Science.gov

Sample records for international comparative study

  1. Comparing International Curriculum Systems: The International Instructional Systems Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creese, Brian; Gonzalez, Alvaro; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper sets out the main findings of the International Instructional Systems Study (IISS), conducted by the UCL Institute of Education and funded by the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB). The study examined the instructional systems and intended curricula of six "high performing" countries and two US states. The…

  2. Factors Influencing International Students' Career Choice: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, Hemla D.; White, Lyle J.; Bringaze, Tammy B.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the career development behavior of Asian international, non-Asian international, and domestic students, specifically the certainty of career and major choice and environmental factors that have influenced their choices. Environmental factors include family, school counselors, teacher, friends, and government. The results show…

  3. International Comparative Studies in Education: Descriptions of Selected Large-Scale Assessments and Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.

    Since its inception in 1988, the Board on International Comparative Studies in Education (BICSE) has monitored U.S. participation in those cross national comparative studies in education that are funded by its sponsors, the National Science Foundation and the National Center for Education Statistics. This set of international study descriptions…

  4. Principal Leadership and Mathematics Achievement: An International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Seon-Hi; Slater, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the differences and similarities in the impact of school leadership on student mathematics achievement in different global regions using TIMSS international data. Three-level unconditional and conditional hierarchical models were fitted to the data in each country. The findings showed that the variables of teacher…

  5. International Comparative Studies in Teaching and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamson, Bob

    2012-01-01

    This review of eight papers published in "Teaching and Teacher Education" over the past twenty years shows how the profession has been impacted by the forces of globalisation. The impact varies in different contexts, according to local factors. The review looks at papers that use explicit international comparisons as a means to bring local…

  6. Governance Paradigms of Public Universities: An International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to develop a conceptual model of the wider influencing forces impacting the governance paradigms of public universities. It draws on the multi-theoretical governance concept and seeks to identify these forces through the lens of chief audit executives using a qualitative research approach. The interview data supported by published…

  7. Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness among Schizophrenic Patients and Their Families (Comparative Study)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahmoud, Sahar; Zaki, Rania A.

    2015-01-01

    This study was a comparative study aiming to assess the extent of internalized stigma of mental illness among patients with schizophrenia & identify stigma as perceived by family members caring schizophrenic patients. The study was conducted in two settings 1st clinic was outpatient clinic for psychiatric patient affiliated to Abbasia…

  8. Settlement of public international disputes on shared resources: elements of a comparative study of international instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Alheritiere, D.

    1985-07-01

    This article focuses on the resources dispute settlement to ensure the subject is not unduly neglected. The United Nations Charter stipulates that the basic obligation is to seek a peaceful settlement, a principal which is echoed in may international instruments dealing with natural resources. The author explores the substance and meaning of that principle as it applies to shared resources, then examines both theory and practice as seen in various solutions. Peaceful procedures include direct negotiations, good office, mediation, enquiry and conciliation, consultation, arbitration, and judicial settlement. There is a trend toward consensus, but it is too early to tell if it will continue because of the smaller number of cases.

  9. Estimating and Interpreting Variance Components in International Comparative Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Data from international comparative studies in education are generally derived from complex, multi-stage sample designs and rotated assessments. Consequently, care must be taken not only in estimating variance components but also in interpreting them. Target population definitions, the nature of the sampling stages and their sampling units, and…

  10. Internationally Comparable Health Indices

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Erik; Kapteyn, Arie; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    One of the most intractable problems in international health research is the lack of comparability of health measures across countries or cultures. We develop a cross-country measurement model for health in which functional limitations, self-reports of health, and a physical measure are interrelated to construct health indices. To establish comparability across countries, we define the measurement scales by the physical measure while other parameters vary by country to reflect cultural and linguistic differences in response patterns. We find significant cross-country variation in response styles of health reports along with variability in genuine health that is related to differences in national income. Our health indices achieve satisfactory reliability of about 80% and their gradients by age, income, and wealth for the most part show the expected patterns. Moreover, the health indices correlate much more strongly with income and net worth than self reported health measures. PMID:20572201

  11. A Comparative Study on Information-Seeking Behaviors of Domestic and International Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Yoo-Seong

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates information-seeking behavior of one particular segment of international students--international students seeking degrees in the field of business. The author surveyed domestic and international business students enrolled in the College of Business at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The survey was designed to…

  12. The Value of International Comparative Studies of Achievement--A Danish Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egelund, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Barry McGaw, Education Director of the OECD until December 2005, has described and evaluated the current programme of international comparative assessment surveys, notably the PISA programme. Any international survey will have its stronger and its weaker points. With a high profile programme like PISA, there is a risk that the limitations will be…

  13. The strength of primary care in Europe: an international comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Kringos, Dionne; Boerma, Wienke; Bourgueil, Yann; Cartier, Thomas; Dedeu, Toni; Hasvold, Toralf; Hutchinson, Allen; Lember, Margus; Oleszczyk, Marek; Pavlic, Danica Rotar; Svab, Igor; Tedeschi, Paolo; Wilm, Stefan; Wilson, Andrew; Windak, Adam; Van der Zee, Jouke; Groenewegen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background A suitable definition of primary care to capture the variety of prevailing international organisation and service-delivery models is lacking. Aim Evaluation of strength of primary care in Europe. Design and setting International comparative cross-sectional study performed in 2009–2010, involving 27 EU member states, plus Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, and Turkey. Method Outcome measures covered three dimensions of primary care structure: primary care governance, economic conditions of primary care, and primary care workforce development; and four dimensions of primary care service-delivery process: accessibility, comprehensiveness, continuity, and coordination of primary care. The primary care dimensions were operationalised by a total of 77 indicators for which data were collected in 31 countries. Data sources included national and international literature, governmental publications, statistical databases, and experts’ consultations. Results Countries with relatively strong primary care are Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, and the UK. Countries either have many primary care policies and regulations in place, combined with good financial coverage and resources, and adequate primary care workforce conditions, or have consistently only few of these primary care structures in place. There is no correlation between the access, continuity, coordination, and comprehensiveness of primary care of countries. Conclusion Variation is shown in the strength of primary care across Europe, indicating a discrepancy in the responsibility given to primary care in national and international policy initiatives and the needed investments in primary care to solve, for example, future shortages of workforce. Countries are consistent in their primary care focus on all important structure dimensions. Countries need to improve their primary care information infrastructure to facilitate primary care performance

  14. International collaborative study to compare reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detection and genotyping of noroviruses.

    PubMed

    Vinjé, Jan; Vennema, Harry; Maunula, Leena; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik; Hoehne, Marina; Schreier, Eckart; Richards, Alison; Green, Jon; Brown, David; Beard, Suzanne S; Monroe, Stephan S; de Bruin, Erwin; Svensson, Lennart; Koopmans, Marion P G

    2003-04-01

    To allow more rapid and internationally standardized assessment of the spread of noroviruses (previously called Norwalk-like viruses [NLVs]) as important food-borne pathogens, harmonization of methods for their detection is needed. Diagnosis of NLVs in clinical diagnostic laboratories is usually performed by reverse transciptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays. In the present study, the performance of five different RT-PCR assays for the detection of NLVs was evaluated in an international collaborative study by five laboratories in five countries with a coded panel of 91 fecal specimens. The assays were tested for their sensitivity, detection limit, and ease of standardization. In total, NLVs could be detected by at least one RT-PCR assay in 69 (84%) of the samples that originally tested positive. Sensitivity ranged from 52 to 73% overall and from 54 to 100% and 58 to 85% for genogroup I and II viruses, respectively. In all, 64% of the false-negative results were obtained with a set of diluted stools (n = 20) that may have lost quality upon storage. Sensitivity was improved when these samples were excluded from analysis. No one single assay stood out as the best, although the p1 assay demonstrated the most satisfactory overall performance. To promote comparability of data, this assay will be recommended for newly starting groups in future collaborative studies. PMID:12682125

  15. Quantitative characterization and comparative study of feather melanosome internal morphology using surface analysis.

    PubMed

    Straker, Lorian Cobra

    2016-03-01

    A successful feather development implies in a precise orchestration of cells in the follicle, which culminates in one of the most complex epidermal structures in nature. Melanocytes contribute to the final structure by delivering melanosomes to the barb and barbule cells. Disturbance to the tissue during the feather growth can damage the final structure. Here, melanosomes seen in an unusual outgrowth on the barb cortex of a flight feather are reported and compared to commonly observed melanosomes embedded in the cortex. Transmission Electron Microscopy in scanning-transmission mode (STEM) generated images coupled with secondary electron detection. The two classes of melanosomes were registered on images combining transmitted and secondary electron signals. Image processing allowed surface analyses of roughness and texture of the internal morphology of these organelles. Results showed that the two classes of melanosomes are significantly distinct internally, indicating that different physiological processes up to feather maturation could have occurred. Surface analysis methods are not regularly used in cell biology studies, but here it is shown that it has great potential for microscopic image analysis, which could add robust information to studies of cell biology events. PMID:26760226

  16. A Comparative Study of the International Perspectives of Six-Graders in Taipei and Shanghai

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Chun; Wu, Huan-Hung; Chang, Yu-Liang

    2015-01-01

    With the emergence of globalization, it has become increasingly important for all citizens to possess an international perspective. The trend of internationalizing educational systems has also emerged in various countries. Thus, to explore the degree to which students can possess international perspectives is an important topic worthy of studying.…

  17. A Comparative Study of Student Engagement, Satisfaction, and Academic Success among International and American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korobova, Nadia; Starobin, Soko S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between student engagement, student satisfaction, and the academic success of international and American students using 2008 National Survey of Student Engagement (NSSE) data. It was found that international students scored slightly higher than American students on enriching educational experiences and…

  18. Using Comparative International Studies for Modeling Educational Effectiveness: A Secondary Analysis of PISA-2009 Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azigwe, John Bosco

    2016-01-01

    International surveys of student achievement are becoming increasingly popular with governments around the world, as they try to measure the performance of their country's education system. The main reason for this trend is the shared opinion that countries will need to be able to compete in the "knowledge economy" to assure the economic…

  19. In Defence of International Comparative Studies. on the Analytical and Explanatory Power of the Nation State in International Comparative Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmützky, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is undergoing a process of globalization and new realities of a globalized higher education world are emerging. Globalization also has a profound impact on higher education research. Global and transnational topics are theoretically and empirically elaborated and seem on the rise, whereas the international comparative outlook…

  20. Study of Environment in School. Research in Comparative Education. International Conference on Public Education. (31st, Geneva, 1968)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    UNESCO and the International Bureau of Education devoted this international inquiry in comparative education to the study of environment in schools throughout 79 countries of the world. Concerning the scope of the topic, introductory comments note that "study of environment in schools is difficult to define or confine, for it constitutes more an…

  1. The International Baccalaureate Diploma Program and Gifted Learners: A Comparative Study of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Denise Stewart

    2011-01-01

    The problem is that some secondary schools use the International Baccalaureate Diploma Program to service gifted students even though it was not developed as a gifted model. The purpose of the study is to determine if gifted identified students benefit more or less academically than students not identified as gifted as a result of their…

  2. The "Russian Doll" Approach: Developing Nested Case-Studies to Support International Comparative Research in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    International comparison is complicated by the use of different terms, classification methods, policy frameworks and system structures, not to mention different languages and terminology. Multi-case studies can assist in the understanding of the influence wielded by cultural, social, economic, historical and political forces upon educational…

  3. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 (www.GPRadar.eu). Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-24656 "Comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines" (Dr Lara Pajewski, Italy, visiting Prof Marian Marciniak, Poland).

  4. Singapore Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge: Findings from an International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…

  5. Frictions between Formal Education Policy and Actual School Choice: Case Studies in an International Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teelken, Christine; Driessen, Geert; Smit, Frederik

    2005-01-01

    This contribution is based on comparative case studies of secondary schools in England, the Netherlands and Scotland. The authors conclude that although opportunities for school choice are offered in a formal sense in each of the locations studied, in certain cases choice is not particularly encouraged. In order to explain this disparity between…

  6. Intern Teachers and Student Teacher at the University of California, Berkeley: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James C.

    This study compared students in Berkeley's four postgraduate teacher education programs, which are a) student teaching--elementary; b) elementary internship; c) student teaching--secondary; and d) secondary internship. The impact of each curriculum on the students was investigated through the Terman Concept Mastery Test, Omnibus Personality…

  7. Neither Orthodoxy nor Randomness: Differing Logics of Conducting Comparative and International Studies in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The issue of the presumed "identity" of Comparative Education as a field of study or a discipline has been discussed for decades. Yet what remains open to question is a kind of systematic structure that provides the basic principles for a coherent exposition of the field. After conceptualising and rejecting almost a dozen possible…

  8. Do Mathematicians Integrate Computer Algebra Systems in University Teaching? Comparing a Literature Review to an International Survey Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Neil; Buteau, Chantal; Jarvis, Daniel H.; Lavicza, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    We present a comparative study of a literature review of 326 selected contributions (Buteau, Marshall, Jarvis & Lavicza, 2010) to an international (US, UK, Hungary) survey of mathematicians (Lavicza, 2008) regarding the use of Computer Algebra Systems (CAS) in post-secondary mathematics education. The comparison results are organized with respect…

  9. An International Inventory and Comparative Study of Legislation and Guidelines for Children's Play Spaces in the Residential Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbensen, Steen B.

    Legislation and guidelines pertinent to children's play spaces in residential environments were gathered by means of an international inventory and a comparative study of 25 countries. Findings were directed toward those professionals who influence the development of legislation and guidelines for residential space use and design. The objective…

  10. Comparative study of upwind schemes for transonic and supersonic internal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, M. L.; Dǎnǎilǎ, S.

    2013-10-01

    A study of some popular upwind schemes applied to transonic internal flows using some well-known test cases is done in this paper. We focused on upwind schemes because the central space discretizations have symmetry with respect to a change in sign; therefore, the physical propagation of perturbations along characteristics, typical of hyperbolic equations is not considered in the definition of numerical model. In contrast to the central space discretizations, the upwind schemes whose origin may be due to Courant et al. [1] are directed towards the introduction of the physical properties of the flow equations into the discretized formulation that has leads to upwinding techniques such as flux vector splitting and flux difference splitting. In order to test the accuracy, robustness and efficiency of some popular upwind methods (van Leer scheme, Roe scheme and Liou's AUSM+ scheme); we used some well-known test cases.

  11. Domestic and International Service Learning Experiences: A Comparative Study of Pre-Service Teacher Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kari Knutson; Gonzalez, Amber M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines pre-service teacher outcomes associated with service learning in domestic and international settings. Participants included upper-division, undergraduate-level pre-service teachers who participated in service learning experiences in either local, domestic settings (Orange County, CA) or international settings (Shanghai and…

  12. Key challenges in simulated patient programs: An international comparative case study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The literature on simulated or standardized patient (SP) methodology is expanding. However, at the level of the program, there are several gaps in the literature. We seek to fill this gap through documenting experiences from four programs in Australia, Canada, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. We focused on challenges in SP methodology, faculty, organisational structure and quality assurance. Methods We used a multiple case study method with cross-case synthesis. Over eighteen months during a series of informal and formal interactions (focused meetings and conference presentations) we documented key characteristics of programs and drew on secondary document sources. Results Although programs shared challenges in SP methodology they also experienced differences. Key challenges common to programs included systematic quality assurance and the opportunity for research. There were differences in the terminology used to describe SPs, in their recruitment and training. Other differences reflected local conditions and demands in organisational structure, funding relationships with the host institution and national trends, especially in assessments. Conclusion This international case study reveals similarities and differences in SP methodology. Programs were highly contextualised and have emerged in response to local, institutional, profession/discipline and national conditions. Broader trends in healthcare education have also influenced development. Each of the programs experienced challenges in the same themes but the nature of the challenges often varied widely. PMID:21943295

  13. International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    She, Qianru; Wotherspoon, Terry

    2013-12-01

    Against the backdrop of demographic change and economic reconfiguration, recruiting international students, especially those at tertiary level, has drawn growing attention from advanced economies as part of a broad strategy to manage highly skilled migration. This comparative study focuses on three English speaking countries receiving international students: Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. International student policies, in particular entry and immigration regulations, and the trends in student mobility since the late 1990s are examined drawing on secondary data. By exploring the issue from the political economy perspectives, this study identifies distinct national strategies for managing student mobility, determines key factors shaping the environment of student migration in each nation, and addresses the deficiency of human capital theory in the analysis of global competition for high skills. PMID:23667802

  14. The impact of cognitive strategy instruction on deaf learners: an international comparative study.

    PubMed

    Martin, D S; Craft, A; Sheng, Z N

    2001-10-01

    Teacher cohorts in England and China received special training in techniques for teaching higher-level critical and creative cognitive strategies to deaf learners. Both cohorts implemented the strategies in the classroom at least twice weekly for 6 months. Measures included Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (1959), a systematic observation checklist for cognitive behaviors (Martin & Craft, 1998), and critical and creative problem situations to which students had to respond. Results were compared with those from a study of similar learners in the United States (Martin & Jonas, 1985), and little difference was found. Students in all three countries improved in reasoning, devising real-world problem solutions involving critical thinking (but not creative thinking), using cognitive vocabulary in the classroom, and expressing others' viewpoints. Postintervention focus groups showed teachers in China used a more invariant sequence in teaching the cognitive strategies, but teachers in all three countries experienced similar expansion in cognitive terminology and self-perceptions as teachers of problem solving. PMID:11816861

  15. Health and Social Services among International Labor Migrants: A Comparative Perspective. CMAS Border & Migration Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugalde, Antonio, Ed.; Cardenas, Gilberto, Ed.

    Eleven papers from a workshop titled "International Migration: Health and Social Policies" focus on common concerns and problems in providing social and health services to labor migrants and immigrants in the United States and the European Union. Following an introduction (Antonio Ugalde, Gilberto Cardenas), the papers are: (1) "International…

  16. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  17. International Schools: Current Issues and Future Prospects. Oxford Studies in Comparative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Mary, Ed.; Thompson, Jeff, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The foundation of the first international schools of the modern era well over a century ago, and their burgeoning growth over recent years, provides the context in this book for a series of personal perspectives written by some of those who have been involved centrally in their development. As the schools themselves have increased not only in…

  18. The Phoenix: Vocational Education and Training in Singapore. International Comparative Study of Leading Vocational Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Marc S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports from the Center on International Education Benchmarking (CIEB) exploring the leading vocational and technical education systems from around the world to draw out what makes these systems great and what other countries can learn from them. This first report was based on a visit of several days to Singapore…

  19. Comparative Early Childhood Education Services: International Perspectives. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Judith, Ed.; One, Sarah Te, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This edited international collection re-conceptualizes the place of early childhood education and care services (ECEC) within communities and challenges traditional approaches to family involvement and partnerships in ECEC. Using a range of theoretical positions, the authors present research-based discussions from five countries which challenge…

  20. The Role of the OECD in International Comparative Studies of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaw, Barry

    2008-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) underpins its extensive policy work with strong databases of comparable statistics and indicators with which it compares countries. In 2000, it extended its education database with its first collection of data on the performances of 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics and science…

  1. A Comparative Study of "The International Educational Technology Conference" (IETC) and "The International Conference on Computers in Education" (ICCE): The Program, Essay Distribution, the Themes, and Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gwo-Dong; Chen, Chun-Hsiang; Wang, Chin-Yeh; Li, Liang-Yi

    2012-01-01

    The article aims to compare international conferences, "The International Educational Technology Conference" (IETC, 2011) and "The International Conference on Computers in Education" (ICCE, 2010), from various dimensions. The comparison is expected to conclude a better approach for every IETC and ICCE to be held. (Contains 4 tables.)

  2. International studies to compare methods for personal sampling of bitumen fumes.

    PubMed

    Ekström, L G; Kriech, A; Bowen, C; Johnson, S; Breuer, D

    2001-10-01

    A newly recommended Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) sampler, optimized for the inhalable fraction, was compared with 'total particulate' samplers currently used by five laboratories in different countries for the analysis of bitumen fumes. Using a laboratory fume generator, all samplers were uniformly exposed to bitumen fumes from typical USA bitumen (commercial Pen 65). The results show that, for laboratory-generated bitumen fumes, benzene-extractable inhalable particulate data for the IOM sampler are consistent with benzene soluble matter data from the other samplers. Direct comparison of the IOM sampler with the 37 mm closed-face cassette (USA sampler) using an identical protocol in a single laboratory gave a ratio of 1.05:1 (USA:IOM). Similarly, for total particulate matter, the standard previously recommended by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), an average value of approximately 1 between the IOM and the five samplers was obtained. For unadulterated bitumen fumes, the geometry of the cassettes does not appear to affect entry of the particles into the sampler. Field studies may show differences in results as other factors, e.g. wind and its effect on sampling efficiency, and also particulates originating from sources other than bitumen, such as dust, are involved. These will require thorough investigation prior to the assessment of the impact of the new sampler and prior to any reconsideration of occupational exposure limits taking into account practical feasibility. Other tests were conducted on the bitumen fume samples including total organic matter, simulated distillation and polycyclic aromatic compound analysis. These additional tests were performed on the fume collected on the filter plus the volatile portion that passed through the filter and was captured on various adsorbent materials. Protocols for sample collection and analysis varied in different countries with results reflective of these differences

  3. Internalizing Symptoms and Affect of Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Study with an Urban African American Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Deanna E.; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cobb, Harriet C.

    1999-01-01

    Self-reported internalizing symptoms of seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) and regular education students were compared using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children. The SED group reported significantly higher levels of internalizing distress than the regular education group. Results are discussed in terms of future research needs and…

  4. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) can be effectively used for non-destructive testing of composite structures and diagnostics affecting the whole life-cycle of civil engineering works. Nevertheless, few recognised international standards exist in this field and inhomogeneous recommendations are present in different countries. Moreover, the levels of knowledge, awareness and experience regarding the use of GPR in civil engineering vary strongly across different European areas. The COST Action TU1208 is working hard on leveraging these differences, by sharing and disseminating knowledge and experience, as well as by developing guidelines and protocols for a safe and effective use of GPR in civil engineering. GPR users need to know which is the best way to conduct GPR measurements and what the quality level for the results should be. The TU1208 guidelines will ensure a higher efficiency and quality of GPR services and they will constitute a scientific basis for the introduction of European Standards on the application of GPR in civil engineering. The aim of this contribution is to present an in-depth overview and critical analysis of the existing GPR international and national standards and guidelines. The main documents considered in our work are listed and briefly described in the following. Three standards are provided by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), to guide the GPR use for subsurface investigation, evaluation of asphalt-covered concrete bridge decks, and determination of pavement-layer thickness: 1. ASTM D6432-11, Standard Guide for Using the Surface Ground Penetrating Radar Method for Subsurface Investigation, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2011, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6432-11. 2. ASTM D6087-08, Standard Test Method for Evaluating Asphalt-Covered Concrete Bridge Decks Using Ground Penetrating Radar, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2008, www.astm.org, DOI: 10.1520/D6087-08. 3. ASTM D4748-10, Standard Test Method

  5. International comparative study of systems for the government advancement of research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripke, M.; Foerst, R.

    1984-01-01

    The reorganization, structure and instruments of government advancement of research in three countries was compared: France, Sweden and the USA. In France the powers are centralized; in Sweden and the USA, decentralized. Assistance to projects is provided with grants and contracts in all three countries. France and Sweden also give loans with conditional waiving of reimbursement in case of failure. In all three countries indirect assistance is provided only with small tax breaks.

  6. Preoperative Nutritional Status and The Impact on Radical Cystectomy Recovery: An International Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Bente Thoft; Dalbagni, Guido; Borre, Michael; Love-Retinger, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In radical cystectomy, under-nutrition is common and has detrimental physiological and clinical effects, which can lead to increased complications and prolonged recovery. This article compares measurements and outcomes across continents in this patient population with advanced bladder cancer. The association of preoperative nutritional risk, nutritional status, and length of stay is equal across continents, and the results promote increased clinical awareness that women at severe risk should be identified preoperatively. PMID:27501594

  7. Middle School Students' Views of Scientific Inquiry: An International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senler, B.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate middle school students' views of scientific inquiry. A total of 489 middle school students (238 from the United States, and 251 from Turkey) participated in the study. The Views of Scientific Inquiry-Elementary (VOSI-E) was used to assess participants' scientific inquiry views. The instrument covered four…

  8. A Comparative Study on Perceived Effects of Communication Networks in Acquiring International Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavelsrud, Magnus

    A study was designed to test the hypothesis that different communication stages between nations--primitive, traditional, modern, and neomodern--provide important variables for explaining differences in pre-adults' conception of war in different countries. Although the two samples used in the study were drawn from two cultures which fall into the…

  9. Comparing International Student Friendship Networks in Buenos Aires: Direct Enrollment Programs vs. Study Abroad Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Blake

    2016-01-01

    In March of 2011 Unite States president Barack Obama announced the "100,000 strong in the Americas" program during his visit to Chile (U.S. State Department, 2011). The initiative's goal is to reach 100,000 U.S. students studying in Latin America and 100,000 Latin American students studying in the United States. This interchange of…

  10. Do Zoo Visitors Come to Learn? An Internationally Comparative, Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Katie; McConney, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Zoo visitors go to see animals, but are they there to learn? This mixed-methods study examines visitor learning from both zoos' and visitors' perspectives using qualitative and quantitative data. Five hundred and forty zoo visitor interviews from nine case studies provide insight into visitor intentions, which indicate that the majority of…

  11. University-Based Enabling Program Outcomes: Comparing Distance Education and Internal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookallil, Cheryl; Rolfe, John

    2016-01-01

    Enrolment in university enabling programs has expanded dramatically in the last decade as universities strive to increase enrolments, particularly of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Offering enabling study by distance education has been part of this expansion with the benefit of providing access to a wider enrolment base. The purpose…

  12. Patterns, Drivers and Challenges Pertaining to Postgraduate Taught Study: An International Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The global growth in postgraduate (PG) study since the mid-1990s has been attributed to the expansion in Masters by Coursework participation (Bekhradnia, B. (2005). Postgraduate education in the UK: Trends and challenges higher education policy institute. Paper presented at a conference "The future of postgraduate education supporting the…

  13. Education for Human Rights. An International Perspective. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Douglas, Ed.; And Others

    This book presents theoretical studies and national experiences of how education might respond to war, natural catastrophes, or disease, thereby making people more aware and successful at managing difficult situations. The volume's 15 authors, drawn from many parts of the world, deal with human rights (especially those of women, children,…

  14. Methodological approaches to comparing information about bicycle accidents internationally: a case study involving Canada and Germany.

    PubMed

    Juhra, Christian; Wieskötter, Britta; Bellwood, Paule; von Below, Ariane; Fyfe, Murray; Salkeld, Sonia; Borycki, Elizabeth; Kushniruk, Andre

    2013-01-01

    The use of bicycles as a mean of healthy and eco-friendly transportation is currently actively promoted in many industrialized countries. However, the number of severe bicycle accidents rose significantly in Germany and Canada in 2011. In order to identify risk factors for bicycle accidents and possible means of prevention, a study was initiated that analyses bicycle accidents from selected regions in both countries. Due to different healthcare systems and regulations, the data must be selected in different ways in each country before it can be analyzed. Data is collected by means of questionnaires in Germany and using hybrid electronic-paper records in Canada. Using this method, all relevant data can be collected in both countries. PMID:23388262

  15. Internalizing Symptoms of Gifted and Non-Gifted Elementary-Age Students: A Comparative Validity Study Using the Internalizing Symptoms Scale for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the symptoms of self-reported internalizing symptoms (e.g., depression and anxiety) of mid-elementary-age gifted students as compared to a control sample of non-gifted students. Results show that gifted students reported significantly fewer internalizing symptoms than did the comparison group. Findings are contrasted with previous…

  16. A comparative study of RNA and DNA as internal gene expression controls early in the developmental cycle of Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Engström, Patrik; Bailey, Leslie; Onskog, Thomas; Bergström, Sven; Johansson, Jörgen

    2010-03-01

    Many microbial pathogens invade and proliferate within host cells and the molecular mechanism underlying this behavior is currently being revealed for several bacterial species. Testing clinically relevant antibacterial compounds and elucidating their effects on gene expression requires adequate controls, especially when studying genetically intractable organisms such as Chlamydia spp., for which various gene fusions cannot be constructed. Until now, relative mRNA levels in Chlamydia have been measured using different internal gene expression controls, including 16S rRNA, mRNAs, and DNA. Here, we compared the advantages and disadvantages of various internal expression controls during the early phase of Chlamydia pneumoniae development. The relative abundance of target mRNAs varied using the different internal control RNAs. This was partly due to variation in the transcript stability of the RNA species. Also, seven out of nine of the analyzed RNAs increased fivefold or more between 2 and 14 h postinfection, while the amount of DNA and number of cells remained essentially unaltered. Our results suggest that RNA should not be used as a gene expression control during the early phase of Chlamydia development, and that intrinsic bacterial DNA is preferable for that purpose because it is stable, abundant, and its relative amount is generally correlated with bacterial numbers. PMID:20002746

  17. Deliberate Self-Harm within an International Community Sample of Young People: Comparative Findings from the Child & Adolescent Self-Harm in Europe (CASE) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madge, Nicola; Hewitt, Anthea; Hawton, Keith; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Corcoran, Paul; Fekete, Sandor; van Heeringen, Kees; De Leo, Diego; Ystgaard, Mette

    2008-01-01

    Background: Deliberate self-harm among young people is an important focus of policy and practice internationally. Nonetheless, there is little reliable comparative international information on its extent or characteristics. We have conducted a seven-country comparative community study of deliberate self-harm among young people. Method: Over 30,000…

  18. Turning Around International Comparative Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Cliff

    2010-01-01

    People have a habit of taking international comparisons of various aspects of higher education that are produced in--to put it gently--dubious ways, and delighting in their terrible and/or falling position. It's time to cease and desist this self-flaggelatory habit. Even rhetorically, as a goad to improve, the statements have been uttered so often…

  19. Reflections on International Comparative Education Survey Methodology: A Case Study of the European Survey on Language Competences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashton, Karen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects on the methodology used in international comparative education surveys by conducting a systematic review of the European Survey on Language Competences (ESLC). The ESLC was administered from February to March 2011, with final results released in June 2012. The survey tested approximately 55,000 students across 14 European…

  20. Educational Management and Policy: Research, Theory and Practice in South Africa. Bristol Papers in Education. Comparative and International Studies: 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of papers written by students involved in the Educational Management Project for South Africa. The project was established to introduce selected South Africans to theories and practices in educational management in an international comparative context. The papers focus on priorities for educational change and…

  1. Study Canada: International Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monahan, Robert L.; And Others

    This self-contained unit of study on Canada is one of a series which can be used to supplement secondary level courses of social studies, contemporary world problems, government, history, and geography. Developed by teachers, the unit focuses on international relations. A comparative approach is used which stresses understanding Canada from…

  2. Acculturative Stressors and Acculturative Strategies as Predictors of Negative Affect among Chinese International Students in Australia and Hong Kong: A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Wong, Daniel Fu Keung

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There are few studies comparing cross-cultural adaptation of migrant groups in two different cultural settings. This study compares the level of negative affect and acculturative stressors between Chinese international students in Australia and Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong. The predictive effects of acculturative stressors and…

  3. An international comparability study on quantification of mRNA gene expression ratios: CCQM-P103.1.

    PubMed

    Devonshire, Alison S; Sanders, Rebecca; Whale, Alexandra S; Nixon, Gavin J; Cowen, Simon; Ellison, Stephen L R; Parkes, Helen; Pine, P Scott; Salit, Marc; McDaniel, Jennifer; Munro, Sarah; Lund, Steve; Matsukura, Satoko; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Kawaharasaki, Mamoru; Granjeiro, José Mauro; Falagan-Lotsch, Priscila; Saraiva, Antonio Marcos; Couto, Paulo; Yang, Inchul; Kwon, Hyerim; Park, Sang-Ryoul; Demšar, Tina; Žel, Jana; Blejec, Andrej; Milavec, Mojca; Dong, Lianhua; Zhang, Ling; Sui, Zhiwei; Wang, Jing; Viroonudomphol, Duangkamol; Prawettongsopon, Chaiwat; Partis, Lina; Baoutina, Anna; Emslie, Kerry; Takatsu, Akiko; Akyurek, Sema; Akgoz, Muslum; Vonsky, Maxim; Konopelko, L A; Cundapi, Edna Matus; Urquiza, Melina Pérez; Huggett, Jim F; Foy, Carole A

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of RNA can be used to study and monitor a range of infectious and non-communicable diseases, with profiling of multiple gene expression mRNA transcripts being increasingly applied to cancer stratification and prognosis. An international comparison study (Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance (CCQM)-P103.1) was performed in order to evaluate the comparability of measurements of RNA copy number ratio for multiple gene targets between two samples. Six exogenous synthetic targets comprising of External RNA Control Consortium (ERCC) standards were measured alongside transcripts for three endogenous gene targets present in the background of human cell line RNA. The study was carried out under the auspices of the Nucleic Acids (formerly Bioanalysis) Working Group of the CCQM. It was coordinated by LGC (United Kingdom) with the support of National Institute of Standards and Technology (USA) and results were submitted from thirteen National Metrology Institutes and Designated Institutes. The majority of laboratories performed RNA measurements using RT-qPCR, with datasets also being submitted by two laboratories based on reverse transcription digital polymerase chain reaction and one laboratory using a next-generation sequencing method. In RT-qPCR analysis, the RNA copy number ratios between the two samples were quantified using either a standard curve or a relative quantification approach. In general, good agreement was observed between the reported results of ERCC RNA copy number ratio measurements. Measurements of the RNA copy number ratios for endogenous genes between the two samples were also consistent between the majority of laboratories. Some differences in the reported values and confidence intervals ('measurement uncertainties') were noted which may be attributable to choice of measurement method or quantification approach. This highlights the need for standardised practices for the calculation of fold change ratios and uncertainties in the

  4. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  5. Government Stance and Internal Diversity of Protest: A Comparative Study of Protest against the War in Iraq in Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walgrave, Stefaan; Verhulst, Joris

    2009-01-01

    This study tackles the question to what extent the composition of protest events is determined by the stance of governments. Established contextual theories do not formulate propositions on how context affects individual protesters. The article engages in empirically testing whether the macro-context affects the internal diversity of the crowds…

  6. A comparative study of internal fixation and prosthesis replacement for radial head fractures of Mason type III

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Jun-Jian; Zeng, Bing-fang

    2007-01-01

    Although several treatment options for radial head fractures are available, no clear solutions exist. In this study we therefore compare open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with bipolar radial head prosthesis replacement in treatment of radial head fractures of Mason type III. Cement stem and bipolar radial prosthesis were used to treat 12 fresh cases and two old cases of Mason type III radial head fracture. As a control group, another eight cases of radial head type III fracture were treated with ORIF with cannulated screws and Kirschner (K) wires. The 14 patients who received radial head prosthesis replacement were followed-up for 15.9 months (range 10–27 months). According to elbow functional evaluation criteria by Broberg and Morrey, we found excellent results in nine cases, good in four, and fair in one. Mean follow-up of the eight cases in the ORIF group was 14 months (range 10–21 months), with good results in one case, fair in four, and poor in three. The result was good or excellent in 92.9% of prosthesis replacement patients and in 12.5% of ORIF patients. This difference is statistically significant (P = 0.0004; Fisher’s exact test). We concluded that bipolar radial head prosthesis replacement is better than ORIF in treatment of Mason type III radial head fracture. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00264-007-0453-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:17938924

  7. Cognitive and physical health of the older populations of England, the United States, and Ireland: international comparability of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    PubMed

    Savva, George M; Maty, Siobhan C; Setti, Annalisa; Feeney, Joanne

    2013-05-01

    This article discusses the contribution that international comparisons of the health and well-being of older people make. The comparability of the "HRS family" of studies that have been modeled on the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is discussed. The Irish Longitudinal Study of Ageing (TILDA) is introduced, and the comparability of TILDA data with respect to the HRS family and other studies is described, along with what TILDA will add to international aging research. Data from the 2010 waves of TILDA, HRS and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing are used to compare the physical and cognitive health of older Irish adults with that of the U.S. and English populations. The study shows that the physical and cognitive health of older people in Ireland is closer to that of their English counterparts than of those in the United States and that similar health inequalities exist in all three countries. PMID:23662721

  8. Some Problems in International Comparative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halloran, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines some problems and difficulties encountered in international comparative research programs in mass communications: comparability of units of analysis; lack of consensus manifested in dichotomization into "conventional" and "critical" approaches; and suitability of exported models, theories, concepts, and methods to Third World conditions.…

  9. Comparative and International Education: A Bibliography (2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comparative Education Review, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 "Comparative Education Review" bibliography of refereed journal articles on topics relevant to comparative and international education covers all 12 months in 2014 and includes 3,389 entries--a full 30 percent increase over the set of references assembled in the 2013 bibliography. They are drawn from 280 refereed journals, both…

  10. A Comparative Study of Financial Data Sources for Critical Access Hospitals: Audited Financial Statements, the Medicare Cost Report, and the Internal Revenue Service Form 990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmeral, Alisha Bhadelia; Reiter, Kristin L.; Holmes, George M.; Pink, George H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Medicare Cost Reports (MCR), Internal Revenue Service Form 990s (IRS 990), and Audited Financial Statements (AFS) vary in their content, detail, purpose, timeliness, and certification. The purpose of this study was to compare selected financial data elements and characterize the extent of differences in financial data and ratios across…

  11. Comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, Stanwood W; Lee, Stephen M

    1922-01-01

    Thin metal diaphragms form a satisfactory means for comparing maximum pressures in internal combustion engines. The diaphragm is clamped between two metal washers in a spark plug shell and its thickness is chosen such that, when subjected to explosion pressure, the exposed portion will be sheared from the rim in a short time.

  12. Time and Comparative and International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westlund, Erik

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that epistemological and theoretical issues surrounding time in relation to comparative and international education need further exploration in consideration of the new understandings of time that have emerged (or re-emerged) during the last century. By drawing on an interdisciplinary selection of ideas as well as various…

  13. A comparative study of magnetic resonance venography techniques for the evaluation of the internal jugular veins in multiple sclerosis patients☆

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Tamizur; Sethi, Sean K.; Utriainen, David T.; Hewett, J. Joseph; Haacke, E. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the vascular nature of diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) is a growing field of research. This work reports on the application of MR angiographic (MRA) and venographic (MRV) techniques in assessing the extracranial vasculature in MS patients. Materials and Methods A standardized MRI protocol containing 2D TOF-MRV and dynamic 3D contrast-enhanced (CE) MRAV was run for 170 MS patients and 40 healthy controls (HC). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular veins (IJVs) was measured at three neck levels in all subjects for both MRV techniques to determine the presence of venous stenoses. All data were analyzed retrospectively. Results For the values where both methods showed signal, the 3D method showed larger CSA measurement values compared to 2D methods in both IJVs, in both MS and HC subjects which was confirmed with student paired t-tests. Of the 170 MS patients, 93 (55%) in CE-MRAV and 103 (61%) in TOF-MRV showed stenosis in at least one IJV. The corresponding numbers for the 40 HC subjects were 2 (5%) and 4 (10%), respectively. Carotid ectasias with IJV stenosis were seen in 26 cases (15%) with 3D CE-MRAV and were not observable with 2D TOF-MRV. Carotid ectasias were not seen in the HC group. In the 2D TOF-MRV data, banding of the IJVs related to slow flow was seen in 58 (34%) MS cases and in no HC cases. MS patients showed lower average CSAs than the HC subjects. Conclusion The 3D CE MRAV depicted the vascular anatomy more completely than the 2D TOF-MRV. However, the 3D CE MRAV does not provide any information about the flow characteristics which are indirectly available in the 2D TOF-MRV in those cases where there is slow flow. PMID:23850076

  14. Comparing three feedback internal multiple elimination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jiawen; Verschuur, Eric; Chen, Xiaohong

    2013-08-01

    Multiple reflections have posed a great challenge for current seismic imaging and inversion methods. Compared to surface multiples, internal multiples are more difficult to remove due to poorer move-out discrimination with primaries and we are left with wave equation-based prediction and subtraction methods. In this paper, we focus on the comparison of three data-driven internal multiple elimination (IME) methods based on the feedback model, where two are well established prediction-and-subtraction methods using back-propagated data and surface data, referred to as CFP-based method and surface-based method, respectively, and the third one, an inversion-based method, has been recently extended from estimation of primaries by sparse inversion (EPSI). All these three methods are based on the separation of events from above and below a certain level, after which internal multiples are predicted by convolutions and correlations. We begin with theory review of layer-related feedback IME methods, where implementation steps for each method are discussed, and involved event separation are further analyzed. Then, recursive application of the three IME methods is demonstrated on synthetic data and field data. It shows that the two well established prediction-and-subtraction methods provide similar primary estimation results, with most of the internal multiples being removed while multiple leakage and primary distortion have been observed where primaries and internal multiples interfere. In contrast, generalized EPSI provides reduced multiple leakage and better primary restoration which is of great value for current seismic amplitude-preserved processing. As a main conclusion, with adaptive subtraction avoided, the inversion-based method is more effective than the prediction-and-subtraction methods for internal multiple elimination when primaries and internal multiples overlap. However, the inversion-based method is quite computationally intensive, and more researches on

  15. International interlaboratory study comparing single organism 16S rRNA gene sequencing data: Beyond consensus sequence comparisons.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nathan D; Lund, Steven P; Zook, Justin M; Rojas-Cornejo, Fabiola; Beck, Brian; Foy, Carole; Huggett, Jim; Whale, Alexandra S; Sui, Zhiwei; Baoutina, Anna; Dobeson, Michael; Partis, Lina; Morrow, Jayne B

    2015-03-01

    This study presents the results from an interlaboratory sequencing study for which we developed a novel high-resolution method for comparing data from different sequencing platforms for a multi-copy, paralogous gene. The combination of PCR amplification and 16S ribosomal RNA gene (16S rRNA) sequencing has revolutionized bacteriology by enabling rapid identification, frequently without the need for culture. To assess variability between laboratories in sequencing 16S rRNA, six laboratories sequenced the gene encoding the 16S rRNA from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 and Listeria monocytogenes serovar 4b strain NCTC11994. Participants performed sequencing methods and protocols available in their laboratories: Sanger sequencing, Roche 454 pyrosequencing(®), or Ion Torrent PGM(®). The sequencing data were evaluated on three levels: (1) identity of biologically conserved position, (2) ratio of 16S rRNA gene copies featuring identified variants, and (3) the collection of variant combinations in a set of 16S rRNA gene copies. The same set of biologically conserved positions was identified for each sequencing method. Analytical methods using Bayesian and maximum likelihood statistics were developed to estimate variant copy ratios, which describe the ratio of nucleotides at each identified biologically variable position, as well as the likely set of variant combinations present in 16S rRNA gene copies. Our results indicate that estimated variant copy ratios at biologically variable positions were only reproducible for high throughput sequencing methods. Furthermore, the likely variant combination set was only reproducible with increased sequencing depth and longer read lengths. We also demonstrate novel methods for evaluating variable positions when comparing multi-copy gene sequence data from multiple laboratories generated using multiple sequencing technologies. PMID:27077030

  16. International Comparative Student Affairs: How International and Comparative Higher Education Impacts Our Work with Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Darbi L.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the field of international higher education (IHE) and its application to the practice of student affairs. The author proposes that IHE is a crossroads between international comparative education and higher education, exploring their shared historical roots. She gives an overview of the current state of the IHE field, looking…

  17. Quality Assurance in an International Higher Education Area: A Summary of a Case-Study Approach and Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhard, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Transparency and comparability of higher education institutions especially in terms of their academic programmes and research activities are important issues for today's working environment. This paper is an overview of a recently completed PhD thesis which outlines examples of selected Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development…

  18. OA01.36. Management of diabetic retinopathy with doorvadya ghrita tarpana and internal administration of mahavasadi kwatha- a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Priyanka, Rani; Veeranagouda, Adoor; Ramesh, B N; Dhiman, K. S; Manjusha, R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A comparative clinical study was conducted on the management of Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) with Doorvadya Ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasadi kwatha internally. The main aim and objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of Doorvadya ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasadi kwatha internally, when used individually and as an adjuvant. Method: The patients were randomly divided in 3 groups with 15 patients in each group. Group A: Tarpana with Doorvadya Ghrita for 3 sittings, 5 days in each sitting, with a gap of 11 days after each sitting, total 48 days duration. Group B: Mahavasakadi Kwatha Pana with 50ml dose every day in the morning, empty stomach, for 48 days. Group C: Both Doorvadya Ghrita Tarpana and Mahavasakadi kwatha pana, for 48 days. Result: All the three groups have shown statistically significant results. Group B and C have shown better response as compared to Group A. Moreover Group B has shown slightly better response as compared to Group C. Conclusion: The study showed that microaneurysms, intra retinal haemorrhages, exudates are best managed by treatment with Group-B; where as blurred vision responded better to combine treatment of Group-C. Other parameters like neovascularization did not produce any significant result in any of the groups. Hence Ayurvedic management definitely prevents further progression of the Diabetic Retinopathy and its complications.

  19. The Impact of International Students on the University Work Environment: A Comparative Study of a Canadian and a Danish University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinther, Jane; Slethaug, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly students want to go abroad to study--to further their knowledge of English, experience a new culture and cultivate skills. Universities have been actively courting these students, sometimes without regard to their impact on responsibilities of heads of department, secretaries and support staff. Much is written on the intercultural…

  20. Changes in nurses’ work associated with computerised information systems: Opportunities for international comparative studies using the revised Work Observation Method By Activity Timing (WOMBAT)

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Johanna I.; Creswick, Nerida J.; Duffield, Christine; Li, Ling; Dunsmuir, William T. M.

    2012-01-01

    An important step in advancing global health through informatics is to understand how systems support health professionals to deliver improved services to patients. Studies in several countries have highlighted the potential for clinical information systems to change patterns of work and communication, and in particular have raised concerns that they reduce nurses’ time in direct care. However measuring the effects of systems on work is challenging and comparisons across studies have been hindered by a lack of standardised definitions and measurement tools. This paper describes the Work Observation Method by Activity Time (WOMBAT) technique version 1.0 and the ways in which the data generated can describe different aspects of health professionals’ work. In 2011 a revised WOMBAT version 2.0 was developed specifically to facilitate its use by research teams in different countries. The new features provide opportunities for international comparative studies of nurses’ work to be conducted. PMID:24199139

  1. Simulation in International Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Social scientists have long worked to replicate real-world phenomena in their research and teaching environments. Unlike our biophysical science colleagues, we are faced with an area of study that is not governed by the laws of physics and other more predictable relationships. As a result, social scientists, and international studies scholars more…

  2. International Study Tour Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Frances L.; Matt, John J.; McCaw, William P.; Kero, Patty; Stewart, Courtney; Haddouch, Reda

    2014-01-01

    Using the context of international study tour groups, this study examined the personal and professional transformation that occurred among host faculty and staff at The University of Montana-Missoula as a result of their interactions with traveling academics from other countries. Data were collected from participant responses (n = 27) using a…

  3. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; Antonini, David

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a comparative packaging study for use on long duration space missions. The topics include: 1) Purpose; 2) Deliverables; 3) Food Sample Selection; 4) Experimental Design Matrix; 5) Permeation Rate Comparison; and 6) Packaging Material Information.

  4. Crossing Borders: Research in Comparative and International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Jesse; Addy, Nii Antiyae; Samoff, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Published articles permit mapping international and comparative education research. We reviewed 605 articles published 2004-2008 in four major journals. Using title, abstract, and entire text we explored thematic focus, geographic focus, level/type of education studied, method, and funding. The economic, political, and social context of education…

  5. The Professionalization of Comparative and International Education: Promises and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Alexander W.; Matherly, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify, describe, and analyze historical trends in the professionalization of the field of comparative and international education, as indicated by the founding, expansion, and evolution of the professional associations and graduate programs serving the field. Using historical and university data as well as unique…

  6. The Introduction of Two-Tiered Study Structures in the Context of the Bologna Process: A Theoretical Framework for an International Comparative Study of Change in Higher Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witte, Johanna

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework for an encompassing international comparative study of a central aspect of the Bologna process; the introduction of two-tiered study structures (TTSS), often referred to as "Bachelor and Master". The framework is tailored to understand and explain the patterns of TTSS that currently emerge in various…

  7. Treatment of mature landfill leachate by internal micro-electrolysis integrated with coagulation: a comparative study on a novel sequencing batch reactor based on zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Ying, Diwen; Peng, Juan; Xu, Xinyan; Li, Kan; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2012-08-30

    A comparative study of treating mature landfill leachate with various treatment processes was conducted to investigate whether the method of combined processes of internal micro-electrolysis (IME) without aeration and IME with full aeration in one reactor was an efficient treatment for mature landfill leachate. A specifically designed novel sequencing batch internal micro-electrolysis reactor (SIME) with the latest automation technology was employed in the experiment. Experimental data showed that combined processes obtained a high COD removal efficiency of 73.7 ± 1.3%, which was 15.2% and 24.8% higher than that of the IME with and without aeration, respectively. The SIME reactor also exhibited a COD removal efficiency of 86.1 ± 3.8% to mature landfill leachate in the continuous operation, which is much higher (p<0.05) than that of conventional treatments of electrolysis (22.8-47.0%), coagulation-sedimentation (18.5-22.2%), and the Fenton process (19.9-40.2%), respectively. The innovative concept behind this excellent performance is a combination effect of reductive and oxidative processes of the IME, and the integration electro-coagulation. Optimal operating parameters, including the initial pH, Fe/C mass ratio, air flow rate, and addition of H(2)O(2), were optimized. All results show that the SIME reactor is a promising and efficient technology in treating mature landfill leachate. PMID:22771343

  8. International Views of Inclusive Education: A Comparative Study of Early Childhood Educator's Perceptions in Jordan, United Arab Emirates, and the United States of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaidi, Diala; Homidi, Moayyad; Reyes, Luis V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore and describe early childhood educators' perceptions of academic aspects and social and emotional aspects of inclusion practices. In this comparative international quantitative research an attitudinal demographic survey was distributed to 300 early childhood educators in mandated kindergartens and primary…

  9. Trainee Teachers' Perspectives on Play Characteristics and Their Role in Children's Play: An International Comparative Study amongst Trainees in the Netherlands, Wales, Germany and Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Aalsvoort, Geerdina; Prakke, Bette; Howard, Justine; König, Anke; Parkkinen, Terttu

    2015-01-01

    An international comparative research project was carried out in the Netherlands, Wales, Germany and Finland to understand how trainee teachers reflect upon play. Data was collected among 31 Dutch, 37 Welsh, 40 German and 19 Finnish teacher trainees. They watched four videotaped sequences of preschoolers engaged in an activity. Next, they answered…

  10. Assessment of Some Major Journals of International/Comparative Librarianship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooke, A.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliographic essay summarizes some of the outstanding problems of six major international librarianship journals--"Focus on International and Comparative Librarianship,""IFLA Journal,""International Library Review,""Journal of Library History, Philosophy and Comparative Librarianship,""Libri,""UNESCO Journal of Information Science,…

  11. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Stents are an alternative treatment to carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis, but previous trials have not established equivalent safety and efficacy. We compared the safety of carotid artery stenting with that of carotid endarterectomy. Methods The International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) is a multicentre, international, randomised controlled trial with blinded adjudication of outcomes. Patients with recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carotid artery stenting or carotid endarterectomy. Randomisation was by telephone call or fax to a central computerised service and was stratified by centre with minimisation for sex, age, contralateral occlusion, and side of the randomised artery. Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. Patients were followed up by independent clinicians not directly involved in delivering the randomised treatment. The primary outcome measure of the trial is the 3-year rate of fatal or disabling stroke in any territory, which has not been analysed yet. The main outcome measure for the interim safety analysis was the 120-day rate of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction. Analysis was by intention to treat (ITT). This study is registered, number ISRCTN25337470. Findings The trial enrolled 1713 patients (stenting group, n=855; endarterectomy group, n=858). Two patients in the stenting group and one in the endarterectomy group withdrew immediately after randomisation, and were not included in the ITT analysis. Between randomisation and 120 days, there were 34 (Kaplan-Meier estimate 4·0%) events of disabling stroke or death in the stenting group compared with 27 (3·2%) events in the endarterectomy group (hazard ratio [HR] 1·28, 95% CI 0·77–2·11). The incidence of stroke, death, or procedural myocardial infarction was 8·5% in the stenting group compared with 5·2% in the endarterectomy group (72 vs 44 events

  12. Eighth Grade Science Teachers Use of Instructional Time: Comparing Questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and National Science Foundation Questionnaires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask eighth grade science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? TIMSS asked teachers to recall a lesson that they had taught, and then group activities into 11 categories. This study examined the TIMSS question "How did the lesson proceed?" by…

  13. Shame, Internalized Heterosexism, Lesbian Identity, and Coming out to Others: A Comparative Study of Lesbians in Mainland China and Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Pizza Ka-Yee; Cheng, Sheung-Tak

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coming out to family and friends and their relationships to shame, internalized heterosexism, lesbian identity, and perceived social support in Chinese lesbians from 2 different cultural settings--Mainland China (N = 244) and Hong Kong (N = 234). Results of structural equation modeling showed that, in…

  14. Operations dashboard: comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramly, Noor Nashriq; Ismail, Ahmad Zuhairi; Aziz, Mohd Haris; Ahmad, Nurul Haszeli

    2011-10-01

    In this present days and age, there are increasing needs for companies to monitor application and infrastructure health. Apart from having proactive measures to secure their application and infrastructure, many see monitoring dashboards as crucial investment in disaster preparedness. As companies struggle to find the best solution to cater for their needs and interest for monitoring their application and infrastructure's health, this paper summarizes the studies made on several known off-the-shelf operations dashboard and in-house developed dashboard. A few criteria of good dashboard are collected from previous studies carried out by several researchers and rank them according to importance and business needs. The finalized criteria that will be discussed in later sections are data visualization, performance indicator, dashboard personalization, audit capability and alert/ notification. Comparative studies between several popular dashboards were then carried out to determine whether they met these criteria that we derived from the first exercise. The findings hopefully can be used to educate and provide an overview of selecting the best IT application and infrastructure operations dashboard that suit business needs, thus become the main contribution of this paper.

  15. Study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length VP2 gene sequences from Argentina and international field strains.

    PubMed

    Gallo Calderón, Marina; Wilda, Maximiliano; Boado, Lorena; Keller, Leticia; Malirat, Viviana; Iglesias, Marcela; Mattion, Nora; La Torre, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The continuous emergence of new strains of canine parvovirus (CPV), poorly protected by current vaccination, is a concern among breeders, veterinarians, and dog owners around the world. Therefore, the understanding of the genetic variation in emerging CPV strains is crucial for the design of disease control strategies, including vaccines. In this paper, we obtained the sequences of the full-length gene encoding for the main capsid protein (VP2) of 11 canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) Argentine representative field strains, selected from a total of 75 positive samples studied in our laboratory in the last 9 years. A comparative sequence analysis was performed on 9 CPV-2c, one CPV-2a, and one CPV-2b Argentine strains with respect to international strains reported in the GenBank database. In agreement with previous reports, a high degree of identity was found among CPV-2c Argentine strains (99.6-100% and 99.7-100% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively). However, the appearance of a new substitution in the 440 position (T440A) in four CPV-2c Argentine strains obtained after the year 2009 gives support to the variability observed for this position located within the VP2, three-fold spike. This is the first report on the genetic characterization of the full-length VP2 gene of emerging CPV strains in South America and shows that all the Argentine CPV-2c isolates cluster together with European and North American CPV-2c strains. PMID:21858463

  16. Eighth-grade science teachers use of instructional time: Examining questions from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and comparing TIMSS and National Science Foundation questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Anne Burgess

    Did the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) ask science teachers the right questions about their use of instructional time? Part I of this 2-part study used the TIMSS database to answer the question: Do 8th grade science teachers in the U.S., Czech Republic, Hungary, Japan, and Korea differ significantly in their perceived use of instructional time? Using the instructional activities in the TIMSS teacher question "How did the lesson proceed?" the teacher-reported times were analyzed using a repeated measures multivariate analysis. Significant differences were found between teacher-reported times in the U.S. and the other 4 TIMSS countries, whose 8th grade students outperformed U.S. students on TIMSS achievement tests. Post-hoc analysis indicated that TIMSS U.S. 8th grade science teachers report spending more time on homework in class, on group activities, and on lab activities, but less time on topic development, than TIMSS teachers from some or all of the other countries. Part II of this study further examined the question "How did the lesson proceed?" by videotaping 6 classes of 8th grade science in Alabama and Virginia and comparing observer coding of the video to the teachers' recalled descriptions of the same class. The difference between observer and teacher responses using TIMSS categories was not significant; however, 43% of the total variance was explained by whether the teacher or the observer reported the times for the instructional activities. The teachers also responded to questions from the NSF Local Systemic Change Through Teacher Enhancement K--8 Teacher Questionnaire to describe the same class. The difference found between the teacher and the observer coding was not significant, but the amount of variance explained by the data source (observer or teacher) dropped to 33% when using NSF student activity categories and to 26% when using NSF teacher activity categories. The conclusion of this study was that questionnaires to

  17. Towards International Comparative Research on the Professionalisation of Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freathy, Rob; Parker, Stephen G.; Schweitzer, Friedrich; Simojoki, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    This article calls for international comparative research on the professionalisation of Religious Education (RE). To this end, it provides a rationale for focusing upon the concept of professionalisation and a theoretical justification for international comparative research, particularly identifying its significance in terms of the development of…

  18. Comparing International and American Students' Challenges: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cody J.

    2016-01-01

    International student numbers have increased drastically in the past few years. International students provide benefits to universities and American students such as greater revenue, and more open-mindedness. There have been myriad studies that have examined the international student experience, but most have focused solely on international…

  19. International Business Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendon, Donald W.

    The new International Business major within the School of Business, begun in fall 1989, is an ongoing, enriched program for highly motivated students of above-average scholastic achievement. Its primary purposes are to (1) prepare students to understand America's trading partners and (2) teach the technical knowledge needed in an international…

  20. International Research and Studies Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The International Research and Studies Program supports surveys, studies, and instructional materials development to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields. The purpose of the program is to improve and strengthen instruction in modern foreign languages, area studies and other…

  1. [International project--MGTX study].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Hiroaki

    2007-11-01

    MGTX Study is a multi-center, international, single-blinded, randomized trial to determine whether extended transsternal thymectomy (ETTX) for patients with myasthenia gravis receiving the prednisone protocol confers added benefits to the prednisone protocol alone. The aims of the study are answering following three questions. 1) Does ETTX combined with prednisone result in a greater improvement in myasthenic weakness, compared to prednisone alone? 2) Does ETTX combined with prednisone result in a lower total dose of prednisone, thus decreasing the likelihood of concurrent and long-term toxic effects, compared to prednisone alone? 3) Does ETTX combined with prednisone enhance quality of life by reducing adverse events and symptoms associated with the therapies, compared to prednisone alone? Primary outcome measure is consists with 1) Comparison of the prednisone protocol alone to prednisone protocol plus ETTX, based on the clinical response to therapy measured over the 3 year trial period by the Area Under the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis (QMG) Weakness Score (AUQMG), and 2) Testing the difference in the total prednisone used over the 3 year trial period measured by pill count from blister packs (Area Under the Prednisone Dose Time Curve, AUDTC), conditional on the results of comparing AUQMG. PMID:18210825

  2. Proceedings of an International Symposium on Developments and Innovations in Interpreting for Deafblind People (Leeuwenhorst, Netherlands, June 1999) and Report on a Comparative Study of Roles, Training of and Rights to Interpreters for Deafblind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durham Univ. (England). Council for the Advancement of Communication with Deaf People.

    The proceedings of a 1999 international symposium on interpreting for deafblind people presents 15 papers and a report of a survey of 20 countries and 5 organizations concerning the roles, training, and rights of interpreters for deafblind people. The papers are: "European Deafblind Comparative Study--Interim Report" (Lynne Hawcroft, United…

  3. Comparative Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Oziomek, Thomas V.

    2009-01-01

    Future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit will require the food system to remain safe, acceptable and nutritious. Development of high barrier food packaging will enable this requirement by preventing the ingress and egress of gases and moisture. New high barrier food packaging materials have been identified through a trade study. Practical application of this packaging material within a shelf life test will allow for better determination of whether this material will allow the food system to meet given requirements after the package has undergone processing. The reason to conduct shelf life testing, using a variety of packaging materials, stems from the need to preserve food used for mission durations of several years. Chemical reactions that take place during longer durations may decrease food quality to a point where crew physical or psychological well-being is compromised. This can result in a reduction or loss of mission success. The rate of chemical reactions, including oxidative rancidity and staling, can be controlled by limiting the reactants, reducing the amount of energy available to drive the reaction, and minimizing the amount of water available. Water not only acts as a media for microbial growth, but also as a reactant and means by which two reactants may come into contact with each other. The objective of this study is to evaluate three packaging materials for potential use in long duration space exploration missions.

  4. A Comparative Study between Vitrectomy with Internal Tamponade and a New Modified Fiber Optic Illuminated Ando Plombe for Cases of Macular Hole Retinal Detachment in Myopic Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Bedda, Ahmed M.; Abdel Hadi, Ahmed M.; Abd Al Shafy, Muhammad S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To compare pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone tamponade or gas (Groups Ia and Ib) and a new modified Ando plombe equipped with a fiber optic light (Group II) for cases with macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD) in high myopic eyes (axial length > 26 mm). Methods. A prospective interventional randomized case series included 60 eyes (20 in each group). Successful outcome was considered if the retina was completely attached at the end of the follow-up period. Complications were identified for each group. Results. Visual acuity improved by 37.31%, 40.67%, and 49.40% in Groups Ia, Ib, and II, respectively. The success rate was 55%, 60%, and 100% in Groups Ia , Ib, and II, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between Groups Ia, Ib, and II (p < 0.001 in Ia, p: 0.002 in Ib). Complications rates were 60%, 45%, and 20% in Groups Ia, Ib, and II, respectively, with a statistically significant difference between Groups Ia and II (p: 0.01). Conclusion. Fiber optic illuminated Ando plombe allows better positioning under the macula and consequently improves the success rate of epimacular buckling in comparison to PPV with internal tamponade in MMHRD. PMID:26550487

  5. Comparative International Media Ethics: In Search of Universals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Thomas W.

    This paper reviews the major studies of international and national approaches to media ethics and describes the various academic and global contexts for international media ethics study. It suggests methodology for helpful, if embryonic, comparison and for accurate pattern recognition. The paper explores the question of whether there are…

  6. A Brief History of the Comparative and International Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swing, Elizabeth Sherman

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES). The CIES, initially the Comparative Education Society (CES), evolved from annual conferences at New York University begun in 1954 by William W. Brickman. CES was founded at the close of a subsequent conference (April 27, 1956), with Brickman as…

  7. Growth or Steady State? A Bibliometric Focus on International Comparative Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosmützky, Anna; Krücken, Georg

    2014-01-01

    The study combines a bibliometric approach with a content analysis of abstracts of articles to explore the patterns of international comparative higher education research in leading international journals. The overall data set covers 4,095 publications from the Web of Science for the period 1992-2012 and the amount of international comparative…

  8. Personality and Biography: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on the History of Adult Education. Volume I: General, Comparative, and Synthetic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedenthal-Haase, Martha, Ed.

    This volume includes the following papers: "Foreword: The Standing International Conference on the History of Adult Education (AE)" (Franz Poeggeler); "Editor's Introduction: Perspectives on the Sixth International Conference on the History of AE" (Martha Friedenthal-Haase); two special addresses by Joerg Prinzhausen and Ursula Giere; "History of…

  9. Internal rib structure can be predicted using mathematical models: An anatomic study comparing the chest to a shell dome with application to understanding fractures.

    PubMed

    Casha, Aaron R; Camilleri, Liberato; Manché, Alexander; Gatt, Ruben; Attard, Daphne; Gauci, Marilyn; Camilleri-Podesta, Marie-Therese; Mcdonald, Stuart; Grima, Joseph N

    2015-11-01

    The human rib cage resembles a masonry dome in shape. Masonry domes have a particular construction that mimics stress distribution. Rib cortical thickness and bone density were analyzed to determine whether the morphology of the rib cage is sufficiently similar to a shell dome for internal rib structure to be predicted mathematically. A finite element analysis (FEA) simulation was used to measure stresses on the internal and external surfaces of a chest-shaped dome. Inner and outer rib cortical thickness and bone density were measured in the mid-axillary lines of seven cadaveric rib cages using computerized tomography scanning. Paired t tests and Pearson correlation were used to relate cortical thickness and bone density to stress. FEA modeling showed that the stress was 82% higher on the internal than the external surface, with a gradual decrease in internal and external wall stresses from the base to the apex. The inner cortex was more radio-dense, P < 0.001, and thicker, P < 0.001, than the outer cortex. Inner cortical thickness was related to internal stress, r = 0.94, P < 0.001, inner cortical bone density to internal stress, r = 0.87, P = 0.003, and outer cortical thickness to external stress, r = 0.65, P = 0.035. Mathematical models were developed relating internal and external cortical thicknesses and bone densities to rib level. The internal anatomical features of ribs, including the inner and outer cortical thicknesses and bone densities, are similar to the stress distribution in dome-shaped structures modeled using FEA computer simulations of a thick-walled dome pressure vessel. Fixation of rib fractures should include the stronger internal cortex. PMID:26297570

  10. Comparative Education and International Education in the History of "Compare": Boundaries, Overlaps and Ambiguities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The fields of comparative and international education have overlapping identities and are commonly paired. The overlap and pairing has been evident in the history of "Compare" as well as elsewhere. However, the indistinct nature of the boundaries can cause conceptual difficulties. Taking a historical perspective not only on "Compare" and its…

  11. Act Local or Global?: Comparing Student Experiences in Domestic and International Service-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Elizabeth; Crain, Léna Kavaliauskas

    2013-01-01

    International service-learning (ISL) is a popular way to facilitate student growth in the areas of cross-cultural learning and civic engagement. However, many have questioned whether international trips provide any added value compared to domestic service-learning. Using the context of Alternative Break programs, this study compares student…

  12. River sediment (S-37)--a new analytical quality control material ensuring comparability of chlorinated hydrocarbon analysis during an international environmental study in China.

    PubMed

    Gawlik, B M; Martens, D; Henkelmann, B; Schramm, K W; Kettrup, A; Muntau, H

    2000-06-01

    A sediment reference material (S-37) was prepared as analytical quality control material to be used within an international project on polychlorinated hydrocarbon analysis in two Chinese rivers. The raw material was sampled during a cruise on Yangtse River and transported afterwards to the JRC Ispra for further processing. The material was treated according to the general principles applicable for candidate reference material production. After a thorough homogeneity study of the bulk the material was bottled. A total of 1,080 bottles each containing 50 g of dry sediment powder was obtained. Final homogeneity and stability testing proved the material to be fit for the purpose. Isotope dilution GC/MS was used to establish target values for pentachlorobenzene (1.17 +/- 0.08 ng/g), hexachlorobenzene (3.60 +/- 0.17 ng/g), octachlorostyrene (0.19 +/- 0.01 ng/g), pentachloroanisole (0.52 +/- 0.02 ng/g), alpha-HCH (0.70 +/- 0.05 ng/g), beta-HCH (1.38 +/- 0.18 ng/g), gamma-HCH (0.83 +/- 038 ng/g), 2,4'-DDT (0.36 +/- 0.04 ng/g), 2,4'-DDE (0.29 +/- 0.02 ng/g), 2,4'-DDD (0.49 +/- 0.02), 4,4'-DDT (3.42 +/- 0.47 ng/g), 4,4'-DDD (1.29 +/- 0.17 ng/g), PCB 28 (0.11 +/- 0.01 ng/g), PCB 52 (0.09 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 101 (0.07 +/- 0.003 ng/g), PCB 138 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g) and PCB 153 (0.06 +/- 0.003 ng/g). Furthermore, indicative values for major and minor constituents as well as for polychlorinated dibenzodioxines and -furanes were measured. PMID:11227450

  13. Spatial Theorizing in Comparative and International Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Marianne A.; Beech, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The authors argue for a critical spatial perspective in comparative and international education. We briefly summarize how time and space have been conceptualized within our field. We then review mainstream social science literature that reflects a metanarrative, which we critique for contributing to false dichotomies between space and place and…

  14. "Families" in International Context: Comparing Institutional Effects across Western Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Lynn Prince; Baxter, Janeen

    2010-01-01

    We review comparative evidence of institutional effects on families in Western societies. We focus on 2 key aspects of family life: gendered divisions of labor and people's transitions into, within, and out of relationships. Many individual-level models assume the effects are robust across countries. The international evidence over the past decade…

  15. International Developments in Youth Ministry Research: A Comparative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebben, Bert

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the emerging field of youth ministry research is presented and interpreted through the lens of practical theology. International developments are described and compared as local responses to the ongoing global dynamics of youth culture. After an overview of four different contexts in which youth ministry research can be situated,…

  16. World Bibliography on International Comparative Adult Education, 1945-1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulich, Jindra, Comp.

    This bibliography lists 1,721 reports and publications that examine adult education in at least two countries and were published between 1945 and 1995. The oldest publications date from 1949, and the final 44 documents listed constitute a partial list of the international comparative adult education publications published in 1996. Publications are…

  17. Internal Jugular Vein Cross-Sectional Area and Cerebrospinal Fluid Pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius: A Comparative Study between Healthy Subjects and Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, Clive B.; Magnano, Christopher; Belov, Pavel; Krawiecki, Jacqueline; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Hagemeier, Jesper; Zivadinov, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Constricted cerebral venous outflow has been linked with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pulsatility in the aqueduct of Sylvius in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy individuals. This study investigates the relationship between CSF pulsatility and internal jugular vein (IJV) cross-sectional area (CSA) in these two groups, something previously unknown. Methods 65 relapsing-remitting MS patients (50.8% female; mean age = 43.8 years) and 74 healthy controls (HCs) (54.1% female; mean age = 43.9 years) were investigated. CSF flow quantification was performed on cine phase-contrast MRI, while IJV-CSA was calculated using magnetic resonance venography. Statistical analysis involved correlation, and partial least squares correlation analysis (PLSCA). Results PLSCA revealed a significant difference (p<0.001; effect size = 1.072) between MS patients and HCs in the positive relationship between CSF pulsatility and IJV-CSA at C5-T1, something not detected at C2-C4. Controlling for age and cardiovascular risk factors, statistical trends were identified in HCs between: increased net positive CSF flow (NPF) and increased IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (left: r = 0.374, p = 0.016; right: r = 0.364, p = 0.019) and C4 (left: r = 0.361, p = 0.020); and increased net negative CSF flow and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = -0.348, p = 0.026) and C4 (r = -0.324, p = 0.039), whereas in MS patients a trend was only identified between increased NPF and increased left IJV-CSA at C5-C6 (r = 0.351, p = 0.021). Overall, correlations were weaker in MS patients (p = 0.015). Conclusions In healthy adults, increased CSF pulsatility is associated with increased IJV-CSA in the lower cervix (independent of age and cardiovascular risk factors), suggesting a biomechanical link between the two. This relationship is altered in MS patients. PMID:27135831

  18. Comparative study in patients with symptomatic internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: analgesic outcomes of arthrocentesis with or without intra-articular morphine and tramadol.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, A; Satilmis, T; Basa, S

    2015-04-01

    Our aim was to find out whether pain was better controlled if morphine or tramadol was injected intra-articularly after arthrocentesis with Ringer's lactate in patients with painful temporomandibular joints (TMJ). This placebo-controlled, double-blind study involved 30 patients who had not responded to conservative treatment and who were divided randomly into 3 groups of 10 patients each. All patients had arthrocentesis, and the drugs were given as intra-articular injections immediately after the procedure. One group was give 5% Ringer's lactate 1ml, the second morphine 1mg, and the third tramadol 50mg. Visual analogue scales (VAS) for pain were recorded at maximum mouth opening and at rest before intra-articular injection and after 15 and 30min; at 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 24, 36 and 48h; and at 1, 3, and 6 monthly follow-up. The mean (SD) VAS decreased from 6.90 (1.45) to 2.6 (2.5) in the control group, from 7.30 (1.64) to 1.20 (0.79) in the morphine group (p=0.005), and from 7.10 (1.73) to 1.50 (1.78) in the tramadol group (p=0.005). We conclude that morphine given by intra-articular injection after arthrocentesis gives a significant, sustained (6 months) improvement in pain relief compared with simple arthrocentesis alone. The effect was similar with tramadol except that it was shorter lived. PMID:25623934

  19. International Instructional Systems: Social Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Jacek; Chapman, Arthur; Isaacs, Tina

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on research conducted as part of the International Instructional System Study that explored five subject areas across nine jurisdictions in six high-performing countries. The Study's overall aim was to understand what, if anything, there is in common in the curricula and assessment arrangements among the high-performing…

  20. The Emergence of a Regional Hub: Comparing International Student Choices and Experiences in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jon, Jae-Eun; Lee, Jenny J.; Byun, Kiyong

    2014-01-01

    As the demand for international education increases, middle-income non-English speaking countries, such as South Korea, play an increasing role in hosting the world's students. This mixed-methods study compares the different motivations and experiences of international students within and outside the East Asian region. Based on findings, this…

  1. Comparative risk assessment: an international comparison of methodologies and results.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, R D; Shih, J; Sessions, S L

    2000-11-01

    Comparative risk assessment (CRA) is a systematic procedure for evaluating the environmental problems affecting a geographic area. This paper looks beyond the U.S. border and examines the experience with CRAs conducted in various developing countries and economies in transition, including Bangkok, Thailand, Cairo, Egypt and Quito, Ecuador, as well as other locations in Eastern Europe, Asia and Central and South America. A recent pilot CRA conducted in Taiwan is also considered. Comparisons are made of both the methodologies and the results across the relatively diverse international literature. The most robust finding is that conventional air pollutants (e.g., particulate matter and lead) consistently rank as high health risks across all of the CRAs examined. Given the varied nature of the settings studied in the CRAs, including level of economic development, urban-rural differences, and climate, this finding is particularly significant. Problems involving drinking water are also ranked as a high or medium health risk in almost all the countries studied. This is consistent with the results of analyses conducted by the World Bank suggesting contamination, limited coverage and erratic service by water supply systems. Beyond the major air pollutants and drinking water, the CRA results diverge significantly across countries. A number of problems involving toxic chemicals, e. g., hazardous air pollutants, rank as high health risks in the US but do not appear as consistent areas of concerns in the other countries studied. This likely reflects the so-called "risk transition" - the shift from sanitation and infection disease problems to those involving industry, vehicles and toxic substances - that often occurs with economic development. It may also reflect the greater information about sources of toxic pollutants in the U.S. For other problems, there are important differences across the developing countries and economies in transition. For example, hazardous and

  2. The International Race over the Patronage of the South: Comparative and International Education in Eastern Europe and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner-Khamsi, Gita; deJong-Lambert, William

    2006-01-01

    The authors contend that the impact of the Cold War on multilateral organizations (especially UNESCO) as well as on the academic programs in Comparative and International Education or Development Studies in Education has been largely understudied. Both world-systems (USA and its allies, Soviet Union and its allies) laid claim on the project of…

  3. The Development of the International Baccalaureate in Spanish Speaking Countries: A Global Comparative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnik, Julia

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares the development of International Baccalaureate (IB) schools in four different settings: Argentine, Chile, Spain and Ecuador. The global comparative approach used in this study, based on actor-network theory (ANT), allows us to analyse the connections and interactions between global actors and the plurality of national,…

  4. Guide to International Studies at Canadian Universities = Guide pour les etudes internationales aux universites Canadiennes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Pari, Ed.

    Included in this guide is a list of 65 Canadian universities and colleges offering programs in international and Native studies. Programs encompass area studies, international development, international relations, international business, international law, international agriculture, and international and comparative education. Also included are…

  5. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  6. Comparative Studies in Adult Education--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Alexander N.

    One of the most important recent developments in comparative adult education (CAE) has been the formation in 1987 of the Committee for Study and Research in Comparative Adult Education (CSRCAE), jointly founded by the International Council of Adult Education and the International Congress of University Adult Education. The Committee continues to…

  7. Comparing Chinese International and American-born Graduate Students' Beliefs about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Fangxia

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the educational beliefs about teaching and learning of Chinese international and American-born graduate students in the disciplines of pure and applied sciences and mathematics at Auburn University by comparing their similarities and differences. The study reported (a) participants' demographic characteristics, (b) the dominant…

  8. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    by the U.S. Government Archive; and, obtain a priori U.S. Government approval of all plans and procedures to deal with safe disposition of the satellite. Further information on NOAA's regulations and NOAA's licensing program is available at www.licensing.noaa.gov. Monitoring and Enforcement NOAA's enforcement mission is focused on the legislative mandate which states that the Secretary of Commerce has a continuing obligation to ensure that licensed imaging systems are operated lawfully to preserve the national security and foreign policies of the United States. NOAA has constructed an end-to-end monitoring and compliance program to review the activities of licensed companies. This program includes a pre- launch review, an operational baseline audit, and an annual comprehensive national security audit. If at any time there is suspicion or concern that a system is being operated unlawfully, a no-notice inspection may be initiated. setbacks, three U.S. companies are now operational, with more firms expected to become so in the future. While NOAA does not disclose specific systems capabilities for proprietary reasons, its current licensing resolution thresholds for general commercial availability are as follows: 0.5 meter Ground Sample Distance (GSD) for panchromatic systems, 2 meter GSD for multi-spectral systems, 3 meter Impulse Response (IPR) for Synthetic Aperture Radar systems, and 20 meter GSD for hyperspectral systems (with certain 8-meter hyperspectral derived products also licensed for commercial distribution). These thresholds are subject to change based upon foreign availability and other considerations. It should also be noted that license applications are reviewed and granted on a case-by-case basis, pursuant to each system's technology and concept of operations. In 2001, NOAA, along with the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration, commissioned a study by the RAND Corporation to assess the risks faced by the U.S. commercial remote

  9. Robotic, laparoscopic and open surgery for gastric cancer compared on surgical, clinical and oncological outcomes: a multi-institutional chart review. A study protocol of the International study group on Minimally Invasive surgery for GASTRIc Cancer—IMIGASTRIC

    PubMed Central

    Desiderio, Jacopo; Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Nguyen, Ninh T; Zhang, Shu; Reim, Daniel; Alimoglu, Orhan; Azagra, Juan-Santiago; Yu, Pei-Wu; Coburn, Natalie G; Qi, Feng; Jackson, Patrick G; Zang, Lu; Brower, Steven T; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Facy, Olivier; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Coratti, Andrea; Annecchiarico, Mario; Bazzocchi, Francesca; Avanzolini, Andrea; Gagniere, Johan; Pezet, Denis; Cianchi, Fabio; Badii, Benedetta; Novotny, Alexander; Eren, Tunc; Leblebici, Metin; Goergen, Martine; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Yong-Liang; Liu, Tong; Al-Refaie, Waddah; Ma, Junjun; Takiguchi, Shuji; Lequeu, Jean-Baptiste; Trastulli, Stefano; Parisi, Amilcare

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Gastric cancer represents a great challenge for healthcare providers and requires a multidisciplinary treatment approach in which surgery plays a major role. Minimally invasive surgery has been progressively developed, first with the advent of laparoscopy and recently with the spread of robotic surgery, but a number of issues are currently being debated, including the limitations in performing an effective extended lymph node dissection, the real advantages of robotic systems, the role of laparoscopy for Advanced Gastric Cancer, the reproducibility of a total intracorporeal technique and the oncological results achievable during long-term follow-up. Methods and analysis A multi-institutional international database will be established to evaluate the role of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches in gastric cancer, comprising of information regarding surgical, clinical and oncological features. A chart review will be conducted to enter data of participants with gastric cancer, previously treated at the participating institutions. The database is the first of its kind, through an international electronic submission system and a HIPPA protected real time data repository from high volume gastric cancer centres. Ethics and dissemination This study is conducted in compliance with ethical principles originating from the Helsinki Declaration, within the guidelines of Good Clinical Practice and relevant laws/regulations. A multicentre study with a large number of patients will permit further investigation of the safety and efficacy as well as the long-term outcomes of robotic, laparoscopic and open approaches for the management of gastric cancer. Trial registration number NCT02325453; Pre-results. PMID:26482769

  10. Sex work: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Bill; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2014-10-01

    Explanations of adult involvement in sex work typically adopt one of two approaches. One perspective highlights a variety of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence, including physical and sexual abuse, family instability, poverty, associations with "pimps" and other exploiters, homelessness, and drug use. An alternative account recognizes that some of these factors may be involved, but underscores the contribution of more immediate circumstances, such as current economic needs, human capital, and employment opportunities. Prior research offers a limited assessment of these contrasting claims: most studies have focused exclusively on people working in the sex industry and they have not assessed the independent effects of life course variables central to these two perspectives. We add to this literature with an analysis that drew on insights from life course and life-span development theories and considered the contributions of factors from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Our comparative approach examined predictors of employment in sex work relative to two other low-income service or care work occupations: food and beverage serving and barbering and hairstyling. Using data from a study of almost 600 workers from two cities, one in Canada and the other in the United States, we found that both immediate circumstances and negative experiences from early life are related to current sex work involvement: childhood poverty, abuse, and family instability were independently associated with adult sex work, as were limited education and employment experience, adult drug use, and marital status. PMID:24671729

  11. Comparing Research Activities of Women and Men Faculty in Departments of Internal Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levey, Barbara A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study compared research activities of men and women from data obtained in a 1982-83 survey of 7,947 medical school faculty in departments of internal medicine. Among findings were that women researchers had significantly fewer National Institutes of Health grants as well as reduced laboratory space. (Author/DB)

  12. Advancing Research on Comparative and International Education in Asia: Contribution of the "Asia Pacific Education Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gok, Enes; Weidman, John C.

    2015-01-01

    This article explored the contribution of Asia Pacific Education Review (APER) to expanding the scope of research on comparative and international education in Asia. We developed a rubric based on extensive studies (Rust et al. in "Comp Educ Rev," 43(1):86-109, 1999; Foster et al. in "Int J Educ Dev" 32:711-732, 2012) of…

  13. Embedding Research on International Development in the Discourse of Comparative Education in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, I-Hsuan

    2010-01-01

    In the wake of the recent ASEAN-China Free Trade Area (ACFTA) launch in 2010, this paper argues for the greater scholarly contribution of international development studies in the discourse of comparative education in East Asia. The argument is based on three premises. The first acknowledges the growing relations of East Asian countries to…

  14. Comparative and International Education: Fraternal or Siamese Twins? A Preliminary Genealogy of Our Twin Fields. Presidential Address to the Comparative and International Education Society .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, David N.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the evolution of comparative education and international education, as well as their merger, in terms of a "genealogy" detailing destinations and activities of scholars from the 1930s to the present, primarily in Europe and North America. Discusses a variety of definitions for comparative education and international education. (SV)

  15. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stryker, Timothy

    by the U.S. Government Archive; and, obtain a priori U.S. Government approval of all plans and procedures to deal with safe disposition of the satellite. Further information on NOAA's regulations and NOAA's licensing program is available at www.licensing.noaa.gov. Monitoring and Enforcement NOAA's enforcement mission is focused on the legislative mandate which states that the Secretary of Commerce has a continuing obligation to ensure that licensed imaging systems are operated lawfully to preserve the national security and foreign policies of the United States. NOAA has constructed an end-to-end monitoring and compliance program to review the activities of licensed companies. This program includes a pre- launch review, an operational baseline audit, and an annual comprehensive national security audit. If at any time there is suspicion or concern that a system is being operated unlawfully, a no-notice inspection may be initiated. setbacks, three U.S. companies are now operational, with more firms expected to become so in the future. While NOAA does not disclose specific systems capabilities for proprietary reasons, its current licensing resolution thresholds for general commercial availability are as follows: 0.5 meter Ground Sample Distance (GSD) for panchromatic systems, 2 meter GSD for multi-spectral systems, 3 meter Impulse Response (IPR) for Synthetic Aperture Radar systems, and 20 meter GSD for hyperspectral systems (with certain 8-meter hyperspectral derived products also licensed for commercial distribution). These thresholds are subject to change based upon foreign availability and other considerations. It should also be noted that license applications are reviewed and granted on a case-by-case basis, pursuant to each system's technology and concept of operations. In 2001, NOAA, along with the Department of Commerce's International Trade Administration, commissioned a study by the RAND Corporation to assess the risks faced by the U.S. commercial remote

  16. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John; Losito, Bruno; Kerr, David

    2008-01-01

    This document outlines the framework and assessment design for the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS) sponsored by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). Over the past 50 years, IEA has conducted comparative research studies focusing on educational policies, practices, and…

  17. Computer-Assisted International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Jonathan

    1983-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary college level program which uses computer simulation exercises to teach about foreign policy and global issues. In the foreign policy simulation, political science and foreign language students role play national decision makers. In the international futures simulation, students debate demographic, economic, energy,…

  18. International Study of Marketing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liander, Bertil, Ed.

    The International Marketing Federation (IMF), supported by the Marketing Science Institute, has surveyed IMF member countries and a representative scattering of others to determine the current state and future trends in marketing education. This volume presents the findings of the survey of 21 countries--Argentina, Australia, Canada, Denmark,…

  19. Cosmetic Regulations: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations. PMID:26380505

  20. International Study of Achievement in Mathematics--A Reanalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Joe Dan

    1985-01-01

    Reanalyzes the terminal secondary student performance data in the International Study of Achievement in Mathematics (ISAM), comparing achievement of United States students to that of students from the other developed countries in the ISAM. (JN)

  1. Developing International Business Managers through International Study Visits to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Yiming; Rose, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Globalization is a key factor in the success of business organizations today, impacting many aspects of management performance. Understanding the global business environment has therefore become a key objective in the teaching of international business on Executive MBA programs. Drawing on the theory of experiential learning, this study examines…

  2. Empowering Saudi patients: how do Saudi health websites compare to international health websites?

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa; Alsughayar, Abdulrahman; Al-Mutairi, Maha

    2013-01-01

    Little information is known about how Saudi health websites compare internationally. The purpose of this paper is to compare two leading Saudi health websites with leading international health websites. The study was conducted as a convenience sample at a graduate health college in Saudi Arabia. A total of 42 students participated in the study. The study found that, in general, English websites have higher levels of performance with regard to quality of information, authority and objectivity, coverage and currency, and design. However, the respondents considered Saudi health websites to be superior with regard to maintaining privacy and security. The results indicate that much more work is needed in designing Saudi Health to make them more trustworthy and credible. The limitations of this work and future research directions are also discussed. PMID:23388302

  3. Comparative Studies of Acculturative Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, J. W.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studies of acculturative stress are reported from Canada. The reduction in health status among people undergoing acculturation has psychological, somatic, and social aspects. The stress varies across types of groups and individual differences. Further study is needed to determine variations across host societies. (VM)

  4. Comparative Studies in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazurek, Kas, Ed.; Winzer, Margret A., Ed.

    This text presents 26 case studies which examine special education provisions for children in the world today. The reports focus on the current state of special education in selected nations and major issues and controversies in the field of special education within those nations. Each case study addresses the following themes: (1) prevalence of…

  5. Surgical sex reassignment: a comparative survey of international centers.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M E; Dickey, R

    1995-04-01

    The Harry Benjamin International Gender Dysphoria Association's Standards of Care (Walker et al., 1985) set out minimum standards for the selection of patients for sex reassignment surgery. This survey reports on the standard and policies actually used by clinics in Europe and North America, including their areas of agreement and disagreement with the Standards. To our knowledge, there has been only one prior survey of gender clinic policies, and that was restricted to European treatment facilities. The present survey is aimed at primary caregivers in the medical community; however, it may also be of use to administrators in responding to increasing demands for accountability from special interest groups and from government, with their often divergent agendas. It is our hope that this survey will begin the process of developing more uniform standards of care. PMID:7794105

  6. National states and international science: A comparative history of international science congresses in Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia, and cold war United States.

    PubMed

    Doel, Ronald E; Hoffmann, Dieter; Krementsov, Nikolai

    2005-01-01

    Prior studies of modern scientific internationalism have been written primarily from the point of view of scientists, with little regard to the influence of the state. This study examines the state's role in international scientific relations. States sometimes encouraged scientific internationalism; in the mid-twentieth century, they often sought to restrict it. The present study examines state involvement in international scientific congresses, the primary intersection between the national and international dimensions of scientists' activities. Here we examine three comparative instances in which such restrictions affected scientific internationalism: an attempt to bring an international aerodynamics congress to Nazi Germany in the late 1930s, unsuccessful efforts by Soviet geneticists to host the Seventh International Genetics Congress in Moscow in 1937, and efforts by U.S. scientists to host international meetings in 1950s cold war America. These case studies challenge the classical ideology of scientific internationalism, wherein participation by a nation in a scientist's fame spares the scientist conflict between advancing his science and advancing the interests of his nation. In the cases we consider, scientists found it difficult to simultaneously support scientific universalism and elitist practices. Interest in these congresses reached the top levels of the state, and access to patronage beyond state control helped determine their outcomes. PMID:20503758

  7. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Massey, Douglas S.; Fischer, Mary J.; Capoferro, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner’s migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman’s own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings. PMID:21399742

  8. Higher Education and Employment: An International Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanyal, Bikas C.

    The relationship between higher education and employment (particulary underemployment and unemployment) is discussed in terms of a synthesis of 21 case studies of developing and developed nations. The countries discussed are: Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Egypt, Federal Republic of Germany, Malaysia, Pakistan, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen,…

  9. NASA plan for international crustal dynamics studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The international activities being planned as part of the NASA geodynamics program are described. Methods of studying the Earth's crustal movements and deformation characteristics are discussed. The significance of the eventual formalations of earthquake predictions methods is also discussed.

  10. International scoping study: accelerator working group report

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael; Zisman, M.S.

    2006-09-30

    During the past several years, an International Scoping Study (ISS) of a Neutrino Factory was carried out, with the aim of developing an internationally accepted baseline facility design. Progress toward that goal will be described. Many of the key technical aspects of a Neutrino Factory facility design are presently being investigated experimentally, and the status of these investigations will be mentioned. Plans for the recently launched International Design Study (IDS), which serves as a follow-on to the ISS, will be briefly described.

  11. What can comparative effectiveness research contribute to integrative health in international perspective?

    PubMed

    Witt, Claudia M; Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Grant, Suzanne; Lauer, Michael S; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    The interest in Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in the international community is growing. A panel titled "What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?" took place at the 3rd International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health in Portland, Oregon, in 2012. The presentations at this panel highlighted different perspectives on CER, including the funders' and the stakeholders' perspectives from the United States, as well as experiences with economic evaluations from Australia and pragmatic trials in Europe. The funders' perspective emphasized the need for innovation and controlling costs in large-scale studies. The stakeholder's perspective stressed the need to gather the input of stakeholders in shaping the framework for more informative, more decision-maker-driven research. Several examples of cost-effectiveness analyses were offered from Australia. The importance of balancing rigor and pragmatism was also discussed in a presentation of the efficacy-effectiveness continuum. A wide-ranging discussion explored additional questions concerning the translation of evidence into practice; the effect of pragmatic trials on funding or policy; evidentiary distinctions between and among pragmatic trials and traditional randomized clinical trials; and the multiple roles of stakeholders, particularly in generating new information and knowledge. The presentations and discussions showed that more development of methods is needed. This includes developments on study design and statistical approaches, as well as methods for stakeholder involvement and mechanisms to bring these results into practice. PMID:25372702

  12. What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty Withers, Shelly; Grant, Suzanne; Lauer, Michael S.; Tunis, Sean; Berman, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The interest in Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) in the international community is growing. A panel titled “What Can Comparative Effectiveness Research Contribute to Integrative Health in International Perspective?” took place at the 3rd International Research Congress on Integrative Medicine and Health in Portland, Oregon, in 2012. The presentations at this panel highlighted different perspectives on CER, including the funders' and the stakeholders' perspectives from the United States, as well as experiences with economic evaluations from Australia and pragmatic trials in Europe. The funders' perspective emphasized the need for innovation and controlling costs in large-scale studies. The stakeholder's perspective stressed the need to gather the input of stakeholders in shaping the framework for more informative, more decision-maker-driven research. Several examples of cost-effectiveness analyses were offered from Australia. The importance of balancing rigor and pragmatism was also discussed in a presentation of the efficacy–effectiveness continuum. A wide-ranging discussion explored additional questions concerning the translation of evidence into practice; the effect of pragmatic trials on funding or policy; evidentiary distinctions between and among pragmatic trials and traditional randomized clinical trials; and the multiple roles of stakeholders, particularly in generating new information and knowledge. The presentations and discussions showed that more development of methods is needed. This includes developments on study design and statistical approaches, as well as methods for stakeholder involvement and mechanisms to bring these results into practice. PMID:25372702

  13. [Liability, moral consciousness and psychopatology. International comparative profiles].

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Vincenzo; Desimoni, Luis Maria; Ventura, Nicoletta

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers the concepts of intentionality, judgment, desire, awareness and the relative scientific, psychological, psychiatric and neurophysiological studies, including the concept of "moral consciousness" and the evolution of moral standards, marked out by Piaget and Kolberg. There are several references to a psychopathology point of view, for which mental infirmity is independent from the verification of an organic substrate and classification in official nosology (it is said, then, that "it is true that mental infirmity can exist even in the absence of a typical disease of the mind, framed in the scientific classification of mental illness, it is still necessary that a defect in part descended from a morbid state, dependent on a pathological changes in clinically ascertained" (as Cass, Sec. I, n. 9739/1997). The concept of illness, then widens to include not only the organic psychoses, but psychic morbid disorders such as psychopathy, neuroses, disorders of affect too: under investigation, therefore, it is no longer the person-body, but the person-psyche. In psychiatry there are existing guidelines which assert an "integrated model" of mental illness, able to explain mental disorder based on different explanatory hypotheses of its nature and origin: essentially consisting of "an integrated vision that takes into account all the variables, biological, psychological, social, relational, that come into play in causing the disease", in such a manner developing from the monocausal etiology of mental illness vision, to a "multifactorial integrated" conception. PMID:23023119

  14. [Comparative vasoreactivity of the radial, internal mammary and gastroepiploic arteries. Implications in coronary surgery].

    PubMed

    Chardigny, C; Jebara, V; Acar, C; Descombes, J J; Verbeuren, T; Carpentier, A; Fabiani, J N

    Recently, satisfactory results were obtained in a series of patients in whom the radial artery was used as a conduit for coronary artery bypass. However, spasm of this conduit was observed in four percent of patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the vasoreactive properties of the radial artery and to compare them to those of the internal mammary and the gastroepiploic arteries. Human radial (56 from n = 15 patients), internal mammary (77 from n = 20 patients) and gastroepiploic (41 from n = 12 patients) arteries ring segments were mounted on a strain gauge in oxygenated, normothermic, Krebs solution at optimal resting tension. With potassium chloride (100 mM) serving as the control, the dose response curves to norepinephrine, serotonin and thromboxane A2 mimetic were obtained, hence permitting to assess force of contraction and sensitivity. Functional endothelium was assessed by acetylcholine. Smooth muscle-dependent relaxation was assessed by sodium nitroprusside. The radial artery had stronger contractions to potassium chloride than the other vessels. The radial and the gastroepiploic arteries with endothelium presented a higher contraction force than the internal mammary artery in response to norepinephrine and serotonin. The gastroepiploic artery had a lower sensitivity to thromboxane A2 mimetic compared to the two other vessels. This increased reactivity of the radial artery explains its propensity to spasm and emphasizes the need for antispastic drugs and platelet inhibitors when the radial artery is used for coronary artery bypass. PMID:7641555

  15. Social Studies. Language Arts: Comparative World Religions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, John A.

    The elective (7-9) course in world religions outlined in this guide is designed to fit the quinmester organization of schools. The course is described as a study of world religions, focusing on religion as an institution in society. It includes effects of religion on people, governments, and internal relations. The guide is divided according to:…

  16. Comparative Analysis of the Mathematics Problems Given at International Tests and at the Romanian National Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    The results of the Romanian pupils on international tests PISA and TIMSS in Mathematics are below the average. These poor results have many explications. In this article we compare the Mathematics problems given on these international tests with those given on national tests in Romania.

  17. The Impact of Globalisation on Qualitative Research in Comparative and International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vulliamy, Graham

    2004-01-01

    This is a revised version of the 2003 British Association for International and Comparative Education (BAICE) Presidential Address delivered at the 7th Oxford International Conference on Education and Development. The processes of globalisation have been viewed by some as a major threat to the qualitative research tradition in education. Two main…

  18. Loneliness and International Students: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawir, Erlenawati; Marginson, Simon; Deumert, Ana; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    In a study of international student security, consisting of 200 intensive interviews with students, resident onshore in Australia, it was found that two thirds of the group had experienced problems of loneliness and/or isolation, especially in the early months. According to Weiss, students experience both "personal loneliness" because of the loss…

  19. Families and Family Study in International Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Bert N.

    2004-01-01

    Many changes are occurring in the world's families. Some observers feel that the changes are destructive, whereas others see them as leading to new opportunities and understanding. Issues in international family studies include regional limitations and the various aspects of doing research cross-culturally. Knowledge regarding certain categories…

  20. Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Postsecondary Education, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language Program provides funds to institutions of higher education, a consortia of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit organizations and institutions of higher education to plan, develop, and implement programs that strengthen and improve undergraduate instruction in…

  1. The Future of Comparative and International Education in a Globalised World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, David N.

    2003-03-01

    This article examines the history and future prospects of comparative and international education with particular reference to the impact of globalisation and Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs). Connections and interactions between comparative educationists and the technologies of printing and electronic communications are examined in a historical context. The global nature of communications in comparative and international education is demonstrated both spatially and historically, using information from all regions of the world. The changing nature of technologies is noted to have broadened the audience for comparative insights. The development of textbooks, journals, conferences, international agencies, the Internet, web-based communications, and professional comparative education societies is related to the themes of communications and globalisation.

  2. 1976-77 Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program for 1976-1977 were compared to 1975 tax forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Comparisons were also made to data from a similar 1974-1975 study. Based on a sample of 212,263 applicants, findings include the following: during 1976-1977, 70.7 percent of all…

  3. 1979-80 Internal Revenue Service Comparison Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applied Management Sciences, Inc., Silver Spring, MD.

    Application forms for the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant (BEOG) program for 1979-1980 were compared to 1978 tax forms filed with the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Comparisons were also made to data from similar 1974-1975 and 1976-1977 studies. Based on a sample of 407,596 applicants, findings include the following: between 1976-1977 and…

  4. Teaching the Comparative Approach to American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaberg, Stanley

    The rationale behind this book of five suggested or sample comparative units contains several elements: 1) an interdisciplinary social science approach to studying the American past, present, and future; and 2) a view of our country's history in terms of a world setting and in the light on contemporary concerns. The global comparative method…

  5. Comparative Environmental Threat Analysis: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latour, J. B.; Reiling, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews how carrying capacity for different environmental problems is operationalized. Discusses whether it is possible to compare threats, using the exceeding of carrying capacity as a yardstick. Points out problems in comparative threat analysis using three case studies: threats to European groundwater resources, threats to ecosystems in Europe,…

  6. Rationale and design of the HepZero study: a prospective, multicenter, international, open, randomized, controlled clinical study with parallel groups comparing heparin-free dialysis with heparin-coated dialysis membrane (Evodial) versus standard care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anticoagulation for chronic dialysis patients with contraindications to heparin administration is challenging. Current guidelines state that in patients with increased bleeding risks, strategies that can induce systemic anticoagulation should be avoided. Heparin-free dialysis using intermittent saline flushes is widely adopted as the method of choice for patients at risk of bleeding, although on-line blood predilution may also be used. A new dialyzer, Evodial (Gambro, Lund, Sweden), is grafted with unfractionated heparin during the manufacturing process and may allow safe and efficient heparin-free hemodialysis sessions. In the present trial, Evodial was compared to standard care with either saline flushes or blood predilution. Methods The HepZero study is the first international (seven countries), multicenter (10 centers), randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority (and if applicable subsequently, superiority) trial with two parallel groups, comprising 252 end-stage renal disease patients treated by maintenance hemodialysis for at least 3 months and requiring heparin-free dialysis treatments. Patients will be treated during a maximum of three heparin-free dialysis treatments with either saline flushes or blood predilution (control group), or Evodial. The first heparin-free dialysis treatment will be considered successful when there is: no complete occlusion of air traps or dialyzer rendering dialysis impossible; no additional saline flushes to prevent clotting; no change of dialyzer or blood lines because of clotting; and no premature termination (early rinse-back) because of clotting. The primary objectives of the study are to determine the effectiveness of the Evodial dialyzer, compared with standard care in terms of successful treatments during the first heparin-free dialysis. If the non-inferiority of Evodial is demonstrated then the superiority of Evodial over standard care will be tested. The HepZero study results may have major clinical

  7. Comparative studies of gene regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Pai, Athma A; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that changes in gene regulation have played an important role in adaptive evolution both between and within species. Over the past five years, comparative studies have moved beyond simple characterizations of differences in gene expression levels within and between species to studying variation in regulatory mechanisms. We still know relatively little about the precise chain of events that lead to most regulatory adaptations, but we have taken significant steps towards understanding the relative importance of changes in different mechanisms of gene regulatory evolution. In this review, we first discuss insights from comparative studies in model organisms, where the available experimental toolkit is extensive. We then focus on a few recent comparative studies in primates, where the limited feasibility of experimental manipulation dictates the approaches that can be used to study gene regulatory evolution. PMID:25215415

  8. The Effect of Student Participation in International Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeDee, Lynda S.; Stewart, Stephanie

    2003-01-01

    Responses were received from 38 of 100 nursing graduates who completed a 2-week international study tour. International study had a significant impact on personal development, the nurse's role, international perspective, and intellectual development. (SK)

  9. Deaths from international terrorism compared with road crash deaths in OECD countries

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, N; Thomson, G

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Data on deaths from international terrorism (US State Department database) were collated (1994–2003) and compared to the road injury deaths (year 2000 and 2001 data) from the OECD International Road Transport Accident Database. Results: In the 29 OECD countries for which comparable data were available, the annual average death rate from road injury was approximately 390 times that from international terrorism. The ratio of annual road to international terrorism deaths (averaged over 10 years) was lowest for the United States at 142 times. In 2001, road crash deaths in the US were equal to those from a September 11 attack every 26 days. Conclusions: There is a large difference in the magnitude of these two causes of deaths from injury. Policy makers need to be aware of this when allocating resources to preventing these two avoidable causes of mortality. PMID:16326764

  10. Comparing the Experiences and Needs of Postsecondary International Students from China and South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deters, Ping

    2015-01-01

    International students from China and South Korea are an increasingly important part of the international student body in many English-medium postsecondary institutions. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experiences and needs of these two groups of students at a Canadian postsecondary institution. Data…

  11. Comparing American Cultural Literacy and Context Reading Strategies of International Students and American Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Timothy L.; Mikulecky, Larry J.

    A study measured the background knowledge of American culture of international students relative to American college students and the extent to which variations in context facilitate their ability to access or supplement this background knowledge. Subjects, three groups of students at Indiana University (27 international students, 28 American…

  12. Species comparative studies and cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Juan-Carlos

    2005-03-01

    The comparative study of infant development and animal cognition brings to cognitive science the promise of insights into the nature and origins of cognitive skills. In this article, I review a recent wave of comparative studies conducted with similar methodologies and similar theoretical frameworks on how two core components of human cognition--object permanence and gaze following--develop in different species. These comparative findings call for an integration of current competing accounts of developmental change. They further suggest that evolution has produced developmental devices capable at the same time of preserving core adaptive components, and opening themselves up to further adaptive change, not only in interaction with the external environment, but also in interaction with other co-developing cognitive systems. PMID:15737820

  13. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-05-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  14. The Student Teaching Experience: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Judy D.

    This paper describes a 1996 study that compared the student teaching experiences of a traditional and a nontraditional student to ascertain what differences in their experiences might imply about teacher preparation. The two students kept journals that could be written in at any time of the day. They recorded their impressions of their situation…

  15. A Comparative Study of Sparse Associative Memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gripon, Vincent; Heusel, Judith; Löwe, Matthias; Vermet, Franck

    2016-07-01

    We study various models of associative memories with sparse information, i.e. a pattern to be stored is a random string of 0s and 1s with about log N 1s, only. We compare different synaptic weights, architectures and retrieval mechanisms to shed light on the influence of the various parameters on the storage capacity.

  16. International Organisations and the Evaluation of Education Systems: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neves, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to develop research involving a macro-level critical comparative analysis of reference documents produced by international organisations (UNDP, OECD, UNESCO, the World Bank and the European Union) which guide world education policy decisions. The primary objective was to consider the key guidelines currently defined for…

  17. Comparing the Internal Structure of the Sun During the Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 Minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Elsworth, Y.; Davies, G. R.; Schou, J.; Larson, T. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Birmingham Solar-Oscillations Network (BiSON) has been collecting helioseismic data for the last three solar cycles. We use these data to determine whether the internal properties of the Sun during the minimum preceding cycle 24 was different compared to that preceding cycle 23.

  18. Commentary on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfram, Gary; Coulson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors comment on Andrew Coulson's "Comparing Public, Private, and Market Schools: The International Evidence." The authors believe that Coulson's paper is a very interesting review of the literature on the ability of market-produced education to outperform government-produced education. Coulson's response on this commentary…

  19. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  20. Developing Comparative and International Educational Leadership and Management: A Cross-Cultural Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    2000-01-01

    Builds a case for comparative and international educational leadership and management, arguing that developing conceptual frameworks and instrumentation are imperative to keep the field abreast of globalization trends. Proposes a conceptual framework structured around interrelationships between societal and organizational culture and four key…

  1. A Global Study of International Teacher Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Dale S.

    2012-01-01

    International teacher recruiting is a complex, high stakes process that is crucial to schools' success. Competition for teachers is intensifying as the number of international schools increases globally. The number of international schools has more than doubled in recent years. With candidates and schools scattered throughout the world,…

  2. Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS): PIRLS 2006 Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Michael O., Ed.; Mullis, Ina V. S., Ed.; Kennedy, Ann M., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA)'s Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) provides internationally comparative data about students' reading achievement in primary school (the fourth grade in most participating countries). PIRLS also provides extensive information about the home and…

  3. Evaluating synteny for improved comparative studies

    PubMed Central

    Ghiurcuta, Cristina G.; Moret, Bernard M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Comparative genomics aims to understand the structure and function of genomes by translating knowledge gained about some genomes to the object of study. Early approaches used pairwise comparisons, but today researchers are attempting to leverage the larger potential of multi-way comparisons. Comparative genomics relies on the structuring of genomes into syntenic blocks: blocks of sequence that exhibit conserved features across the genomes. Syntenic blocs are required for complex computations to scale to the billions of nucleotides present in many genomes; they enable comparisons across broad ranges of genomes because they filter out much of the individual variability; they highlight candidate regions for in-depth studies; and they facilitate whole-genome comparisons through visualization tools. However, the concept of syntenic block remains loosely defined. Tools for the identification of syntenic blocks yield quite different results, thereby preventing a systematic assessment of the next steps in an analysis. Current tools do not include measurable quality objectives and thus cannot be benchmarked against themselves. Comparisons among tools have also been neglected—what few results are given use superficial measures unrelated to quality or consistency. Results: We present a theoretical model as well as an experimental basis for comparing syntenic blocks and thus also for improving or designing tools for the identification of syntenic blocks. We illustrate the application of the model and the measures by applying them to syntenic blocks produced by three different contemporary tools (DRIMM-Synteny, i-ADHoRe and Cyntenator) on a dataset of eight yeast genomes. Our findings highlight the need for a well founded, systematic approach to the decomposition of genomes into syntenic blocks. Our experiments demonstrate widely divergent results among these tools, throwing into question the robustness of the basic approach in comparative genomics. We have taken

  4. Open reduction and internal fixation compared to closed reduction and external fixation in distal radial fractures

    PubMed Central

    Kopylov, Philippe; Geijer, Mats; Tägil, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose In unstable distal radial fractures that are impossible to reduce or to maintain in reduced position, the treatment of choice is operation. The type of operation and the choice of implant, however, is a matter of discussion. Our aim was to investigate whether open reduction and internal fixation would produce a better result than traditional external fixation. Methods 50 patients with an unstable or comminute distal radius fracture were randomized to either closed reduction and bridging external fixation, or open reduction and internal fixation using the TriMed system. The primary outcome parameter was grip strength, but the patients were followed for 1 year with objective clinical assessment, subjective outcome using DASH, and radiographic examination. Results At 1 year postoperatively, grip strength was 90% (SD 16) of the uninjured side in the internal fixation group and 78% (17) in the external fixation group. Pronation/supination was 150° (15) in the internal fixation group and 136° (20) in the external fixation group at 1 year. There were no differences in DASH scores or in radiographic parameters. 5 patients in the external fixation group were reoperated due to malunion, as compared to 1 in the internal fixation group. 7 other cases were classified as radiographic malunion: 5 in the external fixation group and 2 in the internal fixation group. Interpretation Internal fixation gave better grip strength and a better range of motion at 1 year, and tended to have less malunions than external fixation. No difference could be found regarding subjective outcome. PMID:19857180

  5. Doxofylline and Theophylline: A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Akram, MD Faiz; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Ahmad, Zuber; Ali Khan, Rahat

    2012-01-01

    Objectives COPD is one of the major public health problems worldwide. Theophylline has been used in the treatment of COPD for decades. Doxofylline a new theophylline congener has been claimed to have better safety profile. The study was undertaken to compare theophylline and doxophylline at doses recommended and commonly used in clinical practice. Methods The study was conducted in patients of COPD in TB chest department of a medical college hospital. It was randomized, prospective and open label. A total of 154 patients were divided in two group .Group I was administered 400 mg theophylline SR once daily and group II was administered doxofylline 400 mg twice a day orally. Spirometric variables symptom score, and adverse effects were recorded on day 0, 7 and 21 of therapy. Data were compared and analysed using SPSS version 16. Results Results of the study showed that there was no statistically significant difference with respect to spirometric variables and symptom score in the two groups and there was no significant difference in two groups with respect to side effects (p>0.05). Conclusions It is concluded that doxophylline has no advantage over theophylline in terms of either efficacy or safety on the doses commonly used in current clinical practice. PMID:23373027

  6. Comparative study of INPIStron and spark gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Lee, Ja H.

    1993-01-01

    An inverse pinch plasma switch, INPIStron, was studied in comparison to a conventional spark gap. The INPIStron is under development for high power switching applications. The INPIStron has an inverse pinch dynamics, opposed to Z-pinch dynamics in the spark gap. The electrical, plasma dynamics and radiative properties of the closing plasmas have been studied. Recently the high-voltage pulse transfer capabilities or both the INPIStron and the spark gap were also compared. The INPIStron with a low impedance Z = 9 ohms transfers 87 percent of an input pulse with a halfwidth of 2 mu s. For the same input pulse the spark gap of Z = 100 ohms transfers 68 percent. Fast framing and streak photography, taken with an TRW image converter camera, was used to observe the discharge uniformity and closing plasma speed in both switches. In order to assess the effects of closing plasmas on erosion of electrode material, emission spectra of two switches were studied with a spectrometer-optical multi channel analyzer (OMA) system. The typical emission spectra of the closing plasmas in the INPIStron and the spark gap showed that there were comparatively weak carbon line emission in 658.7 nm and copper (electrode material) line emissions in the INPIStron, indicating low erosion of materials in the INPIStron.

  7. EFQPSK Versus CERN: A Comparative Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borah, Deva K.; Horan, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a comparative study on Enhanced Feher's Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (EFQPSK) and Constrained Envelope Root Nyquist (CERN) techniques. These two techniques have been developed in recent times to provide high spectral and power efficiencies under nonlinear amplifier environment. The purpose of this study is to gain insights into these techniques and to help system planners and designers with an appropriate set of guidelines for using these techniques. The comparative study presented in this report relies on effective simulation models and procedures. Therefore, a significant part of this report is devoted to understanding the mathematical and simulation models of the techniques and their set-up procedures. In particular, mathematical models of EFQPSK and CERN, effects of the sampling rate in discrete time signal representation, and modeling of nonlinear amplifiers and predistorters have been considered in detail. The results of this study show that both EFQPSK and CERN signals provide spectrally efficient communications compared to filtered conventional linear modulation techniques when a nonlinear power amplifier is used. However, there are important differences. The spectral efficiency of CERN signals, with a small amount of input backoff, is significantly better than that of EFQPSK signals if the nonlinear amplifier is an ideal clipper. However, to achieve such spectral efficiencies with a practical nonlinear amplifier, CERN processing requires a predistorter which effectively translates the amplifier's characteristics close to those of an ideal clipper. Thus, the spectral performance of CERN signals strongly depends on the predistorter. EFQPSK signals, on the other hand, do not need such predistorters since their spectra are almost unaffected by the nonlinear amplifier, Ibis report discusses several receiver structures for EFQPSK signals. It is observed that optimal receiver structures can be realized for both coded and uncoded EFQPSK

  8. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhua; Xu, Junxiao; Wu, Yi; Yang, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA), the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae), Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates. PMID:22457604

  9. Comparative Study of Vented vs. Unvented Crawlspaces

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Christian, Jeffrey E; Gehl, Anthony C

    2011-10-01

    There has been a significant amount of research in the area of building energy efficiency and durability. However, well-documented quantitative information on the impact of crawlspaces on the performance of residential structures is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two crawlspace strategies on the whole-house performance of a pair of houses in a mixed humid climate. These houses were built with advanced envelope systems to provide energy savings of 50% or more compared to traditional 2010 new construction. One crawlspace contains insulated walls and is sealed and semi-conditioned. The other is a traditional vented crawlspace with insulation in the crawlspace ceiling. The vented (traditional) crawlspace contains fiberglass batts installed in the floor chase cavities above the crawl, while the sealed and insulated crawlspace contains foil-faced polyisocyanurate foam insulation on the interior side of the masonry walls. Various sensors to measure temperatures, heat flux through crawlspace walls and ceiling, and relative humidity were installed in the two crawlspaces. Data from these sensors have been analyzed to compare the performance of the two crawlspace designs. The analysis results indicated that the sealed and insulated crawlspace design is better than the traditional vented crawlspace in the mixed humid climate.

  10. Comparing measures of childhood loneliness: internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim

    2002-06-01

    Compared 6 self-rating measures of loneliness and associated phenomena, designed for use with elementary-school children. Three samples of children in Grades 5 and 6 (total N = 758) completed various combinations of these instruments. In terms of internal consistency, the Children's Loneliness Scale (CLS) and the peer-related loneliness subscale of the Loneliness and Aloneness Scale for Children and Adolescents (LACA) were most reliable. Substantial support was obtained for the convergent validity of the measures. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) on 2 samples and exploratory factor analysis on a third sample indicated that the 13 scales and derivative subscales of the 6 measures tapped 4 different but interrelated latent constructs: peer-related loneliness, family-related loneliness (in some cases restricted to parent-related loneliness), negative attitude toward being alone, and positive attitude toward being alone. Recommendations are offered for conditions under which each scale may be useful. Limitations of this study are discussed and suggestions for future research are offered. PMID:12056108

  11. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions. PMID:26903898

  12. Comparative study of heart sound localization algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moukadem, A.; Dieterlen, A.; Hueber, N.; Brandt, C.; Raymond, P.

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a comparative study of five algorithms of heart sound localization, one of which, is a method based on radial basis function networks applied in a novel approach. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are evaluated according to a data base of 50 subjects in which there are 25 healthy subjects selected from the University Hospital of Strasbourg (HUS) and from theMARS500 project (Moscow) and 25 subjects with cardiac pathologies selected from the HUS. This study is made under the control of an experienced cardiologist. The performance of each method is evaluated by calculating the area under a receiver operating curve (AUC) and the robustness is shown against different levels of additive white Gaussian noise.

  13. Pairing Fluctuations Above Tc: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verga, Simona; Gooding, Robert J.; Marsiglio, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Although the investigation of superconductivity in High Tc Cuprates has been extensive, its microscopic origin is still under debate. An important experimental fact is the universality of many properties of the cuprates (the low dimensionality, the d-wave symmetry of the superconducting gap and the pseudogap), which must be reproduced by any competitive theory. While there is no consensus about the 'glue' that binds two electrons in a pair, one can gain insight by simply providing it, without questioning its nature. The Attractive Hubbard Model for electrons on a lattice provides the means for such an approach, but even if it simplifies the picture considerably, in the coupling regime of interest one needs to rely on approximate theories. We present a comparative study of different versions of the T-matrix approximation in the atomic limit (strong coupling), where the existence of analytical solutions enables us to test how well the approximations work. We also employ a non-perturbative approach due to Y. M. Vilk and A.-M. S. Tremblay and compare it with the T-matrix and the analytical solutions. We discuss the relevance of such a study for other coupling regimes and more realistic models.

  14. International PV QA Task Force's Proposed Comparative Rating System for PV Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2014-10-01

    The International PV Quality Assurance Task Force is developing a rating system that provides comparative information about the relative durability of PV modules. Development of accelerated stress tests that can provide such comparative information is seen as a major step toward being able to predict PV module service life. This paper will provide details of the ongoing effort to determine the format of such an overall module rating system. The latest proposal is based on using three distinct climate zones as defined in IEC 60721-2-1 for two different mounting systems. Specific stresses beyond those used in the qualification tests are being developed for each of the selected climate zones.

  15. An International Study of Research Misconduct Policies

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.; Rasmussen, Lisa M.; Kissling, Grace E.

    2015-01-01

    Research misconduct is an international concern. Misconduct policies can play a crucial role in preventing and policing research misconduct, and many institutions have developed their own policies. While institutional policies play a key role in preventing and policing misconduct, national policies are also important to ensure consistent promulgation and enforcement of ethical standards. The purpose of this study was to obtain more information about research misconduct policies across the globe. We found that twenty-two of the top forty research and development funding countries (55%) had a national misconduct policy. Four countries (18.2%) are in the process of developing a policy, and four (18.2%) have a national research ethics code but no misconduct policy. All twenty-two countries (100%) with national policies included fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in the definition of misconduct, but beyond that there was considerable diversity. Unethical authorship was mentioned in 54.6% of the misconduct definitions, followed by unethical publication practices (36.4%), conflict of interest mismanagement (36.4%), unethical peer review (31.8%), misconduct related to misconduct investigations (27.3%), poor record keeping (27.3%), other deception (27.3%), serious deviations (22.7%), violating confidentiality (22.7%), and human or animal research violations (22.7%). Having a national policy was positively associated with research and development funding ranking and intensiveness. To promote integrity in international research collaborations, countries should seek to harmonize and clarify misconduct definitions and develop procedures for adjudicating conflicts when harmonization does not occur. PMID:25928177

  16. Scatterometry or imaging overlay: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Simon C. C.; Pai, Yuan Chi; Chen, Charlie; Yu, Chun Chi; Hsing, Henry; Wu, Hsing-Chien; Kuo, Kelly T. L.; Amir, Nuriel

    2015-03-01

    Most fabrication facilities today use imaging overlay measurement methods, as it has been the industry's reliable workhorse for decades. In the last few years, third-generation Scatterometry Overlay (SCOL™) or Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO-1) technology was developed, along another DBO technology (DBO-2). This development led to the question of where the DBO technology should be implemented for overlay measurements. Scatterometry has been adopted for high volume production in only few cases, always with imaging as a backup, but scatterometry overlay is considered by many as the technology of the future. In this paper we compare imaging overlay and DBO technologies by means of measurements and simulations. We outline issues and sensitivities for both technologies, providing guidelines for the best implementation of each. For several of the presented cases, data from two different DBO technologies are compared as well, the first with Pupil data access (DBO-1) and the other without pupil data access (DBO-2). Key indicators of overlay measurement quality include: layer coverage, accuracy, TMU, process robustness and robustness to process changes. Measurement data from real cases across the industry are compared and the conclusions are also backed by simulations. Accuracy is benchmarked with reference OVL, and self-consistency, showing good results for Imaging and DBO-1 technology. Process sensitivity and metrology robustness are mostly simulated with MTD (Metrology Target Designer) comparing the same process variations for both technologies. The experimental data presented in this study was done on ten advanced node layers and three production node layers, for all phases of the IC fabrication process (FEOL, MEOL and BEOL). The metrology tool used for most of the study is KLA-Tencor's Archer 500LCM system (scatterometry-based and imaging-based measurement technologies on the same tool) another type of tool is used for DBO-2 measurements. Finally, we conclude that

  17. Using Post-Study-Abroad Experiences to Enhance International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kevin W.; Jendzurski, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Many study abroad experiences offer opportunities for a broadened global perspective gleaned from interpersonal engagement with cultural others in an international setting. Unfortunately, and far too often, the campus majority who do not have this firsthand travel experience remain disengaged and might feel excluded. This article contends that…

  18. International multicenter comparative trial of transluminal EUS-guided biliary drainage via hepatogastrostomy vs. choledochoduodenostomy approaches

    PubMed Central

    Khashab, Mouen A.; Messallam, Ahmed A.; Penas, Irene; Nakai, Yousuke; Modayil, Rani J.; De la Serna, Carlos; Hara, Kazuo; El Zein, Mohamad; Stavropoulos, Stavros N.; Perez-Miranda, Manuel; Kumbhari, Vivek; Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Dhir, Vinay K.; Park, Do Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) can be performed entirely transgastrically (hepatogastrostomy/EUS-HG) or transduodenally (choledochoduodenostomy/EUS-CDS). It is unknown how both techniques compare. The aims of this study were to compare efficacy and safety of both techniques and identify predictors of adverse events. Patients and methods: Consecutive jaundiced patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction who underwent EUS-BD at multiple international centers were included. Technical/clinical success, adverse events, stent complications, and survival were assessed. Results: A total of 121 patients underwent EUS-BD (CDS 60, HG 61). Technical success was achieved in 112 (92.56 %) patients (EUS-CDS 93.3 %, EUS-HG 91.8 %, P = 0.75). Clinical success was attained in 85.5 % of patients who underwent EUS-CDS group as compared to 82.1 % of patients who underwent EUS-HG (P = 0.64). Adverse events occurred more commonly in the EUS-HG group (19.67 % vs. 13.3 %, P = 0.37). Both plastic stenting (OR 4.95, 95 %CI 1.41 – 17.38, P = 0.01) and use of non-coaxial electrocautery (OR 3.95, 95 %CI 1.16 – 13.40, P = 0.03) were independently associated with adverse events. Length of hospital stay was significantly shorter in the CDS group (5.6 days vs. 12.7 days, P < 0.001). Mean follow-up duration was 151 ± 159 days. The 1-year stent patency probability was greater in the EUS-CDS group [0.98 (95 %CI 0.76 – 0.96) vs 0.60 (95 %CI 0.35 – 0.78)] but overall patency was not significantly different. There was no difference in median survival times between the groups (P = 0.36) Conclusions: Both EUS-CDS and EUS-HG are effective and safe techniques for the treatment of distal biliary obstruction after failed ERCP. However, CDS is associated with shorter hospital stay, improved stent patency, and fewer procedure- and stent-related complications. Metallic stents

  19. A comparative study on monitored anesthesia care

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Jayashree; Sen, Bitan

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness, hemodynamic changes and duration of sedation and analgesia between combinations of fortwin-phenergan-midazolam (FPM) and ketamine - midazolam (KM) along with local anesthesia for the surgeries done under the umbrella of monitored anesthesia care. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients undergoing surgeries as tympanoplasty, septoplasty, lip repair, dacrocystectomy and cataract under local anesthesia, randomly received either intravenous (IV) fortwin 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min followed by IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg plus IV phenergan 12.5 mg (Group FPM) or IV ketamine 0.3 mg/kg over 1 min plus IV midazolam 0.04 mg/kg (Group KM). Sedation was titrated to Ramsay sedation score (RSS) of 3. Patients’ mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), saturation peripheral pulse, duration of sedation and need for intraoperative rescue sedation/analgesic were recorded and compared. Satisfaction of patients (using a 1-7 point Likert verbal rating scale) and readiness for discharge towards (time to Aldrete score of 10) were also determined. Result: Group KM had significant rise in HR (20-25%) and MAP (25-30%) from 30 min after the bolus dose given until the end of the surgery in contrast to Group FPM. The target sedation level (RSS ≥ 3) was higher in Group FPM (n = 23 [92%]) as compared with Group KM (n = 12 [48%]). Time until need for rescue sedation was 66.96 ± 17.19 min in FPM and 32.80 ± 8.90 min in KM group. The patient satisfaction (Likert scale) is more with the FPM group (6.12 ± 0.83 vs. 4.40 ± 1.20). Conclusion: We found that the combination of FPM is superior to the KM combination as per the hemodynamic changes, duration of analgesia, patients’ satisfaction and efficacy of the drugs are concerned. PMID:25886327

  20. Water Ice in Comets: A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopapa, Silvia; Sunshine, J.; Feaga, L. M.; Kelley, M. S.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Farnham, T.; DIXI Team

    2013-06-01

    Processes involving the sublimation of volatiles dominate cometary activity and drive the release of ancient material from within the nucleus into the coma. As comets are kept cold for most of their history, they contain the least processed primordial materials that accumulated into the giant planets. In addition, comets may have delivered their ices and organics to the primitive Earth. The Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) to comet Hartley 2 revealed a highly active comet with bright icy-rich jets. We present a detailed characterization of the composition and texture of the ices and refractories in the inner-most coma of Hartley 2, closer than a few kilometers from the surface. This analysis is conducted using laboratory measurements of optical constants of cometary analog materials. We also discuss the implications of these findings on the accretion process that led to the formation of cometary nuclei and therefore of planets. The physical makeup of the ice grains in comet Hartley 2 is compared with that of water ice in the interior, surface, and coma of other comets (e.g., 9P/Tempel 1, C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), 17P/Holmes). Through this comparative study, we investigate how ice is redistributed from the interior to the surface and ultimately into the coma of comets.

  1. Comparative Study of Airfoil Flow Separation Criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Nick; Kahouli, Waad; Epps, Brenden

    2015-11-01

    Airfoil flow separation impacts a multitude of applications including turbomachinery, wind turbines, and bio-inspired micro-aerial vehicles. In order to achieve maximum performance, some devices operate near the edge of flow separation, and others use dynamic flow separation advantageously. Numerous criteria exist for predicting the onset of airfoil flow separation. This talk presents a comparative study of a number of such criteria, with emphasis paid to speed and accuracy of the calculations. We evaluate the criteria using a two-dimensional unsteady vortex lattice method, which allows for rapid analysis (on the order of seconds instead of days for a full Navier-Stokes solution) and design of optimal airfoil geometry and kinematics. Furthermore, dynamic analyses permit evaluation of dynamic stall conditions for enhanced lift via leading edge vortex shedding, commonly present in small flapping-wing flyers such as the bumblebee and hummingbird.

  2. Comparative microscopy study of Vibrio cholerae flagella

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Zadnova, Svetlana P.; Volkov, Uryi P.

    1999-06-01

    A fine structure of bacteria flagella is an important problem of molecular cell biology. Bacteria flagella are the self-assembled structures that allow to use the flagellum protein in a number of biotechnological applications. However, at present, there is a little information about high resolution scanning probe microscopy study of flagellum structure, in particular, about investigation of Vibrio cholerae flagella. In our lab have been carried out the high resolution comparative investigation of V. cholerae flagella by means of various microscopes: tunneling (STM), scanning force (SFM) and electron transmission. As a scanning probe microscope is used designed in our lab versatile SPM with replaceable measuring heads. Bacteria were grown, fixed and treated according to the conventional techniques. For STM investigations samples were covered with Pt/Ir thin films by rotated vacuum evaporation, in SFM investigations were used uncovered samples. Electron microscopy of the negatively stained bacteria was used as a test procedure.

  3. ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice. PMID:19543791

  4. Supracostal percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A prospective comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Maneesh; Krishnappa, Pramod; Subudhi, Santosh Kumar; Krishnamoorthy, Venkatesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A widely prevalent fear of thoracic complications with the supracostal approach has led to its underutilization in percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We frequently use the supracostal approach and compared the efficacy and thoracic complications of infracostal, supra 12th, and supra 11th punctures. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study of patients who underwent PCNL between January 2005 and December 2012. The patients were divided into three groups based on the access: infracostal, supra 12th (between the 11th and 12th ribs) and supra 11th (between the 10th and 11th ribs). Clearance rates, fall in hemoglobin levels, transfusion rates, perioperative analgesic requirements, hospital stay and thoracic complications were compared. Results: Seven hundred patients were included for analysis. There were 179 (25.5%) patients in the supra 11th group, 187 (26.7%) patients in the supra 12th group and 334 (47.8%) patients in the infracostal group. The overall clearance rate was 78% with no difference in the three groups. The postoperative analgesic requirements were significantly higher in the supracostal groups and showed a graded increase from infracostal to supra 12th to supra 11th. During the study period, only 2 patients required angioembolization (0.3%) and none required open exploration. The number of patients requiring intercostal chest drain insertion was extremely low, at 1.6% and 2.2% in the supra 12th and supra 11th groups, respectively. Conclusions: Our results confirm the feasibility of the supracostal approach including punctures above the 11th rib, albeit at the cost of an increase in thoracic complications. Staying in the line of the calyx has helped us to minimize the most dreaded complication of bleeding requiring angioembolization. PMID:26941494

  5. Linguistic Barriers among Internationally Educated Teachers in Ireland and Canada: A Critical Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Clea; McDaid, Rory

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interview and focus group data collected from Internationally Educated Teachers (IETs) in the context of two different research studies conducted in Ireland and Manitoba, Canada, this article critically examines how national/regional linguistic requirements and expectations of a hidden curriculum are experienced as barriers…

  6. Comparative evaluation of Salmonella Enteritidis ghost vaccines with a commercial vaccine for protection against internal egg contamination with Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa

    2014-10-14

    The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella. PMID:25218296

  7. Comparative study of pressure-flow parameters.

    PubMed

    Eri, Lars M; Wessel, Nicolai; Tysland, Ole; Berge, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Methods for quantification of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) are still controversial. Parameters such as detrusor opening pressure (p(det.open)), maximum detrusor pressure (p(det.max)), minimum voiding pressure (p(det.min.void)), and detrusor pressure at maximum flow rate (P(det.Qmax)) separate obstructed from nonobstructed patients to some extent, but two nomograms, the Abrams-Griffiths nomogram and the linearized passive urethral resistance relation (LinPURR), are more accepted for this purpose, along with the urethral resistance algorithm. In this retrospective, methodologic study, we evaluated the properties of these parameters with regard to test-retest reproducibility and ability to detect a moderate (pharmacologic) and a pronounced (surgical) relief of bladder outlet obstruction. We studied the pressure-flow charts of 42 patients who underwent 24 weeks of androgen suppressive therapy, 42 corresponding patients who received placebo, and 30 patients who had prostate surgery. The patients performed repeat void pressure-flow examinations before and after treatment or placebo. The various parameters were compared. Among the bladder pressure parameters, P(det.Qmax) seemed to have some advantages, supporting the belief that it is the most relevant detrusor pressure parameter to include in nomograms to quantify BOO. In assessment of a large decrease in urethral resistance, such as after TURp, resistance parameters that are based on maximum flow rate as well as detrusor pressure are preferable. PMID:11948710

  8. A comparative study of depot injection techniques.

    PubMed

    Quartermaine, S; Taylor, R

    Depot injections of long-acting neuroleptic drugs, by maintaining a consistent drug regime, together with regular contact with health-care professionals, are an important factor in helping psychiatric patients who live in the community. As these injections are administered over a long period--often for years--it is important that care is taken to minimise discomfort and to reduce the incidence of problems at the injection site. Seepage of even small amounts of the medication will result in an inaccurate dose being absorbed and, owing to the irritant nature of many of these drugs, leakage into subcutaneous tissue and on to the skin surface can cause pain, irritation and lesions. This study was set up to compare two techniques of administering deep intramuscular injections to determine which best fulfilled the criteria of preventing seepage while causing as little discomfort as possible. The two methods used were the Z-track, which is standard practice in the UK, and the air bubble, which is widely taught and used in Canada and the USA. The study showed the air-bubble method to be significantly more effective at controlling seepage than the Z-track. PMID:7644369

  9. The Impact of Conflict on International Student Mobility: A Case Study of International Students Studying in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of conflict on international student mobility. Through an examination of undergraduate, international students studying in Israel, this case study questions how and if a situation of ongoing violent conflict affects international student travel decisions to study in a host country. Contrary to assumptions of…

  10. Computer Simulation in the Teaching of Translation and International Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, Richard D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the National Simulation in International Studies and Translation Program which links international studies and foreign languages programs at a number of universities. This program provides a natural context for the exercise of translation for the language student and an authenticity of experience for students of international politics.…

  11. Dosimetric Advantages of Midventilation Compared With Internal Target Volume for Radiation Therapy of Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lens, Eelco Horst, Astrid van der; Versteijne, Eva; Tienhoven, Geertjan van; Bel, Arjan

    2015-07-01

    Purpose: The midventilation (midV) approach can be used to take respiratory-induced pancreatic tumor motion into account during radiation therapy. In this study, the dosimetric consequences for organs at risk and tumor coverage of using a midV approach compared with using an internal target volume (ITV) were investigated. Methods and Materials: For each of the 18 patients, 2 treatment plans (25 × 2.0 Gy) were created, 1 using an ITV and 1 using a midV approach. The midV dose distribution was blurred using the respiratory-induced motion from 4-dimensional computed tomography. The resulting planning target volume (PTV) coverage for this blurred dose distribution was analyzed; PTV coverage was required to be at least V{sub 95%} >98%. In addition, the change in PTV size and the changes in V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, V{sub 30Gy}, V{sub 40Gy}, D{sub mean} and D{sub 2cc} for the stomach and for the duodenum were analyzed; differences were tested for significance using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Using a midV approach resulted in sufficient target coverage. A highly significant PTV size reduction of 13.9% (P<.001) was observed. Also, all dose parameters for the stomach and duodenum, except the D{sub 2cc} of the duodenum, improved significantly (P≤.002). Conclusions: By using the midV approach to account for respiratory-induced tumor motion, a significant PTV reduction and significant dose reductions to the stomach and to the duodenum can be achieved when irradiating pancreatic tumors.

  12. Internal NASA Study: NASAs Protoflight Research Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, Mary R.; Hirshorn, Steven R.; Moreland, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Protoflight Research Initiative is an internal NASA study conducted within the Office of the Chief Engineer to better understand the use of Protoflight within NASA. Extensive literature reviews and interviews with key NASA members with experience in both robotic and human spaceflight missions has resulted in three main conclusions and two observations. The first conclusion is that NASA's Protoflight method is not considered to be "prescriptive." The current policies and guidance allows each Program/Project to tailor the Protoflight approach to better meet their needs, goals and objectives. Second, Risk Management plays a key role in implementation of the Protoflight approach. Any deviations from full qualification will be based on the level of acceptable risk with guidance found in NPR 8705.4. Finally, over the past decade (2004 - 2014) only 6% of NASA's Protoflight missions and 6% of NASA's Full qualification missions experienced a publicly disclosed mission failure. In other words, the data indicates that the Protoflight approach, in and of it itself, does not increase the mission risk of in-flight failure. The first observation is that it would be beneficial to document the decision making process on the implementation and use of Protoflight. The second observation is that If a Project/Program chooses to use the Protoflight approach with relevant heritage, it is extremely important that the Program/Project Manager ensures that the current project's requirements falls within the heritage design, component, instrument and/or subsystem's requirements for both the planned and operational use, and that the documentation of the relevant heritage is comprehensive, sufficient and the decision well documented. To further benefit/inform this study, a recommendation to perform a deep dive into 30 missions with accessible data on their testing/verification methodology and decision process to research the differences between Protoflight and Full Qualification

  13. Embryo transfer: a comparative biosecurity advantage in international movements of germplasm.

    PubMed

    Thibier, M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses cattle as a model to provide an overview of the hazards involved in the transfer of in vivo-derived and in vitro-produced embryos. While scientific studies in recent decades have led to the identification of pathogens that may be associated with both in vivo- and in vitro-derived embryos, those studies have also been the basis of appropriate disease control measures to reduce the risks to a negligible level. These disease control measures have been identified and assessed by the International Embryo Transfer Society's (lETS) Health and Safety Advisory Committee, the expert body that advises the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) on matters related to the safety of embryo transfer. Through the OIE's processes for developing and adopting international standards, the disease control measures identified by the IETS have been incorporated into the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. The basic principles rely on the crucial ethical roles of the embryo collection team and embryo transfer team, under the leadership of approved veterinarians. Decades of experience, with nearly 10 million embryos transferred, have demonstrated the very significant biosecurity advantage that embryo transfer technology has when moving germplasm internationally, provided that the international standards developed by the IETS and adopted by the OIE are strictly followed. PMID:21809763

  14. Frameworks for comparing emissions associated with production, consumption, and international trade.

    PubMed

    Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Lenzen, Manfred; Peters, Glen P; Moran, Daniel D; Geschke, Arne

    2012-01-01

    While the problem of climate change is being perceived as increasingly urgent, decision-makers struggle to agree on the distribution of responsibility across countries. In particular, representatives from countries hosting emissions-intensive exporting industries have argued that the importers of emissions-intensive goods should bear the responsibility, and ensuing penalties. Indeed, international trade and carbon leakage appear to play an increasingly important role in the carbon emissions debate. However, definitions of quantities describing the embodiment of carbon emissions in internationally traded products, and their measurement, have to be sufficiently robust before being able to underpin global policy. In this paper we critically examine a number of emissions accounting concepts, examine whether the ensuing carbon balances are compatible with monetary trade balances, discuss their different interpretations, and highlight implications for policy. In particular, we compare the emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) method which considers total trade flows with domestic emission intensities, with the multi-regional input-output (MRIO) method which considers trade only into final consumption with global emission intensities. If consumption-based emissions of different countries were to be compared, we would suggest an MRIO approach because of the global emissions coverage inherent in this method. If trade-adjusted emission inventories were to be compared, we would suggest an EEBT approach due to the consistency with a monetary trade balance. PMID:22077096

  15. Periodontal files--a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, R; Clark, S M; Baradaran, S; Adams, D F

    1995-12-01

    Periodontal files are used by many dentists for instrumentation of root surfaces as a part of periodontal treatment. The purposes of this study were: 1) to examine, evaluate, and compare several periodontal files in 3 different conditions: new, used, and used/sharpened and 2) to evaluate the efficacy of 5 sharpening devices. The main characteristics observed included: the number, shape, and interval of blades; the active, rake, and lip angles; changes induced by wear; the influence of sharpening; and the type of metal surfaces comprising the blades. There was a wide range of active angles on each individual file, from a high of 75 degrees to a low of 51 degrees. The range of active angles for all blades on all new files was even greater, from a high of 87 degrees to a low of 30 degrees. Wear, observed on some but not all blades, was not extensive and appeared either as abrasion or, occasionally, as fracture of the blade edge. Sharpness scores (5 = sharpest and 1 = dullest) for new file blades were also extremely variable and spanned the full range of values, with a majority of blades scoring 3.5 and below. Attempts to sharpen files with several devices produced inconsistent results. All 5 sharpening devices had significant shortcomings. It was concluded that the extreme ranges both in active angles and in sharpness scores probably have a significant influence on effectiveness of root instrumentation. PMID:8683416

  16. Assays for mammalian tyrosinase: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Jara, J.R.; Solano, F.; Lozano, J.A.

    1988-01-01

    This work describes a comparative study of the tyrosinase activity determined using three methods which are the most extensively employed; two radiometric assays using L-tyrosine as substrate (tyrosine hydroxylase and melanin formation activities) and one spectrophotometric assay using L-dopa (dopa oxidase activity). The three methods were simultaneously employed to measure the activities of the soluble, melanosomal, and microsomal tyrosinase isozymes from Harding-Passey mouse melanoma through their purification processes. The aim of this study was to find any correlation among the tyrosinase activities measured by the three different assays and to determine whether that correlation varied with the isozyme and its degree of purification. The results show that mammalian tyrosinase has a greater turnover number for L-dopa than for L-tyrosine. Thus, enzyme activity, expressed as mumol of substrate transformed per min, is higher in assays using L-dopa as substrate than those using L-tyrosine. Moreover, the percentage of hydroxylated L-tyrosine that is converted into melanin is low and is affected by several factors, apparently decreasing the tyrosinase activity measured by the melanin formation assay. Bearing these considerations in mind, average interassay factors are proposed. Their values are 10 to transform melanin formation into tyrosine hydroxylase activity, 100 to transform tyrosine hydroxylase into dopa oxidase activity, and 1,000 to transform melanin formation into dopa oxidase activity. Variations in these values due to the presence in the tyrosinase preparations of either inhibitors or regulatory factors in melanogenesis independent of tyrosinase are also discussed.

  17. Strengthening the Conceptualization of Mathematics Pedagogical Content Knowledge for International Studies: A Taiwanese Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsieh, Feng-Jui

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses different conceptual frameworks for measuring mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK) in international comparison studies. Two large-scale international comparative studies, "Mathematics Teaching in the Twenty-First Century" (MT21; Schmidt et al., 2011) and the "Teacher Education and Development Study…

  18. Comparative Study of Two Automatic Registration Algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, D.; Bethel, J.; Crawford, M.

    2013-10-01

    The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is prevalent for the automatic fine registration of overlapping pairs of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data. This method along with its vast number of variants, obtains the least squares parameters that are necessary to align the TLS data by minimizing some distance metric between the scans. The ICP algorithm uses a "model-data" concept in which the scans obtain differential treatment in the registration process depending on whether they were assigned to be the "model" or "data". For each of the "data" points, corresponding points from the "model" are sought. Another concept of "symmetric correspondence" was proposed in the Point-to-Plane (P2P) algorithm, where both scans are treated equally in the registration process. The P2P method establishes correspondences on both scans and minimizes the point-to-plane distances between the scans by simultaneously considering the stochastic properties of both scans. This paper studies both the ICP and P2P algorithms in terms of their consistency in registration parameters for pairs of TLS data. The question being investigated in this paper is, should scan A be registered to scan B, will the parameters be the same if scan B were registered to scan A? Experiments were conducted with eight pairs of real TLS data which were registered by the two algorithms in the forward (scan A to scan B) and backward (scan B to scan A) modes and the results were compared. The P2P algorithm was found to be more consistent than the ICP algorithm. The differences in registration accuracy between the forward and backward modes were negligible when using the P2P algorithm (mean difference of 0.03 mm). However, the ICP had a mean difference of 4.26 mm. Each scan was also transformed by the forward and backward parameters of the two algorithms and the misclosure computed. The mean misclosure for the P2P algorithm was 0.80 mm while that for the ICP algorithm was 5.39 mm. The conclusion from this study is

  19. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: ICILS 2013 User Guide for the International Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Michael, Ed.; Carstens, Ralph, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2013, conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), studied how students in different countries develop the knowledge, understanding, attitudes, dispositions, and skills that comprise computer and information literacy (CIL). The aim…

  20. Radioactivity of natural and artificial building materials - a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Zs; Völgyesi, P; Nagy, H É; Szabó, Cs; Kis, Z; Csorba, O

    2013-04-01

    Building materials and their additives contain radioactive isotopes, which can increase both external and internal radioactive exposures of humans. In this study Hungarian natural (adobe) and artificial (brick, concrete, coal slag, coal slag concrete and gas silicate) building materials were examined. We qualified 40 samples based on their radium equivalent, activity concentration, external hazard and internal hazard indices and the determined threshold values of these parameters. Absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose for inhabitants living in buildings made of these building materials were also evaluated. The calculations are based on (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activity concentrations determined by gamma-ray spectrometry. Measured radionuclide concentrations and hence, calculated indices and doses of artificial building materials show a rather disparate distribution compared to adobes. The studied coal slag samples among the artificial building materials have elevated (226)Ra content. Natural, i.e. adobe and also brick samples contain higher amount of (40)K compared to other artificial building materials. Correlation coefficients among radionuclide concentrations are consistent with the values in the literature and connected to the natural geochemical behavior of U, Th and K elements. Seven samples (coal slag and coal slag concrete) exceed any of the threshold values of the calculated hazard indices, however only three of them are considered to be risky to use according to the fact that the building material was used in bulk amount or in restricted usage. It is shown, that using different indices can lead to different conclusions; hence we recommend considering more of the indices at the same time when building materials are studied. Additionally, adding two times their statistical uncertainties to their values before comparing to thresholds should be considered for providing a more conservative qualification. We have defined radon hazard portion to point

  1. International Students' Networks: A Case Study in a UK University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taha, Nashrawan; Cox, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The great influx of international students into UK universities has led to internationalisation becoming an important issue. Previous studies have focused on the integration of home and international students, illustrating a lack of intercultural interaction. Yet there has been a lack of research investigating international students' networks and…

  2. Comparing the content of participation instruments using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The concept of participation is recognized as an important rehabilitation outcome and instruments have been developed to measure participation using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). To date, few studies have examined the content of these instruments to determine how participation has been operationalized. The purpose of this study was to compare the content of participation instruments using the ICF classification. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted to identify instruments that assess participation according to the ICF. Instruments were considered to assess participation and were included if the domains contain content from a minimum of three ICF chapters ranging from Chapter 3 Communication to Chapter 9 Community, social and civic life in the activities and participation component. The instrument content was examined by first identifying the meaningful concepts in each question and then linking these concepts to ICF categories. The content analysis included reporting the 1) ICF chapters (domains) covered in the activities and participation component, 2) relevance of the meaningful concepts to the activities and participation component and 3) context in which the activities and participation component categories are evaluated. Results Eight instruments were included: Impact on Participation and Autonomy, Keele Assessment of Participation, Participation Survey/Mobility, Participation Measure-Post Acute Care, Participation Objective Participation Subjective, Participation Scale (P-Scale), Rating of Perceived Participation and World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). 1351 meaningful concepts were identified in the eight instruments. There are differences among the instruments regarding how participation is operationalized. All the instruments cover six to eight of the nine chapters in the activities and participation component. The P-Scale and WHODAS II have

  3. A Study and Simulation of International Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilke, Eileen Veronica; Skrentny, Ray

    1990-01-01

    Illustrates a fifth grade teaching unit on international economics. Gives suggestions for use at the lower elementary and primary grades and points out that incorporation of economics into the elementary education curriculum can produce economically literate citizens in a cost-effective way. (GG)

  4. Internal anal sphincter: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Uz, A; Elhan, A; Ersoy, M; Tekdemir, I

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the internal anal sphincter and surrounding structures was investigated in 24 cadavers using a surgical microscope (6-25 x magnification). An understanding of the anatomy of the internal anal sphincter is helpful in avoiding complications during surgical procedures in the anorectal region. The external anal sphincter was composed of three ellipsoid rings of skeletal muscle (subcutaneous, superficial, and deep) that encircle the anal canal; in contrast, we found that the internal anal sphincter was composed of flat rings of smooth muscle bundles stacked one on top of the other, like the slats of a Venetian blind. In each anal canal, the average number of ring-like slats observed was 26.33 +/- 2.93 (range = 20-30) and each was covered by its own fascia. The smooth muscle fibers and fascia coalesced at three equidistant points around the anal canal to form three columns that extended distally into the lumen and differed in form from the other anal columns. When viewed from an anterior position, the columns were located anteriorly at the observer's right (5 o'clock position), posteriorly at the right (1 o'clock position), and laterally at the left (9 o'clock position). This heretofore unreported anatomy of the internal anal sphincter may play an important role in closing off the lumen of the anal canal and maintaining bowel continence. PMID:14695582

  5. Elite female soccer players perform more high-intensity running when playing in international games compared with domestic league games.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Helena A; Randers, Morten B; Heiner-Møller, Anja; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare movement pattern, fatigue development, and heart rate (HR) for top-class elite female players when playing international (INT) vs. domestic league games (DOM). Video-based time-motion analyses and HR recordings were performed on 17 players during INT and DOM. The distances covered in high-intensity running (HIR) and sprinting were longer (p < 0.05) in INT compared with DOM. More (p < 0.05) HIR was covered in INT than DOM during first and second half. Additionally, more (p < 0.05) sprinting occurred in INT compared with DOM in the first half. In both game types, the amount of HIR was reduced by 24-27% (p < 0.05) in the last 15-minute period compared with the first four 15-minute periods of the game. The midfielders covered longer (p < 0.05) distances with HIR in INT than in DOM over the entire game and in the most intense 5-minute period of the games, whereas no differences were observed between the game types for defenders. No difference in the HR response was found between INT and DOM. In conclusion, more HIR and sprinting occur in international compared with domestic games, which may affect the fatigue development for players in physically demanding roles. Thus, our results are important to coaches to prepare players to meet the challenges of international soccer games and show that the ability to perform intense intermittent exercise should be trained regularly in elite female players. PMID:20300037

  6. Trend Analysis on Mathematics Achievements: A Comparative Study Using TIMSS Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ker, H. W.

    2013-01-01

    Research addressed the importance of mathematics education for the students' preparation to enter scientific and technological workforce. This paper utilized Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 data to conduct a global comparative analysis on mathematics performance at varied International Benchmark levels. The…

  7. Flip This Classroom: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unruh, Tiffany; Peters, Michelle L.; Willis, Jana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare the beliefs and attitudes of teachers using the flipped versus the traditional class model. Survey and interview data were collected from a matched sample of in-service teachers representing both models from a large suburban southeastern Texas school district. The Attitude Towards Technology Scale, the…

  8. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VIDEO TAPE RECORDINGS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENS, JACOB H.

    THE COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRESENTLY AVAILABLE VIDEO TAPE MACHINES IS REPORTED, FOR THE CONVENIENCE OF SCHOOL ADMINISTRATORS PLANNING TO USE SUCH EQUIPMENT IN EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS. TESTS WERE CONDUCTED AT THE WIENS ELECTRONIC LABORATORIES. MACHINE BRANDS TESTED WERE AMPEX, CONCORD, MACHTRONICS, PRECISION, RCA, SONY, AND WOLLENSAK. A DETAILED…

  9. Counseling in Costa Rica: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    With one of the world's most comprehensive universal healthcare systems, medical tourism in Costa Rica has increased significantly over the past few decades. American tourists save up to 80% of comparative costs for procedures, from heart surgery to root canal treatment. Although many Costa Rican healthcare professionals receive training in North…

  10. Comparative evaluation of bite forces in patients after treatment of mandibular fractures with miniplate osteosynthesis and internal locking miniplate osteosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Saurab; Gattumeedhi, Shashank Reddy; Sankhla, Bharat; Garg, Akshay; Ingle, Ekta; Dagli, Namrata

    2014-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: The aim of present study was to compare the stability of fractured mandibular fragments under functional load, when fixed with conventional miniplate and internal locking miniplate. Materials and Methods: Bite force (in kg) recorded in twenty mandible fractured patients and fifty normal healthy individuals. Bite force was measured at incisor and molar regions. Comparative evaluation of bite force generated was performed between 10 cases treated with conventional miniplates and 10 cases treated with internal locking miniplates. Bite force generated by patients in mandibular fracture between symphysis and the angle of mandible was recorded in incisor and molar regions preoperatively. The fracture fragments were fixed using the above fixation techniques. Then same recording was undertaken on the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 90th days postoperatively. Results: Bite force generated by patients treated with locking plates at the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 90th postoperative days was significantly higher as compared to those in patients treated with miniplates. Conclusion: It was observed in our study that the locking plate/screw system offers significant advantages over the conventional plating system. There are no intraoperative difficulties associated with placement of the plate. PMID:25452924

  11. Technology whitespaces India should focus: a comparative anti-cancer patent rational analysis of Indian and international public funded universities.

    PubMed

    Dara, Ajay; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2015-01-01

    The article reported an in-depth comparative technology analysis of 1708 Anti-cancer patents from top 20 international universities and leading 10 Indian public funded organization and research institutes. The study segregated pioneer universities vs. technologies used in the field of Anticancer research at a level of drug discovery, development, diagnosis and treatment, which are illustrated in the form of novel substantive patent landscape maps. The reported competitive intelligent maps identified genetics, composition and synthetic compounds as dominating technologies; followed by natural extracts, combination and drug delivery systems as upcoming technologies. The least number of patents were reported by surgical apparatus, targeted therapy and animal models. In addition, the study analysed the key technologies followed by Indian universities in comparison to the international universities, to identify the overlooked technologies by the Indian public funded institutes. In an ever changing competitive world, it is essential for every university to have their own research plan and thrust areas; but at the same time, it is equally important for any organisation to have an idea of their competitor's research plan as well. So, the article suggested Indian institutes to focus on the latest emerging Anti-cancer technology trends, which are in practice by the international universities. Concurrently, this study may be a landmark indication for Indian public funded universities and institutes, calling for a U-turn from their traditional approaches. PMID:25751276

  12. Bacterial contamination control mats: a comparative study.

    PubMed Central

    Meddick, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    The ability of six different types of contamination control mats currently in use at the entrances to theatre suites and other clean areas to remove bacteria-carrying particles from theatre trolley wheeels was compared. Marked differences in the effectiveness of this property were obtained; and all mats showed some disadvantages. Modification of one of the mats has resulted in improved efficiency under working conditions. Images Plate 1 PMID:267665

  13. Development and Dematerialization: An International Study

    PubMed Central

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Krausmann, Fridolin; Getzner, Michael; Schandl, Heinz; West, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Economic development and growth depend on growing levels of resource use, and result in environmental impacts from large scale resource extraction and emissions of waste. In this study, we examine the resource dependency of economic activities over the past several decades for a set of countries comprising developing, emerging and mature industrialized economies. Rather than a single universal industrial development pathway, we find a diversity of economic dependencies on material use, made evident through cluster analysis. We conduct tests for relative and absolute decoupling of the economy from material use, and compare these with similar tests for decoupling from carbon emissions, both for single countries and country groupings using panel analysis. We show that, over the longer term, emerging and developing countries tend to have significantly larger material-economic coupling than mature industrialized economies (although this effect may be enhanced by trade patterns), but that the contrary is true for short-term coupling. Moreover, we demonstrate that absolute dematerialization limits economic growth rates, while the successful industrialization of developing countries inevitably requires a strong material component. Alternative development priorities are thus urgently needed both for mature and emerging economies: reducing absolute consumption levels for the former, and avoiding the trap of resource-intensive economic and human development for the latter. PMID:24204555

  14. Development and dematerialization: an international study.

    PubMed

    Steinberger, Julia K; Krausmann, Fridolin; Getzner, Michael; Schandl, Heinz; West, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Economic development and growth depend on growing levels of resource use, and result in environmental impacts from large scale resource extraction and emissions of waste. In this study, we examine the resource dependency of economic activities over the past several decades for a set of countries comprising developing, emerging and mature industrialized economies. Rather than a single universal industrial development pathway, we find a diversity of economic dependencies on material use, made evident through cluster analysis. We conduct tests for relative and absolute decoupling of the economy from material use, and compare these with similar tests for decoupling from carbon emissions, both for single countries and country groupings using panel analysis. We show that, over the longer term, emerging and developing countries tend to have significantly larger material-economic coupling than mature industrialized economies (although this effect may be enhanced by trade patterns), but that the contrary is true for short-term coupling. Moreover, we demonstrate that absolute dematerialization limits economic growth rates, while the successful industrialization of developing countries inevitably requires a strong material component. Alternative development priorities are thus urgently needed both for mature and emerging economies: reducing absolute consumption levels for the former, and avoiding the trap of resource-intensive economic and human development for the latter. PMID:24204555

  15. Comparative analyses for selected clean coal technologies in the international marketplace

    SciTech Connect

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1990-07-01

    Clean coal technologies (CCTs) are being demonstrated in research and development programs under public and private sponsorship. Many of these technologies could be marketed internationally. To explore the scope of these international opportunities and to match particular technologies with markets appearing to have high potential, a study was undertaken that focused on seven representative countries: Italy, Japan, Morocco, Turkey, Pakistan, the Peoples' Republic of China, and Poland. The results suggest that there are international markets for CCTs and that these technologies can be cost competitive with more conventional alternatives. The identified markets include construction of new plants and refurbishment of existing ones, especially when decision makers want to decrease dependence on imported oil. This report describes potential international market niches for U.S. CCTs and discusses the status and implications of ongoing CCT demonstration activities. Twelve technologies were selected as representative of technologies under development for use in new or refurbished industrial or electric utility applications. Included are the following: Two generic precombustion technologies: two-stage froth-flotation coal beneficiation and coal-water mixtures (CWMs); Four combustion technologies: slagging combustors, integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) systems, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors (AFBCs), and pressurized fluidized-bed combustors (PFBCs); and Six postcombustion technologies: limestone-injection multistage burner (LIMB) systems, gas-reburning sorbent-injection (GRSI) systems, dual-alkali flue-gas desulfurization (FGD), spray-dryer FGD, the NOXSO process, and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems. Major chapters of this report have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. ICMSF methods studies. VIII. Comparative study for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens in foods.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Gilbert, R J; Harmon, S M; O'Keeffe, M F; Vahlefeld, R

    1977-07-01

    Four methods were compared in an international comparative study for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens: the SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens) agar (A), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserin) agar (B), SC (sulfite-cycloserine) agar (C), and neomycin blood agar (D) methods. The confirmed C. perfringens counts were slightly lower for D than for A-C. The percentages of presumptive colonies confirmed as C. perfringens were essentially the same in each method. The relative numbers of nonspecific colonies were the lowest in C, followed by B, D, and A. The methods were also compared for simplicity and for aspects associated with the recognition and selection of presumptive colonies. PMID:195698

  17. Comparing the Effects of Light- or Sonic-Activated Drug Delivery: Photochemical/Sonochemical Internalization.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Steen J; Gonzales, Jonathan; Zamora, Genesis; Berg, Kristian; Nair, Rohit Kumar; Hirschberg, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technique that uses the photochemical properties of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the enhanced delivery of endolysosomal-trapped macromolecules into the cell cytoplasm. The released agent can therefore exert its full biological activity, in contrast to being degraded by lysosomal hydrolases. Activation of photosensitizers via ultrasound (US), called sonodynamic therapy (SDT), has been proposed as an alternative to light-activated PDT for the treatment of cancerous tumors. The use of focused US (FUS) to activate photosensitizers allows treatment at tumor sites buried deep within tissues, overcoming one of the main limitations of PDT/PCI. We have examined ultrasonic activation of photosensitizers together with the anticancer agent bleomycin (BLM) using sonochemical internalization (SCI), as an alternative to light-activated PCI. Our results indicate that, compared to drug or US treatment alone, US activation of the photosensitizer AlPcS2a together with BLM significantly inhibits the ability of treated glioma cells to form clonogenic colonies. PMID:27279586

  18. Comparative transport studies of ``1212'' superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    GAPUD,ALBERT; WU,JUDY; YAN,SHAOLIN; XIE,YI-YUAN; KANG,BYEONGWON; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-05-17

    HgBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 6+{delta}} (Hg-1212) thin films were fabricated by exchanging the TI cations in TlBa{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 7-{delta}} (Tl-1212) thin films with Hg cations, causing a 30-K increase in Tc. To determine how this exchange effects such a Tc increase, the irreversibility lines, temperature dependence of critical current density, and temperature dependence of Hall angle of Hg-1212 and T1-1212 thin films were measured and then compared. The results strongly suggest that the Tc shift is caused by a doubling of charge carrier density.

  19. Comparative study of some new EPR dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzimami, K. S.; Maghraby, Ahmed M.; Bradley, D. A.

    2014-02-01

    Investigations have been made of four new radiation dosimetry EPR candidates from the same family of materials: sulfamic acid, sulfanillic acid, homotaurine, and taurine. Mass energy attenuation coefficients, mass stopping power values and the time dependence of the radiation induced radicals are compared. Also investigated are the microwave saturation behavior and the effect of applied modulation amplitude on both peak-to-peak line width (WPP) and peak-to-peak signal height (HPP). The dosimeters are characterized by simple spectra and stable radiation-induced radicals over reasonable durations, especially in taurine dosimeters. Sulfamic acid dosimeters possessed the highest sensitivity followed by taurine and homotaurine and sulfanillic.

  20. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF HERPETOMONADS AND LEISHMANIAS

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi, Hideyo; Tilden, Evelyn B.

    1926-01-01

    obtained in culture, all the strains grow well on leptospira medium, as well as on blood slants. Growth takes place both at 26°C. and at 37°. The morphology of the organisms is considerably modified by cultivation. This is especially true of the plant flagellates. In the latex they have ribbon-like bodies, often twisted, and comparatively short flagella; the protoplasm is clear, almost hyaline. The flagellates seen in the gut and feces of insects are usually large, slender organisms, with flagella as long as or even longer than the body, which contains numerous volutin granules in the cytoplasm. In cultures under parallel conditions the flagellates from both these sources become shorter and thicker, the plant forms no longer appear flat and ribbon-like, and in general the organisms approach one another in morphological features. Even in the case of the least modified insect flagellates, i.e. those from flies, there is never exact correspondence between the natural and the cultivated forms. The morphological features of the cultivated flagellates vary according to the medium on which the organisms are grown and the age of the culture. The flagellates grown on the surface of blood slants are pyriform, with truncated anterior portion, and short flagellum; in the condensation water, however, the individuals are elongated and have long active flagella. On the leptospira medium the slender active forms with long flagella predominate. In the presence of fermentable carbohydrate, or in medium containing considerable acid, peculiar bifurcated or multifurcated individuals are seen. Similar forms have been seen under natural conditions. Cultures of Leishmania behave in the same way under the conditions described. There is a striking difference in rapidity of growth between the organisms isolated by us and the leishmanias, H. ctenocephali, and T. rotatorium. While the stock cultures of the group first mentioned multiply rapidly at 37°C., growth becoming visible within 24 hours, the

  1. Technology, Preprocessing, and Resistance--A Comparative Case Study of Intensive Classroom Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adria, Marco; Rose, Teresa

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on two international case studies that used comparable applications of information and communication technologies (ICTs) and were undertaken in comparable academic areas and levels of study. In the two cases, the authors explored faculty resistance to the use of ICTs for teaching and learning in higher…

  2. International Space Station Electrodynamic Tether Reboost Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.

    1998-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will require periodic reboost due to atmospheric aerodynamic drag. This is nominally achieved through the use of thruster firings by the attached Progress M spacecraft. Many Progress flights to the ISS are required annually. Electrodynamic tethers provide an attractive alternative in that they can provide periodic reboost or continuous drag cancellation using no consumables, propellant, nor conventional propulsion elements. The system could also serve as an emergency backup reboost system used only in the event resupply and reboost are delayed for some reason.

  3. Comparative study of five blood cardioplegia systems.

    PubMed

    Byrne, C J; Bednarski, A J; Beckley, P D

    1994-12-01

    Five blood cardioplegia delivery systems (Gish Straight Shot, Sorin BCD Advanced, Avecor MYOtherm, Baxter-Bentley HE-30, and Baxter-Bentley HE-30 Gold) were evaluated with respect to ease of rapid priming, coefficient of heat exchange, pressure drop, bubble trap capacity, and priming volume. Each system was placed in a roller pump circuit consisting of source and collection reservoirs, cardioplegia solution, and pre-post system pressure and temperature monitoring sites. A trial was performed on four units of each brand by first priming the circuit with 0.9% NaCl at 200 ml/min. Bovine blood (hematocrit 22%) was then introduced simulating use during bypass. Pressure drops across the heat exchanger were measured at flows of 200, 300, and 400 ml/min and at temperatures of 37 degrees, 19 degrees, and 4 degrees C. Coefficient of heat exchange was determined at 300 ml/min flow. Air was infused into the system to quantify the bubble trap capacity of the heat exchanger module. Priming volume of the entire system and of the heat exchanger module were determined by draining each into a graduated cylinder. The Sorin system had significantly less priming volume when compared to all others. The HE-30 units had significantly higher heat exchange coefficients compared to all other systems. Variability was noted in pressure drop at the highest flows and lowest temperatures. PMID:10150681

  4. A Comparative Study of Compression Video Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Chris A.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to provide an overview of compression devices used to increase the cost effectiveness of teleconferences by reducing satellite bandwidth requirements for the transmission of television pictures and accompanying audio signals. The main body of the report describes the comparison study of compression rates and their…

  5. Comparative results of 327 chemical carcinogenicity studies.

    PubMed Central

    Haseman, J K; Huff, J E; Zeiger, E; McConnell, E E

    1987-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) have carried out a number of laboratory animal carcinogenicity studies and presented the results of these experiments in a series of Technical Reports. This paper tabulates the results of the 327 NCI/NTP studies carried out to date on 308 distinct chemicals, and discusses certain issues relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity in these experiments. This compilation of results from NCI/NTP carcinogenicity experiments provides a large database that can be used to study structure-activity correlations, interspecies concordance, and associations between laboratory animal carcinogenicity and other toxicological effects. PMID:3691430

  6. International photonics training: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sporea, Dan; Massa, Nicholas; Donnelly, Judith F.; Hanes, Fenna

    2007-06-01

    From 2004, the Center for Science Education and Training (CSET) participated to the European Union-funded educational network "Hands-on Science". The aim of the Romanian team was to transform teachers and students from end-users of educational aids to active designers and developers of instructional materials. Several science fields were identified, including photonics. The team at CSET is now focusing on: lasers and their applications, optical fiber communications, solar energy as a sustainable source, and the use of optical spectroscopy in physics and chemistry. CSET initiated an international collaboration with the New England Board of Higher Education (NEBHE) in Boston, Mass., when the Center enrolled an experienced Romanian high school science teacher in a twelve-week "Introduction to Photonics" laboratory-based professional development course. The course was developed by NEBHE through an Advanced Technological Education (ATE) program grant from National Science Foundation and is designed for high school and community college educators from both science and technology instructional areas. The paper reports the experience of this international participation which was made possible since the course is delivered via the Internet by Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, Conn. Its impact on photonics education in Romania and the USA is analyzed, as the participant teacher shares her experiences with teachers and faculty in the "Introduction to Photonics" course and with those enrolled into the Romanian "Hands-on-Science" program.

  7. A Comparative Study of Landmine Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasban, H.; Zahran, O.; Elaraby, Sayed M.; El-Kordy, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2010-09-01

    Several countries suffer from the existence of millions of buried landmines in their territories. These landmines have indefinite life, and may still cause horrific personal injuries and economic dislocation for decades after a war has finished. Therefore, there is a growing demand by these countries for reliable landmine inspection systems. There are several landmine detection techniques that can be used for this purpose. Each technique is suitable for detection under some conditions depending on the type of the landmine case, the explosive material, and the soil. This paper presents an overview of some of the existing landmine detection techniques. These techniques are briefly described and their merits and drawbacks are highlighted and compared. The purpose of this comparison is to shows the ideal conditions and the challenges for each technique. Furthermore, a comparison between landmine detection techniques from the points of view of cost, complexity, speed, safety, false alarm rate and effect of environmental conditions is presented.

  8. Improvements for comparative analysis of changes in diversity of microbial communities using internal standards in PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Dorthe Groth; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2005-08-01

    The use of internal standards both during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE procedure gives the opportunity to analyse the relative abundance of individual species back to the original sample, thereby facilitating relative comparative analysis of diversity. Internal standards were used throughout the DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE to compensate for experimental variability. Such variability causes decreased reproducibility among replicate samples as well as compromise comparisons between samples, since experimental errors cannot be differentiated from actual changes in the community abundance and structure. The use of internal standards during DNA extraction and PCR-DGGE is suitable for ecological and ecotoxicological experiments with microbial communities, where relative changes in the community abundance and structure are studied. We have developed a protocol Internal Standards in Molecular Analysis of Diversity (ISMAD) that is simple to use, inexpensive, rapid to perform and it does not require additional samples to be processed. The internal standard for DNA extraction (ExtrIS) is a fluorescent 510-basepair PCR product which is added to the samples prior to DNA extraction, recovered together with the extracted DNA from the samples and analysed with fluorescence spectrophotometry. The use of ExtrIS during isolation of sample DNA significantly reduced variation among replicate samples. The PCR internal standard (PCR(IS)) originates from the Drosophila melanogaster genome and is a 140-basepair long PCR product, which is amplified by non-competitive primers in the same PCR reaction tubes as the target DNA and analysed together with the target PCR product on the same DGGE gel. The use of PCR(IS) during PCR significantly reduced variation among replicate samples both when assessing total PCR product and when comparing bands representing species on a DGGE gel. The entire ISMAD protocol was shown to accurately describe changes in relative abundance in an environmental sample

  9. The distinct effects of internalizing weight bias: An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M

    2016-06-01

    Both experiencing and internalizing weight bias are associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes, but internalization may be a more potent predictor of these outcomes. The current study aimed to differentiate between causal effects of experiencing versus internalizing weight bias on emotional responses and psychological well-being. Adults with overweight/obesity (N=260) completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to focus on either the experience or internalization of weight bias, and completed measures of affect, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Results indicated that the Internalization condition led to more negative affect, less positive affect, and lower self-esteem than the Experience condition. The Internalization condition also led to heightened body dissatisfaction among men, but not women. These findings suggest that weight bias internalization may be a stronger predictor of poor mental and physical health than experiences alone, and carry implications for developing weight bias interventions. PMID:26927688

  10. Comparative study of skew detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amin, Adnan; Fischer, Stephen; Parkinson, Anthony F.; Shiu, Ricky

    1996-10-01

    Document image processing has become an increasingly important technology in the automation of office documentation tasks. Automatic document scanners such as text readers and optical character recognition systems are an essential component of systems capable of those tasks. One of the problems in this field is that the document to be read is not always placed correctly on a flat-bed scanner. This means that the document may be skewed on the scanner bed, resulting in a skewed image. This skew has a detrimental effect on document analysis, document understanding, and character segmentation and recognition. Consequently, detecting the skew of a document image and correcting it are important issues in realizing a practical document reader. We describe a new algorithm for skew detection. We then compare the performance and results of this skew detection algorithm to other published methods from O'Gorman, Hinds, Le, Baird, Postl, and Akiyama. Finally, we discuss the theory of skew detection and the different approaches taken to solve the problem of skew in documents. The skew correction algorithm we propose has been shown to be extremely fast, with run times averaging under 0.25 CPU seconds to calculate the angle on a DEC 5000/20 workstation.

  11. Toucan and hornbill beaks: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Seki, Yasuaki; Bodde, Sara G; Meyers, Marc A

    2010-02-01

    The structure and mechanical behavior of Toco Toucan (Ramphastos toco) and Wreathed Hornbill (Rhyticeros undulatus) beaks were compared. The beak of both species is a sandwich-structured composite, having an exterior, or rhamphotheca, consisting of multiple layers of keratin scales and a core composed of a fibrous network of bony closed-cell foam. The rhamphotheca is an arrangement of approximately 50microm diameter, overlapping, keratin tiles. The hornbill rhamphotheca exhibits a surface morphology on the ridged casque that is distinguishable from that observed on the bill proper. Intermediate filaments in the keratin matrix were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The Young's modulus measurements of toucan rhamphotheca indicate isotropy in longitudinal and transverse directions, whereas those of hornbill rhamphotheca may suggest anisotropy. The compressive response of beak foam is governed by brittle crushing behavior. The crushing strength of hornbill foam is six times higher than that of toucan foam. Micro- and nanoindentation hardness values were measured for rhamphotheca and foam trabeculae of toucan and hornbill specimens. The sandwich design of beaks was analyzed using the Karam-Gibson and Dawson-Gibson models. The presence of a cellular core increases the bending resistance (Brazier moment) by a factor of 3-6 while decreasing the compressive strength by only 50%. PMID:19699818

  12. LES versus DNS: A comparative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shtilman, L.; Chasnov, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have performed Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of forced isotropic turbulence at moderate Reynolds numbers. The subgrid scale model used in the LES is based on an eddy viscosity which adjusts instantaneously the energy spectrum of the LES to that of the DNS. The statistics of the large scales of the DNS (filtered DNS field or fDNS) are compared to that of the LES. We present results for the transfer spectra, the skewness and flatness factors of the velocity components, the PDF's of the angle between the vorticity and the eigenvectors of the rate of strain, and that between the vorticity and the vorticity stretching tensor. The above LES statistics are found to be in good agreement with those measured in the fDNS field. We further observe that in all the numerical measurements, the trend was for the LES field to be more gaussian than the fDNS field. Future research on this point is planned.

  13. Children's Friendship Development: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    Establishing friendships is an important developmental goal of early childhood, but little research has addressed ways in which parents support the friendship development of their young children with disabilities. The purpose of this survey study was to explore the support strategies that parents use to facilitate their children's friendships.…

  14. Articulation of Quality Teaching: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakarneh, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe and then contrast the New South Wales Department of Education and Training's model of quality teaching with the Jordanian Ministry of Education's conception of quality teaching, looking particularly at potential differences in interpretation. A content analysis methodology was used. Each perspective has been…

  15. Metacognition and Group Differences: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, metacognition refers to performing visual analysis and discrimination of real life events and situations in naïve psychology, naïve physics, and naïve biology domains. It is used, along with measuring reaction time, to examine differences in the ability of four groups of students to select appropriate pictures that correspond with…

  16. Implicature, Pragmatics, and Documentation: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the link between the linguistic principles of implicature and pragmatics and software documentation. When implicatures are created in conversation or text, the listener or reader is required to fill in missing information not overtly stated. This information is usually filled in on the basis of previous knowledge or…

  17. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  18. Independent Senior Women Who Travel Internationally: A Collective Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Nine independent women over age 55 who traveled internationally were investigated through a qualitative case study. The purpose of the study was to explore the women's attitudes, actions, and motivations during and after their international travel experiences. The adult, aging, experiential, and transformational theories of researchers such as…

  19. Language and International Studies: The Rhetoric of Friction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Rose L.

    This paper outlines the ways in which natural, functional areas in international studies overlap with foreign language proficiencies. An overview of international studies and language developments is given along with contrasts between needs and realities, showing that educational practice in this area is out-of-phase. Today, the situation is…

  20. Earthquake correlations and networks: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna Mohan, T. R.; Revathi, P. G.

    2011-04-15

    We quantify the correlation between earthquakes and use the same to extract causally connected earthquake pairs. Our correlation metric is a variation on the one introduced by Baiesi and Paczuski [M. Baiesi and M. Paczuski, Phys. Rev. E 69, 066106 (2004)]. A network of earthquakes is then constructed from the time-ordered catalog and with links between the more correlated ones. A list of recurrences to each of the earthquakes is identified employing correlation thresholds to demarcate the most meaningful ones in each cluster. Data pertaining to three different seismic regions (viz., California, Japan, and the Himalayas) are comparatively analyzed using such a network model. The distribution of recurrence lengths and recurrence times are two of the key features analyzed to draw conclusions about the universal aspects of such a network model. We find that the unimodal feature of recurrence length distribution, which helps to associate typical rupture lengths with different magnitude earthquakes, is robust across the different seismic regions. The out-degree of the networks shows a hub structure rooted on the large magnitude earthquakes. In-degree distribution is seen to be dependent on the density of events in the neighborhood. Power laws, with two regimes having different exponents, are obtained with recurrence time distribution. The first regime confirms the Omori law for aftershocks while the second regime, with a faster falloff for the larger recurrence times, establishes that pure spatial recurrences also follow a power-law distribution. The crossover to the second power-law regime can be taken to be signaling the end of the aftershock regime in an objective fashion.

  1. Comparative study of the 2016 DPRK event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebede, Fekadu; Jonathan, Ezekiel; Graham, Gerhard

    2016-04-01

    Effective monitoring of any violations of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) depends upon the State Parties' ability to determine the nature of the source of the signals recorded by the IMS stations. Analysis by the IDC of the data gives some of the required information but makes no effort to determine the nature of source as specified by the Treaty. On January 6, 2016 the IMS network of stations recorded unusual seismic event from the DPRK. This was the fourth time that such an event from a man-made event was recorded from this area. Past detections of announced nuclear tests were on 9 October 2006, 25 May 2009, and 12 February 2013. There are a few natural earthquakes that have been recorded in this region. This study presents results of an assessment of waveform data and amplitude spectra obtained from seismic events observed at regional and/or local distance ranges, for both natural and man-made events located in the DPRK. The study reveals that the waveform displays of the four man-made events are practically simple and have nearly the same signature, yet they are significantly different to those of the observed natural earthquakes occurring in the region. The similarities of the waveforms obtained from the man-made events are due to the closeness of the epicentres and hence no difference in path effects for the Stations considered. The computed amplitude spectra of the waveform for the man-made and natural events also show differences in their relative amplitudes between the respective Primary and Secondary seismic phases, indicating that their sources are different. The study clearly shows the importance of studying the signature of the recorded seismic waves to determine the nature of the source of the energy, if it is man-made or natural, particularly for regions where records of natural earthquakes exist. Determination of the nature of source of recorded seismic waves is fundamental to CTBT verification. Thus data observed at regional and

  2. Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study.

    PubMed

    Owen, Chelsea; Breheny, Patrick; Ingram, Richard; Pfeifle, William; Cain, Jeff; Ryan, Melody

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVES. To examine the interest of pharmacy students in international study, the demographic factors and involvement characteristics associated with that interest, and the perceived advantages and barriers of engaging in international opportunities during pharmacy school. METHODS. A self-administered electronic survey instrument was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy students at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy. RESULTS. There were 192 total respondents, for a response rate of 50.9%. Seventy-two percent reported interest in international study. Previous international study experience (p=0.001), previous international travel experience (p=0.002), year in pharmacy school (p=0.03), level of academic involvement (p<0.001), and level of diversity involvement (p<0.001) were associated with international study interest. Positive influences to international study included desire to travel and availability of scholarships. Perceived barriers included an inability to pay expenses and lack of foreign language knowledge. CONCLUSIONS. The needs and interests of pharmacy students should be considered in the development and expansion of internationalization programs in order to effectively optimize global partnerships and available international experiences. Colleges and schools of pharmacy should engage students early in the curriculum when interest in study-abroad opportunities is highest and seek to alleviate concerns about expenses as a primary influence on study-abroad decisions through provision of financial assistance. PMID:23610472

  3. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  4. Egress of Alphaherpesviruses: Comparative Ultrastructural Study

    PubMed Central

    Granzow, Harald; Klupp, Barbara G.; Fuchs, Walter; Veits, Jutta; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.

    2001-01-01

    Egress of four important alphaherpesviruses, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), and pseudorabies virus (PrV), was investigated by electron microscopy of infected cell lines of different origins. In all virus-cell systems analyzed, similar observations were made concerning the different stages of virion morphogenesis. After intranuclear assembly, nucleocapsids bud at the inner leaflet of the nuclear membrane, resulting in enveloped particles in the perinuclear space that contain a sharply bordered rim of tegument and a smooth envelope surface. Egress from the perinuclear cisterna primarily occurs by fusion of the primary envelope with the outer leaflet of the nuclear membrane, which has been visualized for HSV-1 and EHV-1 for the first time. The resulting intracytoplasmic naked nucleocapsids are enveloped at membranes of the trans-Golgi network (TGN), as shown by immunogold labeling with a TGN-specific antiserum. Virions containing their final envelope differ in morphology from particles within the perinuclear cisterna by visible surface projections and a diffuse tegument. Particularly striking was the addition of a large amount of tegument material to ILTV capsids in the cytoplasm. Extracellular virions were morphologically identical to virions within Golgi-derived vesicles, but distinct from virions in the perinuclear space. Studies with gB- and gH-deleted PrV mutants indicated that these two glycoproteins, which are essential for virus entry and direct cell-to-cell spread, are dispensable for egress. Taken together, our studies indicate that the deenvelopment-reenvelopment process of herpesvirus maturation also occurs in EHV-1, HSV-1, and ILTV and that membrane fusion processes occurring during egress are substantially different from those during entry and direct viral cell-to-cell spread. PMID:11264357

  5. Bridging Cultures and Traditions for Educational and International Development: Comparative Research, Dialogue and Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Addressing the central theme of the XIII World Congress, the paper explores a number of contemporary theoretical, methodological and organisational developments in the field of comparative education. In doing so it draws upon the author's recent work and a selection of studies carried out in the South Pacific, the Caribbean and Africa. It is…

  6. A comparative study of AGN feedback algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, J.; Thacker, R. J.

    2013-05-01

    Modelling active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback in numerical simulations is both technically and theoretically challenging, with numerous approaches having been published in the literature. We present a study of five distinct approaches to modelling AGN feedback within gravitohydrodynamic simulations of major mergers of Milky Way-sized galaxies. To constrain differences to only be between AGN feedback models, all simulations start from the same initial conditions and use the same star formation algorithm. Most AGN feedback algorithms have five key aspects: the black hole accretion rate, energy feedback rate and method, particle accretion algorithm, black hole advection algorithm and black hole merger algorithm. All models follow different accretion histories, and in some cases, accretion rates differ by up to three orders of magnitude at any given time. We consider models with either thermal or kinetic feedback, with the associated energy deposited locally around the black hole. Each feedback algorithm modifies the region around the black hole to different extents, yielding gas densities and temperatures within r ˜ 200 pc that differ by up to six orders of magnitude at any given time. The particle accretion algorithms usually maintain good agreement between the total mass accreted by dot{M} dt and the total mass of gas particles removed from the simulation, although not all algorithms guarantee this to be true. The black hole advection algorithms dampen inappropriate dragging of the black holes by two-body interactions. Advecting the black hole a limited distance based upon local mass distributions has many desirably properties, such as avoiding large artificial jumps and allowing the possibility of the black hole remaining in a gas void. Lastly, two black holes instantly merge when given criteria are met, and we find a range of merger times for different criteria. This is important since the AGN feedback rate changes across the merger in a way that is dependent

  7. Laws and policies to support the wellbeing of children: an international comparative analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nicklett, Emily J.; Perron, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    The international community has raised concerns regarding the extent to which countries have implemented laws and policies to support the rights and wellbeing of children. This study evaluates the progress of least-developed countries (LDCs) and middle-income countries (MICs) in developing such legislation. Surveys were sent to 131 UNICEF country offices. Items included efforts to promote family preservation and family ties, family-based care over institutionalization, and child participation in placement decisions. A total of 68 surveys were returned, reflecting a 52 percent response rate (LDC, n = 25; MIC, n = 43). Legislation that addressed abuse and neglect of children, maternity leave, removal of children from the family, family care, adoption, and guardianship was widespread. Chi-square tests indicated that MICs had a substantially higher number of laws and policies related to child allowances, school feeding programs, maternity leave, and day care. PMID:24049510

  8. International Learning Adventures: A Phenomenological Exploration of International Backpacker Style Study Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, Chad Alan

    2010-01-01

    Self-awareness, cultural competency, environmental consciousness, and economic empathy are often achieved through study abroad travel experiences. This phenomenological study was intended to shed light on the international backpacking study abroad experiences for college students, describing the phenomenon from the perspective of the participants…

  9. Cosmos, an international center for advanced studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryzhov, Iurii; Alifanov, Oleg; Sadin, Stanley; Coleman, Paul

    1990-01-01

    The concept of Cosmos, a Soviet operating center for aerospace activities, is presented. The main Cosmos participants are the Institute for Aerospace Education, the Institute for Research and Commercial Development, and the Department of Space Policy and Socio-Economic Studies. Cosmos sponsors a number of educational programs, basic research, and studies of the social impact of space-related technologies.

  10. Using Case Studies: An International Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClam, Tricia; Woodside, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    Case studies as an instructional strategy have been used in many disciplines, including law, teacher education, science, medicine, and business. Among the benefits of this method of instruction are involving students in learning, developing their critical thinking skills, promoting communication, and engaging in critical analysis. Case studies are…

  11. Collaboration in Distance Education. International Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Louise, Ed.; Mugridge, Ian, Ed.

    This book contains nine case studies of collaboration in distance education. The case studies focus on such aspects of collaboration in distance education as the following: roles of individual institutional partners; importance of personal relationships; benefits of collaboration to individual partners; conflicts between collaboration and…

  12. Comparative Analysis of Transpetrosal Approaches to the Internal Acoustic Meatus Using Three-Dimensional Radio-Anatomical Models

    PubMed Central

    Zador, Zsolt; de Carpentier, John

    2015-01-01

    Background The transcrusal approach that involves partial removal of the labyrinth was recently described to approach lesions of the cerebellopontine angle. It carries the benefit of hearing preservation and was suggested to have equivalent exposure of the petroclival surface compared with the transcochlear/transotic approaches. The current study was designed to assess if the transcrusal approach could achieve as good access to the internal auditory meatus (IAM) as the more destructive translabyrinthine exposure. Methods Fifty disease-free high-resolution computed tomography scans of the temporal bone were reviewed. Surgical freedom, angle of attack, and angle of trajectory to the internal acoustic canal were measured in three-dimensional models. Results Surgical freedom and angles of attack showed steady increments with the progression of petrous bone resection from the retrolabyrinthine-transcrusal-translabyrinthine approaches. The angle of access to the IAM axis was dramatically reduced in the translabyrinthine approach compared with the transcrusal and retrolabyrinthine approaches (37.51 ± 5.7, 24.56 ± 4.6, and 3.17 ± 2.85 degrees, respectively; n = 50; average plus or minus standard deviation, p < 0.001). Conclusion Using this novel radio-anatomical system, we demonstrate the advantage of the translabyrinthine approach to the axis of the internal auditory canal. The transcrusal approach lags behind the translabyrinthine corridor and should be considered alongside the subtemporal and retrosigmoid approaches designed to spare hearing. PMID:26225322

  13. Prophylactic radiotherapy against heterotopic ossification following internal fixation of acetabular fractures: a comparative estimate of risk

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, P; Yip, G; Scaife, J E; House, T; Thomas, S J; Harris, F; Owen, P J; Hull, P

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy (RT) is effective in preventing heterotopic ossification (HO) around acetabular fractures requiring surgical reconstruction. We audited outcomes and estimated risks from RT prophylaxis, and alternatives of indometacin or no prophylaxis. Methods: 34 patients underwent reconstruction of acetabular fractures through a posterior approach, followed by a 8-Gy single fraction. The mean age was 44 years. The mean time from surgery to RT was 1.1 days. The major RT risk is radiation-induced fatal cancer. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) method was used to estimate risk, and compared with a method (Trott and Kemprad) specifically for estimating RT risk for benign disease. These were compared with risks associated with indometacin and no prophylaxis. Results: 28 patients (82%) developed no HO; 6 developed Brooker Class I; and none developed Class II–IV HO. The ICRP method suggests a risk of fatal cancer in the range of 1 in 1000 to 1 in 10,000; the Trott and Kemprad method suggests 1 in 3000. For younger patients, this may rise to 1 in 2000; and for elderly patients, it may fall to 1 in 6000. The risk of death from gastric bleeding or perforation from indometacin is 1 in 180 to 1 in 900 in older patients. Without prophylaxis risk of death from reoperation to remove HO is 1 in 4000 to 1 in 30,000. Conclusion: These results are encouraging, consistent with much larger series and endorse our multidisciplinary management. Risk estimates can be used in discussion with patients. Advances in knowledge: The risk from RT prophylaxis is small, it is safer than indometacin and substantially overlaps with the range for no prophylaxis. PMID:25089852

  14. The International Baccalaureate Diploma and Student Attitudes: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Veronica; Hayden, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the findings of a recent study that points to the importance of informal, out of classroom, interactions in effecting change in student attitudes as they pass through the two-year International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, designed as an internationally recognized pre-university programme for students…

  15. International Experiences of Turkish Student Teachers: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kizilaslan, Irem

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, countries around the world have promoted international experiences for student teachers' development of the knowledge and skills necessary in these interdependent and global times. Using a rigorous qualitative approach, this study explored 10 Turkish student teachers' international opportunities in several European countries…

  16. Comparing Digital Sunspot Number Counts to the New International Sunspot Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Henry, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    The International Sunspot Numbers (ISN; Version 2) have been recently (2015) revised at the Sunspot Index and Long Term Solar Observations maintained at Royal Observatory of Belgium (http://www.sidc.be/silso/datafiles). ISN is a reconciled aggregate over several ground-based observatories, mostly using hand-drawn sunspot recordings. We make a detailed 10-year comparisons between the Improved Solar Observing Optical Network’s prototype digital data (2002-2011) and the ISN V1 (Version 1; pre-2015), and ISN V2. Over the ~ 10-year period, ISN V1 underestimates the sunspot number counts by up to 40% while the ISN V2 overestimates by a similar amount. We also compare the hand-drawn data from a single telescope at the National Solar Observatory with the digital data and ISN numbers. These comparisons reveal caveats that need to be taken into account, as sunspot numbers are used to forecast both the solar cycle and the near term climatology of solar cycle impacts on the space environment.

  17. Why Do Chinese-Australian Students Outperform Their Australian Peers in Mathematics: A Comparative Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Dacheng; Singh, Michael

    2011-01-01

    International comparative studies and cross-cultural studies of mathematics achievement indicate that Chinese students (whether living in or outside China) consistently outperform their Western counterparts. This study shows that the gap between Chinese-Australian and other Australian students is best explained by differences in motivation to…

  18. An Investigation into International Business Collaboration in Higher Education Organisations: A Case Study of International Partnerships in Four UK Leading Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoubi, Rami M.; Al-Habaibeh, Amin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a comparative analysis of the main objectives of international institutional partnerships in four UK leading universities. Based on the presented case studies, the paper outlines a model for objectives and implementation of international partnership. Design/methodology/approach: Using a multiple…

  19. Building International Sustainable Partnerships in Occupational Therapy: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Debra Ann; Kern, Stephen B; Salvant, Sabrina; Talero, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners frequently identify opportunities for international practice. The World Health Organization and the World Federation of Occupational Therapists have encouraged occupational therapists to address transnational issues, social inclusion, and equal access to opportunities grounded in meaningful occupation (WFOT, 2012). This case study describes a partnership between two U.S. schools of occupational therapy and a Cuban community based pediatric clinic. It examines the dynamics that have sustained the partnership despite political, economic, and logistical barriers. The literature is scrutinized to show how this case study fits into other accounts of collaborative international partnerships. Particularly, it investigates structural and institutional conditions that shape international sustainable partnerships. In doing so, we answer the following questions: (1) Under which circumstances do international partnerships emerge and flourish? (2) What structural and institutional conditions shape international sustainable partnerships? And (3) How do partners perceive and experience the bilateral international partnership? It also discusses and illustrates the foundations and development of international partnerships that succeed. Through the use of a case study we illustrate the development of this partnership. Finally, we consider the next steps of this particular sustainable and collaborative international partnership. PMID:26284573

  20. HERACLES Concept - An International Lunar Exploration Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, M.; Carpenter, J.; Sawada, H.

    2015-10-01

    HERACLES is an ESA-led architecture study by various agency members of the ISECG to define an end-to-end scenario of human-robotic lunar exploration. The architecture has the objective to prepare human missions and to perform science.

  1. Research studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The IUE research studies comprises 118 separate research programs involving observations, data analysis, and research conducted of the IUE satellite and the NASA Astrophysics Data Program. Herein are presented 92 programs. For each program there is a title, program ID, name of the investigator, statement of work, summary of results, and list of publications.

  2. Comparative mirror cleaning study: a study on removing particulate contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Karrie D.

    2006-08-01

    A mirror cleaning study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of three cleaning methods in their ability to remove particulate contamination from reflective mirror surfaces. Presently, the detergent bath, solvent rinse, and CO II snow cleaning methods are the most commonly used optical cleaning techniques within the optics industry. These techniques are also commonly used by the Optics Branch/Code 551 at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to remove particulate contamination from optical surfaces. In this experimental study, the above-mentioned cleaning methods were used to clean twelve uncoated silicon wafers, twelve gold coated silicon wafers, and twelve gold coated silicon wafers with a silicon oxide protective coating. CO II snow cleaning had an average removal percentage of 84%, followed by the solvent rinse at 74%, and the detergent bath at 61%. In addition to the average removal percentage, this comparative study was designed to: (1) determine the cleaning ability of each method based on the number and size of removed particles; (2) assess the risk of surface damage for each cleaning procedure; (3) evaluate each cleaning method as a function of its initial "qualitative" contamination level ("fairly clean", "dirty", and "very dirty"). The particulate cleanliness of all wafers was characterized using Image Analysis and Image-Pro Plus 5.0 software. In addition, the experimental design and experimental results were analyzed using JMP/Statistical Analytical Software Version 6.0.

  3. TEM Study of Internal Crystals in Supernova Graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croat, T. K.; Bernatowicz, T.; Stadermann, F. J.; Messenger, S.; Amari, S.

    2003-03-01

    A coordinated TEM and isotopic study of ten supernova (SN) graphites from the Murchison meteorite has revealed many internal grains, mostly titanium carbides (TiCs) and TiC-kamacite composite grains, which were accreted during the graphite growth.

  4. The Changing Academic Profession in International Comparative and Quantitative Perspectives. Report of the International Conference on the Changing Academic Profession Project, 2008. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No.12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University (NJ3), 2008

    2008-01-01

    This year the Research Institute for Higher Education in Hiroshima University hosted an international conference in close collaboration with Hijiyama University. The main purpose of the 2008 conference was to enable the participants to give preliminary country/regional reports based on their national/regional surveys. This publication reports the…

  5. Diversifying Higher Education Systems in the International and Comparative Perspectives. Report of the International Workshop on University Reform, 2010. RIHE International Seminar Reports. No.16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Institute for Higher Education, Hiroshima University (NJ3), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Through special funding by the Ministry of Education and Science in 2008, the Research Institute for Higher Education (RIHE) at Hiroshima University has been able to implement a new research project on the reform of higher education in the knowledge-based society of the 21st century. RIHE hosted the third International Workshop on the Higher…

  6. Internal Consistency and Power When Comparing Total Scores from Two Groups.

    PubMed

    Barchard, Kimberly A; Brouwers, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Researchers now know that when theoretical reliability increases, power can increase, decrease, or stay the same. However, no analytic research has examined the relationship of power to the most commonly used type of reliability-internal consistency-and the most commonly used measures of internal consistency, coefficient alpha and ICC(A,k). We examine the relationship between the power of independent samples t tests and internal consistency. We explicate the mathematical model upon which researchers usually calculate internal consistency, one in which total scores are calculated as the sum of observed scores on K measures. Using this model, we derive a new formula for effect size to show that power and internal consistency are influenced by many of the same parameters but not always in the same direction. Changing an experiment in one way (e.g., lengthening the measure) is likely to influence multiple parameters simultaneously; thus, there are no simple relationships between such changes and internal consistency or power. If researchers revise measures to increase internal consistency, this might not increase power. To increase power, researchers should increase sample size, select measures that assess areas where group differences are largest, and use more powerful statistical procedures (e.g., ANCOVA). PMID:27269041

  7. The EVEREST study: an international collaboration*

    PubMed Central

    Caskey, Fergus J.; Stel, Vianda S.; Elliott, Robert F.; Jager, Kitty J.; Covic, Adrian; Cusumano, Ana; Geue, Claudia; Kramer, Anneke; Stengel, Benedicte; MacLeod, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Rates of initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT), use of home modalities of treatment and patient outcomes vary considerably between countries. This paper reports the methods and baseline characteristics of countries participating in the EVEREST study (n = 46), a global collaboration examining the association between medical and non-medical factors and RRT incidence, modality mix and survival. Numbers of incident and prevalent patients were collected for current (2003–05) and historic (1983–85, 1988–90, 1993–95 and 1998–2000) periods stratified, where available, by age, gender, treatment modality and cause of end stage renal disease (diabetic versus non-diabetic). General population age and health indicators and national-level macroeconomic data were collected from secondary data sources. National experts provided primary data on renal service funding, resources and organization. The median (inter quartile range) RRT incidence per million of the population (pmp) was 130 pmp (102–167 pmp). The general population life expectancy at 60 was 22.1 years (19.7–23.1 years) and 6.9% had diabetes mellitus (5.4–9.0%). Healthcare spending as a percentage of gross domestic product was 8.1% (5.6–9.3%). Countries averaged nine dialysis facilities pmp (4–12 pmp), with 69.0% (43.9–99.0%) owned by the public or private not-for-profit sector. The number of nephrologists ranged from 0.5 to 48 pmp (median 12 pmp). The heterogeneity of EVEREST countries will enable modelling to examine the independent association between medical and non-medical factors on RRT epidemiology. PMID:25949402

  8. An International Ki67 Reproducibility Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of proliferation using the marker Ki67 has potential use in both research and clinical management. However, lack of consistency across laboratories has limited Ki67’s value. A working group was assembled to devise a strategy to harmonize Ki67 analysis and increase scoring concordance. Toward that goal, we conducted a Ki67 reproducibility study. Methods Eight laboratories received 100 breast cancer cases arranged into 1-mm core tissue microarrays—one set stained by the participating laboratory and one set stained by the central laboratory, both using antibody MIB-1. Each laboratory scored Ki67 as percentage of positively stained invasive tumor cells using its own method. Six laboratories repeated scoring of 50 locally stained cases on 3 different days. Sources of variation were analyzed using random effects models with log2-transformed measurements. Reproducibility was quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and the approximate two-sided 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the true intraclass correlation coefficients in these experiments were provided. Results Intralaboratory reproducibility was high (ICC = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.97). Interlaboratory reproducibility was only moderate (central staining: ICC = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.47 to 0.78; local staining: ICC = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37 to 0.68). Geometric mean of Ki67 values for each laboratory across the 100 cases ranged 7.1% to 23.9% with central staining and 6.1% to 30.1% with local staining. Factors contributing to interlaboratory discordance included tumor region selection, counting method, and subjective assessment of staining positivity. Formal counting methods gave more consistent results than visual estimation. Conclusions Substantial variability in Ki67 scoring was observed among some of the world’s most experienced laboratories. Ki67 values and cutoffs for clinical decision-making cannot be transferred between laboratories without

  9. Comparing Japanese International College Students' and U.S. College Students' Mental-Health-Related Stigmatizing Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Akihiko; Hayes, Steven C.; Twohig, Michael P.; Lillis, Jason; Fletcher, Lindsay B.; Gloster, Andrew T.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined differences between Japanese international college students and U. S. college students on stigma toward people with psychological disorders, stigma tolerance in help seeking, and self-concealment. Japanese international students had greater stigma toward individuals with psychological disorders than did their U.S. counterparts.…

  10. Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Immigrant Boys and Girls: Comparing Native Dutch and Moroccan Immigrant Adolescents across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paalman, Carmen; van Domburgh, Lieke; Stevens, Gonneke; Vermeiren, Robert; van de Ven, Peter; Branje, Susan; Frijns, Tom; Meeus, Wim; Koot, Hans; van Lier, Pol; Jansen, Lucres; Doreleijers, Theo

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study explores differences between native Dutch and immigrant Moroccan adolescents in the relationship between internalizing and externalizing problems across time. By using generalized estimating equations (GEE), the strength and stability of associations between internalizing and externalizing problems in 159 Moroccan and 159…

  11. Comparative morphology of the axial complex and interdependence of internal organ systems in sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Alexander; Faber, Cornelius; Bartolomaeus, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Background The axial complex of echinoderms (Echinodermata) is composed of various primary and secondary body cavities that interact with each other. In sea urchins (Echinoidea), structural differences of the axial complex in "regular" and irregular species have been observed, but the reasons underlying these differences are not fully understood. In addition, a better knowledge of axial complex diversity could not only be useful for phylogenetic inferences, but improve also an understanding of the function of this enigmatic structure. Results We therefore analyzed numerous species of almost all sea urchin orders by magnetic resonance imaging, dissection, histology, and transmission electron microscopy and compared the results with findings from published studies spanning almost two centuries. These combined analyses demonstrate that the axial complex is present in all sea urchin orders and has remained structurally conserved for a long time, at least in the "regular" species. Within the Irregularia, a considerable morphological variation of the axial complex can be observed with gradual changes in topography, size, and internal architecture. These modifications are related to the growing size of the gastric caecum as well as to the rearrangement of the morphology of the digestive tract as a whole. Conclusion The structurally most divergent axial complex can be observed in the highly derived Atelostomata in which the reorganization of the digestive tract is most pronounced. Our findings demonstrate a structural interdependence of various internal organs, including digestive tract, mesenteries, and the axial complex. PMID:19508706

  12. The gravitational signature of internal flows in giant planets: Comparing the thermal wind approach with barotropic potential-surface methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, Y.; Davighi, J. E.; Galanti, E.; Hubbard, W. B.

    2016-09-01

    The upcoming Juno and Cassini gravity measurements of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively, will allow probing the internal dynamics of these planets through accurate analysis of their gravity spectra. To date, two general approaches have been suggested for relating the flow velocities and gravity fields. In the first, barotropic potential surface models, which naturally take into account the oblateness of the planet, are used to calculate the gravity field. However, barotropicity restricts the flows to be constant along cylinders parallel to the rotation axis. The second approach, calculated in the reference frame of the rotating planet, assumes that due to the large scale and rapid rotation of these planets, the winds are to leading order in geostrophic balance. Therefore, thermal wind balance relates the wind shear to the density gradients. While this approach can take into account any internal flow structure, it is limited to only calculating the dynamical gravity contributions, and has traditionally assumed spherical symmetry. This study comes to relate the two approaches both from a theoretical perspective, showing that they are analytically identical in the barotropic limit, and numerically, through systematically comparing the different model solutions for the gravity harmonics. For the barotropic potential surface models we employ two independent solution methods - the potential-theory and Maclaurin spheroid methods. We find that despite the sphericity assumption, in the barotropic limit the thermal wind solutions match well the barotropic oblate potential-surface solutions.

  13. Civic and Citizenship Education in 2009 (ICCS): A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the "International Civic and Citizenship Education Study" (ICCS) is to investigate the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens in a range of countries. The study will report on student achievement on a test of conceptual understandings and competencies in civic and citizenship education. It will…

  14. Terminological Comparability as a Factor in Increasing International Mobility in the Sphere of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuznetsov, V. M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Mutual understanding and the strengthening of ties among the higher education systems of different countries depends largely on overcoming language barriers, and the national and international standardization of terminology would help in that process. (MSE)

  15. What Do We Compare When We Compare Religions? Philosophical Remarks on the Psychology of Studying Comparative Religion Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irvine, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The issue of comparison is a vexing one in religious and theological studies, not least for teachers of comparative religion in study abroad settings. We try to make familiar ideas fresh and strange, in settings where students may find it hard not to take "fresh" and "strange" as signs of existential threat. The author explores…

  16. Mobile Air Quality Studies (MAQS)-an international project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Due to an increasing awareness of the potential hazardousness of air pollutants, new laws, rules and guidelines have recently been implemented globally. In this respect, numerous studies have addressed traffic-related exposure to particulate matter using stationary technology so far. By contrast, only few studies used the advanced technology of mobile exposure analysis. The Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS) addresses the issue of air pollutant exposure by combining advanced high-granularity spatial-temporal analysis with vehicle-mounted, person-mounted and roadside sensors. The MAQS-platform will be used by international collaborators in order 1) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to road structure, 2) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to traffic density, 3) to assess air pollutant exposure in relation to weather conditions, 4) to compare exposure within vehicles between front and back seat (children) positions, and 5) to evaluate "traffic zone"-exposure in relation to non-"traffic zone"-exposure. Primarily, the MAQS-platform will focus on particulate matter. With the establishment of advanced mobile analysis tools, it is planed to extend the analysis to other pollutants including NO2, SO2, nanoparticles and ozone. PMID:20380704

  17. Osseointegration of alumina bioceramic granules: A comparative experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rerikh, V. V.; Avetisyan, A. R.; Zaydman, A. M.; Anikin, K. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Nikulina, A. A.; Sadovoy, M. A.; Aronov, A. M.; Semantsova, E. S.

    2016-08-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of osseointegration of bioceramic alumina-based granules, hydroxyapatite-based granules, and deproteinized bone granules. The experiment was conducted on 52 adult male Kyoto-Wistar rats weighing 350 to 520 g. The animals were divided into five matched groups that differed only in the type of an implanted material. The granules were implanted in the lumbar vertebral bodies and in the distal right femur of each laboratory animal. Two months after surgery, the animals were euthanized, followed by tissue sampling for morphological studies. An examination of specimens from the groups with implanted alumina granules revealed the newly formed trabecular bone with remodeling signs. The bone tissue filled the intragranular space, tightly adhering to the granule surface. There was no connective tissue capsule on the border between bone tissue and alumina granules. Cylindrical bioceramic alumina-based granules with an open internal channel have a higher strength surpassing than that of analogs and the osseointegration ability close to that of hydroxyapatite and deproteinized bone granules.

  18. Comparative studies in direct slow-neutron capture calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Mughabghab, S.F.

    1987-08-01

    Primary E1 transitions due to thermal neutron capture by the nuclides /sup 9/Be, /sup 32,34/S, /sup 40,42,44,46,48/Ca, and /sup 58/Ni are quantitatively interpreted by the Lane-Lynn formula and are compared with recent optical model calculations. The two approaches are equivalent provided the internal region of the nucleus is excluded in the optical model approach. Theoretical justifications for such a procedure are briefly presented. 32 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Comparative Study of Metadata Standards and Metadata Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahuja, Gunjan

    2011-12-01

    Lot of work is being accomplished in the national and international standards communities to reach a consensus on standardizing metadata and repositories for organizing the metadata. Descriptions of several metadata standards and their importance to statistical agencies are provided in this paper. Existing repositories based on these standards help to promote interoperability between organizations, systems, and people. Repositories are vehicles for collecting, managing, comparing, reusing, and disseminating the designs, specifications, procedures, and outputs of systems, e.g. statistical surveys.

  20. Comparing the effects of problem-based and conventional curricula in an international sample.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H G; Dauphinee, W D; Patel, V L

    1987-04-01

    In this article, the authors review 15 studies that compare various educational outcomes of problem-based, community-oriented medical curricula with those of conventional programs. The data suggest that problem-based curricula provide a student-centered learning environment and encourage an inquisitive style of learning in their students as opposed to the rote memorization and short-term learning strategies induced by conventional medical education. In addition, community-oriented schools appear to influence the career preferences of their students. The few data available show that significantly larger proportions of graduates from these schools seek careers in primary care. Some of the studies reviewed suggest that students in conventional programs perform somewhat better on traditional measures of academic achievement than do students in problem-based curricula. However, these differences, if any, tend to be very small. Data with respect to performance on instruments measuring clinical competence are inconclusive. Finally, the authors discuss the difficulties involved in carrying out comparative research at the curriculum level. PMID:3560175

  1. Comparing analgesia and μ-opioid receptor internalization produced by intrathecal enkephalin

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenling; Song, Bingbing; Lao, Lijun; Pérez, Orlando A.; Kim, Woojae; Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Opioid receptors in the spinal cord produce strong analgesia, but the mechanisms controlling their activation by endogenous opioids remain unclear. We have previously shown in spinal cord slices that peptidases preclude μ-opioid receptor (MOR) internalization by opioids. Our present goals were to investigate whether enkephalin-induced analgesia is also precluded by peptidases, and whether it is mediated by MORs or δ-opioid receptors (DORs). Tail-flick analgesia and MOR internalization were measured in rats injected intrathecally with Leu-enkephalin and peptidase inhibitors. Without peptidase inhibitors, Leu-enkephalin produced neither analgesia nor MOR internalization at doses up to 100 nmol, whereas with peptidase inhibitors it produced analgesia at 0.3 nmol and MOR internalization at 1 nmol. Leu-enkephalin was ten times more potent to produce analgesia than to produce MOR internalization, suggesting that DORs were involved. Selective MOR or DOR antagonists completely blocked the analgesia elicited by 0.3 nmol Leu-enkephalin (a dose that produced little MOR internalization), indicating that it involved these two receptors, possibly by an additive or synergistic interaction. The selective MOR agonist endomorphin-2 produced analgesia even in the presence of a DOR antagonist, but at doses substantially higher than Leu-enkephalin. Unlike Leu-enkephalin, endomorphin-2 had the same potencies to induce analgesia and MOR internalization. We concluded that low doses of enkephalins produce analgesia by activating both MORs and DORs. Analgesia can also be produced exclusively by MORs at higher agonist doses. Since peptidases prevent the activation of spinal opioid receptors by enkephalins, the coincident release of opioids and endogenous peptidase inhibitors may be required for analgesia. PMID:17845806

  2. Comparative Modeling Studies of Boreal Water and Carbon Balance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coughlan, J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The coordination of the modeling and field efforts for an Intensive Field Campaign (IFC) may resemble the chicken and egg dilemma. This session's theme advocates that early and proactive involvement by modeling teams can produce a scientific and operational benefit for the IFC and Experiment. This talk will provide some examples and suggestions originating from the NASA funded IFC's of the FIFE First ISLSCP (International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project) Field Experiment, Oregon Transect Ecosystem Research (OTTER) and predominately Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Experiments. In February 1994 and prior to the final selection of the BOREAS study sites, a group of funded BOREAS investigators agreed to run their models with data for five community types representing the proposed tower flux sites. All participating models were given identical initial values and boundary conditions and driven with identical climate data. The objectives of the intercomparison exercise were: 1) compare simulation results of participating terrestrial, hydrological, and atmospheric models over selected time frames; 2) learn about model behavior and sensitivity to estimated boreal site and vegetation definitions; 3) prioritize BOREAS field data collection efforts supporting modeling studies; 4) identify individual model deficiencies as early as possible. Out of these objectives evolved some important coordination and science issues for the BOREAS Experiment that can be generalized to IFCs and long term archiving of the data. Some problems are acceptable because they are endemic to maintaining fair and open competition prior to the peer review process. Others are logistical and addressable through application of planning, management, and information sciences. This investigator has identified one source of measurement and model incompatibility that is manifest in the IFC scaling approach. Although intuitively obvious, scaling problems are already more formally defined in

  3. How do the approaches to accountability compare for charities working in international development?

    PubMed

    Kirsch, David

    2014-09-01

    Approaches to accountability vary between charities working to reduce under-five mortality in underdeveloped countries, and healthcare workers and facilities in Canada. Comparison reveals key differences, similarities and trade-offs. For example, while health professionals are governed by legislation and healthcare facilities have a de facto obligation to be accredited, charities and other international organizations are not subject to mandatory international laws or guidelines or to de facto international standards. Charities have policy goals similar to those found in the Canadian substudies, including access, quality, cost control, cost-effectiveness and customer satisfaction. However, the relative absence of external policy tools means that these goals may not be realized. Accountability can be beneficial, but too much or the wrong kind of accountability can divert resources and diminish returns. PMID:25305397

  4. Comparing learning outcomes of international and local community partnerships for undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Wros, Peggy; Archer, Sherry

    2010-10-01

    International health care experiences offer undergraduate nursing students the opportunity for significant personal and professional growth. During a month-long travel course to Cameroon, West Africa, students improved their skills in clinical assessment, data management, intercultural communication, and collaboration based on an empowerment model of international partnership. Although it is not possible for all students to participate in providing health care in another country, it is possible to design a local course in which students are able to meet similar outcomes in a community health experience in partnership with an immigrant and refugee center. PMID:21058139

  5. Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jack T; Joyner, Ken H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles. PMID:22377680

  6. Effective Teacher Characteristics: A Two Nation Causal Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Bianca Lynn Shindley

    2010-01-01

    School administrators who recruit teachers domestically and abroad lack an internationally accepted checklist for effective teachers with which to evaluate teacher applicants. This study was conducted to use the elements of a U.S.-based effective teacher checklist survey with a sample of secondary teachers in Guatemala and Japan to describe the…

  7. A Response to: Global Security, Religion and Education Development--A Crisis for the Field of Comparative and International Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozanne, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the author's response to "Global security, religion and education development: a crisis for the field of comparative and international education?" Prof. Lynn Davies's introduction to the Forum is interesting and provocative, and the author advances his response in the spirit of dialogue by looking at Davies's arguments, the…

  8. A Comparative Analysis of Curriculum in International Marketing and Business between Peruvian and Guatemalan University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pestonjee, Daanish D.; Spillan, John E.; Song, Hongwei; Virzi, Nicholas D.

    2010-01-01

    Business education is important for economic development. A skilled workforce allows for greater advancements in productivity, the creation of new business opportunities, increased employment, and enhances the quality of life of the citizenry. With the changing international business environment it is important for academics and practitioners…

  9. Comparative Effects Of Training In External And Internal Concentration On Two Counseling Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Paul

    1973-01-01

    A training procedure that appears to facilitate both empathic understanding and selective response to client statements is one built around the training of Zen Buddhist monks. Subjects trained in Zen techniques of external and internal concentration were found to increase their ability in these two counseling behaviors. (Author/LA)

  10. Comparing national home-keeping and the regulation of translational stem cell applications: An international perspective.

    PubMed

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret; Chekar, Choon Key; Faulkner, Alex; Heitmeyer, Carolyn; Marouda, Marina; Rosemann, Achim; Chaisinthop, Nattaka; Chang, Hung-Chieh Jessica; Ely, Adrian; Kato, Masae; Patra, Prasanna K; Su, Yeyang; Sui, Suli; Suzuki, Wakana; Zhang, Xinqing

    2016-03-01

    A very large grey area exists between translational stem cell research and applications that comply with the ideals of randomised control trials and good laboratory and clinical practice and what is often referred to as snake-oil trade. We identify a discrepancy between international research and ethics regulation and the ways in which regulatory instruments in the stem cell field are developed in practice. We examine this discrepancy using the notion of 'national home-keeping', referring to the way governments articulate international standards and regulation with conflicting demands on local players at home. Identifying particular dimensions of regulatory tools - authority, permissions, space and acceleration - as crucial to national home-keeping in Asia, Europe and the USA, we show how local regulation works to enable development of the field, notwithstanding international (i.e. principally 'western') regulation. Triangulating regulation with empirical data and archival research between 2012 and 2015 has helped us to shed light on how countries and organisations adapt and resist internationally dominant regulation through the manipulation of regulatory tools (contingent upon country size, the state's ability to accumulate resources, healthcare demands, established traditions of scientific governance, and economic and scientific ambitions). PMID:26921839

  11. Community Colleges in South Africa? Assessment of Potential from Comparative International Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolhuter, C. C.

    2011-01-01

    While South African higher education has, in many respects, achieved remarkable achievements since 1994, a series of serious problems continue to beset the system, and a low internal (high attrition rate) and external (alignment with the employment market) efficiency. There also exist the problems of large scale youth unemployment and the policy…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Internal Communication and Public Relations Audits. State of the Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, David M.; Hellweg, Susan A.

    A review of current literature regarding the state of the art in the conduct of internal communication and public relations audits by public relations practitioners reveals that these two related measurement activities are of considerable importance to the practice of public relations. Public relations audits are concerned with exploratory…

  13. Internationally Comparable Statistics on Education, Training and Skills: Current State and Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Descy, Pascaline; Nestler, Katja; Tessaring, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Comparable statistics on education, training and skills are not only used by research and analysis to provide explanation and evidence of the functioning of European labour markets and of education and training systems, but also to construct indicators comparing EU Member States, comparing the EU with competitors and assessing the achievement of…

  14. Comparative efficacy evaluation of moxidectin gel and ivermectin paste against internal parasites of equines in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J; Barbosa, O F; Moraes, F R; Acuña, A H; Rocha, U F; Soares, V E; Paullilo, A C; Sanches, A

    1998-12-15

    A total of 24 male and female equines of mixed breed, 10-20 months of age and naturally infected with internal parasites was utilized in a controlled test to evaluate the efficacy of a moxidectin 2% gel formulation at the dosage of 0.4 mg moxidectin per kg of live weight and an ivermectin 1.87% commercial paste formulation at the dosage 0.2 mg ivermectin per kg applied orally. Animals were allocated into three groups of eight horses each based on pre-treatment eggs per gram (EPG) counts and treatments were randomized among the groups. One group was kept as untreated controls. One animal in the moxidectin-treated group died before the end of the trial from a cause unrelated to treatment leaving a total of seven animals in this group. Fecal egg counts were performed three times post-treatment and the number of parasites remaining in each animal was determined. Statistical analyses using geometric means were performed at the 1% level of significance. Both moxidectin and ivermectin preparations reduced initial EPG from a mean of 1600 to 0 on Days 5, 7 and at the end of the trial on Day 14. Efficacy percentages of moxidectin and ivermectin against immature and adult nematodes were as follows: Trichostrongylus axei, Parascaris equorum, Strongylus edentatus, S. vulgaris, Triodontophorus spp. and Gyalocephalus capitatus, 100% for both products; Habronema muscae 99.5 and 99.6%, respectively, Strongyloides westeri, 100 and 99.2%, respectively; Oxyuris equi, 99.6 and 100%, respectively; small strongyles, 99.7% for both products. Of the latter, the most numerous were: Cylicocyclus insigne, Cylicostephanus longibursatus and Cyathostomum catinatum. No Gasterophilus nasalis were found in horses from either treated group, while two of eight control horses had infections with thisparasite. Moxidectin showed greater efficacy (84.9%) than ivermectin (67.8%) against Strongylus vulgaris larvae found in the mesenteric artery aneurisms, but the difference was not statistically

  15. International Studies a Hard Sell in U.S.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    North Carolina boasts a growing network of global-studies magnet schools, a prominent university center that sponsors training on international issues and study trips abroad for thousands of teachers, an innovative recruitment program to attract teachers from around the globe, and a popular former governor who has championed the cause of …

  16. Undergraduate Students' Conceptions of Mathematics: An International Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petocz, Peter; Reid, Anna; Wood, Leigh N.; Smith, Geoff H.; Mather, Glyn; Harding, Ansie; Engelbrecht, Johann; Houston, Ken; Hillel, Joel; Perrett, Gillian

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report on an international study of undergraduate mathematics students; conceptions of mathematics. Almost 1,200 students in five countries completed a short survey including three open-ended questions asking about their views of mathematics and its role in their future studies and planned professions. Responses were analysed…

  17. Journaling and Self-Study in an International Research Collective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makaiau, Amber Strong; Leng, Lu; Fukui, Suguru

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theoretical foundations of reflective teaching, culturally responsive education, social constructivism, and self-study, this collaborative self-study investigates the role of an interactive online journal in an international research collective. Each from a different country, the authors came together through a common interest in…

  18. Analytical study of spacecraft deposition contamination by internal reflection spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mookherji, T.

    1972-01-01

    Infrared absorption spectra of ten individual contaminant materials and four binary mixtures of these have been studied using the internal reflection spectroscopy technique. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on these contaminants has also been studied. It has been observed that all siloxanes, silanes, and esters are drastically affected by ultraviolet irradiation. In most cases polymerization and tar formation results.

  19. International Exchange as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena; Slaubaugh, Michael; Kim, Ae-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of international exchange programs on the transformative learning of English-speaking students. A student exchange program at a South Korean university is used for this case study. It explores how learning experiences are translated by participants onto their perceptions about the host country. An analysis of a pre-…

  20. International Computer and Information Literacy Study: Assessment Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraillon, Julian; Schulz, Wolfram; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the International Computer and Information Literacy Study 2013 (ICILS 2013) is to investigate, in a range of countries, the ways in which young people are developing "computer and information literacy" (CIL) to support their capacity to participate in the digital age. To achieve this aim, the study will assess student…

  1. Giving an International Perspective to Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Paul R.

    Described is a media exercise which involved social studies curriculum specialists department chairmen, and classroom teachers in the Baltimore County Public Schools. The exercise was designed and utilized as a model of the content and processes that should be involved in developing an international perspective in social studies programs. The…

  2. International Comparative Evaluation of Knee Replacement with Fixed or Mobile Non-Posterior-Stabilized Implants

    PubMed Central

    Namba, Robert; Graves, Stephen; Robertsson, Otto; Furnes, Ove; Stea, Susanna; Puig-Verdié, Lluis; Hoeffel, Daniel; Cafri, Guy; Paxton, Elizabeth; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mobile-bearing total knee prostheses were designed to reduce wear and improve implant survivorship following total knee arthroplasty. However, the benefit of mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty remains unproven. Both mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty implants are available in posterior-stabilized and non-posterior-stabilized designs. With the latter, the implant does not recreate the function of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with a posterior-stabilizing cam mechanism. The purpose of the present study was to compare mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices with fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized devices used in total knee arthroplasty through a novel multinational study design. Methods: Through the use of a distributed health data network, primary total knee arthroplasties performed for osteoarthritis from 2001 to 2010 were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with the primary outcome of interest being revision for any reason. Survival probabilities and their standard errors were extracted from each registry for each unique combination of the covariates. Results: A total of 319,616 patients (60% female) underwent non-posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. A fixed-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design was used in 258,190 (81%) of the knees and a mobile-bearing, non-posterior-stabilized design in 61,426 (19%) of the knees. Sixty-nine percent of the patients who received a fixed-bearing implant were over sixty-five years of age, compared with 63% of those who received a mobile-bearing implant. Mobile-bearing designs had a higher risk of revision, with a hazard ratio of 1.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.36 to 1.51; p < 0.001). Conclusions: Previous comparisons of mobile-bearing and fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty outcomes have been inconclusive. The current study utilized an advanced

  3. Spatiotemporal neurodynamics underlying internally and externally driven temporal prediction: a high spatial resolution ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mento, Giovanni; Tarantino, Vincenza; Vallesi, Antonino; Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia

    2015-03-01

    Temporal prediction (TP) is a flexible and dynamic cognitive ability. Depending on the internal or external nature of information exploited to generate TP, distinct cognitive and brain mechanisms are engaged with the same final goal of reducing uncertainty about the future. In this study, we investigated the specific brain mechanisms involved in internally and externally driven TP. To this end, we employed an experimental paradigm purposely designed to elicit and compare externally and internally driven TP and a combined approach based on the application of a distributed source reconstruction modeling on a high spatial resolution electrophysiological data array. Specific spatiotemporal ERP signatures were identified, with significant modulation of contingent negative variation and frontal late sustained positivity in external and internal TP contexts, respectively. These different electrophysiological patterns were supported by the engagement of distinct neural networks, including a left sensorimotor and a prefrontal circuit for externally and internally driven TP, respectively. PMID:25203276

  4. Relationship between electrohysterogram and internal uterine pressure: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Rabotti, C; Mischi, M; van Laar, J O E H; Aelen, P; Oei, S G; Bergmans, J W M

    2006-01-01

    Electrohysterography (EHG) is a promising technique for monitoring the uterine activity, based on electrical recordings on the abdominal surface. However, a quantitative estimation of the internal uterine pressure (IUP) by means of EHG is not available for clinical practice. In this paper we present a preliminary study on the estimation of the mechanical uterine activity from abdominal EHG measurements. For the EHG analysis we use two different Time Frequency Distributions (TFD): the spectrogram and the Wigner-Ville Distribution. We assume the EHG to be the sum of frequency modulated signals. Based on this assumption, the IUP is estimated from the unnormalized first moment of the TFD. Eventually, a third order polynomial model is applied to the estimated IUP in order to improve the estimate accuracy. A recent method for detection of uterine contraction by EHG is employed for comparison of the performance. The algorithms were tested on two patient recordings. The results were compared with a reference IUP which is simultaneously measured by an intrauterine catheter. The IUP estimated by our method showed a correlation coefficient with the reference IUP (R=0.93) higher than that achieved by the comparison method (R=0.85). Therefore the proposed method may be considered as a promising clinical technique for accurate non invasive IUP measurements. PMID:17946058

  5. Crafting an International Study of Students' Conceptual Understanding of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Stephanie; Bretones, P. S.; McKinnon, D.; Schleigh, S.; Slater, T. F.; Astronomy, Center; Education Research, Physics

    2013-01-01

    Large international investigations into the learning of science, such as the TIMSS and PISA studies, have been enlightening with regard to effective instructional practices. Data from these studies revealed weaknesses and promising practices within nations' educational systems, with evidence to suggest that these studies have led to international reforms in science education. However, these reforms have focused on the general characteristics of teaching and learning across all sciences. While extraordinarily useful, these studies have provided limited insight for any given content domain. To date, there has been no systematic effort to measure individual's conceptual astronomy understanding across the globe. This paper describes our motivations for a coordinated, multinational study of astronomy understanding. First, reformed education is based upon knowing the preexisting knowledge state of our students. The data from this study will be used to assist international astronomy education and public outreach (EPO) professionals in their efforts to improve practices across global settings. Second, while the US astronomy EPO community has a long history of activity, research has established that many practices are ineffective in the face of robust misconceptions (e.g.: seasons). Within an international sample we hope to find subpopulations that do not conform to our existing knowledge of student misconceptions, leading us to cultural or educational practices that hint at alternative, effective means of instruction. Finally, it is our hope that this first venture into large-scale disciplinary collaboration will help us to craft a set of common languages and practices, building capacity and leading toward long-term cooperation across the international EPO community. This project is sponsored and managed by the Center for Astronomy & Physics Education Research (CAPER), in collaboration with members of the International Astronomical Union-Commission 46. We are actively

  6. A Comparative Study of Research Capabilities of East Asian Countries and Implications for Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hien, P. D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of research performance of 11 East and Southeast Asian countries based upon the total number of peer-refereed international publications (PRIP) per one million people (research intensity), the mean citation, and the contribution of domestic authors in PRIP production. Large gaps are observed within the…

  7. Not Just Another Evaluation: A Comparative Study of Four Educational Quality Projects at Swedish Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlsson, Sara; Fogelberg, Karin; Kettis, Åsa; Lindgren, Stefan; Sandoff, Mette; Geschwind, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four recent self-initiated educational quality projects at Swedish universities are compared and analyzed. The article focuses on how the universities have handled the tension between external demands and internal norms. The aim is to contribute to an improved understanding of quality management in contemporary universities. On the…

  8. Home Literacy Environments and Children's Reading Performance: A Comparative Study of 25 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon

    2008-01-01

    Using data for 4th graders in primary schools from the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), I compare across 25 countries the ways in which home literacy environments influence children's reading performance. Examined are three indicators: early home literacy activities, parental attitudes toward reading, and number of books…

  9. Are Two Better than One? A Comparative Study of Achievement Gaps and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), the size of the literacy achievement gap between 15-year-old students from two-parent and those from single-mother households were compared across 18 industrialized nations. This study found that cross-national differences exist in the association between single motherhood…

  10. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, K.

    2008-02-21

    The International Design Study for a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS) established the physics case for a high-precision programme of long-baseline neutrino-oscillation measurements. The ISS also identified baseline specifications for the Neutrino Factory accelerator complex and the neutrino detector systems. This paper summarises the objectives of the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF). The IDS-NF will build on the work of the ISS to deliver a Reference Design Report for the Neutrino Factory by 2012/13 and an Interim Design Report by 2010/11.

  11. A study of Hot Flow Anomalies and their internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Artyom; Vaisberg, Oleg

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were studied for long time. Here we attempt to study internal structure of HFAs. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used data from ion-spectrometer SCA-1, magnetic field measurements from MIF and ELECTRON spectrometer measurements. We have chosen five anomalies for our investigation on the basis of well resolved structure. We calculated displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA and compared convection patterns within them. We checked the main criteria of HFA formation: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it (except one case), bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities, viewed in coordinate system determined by shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal, clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. HFAs we analyzed can be separated in two groups according to pattern of convection velocities. First type of HFAs have velocities directed from central region and circulation in leading and trailing parts. Second type of HFAs show predominant motion along the current sheet. There also other differences between these two types of HFA that are discussed in presentation. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs received additional evidence that central region is the source of energy and momentum near interplanetary current sheet crossing location. We calculated balance of energy within HFA using momentum equation to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for central region to be the energy source.

  12. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria.

  13. Stormwater management criteria for on-site pollution control: a comparative assessment of international practices.

    PubMed

    Sage, Jérémie; Berthier, Emmanuel; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2015-07-01

    Over the last decade, a growing interest has been shown toward innovative stormwater management practices, breaking away from conventional "end of pipe" approaches (based on conveying water offsite to centralized detention facilities). Innovative strategies, referred to as sustainable urban drainage systems, low impact development (LID) or green infrastructures, advocating for management of runoff as close to its origin as possible, have therefore gained a lot of popularity among practitioners and public authorities. However, while the need for pollution control is generally well accepted, there is no wide agreement about management criteria to be given to developers. This article hence aims to compare these criteria through literature analysis of different state or local stormwater management manuals or guidelines, investigating both their suitability for pollution control and their influence on best management practices selection and design. Four categories of criteria were identified: flow-rate limitations, "water quality volumes" (to be treated), volume reduction (through infiltration or evapotranspiration), and non-hydrologic criteria (such as loads reduction targets or maximum effluent concentrations). This study suggests that hydrologic criteria based on volume reduction (rather than treatment) might generally be preferable for on-site control of diffuse stormwater pollution. Nonetheless, determination of an appropriate management approach for a specific site is generally not straightforward and presents a variety of challenges for site designers seeking to satisfy local requirements in addressing stormwater quantity and quality issues. The adoption of efficient LID solution may therefore strongly depend on the guidance given to practitioners to account for these management criteria. PMID:25855072

  14. Technology-Enhanced Consultation in Counselling: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astramovich, Randall L.; Jones, W. Paul; Coker, J. Kelly

    2004-01-01

    Two quasi-experimental studies comparing technology-enhanced counselling consultation were conducted with a sample of 147 students enrolled in an undergraduate counselling and consultation course for elementary and secondary teachers. Study 1 (N = 76) compared the effectiveness of counselling consultation using telephone, text chat, or text chat…

  15. The Illiteracy Myth. A Comparative Study of Prisoner Literacy Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Stephen; And Others

    Illiteracy is seen to be a feature of the Australian prisoner population. This belief has remained largely untested. A study compared the literacy abilities of prisoners to those found in the adult general population. Additionally, the study compared male and female prisoner literacy abilities. Assessments were made on a profile of literacy…

  16. [Studies of Student Performance on the Comparative Guidance Placement Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, M. Douglas

    Data from the College Entrance Examination Board's Comparative Guidance and Placement (CGP) Program were used in these two studies of students at Central Virginia Community College (CVCC). In the first study, 1971 fall quarter performance in specific courses and in all courses was compared to CGP performance. The conclusions indicate that: (1) CGP…

  17. Comparative Adult Education 1998. The Contribution of ISCAE to an Emerging Field of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reischmann, Jost, Ed.; Bron, Michal, Jr., Ed.; Jelenc, Zoran, Ed.

    This document contains 24 papers from the 1995 and 1998 International Society for Comparative Adult Education (ISCAE) conferences. The following papers are included: "International and Comparative Adult Education" (Jost Reischmann); "Development and Fundamental Principles of International and Comparative Adult Education" (Joachim H. Knoll);…

  18. PREFACE: The International Workshop on Positron Studies of Defects 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugita, Kazuki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2016-01-01

    The International Workshop on Positron Studies of Defects 2014 (PSD-14) was held in Kyoto, Japan from 14-19 September, 2014. The PSD Workshop brought together positron scientists interested in studying defects to an international platform for presenting and discussing recent results and achievements, including new experimental and theoretical methods in the field. The workshop topics can be characterized as follows: • Positron studies of defects in semiconductors and oxides • Positron studies of defects in metals • New experimental methods and equipment • Theoretical calculations and simulations of momentum distributions, positron lifetimes and other characteristics for defects • Positron studies of defects in combination with complementary methods • Positron beam studies of defects at surfaces, interfaces, in sub-surface regions and thin films • Nanostructures and amorphous materials

  19. Knowledge Production in a Constructed Field: Reflections on Comparative and International Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2015-01-01

    Adopting Maria Manzon's theoretical framework, which draws on Foucault and proposes that comparative education as an academic field is socially constructed, I suggest that the field is neither stable nor well defined. To demonstrate this, I conduct a content analysis of the "Comparative Education Review," using Klaus…

  20. International Space Station Power System Telemetry Compared With Analytically Derived Data for Shadowed Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, H. James

    2003-01-01

    This article highlights fiscal year 2002 work performed by NASA Glenn Research Center personnel to validate algorithms and data developed in-house to predict shadowing effects on the International Space Station (ISS) solar arrays power generation. The validation effort utilized video footage and on-orbit telemetry for cases spanning a 1-yr period. Validation was required because of the uncertainty of various aspects involved in shadowing analysis. Results show that a good comparison exists between actual and predicted shadowed power system performance for solar array front and backside shadowing.

  1. Whither Thou Goest: The Intrigue of an International Study Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Ronald J.; Peters, Robert

    This paper describes one business school's response to the challenges of globalization. After faculty members taught seminars in other countries, an interest was expressed in conducting international study seminars for the school's business students. One-week seminars were arranged, which allowed part-time, employed MBA students to enroll. The…

  2. Crossing the Line: A Qualitative Study of Administrative Interns' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Lynn; Quick, Marilynn

    2011-01-01

    Internships serve as the bridge that spans the divide between being a teacher and an administrator. Most research on internships has emphasized the technical aspect of this experience, such as benefits and limitations of internships. The overall impact an internship experience has on an intern has been studied less extensively. This research study…

  3. Study of Interns' Perception of and Satisfaction with Experiential Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and analyze the factors that influence interns' perceptions of and satisfaction with experiential learning during the internship process. Internship programs have existed for over 100 years and are used extensively in higher education, particularly in business schools; there is very little evidence to…

  4. Language Testing and International Intelligibility: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A central issue in language testing is the choice of norms, and the need to reconcile notions of "standard" English with local language norms and features. Data from studies of international intelligibility indicate that some features of "standard" language descriptions, based on native-speaker language use, are not essential…

  5. Culminating Cultural Studies with an International Christmas Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sesow, F. Wm.

    1983-01-01

    Describes the "International Christmas Fair" developed as a part of "Project Explore: Cultural Studies" program in Fairmont, Nebraska, with an ESEA Title IV grant. Shows how a rural school teaches about the Christmas customs of Holland, Sweden, Mexico, Germany, Colonial America, and England. (AH)

  6. Science Education in Nineteen Countries. International Studies in Evaluation I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, L. C.; Keeves, John P.

    This volume is the result of a study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) as part of the Six Subject Survey in Science, Literature, Reading Comprehension, English and French as Foreign Languages, and Civic Education. The project was begun in 1966 with the first phase of instrument…

  7. Studies of the Reflection, Refraction and Internal Reflection of Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanchester, P. C.

    2014-01-01

    An inexpensive apparatus and associated experiments are described for studying the basic laws of reflection and refraction of light at an air-glass interface, and multiple internal reflections within a glass block. In order to motivate students and encourage their active participation, a novel technique is described for determining the refractive…

  8. On-The-Job Training for Minorities: An Internal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Harold Hillel

    This study used not only formal interviews, questionnaires, and attitude surveys, but also observations and informal interviews, to evaluate the internal workings of a secretarial and clerical skill training program for nonwhite women. Most data came from over 1,000 two to five minute observations of trainees during the on the job phase of…

  9. International Students' Likelihood to Seek Counseling While Studying Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onabule, Adebayo I.; Boes, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    International students experience significant stressors while studying in American colleges and universities, yet they use psychological services far less than domestic students (Misra & Castillo, 2004). Factors such as previous experience with counseling, perceived effectiveness of counseling style, and nationality were found to be factors…

  10. A Comprehensive Developmental Studies Program for International Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogger, Barbara

    A comprehensive developmental studies program was initiated during Fall 1980 at Navarro College to help Micronesian and other international students become acquainted with American culture and to assist them in the areas of basic skills development, English as a second language (ESL), and career planning. The program offered a special course…

  11. Language and International Studies: A Richard Lambert Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sarah Jane, Ed.; Morfit, Christine, Ed.

    Selected writings by Richard Lambert on languages and international studies include the following: "Foreign Language Planning in the United States"; "Southeast Asian Language Instruction"; "Implications of the New Dutch National Action Plan for American Foreign Language Policy"; "Distance Education and Foreign Languages"; "A National Plan for a…

  12. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  13. The International Institute for Labour Studies: Appraisal and Forward Look.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Robert W.

    An appraisal is made of work accomplished by the International Institute for Labour Studies during the period 1965-1970, and guidelines for future development are suggested. Educational work accomplished by the institute since 1965 followed the general purpose of providing leadership education for those in labor and social policy fields. Related…

  14. Equivalence of Translations in International Reading Literacy Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arffman, Inga

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the interest in international assessments of student performance. In such assessments it is mandatory that all the different-language texts be equivalent to each other, that is, equally difficult to understand. The article summarizes a study made on the topic, examining the problems of…

  15. 77 FR 28582 - Applications for New Awards; Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Applications for New Awards; Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL) Program AGENCY...: Undergraduate International Studies and Foreign Language (UISFL) Program. Notice inviting applications for new... international studies and foreign languages. Priorities: This notice contains two competitive...

  16. Boiling-Water Reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of an aging assessment study for boiling water reactor (BWR) internals. Major stressors for BWR internals are related to unsteady hydrodynamic forces generated by the primary coolant flow in the reactor vessel. Welding and cold-working, dissolved oxygen and impurities in the coolant, applied loads and exposures to fast neutron fluxes are other important stressors. Based on results of a component failure information survey, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and fatigue are identified as the two major aging-related degradation mechanisms for BWR internals. Significant reported failures include SCC in jet-pump holddown beams, in-core neutron flux monitor dry tubes and core spray spargers. Fatigue failures were detected in feedwater spargers. The implementation of a plant Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) program is considered as a promising method for controlling SCC problems in BWR. More operating data are needed to evaluate its effectiveness for internal components. Long-term fast neutron irradiation effects and high-cycle fatigue in a corrosive environment are uncertainty factors in the aging assessment process. BWR internals are examined by visual inspections and the method is access limited. The presence of a large water gap and an absence of ex-core neutron flux monitors may handicap the use of advanced inspection methods, such as neutron noise vibration measurements, for BWR.

  17. Teacher Training and Multiculturalism: National Studies. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Raul, Ed.

    This book presents outcomes of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) studies on teacher training in eight countries (Bolivia, the Czech Republic, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritius, Poland, Senegal, and Tunisia) representing different levels of development and different regions of the world but who are facing a common…

  18. IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database: a high-quality information system for comparative immunogenetics and immunology.

    PubMed

    Lefranc, Marie-Paule

    2002-10-01

    IMGT, the international ImMunoGeneTics database (http://imgt.cines.fr), is a high quality integrated information system specializing in Immunoglobulins (IG), T cell Receptors (TR) and Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of human and other vertebrates, created in 1989, by LIGM, at the Université Montpellier II, CNRS, Montpellier, France. IMGT provides a common access to standardized data, which include nucleotide and protein sequences, oligonucleotide primers, gene maps, genetic polymorphisms, specificities, 2D and 3D structures. IMGT includes several databases (IMGT/LIGM-DB, IMGT/HLA-DB, IMGT/3Dstructure-DB), Web resources ('IMGT Marie-Paule page') which comprise IMGT Scientific Chart, IMGT Repertoire, IMGT Bloc-notes, IMGT Education, IMGT Aide-mémoire and IMGT Index, and interactive tools (IMGT/V-QUEST, IMGT/JunctionAnalysis). These expertly annotated data on the genome, proteome, genetics and structure of the IG, TR and MHC are of high value for comparative genome evolution studies of the adaptative immune response. PMID:12206833

  19. ANITA Air Monitoring on the International Space Station: Results Compared to Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honne, A.; Schumann-Olsen, H.; Kaspersen, K.; Limero, T.; Macatangay, A.; Mosebach, H.; Kampf, D.; Mudgett, P. D.; James, J. T.; Tan, G.; Supper, W.

    2009-01-01

    ANITA (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) is a flight experiment precursor for a permanent continuous air quality monitoring system on the ISS (International Space Station). For the safety of the crew, ANITA can detect and quantify quasi-online and simultaneously 33 gas compounds in the air with ppm or sub-ppm detection limits. The autonomous measurement system is based on FTIR (Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy). The system represents a versatile air quality monitor, allowing for the first time the detection and monitoring of trace gas dynamics in a spacecraft atmosphere. ANITA operated on the ISS from September 2007 to August 2008. This paper summarizes the results of ANITA s air analyses with emphasis on comparisons to other measurements. The main basis of comparison is NASA s set of grab samples taken onboard the ISS and analysed on ground applying various GC-based (Gas Chromatography) systems.

  20. From Comparative Education to Comparative Pedagogy: A Physical Education Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgakis, Steve; Graham, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    In the last two decades forces of globalization and the rise of and access to information technology have transformed the nature of educational research. Traditional disciplines such as comparative education have not been immune to these transformational impacts. Although one might expect globalization to promote the study of comparative…

  1. A Comparative Study of Document Retrieval Systems of Nursing Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saba, Virginia Kathleen Joseph

    Intended to provide the nursing community with a comparative analysis of four major computerized document retrieval systems and one manual system providing coverage of the nursing literature, this study compares the indexing vocabulary, database coverage, and retrieval performance of the Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC),…

  2. A Comparative Study of Croatian and Hungarian EFL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihaljevic Djigunovic, Jelena; Nikolov, Marianne; Otto, Istvan

    2008-01-01

    This comparative research aims to provide insights into how Croatian and Hungarian 8th graders' proficiency in English as a foreign language (EFL) compares to one another in relation to organizational macro factors. A total of 717 14-year-old students participated in the study in two neighboring regions and towns of Croatia and Hungary examining…

  3. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  4. Assistance to Libraries in Developing Nations: Papers on Comparative Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, William L., Ed.

    The papers presented at a one day workshop on the aspects of comparative librarianship are presented in this volume. The topics discussed are: (1) Methods and Evidence in Comparative Studies; (2) Social Change and Library Development; (3) Library Development in Latin America, a Scalogram; (4) Cross-Cultural Aspects of Assistance to Developing…

  5. [Comparative study on nutmeg, mace and their processed products].

    PubMed

    Jia, T; Wang, Z; Wang, Y; Li, J

    1997-09-01

    The contents of volatile oil, myristicin, safrol and methyleugenol, as well as the composition and content of fatty oil in nutmeg, mace and their processed products were comparatively studied. The composition of volatile oil and the detection of trimyristin were compared by TLC. A scientific basis for the development and application of mace has thus been provided. PMID:11038942

  6. International Paediatric Stroke Study: stroke associated with cardiac disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, Michael M.; Hynan, Linda S.; Lo, Warren; Licht, Daniel J.; McClure, Chalmer; Yager, Jerome Y.; Dlamini, Nomazulu; Kirkham, Fenella J.; deVeber, Gabrielle; Pavlakis, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Background and hypothesis The aetiologies of arterial ischaemic stroke in children are diverse and often multi-factorial. A large proportion occurs in children with cardiac disorders. We hypothesized that the clinical and radiographic features of children with arterial ischaemic stroke attributed to cardiac disorders would differ from those with other causes. Methods Using the large population collected in the prospective International Paediatric Stroke Study, we analysed the characteristics, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and early outcomes of children with and without cardiac disorders. Results Aetiological data were available for 667 children with arterial ischaemic stroke (ages 29 days to 19 years). Cardiac disorders were indentified in 204/667 (30·6%), congenital defects in 121/204 (59·3%), acquired in 40/204 (19·6%), and isolated patent foramen ovale in 31/204 (15·2%). Compared to other children with stroke, those with cardiac disorders were younger (median age 3·1 vs. 6·5 years; P < 0·001) and less likely to present with headache (25·6% vs. 44·6%; P < 0·001), but were similar in terms of gender and presentation with focal deficits, seizures, or recent infection. Analysis of imaging data identified significant differences (P = 0·005) in the vascular distribution (anterior vs. posterior circulation or both) between groups. Bilateral strokes and haemorrhagic conversion were more prevalent in the cardiac disorders group. Conclusions Cardiac disorders were identified in almost one-third of children with arterial ischaemic stroke. They had similar clinical presentations to those without cardiac disorders but differed in age and headache prevalence. Children with cardiac disorders more frequently had a ‘cardioembolic stroke pattern’ with a higher prevalence of bilateral strokes in both the anterior and posterior circulations, and a greater tendency to haemorrhagic transformation. PMID:23231361

  7. Comparative Mirror Cleaning Study: 'A Study on Removing Particulate Contamination'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, Karrie

    2007-01-01

    The cleanliness of optical surfaces is recognized as an industry-wide concern for the performance of optical devices such as mirrors and telescopes, microscopes and lenses, lasers and interferometers, and prisms and optical filters. However, no standard has been established for optical cleaning and there is no standard definition of a 'clean' optical element. This study evaluates the effectiveness of commonly used optical cleaning techniques based on wafer configuration, contamination levels, and the number and size of removed particles. It is concluded that cleaning method and exposure time play a significant factor in obtaining a high removal percentage. The detergent bath and solvent rinse method displayed an increase in effective removal percentage as the contamination exposure increased. Likewise, CO2 snow cleaning showed a relatively consistent cleaning effectiveness. The results can help ensure mission success to flight projects developed for the NASA Origins Program. Advantages and disadvantages of each of the optical cleaning methods are described.

  8. Methods of Comparative Androgogy: An International Expert Seminar (Bamberg, Germany, September 24-27, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, Margaret A.

    A seminar collected, shared, and discussed the consensus on definitions, standards, methods, and current problems in research methodology in comparative andragogy. Alfred Hierold opened the seminar with a brief history of the evolution of the University of Bamberg. The opening session focused on the importance of the researcher as a tool in…

  9. Transferable Competences and the Students' View of Their Significance and Satisfaction with Them: International Comparative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smekalova, Lucie; Noom, Jan-Willem; Slavik, Milan

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of comparative research between the Czech Republic and the Netherlands. The subject of the research was the degree of student satisfaction with the acquired transferable competences and the subjective students' view of the degree to which transferable competences are significant for the employability of an individual…

  10. How Social Relations and Structures can Produce Happiness and Unhappiness: An International Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haller, Max; Hadler, Markus

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, subjective well being, as measured by survey questions on happiness and life satisfaction, is investigated from a sociological-comparative point of view. The central thesis is that happiness and satisfaction must be understood as the outcome of an interaction process between individual characteristics and aspirations on the one…

  11. Religious Confession and Symptom Severity: A Prospective Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Rana, Majeed; Herzberg, Philipp Y; Krause, Christin

    2015-12-01

    Little research has been done on comparing confessions regarding mental health. In the present study, 320 people (78 Buddhists, 77 Catholics, 89 Protestants and 79 Muslims) were compared in terms of their symptom severity. Buddhists and Protestants had lower scores than Catholics and Muslims for obsessive-compulsive behavior and hostility. Muslim group had the highest comparative scores for psychoticism. Buddhists and Protestants had comparatively low scores for paranoid ideation and overall symptom severity, with Catholics and Muslims having high ones. Results reveal that confession should be taken in account in psychological research and diagnosis, since it is explicitly associated with psychological well-being. PMID:25204789

  12. The nursing role in ICU outreach: an international exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Endacott, Ruth; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that many critically ill patients are managed outside of designated critical care units. One strategy adopted in Australia and England to assess and manage risk in these patients is the intensive care unit (ICU) outreach or liaison nurse service. This article examines how ICU outreach/liaison roles in Australia and England operate in the context of Manley's theoretical framework for advanced nursing practice. Descriptive case study design using semi-structured interviews and job descriptions as sources of evidence. Findings of interviews with six Australian ICU Liaison nurses are already published; this study replicated the Australian study with four ICU Consultant Nurses in England and mapped interview and job description data from both countries onto Manley's conceptual framework for advanced practice/consultant nurse. Four themes emerged from the English data: patient interventions, support for ward staff, liaison between ward and ICU staff and hospital-wide impact. The first three of these comprised the core service common to the roles in both countries. Manley's four subroles (expert practitioner, consultant, educator and researcher) were present across both countries. However, the interview and job description data demonstrated that there were lower expectations in Australia that the roles would lead to staff development and build capacity across the hospital system. Similarly, formal education for ward staff such as ALERT and CRiSP courses were more developed in UK. Our data demonstrate that the role undertaken in England and Australia is sufficiently comparable to use as a research intervention in international studies across the two countries. However, the macro service level differs. Job descriptions across both countries emphasized the need to influence hospital policy; however, the ICU consultant nurses in England might be considered better placed to achieve this through role title and access to the hospital executive. In both

  13. Hydrodynamic study of an internal airlift reactor for microalgae culture.

    PubMed

    Rengel, Ana; Zoughaib, Assaad; Dron, Dominique; Clodic, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Internal airlift reactors are closed systems considered today for microalgae cultivation. Several works have studied their hydrodynamics but based on important solid concentrations, not with biomass concentrations usually found in microalgae cultures. In this study, an internal airlift reactor has been built and tested in order to clarify the hydrodynamics of this system, based on microalgae typical concentrations. A model is proposed taking into account the variation of air bubble velocity according to volumetric air flow rate injected into the system. A relationship between riser and downcomer gas holdups is established, which varied slightly with solids concentrations. The repartition of solids along the reactor resulted to be homogenous for the range of concentrations and volumetric air flow rate studied here. Liquid velocities increase with volumetric air flow rate, and they vary slightly when solids are added to the system. Finally, liquid circulation time found in each section of the reactor is in concordance with those employed in microalgae culture. PMID:21710261

  14. Teacher Leader Human Relations Skills: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roby, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, 142 graduate school teachers working in schools throughout southwestern Ohio assessed their human relation skills. A human relations survey was used for the study, and results were compared with colleagues assessing the teachers in the study. The survey was developed using a Likert-type scale, and was based on key elements affecting…

  15. The future of comparative effectiveness and relative efficacy of drugs: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Messner, Donna A; Towse, Adrian; Mohr, Penny; Garau, Martina

    2015-08-01

    Drug development takes place in a global marketplace, albeit with the USA and EU markets currently dominating. In the USA, demands for comparative effectiveness research have gained traction against a backdrop of health delivery reform, while European stakeholders deliberate the role of relative effectiveness in health technology assessment, trying to reduce the duplication of effort by regulators and health technology assessment bodies. In both arenas, drug-makers are faced with mounting drug development costs, and uncertainty over the types of evidence acceptable for a growing list of stakeholders. This article reports and compares future scenarios for evidence expectations for drugs for the USA and EU in 2020. The similarities, differences, and joint implications of the scenarios are considered to create an view of future evidence generation for drugs developed for these markets. PMID:25730094

  16. Pressurized-water reactor internals aging degradation study. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, K.H.

    1993-09-01

    This report documents the results of a Phase I study on the effects of aging degradations on pr internals. Primary stressers for internals an generated by the primary coolant flow in the they include unsteady hydrodynamic forces and pump-generated pressure pulsations. Other stressors are applied loads, manufacturing processes, impurities in the coolant and exposures to fast neutron fluxes. A survey of reported aging-related failure information indicates that fatigue, stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and mechanical wear are the three major aging-related degradation mechanisms for PWR internals. Significant reported failures include thermal shield flow-induced vibration problems, SCC in guide tube support pins and core support structure bolts, fatigue-induced core baffle water-jet impingement problems and excess wear in flux thimbles. Many of the reported problems have been resolved by accepted engineering practices. Uncertainties remain in the assessment of long-term neutron irradiation effects and environmental factors in high-cycle fatigue failures. Reactor internals are examined by visual inspections and the technique is access limited. Improved inspection methods, especially one with an early failure detection capability, can enhance the safety and efficiency of reactor operations.

  17. Nutrient Patterns and Their Food Sources in an International Study Setting: Report from the EPIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Moskal, Aurelie; Pisa, Pedro T.; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Freisling, Heinz; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Cadeau, Claire; Nailler, Laura; Wendt, Andrea; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Buijsse, Brian; Tjønneland, Anne; Halkjær, Jytte; Dahm, Christina C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Quirós, Jose R.; Buckland, Genevieve; Molina-Montes, Esther; Amiano, Pilar; Huerta Castaño, José M.; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Lentjes, Marleen A.; Key, Timothy J.; Romaguera, Dora; Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Orfanos, Philippos; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; de Magistris, Maria Santucci; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ocké, Marga C.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Ericson, Ulrika; Drake, Isabel; Nilsson, Lena M.; Winkvist, Anna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Hjartåker, Anette; Riboli, Elio; Slimani, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared to food patterns, nutrient patterns have been rarely used particularly at international level. We studied, in the context of a multi-center study with heterogeneous data, the methodological challenges regarding pattern analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified nutrient patterns from food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study and used 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR) data to validate and describe the nutrient patterns and their related food sources. Associations between lifestyle factors and the nutrient patterns were also examined. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on 23 nutrients derived from country-specific FFQ combining data from all EPIC centers (N = 477,312). Harmonized 24-HDRs available for a representative sample of the EPIC populations (N = 34,436) provided accurate mean group estimates of nutrients and foods by quintiles of pattern scores, presented graphically. An overall PCA combining all data captured a good proportion of the variance explained in each EPIC center. Four nutrient patterns were identified explaining 67% of the total variance: Principle component (PC) 1 was characterized by a high contribution of nutrients from plant food sources and a low contribution of nutrients from animal food sources; PC2 by a high contribution of micro-nutrients and proteins; PC3 was characterized by polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D; PC4 was characterized by calcium, proteins, riboflavin, and phosphorus. The nutrients with high loadings on a particular pattern as derived from country-specific FFQ also showed high deviations in their mean EPIC intakes by quintiles of pattern scores when estimated from 24-HDR. Center and energy intake explained most of the variability in pattern scores. Conclusion/Significance The use of 24-HDR enabled internal validation and facilitated the interpretation of the nutrient patterns derived from FFQs

  18. Study on the Internship Programs for International Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Izumi; Iwatsu, Fumio

    Recently, the number of international students who have an experience of internship as employment experience has been increasing. In general, internship is a system through which students gain a work experience relating to his/her major field and future career, while at university. Many Japanese leading industries are situated in this Chubu area. Therefore, we have tried to facilitate an internship as a part of the curriculum from 2005. Here we report the progress of our internship programs and try to study the possibility of its future. Through this study, we can say that an internship would be a good opportunity for both international students and Japanese companies to understand each other. On the other hand, it is hard to bring the system to match students and companies, form both side of financial base and human resource. Therefore, to bring up good talent becomes to good connection with the industrial world.

  19. Status of the International Design Study of the Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Kenneth

    2010-03-30

    The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) has been established by the Neutrino Factory community to deliver the Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility by 2012. The baseline design for the facility, developed from that defined in the International Scoping Study of a future Neutrino Factory and super-beam facility (the ISS), will provide 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 25 GeV stored muon beams. The facility will serve two neutrino detectors; one situated at source-detector distance of between 3000-5000 km, the second at 7000-8000 km. The baseline design for the facility will be described and the status of the IDS-NF effort will be summarised.

  20. International collaborative project to compare and track the nutritional composition of fast foods

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are the leading cause of premature death and disability in the world with over-nutrition a primary cause of diet-related ill health. Excess quantities of energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt derived from fast foods contribute importantly to this disease burden. Our objective is to collate and compare nutrient composition data for fast foods as a means of supporting improvements in product formulation. Methods/design Surveys of fast foods will be done in each participating country each year. Information on the nutrient composition for each product will be sought either through direct chemical analysis, from fast food companies, in-store materials or from company websites. Foods will be categorized into major groups for the primary analyses which will compare mean levels of saturated fat, sugar, sodium, energy and serving size at baseline and over time. Countries currently involved include Australia, New Zealand, France, UK, USA, India, Spain, China and Canada, with more anticipated to follow. Discussion This collaborative approach to the collation and sharing of data will enable low-cost tracking of fast food composition around the world. This project represents a significant step forward in the objective and transparent monitoring of industry and government commitments to improve the quality of fast foods. PMID:22838731

  1. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  2. Comparative Study of Bio-implantable Acoustic Generator Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, D.; Roundy, S.

    2013-12-01

    This paper is a comparative study of the design spaces of two bio-implantable acoustically excited generator architectures: the thickness-stretch-mode circular piezoelectric plate and the bending-mode unimorph piezoelectric diaphragm. The generators are part of an acoustic power transfer system for implanted sensors and medical devices such as glucose monitors, metabolic monitors, drug delivery systems, etc. Our studies indicate that at small sizes the diaphragm architecture outperforms the plate architecture. This paper will present the results of simulation studies and initial experiments that explore the characteristics of the two architectures and compare their performance.

  3. Sustainability of Social Programs: A Comparative Case Study Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savaya, Riki; Spiro, Shimon; Elran-Barak, Roni

    2008-01-01

    The article reports on the findings of a comparative case study of six projects that operated in Israel between 1980 and 2000. The study findings identify characteristics of the programs, the host organizations, and the social and political environment, which differentiated programs that are sustained from those that are not. The findings reaffirm…

  4. Entrepreneurial Training: A Comparative Study across Fifteen European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matricano, Diego

    2014-01-01

    This paper arises from the contents of the Lisbon Strategy, a set of cooperation policies stressing the role of education and training. The findings from a comparative study of the influence that entrepreneurial training--classified as formal or informal--can have on start-up expectations are analysed. The study covers fifteen European countries…

  5. Joachim Wach and the Study of Religion: A Comparative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the life and career of Joachim Wach, a proponent of comparative study of religion (CSR). Reports that Wach envisioned "Religionwissenschaft," a unitary science taking a systematic approach to the study of religion using elements of theology, philosophy, and social science. Presents Wach's "basic and eternal" questions on ultimate…

  6. Political Ideology: A Comparative Study of Three Chicano Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Richard A.

    The study investigated the political ideology of three Chicano youth groups in El Paso, Texas: Mexican American Youth Association (MAYA), Mexican American Political Association (MAPA), and the Alianza. Purpose of the study was to identify and compare the political ideas and attitudes of the three organizations. Questionnaires were administered to…

  7. Wage Rate Comparability Review Washington State Work Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Washington State's Higher Education Coordinating Board undertook a review of the State Work Study (SWS) program requirements related to the classification and compensation of SWS positions at public colleges and universities. A task force studying wage rate comparability was convened to review statutory directives related to this issue and to…

  8. Living With and Learning about Radioactivity: A Comparative Conceptual Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsop, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Documents a quasi-scientific comparative study of two groups of 'recent school leavers' in the UK. Studies non-science university undergraduates and explores whether people living with the immediacy and relevance of higher-than-average levels of radioactivity were more knowledgeable and emotionally detached than a similar group removed from this…

  9. A Comparative Study of Students' Achievement in Botany and Zoology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, P.

    1974-01-01

    A comparative study of student achievement in botany and zoology based on data of 10 studies conducted in 20 countries. Up to age 14, students achieve better in zoology; after age 14, students achieve better in botany. Based on the findings, recommendations are suggested regarding curriculum planning, laboratory work and the need for specific…

  10. A comparative study between shielded and open coplanar waveguide discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Harokopus, W. P., Jr.; Ponchak, G. E.; Katehi, L. P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between open and shielded coplanar waveguide (CPW) discontinuities is presented. The space domain integral equation method is used to characterize several discontinuities such as the open-end CPW and CPW series stubs. Two different geometries of CPW series stubs (straight and bent stubs) are compared with respect to resonant frequency and radiation loss. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to different CPW shunt stubs is evaluated experimentally. The notion of forced radiation simulation is presented, and the results of such a simulation are compared to the actual radiation loss obtained rigorously. It is shown that such a simulation cannot give reliable results concerning radiation loss from printed circuits.

  11. Student Perceptions of International Education and Study Abroad: A Pilot Study at York University, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai; Rasmi, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    International student mobility has been identified as a key strategy for the internationalization of higher education. Although an institutional priority, Canada has among the lowest levels of international student mobility, with only 2% of full-time university students participating in study-abroad programs. This pilot study, conducted at a large…

  12. NREL Case Study Leads to International Partnership (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    In 2012, NREL analysts produced a case study, "Integrating Variable Renewable Energy in Electric Power Markets: Best Practices from International Experience," which drew upon dozens of interviews with international experts involved in crafting effective policies and markets. The report proposed a cross-cutting initiative to transform the world's power systems by implementing two complementary strategies: the large‐scale deployment of renewable energy, and a combination of comprehensive energy efficiency and smarter grids. This recommendation led to the launch of the 21st Century Power Partnership in April 2012, and its membership has since grown to include Denmark, Finland, Germany, India, Mexico, Spain, and the United States. NREL, together with its affiliated Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis, are the operating agents.

  13. Competency-Based Training in International Perspective: Comparing the Implementation Processes Towards the Achievement of Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boahin, Peter; Eggink, Jose; Hofman, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This article undertakes a comparison of competency-based training (CBT) systems in a number of countries with the purpose of drawing lessons to support Ghana and other countries in the process of CBT implementation. The study focuses on recognition of prior learning and involvement of industry since these features seem crucial in achieving…

  14. Structural studies on an internal loop from a hairpin ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Z.; SantaLucia, J. Jr.; Tinoco, I. Jr.

    1994-12-01

    Ribozymes, RNA enzymes, catalyze site-specific RNA cleavage and ligation reactions. We are studying the three-dimensional structure of a hairpin ribozyme derived from the minus strand of tobacco ring spot virus satellite RNA ((-)sTRSV), which has been engineering to specifically cleave the HIV-1 RNA. The minimum structure for the catalytic reaction involves a 50-nucleotide ribozyme and a 14-nucleotide substrate. The proposed secondary structure of the ribozyme-substrate complex consists of four short helices separated by two internal loops. The relatively large size (64-nucleotide) of the ribozyme-substrate complex presents formidable problems in solving the structure using NMR. Therefore we are studying smaller structural subunits of the complex. We are determining the high resolution structure of the symmetric internal loop involving the cleavage site and the flanking helices. One strand of the internal loop was selectively {sup 13}C-labeled at C8 of each purine and C6 of each pyrimidine. By using {sup 13}C-edited two-dimensional NMR, the proton NOESY spectrum was greatly simplified. This allowed unambiguous sequential proton resonance assignments along each strand. Three-dimensional {sup 1}-{sup 13}C HMQC-NOESY was used to further facilitate resonance assignments. We are also enzymatically synthesizing the entire 50-nucleotide ribozyme and will combine it with the {sup 13}C-labeled substrate. Through comparison of the NOE connectivities of the labeled nucleotides from the internal loop alone with those from the entire complex, the differences between the two structures can be elucidated.

  15. Computational comparative study of microwave probes for plasma density measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. W.; You, S. J.; Kim, J. H.; Chang, H. Y.; Oh, W. Y.

    2016-06-01

    A microwave probe is known to be a suitable method to measure plasma density, even in the processing condition and is widely used in various environments of low-temperature processing plasmas. Various types of microwave probes have been researched and developed to measure the precise plasma density. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate each probes characteristic responding to the plasma parameters (plasma density, electron temperature, pressure, sheath width, and so forth) based on both experiments and simulations. However, a comparative study elucidating the relative characteristics of each probe has not been completed yet, despite the wide applications of the probes in processing plasma. We conduct a comparative study among the microwave probes using the numerical method of three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation. In this study, the microwave probes are compared by investigating the precision of plasma density measurement under a comprehensive range of plasma parameters (plasma density, pressure, and sheath width).

  16. Comparing comparators: a look at control arms in kidney cancer studies over the years.

    PubMed

    Bracarda, S; Porta, C; Sisani, M; Marrocolo, F; Paglino, C; Hamzaj, A; D Buono, S; Sternberg, C N

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of frequently positive randomised clinical trials have been completed, allowing new consideration of the present therapeutic armamentarium for advanced renal cell carcinoma. These studies were predominantly designed to compare the experimental drugs with 1 of 2 active control arms: interferon alpha-2a or sorafenib. Different from expectations, the final results of some of these studies were not in line with the predictions, and the reasons have not been fully investigated. Consequently, there is a great need for careful analysis of the studies carried out so far, chiefly the role and validity of the control arms. In this regard, the examination of patient baseline characteristics and other factors of potential interest seems fundamental for a correct analysis of the results of these trials and consequent optimal use of the available targeted agents. PMID:25375270

  17. Internal predictors of burnout in psychiatric nurses: An Indian study

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Rudraprosad; Chatterjee, Arunima; Chaudhury, Suprakash

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research has not adequately focused on the issue of burnout in Psychiatric nurses, despite the fact that they suffer considerable stress in their work. Till date no study has been conducted on burnout among psychiatric nurses in India. Further, there is a particular lack of research in internal variables predicting burnout in them. Aims: To determine whether there are any internal psychological factors relevant to burnout in psychiatric nurses in India. Materials and Methods: We recruited 101 psychiatric nurses scoring less than two in General Health Questionnaire, version 12 (GHQ-12) from two psychiatric hospitals after obtaining informed consent. All subjects filled up a sociodemographic data sheet along with global adjustment scale, emotional maturity scale, PGI general well-being scale, locus of control scale, and Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI). Correlations between burnout and sociodemographic/clinical variables were done by Pearson's r or Spearman's rho. Signi ficant variables were entered in a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis with total burnout score as dependent variable. Results: Age, duration of total period of nursing, prior military training, locus of control, sense of general well-being, adjustment capabilities, and emotional maturity had significant relation with burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most significant protective factors against burnout along with adjustment capabilities, sense of physical well-being, and military training in decreasing significance. Together they explained 41% variation in total burnout score which is significant at <0.001 level. An internal locus of control was inversely correlated with burnout, but failed to predict it in regression analysis. Conclusion: Emotional maturity, adjustability, sense of general physical well-being as well as prior military training significantly predicted lower burnout. Of them, emotional maturity was the most important predictor. Internal locus of

  18. [ADJUVANTED INFLUENZA VACCINES: DATA FROM DIRECT COMPARATIVE STUDIES].

    PubMed

    Chernikova, M I; Vasiliev, Yu M

    2015-01-01

    Vaccines are the cornerstone of influenza control, however available vaccines are subject to certain limitations. Adjuvanted vaccines are a promising approach, however available adjuvants have a suboptimal effectiveness and safety profile. Data from direct comparative trials are necessary for selection of optimal adjuvants among currently available and search for novel safe and effective adjuvants for next generation influenza vaccines. Data from published direct comparative studies of adjuvants for influenza vaccines are summarized, a lack of such studies is noted, especially those using adequate methods and designs and comparing adjuvants of major groups (nature/source and mechanism of action). Several promising approaches of adjuvant research and development could be identified: chitosan-based adjuvants, oil-in-water emulsions and multi-component formulations (depot + immune modulating components). PMID:26829860

  19. Studies on muon tomography for archaeological internal structures scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, H.; Carloganu, C.; Gibert, D.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Marteau, J.; Niess, V.; Katsanevas, S.; Tonazzo, A.

    2016-05-01

    Muon tomography is a potential non-invasive technique for internal structure scanning. It has already interesting applications in geophysics and can be used for archaeological purposes. Muon tomography is based on the measurement of the muon flux after crossing the structure studied. Differences on the mean density of these structures imply differences on the detected muon rate for a given direction. Based on this principle, Monte Carlo simulations represent a useful tool to provide a model of the expected muon rate and angular distribution depending on the composition of the studied object, being useful to estimate the expected detected muons and to better understand the experimental results. These simulations are mainly dependent on the geometry and composition of the studied object and on the modelling of the initial muon flux at surface. In this work, the potential of muon tomography in archaeology is presented and evaluated with Monte Carlo simulations by estimating the differences on the muon rate due to the presence of internal structures and its composition. The influence of the chosen muon model at surface in terms of energy and angular distributions in the final result has been also studied.

  20. Rodents for comparative aging studies: from mice to beavers.

    PubMed

    Gorbunova, Vera; Bozzella, Michael J; Seluanov, Andrei

    2008-09-01

    After humans, mice are the best-studied mammalian species in terms of their biology and genetics. Gerontological research has used mice and rats extensively to generate short- and long-lived mutants, study caloric restriction and more. Mice and rats are valuable model organisms thanks to their small size, short lifespans and fast reproduction. However, when the goal is to further extend the already long human lifespan, studying fast aging species may not provide all the answers. Remarkably, in addition to the fast-aging species, the order Rodentia contains multiple long-lived species with lifespans exceeding 20 years (naked mole-rat, beavers, porcupines, and some squirrels). This diversity opens great opportunities for comparative aging studies. Here we discuss the evolution of lifespan in rodents, review the biology of slow-aging rodents, and show an example of how the use of a comparative approach revealed that telomerase activity coevolved with body mass in rodents. PMID:19424861

  1. A Comparative Study of Contract Training in Select Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updike, Katherine May

    In 1991, a study was conducted to compare contract training in selected community colleges providing service to business, industry, and government. A sample of 17 colleges was selected from the League for Innovation Contract Training Professional Network; and phone interviews were conducted with and questionnaires were returned by 16 of the 17…

  2. Louis, Hildegarde, and Mary: A Comparative Study in Infant Bilingualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Coral

    Studies of bilingual infants are in disagreement as to the point at which the child distinguishes two languages in his linguistic environment. In this paper, data from two classic works by linguist-parents on bilingual infants are compared with data collected from the author's own bilingual daughter. Five types of behavior are described which…

  3. Bullying and the Postgraduate Trainee Teacher: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Keira; Cain, Tim; Woodgate-Jones, Alex; Srokosz, Anne

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, Maguire published the findings from a survey of the perceptions and experiences of secondary school trainee teachers of adult-adult bullying. The current paper reports on a study which aimed to compare the incidence and nature of bullying of postgraduate trainees in another English teacher training institution with the experiences of…

  4. Decentralized Management in Prison: A Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, J. Forbes

    1994-01-01

    Conducted comparative case study of organizational climates in two prisons Findings from 149 staff members and 442 inmates revealed that flattening organizational structure without decentralizing authority seemed to have negative effects on staff supervisory relations and job satisfaction. Inmates reported better quality of life and more effective…

  5. Efficiency study comparing two helicopter planetary reduction stages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the efficiency of two helicopter transmission planetary reduction stages. Experimental measurements and analytical predictions were made. The analysis predicted and experiments verified that one planetary stage was a more efficient design due to the type of planet bearing used in the stage. The effects of torque, speed, lubricant type, and lubricant temperature on planetary efficiency are discussed.

  6. Treatment of Conduct Disorders in Childhood: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Elizabeth A.

    Children evidencing conduct disorders comprise the bulk of clinical referrals. Longitudinal studies have found that the prognosis for these children is poor in that the majority exhibit antisocial behavior in adulthood. In order to compare two methods of treatment, relationship-based and contingency management, 53 children (33 boys, 20 girls),…

  7. Comparative Study of Bacterial Growth in Magnet Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Derek; Masood, Samina

    It has been shown that magnetic fields affect bacterial growth. A comparative study of growth rates for gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria with different types of magnetic fields is done. Special focus is placed upon growth within liquid media, and the effect of magnetic fields relative to the chosen growth medium is considered.

  8. Comparative Study of Student Support Services of AIOU and UKOU

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choudhry, Amtul Hafeez; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed; Hafeez, Muhammad Rashid

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to compare the availability, quality, similarities and differences of student support services in Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU) and United Kingdom Open University (UKOU) and also to identify and enlist the deficiencies that AIOU students are facing in the student support services. The study found out that student support…

  9. Research Governance and the Role of Evaluation: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molas-Gallart, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Through a comparative study of the United Kingdom and Spain, this article addresses the effect of different research governance structures on the functioning and uses of research evaluation. It distinguishes three main evaluation uses: distributive, improvement, and controlling. Research evaluation in the United Kingdom plays important…

  10. The Syntax of Bilingual Children: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Metre, Patricia D.

    The interview techniques developed by Carol Chomsky were used in a comparative study of the language acquisition of 32 bilingual and monolingual third grade students. After these students were matched for age, socioeconomic status, IQ, family environment (both parents in the home), and reading ability, they were placed in four…

  11. A Comparative Study of the Adjustment of Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devika R.

    2014-01-01

    Education is the ability to meet one's life. How the child adjusts with varying situations determines the success of life. The child's adjustment is determined by a number of factors like Home, Social, Educational and Financial adjustment. The investigator here aims to make a comparative study on the adjustment of secondary school students. The…

  12. It Pays to Compare: An Experimental Study on Computational Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Jon R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany

    2009-01-01

    Comparing and contrasting examples is a core cognitive process that supports learning in children and adults across a variety of topics. In this experimental study, we evaluated the benefits of supporting comparison in a classroom context for children learning about computational estimation. Fifth- and sixth-grade students (N = 157) learned about…

  13. Political Responses to Reform: A Comparative Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noblit, George; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparative case studies assessed how the micropolitics of educational reform in two elementary schools affected one southeastern district's effort to professionalize teaching. The results indicate that teachers can use micropolitics to resist reform that, in these cases, legitimated centralization and control, and to heighten their control of…

  14. Comparative Studies on Sino-Canadian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    Today education is internationalization. Both China and Canada have their own strong merits of higher education. This paper approaches comparative studies on differences of Sino-Canadian higher education from new points, so as to achieve an inspiration to the development of Chinese higher education: preserve relative independence between higher…

  15. Generation 1.5 Written Error Patterns: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolan, Stephen M.; Miller, Donald

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to contribute to existing research on Generation 1.5 students, the current study uses quantitative and qualitative methods to compare error patterns in a corpus of Generation 1.5, L1, and L2 community college student writing. This error analysis provides one important way to determine if error patterns in Generation 1.5 student…

  16. A Study Comparing Electronic Mail and Voice Messaging Channels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Myke; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study that explored differences in computer-mediated communication messaging by comparing electronic mail and voice messaging used for giving directions. Highlights include a computational linguistic framework that examines differences between written and oral English, models of direction provision, and hypotheses based on preliminary…

  17. Using Comparative Online Media to Study the Iraq War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2004-01-01

    The war in Iraq and the aftermath are receiving media attention around the globe. A plethora of media reports from many other countries is now available online in English. This article recommends possible approaches to developing comparative media studies and provides URLs to specific sources. The NCSS standards addressed by these lessons include:…

  18. A Comparative Study of Two Acoustic Measures of Hypernasality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogel, Adam P.; Ibrahim, Hasherah M.; Reilly, Sheena; Kilpatrick, Nicky

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare 2 quantitative acoustic measures of nasality in children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) and healthy controls using formalized perceptual assessment as a guide. Method: Fifty participants (23 children with CLP and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls) aged between 4 and 12 years produced a variety of…

  19. Different Underlying Neurocognitive Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menghini, D.; Finzi, A.; Benassi, M.; Bolzani, R.; Facoetti, A.; Giovagnoli, S.; Ruffino, M.; Vicari, S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of several specific neurocognitive functions in developmental dyslexia (DD). The performances of 60 dyslexic children and 65 age-matched normally reading children were compared on tests of phonological abilities, visual processing, selective and sustained attention, implicit learning, and executive…

  20. A Comparative Study of Students' Attitudes Toward Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanar, Rosalinda

    The comparative analysis of students' attitudes included Mexican American, Anglo, and Asian students (from Thailand, Taiwan, and the Philippines). A Likert scale was used to measure all attitudes. All analysis performed utilized cross tabulation and chi square. The attitudes studied were reasons for going to college; concept of an educated person…

  1. Comparative Analysis, Global Policy Studies and the Human Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertsch, Gary K.

    This paper examines the role that comparative analysis and global policy studies can play in explaining the human condition in the contemporary world. It investigates economic well-being, one dimension of the human condition, and examines some of the attributes that represent it and some of the forces that affect it in villages, social groupings,…

  2. Introduction to a Comparative Study of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Patrick D.

    Comparative educational administration is not yet a recognized field, although a number of works concerning cross-cultural educational literature are directly applicable to such studies. Four themes are apparent in relevant works. Beginning in the 19th century, the earliest works focused on European schools in the hopes America could learn from…

  3. TRANSMISSION NETWORK PLANNING METHOD FOR COMPARATIVE STUDIES (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An automated transmission network planning method for comparative studies is presented. This method employs logical steps that may closely parallel those taken in practice by the planning engineers. Use is made of a sensitivity matrix to simulate the engineers' experience in sele...

  4. Comparative analysis of the space power architecture studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, Ronald J.

    1988-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has recently completed the initial phase of Space Power Architecture Studies (SPAS). The initial effort consisted of three major contracted efforts and a comparative analysis performed by the SDIO Independent Evaluation Group (IEG) and the IEG Field Support Team. The purpose of the SPAS effort was to evaluate a wide range of power systems for SDIO applications using a wide range of attributes other than power-system mass and volume. Open cycle, closed cycle, and closed power system/weapon platform concepts were studied. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the salient results of these studies, identify important trends and future study needs.

  5. A comparative study of nuclear accident consequences for Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, E.M.K.; Yeung, Mankit Ray )

    1993-02-01

    A two-dimensional dispersion and consequence model called RADIS has been developed and used to perform a site-specific investigation of the consequences and risks for Hong Kong as a result of a potential accident at the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The study uses the 1986 Hong Kong weather and demographic data to determine the accident consequences for Hong Kong. The overall cumulative occurrence frequency distributions of early fatality, early injury, latent cancer, and thyroid nodule are compared with those of WASH-1400 and a United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) study. This study is generally consistent with the WASH-1400 results and exhibits less conservatism than the UKAEA study.

  6. Integrated thermal treatment systems study. Internal review panel report

    SciTech Connect

    Cudahy, J.; Escarda, T.; Gimpel, R.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) commissioned two studies to evaluate nineteen thermal treatment technologies for treatment of DOE mixed low-level waste. These studies were called the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Phase I and Phase II. With the help of the DOE Office of Environmental Management (EM) Mixed Waste Focus Group, OTD formed an ITTS Internal Review Panel to review and comment on the ITTS studies. This Panel was composed of scientists and engineers from throughout the DOE complex, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California EPA, and private experts. The Panel met from November 15-18, 1994 to review the ITTS studies and to make recommendations on the most promising thermal treatment systems for DOE mixed low-level wastes and on research and development necessary to prove the performance of the technologies. This report describes the findings and presents the recommendations of the Panel.

  7. Needs Assessment for the Establishment of a Masters of Arts Program in International Studies with a Concentration in International Security and a Specialization in International Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, David H.

    2008-01-01

    Since the attacks of September 11, national and international security has been driven to the center stage of our present-day society, thus becoming a primary concern and focus in the United States. The purpose of this study was to conduct an instructional needs assessment for the establishment of a Masters of Arts program in International Studies…

  8. Pulsation research during the IMS. [International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    After describing the development status of the field of magnetic pulsations in 1975, before the initiation of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS), attention is given to the IMS's novel observational results and an attempt is made to identify the most effective research methods employed. It is found that the most fruitful work involved small-scale collaboration between a few individuals or a few groups possessing complementary data sets. Consideration is restricted to research on the long period pulsations which can be broadly classified as field line resonances. Recommendations are made for future research efforts.

  9. Lessons Learned From an International, Multisite Simulation Research Study.

    PubMed

    Foronda, Cynthia; Alhusen, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the process and lessons learned in conducting an international, multisite simulation research study. Key lessons include asking site leaders to complete human subjects training early, applying for a deferral agreement for multiple sites, standardization, seeking consultation, considering differences in simulation centers, and having a back-up plan if committed team members are unable to progress. Although challenging, this process yields many rewards and raises the state of the science to improve pedagogy and student learning outcomes. PMID:26779693

  10. [International multicenter studies of treatment of severe traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Talypov, A E; Kordonsky, A Yu; Krylov, V V

    2016-01-01

    Despite the introduction of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods, traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains one of the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Standards and recommendations on conservative and surgical treatment of TBI patients should be based on concepts and methods with proven efficacy. The authors present a review of studies of the treatment and surgery of severe TBI: DECRA, RESCUEicp, STITCH(TRAUMA), CRASH, CRASH-2, CAPTAIN, NABIS: H ll, Eurotherm 3235. Important recommendations of the international group IMPACT are considered. PMID:27045148

  11. Comparative study of texture detection and classification algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltsov, P. P.

    2011-08-01

    A description and results of application of the computer system PETRA (performance evaluation of texture recognition algorithms) are given. This system is designed for the comparative study of texture analysis algorithms; it includes a database of textured images and a collection of software implementations of texture analysis algorithms. The functional capabilities of the system are illustrated using texture classification examples. Test examples are taken from the Brodatz album, MeasTech database, and a set of aerospace images. Results of a comparative evaluation of five well-known texture analysis methods are described—Gabor filters, Laws masks, ring/wedge filters, gray-level cooccurrence matrices (GLCMs), and autoregression image model.

  12. ICMSF methods studies. XII. Comparative study for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens in feces.

    PubMed

    Hauschild, A H; Desmarchelier, P; Gilbert, R J; Harmon, S M; Vahlefeld, R

    1979-09-01

    As the second phase of an international comparative study for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens, four methods were compared for "total" and spore counts of C. perfringens in fecal specimens: the SFP (Shahidi-Ferguson perfringens) agar (A), TSC (tryptose-sulfite-cycloserine) agar (B), SC (sulfite-cycloserine) agar (C), and neomycin blood agar (D) methods. In both the total and spore count procedures, the confirmed C. perfringens counts in method D were lower than in methods A, B, and C. Little differences among methods were found in the percentages of presumptive colonies confirmed as C. perfringens. The nonspecific counts in methods A and D were generally greater than in B and C, but nonspecific microorganisms did not interfere in the enumeration of C. perfringens spores by any of the four methods. In overall performance, methods B and C were superior to A and D. The mean C. perfringens spore count was only 0.17 log lower than the mean total count. Spore counts alone are, therefore, adequate in investigations of C. perfringens outbreaks. PMID:232005

  13. Ergonomic intervention, workplace exercises and musculoskeletal complaints: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Heydari, Mohammad; Mirmohammadi, Seyyed Jalil; Mostaghaci, Mehrdad; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Taheri, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are among the most prevalent occupational disorders in different jobs such as office work. Some interventions such as ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises are introduced as the methods for alleviating these disorders. In this study we compared the effect of ergonomic modifications and workplace exercises on musculoskeletal pain and discomfort in a group of office workers. Methods: In an interventional study on office workers, the effect of two interventions was compared. Ergonomic modification consisted of correcting the arrangement of workstation and changing some equipment; workplace exercises included stretching exercises focusing on neck, shoulders, low back, and hand and wrist. Musculoskeletal complaints were assessed and compared before and after 1 month interventions. Results: The frequency of musculoskeletal complaints was high before the study. Both interventions significantly reduced complaints in a similar manner except for low back pain which was reduced in exercise group more than the other group. Conclusion: In this study we found a beneficial short-term effect for both ergonomic modifications and stretching work-place exercises on reducing musculoskeletal pain in office workers. PMID:25405134

  14. International Scoping Study of a Future Accelerator NeutrinoComplex

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    The International Scoping Study (ISS), launched at NuFact05 to evaluate the physics case for a future neutrino facility, along with options for the accelerator complex and detectors, is laying the foundations for a subsequent conceptual-design study. It is hosted by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) and organized by the international community, with participants from Europe, Japan, and the U.S. Here we cover the work of the Accelerator Working Group. For the 4-MW proton driver, linacs, synchrotrons, and Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) rings are considered. For targets, issues of both liquid-metal and solid materials are examined. For beam conditioning, (phase rotation, bunching, and ionization cooling), we evaluate schemes both with and without cooling, the latter based on scaling-FFAG rings. For acceleration, we examine scaling FFAGs and hybrid systems comprising linacs, dogbone RLAs, and non-scaling FFAGs. For the decay ring, we consider racetrack and triangular shapes, the latter capable of simultaneously illuminating two different detectors at different long baselines. Comparisons are made between various technical approaches to identify optimum design choices.

  15. An international study on dietary supplementation use in dancers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Derrick; Wyon, Matthew

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the prevalence and motives of dietary supplement use amongst dancers from different cultures. Investigating supplement use, presumed effects, and other factors may be crucial for improving educational and nutritional advice provided for this cohort. Therefore, this study investigated the use of dietary supplements in 334 dancers from 53 countries, who completed a digitally based 35-question survey detailing demographic information and the use of dietary supplementation. Supplement use was prevalent amongst this international cohort, with 48% reporting regular supplement use. Major motives for supplement use were to improve health, boost immunity, and reduce fatigue. Forty-five percent believed that dancing increased the need for supplementation, whilst 30% recognized that there were risks associated with nutritional supplementation. The most frequently consumed supplements were vitamin C (60%), multivitamins (67%), and caffeine (72%). A smaller group of participants declared the use of whey protein (21%) or creatine (14%). Supplements were mainly obtained from pharmacies, supermarkets, and health-food stores. Dancers recognized their lack of knowledge in dietary supplement use and relied on peer recommendations instead of sound evidence-based advice from acknowledged nutrition or health care professionals. This study demonstrates that dietary supplement use is internationally prevalent amongst dancers. Continued efforts are warranted with regard to information dissemination. PMID:25433260

  16. Ten years of Developing International Volcanology Graduate Study Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    In 2000 I reported at this symposium about multi-institutional graduate field trips to IAVCEI events, such as the Bali meeting and its importance in building international collegiality and awareness among the volcanology doctoral students. NSF was an enthusiastic supporter of these field sessions and this support has continued through the highly successful Pucon and Reykjavik sessions. International volcanology graduate program development began with several exchange programs. EHaz was a highly successful program (McGill, Simon Fraser, Michigan Tech, Buffalo, UNAM and Universidad de Colima) funded by the Department of Education (FIPSE) that moved students across North America where dozens of graduate students spent semesters of their study abroad and shared annual field trips and online student led graduate seminar classes. Michigan Tech’s volcanology graduate program started a Masters International program that combined Peace Corps service with hazards mitigation graduate study and students were placed by Peace Corps in countries with prominent natural hazards. The new program funded 2 year residences in foreign environments, principally in Pacific Latin America. NSF strongly supported this program from its inception, and eventually it gained NSF PIRE support. Dozens of students have initiated the 3 year program (15 completed) to date. A similar PIRE developed at UAF with a link to volcanology in the Russian Far East. One gain is the development of many socially-conscious research selections. Beginning this year transatlantic dual degree masters programs in volcanology are being offered by a consortium of US and European volcanology programs (Michigan Tech, Buffalo, Clermont Ferrand and University of Milan Bicocca), again aided by FIPSE funding. Students have dual advisors on both sides of the Atlantic and spend about half of their two year programs in Europe and half in US. Faculty also travel in the program and the four campuses are increasingly linked by

  17. Absorbable scaphoid screw development: a comparative study on biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Song, Muguo; Xu, Yongqing; He, Xiaoqing; Zhu, YueLiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The scaphoid is critical for maintaining the stability and movement of the wrist joints. This study aimed to develop a new internal fixator absorbable scaphoid screw (ASS) for fixation of the scaphoid waist after fracture and to test the biomechanical characteristics of ASS. Materials and methods An ASS was prepared using polylactic acids and designed based on scaphoid measurements and anatomic features. Twenty fractured scaphoid waist specimens were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (n=10/group). Reduction and internal fixation of the scaphoid were achieved with either Kirschner wires (K-wires) or ASS. A moving target simulator was used to test palmar flexion and dorsal extension, with the range of testing (waist movement) set from 5° of palmar flexion to 25° of dorsal extension. Flexion and extension were repeated 2,000 times for each specimen. Fracture gap displacements were measured with a computerized tomography scanning. Scaphoid tensile and bending strengths were measured by using a hydraulic pressure biomechanical system. Results Prior to biomechanical fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements were 0.16±0.02 mm and 0.22±0.02 mm in the ASS and K-wire groups, respectively. After fatigue testing, fracture gap displacements in the ASS and the K-wire groups were 0.21±0.03 mm and 1.52±0.07 mm, respectively. The tensile strengths for the ASS and K-wire groups were 0.95±0.02 MPa and 0.63±0.02 MPa, respectively. Conclusion Fixation using an ASS provided sufficient mechanical support for the scaphoid after fracture. PMID:27217756

  18. Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared very well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.

  19. Comparative study of turbulence models in predicting hypersonic inlet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapoor, Kamlesh; Anderson, Bernhard H.; Shaw, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical study was conducted to analyze the performance of different turbulence models when applied to the hypersonic NASA P8 inlet. Computational results from the PARC2D code, which solves the full two-dimensional Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation, were compared with experimental data. The zero-equation models considered for the study were the Baldwin-Lomax model, the Thomas model, and a combination of the Baldwin-Lomax and Thomas models; the two-equation models considered were the Chien model, the Speziale model (both low Reynolds number), and the Launder and Spalding model (high Reynolds number). The Thomas model performed best among the zero-equation models, and predicted good pressure distributions. The Chien and Speziale models compared wery well with the experimental data, and performed better than the Thomas model near the walls.

  20. A comparative study of primary and secondary stereotypies.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Debabrata; Rajan, Prashant V; Erenberg, Gerald

    2013-12-01

    This study compares primary stereotypies (repetitive, self-stimulating, and seemingly nonsensical movements that can occur within typically developing children) and secondary stereotypies (those occurring within autistic or mentally retarded children). Utilizing a retrospective chart review from 1995 to 2010, the current study compares primary and secondary stereotypies by the application of a classification system that organizes the movement by its type (motor only, phonic only, mixed) and complexity. In addition, it investigates other parameters associated with the movements such as duration, frequency, age, functional impairment, and progression. The sample group consisted of 28 primary and 28 secondary cases. Primary stereotypies were predominantly motor, simple, of shorter duration, and of less frequency, whereas secondary stereotypies had more vocalization, complexity, longer durations, and higher frequencies. Moreover, functional impairment due to stereotypies was noted in 3 primary and 7 secondary cases, and worsening of stereotypies was noted in 70% of primary versus 44% of secondary cases. PMID:23143719

  1. Reinventing US Internal Migration Studies in the Age of International Migration

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Mark

    2014-01-01

    I argue that researchers have sidelined attention to issues raised by US internal migration as they shifted focus to the questions posed by the post-1960s rise in US immigration. In this paper, I offer some reasons about why immigration has garnered more attention and why there needs to be greater consideration of US internal migration and its significant and myriad social, economic, political, and cultural impacts. I offer three ideas for motivating more research into US internal geographic mobility that would foreground its empirical and conceptual connections to international migration. First, there should be more work on linked migration systems investigating the connections between internal and international flows. Second, the questions asked about immigrant social, cultural, and economic impacts and adaptations in host societies should also be asked about internal migrants. Third, and more generally, migration researchers should jettison the assumption that the national scale is the pre-eminent delimiter of migration types and processes. Some groups can move easily across borders; others are constrained in their moves within countries. These subnational scales and constraints will become more visible if migration research decentres the national from its theory and empirics. PMID:24839406

  2. Reinventing US Internal Migration Studies in the Age of International Migration.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Mark

    2012-03-01

    I argue that researchers have sidelined attention to issues raised by US internal migration as they shifted focus to the questions posed by the post-1960s rise in US immigration. In this paper, I offer some reasons about why immigration has garnered more attention and why there needs to be greater consideration of US internal migration and its significant and myriad social, economic, political, and cultural impacts. I offer three ideas for motivating more research into US internal geographic mobility that would foreground its empirical and conceptual connections to international migration. First, there should be more work on linked migration systems investigating the connections between internal and international flows. Second, the questions asked about immigrant social, cultural, and economic impacts and adaptations in host societies should also be asked about internal migrants. Third, and more generally, migration researchers should jettison the assumption that the national scale is the pre-eminent delimiter of migration types and processes. Some groups can move easily across borders; others are constrained in their moves within countries. These subnational scales and constraints will become more visible if migration research decentres the national from its theory and empirics. PMID:24839406

  3. Mediators of antiretroviral adherence: a multisite international study.

    PubMed

    Corless, I B; Guarino, A J; Nicholas, P K; Tyer-Viola, L; Kirksey, K; Brion, J; Dawson Rose, C; Eller, L S; Rivero-Mendez, M; Kemppainen, J; Nokes, K; Sefcik, E; Voss, J; Wantland, D; Johnson, M O; Phillips, J C; Webel, A; Iipinge, S; Portillo, C; Chen, W-T; Maryland, M; Hamilton, M J; Reid, P; Hickey, D; Holzemer, W L; Sullivan, K M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of stressful life events (SLE) on medication adherence (3 days, 30 days) as mediated by sense of coherence (SOC), self-compassion (SCS), and engagement with the healthcare provider (eHCP) and whether this differed by international site. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional sample of 2082 HIV positive adults between September 2009 and January 2011 from sites in Canada, China, Namibia, Puerto Rico, Thailand, and US. Statistical tests to explore the effects of stressful life events on antiretroviral medication adherence included descriptive statistics, multivariate analysis of variance, analysis of variance with Bonferroni post-hoc analysis, and path analysis. An examination by international site of the relationships between SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP with adherence (3 days and 30 days) indicated these combined variables were related to adherence whether 3 days or 30 days to different degrees at the various sites. SLE, SCS, SOC, and eHCP were significant predictors of adherence past 3 days for the United States (p = < 0.001), Canada (p = 0.006), and Namibia (p = 0.019). The combined independent variables were significant predictors of adherence past 30 days only in the United States and Canada. Engagement with the provider was a significant correlate for antiretroviral adherence in most, but not all, of these countries. Thus, the importance of eHCP cannot be overstated. Nonetheless, our findings need to be accompanied by the caveat that research on variables of interest, while enriched by a sample obtained from international sites, may not have the same relationships in each country. PMID:22774796

  4. Comparative studies of silicon photomultipliers and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Lü, Jun-Guang; Lu, Hong; Wang, Huan-Yu; Ma, Yu-Qian; Hu, Tao; Zhou, Li; Cai, Xiao; Sun, Li-Jun; Yu, Bo-Xiang; Fang, Jian; Xie, Yu-Guang; An, Zheng-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Gao, Min; Li, Xin-Qiao; Xu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Ping; Sun, Xi-Lei; Zhang, Ai-Wu; Xue, Zhen; Liu, Hong-Bang; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Yun; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Meng, Xiang-Cheng; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) are a new generation of semiconductor-based photon counting devices with the merits of low weight, low power consumption and low voltage operation, promising to meet the needs of space particle physics experiments. In this paper, comparative studies of SiPMs and traditional vacuum photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been performed regarding the basic properties of dark currents, dark counts and excess noise factors. The intrinsic optical crosstalk effect of SiPMs was evaluated.

  5. Comparative study of acceleration transducers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchczik, Dariusz; Wyżgolik, Roman; Pietraszek, Stanisław

    2006-10-01

    The results of comparative studies of the metrological parameters of acceleration transducers constructed in Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology is presented in this article. The construction of the transducers is based on commercially available monolithic accelerometers and optimized for biomedical applications. The parameters determined during the tests are similar to the parameters of the monolithic accelerometers declared by their manufacturers. It proofs that both the mechanical and the electronic construction of the transducers are correct.

  6. [Comparative study of two dried intradermal BCG vaccines (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fillastre, C; Guerin, N; Danusantoso, H; Sardadi, S

    1979-01-01

    Two BCG vaccines prepared from the same strain were studied clinically in Indonesia and in France. The concentration in culturable particles was comparable. Observed differences in the Mantoux results are discussed. The French results, based on use in a temperate climate by a specialized team, on well nourished children, appear better than the Indonesian findings. Further steps should be undertaken to improve results in Indonesia. PMID:539694

  7. A Comparative Study of Heat Transfer in Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pǎucǎ, Adina; Hepuţ, Teodor; Pinca-Bretotean, Camelia; Stoica, Diana

    2011-09-01

    Rolling of metallic materials with heat transfer occurs as a result of interaction between the workpiece and the rolling cylinders incandescent. Heat transferred by diffusion into the cylinders generates variable temperature fields. These fields produce variable temperature thermal stress in each rotation cycle of rolling cylinders. This paper aims at mathematical modeling of variable temperature fields, using Matlab. These diagrams obtained are compared with those obtained following experimental study of the thermal lamination cylinders for 5 states isochronous temperature.

  8. International Child Care Practices study: breastfeeding and pacifier use.

    PubMed

    Nelson, E A S; Yu, Ly-Mee; Williams, Sheila

    2005-08-01

    Although the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative advises that no pacifiers be given to breastfeeding infants, both breastfeeding and pacifier use may protect against sudden infant death syndrome. The International Child Care Practice Study data set on child care practices associated with sudden infant death syndrome risk from 21 centers in 17 countries was used to describe infant-feeding practices and pacifier use and assess factors associated with breastfeeding. At approximately 3 months of age, rates of breastfeeding only (4%-80%) and pacifier use(12.5%-71%) varied between centers. Pacifier use was negatively associated with breastfeeding, and a dose-response effect was noted. Other negative (multiple birth, smoking by mother) and positive (intention to breastfeed, bed sharing, mothers' education) associations with breastfeeding only were identified. Although causality should not be inferred, these associations are consistent with previous studies. Advice on pacifiers should include potential benefits as well as risks. PMID:16115805

  9. The internal organization of hospitals: a descriptive study.

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, F A

    1980-01-01

    This study presents descriptive information on several dimensions of the internal organization of hospitals, with particular emphasis on medical staff, using data from two unique national surveys. Three alternative theories of hospital behavior by economists are described and evaluated with these data. The study also shows how standard bed size, teaching, and ownership categories relate to important features of hospital organization. In this way, understanding of these standard "control" variables is enhanced. For example, systematic organizational differences between proprietary and other hospitals are reported, holding bed size and teaching status constant. No single theory of hospital behavior emerges as dominant. The tables demonstrate the diversity of hospitals and the likelihood that no single model can adequately describe the behavior of all hospitals. PMID:7204062

  10. Comparative Study of Permeatal Sandwich Tympanoplasty and Postaural Underlay Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nagpure, Prakash Shankarrao; Yadav, Manish; Chavan, Sushil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tympanoplasty is the most common operation performed by an Otolaryngologist right from the period of residency. During the last hundred years various modifications in this surgical technique have come up because of continued efforts made by otologists all over the world to achieve the best surgical outcome. Aim To compare the graft take up and complications associated with the Permeatal Sandwich Tympanoplasty performed with the use of Otoendoscope and traditional Postaural Underlay technique of Tympanoplasty from 1st September 2014 to 30th August 2015. Materials and Methods Patients attending the ENT OPD, suffering from Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM) were selected on the basis of type of perforation and their workup was done to assess the candidature for tympanoplasty. Results A total of 100 patients were included in the study and the overall graft take was 92.3% in cases of Permeatal Sandwich technique as compared to 64.58% in the case of postaural underlay technique, with a majority of the failures in the large central perforation group rendering a p = 0.021 for patients operated for Large perforations, p = 0.036 for moderate perforations and p = 0.476 for small perforations. The overall p = 0.000649 which is highly significant. On comparing the complications there were only 2 cases in Permeatal Sandwich Technique compared to 25 cases in Postaural Underlay technique rendering a highly significant p-value 0f 0.000000348. There was a difference in hearing improvement with majority of the cases improving to the range of 16-25 dB in Permeatal Sandwich technique compared to 26-45 dB in Postaural Underlay technique. Conclusion Permeatal Sandwich technique produce much better results when compared with Postaural approach in terms of graft take up, complications and hearing improvement. PMID:27190842

  11. Faith based aviation: An ethnographic study of missionary flights international

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Joseph H.

    The development of faith-based missionary aviation is a post-World War II phenomenon. The war effort demonstrated the value, utility, and global reach of aviation to remote, underdeveloped areas of the world. With the beginnings of a worldwide infrastructure for aviation, Christian aviators realized aviation could increase the range and effectiveness of their efforts to reach the world for Christ (Mellis, 2006). Although individual organizations provide statistical information and data about flight operations there is a lack of external evidence and relevant research literature confirming the scope and value of these faith based aviation organizations and operations. A qualitative, ethnographic study was conducted to document the activities of one faith-based aviation organization to gain an understanding of this little known aspect of civilian aviation. The study was conducted with Missionary Flights International (MFI) of Fort Pierce, FL which has been involved in faith-based, missionary aviation since its inception in 1964. As an aviation organization "MFI strives to offer affiliated missions the kind of efficient service and professionalism expected of an airline operation" (Missionary Flights International, 2013, p.1). MFI is a lifeline for missionaries to Haiti and the Dominican Republic, fulfilling their motto of "Standing in the Gap". MFI provides twice a week service to the island of Hispaniola and the Republic of Haiti. In this in-depth study insight and understanding was gained into the purpose of MFI, their daily routines and operations, and the challenges they face in maintaining their flight services to Haiti. This study provided documentation of the value and utility of such aviation efforts and of the individuals involved in this endeavor.

  12. Ultrafast internal conversion of aromatic molecules studied by photoelectron spectroscopy using Sub-20 fs laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    This article describes our recent experimental studies on internal conversion via a conical intersection using photoelectron spectroscopy. Ultrafast S2(ππ*)-S1(nπ*) internal conversion in pyrazine is observed in real time using sub-20 fs deep ultraviolet pulses (264 and 198 nm). While the photoelectron kinetic energy distribution does not exhibit a clear signature of internal conversion, the photoelectron angular anisotropy unambiguously reveals the sudden change of electron configuration upon internal conversion. An explanation is presented as to why these two observables have different sensitivities to internal conversion. The 198 nm probe photon energy is insufficient for covering the entire Franck-Condon envelopes upon photoionization from S2/S1 to D1/D0. A vacuum ultraviolet free electron laser (SCSS) producing 161 nm radiation is employed to solve this problem, while its pulse-to-pulse timing jitter limits the time resolution to about 1 ps. The S2-S1 internal conversion is revisited using the sub-20 fs 159 nm pulse created by filamentation four-wave mixing. Conical intersections between D1(π-1) and D0(n-1) and also between the Rydberg state with a D1 ion core and that with a D0 ion core of pyrazine are studied by He(I) photoelectron spectroscopy, pulsed field ionization photoelectron spectroscopy and one-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. Finally, ultrafast S2(ππ*)-S1(ππ*) internal conversion in benzene and toluene are compared with pyrazine. PMID:24566311

  13. Comparative Statistical Study of Some SAP UI Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdie, Adela; Osaci, Mihaela; Dan Lemle, Ludovic

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a comparative study on some web UI (User Interface) technologies that involve the creation of web applications on the platform SAP Net Weaver AS 7.01 of the integrated SAP (System Application Products) system. The attention will be directed mainly to the ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programing) development environment and to the Web Dynpro (WD) technologies, Floor Plan Manager (FPM) and Web Client UI. Through this study, we make an assesment regarding the decision of choosing a technology for the realisation of a project which consists of a web application.

  14. Image based 3D city modeling : Comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Jain, K.; Mandla, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    3D city model is a digital representation of the Earth's surface and it's related objects such as building, tree, vegetation, and some manmade feature belonging to urban area. The demand of 3D city modeling is increasing rapidly for various engineering and non-engineering applications. Generally four main image based approaches were used for virtual 3D city models generation. In first approach, researchers were used Sketch based modeling, second method is Procedural grammar based modeling, third approach is Close range photogrammetry based modeling and fourth approach is mainly based on Computer Vision techniques. SketchUp, CityEngine, Photomodeler and Agisoft Photoscan are the main softwares to represent these approaches respectively. These softwares have different approaches & methods suitable for image based 3D city modeling. Literature study shows that till date, there is no complete such type of comparative study available to create complete 3D city model by using images. This paper gives a comparative assessment of these four image based 3D modeling approaches. This comparative study is mainly based on data acquisition methods, data processing techniques and output 3D model products. For this research work, study area is the campus of civil engineering department, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India). This 3D campus acts as a prototype for city. This study also explains various governing parameters, factors and work experiences. This research work also gives a brief introduction, strengths and weakness of these four image based techniques. Some personal comment is also given as what can do or what can't do from these softwares. At the last, this study shows; it concluded that, each and every software has some advantages and limitations. Choice of software depends on user requirements of 3D project. For normal visualization project, SketchUp software is a good option. For 3D documentation record, Photomodeler gives good result. For Large city

  15. A feasibility study for an International Year of Landcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutota, E.; Arnalds, A.

    2009-04-01

    Human-induced activities place enormous pressures on the land worldwide, creating competition and conflict, and suboptimal use of the land. Climate change, loss of biodiversity and land degradation leads to decreasing productivity, food and water shortages, and reduced economic benefits, among others. In order to address these challenges and achieve sustainability goals, the need to change the way global resources are being utilized is crucial. A holistic and integrated community-based approach such as Landcare could be a viable approach to meet this worldwide challenge. Landcare is about committed people working together on land rehabilitation and restoration projects at the local level, transforming attitudes and stimulating new ideas among land users, generating support and building partnerships between and among local communities, governments and the private sector. Landcare initiatives have grown in a number of countries where success stories of actions on the ground clearly show the wider application of the Landcare approach in resolving many of the world's environmental problems and livelihood challenges. However, the potential of Landcare have not yet been widely exploited on a scale that really matters—as local actions build up towards global progress, there is more scope for unified efforts towards a global Landcare movement. Following the recommendation given at the International Forum on Soils, Society and Global Change in 2007 in Iceland (http://www.iisd.ca/YMB/SDFSS/), an International Year of Landcare should be established. Such a year would bring into focus efforts to build local capacity and share knowledge and experiences between provinces, countries and continents on Landcare. Additionally, holding a year concerned with Landcare would greatly contribute to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals, the UN environmental conventions and many other sustainability goals. Our study supports the notion that Landcare offers a robust platform

  16. A comparative study of fluoride release from two different sealants

    PubMed Central

    Ananda, Shimoga-Raju

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The introduction of fluoride releasing sealants and glass ionomer cements as fissure sealants adds another dimension to prevention of pit and fissure caries. The ability of resin sealants and glass ionomer cements to release fluoride on a long term basis to the sealed enamel and the adjacent unsealed pit and fissure and cuspal incline enamel may allow for further reduction in pit and fissure caries experience for children. Hence, the study was conducted to compare the amount of fluoride release in the plaque after placing fluoride releasing pit and fissure sealants and glass ionomer fissure sealants used in Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach. To compare the fluoride release of both the materials at the different time intervals. Material and Methods: A total of 60 school going children were included in this study. Before application of the sealants, baseline plaque fluoride levels were estimated from all the study subjects. After application of sealants again the same was estimated at an interval of 24 hour, 9 days, 2 weeks and 4 weeks. Results: The peak plaque fluoride levels were achieved at 24 hours after application of fissure sealants in all the groups. Conclusions: Within the limitation of the study, the present study indicated that fluoride releasing fissure sealants may act as a source of fluoride in plaque which will help in preventing pit and fissure and smooth surface caries in the tooth sealed with fissure sealants. Key words:Plaque fluoride, pit and fissures sealants, dental caries. PMID:25674315

  17. A comparative study of different ferrofluid constitutive equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaloni, Purna

    2011-11-01

    Ferrofluids are stable colloidal suspensions of fine ferromagnetic monodomain nanoparticles in a non-conducting carrier fluid. The particles are coated with a surfacant to avoid agglomeration and coagulation.Brownian motion keeps the nanoparticles from settling under gravity. In recent years these fluids have found several applications including in liquid seals in rotary shafts for vacuum system and in hard disk drives of personal computers, in cooling and damping of loud speakers, in shock absorbers and in biomedical applications. A continuum description of ferrofluids was initiated by Neuringer and Rosensweig but the theory had some limitations. In subsequent years,several authors have proposed generalization of the above theory.Some of these are based upon the internal particle rotation concept, some are phemonological, some are based upon a thermodynamic framework, some employ statistical approach and some have used the dynamic mean field approach. The results based upon these theories ane in early stages and inconclusive. Our purpose is, first, to critically examine the basic foundations of these equations and then study the pedictions obtained in all the theories related to an experimental as well as a theoretical study.

  18. From the 1930 International Johannesburg conference on silicosis, to "tables" of occupational diseases, France, 2000 onward: A comparative reading.

    PubMed

    Cavalin, Catherine

    2015-11-01

    Through the concept of "thought collectives" in particular, Ludwik Fleck was a pioneer in demonstrating how much scientific knowledge is inherently made up of social and historical material. In this article, I propose to follow a Fleckian path by comparing the proceedings of the 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg on the one hand, and on the other the content of the debates that took place in France in the 2000s to revise the "tables" of occupational diseases which define the compensation rules for salaried workers in the French general (as well as the farm) health insurance scheme. The text offers an analysis of the striking similarities between these two distant sources, pointing out particularly the repetitiveness of ignorance and knowledge, and the nature of what can be admitted as a body of "evidence" in medico-legal issues such as the definition and compensation of occupational diseases. PMID:26509754

  19. International ESCO business opportunities and challenges: a Japanese case study

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.; Murakoshi, C.

    1997-10-01

    Recently, US energy service companies (ESCOs) have begun to actively explore markets outside the US. Despite the needs of many countries for ESCO involvement, ESCOs face many challenges (i.e., marketing, financial, institutional, political and cultural barriers). Consequently, most of these firms pursue international project opportunities very selectively due to the costs and risks associated with project development. Despite these barriers, some ESCOs view international work as a strategic expansion of their business, assuming that there will be adequate business in the future to repay them for their initial investment. In this paper, the authors present the findings from a recently completed study on the proposed development of an ESCO industry in Japan. The study was based on four sources of information: (1) a review of the published and unpublished literature on ESCOs; (2) interviews with 26 ESCOs in the US, the US Department of Energy, and the National Association of Energy Service Companies (NAESCO); (3) ESCO presentations at the October 1996 NAESCO meeting; and (4) informal discussions with ESCO experts in the US. They believe that the lessons learned in this study can be transferred or applied to other countries interested in developing an ESCO industry. While energy prices have remained relatively stable over the last several years in Japan and energy capacity is not perceived as a near-term problem, other ``market drivers`` necessary for the emergence of a successful and vibrant ESCO industry exist in Japan. Despite the presence of these market drivers, significant barriers to the successful development of an ESCO industry exist in Japan.

  20. iSTAR: The International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatge, Coty B.; Slater, Timothy F.; Slater, Stephanie J.

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports the first steps taken in the International STudy on Astronomy Reasoning (iSTAR). The iSTAR Project is an attempt to look beyond traditional wisdom and practices in astronomy education, to discover the ways in which cognitive abilities and human culture interact to impact individuals’ understanding of and relationship to astronomy content knowledge. In contrast to many international studies that seek to rank nations by student performance on standardized tests, the iSTAR Project seeks to find ways that culture may unexpectedly enhance performance in astronomy. Using the Test of Astronomy Standards (TOAST) as a reasonable, initial proxy for the content knowledge a well educated person might know in astronomy, the iSTAR team then defined culture as a construct with five components: practices, traditional knowledge, historical and genealogical relationships, place-based knowledge, and language. Given the complexity of this construct, Stage 1 of the project focuses on the cultural component of language, and assumed that prior to the collection of data from students, the process of translating the TOAST could provide valuable expert-based information on the impact of language on astronomy knowledge. As such, the work began with a study of the translation process. For each of the languages used in the testing phase of the iSTAR protocol, a succession of translators and analysts were engaged, including two educated, non-astronomer native speakers, a native speaking astronomer, and a native speaking linguistics expert. Multiple translations were analyzed in order to make relevant meaning of differences in the translations, and provide commentary on the ways in which metaphor, idiom, cultural history are embedded in the language, providing potential advantages in the learning of astronomy. The first test languages were German, Hawaiian, and American Sign Language, and initial findings suggest that each of these languages provide specific advantages

  1. Experimental study of the microbial fuel cell internal resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pei-Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Liang

    The internal resistance, including activation loss internal resistance (AIR), ohmic loss internal resistance (OIR) and concentration loss internal resistance (CIR), is an important parameter that determines the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The experimental investigations were completed to estimate the contributions of these three components to the internal resistance. The internal resistance is found to vary with electric current, although it is almost a constant for the current is within a certain region. The largest component of the internal resistance is CIR except for small currents. The AIR decreases quickly for small current and reduces its decreasing rate as the current increases and approaches to a constant. The OIR is constant over the whole current range. The experiments also disclose that increasing the limiting current and reducing the concentration loss are both important for improving the MFC performance.

  2. Comparing protein VEGF inhibitors: In vitro biological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Lanlan; Liang, Xiao Huan; Ferrara, Napoleone

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF is a mediator of angiogenesis. {yields} VEGF inhibitors have clinical applications in cancer and eye disorders. {yields} Five protein VEGF inhibitors were compared for their ability to inhibit. {yields} VEGF-induced activities in cultured endothelial cells. -- Abstract: VEGF inhibitors are widely used as a therapy for tumors and intravascular neovascular disorders, but limited and conflicting data regarding their relative biological potencies are available. The purpose of the study is to compare different protein VEGF inhibitors for their ability to inhibit VEGF-stimulated activities. We tested ranibizumab, the full-length variant of ranibizumab (Mab Y0317), bevacizumab, the VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG in bioassays measuring VEGF-stimulated proliferation of bovine retinal microvascular endothelial cells or chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). The inhibitors were also compared for their ability to inhibit MAP kinase activation in HUVECs following VEGF addition. Ranibizumab, VEGF-TrapR1R2 and Flt(1-3)-IgG had very similar potencies in the bioassays tested. Bevacizumab was over 10-fold less potent than these molecules. Mab Y0317 was over 30-fold more potent than bevacizumab. The findings reported in this manuscript describe important intrinsic characteristics of several VEGF inhibitors that may be useful to design and interpret preclinical or clinical studies.

  3. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults

    PubMed Central

    KHONSARI, Shadi; SUGANTHY, Mayuran; BURCZYNSKA, Beata; DANG, Vu; CHOUDHURY, Manika; PACHENARI, Azra

    2015-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  4. Comparative studies of industrial grade carbon black powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chawla, Komal; Chauhan, Alok P. S.

    2016-05-01

    Comparative studies of two dissimilar industrial grade Carbon Black (CB) powders (N375 and N405) were conducted. The structure, surface area and particle size are the three important characteristics of CB powder that determine their processability and application as filler in preparing rubber compounds. The powders were characterized for their structure using dibutyl phthalate absorption (DBPA), particle size via laser particle size analyzer and surface area by nitrogen adsorption method. The structural characterization showed that N405 had lower DBPA in comparison to N375, confirming low structure of N405 grade CB powder. It was observed from the particle size analysis that N375 was coarser than N405 grade CB. The total surface area values were determined by the BET method based on the cross sectional area of the nitrogen molecule. N375, a coarse grade CB powder with high structure, depicted less surface area as compared to N405.

  5. A comparative study of bifidobacteria in human babies and adults.

    PubMed

    Khonsari, Shadi; Suganthy, Mayuran; Burczynska, Beata; Dang, Vu; Choudhury, Manika; Pachenari, Azra

    2016-01-01

    The composition and diversity of the gut microbiota are known to be different between babies and adults. The aim of this project was to compare the level of bifidobacteria between babies and adults and to investigate the influence of lifestyle factors on the level of this bacterium in the gut. During this study, the levels of bifidobacteria in 10 human babies below 2 years of age were compared with that of 10 human adults above 40 years. The level of bifidobacteria proved to be significantly higher in babies in comparison with adults. This investigation concluded that a combination of several factors, such as age, diet, and BMI, has an important effect on the level of bifidobacteria in adults, while in babies, a combination of diet and age may influence the level of intestinal bifidobacteria. PMID:27200263

  6. A Comparative Study on Emerging Electric Vehicle Technology Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Jonathan; Khowailed, Gannate; Blackburn, Julia; Sikes, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Numerous organizations have published reports in recent years that investigate the ever changing world of electric vehicle (EV) technologies and their potential effects on society. Specifically, projections have been made on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with these vehicles and how they compare to conventional vehicles or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Similar projections have been made on the volumes of oil that these vehicles can displace by consuming large amounts of grid electricity instead of petroleum-based fuels. Finally, the projected rate that these new vehicle fleets will enter the market varies significantly among organizations. New ideas, technologies, and possibilities are introduced often, and projected values are likely to be refined as industry announcements continue to be made. As a result, over time, a multitude of projections for GHG emissions, oil displacement, and market penetration associated with various EV technologies has resulted in a wide range of possible future outcomes. This leaves the reader with two key questions: (1) Why does such a collective range in projected values exist in these reports? (2) What assumptions have the greatest impact on the outcomes presented in these reports? Since it is impractical for an average reader to review and interpret all the various vehicle technology reports published to date, Sentech Inc. and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory have conducted a comparative study to make these interpretations. The primary objective of this comparative study is to present a snapshot of all major projections made on GHG emissions, oil displacement, or market penetration rates of EV technologies. From the extensive data found in relevant publications, the key assumptions that drive each report's analysis are identified and 'apples-to-apples' comparisons between all major report conclusions are attempted. The general approach that was taken in this comparative study is comprised of six primary steps: (1

  7. Highlights of theoretical progress related to the International Magnetospheric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.

    1982-01-01

    U.S. theoretical research efforts have addressed three areas within the International Magnetospheric Study. The first, solar wind/magnetosphere interaction, is presently concerned with the suggestion that magnetic merging may predominantly occur near the polar cusps rather than near the subsolar point. Mechanisms have been proposed for noncollisional diffusion of solar wind plasma across the closed magnetopause entailed by such a phenomenon. The second area considers the importance to magnetotail dynamics of a continuous source of solar wind plasma, and of sporadic plasma loss associated with an unsteady convection cycle. In the third area, the electrodynamic magnetosphere/ionosphere interaction, an advanced state has been reached in the understanding of the relevant physics, with respect both to coupling in the subauroral region and the large scale structure of auroral zone electric fields parallel, and perpendicular to, the magnetic field.

  8. Comparative study of clinical pulmonary surfactants using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Fan, Qihui; Wang, Yi E.; Neal, Charles R.; Zuo, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical pulmonary surfactant is routinely used to treat premature newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, and has shown great potential in alleviating a number of neonatal and adult respiratory diseases. Despite extensive study of chemical composition, surface activity, and clinical performance of various surfactant preparations, a direct comparison of surfactant films is still lacking. In this study, we use atomic force microscopy to characterize and compare four animal-derived clinical surfactants currently used throughout the world, i.e., Survanta, Curosurf, Infasurf and BLES. These modified-natural surfactants are further compared to dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), a synthetic model surfactant of DPPC:palmitoyl-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol (POPG) (7:3), and endogenous bovine natural surfactant. Atomic force microscopy reveals significant differences in the lateral structure and molecular organization of these surfactant preparations. These differences are discussed in terms of DPPC and cholesterol contents. We conclude that all animal-derived clinical surfactants assume a similar structure of multilayers of fluid phospholipids closely attached to an interfacial monolayer enriched in DPPC, at physiologically relevant surface pressures. This study provides the first comprehensive survey of the lateral structure of clinical surfactants at various surface pressures. It may have clinical implications on future application and development of surfactant preparations. PMID:21439262

  9. Spiritual coping in rehabilitation- a comparative study: part 2.

    PubMed

    Baldacchino, Donia; Torskenaes, Kristina; Kalfoss, Mary; Borg, Josette; Tonna, Aaron; Debattista, Clifford; Decelis, Neville; Mifsud, Rodianne

    Spiritual coping, which may or may not contain religiosity, may enhance adaptation of clients with chronic illness. Part 1 of this article (Baldacchino et al, 2013) presented the research methodology of this cross-sectional comparative study, which explored the spiritual coping of clients with chronic illness receiving rehabilitation services in Malta (n=44) (lower limb amputation: n=10, chronic heart disease: n=9, osteoarthritis in an institution: n=10 and in the community: n=15) and Norway (n=16) (post-hip/shoulder surgery: n=5; chronic heart disease: n=5; chronic pain: n=6). Data were collected from seven purposive samples by focus groups. Roy's adaptation model (1984) and Neuman's Systems Model (2010) guided the study. Part2 discusses the findings, which consist of one main spiritual coping theme and three sub-themes: 'adopting religious coping strategies, relationship with God, and time for reflection and counting one's blessings'. Commonalities were found in the findings except in one dimension, which was found only in the Malta group, that is, being supported by others with a similar condition. This difference may be a result of the environment in the rehabilitation centres, cultural, and geographical differences between the two countries. While considering the limitations of this study, recommendations are proposed to the rehabilitation and education sectors and further trans-cultural comparative longitudinal research with mixed method approach on various clients with acute, chronic and life-threatening illness. PMID:23588017

  10. Comparing Course Content and Awarding Credit for Nonacademic Training Programs for International Providers of Child and Youth Services under Federal Sponsorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Carolyn I.

    In coordination with training officers, student programming agents, and students, a system was designed that would allow a comparative analysis of nonacademic courses offered by U.S. institutions and international providers of children and youth services, permit students to earn internationally recognized continuing education units, and establish…

  11. Discourse Formation in Comparative Education. 4th, Revised Edition. Comparative Studies Series. Volume 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    New theories and theory-based methodological approaches have found their way into Comparative Education--just as into Comparative Social Science more generally--in increasing number in the recent past. The essays of this volume express and critically discuss quite a range of these positions such as, inter alia, the theory of self-organizing social…

  12. Educational Documentation, Research and Decision-Making: National Case Studies. Studies in Comparative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokicka, Wanda, Ed.

    In 1997, The International Bureau of Education (IBE) launched a series of case studies on the processes involved in the use of educational information and research. These studies describe how recent educational research has been disseminated and how educational reforms may have benefited, or not benefited, from insights gained through research.…

  13. Habitability potential of icy moons: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomonidou, Anezina; Coustenis, Athena; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Sohl, Frank; Hussmann, Hauke; Bampasidis, Georgios; Wagner, Frank; Raulin, François; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Lopes, Rosaly

    2014-05-01

    environments to look for biomarkers. Currently, for Titan and Enceladus, geophysical models try to explain the possible existence of an oceanic layer that decouples the mantle from the icy crust. If the silicate mantles of Eu-ropa and Ganymede and the liquid sources of Titan and Enceladus are geologically active as on Earth, giving rise to the equivalent of hydrothermal systems, the simultaneous presence of water, geodynamic interactions, chemical en-ergy sources and a diversity of key chemical elements may fulfill the basic conditions for habitability. Titan has been suggested to be a possible cryovolcanic world due to the presence of local complex volcanic-like geomorphol-ogy and the indications of surface albedo changes with time [7,8]. Such dynamic activity that would most probably include tidal heating, possible internal convection, and ice tectonics, is believed to be a pre-requisite of a habitable planetary body as it allows the recycling of minerals and potential nutrients and provides localized energy sources. In a recent study by Sohl et al. [2013], we have shown that tidal forces are a constant and significant source of inter-nal deformation on Titan and the interior liquid water ocean can be relatively warm for reasonable amounts of am-monia concentrations, thus completing the set of parameters needed for a truly habitable planetary body. Such habi-tability indications from bodies at distances of 10 AU, are essential discoveries brought to us by space exploration and which have recently revolutionized our perception of habitability in the solar system. In the solar system's neighborhood, such potential habitats can only be investigated with appropriate designed space missions, like JUICE-Laplace (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer) for Ganymede and Europa [9]. JUICE is an ESA mission to Jupiter and its icy moons, recently selected to launch in 2022. References: [1] Coustenis, A., Encrenaz, Th., in "Life Beyond Earth : the search for habitable worlds in the Universe

  14. Balancing Academic and Professional Pedagogies: A Comparative Study of Two Accounting Departments in South Africa and the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Merwe, Nico; McChlery, Stuart; Visser, Sarah Susanna

    2014-01-01

    The paper adds to extant professional education literature by reflecting on apparent differences in pedagogy of similar professional programmes of study, allowing deeper insight into the unique strand of higher education influenced by the professions. A comparative international case study approach is adopted of an interpretive qualitative nature…

  15. Comparative study of minutiae selection algorithms for ISO fingerprint templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vibert, B.; Charrier, C.; Le Bars, J.-M.; Rosenberger, C.

    2015-03-01

    We address the selection of fingerprint minutiae given a fingerprint ISO template. Minutiae selection plays a very important role when a secure element (i.e. a smart-card) is used. Because of the limited capability of computation and memory, the number of minutiae of a stored reference in the secure element is limited. We propose in this paper a comparative study of 6 minutiae selection methods including 2 methods from the literature and 1 like reference (No Selection). Experimental results on 3 fingerprint databases from the Fingerprint Verification Competition show their relative efficiency in terms of performance and computation time.

  16. Comparative DFT study of crystalline ammonium perchlorate and ammonium dinitramide.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weihua; Wei, Tao; Zhu, Wei; Xiao, Heming

    2008-05-22

    The electronic structure, vibrational properties, absorption spectra, and thermodynamic properties of crystalline ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium dinitramide (ADN) have been comparatively studied using density functional theory in the local density approximation. The results shows that the p states for the two solids play a very important role in their chemical reaction. From the low frequency to high frequency region, ADN has more motion modes for the vibrational frequencies than AP. The absorption spectra of AP and ADN display a few, strong bands in the fundamental absorption region. The thermodynamic properties show that ADN is easier to decompose than AP as the temperature increases. PMID:18396853

  17. Comparing Integrated and Disciplinary Clinical Training Patterns for Dental Interns: Advantages, Disadvantages, and Effect on Students' Self-Confidence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junrong; Feng, Xiaoli; Chen, Aijie; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Qi; Shao, Longquan

    2016-03-01

    In China, the five-year program of undergraduate education for stomatology consists of four years of lecture courses and one year of internship focused on clinical training. Dental schools provide this clinical training either in their own clinics (referred to as the one-stage pattern because all forms of practice are completed together) or by placing students in external clinics usually at non-affiliated hospitals (referred to as the three-stage program because the three primary areas are taught separately). The aims of this study were to investigate differences in teaching effect between the one-stage and the three-stage patterns and to evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the two patterns. A three-section, 31-item questionnaire was designed to assess basic and clinic information about the interns' training and their self-confidence in performing clinical procedures. The survey was administered to graduates who finished the fifth-year internship in 2012-14. Of the 356 individuals invited to participate, 303 graduates who spent their intern years in 43 academic dental institutions returned completed surveys (response rate of 85%). The one-stage group (n=121) reported longer independent operation time than the three-stage group (n=182) (p<0.01). No significant difference was found between the groups for assessment of clinic infrastructure (p=0.121). The interns were most confident in oral hygiene instruction and scale and polish (overall median=5), but showed low confidence in rubber dam placement and four other procedures (overall median=2). The one-stage group rated their confidence level higher than the three-stage group on comprehensive skills such as arranging appointments and managing patients and procedures needing long treatment periods such as molar endodontics. The three-stage group showed higher confidence on more specialized procedures such as surgical extractions and suturing. This study found that both of the two intern patterns had advantages and

  18. Comparative study for better adjuvant with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Pramila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Better adjuvants for epidural analgesia are still evolving. Dexmedetomidine that is alpha-2 agonist can be used as an adjuvant in epidural analgesia and anesthesia. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of dexmedetomidine versus clonidine in combination with ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia on intraoperative and postoperative analgesia, to find out the better adjuvant for regional anesthesia. Settings and Design: Randomized control trial. Materials and Methods: Sixty adult patients (18–60 years) with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) 1/ASA 2 grade and undergoing lower abdominal and lower limbs surgeries were included and randomized into three groups of 20 patients each. Group 1 - received ropivacaine with normal saline. Group 2 - received ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine. Group 3 - received ropivacaine with clonidine. Statistical Analysis: Mean and Standard deviation were calculated. All the data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Chi-square test. The value of P< 0.05 was considered significant. Results: All the three groups were comparable with respect to age, sex, and ASA grade. There was statistically significant mean time to reach T10 sensory block level (15.8, 5.7, 9.6 min in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively). The maximum duration of analgesia was statistically higher in Group 2 patients (383.7 vs. 365.3 and 280.5 min in Group 3 and Group 1, respectively). The mean time to reach motor block was significantly shorter in Group 2. Side effects were comparable in all groups with statistically insignificant fall in mean arterial pressure and hypotension was noted with Group 2. Conclusion: We concluded that the patients receiving the addition of dexmedetomidine to ropivacaine in epidural anesthesia had a faster onset and longer duration of sensory and motor blockade. Dexmedetomidine in comparison to clonidine had acceptable sedation and hemodynamic stability and minimal dose requirement make very effective adjuvant

  19. Bem Sex Role Inventory Validation in the International Mobility in Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the measurement structure of the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) with different factor analysis methods. Most previous studies on validity applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to examine the BSRI. We aimed to assess the psychometric properties and construct validity of the 12-item short-form BSRI in a sample administered to 1,995 older adults from wave 1 of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). We used Cronbach's alpha to assess internal consistency reliability and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to assess psychometric properties. EFA revealed a three-factor model, further confirmed by CFA and compared with the original two-factor structure model. Results revealed that a two-factor solution (instrumentality-expressiveness) has satisfactory construct validity and superior fit to data compared to the three-factor solution. The two-factor solution confirms expected gender differences in older adults. The 12-item BSRI provides a brief, psychometrically sound, and reliable instrument in international samples of older adults. PMID:27477107

  20. Impact of personal goals on the internal medicine R4 subspecialty match: a Q methodology study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been a decline in interest in general internal medicine that has resulted in a discrepancy between internal medicine residents’ choice in the R4 subspecialty match and societal need. Few studies have focused on the relative importance of personal goals and their impact on residents’ choice. The purpose of this study was to assess if internal medicine residents can be grouped based on their personal goals and how each group prioritizes these goals compared to each other. A secondary objective was to explore whether we could predict a resident’s desired subspecialty choice based on their constellation of personal goals. Methods We used Q methodology to examine how postgraduate year 1–3 internal medicine residents could be grouped based on their rankings of 36 statements (derived from our previous qualitative study). Using each groups’ defining and distinguishing statements, we predicted their subspecialties of interest. We also collected the residents’ first choice in the subspecialty match and used a kappa test to compare our predicted subspecialty group to the residents’ self-reported first choice. Results Fifty-nine internal medicine residents at the University of Alberta participated between 2009 and 2010 with 46 Q sorts suitable for analysis. The residents loaded onto four factors (groups) based on how they ranked statements. Our prediction of each groups’ desired subspecialties with their defining and/or distinguishing statements are as follows: group 1 – general internal medicine (variety in practice); group 2 – gastroenterology, nephrology, and respirology (higher income); group 3 – cardiology and critical care (procedural, willing to entertain longer training); group 4 – rest of subspecialties (non-procedural, focused practice, and valuing more time for personal life). There was moderate agreement (kappa = 0.57) between our predicted desired subspecialty group and residents’ self-reported first choice (p < 0

  1. International journal of mental health systems: a bibliometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Journal of Mental Health Systems (IJMHS) was launched in August 2007 and has recently been given a formal impact factor. This study uses bibliometric indicators to review the performance of the Journal against its original stated objectives and aspirations. Methods All articles published in IJMHS since publication commenced were included (n = 158). Selected bibliometric measures indicating Journal productivity, author affiliation, impact, geographic reach, and international collaboration were utilised. Results IJMHS published 158 articles in seven volumes over six years. Articles with three to five authors constitute the dominant authorship pattern, and authors’ affiliations are varied. IJMHS has received an impact factor of 1.06 from Thomson Reuters, and the SCImago Journal Ranking shows IJMHS to be well positioned in the four categories in which it is listed, including in comparisons with well-established BMC journals that have similar scientific interests. Geographic authorship patterns show contributions from a large number of countries, including many low- and middle-income countries. Discussion Manuscript submissions from a wide range of countries, including low- and middle-income countries, are mostly from academic institutions. Authors from some geographic areas of the world are significantly under-represented. The calculation of an impact factor and encouraging rankings on the SCImago Journal Rank index are expected to lead to increased submission of high quality manuscripts. Conclusion The performance of IJMHS over the first six years is promising, and the Journal is on the way to achieving the aims set out in the inaugural Editorial. IJMHS will continue to enhance its current impact through a number of new initiatives, including the introduction of thematic series and a broader range of article categories. PMID:24393301

  2. Comparative study of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) transportation alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    WIPP transportation studies in the Final Supplement Environmental Impact Statement for WIPP are the baseline for this report. In an attempt to present the most current analysis, this study incorporates the most relevant data available. The following three transportation options are evaluated for the Disposal Phase, which is assumed to be 20 years: Truck shipments, consisting of a tractor and trailer, with three TRUPACT-IIs or one RH-72B; Regular commercial train shipments consisting of up to three railcars carrying up to 18 TRUPACT-IIs or up to six RH-72Bs; Dedicated train shipments consisting of a locomotive, an idle car, railcars carrying 18 TRUPACT-IIs or six RH-72Bs, another idle car, and a caboose or passenger car with an emergency response specialist. No other cargo is carried. This report includes: A consideration of occupational and public risks and exposures, and other environmental impacts; A consideration of emergency response capabilities; and An extimation of comparative costs.

  3. Visual Encodings of Temporal Uncertainty: A Comparative User Study.

    PubMed

    Gschwandtnei, Theresia; Bögl, Markus; Federico, Paolo; Miksch, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated different ways of visualizing uncertainty. However, in the temporal dimension, it is still an open question how to best represent uncertainty, since the special characteristics of time require special visual encodings and may provoke different interpretations. Thus, we have conducted a comprehensive study comparing alternative visual encodings of intervals with uncertain start and end times: gradient plots, violin plots, accumulated probability plots, error bars, centered error bars, and ambiguation. Our results reveal significant differences in error rates and completion time for these different visualization types and different tasks. We recommend using ambiguation - using a lighter color value to represent uncertain regions - or error bars for judging durations and temporal bounds, and gradient plots - using fading color or transparency - for judging probability values. PMID:26529717

  4. A Comparative Study of Different Deblurring Methods Using Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srimani, P. K.; Kavitha, S.

    2011-12-01

    This paper attempts to undertake the study of Restored Gaussian Blurred Images by using four types of techniques of deblurring image viz., Wiener filter, Regularized filter, Lucy Richardson deconvolution algorithm and Blind deconvolution algorithm with an information of the Point Spread Function (PSF) corrupted blurred image. The same is applied to the scanned image of seven months baby in the womb and they are compared with one another, so as to choose the best technique for restored or deblurring image. This paper also attempts to undertake the study of restored blurred image using Regualr Filter(RF) with no information about the Point Spread Function (PSF) by using the same four techniques after executing the guess of the PSF. The number of iterations and the weight threshold of it to choose the best guesses for restored or deblurring image of these techniques are determined.

  5. Teenage pregnancy: a comparative study of the outcome and complications.

    PubMed

    Thekkekkara, Tina; Veenu, J

    2009-01-01

    This study compares the outcome and complications of pregnancy among teenagers with those above 19 years of age. This retrospective study conducted in a maternity hospital in rural Karnataka, under the guidance of the department of community medicine, St Johns National Academy of Health Sciences, Bangalore, included 221 women who delivered between February 2003 and April 2003. The data was tabulated in excel spreadsheet and analysed using epi 6 programme. Anaemia among teenage multigravidae was found to be a significant health problem. There were no statistically significant differences between the gestational age at delivery and the mode of delivery in the different age groups. Teenage pregnancy was not found to be associated with an increased risk for antenatal complications or postnatal complications. There was no increased incidence of low birth weight or congenital anomalies among the babies of teenage mothers. Mortality was not found to be increased both among the teenage mothers as well as their babies. PMID:19588686

  6. Professional navigation: a comparative study of two Canadian models.

    PubMed

    Fillion, Lise; Cook, Sandra; Veillette, Anne-Marie; de Serres, Marie; Aubin, Michèle; Rainville, François; Fitch, Margaret; Doll, Richard

    2012-01-01

    For many cancer control programs, cancer navigation has emerged as a specific strategy to improve access to supportive care and the patients' experience of cancer care. This study contributes to a better understanding of professional navigation by comparing two Canadian models: Quebec's Pivot Nurse in Oncology (PNO) and Nova Scotia's Cancer Patient Navigator (CPN). Qualitative interviews were conducted with professional navigators, patients and family members, front-line staff, physicians and health administrators (interviews: n = 49; focus groups: n = 10). The two models were analyzed using the professional navigation framework (Fillion et al., 2012). Although the models are different, results show that professional navigators in both programs perform similar functions and face similar challenges. This study highlights the complexity and the value of cancer navigation and recommends relevant actions to optimize its management within the health care system. PMID:23362659

  7. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Sristi; Nath, Amiya Kumar; Udayashankar, Carounanidy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psoriasis patients are at increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS). Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6 that are increased in the psoriatic plaques are known to contribute to features of MS such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. Aims: (1) To establish the frequency of MS in patients with psoriasis. (2) To study the risk factors associated with MS in psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A hospital based comparative study was conducted involving 40 adult patients with psoriasis and 40 age- and sex-matched controls. All participants were evaluated for components of MS. Results: Both groups included 31 males and 9 females. The mean age of the cases and controls were 49.95 years and 49.35 years, respectively. Psoriasis patients with MS had a statistically significant higher mean age (56.31 ± 11.36 years) compared with those without MS (46.89 ± 11.51 years). MS was present in 13 out of 40 (32.5%) patients with psoriasis and 12 out of 40 (30%) controls; this difference was not statistically significant. Higher age and female gender correlated with the presence of MS in psoriasis patients. The presence of MS in psoriasis patients was statistically independent of psoriasis area severity index score, body surface area involvement or psoriatic arthropathy. Conclusion: Our results suggest that there is no close correlation between psoriasis and MS in South Indian patients. PMID:24860744

  9. A comparative study of Raman enhancement in capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eftekhari, Fatemeh; Irizar, Juan; Hulbert, Laila; Helmy, Amr S.

    2011-06-01

    This work reports on the comparative studies of Raman enhancement in liquid core waveguides (LCWs). The theoretical considerations that describe Raman enhancement in LCWs is adapted to analyze and compare the performance of hollow core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs) to conventional Teflon capillary tubes. The optical losses in both platforms are measured and used to predict their performance for different lengths. The results show that for an optimal waveguide length, two orders of magnitude enhancement in the Raman signal can be achieved for aqueous solutions using HCPCFs. This length, however, cannot be achieved using normal capillary effects. By integrating the interface of the fluidic pump and the HCPCF into a microfluidic chip, we are able to control fluid transport and fill longer lengths of HCPCFs regardless of the viscosity of the sample. The long-term stability and reproducibility of Raman spectra attained through this platform are demonstrated for naphthalenethiol, which is a well-studied organic compound. Using the HCPCF platform, the detection limit of normal Raman scattering in the range of micro-molars has been achieved. In addition to the higher signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman signal from the HCPCF-platform, more Raman modes of naphthalenethiol are revealed using this platform.

  10. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  11. Prevalence of Lebanese stroke survivors: A comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lahoud, Nathalie; Salameh, Pascale; Saleh, Nadine; Hosseini, Hassan

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and its late burden has mainly been attributable to developing countries. Lebanon is one of these countries where epidemiological studies on stroke burden are scarce but necessary. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess the prevalence of stroke survivors among Lebanese inhabitants. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using randomly selected landline phone numbers on all governorates to retrieve data on stroke survivors and their sociodemographic characteristics. Results were then standardized over the Lebanese and the World Health Organization (WHO) world populations. A total of 6963 Lebanese inhabitants were included in the study; among these were 56 stroke survivors. This led to an adjusted stroke prevalence of 0.50% [95% confidence interval (CI)=0.33-0.66%] and a world-standardized prevalence of 0.60% (95% CI=0.42-0.78%). A significantly higher stroke prevalence was found among older age groups and more socioeconomically privileged areas. Overall, the study showed a relatively higher prevalence of stroke in this sample of Lebanese inhabitants when compared to other developing countries. However, larger community-based studies with a clinical assessment of stroke cases are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:26599284

  12. Comparative study on the biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Ławniczak, Łukasz; Materna, Katarzyna; Framski, Grzegorz; Szulc, Alicja; Syguda, Anna

    2015-07-01

    This study focused on evaluating the toxicity as well as primary and ultimate biodegradability of morpholinium herbicidal ionic liquids (HILs), which incorporated MCPA, MCPP, 2,4-D or Dicamba anions. The studied HILs were also subjected to determination of surface active properties in order to assess their influence on toxicity and biodegradability. The study was carried out with microbiota isolated from different environmental niches: sediments from river channel, garden soil, drainage trench collecting agricultural runoff stream, agricultural soil and municipal waste repository. The obtained results revealed that resistance to toxicity and biodegradation efficiency of the microbiota increased in the following order: microbiota from the waste repository > microbiota from agricultural soil ≈ microbiota from an agricultural runoff stream > microbiota from garden soil > microbiota from the river sludge. It was observed that the toxicity of HILs increased with the hydrophobicity of the cation, however the influence of the anion was more notable. The highest toxicity was observed when MCPA was used as the anion (EC50 values ranging from 60 to 190 mg L(-1)). The results of ultimate biodegradation tests indicated that only HILs with 2,4-D as the anion were mineralized to some extent, with slightly higher values for HILs with the 4-decyl-4-ethylmorpholinium cation (10-31 %) compared to HILs with the 4,4-didecylmorpholinium cation (9-20 %). Overall, the cations were more susceptible (41-94 %) to primary biodegradation compared to anions (0-61 %). The obtained results suggested that the surface active properties of the studied HILs may influence their toxicity and biodegradability by bacteria in different environmental niches. PMID:26099357

  13. Comparative Study of Algorithms for Automated Generalization of Linear Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimjon, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sukhmani, R. S. G. S.

    2014-11-01

    Automated generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both geographic information system (GIS) and mapping fields. All geographic phenomenon and the processes are bound to the scale, as it is impossible for human being to observe the Earth and the processes in it without decreasing its scale. To get optimal results, cartographers and map-making agencies develop set of rules and constraints, however these rules are under consideration and topic for many researches up until recent days. Reducing map generating time and giving objectivity is possible by developing automated map generalization algorithms (McMaster and Shea, 1988). Modification of the scale traditionally is a manual process, which requires knowledge of the expert cartographer, and it depends on the experience of the user, which makes the process very subjective as every user may generate different map with same requirements. However, automating generalization based on the cartographic rules and constrains can give consistent result. Also, developing automated system for map generation is the demand of this rapid changing world. The research that we have conveyed considers only generalization of the roads, as it is one of the indispensable parts of a map. Dehradun city, Uttarakhand state of India was selected as a study area. The study carried out comparative study of the generalization software sets, operations and algorithms available currently, also considers advantages and drawbacks of the existing software used worldwide. Research concludes with the development of road network generalization tool and with the final generalized road map of the study area, which explores the use of open source python programming language and attempts to compare different road network generalization algorithms. Thus, the paper discusses the alternative solutions for automated generalization of linear objects using GIS-technologies. Research made on automated of road network

  14. Comparative study of visual pathways in owls (Aves: Strigiformes).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Lisney, Thomas J; Wylie, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Although they are usually regarded as nocturnal, owls exhibit a wide range of activity patterns, from strictly nocturnal, to crepuscular or cathemeral, to diurnal. Several studies have shown that these differences in the activity pattern are reflected in differences in eye morphology and retinal organization. Despite the evidence that differences in activity pattern among owl species are reflected in the peripheral visual system, there has been no attempt to correlate these differences with changes in the visual regions in the brain. In this study, we compare the relative size of nuclei in the main visual pathways in nine species of owl that exhibit a wide range of activity patterns. We found marked differences in the relative size of all visual structures among the species studied, both in the tectofugal and the thalamofugal pathway, as well in other retinorecipient nuclei, including the nucleus lentiformis mesencephali, the nucleus of the basal optic root and the nucleus geniculatus lateralis, pars ventralis. We show that the barn owl (Tyto alba), a species widely used in the study of the integration of visual and auditory processing, has reduced visual pathways compared to strigid owls. Our results also suggest there could be a trade-off between the relative size of visual pathways and auditory pathways, similar to that reported in mammals. Finally, our results show that although there is no relationship between activity pattern and the relative size of either the tectofugal or the thalamofugal pathway, there is a positive correlation between the relative size of both visual pathways and the relative number of cells in the retinal ganglion layer. PMID:23296024

  15. Comparative numerical study on the optimal vulcanization of rubber compounds through traditional curing and microwaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Gabriele; Milani, Federico

    2012-12-01

    The main problem in the industrial production process of thick EPM/EPDM elements is constituted by the different temperatures which undergo internal (cooler) and external regions. Indeed, while internal layers remain essentially under-vulcanized, external coating is always over-vulcanized, resulting in an overall average tensile strength insufficient to permit the utilization of the items in several applications where it is required a certain level of performance. Possible ways to improve rubber output mechanical properties include a careful calibration of exposition time and curing temperature in traditional heating or a vulcanization through innovative techniques, such as microwaves. In the present paper, a comprehensive numerical model able to give predictions on the optimized final mechanical properties of vulcanized 2D and 3D thick rubber items is presented and applied to a meaningful example of engineering interest. A detailed comparative numerical study is finally presented in order to establish pros and cons of traditional vulcanization vs microwaves curing.

  16. Characteristics of Highly Talented International Business Professionals Defined: Qualitative Study among International Business Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Heugten, Petra; Heijne-Penninga, Marjolein; Paans, Wolter; Wolfensberger, Marca

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the characteristics of talent in relation to international business to facilitate selection and development of talent in human resources (HR) and human resource development (HRD). Design/methodology/approach: A mixed method design was used: focus groups with business professionals to identify the…

  17. Study on internal flow and surface deformation of large droplet levitated by ultrasonic wave.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yutaka; Hyuga, Daisuke; Yamada, Shogo; Aoki, Kazuyoshi

    2006-09-01

    It is expected that new materials will be manufactured with containerless processing under the microgravity environment in space. Under the microgravity environment, handling technology of molten metal is important for such processes. There are a lot of previous studies about droplet levitation technologies, including the use of acoustic waves, as the holding technology. However, experimental and analytical information about the relationship between surface deformation and internal flow of a large levitated droplet is still unknown. The purpose of this study is to experimentally investigate the large droplet behavior levitated by the acoustic wave field and its internal flow. To achieve this, first, numerical simulation is conducted to clarify the characteristics of acoustic wave field. Second, the levitation characteristic and the internal flow of the levitated droplet are investigated by the ultrasonic standing wave under normal gravity environment. Finally, the levitation characteristic and internal flow of levitated droplet are observed under microgravity in an aircraft to compare results with the experiment performed under the normal gravity environment. PMID:17124114

  18. Predictors of international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to the context of reception while studying at Aarhus University, Denmark.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Simon

    2015-12-01

    The number of international students engaging in intercultural education and thereby adjusting to cross-cultural transition has risen conspicuously as a consequence of globalization and increased mobility. This process of acculturation has been associated with increased creativity as well as adaptation challenges. This paper investigates international students' psychological and sociocultural adjustment to studying at Aarhus University in Denmark. Both international students (n = 129) and domestic students (n = 111) participated in the study. The international students did not report impaired psychological conditions as compared to the control group of domestic students. However, the international students reported a significantly lower level of social support. Social support and perceived discrimination were significant predictors of both psychological and sociocultural adjustment. Additionally, the level of English proficiency alone predicted sociocultural adjustment. Values of vertical individualism and horizontal collectivism predicted psychological adjustment. Finally, integration was found to be a significantly more adaptive acculturation orientation than separation in regard to sociocultural adjustment. These findings were discussed in relation to relevant international research and it was concluded that international students comprise a resourceful student sample and that the international academic environment at Aarhus University appears to be an adequately cultural and value-oriented good fit as a context of reception for the multicultural engagement of international students. PMID:26565736

  19. International Education: A Case Study from the University of Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabbar, Sinaria Kamil Abdel

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes international education at the University of Jordan (UJ). Specifically it investigates a random sample of international students comprising Americans, Europeans and Asians. A field survey approach with qualitative and quantitative dimensions was used. Questionnaires were used to solicit information from the students. In…

  20. Using English for International Business: A European Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogerson-Revell, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    With the continuing globalisation of markets and internationalisation of trade, professionals from a wide range of organisations, from large multinational corporations to small to medium size enterprises, are increasingly coming together to do business in the international workplace, particularly in meetings. Such international events usually…