provide the necessary velocity verification data. Optical sytems such as Schlieren photography, laser velocimetry, and illuminated particle visualization are used in I.C. engines, and now their versatility is improved by employing holography. These holographically enhanced optical techniques are described with emphasis on their applications in I.C. engines.

  10. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our understanding by analyzing how the Pfizer Global Health Fellows (GHF) program helped develop capacity of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI), looking specifically at Fellowship activities in South Africa, Kenya, and Uganda. From 2005–2009, 8 Pfizer GHF worked with IAVI and local research centers to strengthen capacity to conduct and monitor vaccine trials to meet international standards and expand trial activities. Data collection for the case study included review of Fellow job descriptions, online journals, evaluation reports, and interviews with Fellows and IAVI staff. Qualitative methods were used to analyze factors which influenced the process and outcomes of capacity strengthening. Results Fellows filled critical short-term expert staffing needs at IAVI as well as providing technical assistance and staff development activities. Capacity building included assistance in establishing operating procedures for the start-up period of research centers; training staff in Good Clinical Practice (GCP); developing monitoring capacity (staff and systems) to assure that centers are audit-ready at all times; and strategic planning for data management systems. Factors key to the success of volunteering partnerships included similarities in mission between the corporate and NGO partners, expertise and experience of Fellows, and attitudes of partner organization staff. Conclusion By developing standard operating procedures, ensuring that monitoring and regulatory

  11. International AIDS Society global scientific strategy: towards an HIV cure 2016.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Steven G; Lewin, Sharon R; Ross, Anna Laura; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Benkirane, Monsef; Cannon, Paula; Chomont, Nicolas; Douek, Daniel; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Lo, Ying-Ru; Kuritzkes, Daniel; Margolis, David; Mellors, John; Persaud, Deborah; Tucker, Joseph D; Barre-Sinoussi, Françoise; Alter, Galit; Auerbach, Judith; Autran, Brigitte; Barouch, Dan H; Behrens, Georg; Cavazzana, Marina; Chen, Zhiwei; Cohen, Éric A; Corbelli, Giulio Maria; Eholié, Serge; Eyal, Nir; Fidler, Sarah; Garcia, Laurindo; Grossman, Cynthia; Henderson, Gail; Henrich, Timothy J; Jefferys, Richard; Kiem, Hans-Peter; McCune, Joseph; Moodley, Keymanthri; Newman, Peter A; Nijhuis, Monique; Nsubuga, Moses Supercharger; Ott, Melanie; Palmer, Sarah; Richman, Douglas; Saez-Cirion, Asier; Sharp, Matthew; Siliciano, Janet; Silvestri, Guido; Singh, Jerome; Spire, Bruno; Taylor, Jeffrey; Tolstrup, Martin; Valente, Susana; van Lunzen, Jan; Walensky, Rochelle; Wilson, Ira; Zack, Jerome

    2016-08-01

    Antiretroviral therapy is not curative. Given the challenges in providing lifelong therapy to a global population of more than 35 million people living with HIV, there is intense interest in developing a cure for HIV infection. The International AIDS Society convened a group of international experts to develop a scientific strategy for research towards an HIV cure. This Perspective summarizes the group's strategy. PMID:27400264

  12. 75 FR 35033 - U-Haul International, Inc. and AMERCO; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ...-Haul International, Inc. and AMERCO; Analysis of Agreement Containing Consent Order to Aid Public... practices or unfair methods of competition. The attached Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes both the... following Analysis to Aid Public Comment describes the terms of the consent agreement, and the...

  13. Violence against women in war: rape, AIDS, sex slavery. International.

    PubMed

    At an international conference attended by 2000 delegates, violence against women in Rwanda, former Yugoslavia, and Kurdistan was discussed. Kalliope Migirou, of the United Nations Human Rights Field Operation in Rwanda, described the slaughter of between 500,000 and 1.5 million Tutsis and moderate Hutus in 1994; estimates of the number of rapes ranged from 15,700 (Rwandan government) to 250,000-500,000 (UN special representative). Women were gang-raped and sexually mutilated; fathers were forced to rape their daughters, and sons, their mothers. The transmission of HIV was used as a weapon to murder women and their communities. Women were taken to refugee camps as sex slaves and have written their families about their "new marriages" to Hutu militia men. No rape charge is found among the more than 4000 cases prepared for the Rwandan war crimes trial. 80,000 Rwandans are in prison on suspicion of participating in the genocide; 8% are women. Violete Krasnic, of the Autonomous Women's Center Against Sexual Violence in Belgrade, spoke about the war in former Yugoslavia, which increased all forms of violence against women: 1) domestic violence, particularly in inter-ethnic marriages; 2) death threats against women (up 30-50%); 3) rape (up 30%); and 4) threats with weapons (40%). Men, upon exposure to nationalistic propaganda, used violence against their wives. Nazaneen Rasheed, a London-based representative of the Women's Union of Kurdistan, stated that women in northern Iraq had no power or land. While some turned to prostitution to survive, hundreds were killed by male relatives because of shame to the family. PMID:12347566

  14. Audience Recall of AIDS PSAs among U.S. and International College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jung-Sook; Davie, William R.

    1997-01-01

    Shows that audience recall of AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) is related to message appeal types, cultural identity, and gender. Finds that strong emotional appeals are better remembered than rational ones; U.S. viewers recalled more than international participants; and college women recalled more than college men in general, and…

  15. International Aid Agencies, Learner-Centred Pedagogy and Political Democratisation: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabulawa, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Since 1989, international aid agencies have shown a marked interest in and preference for learner-centered pedagogy. This change follows a shift in agency ideology from modernization theory to neoliberalism, which sees democratic social relations as a prerequisite to free-market capitalism. Thus, the pedagogy represents a process of Westernization…

  16. International Multilateral Educational Aid Received by China: History, Characteristics, and Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuchi, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Thirty years have passed since China began its reform and opening up, to formally accept multilateral educational aid from international organizations, and multilateral educational assistance has made contributions that cannot be overlooked to the reform and development of China's education. This article reviews the history of China's acceptance…

  17. Nurses' knowledge and attitudes to HIV/AIDS--an international comparison between Finland, Estonia and Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Suominen, Tarja; Koponen, Niina; Mockiene, Vida; Raid, Ulla; Istomina, Natalja; Vänskä, Maj-Lis; Blek-Vehkaluoto, Mari; Välimäki, Maritta

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents baseline data on nurses' knowledge of and attitudes to HIV/AIDS in three countries: Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is steadily increasing in Finland, Estonia and Lithuania. At the same time, labour mobility and also nursing mobility between these countries increases. Previous international studies have shown that lack of knowledge and negative attitudes continue to exist. A total of 681 registered nurses from one Finnish (n = 322), one Estonian (n = 191) and one Lithuanian (n = 168) hospital were surveyed in spring 2006. The questionnaire was originally developed by Held in 1993 and modified for this study. The questionnaire has three scales: demographic and other background variable, nurses' knowledge related to HIV/AIDS, and nurses' attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS and towards the disease itself. Across the whole sample respondents showed average levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes towards people with HIV/AIDS. Years of work experience correlated negatively with the knowledge and attitude levels. A significant correlation was found between the level of knowledge and attitudes. Significant differences were found between countries, Finnish nurses showing the highest knowledge levels and most positive attitudes towards patients with HIV/AIDS. Factors positively influencing levels of knowledge and attitudes were education, previous experience of providing care to HIV/AIDS patient or knowing someone with the infection, and willingness to provide care to HIV/AIDS patients. Supplementary education is needed to strengthen nurses' knowledge. It is important to recognize that there might be differences in knowledge and attitudes between neighbour countries. This needs to be taken into account when planning education for degrees and for further nursing education. PMID:20487059

  18. Conceptualizing the cross-cultural gaps in managing international aid: HIV/AIDS and TB project delivery in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Terence

    2011-01-01

    There appears to be a gap between the billions of dollars inputted into fighting HIV/AIDS and TB and outcomes. This in part can be attributed to the lack of attention in International Development to managing programmes and projects within complex levels of cross-cultural interactions. International Development often ignores management issues, yet Management Studies is left wanting through a lack of engagement with development issues including the fight against disease and poverty. This paper attempts to link these two disciplines towards mutual benefit, through a critical cross-cultural approach. It provides contextualization of international development policies/strategies; conceptualization of dominant paradigms; structural analysis of how a programme/project fits into the global governance structure; analysis of complexities and levels of cross-cultural interaction and their consequences and the process and implications of knowledge transfer across cultural distances. It concludes with implications for policy and practice, as well as what is needed from cross-disciplinary research. This includes how feedback loops can be strengthened from local to global, how indigenous knowledge may be better understood and integrated, how power relations within the global governance structure could be managed, how cross-cultural interaction could be better understood, and how knowledge transfer/sharing should be critically managed. PMID:20957771

  19. The reference ear modeling method for internally feedback controlled digital hearing aid chip.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunyoung; Lee, Seung Jin; Cho, Namjun; Song, Seong-Jun; Yoo, Hoi-Jun

    2007-01-01

    A reference ear modeling method for the real-time feedback controlled digital hearing aid chip is proposed and implemented. In order to reduce the modeling complexity and enhance the programmability, new ear modeling method using the acoustic filter theory is adopted to the digital hearing aid. To achieve the fully internal gain fitting and verification system, the responses from the damaged ear and the reference ear model are compared and the new gain parameters are processed for the multi-channel DSP. The digital hearing aid chip with reference ear model is fabricated in 0.18 microm CMOS technology, has a core area of 3.1 mm x 1.2 mm and dissipates less than 120 muA. PMID:18003331

  20. Assessing the impact of international conservation aid on deforestation in sub-Saharan Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bare, Matthew; Kauffman, Craig; Miller, Daniel C.

    2015-12-01

    International conservation donors have spent at least 3.4 billion to protect biodiversity and stem tropical deforestation in Africa since the early 1990s. Despite more than two decades of experience, however, there is little research on the effect of this aid at a region-wide scale. Numerous case studies exist, but show mixed results. Existing research is usually based on community perception or focused on short-term donor objectives rather than specific conservation outcomes, like deforestation rates. Thus, the impact of billions of dollars of conservation aid on deforestation rates remains an open question. This article uses an original dataset to analyze the effect of international conservation aid on deforestation rates in 42 African countries between 2000 and 2013. We first describe patterns of conservation aid across the continent and then assess its impact (with one to five-year lags), controlling for other factors that may also affect deforestation, including rural population, protected areas (PAs), governance, and other economic and commodity production variables. We find that conservation aid is associated with higher rates of forest loss after one- or two-year lags. A similar result holds for PA extent, suggesting possible displacement of deforestation from PAs. However, governance quality in high forest cover countries moderates these effects such that deforestation rates are reduced. Rural population is the most consistent factor associated with forest loss, confirming previous studies of this driver. Our results suggest that in heavily forested countries, development projects designed to support conservation work initially in conditions of good governance, but that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate larger deforestation drivers.

  1. Automatic choke and starting aid for small two-cycle internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, W.A.; Hutchinson, M.A.; Baumbarger, G.L.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes a starting aid for a small internal combustion engine having a carburetor, a carburetor bore operatively associated with the carburetor and defining a longitudinal axis, the bore having one end in communication with a source of combustion air and another end of the bore in communication with a piston cylinder of the internal combustion engine. It comprises: shaft means for selectively restricting flow of intake air into the engine, means for retaining the shaft means ins aid secondary bore, where the shaft means is prohibited from obstructing air intake into the carburetor bore, and the shaft means rotatable to a second position, where the shaft means obstructs air into the carburetor bore.

  2. Internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigma in a sample of HIV-positive people in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hasan, M Tanvir; Nath, Samir Ranjan; Khan, Nabilah S; Akram, Owasim; Gomes, Tony Michael; Rashid, Sabina F

    2012-03-01

    Internalized stigma among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) is prevalent in Bangladesh. A better understanding of the effects of stigma on PLHA is required to reduce this and to minimize its harmful effects. This study employed a quantitative approach by conducting a survey with an aim to know the prevalence of internalized stigma and to identify the factors associated with internalized stigma among a sample of 238 PLHA (male=152 and female=86) in Bangladesh. The findings suggest that there is a significant difference between groups with the low- and the high-internalized HIV/AIDS stigma in terms of both age and gender. The prevalence of internalized stigma varied according to the poverty status of PLHA. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) found 10 of 15 items loaded highly on the three factors labelled self-acceptance, self-exclusion, and social withdrawal. About 68% of the PLHA felt ashamed, and 54% felt guilty because of their HIV status. More than half (87.5% male and 19.8% female) of the PLHA blamed themselves for their HIV status while many of them (38.2% male and 8.1% female) felt that they should be punished. The male PLHA more frequently chose to withdraw themselves from family and social gatherings compared to the female PLHA. They also experienced a higher level of internalized stigma compared to the female PLHA. The results suggest that the prevalence of internalized stigma is high in Bangladesh, and much needs to be done by different organizations working for and with the PLHA to reduce internalized stigma among this vulnerable group. PMID:22524116

  3. Understanding internalized HIV/AIDS-related stigmas in the Dominican Republic: a short report.

    PubMed

    Rael, Christine Tagliaferri; Hampanda, Karen

    2016-03-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR's most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF), and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR = 1.60; p < .05), PSC (OR = 3.68; p < .001), and PSF (OR = 1.60; p < .01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the DR. PMID:26466239

  4. Understanding Internalized HIV/AIDS-Related Stigmas in the Dominican Republic: A Short Report

    PubMed Central

    Hampanda, Karen

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS-related stigmas can become internalized, resulting in declines in physical and mental health. Pathways to internalized HIV-related stigma (IS), characterized by persistently negative, self-abasing thoughts, are not well established among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in the Dominican Republic (DR). Identifying factors involved in self-directed shaming and blaming is important, given the high HIV prevalence in the DR’s most vulnerable populations. The present study sheds light on factors involved in negative and self-abasing thoughts in WLWHA in the DR by examining the relationship between depression, perceived HIV-related stigma from the community (PSC), perceived HIV-related stigma from family (PSF) and IS. The Internalized AIDS-Related Stigma Scale (IA-RSS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CES-D 10), and an instrument designed to measure perceived HIV-related stigma from the community and family was administered to 233 WLWHA in Puerto Plata, DR. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ordered multiple logistic regression. Results showed that depression (OR=1.60; p<0.05), PSC (OR=3.68; p<0.001), and PSF (OR=1.60; p<0.01) were positively associated with IS. These findings indicate that IS-reducing interventions should address HIV-related depression. Additionally, HIV-related treatment and care services should work with WLWHA to adopt healthier attitudes about how community members view people living with HIV/AIDS in the Dominican Republic. PMID:26466239

  5. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening. PMID:20440979

  6. Measuring legal implementation of the international guidelines on HIV/AIDS and human rights.

    PubMed

    Watchirs, H

    2001-01-01

    With over 36 million people now living with the virus and over 21 million people dying of AIDS in the last two decades, HIV/AIDS is a global health and security problem. These shocking figures eclipse the human toll of many wars, and reveal in themselves that human rights are not being respected, protected, or fulfilled, either through negligent omissions or violations. A human rights approach to the epidemic was advocated early by advocates such as Jonathan Mann, who recognized that infections thrived in conditions of inequality. This approach was crystallized in the International Guidelines on HIV/AIDS and Human Rights that were developed at the Second International Consultation in 1996 convened by UNAIDS and the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The Guidelines cover three main areas: improving governmental responses in terms of multisectoral responsibility and accountability; widespread law reform and legal support services; and supporting increased private sector and community participation in effective responses to the epidemic. This article focuses on the half of the twelve Guidelines that concern rights that are justiciable and amenable to law reform. It highlights the responsibilities of States Parties to human rights treaties, as they bear the principal burden of the obligations to implement. PMID:11837019

  7. Highlights of the 2014 International AIDS Conference: update from down under.

    PubMed

    Volberding, Paul A

    The 20th International AIDS Conference held in Melbourne, Australia, from July 20 through July 25, 2014, provided much new data on nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing antiretroviral therapy, potential consequences of switching suppressive antiretroviral regimen, antiretroviral treatment with integrase strand transfer inhibitors, effects of antiretroviral therapy on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals. This article summarizes an IAS-USA continuing education webinar presented by Paul A. Volberding, MD, in August 2014, in which he focused on a few select highlights from the Conference. PMID:25612178

  8. [How to optimize the efficiency of international sanitary aid in the Democratic Republic of Congo].

    PubMed

    Kuwekita, Joseph Manzambi; Bruyère, Olivier; Guillaume, Michèle; Gosset, Christiane; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of national health insurance accounts in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) clearly shows the importance of international sanitary aid, particularlyfor thefunding ofgeneral referral hospitals, the management of inpatients with AIDS, administration of health zones andfunding of preventive care providers. It The targeted changes described in this article could possibly optimize the efficiency ofinternational aidfor the DRC population, mainly for disorders considered to be a health care priority (i.e. malaria, AIDS, tuberculosis) as well as in the fight against malnutrition. Recommendations target the implementation of procedures for control offood chain security, changes in lifestyle and dietary habits of the population but also comprise extensive restructuring of the health care administration. A dramatic change of the structure in charge of drug distribution as well as eradication of the transfer of part of public health structure income to public health administrative personnel could result in the allocation of significantfunds to thefight against the most important diseases. Better collaboration between the various departments in charge of health care professional training, together with enhanced responsibility of health care personnel is essential. Independent and respected non-governmental organizations should be involved in an audit process, targeting all aspects of the current DRC health system. Eventually, in an equal opportunity perspective, taking into consideration the very high degree of poverty ofDRC inhabitants, implementation of health insurance programmes, use ofgeneric drugs and generalization ofmicro-credit initiatives should also be implemented. PMID:26164963

  9. Aid effectiveness and women's empowerment: practices of governance in the funding of international development.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Marie L; Teghtsoonian, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Although the empowerment of women is a prominent goal in international development, feminist development professionals, activists, and scholars remain deeply dissatisfied with the limited extent to which women's empowerment is actually achieved. Their experiences and analyses raise questions about the connections and disjunctions between discourse, institutional practices, and everyday life. A major effort to reform development aid guided by the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness raises new questions about the place of gender in development practice. Drawing on recently conducted research on women and development in Kyrgyzstan and using a range of institutional texts, we interrogate how development professionals and activists engage with the aid effectiveness discourse. Our analytic approach, institutional ethnography, shares with work on governmentality an empirical focus on practices undertaken by diversely situated people and how these practices constitute a particular field of action. Institutional ethnography directs analytic attention to the operation of texts as local and translocal coordinators of people's everyday activities. The product of this coordinated work is what we call, in this case, the development institution. For those concerned about women and development, we see the usefulness of making visible how global governance is accomplished in both enactments of and resistance to institutional practices, but in ways that do not necessarily benefit women. PMID:20827854

  10. Posterior internal fixation plus vertebral bone implantation under navigational aid for thoracolumbar fracture treatment

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, WEI; KONG, WEIQING; ZHAO, BIZHEN; FU, YISHAN; ZHANG, TAO; XU, JIANGUANG

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the method of posterior thoracolumbar vertebral pedicle screw reduction and fixation combined with vertebral bone implantation via the affected vertebral body under navigational aid for the treatment of thoracolumbar fractures. The efficacy of the procedure was also measured. Between June 2005 and March 2011, posterior thoracolumbar vertebral pedicle screw reduction and fixation plus artificial bone implantation via the affected vertebral pedicle under navigational aid was used to treat 30 patients with thoracolumbar fractures, including 18 males and 12 females, ranging in age from 21 to 57 years. Compared with the values prior to surgery, intraspinal occupation, vertebral height ratio and Cobb angle at the follow-up were significantly improved. At the long-term follow-up, the postoperative Cobb angle loss was <1° and the anterior vertebral body height loss was <2 mm. Posterior thoracolumbar vertebral pedicle screw reduction and fixation combined with vertebral bone implantation via the affected vertebral body under navigational aid may increase the accuracy and safety of surgery, and it is an ideal method of internal implantation. Bone implantation via the affected vertebral body may increase vertebral stability. PMID:23935737

  11. Mainstreaming risk reduction in urban planning and housing: a challenge for international aid organisations.

    PubMed

    Wamsler, Christine

    2006-06-01

    The effects of 'natural' disasters in cities can be worse than in other environments, with poor and marginalised urban communities in the developing world being most at risk. To avoid post-disaster destruction and the forced eviction of these communities, proactive and preventive urban planning, including housing, is required. This paper examines current perceptions and practices within international aid organisations regarding the existing and potential roles of urban planning as a tool for reducing disaster risk. It reveals that urban planning confronts many of the generic challenges to mainstreaming risk reduction in development planning. However, it faces additional barriers. The main reasons for the identified lack of integration of urban planning and risk reduction are, first, the marginal position of both fields within international aid organisations, and second, an incompatibility between the respective professional disciplines. To achieve better integration, a conceptual shift from conventional to non-traditional urban planning is proposed. This paper suggests related operative measures and initiatives to achieve this change. PMID:16689916

  12. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 201 - Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Agency for International Development (AID 282) A Appendix A to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. A Appendix A to Part 201—Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for...

  13. 22 CFR Appendix A to Part 201 - Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for International Development (AID 282)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Agency for International Development (AID 282) A Appendix A to Part 201 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Pt. 201, App. A Appendix A to Part 201—Supplier's Certificate and Agreement With the Agency for...

  14. Ten years of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards Collaboration: evolution of the core dimensions for assessing the quality of patient decision aids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 2003, the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration was established to enhance the quality and effectiveness of patient decision aids by establishing an evidence-informed framework for improving their content, development, implementation, and evaluation. Over this 10 year period, the Collaboration has established: a) the background document on 12 core dimensions to inform the original modified Delphi process to establish the IPDAS checklist (74 items); b) the valid and reliable IPDAS instrument (47 items); and c) the IPDAS qualifying (6 items), certifying (6 items + 4 items for screening), and quality criteria (28 items). The objective of this paper is to describe the evolution of the IPDAS Collaboration and discuss the standardized process used to update the background documents on the theoretical rationales, evidence and emerging issues underlying the 12 core dimensions for assessing the quality of patient decision aids. PMID:24624947

  15. International aid and natural disasters: a pre- and post-earthquake longitudinal study of the healthcare infrastructure in Leogane, Haiti.

    PubMed

    Kligerman, Maxwell; Barry, Michele; Walmer, David; Bendavid, Eran

    2015-02-01

    The reconstruction of healthcare systems in developing countries after natural disasters is poorly understood. Using data collected before and after the 2010 Haiti earthquake, we detail the response of aid agencies and their interaction with local healthcare providers in Leogane, the city closest to the epicenter. We find that the period after the earthquake was associated with an increase in the total number of healthcare facilities, inpatient beds, and surgical facilities and that international aid has been a driving force behind this recovery. Aid has funded 12 of 13 new healthcare facilities that have opened since the earthquake as well as the reconstruction of 7 of 8 healthcare facilities that have been rebuilt. Despite increases in free, aid-financed healthcare, private Haitian healthcare facilities have remained at a constant number. The planned phase-out of several aid-financed facilities, however, will leave Leogane with fewer inpatient beds and healthcare services compared with the pre-earthquake period. PMID:25510716

  16. Developing a quality criteria framework for patient decision aids: online international Delphi consensus process

    PubMed Central

    Elwyn, Glyn; O'Connor, Annette; Stacey, Dawn; Volk, Robert; Edwards, Adrian; Coulter, Angela; Thomson, Richard; Barratt, Alexandra; Barry, Michael; Bernstein, Steven; Butow, Phyllis; Clarke, Aileen; Entwistle, Vikki; Feldman-Stewart, Deb; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Moumjid, Nora; Mulley, Al; Ruland, Cornelia; Sepucha, Karen; Sykes, Alan; Whelan, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a set of quality criteria for patient decision support technologies (decision aids). Design and setting Two stage web based Delphi process using online rating process to enable international collaboration. Participants Individuals from four stakeholder groups (researchers, practitioners, patients, policy makers) representing 14 countries reviewed evidence summaries and rated the importance of 80 criteria in 12 quality domains ona1to9 scale. Second round participants received feedback from the first round and repeated their assessment of the 80 criteria plus three new ones. Main outcome measure Aggregate ratings for each criterion calculated using medians weighted to compensate for different numbers in stakeholder groups; criteria rated between 7 and 9 were retained. Results 212 nominated people were invited to participate. Of those invited, 122 participated in the first round (77 researchers, 21 patients, 10 practitioners, 14 policy makers); 104/122 (85%) participated in the second round. 74 of 83 criteria were retained in the following domains: systematic development process (9/9 criteria); providing information about options (13/13); presenting probabilities (11/13); clarifying and expressing values (3/3); using patient stories (2/5); guiding/coaching (3/5); disclosing conflicts of interest (5/5); providing internet access (6/6); balanced presentation of options (3/3); using plain language (4/6); basing information on up to date evidence (7/7); and establishing effectiveness (8/8). Conclusions Criteria were given the highest ratings where evidence existed, and these were retained. Gaps in research were highlighted. Developers, users, and purchasers of patient decision aids now have a checklist for appraising quality. An instrument for measuring quality of decision aids is being developed. PMID:16908462

  17. Thermal Vacuum Testing of the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, Raul A.; Montz, Michael; Gill, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) is a human powered cart that will aid astronauts in conducting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) maintenance on the International Space Station (ISS). There are two critical EVA tasks relevant to the successful operation of the CETA. These are the removal of the launch restraint bolts during its initial deployment from the Space Shuttle payload bay and the manual deceleration of the cart, its two onboard astronauts, and a payload. To validate the launch restraint and braking system designs, the hardware engineers needed to verify their performance in an environment similar to that in which it will be used. This environment includes the vacuum of low earth orbit and temperatures as low as -11O F and as high as +200 F. The desire for quantitative data, as opposed to subjective information which could be provided by a suited astronaut, coupled with test scheduling conflicts resulted in an unmanned testing scenario. Accommodating these test objectives in an unmanned test required a solution that would provide remotely actuated thermal vacuum compatible torque sources of up to 25 ft-lbs at four horizontally oriented and four vertically oriented bolts, a variable input force of up to 125 lbs at the four brake actuators, and thermal vacuum compatible torque and force sensors. The test objectives were successfully met in both the thermal Chamber H and the thermal vacuum Chamber B at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  18. A Process and Outcomes Evaluation of the International AIDS Conference: Who Attends? Who Benefits Most?

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Bernadette; Wolvaardt, Jacqueline E.; Webb, Elize M; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct a process and outcomes evaluation of the International AIDS Conference (IAC). Reaction evaluation data are presented from a delegate survey distributed at the 2004 IAC held in Thailand. Input and output data from the Thailand IAC are compared to data from previous IACs to ascertain attendance and reaction trends, which delegates benefit most, and host country effects. Outcomes effectiveness data were collected via a survey and intercept interviews. Data suggest that the host country may significantly affect the number and quality of basic science IAC presentations, who attends, and who benefits most. Intended and executed HIV work-related behavior change was assessed under 9 classifications. Delegates who attended 1 previous IAC were more likely to report behavior changes than attendees who attended more than 1 previous IAC. The conference needs to be continually evaluated to elicit the required data to plan effective future IACs. PMID:17435615

  19. A Process and Outcomes Evaluation of the International AIDS Conference: Who Attends? Who Benefits Most?

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to conduct a process and outcomes evaluation of the International AIDS Conference (IAC). Reaction evaluation data are presented from a delegate survey distributed at the 2004 IAC held in Thailand. Input and output data from the Thailand IAC are compared to data from previous IACs to ascertain attendance and reaction trends, which delegates benefit most, and host country effects. Outcomes effectiveness data were collected via a survey and intercept interviews. Data suggest that the host country may significantly affect the number and quality of basic science IAC presentations, who attends, and who benefits most. Intended and executed HIV work-related behavior change was assessed under 9 classifications. Delegates who attended 1 previous IAC were more likely to report behavior changes than attendees who attended more than 1 previous IAC. The conference needs to be continually evaluated to elicit the required data to plan effective future IACs. PMID:19825138

  20. Progress Towards an HIV Cure: Update from the 2014 International AIDS Society Symposium

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jenny Louise; Fromentin, Rémi; Corbelli, Giulio Maria; Østergaard, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical research has led to profound advances in the treatment of HIV infection. Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) now provides the means to readily control viral infection, and people living with HIV who receive timely and effective ART can expect to benefit from a life expectancy comparable to uninfected individuals. Nevertheless, despite effective treatment, ART does not fully restore the immune system and importantly HIV persists indefinitely in latent reservoirs, resulting in the need for life-long treatment. The challenges and limits of life-long treatment have spurred significant scientific interest and global investment into research towards an HIV cure. The International AIDS Society (IAS) 2014 Towards an HIV cure symposium brought together researchers and community to discuss the most recent advances in our understanding of latency and HIV reservoirs, and the clinical approaches towards an HIV cure under current investigation. This report summarizes and reviews some of the major findings discussed during the symposium. PMID:25257573

  1. The International Space Station: New Capabilities for Disaster Response and Humanitarian Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William

    2012-01-01

    products) and operational (notification and engagement of sensor support teams, international partner agency sanction of astronaut support activities). To better collaborate on common issues and strengthen applications, including using the data to support disaster response, we established an ISS Program Science Forum Working Group for Earth Observations comprised of representatives from the international partner agencies. This international forum welcomes input and support from relevant United Nations task groups regarding our disaster response and humanitarian aid to enable development of the ISS capabilities in this area for greatest value to the international community.

  2. The national- and international-wide prospects of future improvements of position location and time synchronization systems and aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gouzhva, Yuri G.; Balyasnikov, Boris N.; Korniyenko, Vladimir V.; Pushkina, Irina G.; Shebshayevich, Valentin S.; Denisov, Vladimir I.; Reutov, Alexander P.

    1990-01-01

    The concept being designed by the Leningrad Scientific Research Radio Technical Institute (LSRRI) of united positioning and timing service on the basis of the utilization of long-range and global radionavigation and common time systems and aids for different users is described. The estimate of its utilization on the national as well as on international scale is given.

  3. An alternative mechanism for international health aid: evaluating a Global Social Protection Fund.

    PubMed

    Basu, Sanjay; Stuckler, David; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Several public health groups have called for the creation of a global fund for 'social protection'-a fund that produces the international equivalent of domestic tax collection and safety net systems to finance care for the ill and disabled and related health costs. All participating countries would pay into a global fund based on a metric of their ability to pay and withdraw from the common pool based on a metric of their need for funds. We assessed how alternative strategies and metrics by which to operate such a fund would affect its size and impact on health system financing. Using a mathematical model, we found that common targets for health funding in low-income countries require higher levels of aid expenditures than presently distributed. Some mechanisms exist that may incentivize reduction of domestic health inequalities, and direct most funds towards the poorest populations. Payments from high-income countries are also likely to decrease over time as middle-income countries' economies grow. PMID:23335466

  4. Implementation of Regional and International HIV and AIDS Prevention, Treatment, Care and Support Conventions and Declarations in Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalanda, Boniface; Mamimine, Patrick; Taela, Katia; Chingandu, Louis; Musuka, Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    The governments across the world have endorsed numerous international Conventions and Declarations (C&Ds) that enhance interventions to reduce the impact of HIV and AIDS. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which the governments of Lesotho, Malawi and Mozambique have implemented HIV and AIDS international and regional C&Ds to…

  5. The International AIDS Questionnaire-English Version (IAQ-E): Assessing the Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cindy; Sloan, Melissa; MacMaster, Samuel; Hughes, Leslie

    2006-01-01

    In order to address HIV infection among college students, a comprehensive measure is needed that can be used with samples from culturally diverse populations. Therefore, this paper assessed the reliability and validity of an HIV/AIDS questionnaire that measures fours dimensions of HIV/AIDS awareness--factual knowledge, prejudice, personal risk,…

  6. Planning Future Strategies for Domestic and International NeuroAIDS Research, July 24-25, 2008.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeymohan; Clifford, David; Douglas, Steven D; Fox, Howard; Gendelman, Howard E; Gonzalez-Scarano, Francisco; Grant, Igor; Major, Eugene; McArthur, Justin

    2009-09-01

    The National Institute of Mental Health in cooperation with the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke organized a meeting on July 24-25, 2008 to develop novel research directions for neuroAIDS research. The deliberations of this meeting are outlined in this brief report. Several critical research areas in neuroAIDS were identified as areas of emphasis. Opportunities for collaborations between large NIH-funded projects were also discussed. PMID:19455426

  7. International response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic: planning for success.

    PubMed Central

    Piot, P.; Coll Seck, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    More assertive political leadership in the global response to AIDS in both poor and rich countries culminated in June 2001 at the UN General Assembly Special Session on AIDS. Delegates made important commitments there, and endorsed a global strategy framework for shifting the dynamics of the epidemic by simultaneously reducing risk, vulnerability and impact. This points the way to achievable progress in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Evidence of success in tackling the spread of AIDS comes from diverse programme areas, including work with sex workers and clients, injecting drug users, and young people. It also comes from diverse countries, including India, the Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, and Zambia. Their common feature is the combination of focused approaches with attention to the societywide context within which risk occurs. Similarly, building synergies between prevention and care has underpinned success in Brazil and holds great potential for sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% reductions have been achieved in the prices at which antiretroviral drugs are available. Success also involves overcoming stigma, which undermines community action and blocks access to services. Work against stigma and discrimination has been effectively carried out in both health sector and occupational settings. Accompanying attention to the conditions for success against HIV/AIDS is global consensus on the need for additional resources. The detailed estimate of required AIDS spending in low- and middle-income countries is US$ 9.2 billion annually, compared to the $ 2 billion currently spent. Additional spending should be mobilized by the new global fund to fight AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, but needs to be joined by additional government and private efforts within countries, including from debt relief. Commitment and capacity to scale up HIV prevention and care have never been stronger. The moment must be seized to prevent a global catastrophe

  8. Psychometric properties of a revised Danish translation of the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The original Danish translation of the international outcome inventory for hearing aids (IOI-HA) proved problematic as the wording of item 5 was not semantically clear, rendering the questionnaire internally inconsistent. The objective of this study was to examine data collected with a revised Danish translation of the IOI-HA in order to: (1) evaluate the effect of the revision, and (2) to examine if the psychometric properties of the revised translation of the IOI-HA are equivalent to those of previously validated translations. Design Psychometric properties were evaluated performing inter-item correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and item-total correlation. Study sample Three hundred forty-one adult hearing-impaired participants—all of whom were voluntary hearing aid testers attached to the Global Audiology Group in GN ReSound A/S on a non-payment basis — were mailed a revised Danish IOI-HA questionnaire. Results Statistical analysis revealed good internal consistency along with a clear division of items into two distinct factors. Conclusions The revised Danish translation of the IOI-HA proves internally consistent. Furthermore, it possesses psychometric properties equivalent to those reported in several corresponding studies of other translations. Data obtained from it can therefore validly be considered comparable to data obtained from previously validated translations of the IOI-HA. PMID:24475867

  9. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    PubMed

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. PMID:26381043

  10. PREFACE: Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.

    2010-04-01

    The attached PDF contains, the full preface, a list of the scientific committee, former LAPD chairmen, local organizers, previous locations of LAPD meetings, participants email contacts and a list of the contributed papers. logo The Fourteenth International Symposium on Laser-Aided Plasma Diagnostics (LAPD14), was held from 21-24 September 2009 in Castelbrando, Treviso, Italy. The series of LAPD symposia was originally started at Kyushu University in 1983, and since then it has been organized every two years alternately in Japan, Europe and the United States, traveling around the world five times. Each LAPD Symposium brings together scientists working in different disciplines all related to the diagnostics of any type of plasma by laser or similar techniques. Researchers working on nuclear fusion, industrial process, low temperature plasma chemistry, laser development and material science, are invited to present prominent new diagnostic developments, with the aim of synergetic discussions. The broad spectrum of contributions represents one of the strengths of this symposium, which is an important, unique and fruitful source of cross-fertilization between these fields and a forum of discussions. The scope of LAPD14 was very broad, including many techniques related to laser probing of plasmas: incoherent and coherent Thomson scattering, polarimetry, interferometry, reflectometry, laser induced fluorescence, laser absorption spectroscopy, laser photodetachment spectroscopy, cavity ringdown spectroscopy, Raman scattering, reflectometry, microwave diagnostics and related laser and hardware developments. LAPD14 was attended by 66 researchers, from 15 different countries who presented a total of 57 papers (13 general, 12 topical, 10 short talks and 23 poster contributions). It is a tradition of LAPD that the first lecture of each meeting, which is more general and aims to review prominent new developments, is called 'the Akazaki lecture' in honor of Professor Masanori

  11. A Survey of AIDS Knowledge and Attitudes among Prostitutes in an International Border Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Felipe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 60 prostitutes in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to AIDS. Found that the prostitutes are not utilizing risk reduction behaviors while having sexual relations with their clients. Provides implications for social workers and public health workers who must develop strategies to work effectively…

  12. Improving diagnostic capability for HPV disease internationally within the NIH-NIAID-Division of AIDS Clinical Trial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Catherine C.; Michelow, Pamela M.; Godard, Mandana; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Darden, Janice; Firnhaber, Cynthia S.; Wetherall, Neal T.; Bremer, James; Coombs, Robert W.; Wilkin, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate an external quality assurance (EQA) program for the laboratory diagnosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) disease that was established to improve international research capability within the Division of AIDS at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease–supported Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group network. Methods A three-component EQA scheme was devised comprising assessments of diagnostic accuracy of cytotechnologists and pathologists using available EQA packages, review of quality and accuracy of clinical slides from local sites by an outside expert, and HPV DNA detection using the commercially available HPV test kit. Results Seven laboratories and 17 pathologists in Africa, India, and South America participated. EQA scores were suboptimal for standard packages in three of seven laboratories. There was good agreement between the local laboratory and the central reader 70% of the time (90% confidence interval, 42%-98%). Performance on the College of American Pathologists’ HPV DNA testing panel was successful in all laboratories tested. Conclusions The prequalifying EQA round identified correctable issues that will improve the laboratory diagnosis of HPV related cervical disease at the international sites and will provide a mechanism for ongoing education and continuous quality improvement. PMID:24225757

  13. Microsatellite-aided detection of genetic redundancy improves management of the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the tree from which cocoa butter and chocolate is derived, is conserved in field genebanks. The largest of these ex situ collections in the public domain is the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad (ICG,T). Reduction of genetic redundancy is essential to improve the acc...

  14. International Aid as Informal Educator: Exploring Political Attitudes and Engagement in Southern Sudan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagen, Christine Mary

    2010-01-01

    Scholarship has isolated internal economic conditions and political institutions as essential factors in political development and democracy-building, this research suggests that external influences are at play. During times of civil war and post-conflict reconstruction, governmental and socioeconomic structures are likely weak or nonexistent, and…

  15. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  16. Beyond a Band-Aid Approach: An Internal Agency Solution to Nurse Staffing.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jewel; Kaplow, Roberta; Dominy, Janet; Stroud, Bridgett

    2015-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) affirmed that the employment of temporary or per diem nurses augments risk to patient safety. The IOM recommends health care facilities avoid hiring nurses working from a temporary external agency. The IOM recognizes the need for health care facilities to have a plan in place for situations when confronted with short staffing, higher acuity, and increased patient census. Based on recommendations from the IOM, an internal agency was developed in a university-based health care system. Cost savings were realized because of the collaborative efforts of human resources to fill vacancies, unit management managing their respective budgets by flexing staff based on patient census, and the development and implementation of the Enterprise Staffing Pool. PMID:26214939

  17. Serendipity, International Cooperation and Navigational Aids: A History of Radio Echo Sounding (RES) Technologies, 1958-1979

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetti, S.; Dean, K.; Naylor, S.; Siegert, M. J.

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the history of RES and examines major technological advances that fostered the use of this technique in the sub-glacial exploration of Antarctica. The paper will especially focus on three themes: the role played by accidental discoveries in the origins of RES; the importance of international collaboration in its technological development; and the need of establishing new technological networks in the deployment of RES apparatus during Antarctic missions. The origins of RES can be traced back to two important -albeit accidental- findings. First, during post-war US military operations in the Antarctic radio altimeters produced gross errors in height indication. Furthermore, during the IGY ionospheric research and sounding was hampered by interference due to bottom echoes. These serendipitous events helped to figure out that the Antarctic ice was transparent to certain frequencies, and therefore new radio technologies could be used to sound what lay beneath it. The establishment of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) and the Antarctic Treaty (AT) provided a new international framework vital to the development of RES technologies. This allowed researchers from different countries to come together and discuss important technological features for the first time. At a technical level, the setting up of international experiments (such as those of 1963 and 1964 in Greenland) gave an opportunity for experts from different countries to compare the performance of new RES apparatus. At a political level, the parallel debate within the AT community on the allocation of Antarctic radio frequencies helped radio engineers to work out ways to circumvent interference with radio communications. Finally, the deployment of RES equipment in Antarctic exploration relied upon a number of technological aids to improve the potential and accuracy of geophysical sounding. The use of new aircrafts, guidance systems, and computers proved vital in many

  18. Proceedings of the International Conference on AIDS and Homeless Youth: An Agenda for the Future (1st, San Francisco, California, June 25, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, G. Cajetan; And Others

    This proceedings of the first international conference on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and homeless youth included over 125 delegates from 32 countries. There was strong consensus among delegates that street youth are often in high and multiple Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) risk situations, and programmatic responses are needed.…

  19. Bruises, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Bruises, First Aid A A A Bruises lighten and change color ... Bruises can be a sign of internal bleeding. First Aid Guide If there is external bleeding in addition ...

  20. Why do some countries spend more for health? An assessment of sociopolitical determinants and international aid for government health expenditures.

    PubMed

    Liang, Li-Lin; Mirelman, Andrew J

    2014-08-01

    A consensus exists that rising income levels and technological development are among key drivers of total health spending. Determinants of public sector health expenditure, by contrast, are less well understood. This study examines a complex relationship across government health expenditure (GHE), sociopolitical risks, and international aid, while taking into account the impacts of national income, debt and tax financing and aging populations on health spending. We apply a fixed-effects two-stage least squares regression method to a panel dataset comprising 120 countries for the years 1995 through 2010. Our results show that democratic accountability has a diminishing positive correlation with GHE, and that levels of GHE are higher when government is more stable. Corruption is associated with less GHE in developing countries, but with higher GHE in developed countries. We also find that development assistance for health (DAH) is fungible with domestically financed government health expenditure (DGHE). For an average country, a 1% increase in DAH to government is associated with a 0.03-0.04% decrease in DGHE. Furthermore, the degree of fungibility of DAH to government is higher in countries where corruption or ethnic tensions are widespread. However, DAH to non-governmental organizations is not fungible with DGHE. PMID:24929917

  1. Mobilizing Lithuanian Health Professionals as Community Peer Leaders for AIDS Prevention: An International Primary Health Care Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norr, Kathleen F.; McElmurry, Beverly J.; Slutas, Frances M.; Christiansen, Carol D.; Misner, Susan J.; Marks, Beth A.

    2001-01-01

    Using primary health care and peer leadership models, U.S. nurses trained Lithuanian health professionals as community peer leaders in AIDS prevention. A national continuing education program is in place to sustain the initiative in Lithuania. (SK)

  2. White Paper Report of the 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: Integrating Multidisciplinary Strategies for Imaging Services in the Developing World

    PubMed Central

    Mazal, Jonathan; Lexa, Frank; Starikovsky, Anna; Jimenez, Pablo; Jain, Sanjay; DeStigter, Kristen K.; Nathan, Robert; Krebs, Elizabeth; Noble, Vicki; Marks, William; Hirsh, Richard N.; Short, Brad; Sydnor, Ryan; Timmreck-Jackson, Emily; Lungren, Matthew P.; Maxfield, Charles; Azene, Ezana M.; Garra, Brian S.; Choi, Brian G.; Lewin, Jonathan S.; Mollura, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparity. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID Conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve planning, accessibility and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and healthcare disparities including: (1) economic development for radiology service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions. PMID:22748790

  3. White paper report of the 2012 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: planning the implementation of global radiology.

    PubMed

    Mollura, Daniel J; Mazal, Jonathan; Everton, Kathryn L; Azene, Ezana M; Collaros, Phelosha; Dabek, Filip; DeStigter, Kristen K; El-Shayal, Tarek S; Garra, Brian S; Gill, Tariq; Hayes, Carrie; Iosifescu, Sarah; Jimenez, Pablo; Khandelwal, Niranjan; Kenney, Philip; Lexa, Frank; Lewin, Jonathan S; Lungren, Matthew P; Mayo-Smith, William; Medlen, Kayiba; Nordvig, Anna S; O'Hara-Rusckowski, Deborah; Quansah, Seth; Silfen, Eric; Singh, Tulika; Sydnor, Ryan; Tahvildari, Ali; Teninty, Bill; Timmreck, Emily J; Watson, Liana

    2013-08-01

    The RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries is a yearly forum addressing global shortages of radiology that contribute to health care disparity. In this paper, the authors present key issues and consensus positions related to the planning, analyzing, implementing, and monitoring of radiology in limited-resource areas on the basis of presentations at the 2012 RAD-AID conference, to advocate for (1) economic development to build health care capacity, (2) multidisciplinary educational strategies, (3) innovative epidemiologic and infrastructural solutions tailored to community needs, (4) advanced technical solutions leveraging the widespread use of wireless telecommunications and phone-based portable devices, and (5) improved dialog across radiology and public health institutions for coordinating global health strategies. PMID:23583085

  4. White paper report of the 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: integrating multidisciplinary strategies for imaging services in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Everton, Kathryn L; Mazal, Jonathan; Mollura, Daniel J

    2012-07-01

    The 2011 RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries discussed data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world, where widespread shortages of imaging services significantly reduce health care quality and increase health care disparities. This white paper from the 2011 RAD-AID conference represents consensus advocacy of multidisciplinary strategies to improve the planning, accessibility, and quality of imaging services in the developing world. Conference presenters and participants discussed numerous solutions to imaging and health care disparities, including (1) economic development for radiologic service planning, (2) public health mechanisms to address disease and prevention at the population and community levels, (3) comparative clinical models to implement various clinical and workflow strategies adapted to unique developing world community contexts, (4) education to improve training and optimize service quality, and (5) technology innovation to bring new technical capabilities to limited-resource regions. PMID:22748790

  5. Policies for solidarity. A personal view of the Second International Conference for non governmental organizations working on AIDS, Paris 1-4 November 1990.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1991-01-01

    A summary of events at the Second International Conference for Non-Governmental Organizations working on AIDS, held in Paris November 1-4, 1990 is presented with comments on the effectiveness of arrangement, planning and sessions. The meeting was fraught with obstacles, the worst of which was a change of venue from San Francisco to Paris at the last minute, with serious consequences to speakers whose U.S. travel funds had to be found elsewhere. The goal of the conference was to facilitate international networking among AIDS Service, national and regional organizations. To this end 44 sessions were held informally. Plenary sessions were marked by moving presentations of such items as an international memorial quilt, and topics such as how children and women are affected by HIV, and how human rights abuses are often unseen. The need for solidarity among NGOs was stressed by Dr. J. Mann, who noted that NGOs perform up to half the health care in some countries. The major substance of the conference was 5 Seminar tracks of 5.5 hours duration on the topics of services and care, education and prevention, drugs and treatment, human rights, and organizational development. Human rights recognized internationally were described, but in some places lack of resources makes them a privilege. Illegal drug programs, decriminalization and research on cultural obstacles were within the broad range of issues addressed under services and care. While traditional symptomatic treatments and older drugs such as gentian violet as a treatment for candidiasis are being developed in African countries, serious social problems arise when people sell their possessions for a few doses of AZT or Kemron there. In the seminars on organizational development useful exchanges between major donors and project organizers explored professional methods of applying for grants, as well as accounting for funds spent later. ICASO the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations was ratified and a

  6. Reconstruction of a Situational Theory of Communication: Internal and External Concepts as Identifiers of Publics for AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunig, James E.; Childers, Linda

    A study by James E. Grunig and his students at the University of Maryland tested a refined version of Grunig's situational theory of communication behavior (1968) by surveying the attitudes of the public regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). In preparation for the study, 20 years of research conducted by Grunig and his students was…

  7. One Mann against AIDS.

    PubMed

    Stocker, C

    1990-11-30

    This article features Jonathan Mann, director of the International AIDS Center of the Harvard AIDS Institute and his efforts to combat AIDS in the global context. Mann built the largest program in the history of the World Health Organization specifically in fighting AIDS. He helped originate the World AIDS Day observed annually throughout the world. As the director of the International AIDS Center at Harvard, Mann is launching a new role for himself concerning with research and ideas related to AIDS issue. According to him, AIDS pandemic offers "opportunities" to speed up research and spur people around the globe to address longstanding social problems with new energy. Mann hopes to get involved with local AIDS efforts. He foresees AIDS as an escalating problem that will continue to persist in one or two generations, which could rise as high as tenfold in the 1990s. He believes a vaccine will be available in the middle to late 1990s but to purge the virus from those positive persons is impossible. If the World AIDS Day can bring about attitude change, Mann hopes it will able be to foster a feeling of unity among people and countries. PMID:12349354

  8. Aid, Development, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  9. How Project Management Tools Aid in Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International Maintenance of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Cynthia W.; Brumagim, Alan L.

    2008-01-01

    The authors present the case of one business college's use of project management techniques as tools for accomplishing Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) International maintenance of accreditation. Using these techniques provides an efficient and effective method of organizing maintenance efforts. In addition, using…

  10. The reliability and validity of the Modified Condom Outcome Expectancy Scale (MCOES) among an international sample of HIV-negative partners of people living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sherman, S G; Celentano, D A; Mcgrath, J W; Chard, S E; Gangakhedkar, R R; Joglekar, N; Malhotra-Kohli, R; Kamya, M; Fullem, A

    2003-06-01

    Safer sexual behaviour is vital in curbing the HlV epidemic in many developing countries where the epidemic is primarily transmitted through heterosexual sex. Reliable and valid assessment of factors related to HIV risk behaviours are important in testing behavioural theories as well as informing effective AIDS prevention programmes. The current study tests the reliability and validity of a modified version of the Condom Outcome Expectancy Scale (COES) among a sample of HI'-negative sexual partners (n = 100) of HIV-infected individuals in Pune, India, Chang Mai,Thailand and Kampala, Uganda. Internal consistency reliability was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which had a value of 0.80 for the entire sample, with site-specific values of. 0.78 for India; 0.75 for Thailand; and 0.79 for Uganda. Test-retest reliability was conducted to test the scale's stability over time with 60% of the sample, resulting in a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.70. The scale's structure was explored by analyzing response scores on the items using principal components analysis, which yielded a two-factor solution. The study indicates the utility of a modified version of the widely tested COES across international settings. Such research is necessary in understanding intervention targets across international settings. PMID:12745403

  11. HIV / AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Understanding HIV/AIDS AIDS was first reported in the United States in ... and has since become a major worldwide epidemic. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus, or ...

  12. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection. Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement. Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  13. Is quality of life poorer for older adults with HIV/AIDS? International evidence using the WHOQOL-HIV.

    PubMed

    Skevington, S M

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly older adults are being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. In 2002, UNAIDS indicated that 13 aspects of quality of life (QoL) were poorer for older adults, but only sparse, inconsistent cross-cultural evidence is available. This statement was investigated using a reliable, valid measure (the WHOQOL-HIV) distributed in nine cultures (eight countries). HIV positive and well adults (n = 2089) were assessed across 30 QoL facets; 403 were 40+ years. It was confirmed that sleep, fatigue and sex-life were poorer areas of QoL for older HIV adults than younger. Furthermore, they could be misinterpreted as normal ageing signs. Moreover, older people reported greater dependency on medication. However, older HIV adults had better QoL than expected on 11 dimensions; negative feelings, social inclusion, and several environmental and spiritual facets. This highlights the extent of poor QoL in younger adults. After accounting for culture and gender, overall QoL and health in older HIV adults was explained by eight facets comprising 61.3% of the variance. Social relationships were paramount, especially personal relationships (41%), but support and sex-life also. Energy, negative feelings, cognitions, financial resources and HIV symptoms also contributed. Social interventions for ageing communities would improve well-being. This evidence could support global ageing and HIV policy. PMID:22428745

  14. XVII International AIDS Conference: From Evidence to Action - Social, behavioural and economic science and policy and political science.

    PubMed

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric; Brown, Glen; Kort, Rodney

    2009-01-01

    AIDS 2008 firmly established stigma and discrimination as fundamental priorities in the push for universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support. Conference sessions and discussions reinforced the tangible negative effects of stigma on national legislation and policies. A strong theme throughout the conference was the need to replace prevention interventions that focus exclusively on individual behaviour change or biomedical prevention interventions with "combination prevention" approaches that address both individual and structural factors that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.Several high-level sessions addressed various aspects of the debate over "vertical" (disease-specific) versus "horizontal" (health systems) funding. The majority of evidence presented at the conference suggests that HIV investments strengthen health systems through the establishment of clinical and laboratory infrastructure, strengthened supply and procurement systems, improvements in health care worker training, and increased community engagement.Human rights were a focal point at the conference; several presentations emphasized the importance of securing human rights to achieve universal access goals, including workplace discrimination, travel restrictions, gender inequality, and the criminalization of homosexuality, drug use, sex work, and HIV transmission and/or exposure. PMID:19811671

  15. International research and local authorities: interplay between research and police agendas in the field of drug abuse and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Page, J Bryan

    2005-09-01

    International study of drug use and HIV derives much of its value from affording investigators opportunities to compare similar behaviors in contrasting cultural contexts. In these contrasting cultural contexts, people entrusted with conducting police work and minimizing crime have ways of conducting their business that may or may not interfere with research on illegal or socially disapproved behaviors. Two cases illustrate interactions between well-meaning researchers and local authorities. In both, investigations benefited from having laid groundwork for local endorsement of study activities. Research on marijuana smoking in Costa Rica enjoyed strong cooperation from the Ministry of Health, but not so strong from the Ministry of Security because of a fledgling office of Narcotics. Studies of HIV risk among injecting drug users (IDUs) in Valencia, Spain, encountered no problems with police but noted dangers of low drug enforcement. Five principles of preparing for international research may help investigators to anticipate some varieties of contextual obstructions to research outside the United States. PMID:16107435

  16. White Paper Report of the RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries: identifying challenges, opportunities, and strategies for imaging services in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Mollura, Daniel J; Azene, Ezana M; Starikovsky, Anna; Thelwell, Aduke; Iosifescu, Sarah; Kimble, Cary; Polin, Ann; Garra, Brian S; DeStigter, Kristen K; Short, Brad; Johnson, Benjamin; Welch, Christian; Walker, Ivy; White, David M; Javadi, Mehrbod S; Lungren, Matthew P; Zaheer, Atif; Goldberg, Barry B; Lewin, Jonathan S

    2010-07-01

    The RAD-AID Conference on International Radiology for Developing Countries was an assembly of individuals and organizations interested in improving access to medical imaging services in developing countries where the availability of radiology has been inadequate for both patient care and public health programs. The purpose of the meeting was to discuss data, experiences, and models pertaining to radiology in the developing world and to evaluate potential opportunities for future collaboration. Conference participants included radiologists, technologists, faculty members of academic medical institutions, and leadership of nongovernmental organizations involved in international health care and social entrepreneurship. Four main themes from the conference are presented in this white paper as important factors for the implementation and optimization of radiology in the developing world: (1) ensuring the economic sustainability of radiologic services through financial and administrative training support of health care personnel; (2) designing, testing, and deploying clinical strategies adapted for regions with limited resources; (3) structuring and improving the role of American radiology residents interested in global health service projects; and (4) implementing information technology models to support digital imaging in the developing world. PMID:20630383

  17. The International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care: Position Statements Can Aid Nurses to Think Globally and Act Locally.

    PubMed

    Beck, Susan L; Bialous, Stella; Ben-Gal, Yael

    2016-03-01

    The number of new cases of cancer is expected to rise by about 70% during the next two decades, and people living in low- and middle-income countries will experience a disproportionate burden of this increase. Oncology nurses are positioned to take the lead in addressing this looming health crisis. Such efforts will gain momentum and have a greater impact if nurses around the world collaborate. The purpose of this article is to describe the role of the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care in leading this effort, with a particular focus on three specific position statements that nursing societies and nurse leaders can use to advance cancer prevention and control in their own institution or country.
. PMID:26906137

  18. The importance of national political context to the impacts of international conservation aid: evidence from the W National Parks of Benin and Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Minn, Michael; Sinsin, Brice

    2015-11-01

    National political context is widely understood to be an important factor shaping the ecological and socio-economic impacts of protected areas (PAs) and other conservation interventions. Despite broad recognition that national political context matters, however, there is little systematic understanding about how and why it matters, particularly in the context of PAs. This article seeks to advance empirical and theoretical understanding of the influence of national political context on the impacts of conservation interventions through study of an international aid project in a large transboundary PA in West Africa. It uses multilevel regression analysis to analyze the variable effects of changes in enforcement—a central mechanism through which the Protected Ecosystems in Sudano-Sahelian Africa project sought to achieve its objectives—in the W National Parks (WNP) of Benin and Niger. We find that differences in national political context relating to governance quality and extent of democratic decentralization moderated the social-ecological effects of enforcement. Increasing enforcement levels in Benin’s WNP were associated with significant increases in mammal species abundance while having little average effect on the incomes of households around the Park. By contrast, greater levels of enforcement in Niger’s WNP were associated with sharply decreasing income levels among Park neighbors but did not have a statistically significant effect on wildlife populations. These results highlight the importance of national political context to the outcomes of aid-funded conservation efforts. They suggest that state-led PA enforcement will have more positive social-ecological impacts in better-governed, more decentralized countries and that conservation policy centered on PAs should therefore devote greater attention to engagement with higher levels of governance.

  19. Comparing eLearning and Classroom Instruction on HIV/AIDS Knowledge Uptake and Internalizing among South African and Irish Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zyl, Hendra; Visser, Pieter; van Wyk, Elmarie; Laubscher, Ria

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Innovative public health approaches are required to improve human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and prevention among adolescents, one of the most vulnerable groups to HIV/AIDS. Consequently, elearning and classroom instruction was assessed for HIV/AIDS knowledge uptake and internalizing…

  20. Determining the internal quantum efficiency of PbSe nanocrystal solar cells with the aid of an optical model.

    PubMed

    Law, Matt; Beard, Matthew C; Choi, Sukgeun; Luther, Joseph M; Hanna, Mark C; Nozik, Arthur J

    2008-11-01

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the active layer of PbSe nanocrystal (NC) back-contact Schottky solar cells by combining external quantum efficiency (EQE) and total reflectance measurements with an optical model of the device stack. The model is parametrized with the complex index of refraction of each layer in the stack as calculated from ellipsometry data. Good agreement between the experimental and modeled reflectance spectra permits a quantitative estimate of the fraction of incident light absorbed by the NC films at each wavelength, thereby yielding well-constrained QE spectra for photons absorbed only by the NCs. Using a series of devices fabricated from 5.1+/-0.4 nm diameter PbSe NCs, we show that thin NC cells achieve an EQE and an active layer IQE as high as 60+/-5% and 80+/-7%, respectively, while the QE of devices with NC layers thicker than about 150 nm falls, particularly in the blue, because of progressively greater light absorption in the field-free region of the films and enhanced recombination overall. Our results demonstrate that interference effects must be taken into account in order to calculate accurate optical generation profiles and IQE spectra for these thin film solar cells. The mixed modeling/experimental approach described here is a rigorous and powerful way to determine if multiple exciton generation (MEG) photocurrent is collected by devices with EQE<100%. On the basis of the magnitudes and shapes of the IQE spectra, we conclude that the 1,2-ethanedithiol treated NC devices studied here do not produce appreciable MEG photocurrent. PMID:18823149

  1. Determining the Internal Quantum Efficiency of PbSe Nanocrystal Solar Cells with the Aid of an Optical Model

    SciTech Connect

    Law, M.; Beard, M. C.; Choi, S.; Luther, J. M.; Hanna, M. C.; Nozik, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    We determine the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the active layer of PbSe nanocrystal (NC) back-contact Schottky solar cells by combining external quantum efficiency (EQE) and total reflectance measurements with an optical model of the device stack. The model is parameterized with the complex index of refraction of each layer in the stack as calculated from ellipsometry data. Good agreement between the experimental and modeled reflectance spectra permits a quantitative estimate of the fraction of incident light absorbed by the NC films at each wavelength, thereby yielding well-constrained QE spectra for photons absorbed only by the NCs. Using a series of devices fabricated from 5.1 {+-} 0.4 nm diameter PbSe NCs, we show that thin NC cells achieve an EQE and an active layer IQE as high as 60 {+-} 5% and 80 {+-} 7%, respectively, while the QE of devices with NC layers thicker than about 150 nm falls, particularly in the blue, because of progressively greater light absorption in the field-free region of the films and enhanced recombination overall. Our results demonstrate that interference effects must be taken into account in order to calculate accurate optical generation profiles and IQE spectra for these thin film solar cells. The mixed modeling/experimental approach described here is a rigorous and powerful way to determine if multiple exciton generation (MEG) photocurrent is collected by devices with EQE < 100%. On the basis of the magnitudes and shapes of the IQE spectra, we conclude that the 1,2-ethanedithiol treated NC devices studied here do not produce appreciable MEG photocurrent.

  2. HIV / AIDS Network.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS Network and the Philippines Department of Health (DOH) collaborated to produce the AIDS Candlelight Memorial at the Philippine International Convention Center (PICC), May 1995, and World AIDS Day activities on December 1, 1995. After the memorial, a fashion show, "Body Shots," provided a channel for information on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). On World AIDS Day, at the request of DOH, the Network provided speakers who lectured on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and AIDS in different government offices. Prior to World AIDS Day, the Network focused on strengthening its cohesiveness and building the capabilities of its member organizations through lectures and symposia during November. Network activities were coordinated by the Remedios AIDS Foundation with support from the other members of the Coordinating Council: Health Action Information Network (HAIN); Caritas; Kabalikat, Stop Trafficking of Pilopinos Foundation, Inc. (STOP);and the Library Foundation (TLF). The Coordinating Council elected for 1996 includes the Remedios AIDS Foundation, HAIN, Caritas, TLF, STOP, the Foundation for Adolescent Development (FAD), and the Salvation Army. PMID:12291699

  3. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  4. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medication can suppress symptoms. ...

  5. Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... type and degree of loss. Are there different styles of hearing aids? Styles of hearing aids Source: NIH/NIDCD Behind-the- ... the ear canal and are available in two styles. The in-the-canal (ITC) hearing aid is ...

  6. Computers in engineering 1983; Proceedings of the International Conference and Exhibit, Chicago, IL, August 7-11, 1983. Volume 1 - Computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cokonis, T. J.

    The papers presented in this volume provide examples of the impact of computers on present engineering practice and indicate some future trends in computer-aided design, manufacturing, and simulation. Topics discussed include computer-aided design of turbine cycle configuration, managing and development of engineering computer systems, computer-aided manufacturing with robots in the automotive industry, and computer-aided design/analysis techniques of composite materials in the cure phase. Papers are also presented on computer simulation of vehicular propulsion systems, the performance of a hydraulic system simulator in a CAD environment, and computer simulation of hovercraft heave dynamics and control.

  7. Ethnic Minorities and Migrant Communities. Report on the Round Table and Satellite Meetings. International Congress on AIDS (9th, Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naz Foundation, London (England).

    The Naz Foundation sponsors a project on HIV and AIDS education, prevention, and support among South Asian, Turkish, Irani, and Arab communities in Europe. As immigrants, ethnic minorities, and refugees, these people are not isolated from the societies in which they live, and are just as vulnerable as any other community to AIDS. A conference on…

  8. Hearing Aid Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Hearing aids often develop malfunctions that are not detected by the wearer. This is particularly true when the wearers are school-age children. Studies of selected groups showed that from 30 to more than 50 percent of school children were not getting adequate benefit from their hearing aids because of unrecognized malfunctions, usually low or dead batteries. This can be serious because hearing impairment retards a child's educational progress. NASA technology incorporated in the Hearing Aid Malfunction Detection Unit (HAMDU), the device pictured, is expected to provide an effective countermeasure to the childrens' hearing aid problem. A patent license has been awarded to a minority-owned firm, Hopkins International Company, a subsidiary of H. H. Aerospace Design Co., Inc., Elmford, New York. The company plans early commercial availability of its version of the device.

  9. Aids and Infectious Diseases (aid) Pmp 2013 Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buonaguro, Franco M.

    2014-07-01

    The AIDS and Infectious Diseases (AID) PMP of the WFS contributed this year with a session on August 22nd to the Plenary Sessions of the International Seminars on Planetary Emergencies and Associated Meetings--46th Session: The Role of Science in the Third Millennium (Erice, 19-24 August 2013). Furthermore a workshop on August 24th was organized...

  10. AIDS.gov

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sites Podcasts QR Codes RSS Feeds Social Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing ... here Read related blog here Get updates via Facebook Live interviews Join the conversation: #RyanWhite2016​ International AIDS ...

  11. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  12. Let's Talk about Teacher Aides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Since 1989, teacher aides have become a familiar part of our classrooms as they support students with special educational needs. International and New Zealand research shows that despite many teacher aide practices that effectively support student learning in inclusive settings, there are some practices that work against the inclusion of some…

  13. Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Mary A.

    This workbook assists college and vocational school bound American Indian students in determining their financial needs and in locating sources of financial aid. A checklist helps students assess the state of their knowledge of financial programs; a glossary defines terms pertinent to the realm of financial aid (i.e., graduate study programs,…

  14. The AIDS Challenge: Prevention Education for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia, Ed.; And Others

    This book on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education was developed by national and international experts to aid educators, professionals, parents, and youth leaders in developing and implementing AIDS education programs. Included are: (1) "Living with AIDS" (Jack Martin Balcer); (2) "The AIDS Epidemic: Problems in Limiting Its Impact"…

  15. The International Health Partnership Plus: rhetoric or real change? Results of a self-reported survey in the context of the 4th high level forum on aid effectiveness in Busan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, which provides an international agreement on how to deliver aid, has recently been reviewed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Health sector aid effectiveness is important, given the volume of financial aid and the number of mechanisms through which health assistance is provided. Recognizing this, the international community created the International Health Partnership (IHP+), to apply the Paris Declaration to the health sector. This paper, which presents findings from an independent monitoring process (IHP+Results), makes a valuable contribution to the literature in the context of the recent 4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness in Busan, Korea. Methods IHP+Results monitored commitments made under the IHP + using an agreed framework with twelve measures for IHP + Development Partners and ten for IHP + recipient country governments. Data were collected through self-administered survey tools. IHP+Results analyzed these data, using transparent criteria, to produce Scorecards as a means to highlight progress against commitments and thereby strengthen mutual accountability amongst IHP + signatories. Results There have been incremental improvements in the strengthening of national planning processes and principles around mutual accountability. There has also been progress in Development Partners aligning their support with national budgets. But there is a lack of progress in the use of countries’ financial management and procurement systems, and in the integration of duplicative performance reporting frameworks and information systems. Discussion and Conclusions External, independent monitoring is potentially useful for strengthening accountability in health sector aid. While progress in strengthening country ownership, harmonisation and alignment seems evident, there are ongoing challenges. In spite of some useful findings, there are limitations with IHP

  16. A constitution for AIDS.

    PubMed

    Koshy, L M

    1996-01-15

    The Indian Health Organization projected the number of deaths per day due to AIDS by the year 2000 at 10,000. An interdisciplinary international conference was held in New Delhi to draft an international law governing the issues related to AIDS. Human freedom and public health policies are the most affected by this disease. In the absence of an international AIDS law, judicial verdicts set precedents and could have serious ramifications. A participant from the John Marshall Law School, Chicago, suggested that instead of making new laws, the existing ones from the colonial past should be repealed. This includes Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, which provides criminal sanctions against those who indulge in unnatural relations with man, woman, or animal. Penalizing homosexuality will only perpetuate clandestine relations and spread the virus into their families. Another participant seconded this motion stating that even a sex worker must be protected from abuse and indignity. The National AIDS Control Organization responded to the criticism that the government had not utilized all the World Bank funds allocated for anti-AIDS projects. The trends of the epidemic were the most important indicators not just the numbers. In Manipur and Mizoram, infection was almost entirely due to injecting drug use. The Saheli project undertaken in the red-light areas of Bombay encompassed brothel owners and prostitutes, which could be replicated in other areas. Because existing government policies were focusing on prevention, there was no protection of an HIV-infected individual's privacy, one participant from Madras stated. The confidentiality issue was also echoed by a US participant. The New Delhi Declaration and Action Plan on HIV/AIDS was also discussed. It forbids discrimination in employment, education, housing, health care, social security, travel, and marital and reproductive rights. Providing sterile needles and ensuring the safety of the blood supply were other concerns

  17. Hearing Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Food and Drug Administration Staff FDA permits marketing of new laser-based hearing aid with potential ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  18. Teaching Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, W. Robert, Ed.

    1976-01-01

    Provides evaluations of several aids for teaching chemistry. Included are The Use of Chemical Abstracts, Practical Technical Writing, Infrared Spectroscopy Programs, and a film titled "You Can't Go Back." (RH)

  19. [AIDS: "We will win"].

    PubMed

    Chabrier, H

    1989-11-13

    An international colloquium on AIDS held near Paris from October 26-28, 1989, unlike the World Conference on AIDS in Montreal the year before, was able to find reasons for optimism. Significant progress was reported in immunotherapy and in chemotherapy. Successful experiments in vaccinating monkeys against the AIDS virus were reported from the US, France, and Zaire. Time is needed to prove the efficacy of the vaccines because of the slow development in AIDS. A vaccine is being tested by Jonas Salk and collaborators in 75 seropositive volunteers who do not yet show full blown disease but who have very low levels of T4 lymphocytes. Plans are underway for a larger test on 500 seropositive patients at different stages of infection. According to Salk, the new chemical and logical approach toward AIDS will allow combinations of immunotherapy and chemotherapy to destroy the virus. R. Gallo of France listed as accomplishments of the past year a better understanding of the virus, improved case management techniques, increased ability to control Kaposi's sarcoma, considerable progress in the search for a vaccine, and detection of immune proteins that affect the virus. New biological markers permit establishment of correlations between cellular modifications and the progress of the disease as well as the precise effects of treatment. The new immune system drugs immuthiol and DDI are expected to reach the market soon. Patients very soon will be able to receive less toxic alternative treatments, which can be combined for greater efficacy once their toxic interactions are understood. PMID:12342689

  20. Floriculture Aide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joyce; Looney, Era

    Designed for use in a self-paced, open-entry/open-exit vocational training program for a floriculture aide, this program guide is one of six for teachers of adult women offenders from a correctional institution. Module topic outlines and sample lesson plans are presented on eleven topics: occupational opportunities in the retail florist industry;…

  1. Classroom Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes 6 aids for science instruction, including (1) the use of fudge to represent lava; (2) the "Living by Chemistry" program, designed to make high school chemistry more accessible to a diverse pool of students without sacrificing content; (3) NOAA and NSTA's online coral reef teaching tool, a new web-based "science toolbox" for…

  2. The deafening silence of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cameron, E

    2000-01-01

    For most of those attending the XIII International AIDS Conference in Durban, the Jonathan Mann Memorial Lecture delivered by Justice Edwin Cameron on Monday, 10 July 2000, was one of the highlights of the conference. The presentation is a passionate and compelling appeal to make medical care and treatment accessible and affordable to the more than 30 million people in resource-poor countries who face death from AIDS. PMID:11833178

  3. Apartheid and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, A T

    1989-11-25

    To persuade South Africa to abolish its apartheid policy several measures have been taken by the international community, including economic sanctions. The harm done by sanctions to the South African economy is obvious. As economic activity has slowed down, unemployment, especially in the black community, has risen. For the unemployed poverty and hunger are harsh realities while for those lucky enough to have jobs income remains quite high. Prostitution has become a way of redistributing income and for many families it is the only way to avoid starvation. With prostitution, however, has come AIDS: it is estimated that HIV infection is doubling every 5-8 months. On 1 calculation 85% of sexually active blacks could be infected with HIV by 1996; most would proceed to AIDS and die, leaving millions of children without parents. Although economic sanctions have speeded up some measure of reform in South Africa they are now harming the very people they were intended to help. Furthermore insidious voices are already being heard saying the government should stop all reform processes and anti-AIDS campaigns and just "sit it out" for the next few years. A further consequence of an ailing economy is the unavailability of funding for those who wish to curb the spread of AIDS via educational and other programs. [Full text] PMID:2573792

  4. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  5. Bioenergy systems report: The AID (Agency for International Development) approach. Using agricultural and forestry wastes for the production of energy in support of rural development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Biomass Energy Systems and Technology project (BEST) seeks to integrate natural resources, private sector expertise, and financial support in order to convert biomass into marketable energy products at existing agro-processing facilities. This report documents BEST's approach to biomass promotion and includes sections on: the rationale for the project's commodity focus (sugar cane, rice, and wood); the relevant U.S. biomass experience with rice, cane, and wood residues, etc., which BEST draws upon; A.I.D.'s experience in the field application of rice, wood, and cane residue bioenergy systems; economic analyses of biomass systems (using examples from Indonesia and Costa Rica); research initiatives to develop off-season fuels for sugar mills, advanced biomass conversion systems, and energy efficiency in sugar factories; and the environmental aspects of biomass (including its ability to be used without increasing global warming).

  6. HIV/AIDS Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code or city Follow Act Against AIDS Act Against AIDS @talkHIV Act Against AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets HIV/ ...

  7. Development through innovative research: the first three years of the Agency for International Development (AID) Program in Science and Technology Cooperation (PSTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The paper first provides a brief program history and overview of activities, including a list of countries participating during the period FY 1981-84. Research in five areas are: biotechnology/immunology, biotechnology/plants, use of chemistry in food production, biomass resources and conversion technology, and biological control of selected vectors. A second grants component, conducted by the Board on Science and Technology for International Development, is also profiled. The component funds research in six areas: grain amaranth, biological nitrogen fixation, fast-growing trees, mosquito vector field studies, rapid epidemiological assessment, and acute respiratory infection.

  8. Manufacturing Aids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    During a research program, MMTC/Textron invented a computer-aided automatic robotic system for spraying hot plasma onto a turbine blade. The need to control the thickness of the plasma deposit led to the development of advanced optical gaging techniques to monitor and control plasma spray build-up on blade surfaces. The techniques led to computerized optical gages for inspecting aircraft, industrial turbine blades, etc. MMTC offers 10 standard commercial robotic gages. The system also generates two dimensional profiles for assessing status and specifying repairs to the electromechanical cathodes used to make the parts. It is capable of accuracies to a ten-thousandth of an inch. An expanded product line is currently marketed. The gages offer multiple improvements in quality control and significant savings.

  9. Health aid and governance in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fielding, David

    2011-07-01

    Despite anecdotal evidence that the quality of governance in recipient countries affects the allocation of international health aid, there is no quantitative evidence on the magnitude of this effect, or on which dimensions of governance influence donor decisions. We measure health-aid flows over 1995-2006 for 109 aid recipients, matching aid data with measures of different dimensions of governance and a range of country-specific economic and health characteristics. Everything else being equal, countries with more political rights receive significantly more aid, but so do countries with higher corruption levels. The dependence of aid on political rights, even when we control for other governance indicators, suggests that health aid is sometimes used as an incentive to reward political reforms. PMID:20575152

  10. Use of a brief version of the self-compassion inventory with an international sample of people with HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M.; Leary, Mark; Wantland, Dean; Sullivan, K.; Nokes, Kathleen; Bain, Catherine A; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Chen, Wei-ti; Holzemer, William L.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Johnson, Mallory O.; Portillo, Carmen; Voss, Joachim; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Corless, Inge B; Nicholas, Patrice K; Rose, Carol Dawson; Phillips, J. Craig; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Kirksey, Kenn M.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the psychometric evaluation of a brief version of the Self Compassion Scale (SCS). A secondary analysis of data from an international sample of 1,967 English-speaking persons living with HIV disease was used to examine the factor structure, and reliability of the 12-item Brief Version Self Compassion Inventory (BVSCI). A Maximum Likelihood factor analysis and Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization confirmed a two-factor solution, accounting for 42.58% of the variance. The BVSCI supported acceptable internal consistencies, with .714 for the total scale and .822 for Factor I and .774 for Factor II. Factor I (lower self compassion) demonstrated strongly positive correlations with measures of anxiety and depression while Factor II (high self compassion) was inversely correlated with the measures. No significant differences were found in the BVSCI scores for gender, age, or having children. Levels of self-compassion were significantly higher in persons with HIV disease and other physical and psychological health conditions. The scale shows promise for the assessment of self-compassion in persons with HIV without taxing participants, and may prove essential in investigating future research aimed at examining correlates of self-compassion, as well as providing data for tailoring self-compassion interventions for persons with HIV. PMID:23527887

  11. Use of a brief version of the self-compassion inventory with an international sample of people with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Brion, John M; Leary, Mark; Wantland, Dean; Sullivan, K; Nokes, Kathleen; Bain, Catherine A; Chaiphibalsarisdi, Puangtip; Chen, Wei-ti; Holzemer, William L; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Iipinge, Scholastika; Johnson, Mallory O; Portillo, Carmen; Voss, Joachim; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Corless, Inge B; Nicholas, Patrice K; Rose, Carol Dawson; Phillips, J Craig; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Kirksey, Kenn M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the psychometric evaluation of a brief version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). A secondary analysis of data from an international sample of 1967 English-speaking persons living with HIV disease was used to examine the factor structure, and reliability of the 12-item Brief Version Self-Compassion Inventory (BVSCI). A Maximum Likelihood factor analysis and Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization confirmed a two-factor solution, accounting for 42.58% of the variance. The BVSCI supported acceptable internal consistencies, with 0.714 for the total scale and 0.822 for Factor I and 0.774 for Factor II. Factor I (lower self-compassion) demonstrated strongly positive correlations with measures of anxiety and depression, while Factor II (high self-compassion) was inversely correlated with the measures. No significant differences were found in the BVSCI scores for gender, age, or having children. Levels of self-compassion were significantly higher in persons with HIV disease and other physical and psychological health conditions. The scale shows promise for the assessment of self-compassion in persons with HIV without taxing participants, and may prove essential in investigating future research aimed at examining correlates of self-compassion, as well as providing data for tailoring self-compassion interventions for persons with HIV. PMID:23527887

  12. AIDS. Grim news for Asia.

    PubMed

    1992-12-01

    While Asia was the last region to be exposed to the global spread of HIV and AIDS, the incidence of HIV infection there is increasing fastest. The Asian Development Bank predicts mortality from AIDS will cause some town and village populations to begin declining by the year 2000. With an estimated 1 million people infected in India, and 400,000 in Thailand, these 2 countries are particularly exposed to the risk of epidemic HIV spread. In 5 years, more people may be affected by AIDS in India than anywhere else in the world. Concern over a growing presence of HIV is also merited for the Philippines, Indonesia, China, and the drug trade's Golden Triangle. The Second International Conference on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific in November 1992 stressed that AIDS no longer affects only homosexual and IV drug using populations. 50% of new infections worldwide in the first half of 1992 were among women, 65% of Thailand's AIDS cases are among heterosexuals, and 3-5% of Thailand's long-haul truck drivers have tested positive for HIV infection. HIV and AIDS robs economies and societies of their best workers. The immediate costs of caring for AIDS patients will pale next to the far greater losses to be realized in private sector economic productivity. Asia's more developed economies will probably be able to survive the epidemic, but small, poor countries like Laos will wilt. Prompt action must be taken to overcome public and religious ignorance and objections to promoting and using condoms throughout the region. For the first time, Beijing has organized an AIDS awareness conference for male homosexuals. Further, Singapore has implemented compulsory testing for lower-income foreign workers. Pakistan has even solicited educational assistance and support from Islamic religious leaders; similar action is being considered in Bangladesh. PMID:12285939

  13. Crawling Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  14. The history of AIDS exceptionalism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In the history of public health, HIV/AIDS is unique; it has widespread and long-lasting demographic, social, economic and political impacts. The global response has been unprecedented. AIDS exceptionalism - the idea that the disease requires a response above and beyond "normal" health interventions - began as a Western response to the originally terrifying and lethal nature of the virus. More recently, AIDS exceptionalism came to refer to the disease-specific global response and the resources dedicated to addressing the epidemic. There has been a backlash against this exceptionalism, with critics claiming that HIV/AIDS receives a disproportionate amount of international aid and health funding. This paper situations this debate in historical perspective. By reviewing histories of the disease, policy developments and funding patterns, it charts how the meaning of AIDS exceptionalism has shifted over three decades. It argues that while the connotation of the term has changed, the epidemic has maintained its course, and therefore some of the justifications for exceptionalism remain. PMID:21129197

  15. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  16. Heart attack first aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 ...

  17. Splinter, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Splinter, First Aid A A A First Aid for Splinter: View ... wet, it makes the area prone to infection. First Aid Guide Self-care measures to remove a splinter ...

  18. HIV-AIDS Connection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Marketing Share this: Main Content Area The HIV-AIDS Connection AIDS was first recognized in 1981 and ... is there overwhelming scientific consensus that HIV causes AIDS? Before HIV infection became widespread in the human ...

  19. Unconsciousness - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    Loss of consciousness - first aid; Coma - first aid; Mental status change; Altered mental status ... has a change in mental status, follow these first aid steps: Call or tell someone to call 911 . ...

  20. AIDS in the developing countries.

    PubMed

    Tinker, J

    1988-01-01

    world as well as negative effects on tourism. The global underclass will be disproportionately affected by AIDS as the blacks and Hispanics already are in New York and Miami. Thus far, the reaction of donor countries to the World Health Organization's (WHO) appeal for funds to fight the battle against AIDS has been excellent. The global strategy of WHO places priority on national campaigns, but none of the national campaigns will be effective unless linked to similar actions in other nations to form a vigorous international program. The US has a special responsibility to provide international leadership on AIDS. The US is the world leader in AIDS research and has the bulk of the virus research capacity. Further, no country can come close to matching US experience in dealing with AIDS through "safe sex" education campaigns. PMID:10287933

  1. AIDS as a social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Bennett, F J

    1987-01-01

    AIDS as a new lethal and at present incurable sexually transmitted disease is already having remarkable social repercussions not yet fully explicit and hence it can be termed a social phenomenon. Political, behavioural, economic and legal reactions and social responses such as stigmatization, changes in the sick role and the growth of voluntary organizations and international collaboration are described. Communication, education and information aspects of AIDS are considered using material from the press and it is clear that a massive educational approach to modify behaviour must be the basis for a control programme. PMID:3317877

  2. Social, cultural and demographic aspects of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sabatier, R C

    1987-12-01

    Both on national and international levels, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represents a formidable challenge to social institutions and to cultural assumptions. Its effect thus far, in what must be considered the very early stages of a protracted and unprecedented epidemic, has been to exacerbate existing social tensions and divisions over a surprisingly wide field. Though international leadership by the World Health Organization has been met with an unusually high degree of multinational cooperation, AIDS has also stimulated a degree of xenophobia and racial friction that, if allowed to grow, could handicap global AIDS control and prevention efforts. PMID:3433754

  3. Fully Internally Contracted Multireference Configuration Interaction Theory Using Density Matrix Renormalization Group: A Reduced-Scaling Implementation Derived by Computer-Aided Tensor Factorization.

    PubMed

    Saitow, Masaaki; Kurashige, Yuki; Yanai, Takeshi

    2015-11-10

    We present an extended implementation of the multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) method combined with the quantum-chemical density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). In the previous study, we introduced the combined theory, referred to as DMRGMRCI, as a method to calculate high-level dynamic electron correlation on top of the DMRG wave function that accounts for active-space (or strong) correlation using a large number of active orbitals. The DMRG-MRCI method is built on the full internal-contraction scheme for the compact reference treatment and on the cumulant approximation for the treatment of the four-particle rank reduced density matrix (4-RDM). The previous implementation achieved the MRCI calculations with the active space (24e,24o), which are deemed the record largest, whereas the inherent Nact 8 × N complexity of computation was found a hindrance to using further large active space. In this study, an extended optimization of the tensor contractions is developed by explicitly incorporating the rank reduction of the decomposed form of the cumulant-approximated 4-RDM into the factorization. It reduces the computational scaling (to Nact7 × N) as well as the cache-miss penalty associated with direct evaluation of complex cumulant reconstruction. The present scheme, however, faces the increased complexity of factorization patterns for optimally implementing the tensor contraction terms involving the decomposed 4-RDM objects. We address this complexity using the enhanced symbolic manipulation computer program for deriving and coding programmable equations. The new DMRG-MRCI implementation is applied to the determination of the stability of the iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin relative to the iron(V) electronic isomer (electromer) using the active space (29e,29o) (including four second d-shell orbitals of iron) with triple-ζ-quality atomic orbital basis sets. The DMRG-cu(4)-MRCI+Q model is shown to favor the triradicaloid iron(IV)-oxo state as the lowest

  4. The Science of AIDS. Readings from Scientific American Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of scientific articles on the subject of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) covers many facets of the physical and social aspects of the disease. Technical articles deal with the molecular and cellular biology of AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The national and international epidemiology of AIDS and HIV are…

  5. Guidelines for Improving Entry Into and Retention in Care and Antiretroviral Adherence for Persons With HIV: Evidence-Based Recommendations From an International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care Panel

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melanie A.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Amico, K. Rivet; Cargill, Victoria A.; Chang, Larry W.; Gross, Robert; Orrell, Catherine; Altice, Frederick L.; Bangsberg, David R.; Bartlett, John G.; Beckwith, Curt G.; Dowshen, Nadia; Gordon, Christopher M.; Horn, Tim; Kumar, Princy; Scott, James D.; Stirratt, Michael J.; Remien, Robert H.; Simoni, Jane M.; Nachega, Jean B.

    2014-01-01

    Description After HIV diagnosis, timely entry into HIV medical care and retention in that care are essential to the provision of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). ART adherence is among the key determinants of successful HIV treatment outcome and is essential to minimize the emergence of drug resistance. The International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care convened a panel to develop evidence-based recommendations to optimize entry into and retention in care and ART adherence for people with HIV. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to produce an evidence base restricted to randomized, controlled trials and observational studies with comparators that had at least 1 measured biological or behavioral end point. A total of 325 studies met the criteria. Two reviewers independently extracted and coded data from each study using a standardized data extraction form. Panel members drafted recommendations based on the body of evidence for each method or intervention and then graded the overall quality of the body of evidence and the strength for each recommendation. Recommendations Recommendations are provided for monitoring of entry into and retention in care, interventions to improve entry and retention, and monitoring of and interventions to improve ART adherence. Recommendations cover ART strategies, adherence tools, education and counseling, and health system and service delivery interventions. In addition, they cover specific issues pertaining to pregnant women, incarcerated individuals, homeless and marginally housed individuals, and children and adolescents, as well as substance use and mental health disorders. Recommendations for future research in all areas are also provided. PMID:22393036

  6. AIDS: Education's New Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, D. Kay; Faber, Charles F.

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an incurable, fatal disease that is caused by a virus that eventually destroys the body's immune system. While AIDS is contagious, the risk of contracting AIDS through casual contact is said to be negligible. A review of the court cases involving students with AIDS reveals that the precedent has…

  7. The Master Hearing Aid

    PubMed Central

    Curran, James R.

    2013-01-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  8. The master hearing aid.

    PubMed

    Curran, James R; Galster, Jason A

    2013-06-01

    As early as the 1930s the term Master Hearing Aid (MHA) described a device used in the fitting of hearing aids. In their original form, the MHA was a desktop system that allowed for simulated or actual adjustment of hearing aid components that resulted in a changed hearing aid response. Over the years the MHA saw many embodiments and contributed to a number of rationales for the fitting of hearing aids. During these same years, the MHA was viewed by many as an inappropriate means of demonstrating hearing aids; the audio quality of the desktop systems was often superior to the hearing aids themselves. These opinions and the evolution of the MHA have molded the modern perception of hearing aids and the techniques used in the fitting of hearing aids. This article reports on a history of the MHA and its influence on the fitting of hearing aids. PMID:23686682

  9. Expert system prototype of food aid distribution.

    PubMed

    Singh, Neeta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve efficiency of the food aid distribution process of international food relief organizations. An overall objective of this study was to develop a prototype expert system for monitoring and evaluating food aid by international disaster relief organizations. The research identifies data related to monitoring and evaluation processes of various international food-aid organizations. It then applies an artificial intelligence-based expert system to develop a prototype for those processes. Existing data related to monitoring and evaluation program cycles were obtained. An expert system shell called CLIPS(c) (National Aeronautics Space Administration) was used to develop a prototype system named Food Aid Monitor, a rule-based expert system, which uses facts and heuristic rules to provide an adaptive feedback regarding monitoring and evaluating processes at various stages of food aid operation. The Food Aid Monitor was evaluated and validated by three expert panels checking the prototype system for completeness, relevancy, consistency, correctness, precision, and use-ability. Finally, the panels indicated a belief that the system could have an overall positive impact on the stages of monitoring and evaluating food aid processes of the food relief organizations. PMID:17392088

  10. Characteristics and comprehensiveness of adult HIV care and treatment programmes in Asia-Pacific, sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas: results of a site assessment conducted by the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Stephany N; Farr, Amanda M; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Blevins, Meridith; Wester, C William; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Ekouevi, Didier K; Egger, Matthias; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Cooper, David A; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine C; Nash, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction HIV care and treatment programmes worldwide are transforming as they push to deliver universal access to essential prevention, care and treatment services to persons living with HIV and their communities. The characteristics and capacity of these HIV programmes affect patient outcomes and quality of care. Despite the importance of ensuring optimal outcomes, few studies have addressed the capacity of HIV programmes to deliver comprehensive care. We sought to describe such capacity in HIV programmes in seven regions worldwide. Methods Staff from 128 sites in 41 countries participating in the International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS completed a site survey from 2009 to 2010, including sites in the Asia-Pacific region (n=20), Latin America and the Caribbean (n=7), North America (n=7), Central Africa (n=12), East Africa (n=51), Southern Africa (n=16) and West Africa (n=15). We computed a measure of the comprehensiveness of care based on seven World Health Organization-recommended essential HIV services. Results Most sites reported serving urban (61%; region range (rr): 33–100%) and both adult and paediatric populations (77%; rr: 29–96%). Only 45% of HIV clinics that reported treating children had paediatricians on staff. As for the seven essential services, survey respondents reported that CD4+ cell count testing was available to all but one site, while tuberculosis (TB) screening and community outreach services were available in 80 and 72%, respectively. The remaining four essential services – nutritional support (82%), combination antiretroviral therapy adherence support (88%), prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) (94%) and other prevention and clinical management services (97%) – were uniformly available. Approximately half (46%) of sites reported offering all seven services. Newer sites and sites in settings with low rankings on the UN Human Development Index (HDI), especially those in the President's Emergency Plan

  11. Migration and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Decosas, J; Kane, F; Anarfi, J K; Sodji, K D; Wagner, H U

    1995-09-23

    A successful short-term solution to transmission of AIDS in Western Africa by migrants involves provision of accessible and acceptable basic health and social services to migrants at their destination. The aim is to establish a sense of security and community, which is a health requirement. When migrants are excluded from community life or victimized as carriers of HIV infections, they will be driven by basic survival needs and dysfunctional social organization, which results in the rapid spread of HIV. Closing borders and mass deportation may not be an option. The long-term solution is population policy, environmental protection, and economic development. The focus on mapping the spread of AIDS must shift to a consideration of the migrant social conditions that make them vulnerable to AIDS. The issue of migration and AIDS will be addressed at the First European Conference on Tropical Medicine in October 1995 in Hamburg, Germany. In Uganda, HIV seroprevalence rates ranged from 5.5% among the stable population to 12.4% among internal migrants moving between villages to 16.3% among migrants from other areas. A World Bank project is operating in Western Africa, which traces seasonal male migration from the Cameroon to Liberia, Senegal to Nigeria, and from the Sahel to the coast during dry seasons. National border rules may influence the routes but not the extent of migration. A major destination place is Cote d' Ivoire, which has 25% of total population comprised of migrants from other countries and one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in Western Africa. On plantations prostitutes are brought in. Each prostitute serves about 25 workers. The pattern of sexual mixing contributes to the high HIV rates. Female migration is smaller and usually concentrated in prostitution at place of destination. Illiteracy and poverty drive women migrants into the trade. Their frequent health problems are malaria, pelvic pain, menstrual irregularity, vaginal discharge, and genital

  12. The Aid Debate: Beyond the Liberal/Conservative Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, Sangeeta

    2010-01-01

    Recent works that assess whether development has been well-served, or served at all, by international aid, are overwhelmingly pessimistic in their assessment and in favor of the market as the antidote to international aid (Klees, 2010). The author finds that Steve Klees' essay focuses on the neoliberal and liberal frameworks that represent the…

  13. USAID steps up anti-AIDS program.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the epidemic proportion of AIDS in developing countries, and discusses the U.S. Agency for International Development's (USAID) reworked and intensified strategy for HIV infection and AIDS prevention and control over the next 5 years. Developing and launching over 650 HIV and AIDS activities in 74 developing countries since 1986, USAID is the world's largest supporter of anti-AIDS programs. Over $91 million in bilateral assistance for HIV and AIDS prevention and control have been committed. USAID has also been the largest supporter of the World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS since 1986. Interventions have included training peer educators, working to change the norms of sex behavior, and condom promotion. Recognizing that the developing world will increasingly account for an ever larger share of the world's HIV-infected population, USAID announced an intensified program of estimated investment increasing to approximately $400 million over a 5-year period. Strategy include funding for long-term, intensive interventions in 10-15 priority countries, emphasizing the treatment of other sexually transmitted diseases which facilitate the spread of HIV, making AIDS-related policy dialogue an explicit component of the Agency's AIDS program, and augmenting funding to community-based programs aimed at reducing high-risk sexual behaviors. The effect of AIDS upon child survival, adult mortality, urban populations, and socioeconomic development in developing countries is discussed. Program examples are also presented. PMID:12284337

  14. HIV / AIDS in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, K

    1999-04-01

    By the end of 1998, 33.4 million people worldwide were infected with HIV, 10% more than in 1997, and there were 2.5 million AIDS-related deaths. New estimates by the UN AIDS organization, UNAIDS, and the World Health Organization show that practically every country in the world has been affected by the pandemic. HIV prevalence in eastern Europe, Latin America, and the Caribbean currently appears to be concentrated in, but not limited to, marginalized groups. MAP (Monitoring the AIDS Pandemic), a network of experts with more than 120 members in 40 countries around the world, has estimated that more than 1.6 million people are living with HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean, or 5.4% of all HIV/AIDS cases worldwide in January 1998. Infection trends in the area differ both between and within countries. HIV in the region does, however, appear to be mainly in socially and economically marginalized populations, and is most noticeable among men who have sex with men and IV drug users. Evidence also exists that HIV is increasingly spreading among the poor and illiterate segments of society. Infection rates are rising among women, showing that heterosexual transmission is becoming more important. The Caribbean Regional Network of People Living with HIV/AIDS was created out of a 3-day consultation in Port of Spain, Trinidad, sponsored by a number of international organizations. That the number of HIV-positive people in the region is increasing should not be taken lightly. PMID:12349101

  15. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ... cancers. When that happens, the illness is called AIDS. Once a person has the virus, it stays ...

  16. Frostbite, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Frostbite, First Aid A A A Severe frostbite can result in ... became frozen). Frostbite is often associated with hypothermia. First Aid Guide In the case of mild frostbite, the ...

  17. Poisoning first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007579.htm Poisoning first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... or burns Stupor Unconsciousness Unusual breath odor Weakness First Aid Seek immediate medical help. For poisoning by swallowing: ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000028.htm Head injury - first aid To use the sharing features on this page, ... a concussion can range from mild to severe. First Aid Learning to recognize a serious head injury and ...

  19. Heat Exhaustion, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Exhaustion, First Aid A A A Heat exhaustion signs and symptoms ... specific to the other stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures ...

  20. Heat Cramps, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Cramps, First Aid A A A Heat cramp signs and symptoms ... if later stages of heat illness are suspected. First Aid Guide Use a combination of the following measures, ...

  1. Heatstroke, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heatstroke, First Aid A A A Heatstroke signs and symptoms can ... specific to the earlier stages of heat illness. First Aid Guide When heatstroke is suspected, seek emergency medical ...

  2. Tick Bites, First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Tick Bites, First Aid A A A It is important to inspect ... temporary paralysis in their host (called tick paralysis). First Aid Guide To remove an embedded tick: Wash your ...

  3. First Aid: Influenza (Flu)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: The Flu KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: The Flu Print ... tiredness What to Do If Your Child Has Flu Symptoms: Call your doctor. Encourage rest. Keep your ...

  4. MICROFICHE AIDS DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains counts of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) cases reported to state and local health departments, by demographics; case-definition; HIV exposure group (risk factors for AIDS); Half-year of diagnosis, report, and death.

  5. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... at risk for serious infections and certain cancers. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most often spreads through unprotected sex with ...

  6. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  7. AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings

    MedlinePlus

    ... 21, 2014 Select a Language: Fact Sheet 158 AIDS Myths and Misunderstandings WHY ARE THERE SO MANY ... support this belief. Myth: Current medications can cure AIDS. It’s no big deal if you get infected. ...

  8. Asia: fighting HIV / AIDS makes business sense.

    PubMed

    1999-11-15

    Three Asian companies are investing in HIV/AIDS education and prevention schemes because they are starting to feel the effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic on their workforces. A total of 17 companies from the region signed a document in the Fifth International Congress on AIDS in Asia and the Pacific committing to the fight against AIDS. The group said that effective workplace programs can prevent an increase in absenteeism, health care costs and labor turnover, a decrease in productivity, loss of experienced personnel and the need for increased resources to hire and retrain replacements. American International Assurance in Thailand accredits companies with effective HIV/AIDS campaigns in the workplace and gives them a 5-10% discount on premiums on group life insurance policies. At Freeport Mining in Indonesia, an HIV/AIDS campaign markedly improved condom usage rates and decreased incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among workers. Meanwhile, India's Tata Tea Limited expanded its health services to include surveys, training, education, and counseling on HIV/AIDS and STDs. PMID:12295521

  9. AIDS Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horry County Board of Education, Conway, SC.

    This curriculum guide was developed, based on sound principles of human growth and development, to present the most recently available information on AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The curriculum presents information on the known facts about AIDS and the AIDS virus infection. It also addresses the potential for adolescents and adults…

  10. First Aid: Rashes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Rashes KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Rashes Print A A A Text Size Rashes ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Skin Infections Poison Ivy Erythema Multiforme Hives (Urticaria) ...

  11. First Aid: Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Text Size Scald ... THIS TOPIC Kitchen: Household Safety Checklist Fireworks Safety First Aid: Sunburn Firesetting Fire Safety Burns Household Safety: Preventing ...

  12. First Aid: Croup

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Croup KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Croup Print A A A Text Size Croup ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid: Coughing X-Ray Exam: Neck Why Is Hand ...

  13. First Aid: Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A Text Size en ... Floors, Doors & Windows, Furniture, Stairways: Household Safety Checklist First Aid: Broken Bones Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries ...

  14. First Aid: Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Choking KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Choking Print A A A Text Size Choking ... usually are taught as part of any basic first-aid course. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, MD Date reviewed: ...

  15. First Aid: Dehydration

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Dehydration KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Dehydration Print A A A Text Size Dehydration ... MORE ON THIS TOPIC Summer Safety Heat Illness First Aid: Heat Illness Sun Safety Dehydration Diarrhea Vomiting Word! ...

  16. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy First Aid: Animal Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Animal Bites Print A A A Text Size ... For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC First Aid & Safety Center Infections That Pets Carry Dealing With ...

  17. Children with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessee, Peggy O; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of pediatric Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) cases in the United States, the quality of life of children with AIDS, and concerns that parents and the community have about the disease. Suggests some responses for educational institutions and teachers to help confront AIDS and help children with the disease. (MDM)

  18. A Teaching Aids Exhibition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahanja, Salah

    1985-01-01

    Describes an exhibition for the benefit of teachers of English in Arab Primary Schools, which was prepared by third-year students at the Teachers College for Arab Teachers. The exhibition included games, songs, audiovisual aids, crossword puzzles, vocabulary, spelling booklets, preposition aids, and worksheet and lesson planning aids. (SED)

  19. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  20. Hearing-aid tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R.; Polhemus, J. T.; Waring, J. G.

    1977-01-01

    Hearing aids are automatically checked by circuit that applies half-second test signal every thirty minutes. If hearing-aid output is distorted, too small, or if battery is too low, a warning lamp is activated. Test circuit is incorporated directly into hearing-aid package.

  1. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Teens > HIV and AIDS Print A A A Text Size What's in ... in human history. HIV causes a condition called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — better known as AIDS . HIV destroys a type ...

  2. Space Derived Health Aids (AID, Heart Monitor)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    CPI's spinoff from miniaturized pace circuitry is the new heart-assist device, the AID implantable automatic pulse generator. AID pulse generator monitors the heart continuously, recognizes onset of fibrillation, then administers a corrective electrical shock. A mini- computer, a power source, and two electrodes which sense heart activity are included in the unit. An associated system was also developed. It includes an external recorder to be worn by AID patients and a physician's console to display the data stored by the recorder. System provides a record of fibrillation occurrences and the ensuing defibrillation.

  3. 26 CFR 301.7516-1 - Training and training aids on request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids....

  4. 26 CFR 301.7516-1 - Training and training aids on request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids....

  5. 26 CFR 301.7516-1 - Training and training aids on request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids....

  6. 26 CFR 301.7516-1 - Training and training aids on request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids....

  7. 26 CFR 301.7516-1 - Training and training aids on request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Training and training aids on request. 301.7516... the United States § 301.7516-1 Training and training aids on request. The Commissioner is authorized... conducted by the Internal Revenue Service, and to supply them with texts and other training aids....

  8. Hearing Aid Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Progress in hearing aids has come a long way. Yet despite such progress hearing aids are not the perfect answer to many hearing problems. Some adult ears cannot accommodate tightly fitting hearing aids. Mouth movements such as chewing, talking, and athletic or other active endeavors also lead to loosely fitting ear molds. It is well accepted that loosely fitting hearing aids are the cause of feedback noise. Since feedback noise is the most common complaint of hearing aid wearers it has been the subject of various patents. Herein a hearing aid assembly is provided eliminating feedback noise. The assembly includes the combination of a hearing aid with a headset developed to constrict feedback noise.

  9. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... and your loved ones from HIV/AIDS. The AIDS Memorial Quilt In 1987, a total of 1, ...

  10. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions. PMID:12293303

  11. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  12. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  13. AIDS: the first decade.

    PubMed

    Turk, H N

    1989-01-01

    AIDS has had a profound effect on society and the workplace and has raised legal and social problems for which society was not prepared. This article will chronicle the evolution of federal, state and local law concerning AIDS and the workplace. Although there are some clear-cut answers and guidelines that address the relationship of employer and employee to the AIDS epidemic, current legislation and enforcement of those laws does not adequately address the AIDS victim as a handicapped individual. Emphasis is also placed on the problems peculiar to the health care industry, the constitutionality of present legislation, and the AIDS victim's right to privacy versus the employer's need to know. Finally, some practical solutions and guidelines will be presented that will help the employer deal with the AIDS victim and his or her co-worker. PMID:10295811

  14. The social impact of HIV/AIDS in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Danziger, R

    1994-10-01

    This paper highlights some of the main areas of social impact of HIV and AIDS in developing countries and suggests that these must constitute priority areas for action among international and national policy makers, as well as others concerned with HIV and AIDS. The areas of impact which are considered are: economic and demographic; labour productivity; agricultural production and development; pressures on the health sector; the role of families and households; children; women; HIV/AIDS discrimination; and the impact of HIV/AIDS on the individual. Some of the responses which have already been developed to the impact of HIV and AIDS are considered, and many of these are seen to be at least partially effective ways of addressing some of the consequences of pandemic. The paper concludes however that the escalating cost of HIV and AIDS, in personal, social and economic terms, demands a greater degree of considered, concerted and coordinated action by international, national and local agencies. PMID:7992124

  15. [Health economic evaluation of AIDS response].

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    During the past over 20 years of AIDS response in China, different fields from the international society and domestic sources provide significant amounts of resources for China's AIDS response. The investment, distribution and use of these resources and their effect has become the concern of the society. The health economic evaluation method is used to scientifically answer these questions, which is also the motivation of the evaluation studies. Based on several studies on health economic evaluation of AIDS response in this issue, concepts and issues related to this area are summarized. It is important for the readers to make a point of health economics evaluation, and it is also of great importance to know its limitations to provide the basis for future proper use of AIDS health economic evaluation results. PMID:26310326

  16. AIDS in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  17. AIDS: Psychosocial Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Dan

    1986-01-01

    In order to provide comprehensive care to patients who have AIDS, it is important for the family physician to understand the psychosocial elements of the disease. Homosexual men who have AIDS face particular problems, such as the disclosure of sexual orientation to family and friends. Issues discussed in this article include the reactions of the patient, family and friends to the diagnosis, the stigma of AIDS, the patient's support network, and preparations for disability and death. The facts about AIDS are discussed briefly, and the psychosocial implications of the illness for patients and their “significant others” are examined. The role of the family physician is highlighted. PMID:21267233

  18. Music and hearing aids.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  19. Music and Hearing Aids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brian C. J.

    2014-01-01

    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems. PMID:25361601

  20. Forward to AIDS 2014: Now is the Time to Unite for the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    As AIDS activists, advocates, researchers, practitioners, scientists, and policy makers from around the world prepare for the forthcoming 20th International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2014) which takes place from 20-25 July in Melbourne, Australia, Gregory Pappas, MD, PhD, former Executive Director of the Washington DC’s local Host Committee, International AIDS Society (IAS) organizing committee member, and Director, HIV/AIDS Program in the District of Columbia, Washington, DC, USA, reflects, for the first time, on his experiences hosting the world conference and bringing AIDS conference to United States after 22 years. He shares some of the key challenges and opportunities confronting program planners, policy makers and advocates in the efforts to address the global epidemic.

  1. HIV/AIDS and Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanssen, Elizabeth, Ed.; Zimanyi, Louise, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development is increasingly concerned with the lack of attention to children affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. This theme issue of "Coordinators' Notebook" examines issues related to ensuring that orphans and vulnerable children under 5 years receive attention in the international, national, and…

  2. Sources of Dental Health Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Jean H.

    1982-01-01

    Sources of dental health education teaching aids which are available for free or at minimal cost include: (1) The American Dental Health Association; (2) state and local departments of public health; (3) schools of dentistry, dental hygiene, and dental assisting; and (4) the Educator's International Guide. (JN)

  3. AIDS and student attitudes.

    PubMed

    Merrill, J M; Laux, L; Thornby, J I

    1989-04-01

    When recently polled, one half of 4,100 physicians believed they had the right not to treat patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and 15% said they would actually refuse to care for them. To assure medical care for the 365,000 AIDS patients projected for the US by 1992, it is imperative to know whether there is something unique about AIDS patients that produces aversion among physicians. We hypothesized that the desire to avoid AIDS patients derived from three fears: fear of contagion, homophobia, and a desire to avoid dying patients. To identify the extent to which these three fears affect the attitudes that students hold toward AIDS patients, we conducted three studies. In our first study, we discovered that students' views about a patient with a terminal illness are the same whether the illness is leukemia or AIDS. In the second study, we found that the patient's sexual preference was not the major reason students would avoid an AIDS patients. In a third study, we confirmed that fear of contagion is the principal cause of students' desire to avoid an AIDS patient. In the course of these studies, we found important differences between the attitudes of male and female students. Female students scored lower on the homophobic scale than male students, and they had less antipathy toward AIDS patients. Helping health care professionals understand their fears toward patients with AIDS will in the long run improve medical care. Since the origins of these fears are for the most part well hidden in our unconscious, dissemination of facts alone will not do the job. Interventions are needed to help health care professionals acknowledge and overcome their negative feelings about AIDS. PMID:2705068

  4. AIDS is your business.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Sydney; Simon, Jonathon; Vincent, Jeffrey R; MacLeod, William; Fox, Matthew; Thea, Donald M

    2003-02-01

    If your company operates in a developing country, AIDS is your business. While Africa has received the most attention, AIDS is also spreading swiftly in other parts of the world. Russia and Ukraine had the fastest-growing epidemics last year, and many experts believe China and India will suffer the next tidal wave of infection. Why should executives be concerned about AIDS? Because it is destroying the twin rationales of globalization strategy-cheap labor and fast-growing markets--in countries where people are heavily affected by the epidemic. Fortunately, investments in programs that prevent infection and provide treatment for employees who have HIV/AIDS are profitable for many businesses--that is, they lead to savings that outweigh the programs' costs. Due to the long latency period between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS symptoms, a company is not likely to see any of the costs of HIV/AIDS until five to ten years after an employee is infected. But executives can calculate the present value of epidemic-related costs by using the discount rate to weigh each cost according to its expected timing. That allows companies to think about expenses on HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment programs as investments rather than merely as costs. The authors found that the annual cost of AIDS to six corporations in South Africa and Botswana ranged from 0.4% to 5.9% of the wage bill. All six companies would have earned positive returns on their investments if they had provided employees with free treatment for HIV/AIDS in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), according to the mathematical model the authors used. The annual reduction in the AIDS "tax" would have been as much as 40.4%. The authors' conclusion? Fighting AIDS not only helps those infected; it also makes good business sense. PMID:12577655

  5. AIDS in Asia and the Pacific.

    PubMed

    Karel, S G; Robey, B

    1988-09-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been an African and Western concern due to its epidemic nature. Although nearly 99% of all reported cases occurred in these regions, Asia has reported cases, and the potential for devastation of Asia's already strained health care reserves are undeniable. This review compiled by analysis of 1986-88 articles on AIDS research, demographics, official statements from government and health organizations, news reports, and public statements describe how AIDS has spread in well documented regions like America, Europe, and Africa, and how the Asian regions have attempted to handle the AIDS epidemic before it becomes as serious as in the West. The topics covered include a clinical overview of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes AIDS, how it is transmitted, and what are the primary forms of transmission in well documented regions. The report briefly documents what policies China, Hong Kong, Japan, Republic of Korea, Taiwan, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Australia, and New Zealand have individually instituted to stem the flow of AIDS into their country, and/or stop the spread of AIDS already found there. The efforts to combat AIDS globally by the World Health Organization/United Nations Development Program alliance (WHO-UNDP) along with the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and UNICEF are highlighted. The available research and aid programs are contrasted with how the Asian nations are preparing to deal with the AIDS epidemic. 1) AIDS has an incubation time wherein an infected individual is not AIDS symptomatic, but is capable of infecting others, and this hidden infected population makes it essential that containment policies are also enforced in countries with few reported cases. 2) A committee should be established in all Asian countries to coordinate education on safe sexual behaviors with specific programs for prostitutes

  6. AIDS, Empire and the US Politics of Giving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Robert J.

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores the intersection of US Empire on HIV/AIDS policies and the politics of "gifting." It does so from an analysis of several key US initiatives: the Project for a New American Century, the US National Security Strategy, and the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief. History provides numerous examples where US international aid…

  7. Software For Computer-Aided Design Of Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    Computer Aided Engineering System (CAESY) software developed to provide means to evaluate methods for dealing with users' needs in computer-aided design of control systems. Interpreter program for performing engineering calculations. Incorporates features of both Ada and MATLAB. Designed to be flexible and powerful. Includes internally defined functions, procedures and provides for definition of functions and procedures by user. Written in C language.

  8. 78 FR 54444 - Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid Meeting AGENCY: United... Advisory Committee Act, notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign..., Executive Director, Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for...

  9. An Interview with AIDS Vaccine Researcher Chris Parks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Megan

    2010-01-01

    The search for an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) vaccine is truly a global effort, with university laboratories, biotech firms, pharmaceutical companies, nonprofit research organizations, hospitals, and clinics all working together to develop an effective vaccine as quickly as possible. The International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)…

  10. Enhancing Ethical Decision Making in Sexuality and AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, C. Everett; Piercy, Fred P.

    1997-01-01

    Advocates providing sexuality and AIDS education in a way that helps adolescents explore the ethical meaning of sexual behavior. Presents principles for Rest's model of moral development, which describes four internal processes that produce moral behavior, as one example of an ethical framework that could inform sexuality and AIDS education…

  11. Improving Aid Effectiveness or Transforming the Global Capitalist System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Mark

    2010-01-01

    In the introduction to his article, "Aid, Development, and Education," Klees (2010) poses the question, has the "hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid... loaned to [or otherwise targeted to "assist"] developing countries through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms... helped?" He then posits the question to be "too complicated to…

  12. 78 FR 3878 - Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Renewal of the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid AGENCY: United States Agency for International Development. ACTION: Notice of renewal of advisory committee... Voluntary Foreign Aid (ACVFA), U.S. Agency for International Development. BILLING CODE P...

  13. AIDS and Chemical Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Melvin I.

    After defining HIV and the AIDS disease and outlining symptoms and means of infection, this fact sheet lists the ways alcohol and drugs are involved with the AIDS epidemic, noting that needle-sharing transmits the virus; that alcohol or mood-altering drugs like crack cocaine cause disinhibition, increase sex drive, encourage sex for drugs, and…

  14. What about AIDS?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfuss, Katharine R.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Suggests ways in which camp directors can establish procedures for making appropriate decisions about accepting campers/staff workers with AIDS. Reviews aspects of environmental sanitation, physical health, confidentiality, camper/staff drug use and sexual behavior, medical…

  15. Cutaneous acanthamoebiasis in AIDS.

    PubMed

    Torno, M S; Babapour, R; Gurevitch, A; Witt, M D

    2000-02-01

    Acanthamoeba is a recognized pathogen in the immunocompromised patient, commonly presenting as chronic or subacute encephalitis. However, cutaneous disease in the absence of CNS involvement is increasingly recognized, especially in the setting of chronic, nonhealing skin lesions in the patient with AIDS. We describe a patient with AIDS and cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and review our experience with treatment and diagnosis. PMID:10640931

  16. AIDS Fact Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Population Options, Washington, DC.

    The three fact sheets presented in this document address issues surrounding adolescent sexuality and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), especially the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The first fact sheet, "Young Women and AIDS: A Worldwide Perspective," suggests that since open discussions of adolescent sexuality have long been…

  17. AIDS PUBLIC INFORMATION DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AIDS Public Information Data Set is computer software designed to run on a Microsoft Windows microcomputer, and contains information abstracted from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases reported in the United States. The data set is created by the Division of HIV/A...

  18. Preventing AIDS via Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Reese M.; Walker, Catherine M.

    1993-01-01

    Compares the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic to past epidemics, including social and political responses. Identifies populations at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Discusses current social and economic factors affecting AIDS education programs. Makes recommendations and identifies resources for starting…

  19. Trends in Student Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, Washington, DC. Washington Office.

    This report presents annual data on the amount of financial assistance available to postsecondary students in the form of grants, loans, and work-study. The data cover virtually all federal aid and most state and institutional assistance; not included in the study is financial aid in the form of indirect subsidies, students' wages, employer-paid…

  20. AIDS Epidemiological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  1. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    CPI's human-implantable automatic implantable defibrillator (AID) is a heart assist system, derived from NASA's space circuitry technology, that can prevent erratic heart action known as arrhythmias. Implanted AID, consisting of microcomputer power source and two electrodes for sensing heart activity, recognizes onset of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and delivers corrective electrical countershock to restore rhythmic heartbeat.

  2. Health Aides Serve...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huscher, John

    1976-01-01

    The student health aide program of the University of Nebraska at Lincoln is a paid, auxiliary, trained health position in dorms, co-ops, and Greek houses, with personnel evaluated on the assistance provided for any physical, personal, social, or environmental health concerns students may have in accordance with the aide's training. (MB)

  3. [Oral hygiene aids].

    PubMed

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  4. A New AIDS Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    1993-01-01

    Thousands of young people are affected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). An effective AIDS education program must address functional knowledge, relevant skills, and motivation. The program must be comprehensive and taught by trained teachers. Lists a source of an annotated…

  5. [Epidemiology of AIDS].

    PubMed

    1988-02-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that some 300,000 AIDS cases will be diagnosed by the end of 1988. As of December 1987, 128 countries had reported a total of 72,000 cases, about half the number of cases that actually occurred. The WHO estimates that some 5-10 million persons are already infected with HIV, so that the number of AIDS cases will increase rapidly for the next 5 years at least. The number of cases reported in Africa increased considerably in 1987, reflecting greater awareness of AIDS and greater efforts at control. By late 1987 WHO was working actively with over 100 countries to combat AIDS. An expert meeting organized by the WHO Special Program to Combat AIDS recommended to governments and prison administrators that condoms be provided to inmates and that treatment programs be provided for intravenous drug addicts. Prison personnel should receive education about HIV infection and AIDS. Incarceration policies, especially for drug addicts, should be reviewed in light of the AIDS epidemic. An estimated average of 10% of the 270,000 prisoners enumerated in 17 European countries are believed to be HIV positive, but the proportion increases to 26% in the highest risk countries. The proportion of seropositive subjects in general exceeds that in the total population. Prison and health officials will be obliged to assign increasing resources to AIDS in prisons in the years to come. PMID:3201571

  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY OF TRAINING AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKEONE, CHARLES J.

    THIS COMPILATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS FOR USE IN AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION TRAINING PROGRAMS CONTAINS LISTS OF VISUAL AND AUDIOVISUAL TRAINING AIDS AND GUEST LECTURERS AVAILABLE FROM MEMBER COMPANIES OF THE AIR-CONDITIONING AND REFRIGERATION INSTITUTE AS AN INDUSTRY SERVICE TO SCHOOL OFFICIALS INTERESTED IN CONDUCTING SUCH PROGRAMS. THE…

  7. Teaching Children about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, C. Everett

    1987-01-01

    Calls for more education as the immediate preventative measure against acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the known ways that AIDS is transmitted and cautions that many innocent people may also contract the disease. Promotes the presentation of accurate and personally sensitive information to children. (TW)

  8. AIDS: Children Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lejeune, Genevieve, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This journal issue is devoted to the many problems faced by children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) who live in both developing and developed countries. Section 1 provides general information on the pandemic, defining AIDS and exploring the social aspects of the disease. It also addresses child health, child mortality, moral and…

  9. Games and Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    This document is filled with suggestions for inexpensive teacher-made classroom aids that can be used for concept reinforcement with the total class, a small group, or individual students. The games and teaching aids provided, allow instructors to provide the motivational drill to develop speed and accuracy for basic computational skills. The…

  10. The impact of aid chains: relations of dependence or supportive partnerships for community-led responses to HIV/AIDS?

    PubMed

    Aveling, E L

    2010-01-01

    In the context of increasing global emphasis on partnerships between international, governmental and civil society organisations in the distribution of international aid, this paper examines the ways in which the resulting aid chains promote and undermine community-led responses to HIV/AIDS. The impact of the aid-granting system is examined using an ethnographic case study of an HIV/AIDS prevention programme with Cambodian military families. The case study draws on observations of stakeholder meetings and programme activities, interviews with stakeholders (the donor, NGOs and military community) and textual materials (programme guidelines, policies and reports). Campbell et al.'s interrelated concepts of relational, symbolic and material context are used to frame the analysis. The establishment of a relationship with a more powerful international NGO is shown to be beneficial to the military community and civil society groups. The international NGO uses its significant material and economic leverage to improve the community's relational context (by ensuring the support of the military high command), symbolic context (by strengthening the position of community and civil society partners in relation to government bodies) and material context (through increasing access to health services). However, material and symbolic asymmetries between partners in the aid chain persist, curtailing the community's involvement and leadership. At the material and relational levels, the hierarchical flow of aid encourages accountability to the demands of the donor while excluding grassroots groups from directly accessing funding. At the symbolic level, problem-focused representations of the military further reinforce the community's position as recipients of intervention, which undermines recognition for the community's knowledge, strengths and right to fully participate. Thus while aid chains can be supportive of community-led responses, this analysis highlights how the structures

  11. Renewed UN drive against AIDS.

    PubMed

    McGregor, A

    1994-12-17

    After a 1-day meeting of agency directors on December 12 in New York, UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali announced the appointment of Dr. Peter Piot as director of a renewed UN program against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), provisionally entitled "UN Joint and Co-sponsored Programme on AIDS." The 6 UN agencies already involved (UNICEF, UNDP, UNESCO, UN Population Fund, the World Bank, and WHO) will be more tightly coordinated; the World Health Organization (WHO) will remain in charge. Dr. Piot, a 45-year-old Belgian physician and co-discoverer of the Ebola virus (1976), assisted and effectively succeeds Dr. Michael Merson, the director of the World Health Organizations's global program on AIDS. While professor of microbiology at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Dr. Piot launched a series of collaborative projects in Africa, including "Project SIDA" in Kinshasa in 1984. The new program will not be fully operational until 1996. The World Bank is expected to provide additional money. Dr. Merson's predecessor, Dr. Jonathan Mann (now director of the International Center at the Harvard School Of Public Health) expressed hopefulness about the new leadership and concern that what has been learned about AIDS in the last decade will be applied in the new program. A transition team has been working on a provisional program blueprint that provides for a resident coordinator and the full integration of local staff in each country. Additional emphasis will be given to education. An estimated 17 million people are infected with HIV, 3 million more since June of last year. 20-40 million are expected to be infected by 1999. PMID:7996968

  12. [The AIDS epidemic in the Ukraine].

    PubMed

    Babenko, L

    1996-01-01

    According to laboratory statistics, 32 new cases of HIV infection were diagnosed in Kiev, and 1986 cases were counted in Odessa in the first 4 months of 1996. The central location of Ukraine and permanent international population mobility are probable factors in the spread of HIV infection. Several factors may have contributed to the eruption of the HIV epidemic in the city of Nikolayev in 1995. The city was long closed to foreigners because of its military activity. After the fall of the Soviet Union, most military factories were closed, plunging numerous workers into unemployment. Drug use thrived, facilitated by the cultivation of marijuana in the region. The HIV epidemic appears to have been brought to the Ukraine by addicts returning from military service in Poland. In 1996, the National Committee to Combat AIDS will collaborate with the Ministry of Internal Affairs to develop a plan to prevent AIDS in drug users. The National Committee was established in 1992 to coordinate AIDS prevention activities in Ukraine. The first program, undertaken in 1987, consisted of large scale screening, beginning with foreigners and especially African students. The first case was diagnosed in 1987. Over 300 new cases were diagnosed annually during 1992-94, all sexually transmitted. The national program is funded solely by the government, which has very limited resources. There is no possibility of access to private funds, and few efforts are underway to provide information on AIDS through media programs. The UN AIDS program recently allocated US $50,000 for AIDS prevention in Odessa, the city with the largest number of seropositive individuals. The funds will be used for a seminar on AIDS prevention for Ukrainian political authorities and construction of a drug treatment facility. Other projects have been planned, but remain unfunded. PMID:12179245

  13. Hearing Aids and Music

    PubMed Central

    Chasin, Marshall; Russo, Frank A.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the primary concern for hearing aid design and fitting is optimization for speech inputs. However, increasingly other types of inputs are being investigated and this is certainly the case for music. Whether the hearing aid wearer is a musician or merely someone who likes to listen to music, the electronic and electro-acoustic parameters described can be optimized for music as well as for speech. That is, a hearing aid optimally set for music can be optimally set for speech, even though the converse is not necessarily true. Similarities and differences between speech and music as inputs to a hearing aid are described. Many of these lead to the specification of a set of optimal electro-acoustic characteristics. Parameters such as the peak input-limiting level, compression issues—both compression ratio and knee-points—and number of channels all can deleteriously affect music perception through hearing aids. In other cases, it is not clear how to set other parameters such as noise reduction and feedback control mechanisms. Regardless of the existence of a “music program,” unless the various electro-acoustic parameters are available in a hearing aid, music fidelity will almost always be less than optimal. There are many unanswered questions and hypotheses in this area. Future research by engineers, researchers, clinicians, and musicians will aid in the clarification of these questions and their ultimate solutions. PMID:15497032

  14. Health care and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Peck, J; Bezold, C

    1992-07-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a harbinger for change in health care. There are many powerful forces poised to transform the industrialized health care structure of the twentieth century, and AIDS may act as either a catalyst or an amplifier for these forces. AIDS could, for example, swamp local resources and thereby help trigger national reform in a health care system that has already lost public confidence. AIDS can also hasten the paradigm shift that is occurring throughout health care. Many of the choices society will confront when dealing with AIDS carry implications beyond health care. Information about who has the disease, for example, already pits traditional individual rights against group interests. Future information systems could make discrimination based upon medical records a nightmare for a growing number of individuals. Yet these systems also offer the hope of accelerated progress against not only AIDS but other major health threats as well. The policy choices that will define society's response to AIDS can best be made in the context of a clearly articulated vision of a society that reflects our deepest values. PMID:10119289

  15. Workshop on Latin American women and AIDS.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    A 3-day workshop organized by the National Institute of Public Health (Mexico) examined the situation of women and AIDS in Latin America and developed a research agenda on this topic. AIDS incidence rates among women in the region in 1993 ranged from a low of 7.7 per million in the Southern Cone to 30.4 per million in Brazil. The workshop addressed 6 main topics: 1) cultural characteristics prevalent in Latin American countries that impede women's ability to negotiate safer sexual practices; 2) the need for integration of family planning, sexually transmitted disease (including AIDS), and maternal-child health services; 3) defense of the human rights of women with HIV/AIDS; 4) the different roles of official AIDS control programs, the mass media, organized religion, and international agencies in the struggle against AIDS; 5) the impact of deepening poverty and social polarization on HIV risk factors; and 6) the effect of drug traffic and consumption on HIV transmission in Latin American women. Proposed to address these issues was the creation of a Latin American research group that would take advantage of existing regional networks and projects. PMID:12293161

  16. AIDS in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Singh, J; Che'Rus, S; Chong, S; Chong, Y K; Crofts, N

    1994-01-01

    The first people to be infected with HIV in Malaysia were mainly homosexual men with foreign connections. IV drug users, however, rapidly became the population group with the highest prevalence of HIV. Accurate, timely data are needed in order to responsibly describe the pattern of HIV infection and AIDS in any given setting. In Malaysia, however, there has been little systematic surveillance in population groups other than blood donors. This surveillance indicates the existence of a rapidly increasing rate of seropositivity among blood donors. Otherwise, many people are loathe to undergo voluntary HIV testing to determine their serostatus. Moreover, some people with STDs avoid contact with the health system and the potential for HIV testing. The extent to which AIDS cases are underreported or reported late is unknown. On the other hand, an estimated 10% of notified AIDS cases have been wrongly classified as such. The lack of hard data on HIV/AIDS in Malaysia makes it difficult to project the future course of the epidemic in the country. Since Malaysia shares a land border with Thailand and there is much sea-borne traffic between the two countries, it is highly possible that Malaysia will experience a significant epidemic of HIV infection similar to its neighbors. A National AIDS Committee was established April 1985 to develop responses to the HIV epidemic, while the National AIDS Program Manager of the Ministry of Health is responsible for controlling STDs. A national plan of action for the prevention and control of AIDS, drawn up in 1985 and revised in 1988, includes planning for the continued surveillance of HIV infection and AIDS through existing notification systems, and for screening and sentinel programs for IV drug users, prostitutes, and STD patients. Recent nongovernmental organization responses complement government efforts to prevent HIV and AIDS in Malaysia. PMID:7857575

  17. HIV, AIDS, and the Future

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  18. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  19. American Foundation for AIDS Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Press Corporate Support amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research Research Overview Research Grants Research Accomplishments Scientific ... Archive TREAT Asia TREAT Asia About TREAT Asia AIDS in Asia Research and Treatment Education and AIDS ...

  20. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table ... Victoria Cargill talks to students about HIV and AIDS at the opening of a National Library of ...

  1. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  2. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  3. [Implantable hearing aids].

    PubMed

    Luers, J C; Beutner, D; Hüttenbrink, K-B

    2011-10-01

    Strictly speaking, implantable hearing aids are technical systems that process audiological signals and convey these by direct mechanical stimulation of the ossicular chain or cochlea. They have certain benefits over conventional hearing aids in terms of wearing comfort and general acceptance. As current studies lack convincing audiological results, the indications for implantable hearing aids are primarily of medical or cosmetic nature. To date, three systems are available in Germany: Vibrant Soundbridge®, Carina®, and Esteem®. Because the performance of the different implantable and nonimplantable hearing systems together with various surgical procedures are currently undergoing major changes, audiological indications may also develop in the future. PMID:21956678

  4. Implantable Heart Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Medrad utilized NASA's Apollo technology to develop a new device called the AID implantable automatic pulse generator which monitors the heart continuously, recognizes the onset of ventricular fibrillation and delivers a corrective electrical shock. AID pulse generator is, in effect, a miniaturized version of the defibrillator used by emergency squads and hospitals to restore rhythmic heartbeat after fibrillation, but has the unique advantage of being permanently available to the patient at risk. Once implanted, it needs no specially trained personnel or additional equipment. AID system consists of a microcomputer, a power source and two electrodes which sense heart activity.

  5. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.

    1984-07-01

    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  6. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  7. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development. PMID:27606310

  8. Teacher Education: A Selected List of References for A.I.D. Technicians. A.I.D. Bibliography Series: Education and Human Resources No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agency for International Development (Dept. of State), Washington, DC. Office of Education and Human Resources.

    This annotated bibliography is one of a series designed to provide a guide to the publications of the Agency for International Development (AID) and other agencies working in the field of development assistance. While AID reports and documents are the primary focus of the bibliography, other materials covering the work of international agencies,…

  9. HIV and AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV positive have been tested ... to everyone in the world. When the person's immune system has weakened and more of the blood's T ...

  10. First Aid and Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... First-Aid Kit Food Safety for Your Family Gun Safety Halloween Candy Hints Household Safety Checklists Household ... Climbing, and Grabbing Household Safety: Preventing Injuries From Firearms Household Safety: Preventing Injuries in the Crib Household ...